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Sample records for zoster immune globulin

  1. [Immunization against varicella and zoster].

    PubMed

    Floret, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    Two vaccines against varicella-zoster virus are available in France. These live attenuated vaccines are derived from the Oka strain used in Japan since 1974. They are indicated for healthy subjects from 12 months of age, at a dose of one injection until 12 years of age, and two injections 4-8 weeks apart for older children and adults. Seroconversion occurs in 95% of cases and the antibodies persist beyond 5 years. Clinical efficacy is about 85% against all forms of varicella and nearly 100% against severe forms. Post-exposure vaccination within 3 days may also prevent the disease. A universal immunization program against varicella was implemented in the USA in 1995. Now, with vaccine coverage at about 80%, the incidence of the disease has been reduced by 85%, with the largest decrease in 1- to 4-year-olds. Tolerability is generally good, with only mild reactions at the injection site and moderate fever The length of protection is not yet known. A two-dose schedule seems advisable to avoid breakthrough varicella, which occurs in 4% of vaccinees each year. Insufficient coverage is expected to lead to later disease onset, with more severe cases in adolescents and adults. Universal immunization could also increase the incidence of zoster. These problems indeed seem to be emerging in the United States. France has adopted restrictive guidelines on VZV vaccination, but they are expected to be revised when the combined MMR-V vaccine becomes available. Zoster vaccine, prepared with the same strain but at a higher concentration, has moderate efficacy on zoster and on post-zoster neuralgia in patients over 70. This vaccine is not yet recommended in France, because the length of protection is not known and there is a potential risk of delaying the occurrence of zoster and, thus, of increasing the risk of post zoster neuralgia.

  2. 21 CFR 640.102 - Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). 640.102... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640.102 Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). (a) Processing method. The processing method shall be one...

  3. How to Keep an Infusion Log: Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG)

    MedlinePlus

    How to keep an INFUSION LOG Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) How to keep an INFUSION LOG The Value of Keeping Records Excellence in health care ... keeping track of your Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) infusions. Each of the manufacturers prepares IVIG in a ...

  4. 21 CFR 640.102 - Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). 640.102 Section 640.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640...

  5. 21 CFR 640.102 - Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). 640.102 Section 640.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640...

  6. 21 CFR 640.102 - Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). 640.102 Section 640.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640...

  7. 21 CFR 640.102 - Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). 640.102 Section 640.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) Microbial contamination. Low temperatures or aseptic techniques shall be used to minimize contamination by...

  8. 21 CFR 640.100 - Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Human). The product is defined as a sterile solution containing antibodies derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Immune Globulin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in...

  9. 21 CFR 640.100 - Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Human). The product is defined as a sterile solution containing antibodies derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Immune Globulin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in...

  10. 21 CFR 640.100 - Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (Human). The product is defined as a sterile solution containing antibodies derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Immune Globulin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in...

  11. 21 CFR 640.100 - Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Human). The product is defined as a sterile solution containing antibodies derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Immune Globulin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in...

  12. 21 CFR 640.100 - Immune Globulin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (Human). The product is defined as a sterile solution containing antibodies derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Immune Globulin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in...

  13. Varicella Zoster Virus (Chickenpox) Infection in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Ronald F.; Sobel, Jack D; Carrington, D; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Congenital varicella syndrome, maternal varicella zoster virus pneumonia and neonatal varicella infection are associated with serious feto-maternal morbidity and not infrequently with mortality. Vaccination against Varicella zoster virus can prevent the disease and outbreak control limits the exposure of pregnant women to the infectious agent. Maternal varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) administration before rash development, with or without antivirals medications can modify progression of the disease. PMID:21585641

  14. Herpes Zoster Immunization in Older Adults Has Big Benefits.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Harald

    2015-09-01

    A case of acute herpes zoster neuralgia (shingles) in a 78-year-old patient is described. The value and importance of immunizing against herpes zoster to decrease the incidence and severity of both acute herpes zoster neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia are described. --This report is adapted from paineurope 2015: Issue 1, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the Web site: www.paineurope.com , at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources.

  15. Herpes zoster immunization in older adults has big benefits.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Harald

    2015-06-01

    The value and importance of providing herpes zoster immunization to reduce the incidence and severity of acute herpes zoster neuralgia, especially in older patients, is described. The prevention of postherpetic neuralgia can profoundly impact patients' quality of life. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, © Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the website: www.paineurope.com at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources.

  16. Infant botulism and indications for administration of botulism immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Pifko, Elysha; Price, Amanda; Sterner, Sarah

    2014-02-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores and leads to a life-threatening descending motor weakness and flaccid paralysis in infant children. This disease presents with symptoms such as constipation, weakness, and hypotonia and can lead to respiratory failure. Botulism immune globulin (BIG) was created to treat this deadly disease and functions by neutralizing all systemically circulating botulism toxins. It is indicated in children with clinically diagnosed infant botulism, before diagnostic confirmation, and has been shown to lead to a significant reduction in intensive care unit and hospital stay for these patients. This review article discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, history of BIG, and indications for administration of BIG.

  17. Varicella-Zoster Virus–Specific Immune Responses to Herpes Zoster in Elderly Participants in a Trial of a Clinically Effective Zoster Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jane H.; Oxman, Michael N.; Johnson, Gary R.; Hayward, Anthony R.; Caulfield, Michael J.; Irwin, Michael R.; Clair, James; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Stanley, Harold; Marchese, Rocio D.; Harbecke, Ruth; Williams, Heather M.; Chan, Ivan S. F.; Arbeit, Robert D.; Gershon, Anne A.; Schödel, Florian; Morrison, Vicki A.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Straus, Steve E.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Davis, Larry E.; Levin, Myron J.

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe objectives of this study were to evaluate the association between varicella-zoster virus (VZV)–specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to herpes zoster (HZ) and protection against HZ morbidity and to compare immune responses to HZ and zoster vaccine MethodsIn 981 elderly persons who developed HZ during a zoster vaccine efficacy trial (321 vaccinees and 660 placebo recipients) and 1362 without HZ (682 vaccinees and 680 placebo recipients), CMI was measured by VZV responder cell frequency and interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot, and antibodies were measured by VZV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against affinity-purified VZV glycoproteins (gpELISA) ResultsRobust VZV CMI at HZ onset correlated with reduced HZ morbidity, whereas VZV gpELISA titers did not. Three weeks after HZ onset, gpELISA titers were highest in those with more severe HZ and were slightly increased in placebo recipients (compared with zoster vaccine recipients) and in older individuals. VZV CMI responses to HZ were similar in zoster vaccine and placebo recipients and were not affected by demographic characteristics or antiviral therapy, except for responder cell frequency at HZ onset, which decreased with age. When responses to zoster vaccine and HZ could be compared, VZV CMI values were similar, but antibody titers were lower ConclusionsHigher VZV CMI at HZ onset was associated with reduced HZ severity and less postherpetic neuralgia. Higher antibody titers were associated with increased HZ severity and occurrence of postherpetic neuralgia. HZ and zoster vaccine generated comparable VZV CMI PMID:19712037

  18. Intravenous Immune Globulin in Children with Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Samir S.; Hall, Matthew; Srivastava, Raj; Subramony, Anupama; Levin, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare and severe manifestation of group A streptococcal infection. The role of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) for streptococcal TSS in children is controversial. Objective To describe the epidemiology of streptococcal TSS in children and to determine whether adjunctive therapy with IVIG is associated with improved outcomes. Methods A multicenter retrospective cohort study of children with streptococcal TSS from 2003-2007 was conducted. Propensity scores were used to determine each child's likelihood of receiving IVIG. Differences in the primary outcomes of death, hospital length of stay, and total hospital costs were compared after matching IVIG-recipients and non-recipients on propensity score. Results The median age was 8.2 years. IVIG was administered to 84 (44%) of 192. Overall mortality was 4.2% (95% confidence interval: 1.8% to 8.0%). Differences in mortality between IVIG recipients (n=3, 4.5%) and non-recipients (n=3, 4.5%) were not statistically significant (P=1.00). While patients receiving IVIG had higher total hospital and drug costs than non-recipients, differences in hospital costs were not significant once drug costs were removed (median difference between matched patients, $6,139; interquartile range: -$8,316 to $25,993; P=0.06). There were no differences in length of stay between matched IVIG recipients and non-recipients. Conclusion This multicenter study is the largest to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of children with streptococcal TSS and the first to explore the association between IVIG use and clinical outcomes. IVIG use was associated with increased costs of caring for children with streptococcal TSS but was not associated with improved outcomes. PMID:19788359

  19. HIV-positive patient with herpes zoster: a manifestation of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common illness that can lead to serious morbidity. There is now evidence that HIV-infected patients who have been treated with antiretroviral therapy are at greater risk of developing herpes zoster not when they are severely immunocompromised but, paradoxically, when their immune system is recovering. This is a manifestation of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. The objectives of this report are to (1) inform health care providers that HIV-infected patients may develop multiple infectious, autoimmune, and oncological manifestations after treatment with antiretroviral medication, as they have immune system reconstitution, and (2) discuss herpes zoster, one of the possible manifestations. The patient is a 68-year-old HIV-positive man who presented with herpes zoster after being treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when his immune system was recovering, not when he was most immunosuppressed. Emergency department physicians should be aware that HIV-infected patients treated with HAART may have clinical deterioration despite immune system strengthening. This immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome can present with infectious, autoimmune, or oncological manifestations. Our case patient, an HIV-positive man with immune system recovery after treatment with HAART, presented with an infectious manifestation, herpes zoster.

  20. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of Herpes Zoster Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dooling, Kathleen L; Guo, Angela; Patel, Manisha; Lee, Grace M; Moore, Kelly; Belongia, Edward A; Harpaz, Rafael

    2018-01-26

    On October 20, 2017, Zoster Vaccine Recombinant, Adjuvanted (Shingrix, GlaxoSmithKline, [GSK] Research Triangle Park, North Carolina), a 2-dose, subunit vaccine containing recombinant glycoprotein E in combination with a novel adjuvant (AS01 B ), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of herpes zoster in adults aged ≥50 years. The vaccine consists of 2 doses (0.5 mL each), administered intramuscularly, 2-6 months apart (1). On October 25, 2017, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended the recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) for use in immunocompetent adults aged ≥50 years.

  1. Varicella-Zoster Virus-Specific Cellular Immune Responses to the Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine in Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Adriana; Canniff, Jennifer; Rouphael, Nadine; Mehta, Aneesh; Mulligan, Mark; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Levin, Myron J

    2017-07-15

    The incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ) increases with age. The live attenuated zoster vaccine generates immune responses similar to HZ. We compared the immune responses to zoster vaccine in young and older to adults to increase our understanding of the immune characteristics that may contribute to the increased susceptibility to HZ in older adults. Young (25-40 y; n = 25) and older (60-80 y; n = 33) adults had similar magnitude memory responses to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ex vivo restimulation measured by responder cell-frequency and flow cytometry, but the responses were delayed in older compared with young adults. Only young adults had an increase in dual-function VZV-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell effectors defined by coexpression of IFN-γ, IL-2, and CD107a after vaccination. In contrast, older adults showed marginal increases in VZV-specific CD8 + CD57 + senescent T cells after vaccination, which were already higher than those of young adults before vaccination. An increase in VZV-stimulated CD4 + CD69 + CD57 + PD1 + and CD8 + CD69 + CD57 + PD1 + T cells from baseline to postvaccination was associated with concurrent decreased VZV-memory and CD8 + effector responses, respectively, in older adults. Blocking the PD1 pathway during ex vivo VZV restimulation increased the CD4 + and CD8 + proliferation, but not the effector cytokine production, which modestly increased with TIM-3 blockade. We conclude that high proportions of senescent and exhausted VZV-specific T cells in the older adults contribute to their poor effector responses to a VZV challenge. This may underlie their inability to contain VZV reactivation and prevent the development of HZ. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Brief Report: Dysregulated Immune System in Children with Autism: Beneficial Effects of Intravenous Immune Globulin on Autistic Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sudhir; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children (ages 3-12) with autism (n=25) were given intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) treatments at 4-week intervals for at least 6 months. Marked abnormality of immune parameters was observed in subjects, compared to age-matched controls. IVIG treatment resulted in improved eye contact, speech, behavior, echolalia, and other autistic features.…

  3. Immune globulins are effective in severe pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shahar, E; Shorer, Z; Roifman, C M; Levi, Y; Brand, N; Ravid, S; Murphy, E G

    1997-01-01

    The effect of high-dose intravenous immune globulins was evaluated in an open prospective multicenter study of 26 children with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome. They presented with mild to moderate flaccid weakness of extremities, with cranial nerve involvement (20) and sensory impairment (22). All children rapidly deteriorated in 2-16 days (mean 6) to become bedridden, and 2 children also developed respiratory failure requiring artificial ventilation (Disability Grading Scale 4-5). Immune globulins were then administered at a total dose of 2 gm/kg, on 2 consecutive days, without adverse effects requiring discontinuation of therapy. Marked and rapid improvement was noted in 25 children, who improved by 1 to 2 Disability Grade Scales < or = 2 weeks after the infusion. Twenty were able to walk independently by 1 week, and 1 could be weaned off a ventilator. Eighteen children recovered by 2 weeks. The rest recuperated in a period of four months, including a child who was artificially ventilated for 4 weeks. The uniform rapid improvement and recovery associated with immune globulins contrasts with the slow recovery course in severe natural cases. We conclude that immune globulins are effective and safe in severe childhood-onset Guillain-Barré syndrome and therefore may serve as the initial treatment of choice.

  4. 78 FR 79469 - Strategies To Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...] Strategies To Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and... Infusions.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to identify and discuss potential risk mitigation...) (Human) infusion. Complications of hemolysis include severe anemia requiring transfusion, renal failure...

  5. Varicella zoster virus-specific immune responses to a herpes zoster vaccine in elderly recipients with major depression and the impact of antidepressant medications.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael R; Levin, Myron J; Laudenslager, Mark L; Olmstead, Richard; Lucko, Anne; Lang, Nancy; Carrillo, Carmen; Stanley, Harold A; Caulfield, Michael J; Weinberg, Adriana; Chan, Ivan S F; Clair, Jim; Smith, Jeff G; Marchese, R D; Williams, Heather M; Beck, Danielle J; McCook, Patricia T; Zhang, Jane H; Johnson, Gary; Oxman, Michael N

    2013-04-01

    The Depression Substudy of the Shingles Prevention Study (SPS) was designed to evaluate the association between major depression and immune responses to a high-titer live attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine (zoster vaccine), which boosts cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to VZV and decreases the incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ). The Depression Substudy was a 2-year longitudinal cohort study in 92 community-dwelling adults≥60 years of age who were enrolled in the SPS, a large, double-blind, placebo-controlled Veterans Affairs Cooperative zoster vaccine efficacy study. Forty subjects with major depressive disorder, stratified by use of antidepressant medications, and 52 age- and sex-matched controls with no history of depression or other mental illness had their VZV-CMI measured prior to vaccination with zoster vaccine or placebo and at 6 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years postvaccination. Depressed subjects who were not treated with antidepressant medications had lower levels of VZV-CMI following administration of zoster vaccine than nondepressed controls or depressed subjects receiving antidepressants even when antidepressant medications failed to alter depressive symptom severity (P<.005). Similar results were obtained taking into account the time-varying status of depression and use of antidepressant medications, as well as changes in depressive symptoms, during the postvaccination period. Depressed patients have diminished VZV-CMI responses to zoster vaccine, and treatment with antidepressant medication is associated with normalization of these responses. Because higher levels of VZV-CMI correlate with lower risk and severity of HZ, untreated depression may increase the risk and severity of HZ and reduce the efficacy of zoster vaccine.

  6. Varicella Zoster Virus–Specific Immune Responses to a Herpes Zoster Vaccine in Elderly Recipients With Major Depression and the Impact of Antidepressant Medications

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Levin, Myron J.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Olmstead, Richard; Lucko, Anne; Lang, Nancy; Carrillo, Carmen; Stanley, Harold A.; Caulfield, Michael J.; Weinberg, Adriana; Chan, Ivan S. F.; Clair, Jim; Smith, Jeff G.; Marchese, R. D.; Williams, Heather M.; Beck, Danielle J.; McCook, Patricia T.; Zhang, Jane H.; Johnson, Gary; Oxman, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Depression Substudy of the Shingles Prevention Study (SPS) was designed to evaluate the association between major depression and immune responses to a high-titer live attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine (zoster vaccine), which boosts cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to VZV and decreases the incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ). The Depression Substudy was a 2-year longitudinal cohort study in 92 community-dwelling adults ≥60 years of age who were enrolled in the SPS, a large, double-blind, placebo-controlled Veterans Affairs Cooperative zoster vaccine efficacy study. Methods. Forty subjects with major depressive disorder, stratified by use of antidepressant medications, and 52 age- and sex-matched controls with no history of depression or other mental illness had their VZV-CMI measured prior to vaccination with zoster vaccine or placebo and at 6 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years postvaccination. Results. Depressed subjects who were not treated with antidepressant medications had lower levels of VZV-CMI following administration of zoster vaccine than nondepressed controls or depressed subjects receiving antidepressants even when antidepressant medications failed to alter depressive symptom severity (P < .005). Similar results were obtained taking into account the time-varying status of depression and use of antidepressant medications, as well as changes in depressive symptoms, during the postvaccination period. Conclusions. Depressed patients have diminished VZV-CMI responses to zoster vaccine, and treatment with antidepressant medication is associated with normalization of these responses. Because higher levels of VZV-CMI correlate with lower risk and severity of HZ, untreated depression may increase the risk and severity of HZ and reduce the efficacy of zoster vaccine. PMID:23413415

  7. U.S. vaccine and immune globulin product shortages, 2001-15.

    PubMed

    Ziesenitz, Victoria C; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Zocchi, Mark S; Fox, Erin R; May, Larissa S

    2017-11-15

    Trends in shortages of vaccines and immune globulin products from 2001 through 2015 in the United States are described. Drug shortage data from January 2001 through December 2015 were obtained from the University of Utah Drug Information Service. Shortage data for vaccines and immune globulins were analyzed, focusing on the type of product, reason for shortage, shortage duration, shortages requiring vaccine deferral, and whether the drug was a single-source product. Inclusion of the product into the pediatric vaccination schedule was also noted. Of the 2,080 reported drug shortages, 59 (2.8%) were for vaccines and immune globulin products. Of those, 2 shortages (3%) remained active at the end of the study period. The median shortage duration was 16.8 months. The most common products on shortage were viral vaccines (58%), especially hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, and varicella vaccines (4 shortages each). A vaccine deferral was required for 21 shortages (36%), and single-source products were on shortage 30 times (51%). The most common reason for shortage was manufacturing problems (51%), followed by supply-and-demand issues (7%). Thirty shortages (51%) were for products on the pediatric schedule, with a median duration of 21.7 months. Drug shortages of vaccines and immune globulin products accounted for only 2.8% of reported drug shortages within a 15-year period, but about half of these shortages involved products on the pediatric vaccination schedule, which may have significant public health implications. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of targeted automated messages on herpes zoster immunization numbers in an independent community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Bedwick, Brian W; Garofoli, Gretchen K; Elswick, Betsy M

    To evaluate the impact of an automated phone call by a pharmacy owner on the number of herpes zoster vaccinations given in the independent community pharmacy setting, compare herpes zoster immunization numbers in the 3 months during the previous year to the 3 months during the intervention, and assess patient satisfaction with the automated phone call service. This prospective study took place in an independent community pharmacy. A message was recorded by the pharmacy owner using a telephone-message program that notified patients aged 60 and older that the herpes zoster vaccine is recommended for them. This message was sent out monthly for a total of 3 months. Patients who received this vaccine in the 3 months following the initial phone call were surveyed to determine their reason for receiving the vaccine, and to assess satisfaction with the phone call. The total number of herpes zoster immunizations given at the pharmacy during the study period was compared to the total given at the pharmacy during the same period of the previous year. A total of 25 participants received the herpes zoster vaccine at the pharmacy during the study period, compared to 16 during the control period. Receiving the phone call was the most commonly cited reason for receiving the vaccine, followed by doctor recommendation. Of the 18 participants who received the call, 12 stated that they would be very likely to respond to similar phone calls in the future. These results demonstrate that using a targeted, automated phone call directed at eligible patients appears to have a positive effect on their willingness to receive the herpes zoster vaccine and may lead to an increase in vaccination numbers among eligible patients. Various factors must be considered before implementation of this service, including cost and added call volume. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Schmader, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Herpes zoster afflicts millions of older adults annually worldwide and causes significant suffering due to acute and chronic pain, or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Herpes zoster is caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in sensory ganglia in the setting of age, disease and drug-related decline in cellular immunity to VZV. VZV-induced neuronal destruction and inflammation causes the principal problems of pain, interference with activities of daily living and reduced quality of life in older adults. To address these problems, the optimal treatment of herpes zoster requires early antiviral therapy and careful pain management. For patients who develop PHN, evidence-based pharmacotherapy using topical lidocaine patch, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and/or opiates can reduce pain burden. The live attenuated zoster vaccine is effective in reducing pain burden and preventing herpes zoster and PHN in older adults. PMID:17631237

  10. Safety, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to herpes zoster vaccine in subjects with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hata, Atsuko; Inoue, Fukue; Yamasaki, Midori; Fujikawa, Jun; Kawasaki, Yukiko; Hamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Honjo, Sachiko; Moriishi, Eiko; Mori, Yasuko; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate varicella zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunogenicity against the herpes zoster vaccine, which is licensed as the Live Varicella Vaccine (Oka Strain) in Japan, in elderly people with or without diabetes mellitus. A pilot study was conducted between May 2010 and November 2010 at Kitano Hospital, a general hospital in the city of Osaka in Japan. A varicella skin test, interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay and immunoadherence hemagglutination tests were performed 0, 3, and 6 months after vaccination. Vaccine safety was also assessed using questionnaires for 42 days and development of zoster during the one-year observational period. We enrolled 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with diabetes mellitus aged 60-70 years. The live herpes zoster vaccine boosted virus-specific, cell-mediated and humoral immunity between elderly people, with or without diabetes. Moreover, no systemic adverse reaction was found. None of the study participants developed herpes zoster. The live herpes zoster vaccine was used safely. It effectively enhanced specific immunity to varicella zoster virus in older people with or without diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in anti-D immune globulin for childhood immune thrombocytopenia: Usage, response rates, and adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Long, Michelle; Kalish, Leslie A.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Grace, Rachael F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) added a black box warning to anti-D immune globulin (Rho(D) immune globulin, anti-D) for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) to warn of the complications related to severe hemolysis. The objective of this retrospective medical record review was to examine recent trends in anti-D use to treat ITP and rates of adverse events in a single large pediatric hematology program. Over a 7-year period, 176 (35%) of 502 ITP patients at our center received anti-D. Anti-D was the second most commonly prescribed drug for ITP from 2003 to 2010 overall and was given first most frequently (41%). Sixty-four percent of patients responded to anti-D, but 36% had adverse effects, including five patients requiring hospitalization. From 2003 to 2010, the use of anti-D as an initial therapy for ITP significantly decreased (P < 0.001). This trend preceded the 2010 FDA black box warning. In our experience, anti-D was associated with a significant number of adverse effects when used as a treatment for ITP, although none were life-threatening. Despite recent guidelines suggesting anti-D therapy for initial treatment for ITP, anti-D therapy for ITP has significantly decreased over the past 7 years. PMID:22190130

  12. Altered cellular and humoral immunity to varicella-zoster virus in patients with autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Rondaan, Christien; de Haan, Aalzen; Horst, Gerda; Hempel, J Cordelia; van Leer, Coretta; Bos, Nicolaas A; van Assen, Sander; Bijl, Marc; Westra, Johanna

    2014-11-01

    Patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) have a 3-20-fold increased risk of herpes zoster compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate if susceptibility is due to decreased levels of cellular and/or humoral immunity to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). A cross-sectional study of VZV-specific immunity was performed in 38 SLE patients, 33 GPA patients, and 51 healthy controls. Levels of IgG and IgM antibodies to VZV were measured using an in-house glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cellular responses to VZV were determined by interferon-γ (IFNγ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye dilution proliferation assay. Levels of IgG antibodies to VZV were increased in SLE patients as compared to healthy controls, but levels of IgM antibodies to VZV were not. Antibody levels in GPA patients did not differ significantly from levels in healthy controls. In response to stimulation with VZV, decreased numbers of IFNγ spot-forming cells were found among SLE patients (although not GPA patients) as compared to healthy controls. Proliferation of CD4+ T cells in response to stimulation with VZV was decreased in SLE patients but not GPA patients. SLE patients have increased levels of IgG antibodies against VZV, while cellular immunity is decreased. In GPA patients, antibody levels as well as cellular responses to VZV were comparable to those in healthy controls. These data suggest that increased prevalence of herpes zoster in SLE patients is due to a poor cellular response. Vaccination strategies should aim to boost cellular immunity against VZV. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. WinRho: Rh immune globulin prepared by ion exchange for intravenous use.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, J M; Friesen, A D; Pollock, J M; Taylor, W E

    1980-01-01

    An Rh immune globulin [Rh IgG] for intravenous use, WinRho, has been prepared by the Winnipeg Rh Institute by a modification of the ion-exchange column method of Hoppe and colleagues. When administered to Rh-negative male and nonpregnant female volunteers WinRho was found to be nonpyrogenic, nontoxic, safe and protective against Rh alloimmunization. In a clinical trial with 240 microgram given at about 28 weeks' gestation and 120 microgram given after delivery to Rh-negative women at risk of Rh immunization WinRho was effective in preventing Rh immunization. Of the 870 women carrying Rh-positive fetuses who were treated with WinRho during pregnancy and were not tested several months after delivery 14 would have shown evidence of Rh immunization by the time of delivery if WinRho had been ineffective; none showed such evidence. Of the 1122 women carrying Rh-positive fetuses who were retested 4 to 6 months after delivery 83 would have shown evidence of Rh immunization at that time if WinRho had been ineffective; only 1 showed such evidence. The efficiency of yield of anti-D with the modified method of production, the fct that it can be given intravenously (a route that causes the patient less discomfort and immediately results in high anti-D levels) and the lower levels of contaminating IgA and IgM make WinRho the preparation of choice for preventing Rh immunization. PMID:6161687

  14. Effect of anthrax immune globulin on response to BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Malkevich, Nina V; Basu, Subhendu; Rudge, Thomas L; Clement, Kristin H; Chakrabarti, Ajoy C; Aimes, Ronald T; Nabors, Gary S; Skiadopoulos, Mario H; Ionin, Boris

    2013-11-01

    Development of anthrax countermeasures that may be used concomitantly in a postexposure setting requires an understanding of the interaction between these products. Anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIGIV) is a candidate immunotherapeutic that contains neutralizing antibodies against protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxins. We evaluated the interaction between AIGIV and BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) in rabbits. While pharmacokinetics of AIGIV were not altered by vaccination, the vaccine-induced immune response was abrogated in AIGIV-treated animals.

  15. Immune reconstitution with two different rabbit polyclonal anti-thymocytes globulins.

    PubMed

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Crepin, Thomas; Gaiffe, Emilie; Laheurte, Caroline; Moulin, Bruno; Frimat, Luc; Rieu, Philippe; Mousson, Christiane; Durrbach, Antoine; Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Saas, Philippe; Courivaud, Cécile; Ducloux, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Broad T cell depletion by polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulins (ATG) has been used for many years as a part of immunosuppressive treatment in transplantation. Currently, two different ATG are used in clinical practice, Thymoglobulin and Grafalon. Due to differences in the immunization source, these products contain different specificities and quantity of antibodies. These differences may have clinical consequences. We conducted a nested study in a large prospective multicentric cohort of kidney transplant to determine whether Grafalon-treated and Thymoglobulin-treated patients experience different lymphocyte reconstitution and clinical outcomes. 182 patients matched for age, gender, CMV status, CMV prophylaxis, number of previous transplantation, and maintenance immunosuppressive treatment were included (Thymoglobulin, [n=91]; Grafalon®, [n=91]). One-year post-transplant, recent thymic emigrants were significantly decreased (12±10% vs 21±12%; p<0.001) in Grafalon-treated patients. By contrast, T cell activation (CD38+DR+Ki67+) and senescence (CD8+CD57+CD28-) was increased in Thymoglobulin-treated patients. Compared to Grafalon, Thymoglobulin was not associated with a significantly different rate of acute rejection. CMV disease (p=0.013) was more frequent in Thymoglobulin-treated patients. Grafalon and Thymoglobulin seem to be equivalent to prevent acute rejection. CMV disease is more frequent in Thymoglobulin-treated patients. One year post-transplant immune profile profoundly differs according to the type of ATG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. What the world's religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins.

    PubMed

    Grabenstein, John D

    2013-04-12

    For millennia, humans have sought and found purpose, solace, values, understanding, and fellowship in religious practices. Buddhist nuns performed variolation against smallpox over 1000 years ago. Since Jenner developed vaccination against smallpox in 1796, some people have objected to and declined vaccination, citing various religious reasons. This paper reviews the scriptural, canonical basis for such interpretations, as well as passages that support immunization. Populous faith traditions are considered, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Subjects of concern such as blood components, pharmaceutical excipients of porcine or bovine origin, rubella strain RA 27/3, and cell-culture media with remote fetal origins are evaluated against the religious concerns identified. The review identified more than 60 reports or evaluations of vaccine-preventable infectious-disease outbreaks that occurred within religious communities or that spread from them to broader communities. In multiple cases, ostensibly religious reasons to decline immunization actually reflected concerns about vaccine safety or personal beliefs among a social network of people organized around a faith community, rather than theologically based objections per se. Themes favoring vaccine acceptance included transformation of vaccine excipients from their starting material, extensive dilution of components of concern, the medicinal purpose of immunization (in contrast to diet), and lack of alternatives. Other important features included imperatives to preserve health and duty to community (e.g., parent to child, among neighbors). Concern that 'the body is a temple not to be defiled' is contrasted with other teaching and quality-control requirements in manufacturing vaccines and immune globulins. Health professionals who counsel hesitant patients or parents can ask about the basis for concern and how the individual applies religious understanding to decision-making about

  17. Vaccinia immune globulin: current policies, preparedness, and product safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Riccardo

    2006-05-01

    In 1980 the World Health Organization declared that smallpox was eradicated from the world, and routine smallpox vaccination was discontinued. Nevertheless, samples of the smallpox virus (variola virus) were retained for research purposes, not least because of fears that terrorist groups or rogue states might also have kept samples in order to develop a bioweapon. Variola virus represents an effective bioweapon because it is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is highly contagious. Since September 11, 2001, countries around the world have begun to develop policies and preparedness programs to deal with a bioterror attack, including stockpiling of smallpox vaccine. Smallpox vaccine itself may be associated with a number of serious adverse events, which can often be managed with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG). VIG may also be needed as prophylaxis in patients for whom pre-exposure smallpox vaccine is contraindicated (such as those with eczema or pregnant women), although it is currently not licensed in these cases. Two intravenous formulations of VIG (VIGIV Cangene and VIGIV Dynport) have been licensed by the FDA for the management of patients with progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, severe generalized vaccinia, and extensive body surface involvement or periocular implantation following inadvertent inoculation.

  18. Postexposure prevention of progressive vaccinia in SCID mice treated with vaccinia immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R W; Reed, J L; Snoy, P J; Mikolajczyk, M G; Bray, M; Scott, D E; Kennedy, M C

    2011-01-01

    A recently reported case of progressive vaccinia (PV) in an immunocompromised patient has refocused attention on this condition. Uniformly fatal prior to the licensure of vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) in 1978, PV was still fatal in about half of VIG-treated patients overall, with a greater mortality rate in infants and children. Additional therapies would be needed in the setting of a smallpox bioterror event, since mass vaccination following any variola virus release would inevitably result in exposure of immunocompromised people through vaccination or contact with vaccinees. Well-characterized animal models of disease can support the licensure of new products when human studies are not ethical or feasible, as in the case of PV. We chose vaccinia virus-scarified SCID mice to model PV. As in immunocompromised humans, vaccinia virus-scarified SCID animals develop enlarging primary lesions with minimal or no inflammation, eventual distal virus spread, and lethal outcomes if left untreated. Postexposure treatment with VIG slowed disease progression, caused local lesion regression, and resulted in the healthy survival of most of the mice for more than 120 days. Combination treatment with VIG and topical cidofovir also resulted in long-term disease-free survival of most of the animals, even when initiated 7 days postinfection. These results support the possibility that combination treatments may be effective in humans and support using this SCID model of PV to test new antibody therapies and combination therapies and to provide further insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of PV.

  19. Should cell-free DNA testing be used to target antenatal rhesus immune globulin administration?

    PubMed

    Ma, Kimberly K; Rodriguez, Maria I; Cheng, Yvonne W; Norton, Mary E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2016-01-01

    To compare the rates of alloimmunization with the use of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening to target antenatal rhesus immune globulin (RhIG) prenatally, versus routine administration of RhIG in rhesus D (RhD)-negative pregnant women in a theoretic cohort using a decision-analytic model. A decision-analytic model compared cfDNA testing to routine antenatal RhIG administration. The primary outcome was maternal sensitization to RhD antigen. Sensitivity and specificity of cfDNA testing were assumed to be 99.8% and 95.3%, respectively. Univariate and bivariate sensitivity analyses, Monte Carlo simulation, and threshold analyses were performed. In a cohort of 10,000 RhD-negative women, 22.6 sensitizations would occur with utilization of cfDNA, while 20 sensitizations would occur with routine RhIG. Only when the sensitivity of the cfDNA test reached 100%, the rate of sensitization was equal for both cfDNA and RhIG. Otherwise, routine RhIG minimized the rate of sensitization, especially given RhIG is readily available in the United States. Adoption of cfDNA testing would result in a 13.0% increase in sensitization among RhD-negative women in a theoretical cohort taking into account the ethnic diversity of the United States' population.

  20. Potential Confounding of Diagnosis of Rabies in Patients with Recent Receipt of Intravenous Immune Globulin.

    PubMed

    Vora, Neil M; Orciari, Lillian A; Bertumen, J Bradford; Damon, Inger; Ellison, James A; Fowler, Vance G; Franka, Richard; Petersen, Brett W; Satheshkumar, P S; Schexnayder, Stephen M; Smith, Todd G; Wallace, Ryan M; Weinstein, Susan; Williams, Carl; Yager, Pamela; Niezgoda, Michael

    2018-02-09

    Rabies is an acute encephalitis that is nearly always fatal. It is caused by infection with viruses of the genus Lyssavirus, the most common of which is Rabies lyssavirus. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) defines a confirmed human rabies case as an illness compatible with rabies that meets at least one of five different laboratory criteria.* Four of these criteria do not depend on the patient's rabies vaccination status; however, the remaining criterion, "identification of Lyssavirus-specific antibody (i.e. by indirect fluorescent antibody…test or complete [Rabies lyssavirus] neutralization at 1:5 dilution) in the serum," is only considered diagnostic in unvaccinated patients. Lyssavirus-specific antibodies include Rabies lyssavirus-specific binding immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and Rabies lyssavirus neutralizing antibodies (RLNAs). This report describes six patients who were tested for rabies by CDC and who met CSTE criteria for confirmed human rabies because they had illnesses compatible with rabies, had not been vaccinated for rabies, and were found to have serum RLNAs (with complete Rabies lyssavirus neutralization at a serum dilution of 1:5). An additional four patients are described who were tested for rabies by CDC who were found to have serum RLNAs (with incomplete Rabies lyssavirus neutralization at a serum dilution of 1:5) despite having not been vaccinated for rabies. None of these 10 patients received a rabies diagnosis; rather, they were considered to have been passively immunized against rabies through recent receipt of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). Serum RLNA test results should be interpreted with caution in patients who have not been vaccinated against rabies but who have recently received IVIG.

  1. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  2. Globulin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cancer Why do I need a globulin test? Your health care provider may order globulin tests as part your ... Globulin tests are blood tests. During a blood test, a health care professional will take a blood sample from a ...

  3. Role of intravenous immune globulin in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit J; Vakil, Niyati; Kabakov, Anna

    2015-06-15

    The use of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) in the management of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is reviewed. IVIG has a wide range of uses in clinical practice, including STSS and CDI. It is an attractive option for these two infections because both infections are toxin mediated, and IVIG may contain antibodies that neutralize these toxins. For STSS and CDI, IVIG is often considered for use in critically ill patients who are not responding to traditional therapies. Several encouraging case reports and retrospective chart reviews have been published, highlighting the potential benefit of IVIG in such patients. However, its definitive role remains unclear, mainly due to the lack of high-level evidence. Data supporting its use have been extrapolated from retrospective chart reviews and case reports in which profound heterogeneity in patient populations and treatment modalities exist. The use of IVIG must be weighed carefully because it is not a benign product. As with the use of IVIG for STSS, the role of IVIG for CDI is unclear. Nonetheless, IVIG may serve as a useful adjunct therapy for patients suffering from severe complicated CDI (shock, ileus, or megacolon) who do not respond to conventional treatment. Adverse reactions to IVIG are mild and transitory and occur during or immediately after drug infusion. Although randomized, controlled trials supporting the use of IVIG for STSS and CDI are lacking, IVIG may be considered a last-line adjunct therapy in those patients for whom the clinical benefit outweighs the potential adverse effects of therapy. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intravenous immune globulin in hereditary inclusion body myopathy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Susan; Rakocevic, Goran; Joe, Galen; Manoli, Irini; Shrader, Joseph; Harris-Love, Michael; Sonies, Barbara; Ciccone, Carla; Dorward, Heidi; Krasnewich, Donna; Huizing, Marjan; Dalakas, Marinos C; Gahl, William A

    2007-01-01

    Background Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM) is an autosomal recessive, adult onset, non-inflammatory neuromuscular disorder with no effective treatment. The causative gene, GNE, codes for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, which catalyzes the first two reactions in the synthesis of sialic acid. Reduced sialylation of muscle glycoproteins, such as α-dystroglycan and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), has been reported in HIBM. Methods We treated 4 HIBM patients with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), in order to provide sialic acid, because IgG contains 8 μmol of sialic acid/g. IVIG was infused as a loading dose of 1 g/kg on two consecutive days followed by 3 doses of 400 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Results For all four patients, mean quadriceps strength improved from 19.0 kg at baseline to 23.2 kg (+22%) directly after IVIG loading to 25.6 kg (+35%) at the end of the study. Mean shoulder strength improved from 4.1 kg at baseline to 5.9 kg (+44%) directly after IVIG loading to 6.0 kg (+46%) at the end of the study. The composite improvement for 8 other muscle groups was 5% after the initial loading and 19% by the end of the study. Esophageal motility and lingual strength improved in the patients with abnormal barium swallows. Objective measures of functional improvement gave variable results, but the patients experienced improvements in daily activities that they considered clinically significant. Immunohistochemical staining and immunoblotting of muscle biopsies for α-dystroglycan and NCAM did not provide consistent evidence for increased sialylation after IVIG treatment. Side effects were limited to transient headaches and vomiting. Conclusion The mild benefits in muscle strength experienced by HIBM patients after IVIG treatment may be related to the provision of sialic acid supplied by IVIG. Other sources of sialic acid are being explored as treatment options for HIBM. PMID:17261181

  5. Lack of association between Rh status, Rh immune globulin in pregnancy and autism.

    PubMed

    Miles, Judith H; Takahashi, T Nicole

    2007-07-01

    Though causes of autism are considered largely genetic, considerable concern remains that exposure to Rh immune globulin (RhIg), which until 2001 in the United States contained the preservative thimerosal, can cause autism. To determine whether mothers of children with autism are more likely to be Rh negative (Rh(-)) or to have received RhIg preserved with thimerosal, which is 49.6% ethyl mercury, we surveyed families of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained through a University-based autism clinic considered free of ascertainment biases related to type of autism or severity. Between 2004 and 2006, 305 mothers of 321 children with an ASD agreed to participate in a telephone interview. Analysis of complete records including the blood group status and RhIg exposure of 214 families showed that Rh(-) status is no higher in mothers of children with autism than in the general population, exposure to antepartum RhIg, preserved with thimerosal is no higher for children with autism and pregnancies are no more likely to be Rh incompatible. This was also true for autism subgroups defined by behavioral phenotype, gender, IQ, regressive onset, head circumference, dysmorphology, birth status, essential, or complex phenotype. These findings support the consensus that exposure to ethylmercury in thimerosal is not the cause of the increased prevalence of autism. These data are important not only for parents in this country but also for the international health community where thimerosal continues to be used to preserve multi-dose vials which in turn makes vaccines affordable. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Serious infection risk and immune recovery after double-unit cord blood transplantation without antithymocyte globulin.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Craig; Abboud, Michelle; Jia, Xiaoyu; Heller, Glenn; Gonzales, Anne-Marie; Lubin, Marissa; Hawke, Rebecca; Perales, Miguel-Angel; van den Brink, Marcel R; Giralt, Sergio; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Small, Trudy N; Barker, Juliet N

    2011-10-01

    Factors contributing to infection risk after cord blood transplantation (CBT) include the use of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), prolonged neutropenia, and failure to transfer immunity. In the present study, we investigated the potential of double-unit CBT without ATG to reduce the risk of infection and evaluated the nature of serious infections in the first year after CBT using this approach. Seventy-two predominantly adult patients underwent CBT for hematologic malignancies; of these, 52 patients received myeloablative conditioning, and 20 received nonmyeloablative conditioning. The peak incidences of bacterial infections (32%), fungal infections (14%), and bacterial/fungal pneumonias (10%) occurred in the first 30 days posttransplantation. Three such infections contributed to early mortality. The peak incidence of viral infections was 31-60 days posttransplantation, affecting 30% of patients. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was the most common viral infection. CMV infections occurring before day 120 (n = 23) had no relationship with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), whereas CMV infections occurring after day 120 (n = 5), along with all cases of Epstein-Barr virus viremia (n = 5) and adenoviral enteritis (n = 2), occurred exclusively in the context of GVHD therapy or corticosteroid use for another indication. Viral infections had the highest lethality: 2 were a direct cause of death, and 3 contributed to death. Patients exhibited steady immune recovery, achieving a median CD3(+)4(+) T cell count >200 cells/μL by day 120 post-CBT, and no infection-related deaths occurred after day 120. Our results suggest that double-unit CBT without ATG is associated with prompt T cell recovery, and, unlike in CBT incorporating ATG, infection is rarely a primary cause of death. However, CBT without ATG is associated with a significant risk of GVHD, and serious infections remain a challenge, especially in the setting of GVHD. New strategies are needed to further reduce infectious

  7. Herpes zoster following cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R; Ryman, William

    2005-02-01

    A 56-year-old man developed reactivation of herpes zoster infection on his right forehead after treatment of several solar keratoses with cryosurgery. The rash was blistering and painful. Treatment with oral aciclovir was instituted and the lesions healed within 2 weeks. Known risk factors for reactivation include age and decreased immunity. Previous case reports have indicated trauma may be a risk factor in herpes zoster. We report a case of herpes zoster as a complication of cryosurgery.

  8. Association between vaccination for herpes zoster and risk of herpes zoster infection among older patients with selected immune-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Xie, Fenglong; Delzell, Elizabeth; Chen, Lang; Winthrop, Kevin L; Lewis, James D; Saag, Kenneth G; Baddley, John W; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2012-07-04

    Based on limited data, the live attenuated herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine is contraindicated in patients taking anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies or other biologics commonly used to treat immune-mediated diseases. The safety and effectiveness of the vaccine are unclear for these patients. To examine the association between HZ vaccination and HZ incidence within and beyond 42 days after vaccination in patients with selected immune-mediated diseases and in relation to biologics and other therapies used to treat these conditions. Retrospective cohort study of 463,541 Medicare beneficiaries 60 years and older with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or inflammatory bowel disease using Medicare claims data from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2009. Herpes zoster incidence rate within 42 days after vaccination (a safety concern) and beyond 42 days; hazard ratios estimated using Cox proportional hazards models for HZ comparing vaccinated vs unvaccinated patients. Median duration of follow-up was 2.0 years (interquartile range, 0.8-3.0); 4.0% of patients received HZ vaccine. The overall crude HZ incidence rate was 7.8 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 3.7-16.5) within 42 days after vaccination. The rate among the unvaccinated was 11.6 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 11.4-11.9). Among 633 patients exposed to biologics at the time of vaccination or within the subsequent 42 days, no case of HZ or varicella occurred. After multivariable adjustment, HZ vaccination was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.52-0.71) for HZ risk after 42 days. Receipt of HZ vaccine was not associated with a short-term increase in HZ incidence among Medicare beneficiaries with selected immune-mediated diseases, including those exposed to biologics. The vaccine was associated with a lower HZ incidence over a median of 2 years of follow-up.

  9. Altered phenotype and functionality of varicella zoster virus-specific cellular immunity in individuals with active infection.

    PubMed

    Schub, David; Janssen, Eva; Leyking, Sarah; Sester, Urban; Assmann, Gunter; Hennes, Pia; Smola, Sigrun; Vogt, Thomas; Rohrer, Tilman; Sester, Martina; Schmidt, Tina

    2015-02-15

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) establishes lifelong persistence and may reactivate in individuals with impaired immune function. To investigate immunologic correlates of protection and VZV reactivation, we characterized specific immunity in 207 nonsymptomatic immunocompetent and 132 immunocompromised individuals in comparison with patients with acute herpes zoster. VZV-specific CD4 T cells were quantified flow cytometrically after stimulation and characterized for expression of interferon-γ, interleukin 2, and tumor necrosis factor α and surface markers for differentiation (CD127) and anergy (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 [CTLA-4] and programmed death [PD]-1). Immunoglobulin G and A levels were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In healthy individuals, VZV-specific antibody and T-cell levels were age dependent, with the highest median VZV-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies of 0.108% (interquartile range, 0.121%) during adolescence. VZV-specific T-cell profiles were multifunctional with predominant expression of all 3 cytokines, CD127 positivity, and low expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1. Nonsymptomatic immunocompromised patients had similar VZV-specific immunologic properties except for lower T-cell frequencies (P<.001) and restricted cytokine expression. In contrast, significantly elevated antibody- and VZV-specific CD4 T-cell levels were found in patients with zoster. Their specific T cells showed a shift in cytokine expression toward interferon γ single positivity, an increase in CTLA-4 and PD-1, and a decrease in CD127 expression (all P<.001). This phenotype normalized after resolution of symptoms. VZV-specific CD4-T cells in patients with zoster bear typical features of anergy. This phenotype is reversible and may serve as adjunct tool for monitoring VZV reactivations in high-risk patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  10. Immune response and reactogenicity of intradermal administration versus subcutaneous administration of varicella-zoster virus vaccine: an exploratory, randomised, partly blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Beals, Chan R; Railkar, Radha A; Schaeffer, Andrea K; Levin, Yotam; Kochba, Efrat; Meyer, Brian K; Evans, Robert K; Sheldon, Eric A; Lasseter, Kenneth; Lang, Nancy; Weinberg, Adriana; Canniff, Jennifer; Levin, Myron J

    2016-08-01

    -response relation was observed with intradermal administration (1/3 dose subcutaneous GMFR 1·64 [90% CI 1·36-1·99], 1/3 dose intradermal 2·58 (2·13-3·13), 1/10 dose intradermal 2·22 [1·83-2·69], and 1/27 dose intradermal 1·64 [1·35-2·00]). Each partial dose of zoster vaccine given intradermaly had a gpELISA GMFR comparable to that of full dose zoster vaccine given subcutaneously. Transient erythema and induration were more common after intradermal administration (31% erythema for full subcutaneous dose and 77% for intradermal dose). Intradermal zoster vaccine showed a greater increase in varicella-zoster virus gpELISA antibody compared with subcutaneous zoster vaccine at comparable doses. Larger and longer studies of intradermal administration of live, attenuated zoster vaccine are needed to provide convincing evidence of improved cell mediated immunity. Merck & Co Inc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The natural history of varicella zoster virus infection in Norway: Further insights on exogenous boosting and progressive immunity to herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Marangi, Luigi; Mirinaviciute, Grazina; Flem, Elmira; Scalia Tomba, Gianpaolo; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Freiesleben de Blasio, Birgitte; Manfredi, Piero

    2017-01-01

    We use age-structured models for VZV transmission and reactivation to reconstruct the natural history of VZV in Norway based on available pre-vaccination serological data, contact matrices, and herpes zoster incidence data. Depending on the hypotheses on contact and transmission patterns, the basic reproduction number of varicella in Norway ranges between 3.7 and 5.0, implying a vaccine coverage between 73 and 80% to effectively interrupt transmission with a 100% vaccine efficacy against infection. The varicella force of infection peaks during early childhood (3–5 yrs) and shows a prolonged phase of higher risk during the childbearing period, though quantitative variations can occur depending on contact patterns. By expressing the magnitude of exogenous boosting as a proportion of the force of infection, it is shown that reactivation is well described by a progressive immunity mechanism sustained by a large, though possibly below 100%, degree of exogenous boosting, in agreement with findings from other Nordic countries, implying large reproduction numbers of boosting. Moreover, magnitudes of exogenous boosting below 40% are robustly disconfirmed by data. These results bring further insight on the magnitude of immunity boosting and its relationship with reactivation. PMID:28545047

  12. Varicella-zoster virus immunity among health care workers in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Urbiztondo, L; Bayas, J M; Broner, S; Costa, J; Esteve, M; Campins, M; Borrás, E; Domínguez, A

    2014-10-14

    To determine varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity among healthcare workers (HCWs). Cross-sectional study. HCWs attending voluntary periodic health examinations between June 2008 and December 2010. Six public hospitals and five primary care areas in Catalonia, Spain. A self-administered questionnaire was given to eligible HCWs. Variables including age, sex, professional category, type of centre, history of varicella infection, and VZV vaccination were collected. The study was carried out using a convenience sample. The prevalence of antibodies and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of the history of clinical VZV infection or vaccination were calculated. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and ORa) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine the variables associated with antibody prevalence. Of 705 HCWs who agreed to participate, 644 were finally included. The overall prevalence of antibodies to varicella was 94.9% (95% CI: 92.9-96.4). Of the variables studied, only age was associated with serological susceptibility to VZV. HCWs aged 25-35 years had the highest serological susceptibility (8.1%, 95% CI: 4.6-13.0). The prevalence of antibodies was 96% in subjects reporting previous VZV infection or vaccination, compared with 93% in subjects who did not report these states or did not know. The high proportion of serologically-susceptible HCWs found in this study indicates the need to develop for screening and vaccination strategies in Catalonia. Due to the high capacity of propagation of the VZV in health settings and its consequences, VZV vaccination programmes in HCWs should be reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk of Herpes Zoster in Auto-immune and Inflammatory diseases: Implications for Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Huifeng; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Lang; Xie, Fenglong; Winthrop, Kevin; Baddley, John William; Saag, Kenneth G; Singh, Jasvinder; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine is recommended for adults age ≥ 60 years without weakened immune systems in the U.S. It is unclear how the risk of HZ varies according to age and disease conditions for younger patients with autoimmune or inflammatory (AI) diseases. We evaluated the age-stratified incidence of HZ associated with AI diseases compared to adults recommended for vaccination by the CDC. Methods Using linked commercial and governmentally-insured patients (2007–2010), we assembled seven AI cohorts: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis (PsO), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), gout and two comparison cohorts: diabetes and patients without AI and diabetic conditions. We identified HZ using diagnostic codes. Age-specific incidence rates (IR) were calculated and compared with the IR in patients aged 60–69 and without AI and diabetic conditions. Results We identified 8,395 SLE, 7,916 IBD, 50,646 RA, 2,629 PsA, 4,299 PsO, 1,019 AS, 58,934 gout, 214,631 diabetes and 330,727 enrollment periods without AI and diabetic conditions. Highest to lowest, the IRs ranged from 19.9 per 1,000 pys for SLE cohort to 6.8 for gout cohort, versus 5.3 in patients without AI and diabetic conditions. The age-specific IRs of HZ for RA and SLE patients aged ≥40 were 1.5–2 times greater than those observed in healthy adults for whom the vaccine is currently recommended (8.5/1000). Conclusions SLE, IBD and RA are associated with higher risks of HZ compared to older adults recommended for vaccination, suggesting that individuals with these conditions as young as age 40 could potentially benefit from vaccination. PMID:26990731

  14. Updated Dosing Instructions for Immune Globulin (Human) GamaSTAN S/D for Hepatitis A Virus Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Noele P

    2017-09-15

    GamaSTAN S/D (Grifols Therapeutics, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is a sterile, preservative-free solution of immune globulin (IG) for intramuscular administration and is used for prophylaxis against disease caused by infection with hepatitis A, measles, varicella, and rubella viruses (1). GamaSTAN S/D is the only IG product approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hepatitis A virus (HAV) prophylaxis. In July 2017, GamaSTAN S/D prescribing information was updated with changes to the dosing instructions for hepatitis A preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis indications. These changes were made because of concerns about decreased HAV immunoglobulin G antibody (anti-HAV IgG) potency, likely resulting from decreasing prevalence of previous HAV infection among plasma donors, leading to declining anti-HAV antibody levels in donor plasma (2). No changes in dosing instructions were made for measles, varicella, or rubella preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis.

  15. Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xizhong; Nolen, Leisha D; Sun, Junfeng; Booth, Malcolm; Donaldson, Lindsay; Quinn, Conrad P; Boyer, Anne E; Hendricks, Katherine; Shadomy, Sean; Bothma, Pieter; Judd, Owen; McConnell, Paul; Bower, William A; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2017-01-01

    We studied anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIG-IV) use from a 2009-2010 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis soft tissue infection in injection drug users in Scotland, UK, and we compared findings from 15 AIG-IV recipients with findings from 28 nonrecipients. Death rates did not differ significantly between recipients and nonrecipients (33% vs. 21%). However, whereas only 8 (27%) of 30 patients at low risk for death (admission sequential organ failure assessment score of 0-5) received AIG-IV, 7 (54%) of the 13 patients at high risk for death (sequential organ failure assessment score of 6-11) received treatment. AIG-IV recipients had surgery more often and, among survivors, had longer hospital stays than did nonrecipients. AIG-IV recipients were sicker than nonrecipients. This difference and the small number of higher risk patients confound assessment of AIG-IV effectiveness in this outbreak.

  16. Serological Evaluation of Immunity to the Varicella-Zoster Virus Based on a Novel Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Ye, Xiangzhong; Jia, Jizong; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Lina; Chen, Chunye; Yang, Lianwei; Wang, Yongmei; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jianghui; Li, Yimin; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Qinjian; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a highly contagious agent of varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella can be lethal to immunocompromised patients, babies, HIV patients and other adults with impaired immunity. Serological evaluation of immunity to VZV will help determine which individuals are susceptible and evaluate vaccine effectiveness. A collection of 110 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were obtained by immunization of mice with membrane proteins or cell-free virus. The mAbs were well characterized, and a competitive sandwich ELISA (capture mAb: 8H6; labelling mAb: 1B11) was established to determine neutralizing antibodies in human serum with reference to the FAMA test. A total of 920 human sera were evaluated. The competitive sandwich ELISA showed a sensitivity of 95.6%, specificity of 99.77% and coincidence of 97.61% compared with the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test. The capture mAb 8H6 was characterized as a specific mAb for VZV ORF9, a membrane-associated tegument protein that interacts with glycoprotein E (gE), glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein C (gC). The labelling mAb 1B11 was characterized as a complement-dependent neutralizing mAb specific for the immune-dominant epitope located on gE, not on other VZV glycoproteins. The established competitive sandwich ELISA could be used as a rapid and high-throughput method for evaluating immunity to VZV. PMID:26853741

  17. Perspectives on the Impact of Varicella Immunization on Herpes Zoster. A Model-Based Evaluation from Three European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Poletti, Piero; Melegaro, Alessia; Ajelli, Marco; del Fava, Emanuele; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Faustini, Luca; Scalia Tomba, Giampaolo; Lopalco, Pierluigi; Rizzo, Caterina; Merler, Stefano; Manfredi, Piero

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of mass vaccination against Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) is being delayed in many European countries because of, among other factors, the possibility of a large increase in Herpes Zoster (HZ) incidence in the first decades after the initiation of vaccination, due to the expected decline of the boosting of Cell Mediated Immunity caused by the reduced varicella circulation. A multi-country model of VZV transmission and reactivation, is used to evaluate the possible impact of varicella vaccination on HZ epidemiology in Italy, Finland and the UK. Despite the large uncertainty surrounding HZ and vaccine-related parameters, surprisingly robust medium-term predictions are provided, indicating that an increase in HZ incidence is likely to occur in countries where the incidence rate is lower in absence of immunization, possibly due to a higher force of boosting (e.g. Finland), whereas increases in HZ incidence might be minor where the force of boosting is milder (e.g. the UK). Moreover, a convergence of HZ post vaccination incidence levels in the examined countries is predicted despite different initial degrees of success of immunization policies. Unlike previous model-based evaluations, our investigation shows that after varicella immunization an increase of HZ incidence is not a certain fact, rather depends on the presence or absence of factors promoting a strong boosting intensity and which might or not be heavily affected by changes in varicella circulation due to mass immunization. These findings might explain the opposed empirical evidences observed about the increases of HZ in sites where mass varicella vaccination is ongoing. PMID:23613740

  18. Vitamin B6 status, immune response and inflammation markers in kidney transplant recipients treated with polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, M; Trzonkowski, P; Dębska-Ślizień, A; Marszałł, M; Rutkowski, B

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin B6 status has an impact on the body's inflammatory and immune responses. Immunosuppressive therapy may influence vitamin B6 metabolism in kidney transplant recipients. Treatment with polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is associated with long-term changes in inflammatory and immune parameters. It is not known if ATG therapy also may have an impact on vitamin B6 status in kidney transplant recipients. We aimed to analyze the impact of therapy with ATG on vitamin B6 status, immune response, and the profile of inflammatory cytokines. This was a retrospective, observational study that included 44 kidney allograft recipients. Twenty patients received induction therapy with ATG (6 to 24 months before enrollment). Twenty-four patients constituted the control group, matched with respect to time since transplantation. The B6 vitamers, total lymphocyte count, CD3 percentage, interleukin (IL)-6, -7, and -10, transforming growth factor β, interferon γ, and chemokine ligand 21 were analyzed in a study group. All indicators of vitamin B6 status were lower in the ATG group than in the control group. There were also significant differences with respect to immune response (significantly lower total lymphocyte count and CD3 in the ATG group) and inflammatory status (significantly higher IL-6 and IL-10 in the ATG group). Vitamin B6 vitamers and derivatives were not related to lymphocyte count and cytokine levels or to estimated glomerular filtration rate and age of the study population. Vitamin B6 stores and active forms are lower in kidney transplant recipients treated with ATG. ATG therapy promotes CD3 and total lymphocyte depletion and increases indicators of inflammation. We found no associations between vitamers of B6, immune response cells, and inflammatory cytokines in study population.

  19. High dose Intravenous Anti-D Immune Globulin is More Effective and Safe in Indian Paediatric Patients of Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Rabindra Kumar; Swain, Kali Prasanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) is characterised by an autoimmune antibody-mediated destruction of platelets and impaired platelet production. Few controlled trials exist to guide management of patients with ITP in Indian scenario for which patients require an individualized approach. Anti-D (Rho (D) immune globulin) at a higher dose can prove to be a cost effective and safe alternative for Indian patients with ITP. Aim To compare the safety and efficacy of higher dose (75μg/kg) intravenous Anti-D immune globulin against the standard dose of 50μg/kg for the management of ITP in Indian patients. Materials and Methods One hundred and sixty four children with newly diagnosed ITP between 4-14 years were randomly selected for inclusion and were treated with 50μg/kg (standard dose) or 75μg /kg (higher dose) of Anti-D to compare the efficacy and safety of higher dose intravenous anti-D immune globulin. Efficacy of Anti-D was measured in terms of rate of response and median time to response for increase in platelet counts. Any adverse event was noted. A decrease in haemoglobin concentration suggested accompanying haemolysis. Results Seventy one out of 84 patients treated with Anti-D at 75μg/kg produced complete response (85%) with median time of response being 2.5 days. On the contrary, 45 patients (70%) patients treated with 50μg/kg had complete response. However, there was no significant increase in haemolysis with higher dose. A significant correlation was found between dose and peak increase in platelet count measured at 7th day following administration. However, there was no relationship between the decrease in haemoglobin and the dose given, or between the increase in platelet count and fall in haemoglobin. Conclusion A 75μg/kg dose of Anti-D is more effective with acceptable side effect in comparison to 50μg dose for treatment of newly diagnosed Indian patients of ITP. PMID:28208873

  20. Immune Responses to a Recombinant Glycoprotein E Herpes Zoster Vaccine in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Heineman, Thomas C; Lal, Himal; Godeaux, Olivier; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; McElhaney, Janet E; Vesikari, Timo; Andrews, Charles; Choi, Won Suk; Esen, Meral; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Choma, Martina Kovac; Pauksens, Karlis; Ravault, Stéphanie; Salaun, Bruno; Schwarz, Tino F; Smetana, Jan; Abeele, Carline Vanden; Van den Steen, Peter; Vastiau, Ilse; Weckx, Lily Yin; Levin, Myron J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su), consisting of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) and AS01B Adjuvant System, was highly efficacious in preventing herpes zoster in the ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 trials. We present immunogenicity results from those trials. Methods Participants (ZOE-50: ≥50; ZOE-70: ≥70 years of age) received 2 doses of HZ/su or placebo, 2 months apart. Serum anti-gE antibodies and CD4 T cells expressing ≥2 of 4 activation markers assessed (CD42+) after stimulation with gE-peptides were measured in subcohorts for humoral (n = 3293) and cell-mediated (n = 466) immunogenicity. Results After vaccination, 97.8% of HZ/su and 2.0% of placebo recipients showed a humoral response. Geometric mean anti-gE antibody concentrations increased 39.1-fold and 8.3-fold over baseline in HZ/su recipients at 1 and 36 months post-dose 2, respectively. A gE-specific CD42+ T-cell response was shown in 93.3% of HZ/su and 0% of placebo recipients. Median CD42+ T-cell frequencies increased 24.6-fold (1 month) and 7.9-fold (36 months) over baseline in HZ/su recipients and remained ≥5.6-fold above baseline in all age groups at 36 months. The proportion of CD4 T cells expressing all 4 activation markers increased over time in all age groups. Conclusions Most HZ/su recipients developed robust immune responses persisting for 3 years following vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01165177; NCT01165229. PMID:29529222

  1. Integrating between-host transmission and within-host immunity to analyze the impact of varicella vaccination on zoster

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Willem, Lander; Beutels, Philippe; Hens, Niel

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and reactivation of latent VZV causes herpes zoster (HZ). VZV reactivation is subject to the opposing mechanisms of declining and boosted VZV-specific cellular mediated immunity (CMI). A reduction in exogenous re-exposure ‘opportunities’ through universal chickenpox vaccination could therefore lead to an increase in HZ incidence. We present the first individual-based model that integrates within-host data on VZV-CMI and between-host transmission data to simulate HZ incidence. This model allows estimating currently unknown pivotal biomedical parameters, including the duration of exogenous boosting at 2 years, with a peak threefold to fourfold increase of VZV-CMI; the VZV weekly reactivation probability at 5% and VZV subclinical reactivation having no effect on VZV-CMI. A 100% effective chickenpox vaccine given to 1 year olds would cause a 1.75 times peak increase in HZ 31 years after implementation. This increase is predicted to occur mainly in younger age groups than is currently assumed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07116.001 PMID:26259874

  2. Enhanced Efficacy of Cidofovir Combined with Vaccinia Immune Globulin in Treating Progressive Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Infections in Immunosuppressed Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dagley, Ashley; Downs, Brittney; Hagloch, Joseph; Tarbet, E. Bart

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of progressive vaccinia in individuals has involved antiviral drugs, such as cidofovir (CDV), brincidofovir, and/or tecovirimat, combined with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG). VIG is costly, and its supply is limited, so sparing the use of VIG during treatment is an important objective. VIG sparing was modeled in immunosuppressed mice by maximizing the treatment benefits of CDV combined with VIG to determine the effective treatments that delayed the time to death, reduced cutaneous lesion severity, and/or decreased tissue viral titers. SKH-1 hairless mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and hairless SCID mice (SHO strain) were infected cutaneously with vaccinia virus. Monotherapy, dual combinations (CDV plus VIG), or triple therapy (topical CDV, parenteral CDV, and VIG) were initiated 2 days postinfection and were given every 3 to 4 days through day 11. The efficacy assessment included survival rate, cutaneous lesion severity, and viral titers. Delays in the time to death and the reduction in lesion severity occurred in the following order of efficacy: triple therapy had greater efficacy than double combinations (CDV plus VIG or topical plus parenteral CDV), which had greater efficacy than VIG alone. Parenteral administration of CDV or VIG was necessary to suppress virus titers in internal organs (liver, lung, and spleen). The skin viral titers were significantly reduced by triple therapy only. The greatest efficacy was achieved by triple therapy. In humans, this regimen should translate to a faster cure rate, thus sparing the amount of VIG used for treatment. PMID:25385098

  3. Apparent effect of immune serum globulin prophylaxis in the military on viral hepatitis incidence in the civilian population in Israel.

    PubMed

    Green, M S; Block, C

    1989-06-01

    Since 1969, extensive use of immune serum globulin in the Israel Defence Force for prophylaxis against hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has produced a sharp decline in the incidence of the disease. However, it is not clear whether this policy has affected the susceptibility of Israeli adults to HAV infection. In this study, we examined the effect of the immunisation policy on the incidence of hepatitis A virus infection in the civilian population in the 15-44 year age group, which includes all those who have completed compulsory military service since vaccination was introduced. The incidence of viral hepatitis in the Jewish civilian population aged 15-44 increased by approximately 50% 3-4 years after the implementation of the immunisation policy. This rise was not seen in the non-Jewish population of the same age nor among Jews aged 45-64. These findings strongly suggest that the immunisation policy in the military prevents both clinical and sub-clinical disease, but has had the effect of producing more susceptible people at an older age in the civilian population.

  4. Evaluation of immunity to varicella zoster virus with a novel double antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Chunye; Zhu, Rui; Ye, Xiangzhong; Jia, Jizong; Yang, Lianwei; Wang, Yongmei; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jianghui; Li, Yimin; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Qinjian; Zhang, Jun; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-01

    Varicella is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection of Varicella zoster virus (VZV). Varicella can be severe or even lethal in susceptible adults, immunocompromised patients and neonates. Determination of the status of immunity to VZV is recommended for these high-risk populations. Furthermore, measurement of population immunity to VZV can help in developing proper varicella vaccination programmes. VZV glycoprotein E (gE) is an antigen that has been demonstrated to be a highly accurate indicator of VZV-specific immunity. In this study, recombinant gE (rgE) was used to establish a double antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The established sandwich ELISA showed high specificity and sensitivity in the detection of human sera, and it could detect VZV-specific antibodies at a concentration of 11.25 m IU/mL with a detection linearity interval of 11.25 to 360 m IU/mL (R 2  = 0.9985). The double gE antigen sandwich ELISA showed a sensitivity of 95.08 % and specificity of 100 % compared to the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test, and it showed a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 94.74 % compared to a commercial neutralizing antibody detection kit. Thus, the established double antigen sandwich ELISA can be used as a sensitive and specific quantitative method to evaluate immunity to VZV.

  5. Human antirabies gamma globulin*

    PubMed Central

    Hosty, Thomas S.; Kissling, R. E.; Schaeffer, M.; Wallace, Gordon A.; Dibble, E. H.

    1959-01-01

    To obviate the foreign protein reactions experienced with the use of hyperimmune serum in rabies-exposed individuals, an attempt was made to produce a rabies antiserum of human origin. Five doses of an inactivated rabies virus duck-egg vaccine were administered to 34 volunteers at 4-day intervals (i.e., on days 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16). An additional dose of chick-embryo attenuated virus vaccine—Flury HEP (high egg passage)—was given on the 46th day, followed by a final booster dose of duck-egg vaccine on the 288th day. Twenty-four days later, i.e., on the 312th day after the first dose, the participants were bled and the serum pooled and converted to gamma globulin. These volunteers, having no initial antibody, responded with variable titres, the pooled serum having a titre of 1: 100 against 50 LD50 of rabies virus in neutralization tests and the gamma globulin prepared from this pool a titre of 1: 300. In five individuals inoculated with the antirabies gamma globulin, blood samples tested at intervals for residual antibody showed significant titres through 21 days. While the passive antibody levels resulting from the administration of a more potent immune horse serum were much higher than those achieved by the weaker human antirabies gamma globulin used, the decrease in titre was more gradual with the human globulin. With more booster inoculations in a larger group of human volunteers, it is believed that a human rabies immune gamma globulin could be produced which would be equal in effect to immune horse serum. The advantages of a human source of antibody in rabies prophylaxis are discussed. PMID:14403320

  6. [Results of acyclovir treatment of chickenpox and herpes zoster in children with immune tolerance].

    PubMed

    Jankowska, H; Szczepańska-Putz, M; Wojnarowski, M

    Acyclovir was used for the treatment of Varicella-zoster virus infections in 53 children (10 neonates and 43 children aged between 2 an 15 years) with immunological system deficiency hospitalized at the Department of the Infectious Diseases of Childhood in the Medical Academy in Warszawa. The obtained results of therapy were favourable except one fatal case of the child with visceral dissemination of the virus prior to acyclovir treatment. Compared with other antiviral agents used by the authors previously, acyclovir proved to be the most effective.

  7. Immune Senescence Factors Associated with the Immunogenicity of a Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine (ZV) in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Adriana; Schamder, Kenneth; Johnson, Michael; Popmihajlov, Zoran; Tovar-Salazar, Adriana; Caldas, Yupanqui; Pang, Lei; Cho, Alice; Levin, Myron

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background ZV confers protection against herpes zoster by increasing the cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). ZV immunogenicity and protection decrease with increasing age. We investigated effects of age and immune senescence on ZV immunogenicity. Methods 399 adults ≥50 years had VZV T-cell helper 1 (Th1) CMI measured by ex vivo VZV-stimulated IL2/IFNg ELISPOT and blood T-cell nonspecific immune senescence by flow cytometric characterization of FOXP3, CD25, IL10, TGFb, PD1, CD28, CD57 and CD31 expression before and at 1, 6 and 52 weeks after ZV. In a subset of 95 vaccinees, VZV-stimulated T cell expression of CD107, Granzyme B, FOXP3, CD25, IL10, TGFb, CD39 and PD1 were also measured. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent effects of age and immune senescence on VZV Th1 CMI (P < 0.025). Results IL2+ and IL2+IFNg+ Th1 memory VZV CMI peaked at 6 weeks after ZV and remained elevated at 1 year. Effectors, including VZV-specific IFNg+ Th1, and CD8+CD107+% and CD4+/CD8+Granzyme B+% cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), peaked at 1 week, but only the IFNg+ Th1 effectors remained elevated at 1 year. There was also a transient increase in blood CD8+PD1+% exhausted T cells 1 week after ZV. Independent positive effects on peak memory Th1 VZV CMI included the baseline CMI and negative effects included blood CD4+FOXP3+% T regulatory (Treg) and CD8+PD1+% T exhausted cells. Independent positive effects on peak effector Th1 VZV CMI included baseline CMI and negative effects included blood CD8+CD25+FOXP3+% Treg. Age did not have an independent effect on peak CMI. Independent positive effects on persistent (1 year) memory Th1 included baseline CMI and negative effects included age, blood CD4+FOXP3+% Treg and CD8+PD1+% T exhausted cells. Persistent effector Th1 CMI was negatively affected by age only. Conclusion ZV generated VZV-specific Th1 and CTL responses. The early increase of CD8+ exhausted T cells in blood suggested that

  8. Zoster vaccine (Zostavax): a review of its use in preventing herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Mark; Keating, Gillian M

    2010-02-01

    Individuals who have been infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) are at risk for developing herpes zoster and this risk appears to be related to a decline in VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Zostavax (zoster vaccine) is a one-dose, high-potency, live, attenuated VZV vaccine that boosts VZV-specific CMI and this is its presumed mechanism of action. Zoster vaccine is registered in the EU for use in adults aged >or=50 years for the prevention of herpes zoster and herpes zoster-related postherpetic neuralgia. In the Shingles Prevention Study, a placebo-controlled trial in adults aged >or=60 years (n = 38 546), zoster vaccine led to a sustained boost of VZV-specific CMI. Over a mean herpes zoster surveillance period of 3.1 years, zoster vaccine reduced the herpes zoster-related burden of illness by 61%, reduced the incidence of herpes zoster by 51% and reduced the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia by 67%. Zoster vaccine recipients who developed herpes zoster had a shorter illness duration and severity than placebo recipients who developed herpes zoster. Zoster vaccine had continuing efficacy in a Shingles Prevention Study subpopulation followed for 7 years post-vaccination. Zoster vaccine was generally well tolerated in older adults. While cost-effectiveness estimates in pharmacoeconomic analyses varied widely according to vaccine and herpes zoster parameter cost/benefit estimates, an analysis from a UK perspective found a zoster vaccine immunization programme in adults aged 65 years to be cost effective. In older adults, the zoster vaccine has the potential to significantly reduce the herpes zoster burden of illness by decreasing the incidence of herpes zoster or reducing its severity.

  9. A randomized, open-label study to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of human hepatitis C immune globulin (Civacir) in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gary L; Nelson, David R; Terrault, Norah; Pruett, Timothy L; Schiano, Thomas D; Fletcher, Courtney V; Sapan, Christine V; Riser, Laura N; Li, Yufeng; Whitley, Richard J; Gnann, John W

    2005-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is the most common indication for liver transplantation, but viral recurrence is universal and progressive graft injury occurs in most recipients. Our aim was to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antiviral effects of high doses of a human hepatitis C antibody enriched immune globulin product (HCIG) in patients undergoing liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C. This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial conducted at 4 transplant centers in the United States. A total of 18 patients with chronic hepatitis C, who underwent liver transplantation, were randomized to receive low-dose HCIG (75 mg/kg) or high-dose HCIG (200 mg/kg), or no treatment. A total of 17 infusions of HCIG were administered in each treated patient over 14 weeks using a time-dependent dosing strategy based on the PK of anti-hepatitis B immune globulin in liver transplant recipients. Hepatitis C virus levels, liver enzymes, and liver biopsies were obtained serially throughout the study period. PK profiles of HCV antibodies were determined on days 4, 10, and 98. HCIG infusions were safe and tolerated. The infusion rate could not be maximized because of symptoms for 18% to 30% of the doses. The half-life of HCIG was extremely short immediately after transplantation but was gradually prolonged. In the high-dose group, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels normalized in most subjects and no patient developed hepatic fibrosis. However, serum HCV RNA levels were not suppressed at either dose. In conclusion, HCIG, an anti-HCV enriched immune globulin product, appears to be safe in patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing liver transplantation. Further studies are required to determine whether the drug has beneficial effects in this group of patients.

  10. Comparison of cost of immune globulin intravenous therapy to conventional immunosuppressive therapy in treating patients with autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering diseases.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Yassine J; Amin, Ketan G

    2006-04-01

    Autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering diseases (AMBD) are a group of potentially fatal diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. AMBD have different target antigens as well as variable clinical presentation, course, and prognosis. The mainstay of conventional immunosuppressive therapy (CIST) for AMBD is long-term high-dose systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Such therapy has proven effective in many patients; however, in some patients, the disease continues to progress with significant sequelae such as blindness, loss of voice, anal, and vaginal stenosis which causes poor quality of life. Furthermore, the CIST may have some serious side effects including opportunistic infections which may cause death. Immune globulin intravenous (IGIV) therapy has been reportedly used in the management of patients with AMBD refractory to CIST. IGIV has shown to be more clinically beneficial than CIST by bringing about long-term clinical remission and less recurrence. The high cost of the IGIV is of concern to patients, physicians, and insurance companies. In this report, we compare the cost of IGIV to that of CIST in treating a cohort of 15 mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), 10 ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP), 15 bullous pemphigoid (BP), and 32 pemphigus vulgaris (PV) patients. In each cohort of patients, CIST had significant side effects, many of which were hazardous and required prolonged and frequent hospitalizations. Some of these side effects were severe enough to require discontinuation of the treatment. We consider the total cost of CIST to be the actual cost of the drug, plus the cost of management of the side effects produced by CIST. In the same patient cohort, no significant side effects to IGIV were observed. None of the IGIV treated patients required physician visits, laboratory tests, or hospitalizations specifically related to IGIV therapy. Hence, the total cost of the IGIV therapy is the actual cost of the IGIV only. The mean total cost

  11. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult with Involvement of the Calvarium, Cerebral Cortex and Brainstem: Discussion of Pathophysiology and Rationale for the Use of Intravenous Immune Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Dardis, Christopher; Aung, Thandar; Shapiro, William; Fortune, John; Coons, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 64-year-old male who presented with symptoms and signs of brain involvement, including seizures and hypopituitarism. The diagnosis was confirmed with a biopsy of a lytic skull lesion. The disease affecting the bone showed no sign of progression following a short course of cladribine. Signs of temporal lobe involvement led to an additional biopsy, which showed signs of nonspecific neurodegeneration and which triggered status epilepticus. Lesions noted in the brainstem were typical for the paraneoplastic inflammation reported in this condition. These lesions improved after treatment with cladribine. They remained stable while on treatment with intravenous immune globulin. PMID:25873887

  12. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk

    2013-07-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed.

  13. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed. PMID:23858399

  14. Varicella zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Anne A.; Breuer, Judith; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Gilden, Don; Grose, Charles; Hambleton, Sophie; Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Oxman, Michael N.; Seward, Jane F.; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), which can be severe in immunocompromised individuals, infants and adults. Primary infection is followed by latency in ganglionic neurons. During this period, no virus particles are produced and no obvious neuronal damage occurs. Reactivation of the virus leads to virus replication, which causes zoster (shingles) in tissues innervated by the involved neurons, inflammation and cell death — a process that can lead to persistent radicular pain (postherpetic neuralgia). The pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia is unknown and it is difficult to treat. Furthermore, other zoster complications can develop, including myelitis, cranial nerve palsies, meningitis, stroke (vasculopathy), retinitis, and gastroenterological infections such as ulcers, pancreatitis and hepatitis. VZV is the only human herpesvirus for which highly effective vaccines are available. After varicella or vaccination, both wild-type and vaccine-type VZV establish latency, and long-term immunity to varicella develops. However, immunity does not protect against reactivation. Thus, two vaccines are used: one to prevent varicella and one to prevent zoster. In this Primer we discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VZV infections, with an emphasis on the molecular events that regulate these diseases. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/14×VI1 PMID:27188665

  15. Progression of varicella-zoster virus necrotizing retinopathy in an HIV-negative patient with transient immune deviation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wee-Kiak; Chee, Soon-Phaik; Nussenblatt, Robert Burton

    2005-06-01

    To report a case of unilateral varicella-zoster virus (VZV) necrotizing retinopathy that progressed from outer retinitis with features of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) to typical acute retinal necrosis (ARN) in an HIV-negative patient with a transient decrease in CD4 lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 ratio. Case report. A 41-year-old Chinese man presenting with blurred vision in the right eye was diagnosed with herpetic necrotizing retinitis without vitritis. Fundus examination revealed retinal arteritis and extensive deep whitish retinal lesions in the mid-periphery with minimal vitritis. Aqueous humor and vitreous PCR were positive for VZV. His CD4 count on presentation was depressed (239 cells/ul) and the CD4/CD8 ratio was low (0.8). The referring ophthalmologist had treated him with prednisolone 60 mg/day. At our institution, when intravenous acyclovir was started and the steroid therapy discontinued, he developed severe vitritis and the deep retinal lesions progressed to full-thickness retinitis typical of ARN. Repeat CD4 count was 512 cells/ul at day 14. In total, he was treated with 14 days of i.v. acyclovir (12 mg/kg 8-hourly) followed by oral valaciclovir 500 mg three times a day for 3 months. Prednisolone 30 mg once daily was restarted and tapered over 3 months. Despite prophylactic argon retinal photocoagulation to the edge of the retinitis, the patient developed a total retinal detachment at 3 months. VZV retinal infection in an HIV-negative patient with transient immune deviation can manifest initially as outer retinitis with features similar to PORN and progress to typical ARN when CD4 counts return to normal.

  16. Is chickenpox so bad, what do we know about immunity to varicella zoster virus, and what does it tell us about the future?

    PubMed

    Gershon, Anne A

    2017-06-01

    Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. There is some controversy, however, in some countries concerning whether a decrease in the circulation of wild type virus will result in loss of immunity to VZV in persons who have already had varicella. This manuscript reviews the complications of varicella and zoster in detail, the reasons for development of vaccines against these diseases, complications of vaccinations, and mechanisms by which immunity to this virus develops and is maintained. There are strong indications that the best way to control disease and spread of this virus is by vaccination against both. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of live zoster vaccine in preventing zoster and postherpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Gilden, D.

    2011-01-01

    Declining cell-mediated immunity to varicella zoster virus (VZV) in elderly individuals results in virus reactivation manifest by zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). To prevent virus reactivation, a new VZV vaccine (Zostavax, Merck) that boosts cell-mediated immunity to VZV was developed. The 3-year Shingles Prevention Study showed that Zostavax significantly reduced burden of disease due to zoster and PHN. Despite its cost-effectiveness for adults ages 65 to 75 years, as determined in the US, Canada and UK, less than 2% of immunocompetent adults over age 60 years in the US were immunized in 2007. This was due to a combination of lack of patient awareness of the vaccine, physicians’ uncertainty about the duration of protection, and different cost-sharing plans for immunization. Nevertheless, zoster vaccine is safe, effective, and highly recommended for immunization of immunocompetent individuals over age 60 years with no history of recent zoster. PMID:21294791

  18. Cutaneous varicella zoster virus infection following zoster vaccination: report of post-vaccination herpes zoster skin infection and literature review of zoster vaccination efficacy and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Stiff, Katherine M; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-06-15

    BackgroundHerpes zoster vaccine is currently recommended in the United States for immune competent individuals ≥60 years. The efficacy of the herpes zoster vaccine decreases with age and with time following vaccination.PurposeAn elderly man with herpes zoster following vaccination is described. The guidelines for vaccination and issues regarding re-vaccination are reviewed. PubMed was used to search the following terms: efficacy, elderly, herpes zoster, herpes zoster incidence, herpes zoster recurrence, and vaccination. The papers and relevant citations were reviewed. The clinical features of a patient with post-vaccination herpes zoster skin infection are presented; in addition, vaccine efficacy and guidelines are reviewed.ResultsA 91-year-old man, vaccinated for herpes zoster 10 years earlier, presented with crusted erosions on his face corresponding to the area innervated by the ophthalmic division of the left trigeminal nerve. Evaluation using polymerase chain reaction confirmed the diagnosis of herpes zoster.ConclusionsHerpes zoster vaccine decreases in efficacy with both age and number of years following vaccination. Therefore, booster shots or revaccination in the older population may be of benefit.

  19. Varicella Zoster Complications

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Maria A.; Gilden, Don

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox), after which virus becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. With advancing age or immunosuppression, cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines and virus reactivates to cause zoster (shingles), which can occur anywhere on the body. Skin lesions resolve within 1-2 weeks, while complete cessation of pain usually takes 4-6 weeks. Zoster can be followed by chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia), cranial nerve palsies, zoster paresis, meningoencephalitis, cerebellitis, myelopathy, multiple ocular disorders and vasculopathy that can mimic giant cell arteritis. All of the neurological and ocular disorders listed above may also develop without rash. Diagnosis of VZV-induced neurological disease may require examination of CSF, serum and/ or ocular fluids. In the absence of rash in a patient with neurological disease potentially due to VZV, CSF should be examined for VZV DNA by PCR and for anti-VZV IgG and IGM. Detection of VZV IgG antibody in CSF is superior to detection of VZV DNA in CSF to diagnose vasculopathy, recurrent myelopathy, and brainstem encephalitis. Oral antiviral drugs speed healing of rash and shorten acute pain. Immunocompromised patients require intravenous acyclovir. First-line treatments for post-herpetic neuralgia include tricyclic antidepressants gabapentin, pregabalin, and topical lidocaine patches. VZV vasculopathy, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis are all treated with intravenous acyclovir. PMID:23794213

  20. Epidemiology, treatment and prevention of herpes zoster: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Elsam; Mengting, Lu; Kumar, Hanasha; Jianbo, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a major health burden that can affect individuals of any age. It is seen more commonly among individuals aged ≥50 years, those with immunocompromised status, and those on immunosuppressant drugs. It is caused by a reactivation of varicella zoster virus infection. Cell-mediated immunity plays a role in this reactivation. Fever, pain, and itch are common symptoms before the onset of rash. Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most common complication associated with herpes zoster. Risk factors and complications associated with herpes zoster depend on the age, immune status, and the time of initializing treatment. Routine vaccination for individuals over 60 years has shown considerable effect in terms of reducing the incidence of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia. Treatment with antiviral drugs and analgesics within 72 hours of rash onset has been shown to reduce severity and complications associated with herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia. This study mainly focuses on herpes zoster using articles and reviews from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and a manual search from Google Scholar. We cover the incidence of herpes zoster, gender distribution, seasonal and regional distribution of herpes zoster, incidence of herpes zoster among immunocompromised individuals, incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia following a zoster infection, complications, management, and prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia.

  1. A simple and rapid Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) titration assay based on antibiotic resistance of infected cells: evaluation of the HAV neutralization potency of human immune globulin preparations

    PubMed Central

    Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Virata-Theimer, Maria Luisa; Yu, Mei-ying W; Kaplan, Gerardo G

    2008-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV), the causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans, is an atypical Picornaviridae that grows poorly in cell culture. HAV titrations are laborious and time-consuming because the virus in general does not cause cytopathic effect and is detected by immunochemical or molecular probes. Simple HAV titration assays could be developed using currently available viral construct containing selectable markers. Results We developed an antibiotic resistance titration assay (ARTA) based on the infection of human hepatoma cells with a wild type HAV construct containing a blasticidin (Bsd) resistance gene. Human hepatoma cells infected with the HAV-Bsd construct survived selection with 2 μg/ml of blasticidin whereas uninfected cells died within a few days. At 8 days postinfection, the color of the pH indicator phenol red in cell culture media correlated with the presence of HAV-Bsd-infected blasticidin-resistant cells: an orange-to-yellow color indicated the presence of growing cells whereas a pink-to-purple color indicated that the cells were dead. HAV-Bsd titers were determined by an endpoint dilution assay based on the color of the cell culture medium scoring orange-to-yellow wells as positive and pink-to-purple wells as negative for HAV. As a proof-of-concept, we used the ARTA to evaluate the HAV neutralization potency of two commercially available human immune globulin (IG) preparations and a WHO International Standard for anti-HAV. The three IG preparations contained comparable levels of anti-HAV antibodies that neutralized approximately 1.5 log of HAV-Bsd. Similar neutralization results were obtained in the absence of blasticidin by an endpoint dilution ELISA at 2 weeks postinfection. Conclusion The ARTA is a simple and rapid method to determine HAV titers without using HAV-specific probes. We determined the HAV neutralization potency of human IG preparations in 8 days by ARTA compared to the 14 days required by the endpoint dilution ELISA

  2. A rapid radioimmunoassay using /sup 125/I-labeled staphylococcal protein A for antibody to varicella-zoster virus

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, D.D.; Cleveland, P.H.; Oxman, M.N.

    1981-05-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for serum antibody to varicella-zoster virus is described; it uses 125I-labeled staphylococcal protein A and a specially designed immunofiltration apparatus. The assay accurately distinguishes between individuals who are susceptible and those who are immune to infection with varicella-zoster virus. In addition, it can detect passive antibody in recipients of varicella-zoster immune globulin. This radioimmunoassay also detects the heterologous antibody responses that occasionally occur in patients infected with herpes simplex virus, which also have been detected by other antibody assays. The particular advantages of this assay are the use of noninfectious reagents, the speed of execution (less thanmore » 3 hr), the requirement for only small quantities of serum (30 microliters), the objectivity of end-point determination, and the capability of screening large numbers of sera. Consequently, this radioimmunoassay is especially useful for the rapid identification of susceptible individuals, which is essential for the appropriate management of patients and hospital personnel after exposure to varicella.« less

  3. Herpes Zoster Vaccination: Controversies and Common Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, Puja; Schmader, Kenneth E; Canaday, David H

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, clinically referred to as shingles, is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The incidence of herpes zoster and its complications increase with decline in cell-mediated immunity, including age-associated decline. The most effective management strategy for herpes zoster is prevention of the disease through vaccination in those who are most vulnerable. Despite the demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of herpes zoster, the uptake of vaccine remains low. Here, we will discuss the controversies that surround the live herpes zoster vaccine and address the common clinical questions that arise. We will also discuss the new adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine currently under investigation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Childhood herpes zoster: a clustering of ten cases.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Smitha; Sripathi, H; Gupta, Sanjeev; Prabhu, Mukyaprana

    2009-01-01

    Herpes zoster occurs due to reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus and is usually a disease of the elderly. Childhood herpes zoster is believed to be rare, though recent studies suggest increasing incidence in children. Here we report ten cases of childhood herpes zoster, seven of which occurred within a short span of six months, at a tertiary care level hospital in Pokhara, Nepal. Only three of the ten children reported previous history of varicella infection and none was immunized against varicella. Though childhood herpes zoster accounted for less than 1% of the total zoster cases in the past, recent reports show an increase in the number of cases in apparently healthy children. So far, no studies have been done linking childhood herpes zoster with HIV, though there are many studies linking it with other immunocompromised conditions.

  5. Age and Early Graft Function Relate With Risk-Benefit Ratio of Allogenic Islet Transplantation Under Antithymocyte Globulin-Mycophenolate Mofetil-Tacrolimus Immune Suppression.

    PubMed

    Lee, DaHae; Keymeulen, Bart; Hilbrands, Robert; Ling, Zhidong; Van de Velde, Ursule; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Maleux, Geert; Lapauw, Bruno; Crenier, Laurent; De Block, Christophe; Mathieu, Chantal; Pipeleers, Daniel; Gillard, Pieter

    2017-09-01

    Induction therapy with a T cell-depleting agent followed by mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus is presently the most frequently used immune suppression (IS) regimen in islet transplantation. This study assesses its safety and tolerability in nonuremic type 1 diabetic recipients. Fifty-one patients (age, between 29 and 63 years) with high glycemic variability and problematic hypoglycemia received intraportal islet grafts under anti-thymocyte globulin-mycophenolate mofetil-tacrolimus protocol. They were followed up for over 48 months for function of the implant and adverse events. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis were absent in patients with functioning graft. Immune suppressive therapy was maintained for 48 months in 29 recipients with sustained function (group A), whereas 16 patients stopped earlier due to graft failure (group B) and in 6 for other reasons. Group A was significantly older at the time of implantation and achieved higher graft function at posttransplantation month 6 under similar dose of IS. Prevalence of IS-related side effects was similar in groups A and B, occurring predominantly during the first year posttransplantation. IS-related serious adverse events (SAE) were reported in 47% of patients, with 4 presenting with cytomegalovirus infection and 4 (age, 42-59 years) diagnosed with cancer. Except in 1 patient with cancer, all SAEs resolved after appropriate treatment. These risk/benefit data serve as a basis for clinical decision-making before entering an intraportal islet transplantation protocol. A longer benefit is observed in recipients of higher age (≥40 years), but it is not associated with more side effects and SAE.

  6. The Uncommon Localization of Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Herpes zoster is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that is the cause of varicella. It is an acute neurological disease which can often lead to serious postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Different nerves can be included with the skin rash in the area of its enervation especially cranial nerves (CV) and intercostal nerves. Case report: In this report we present a patient with herpes zoster which involved ulnar nerve with skin rash in the region of ulnar innervations in women with no disease previously diagnosed. The failure of her immune system may be explained by great emotional stress and overwork she had been exposed to with neglecting proper nutrition in that period. Conclusion: Herpes zoster may involve any nerve with characteristic skin rash in the area of its innervations, and failure in immune system which leads reactivation of VZV may be caused by other factors besides the underlying illness. PMID:26980938

  7. Estimated protective effectiveness of intramuscular immune serum globulin post-exposure prophylaxis during a measles outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bigham, Mark; Murti, Michelle; Fung, Christina; Hemming, Felicity; Loadman, Susan; Stam, Robert; Van Buynder, Paul; Lem, Marcus

    2017-05-09

    Intramuscular Immune Serum Globulin (IM ISG) is recommended as post-measles exposure prophylaxis (PEP) when administered within 6days of initial exposure, with variable effectiveness in preventing measles disease. Effectiveness of IM ISG PEP in preventing clinical measles was assessed during a 2014 measles outbreak among a religious-affiliated community in British Columbia, Canada. Fifty-five self-reporting measles susceptible contacts were offered exclusively IM ISG PEP within an eligibility period best surmised to be within 6days of initial measles case exposure. Clinical outcome of IM ISG PEP recipients was determined by selective active surveillance and case self-reporting. IM ISG PEP failure was defined as onset of a measles-like rash 8-21days post-IM ISG PEP. Post-IM ISG PEP measles IgG antibody level was tested in 8 recipients. Factors associated with measles disease were analyzed. Seventeen of 55 IM ISG PEP recipients developed clinically consistent measles in the following 8-21days, corresponding to an estimated crude protective effectiveness of 69%. In school aged children 5-18years, among whom potential exposure intensity and immune status confounders were considered less likely, estimated IM ISG PEP protective effectiveness was 50%. Age <25years was significantly associated with breakthrough clinical measles in bivariate analysis (p=0.0217). Among 8 tested contacts of 17 considered IM ISG PEP failures, post-IM ISG PEP measles IgG antibody levels (mean 16.3days (range 16-17days) post-PEP) were all <150mIU/ml. The estimated crude IM ISG PEP protective effectiveness against measles disease within 8-21days post-ISG administration was 69%. Accuracy of this estimated protective effectiveness is vulnerable to assumptions and uncertainties in ascertaining exposure details and pre-exposure immune status. Increasing the Canadian recommended measles IM ISG PEP dose from 0.25 to 0.5ml/kg (up to 15ml maximum volume) may increase protective effectiveness. Copyright

  8. Unexpected suppression of anti-Fya and prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn after administration of Rh immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Branch, Donald R; Scofield, Terry L; Moulds, John J; Swanson, Jane L

    2011-04-01

    Rh immune globulin (RhIG) has been used successfully for many years for the antenatal suppression of anti-D in D- mothers carrying D+ babies to prevent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Although the mechanism of RhIG-induced immunosuppression remains unknown, a recent report (TRANSFUSION 2006;46:1316-22) has shown that women receiving RhIG produce elevated levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)β-1, a powerful immunosuppressant cytokine. It was suggested that induction of TGFβ-1 and immunosuppression may be independent of cognate antigen recognition by RhIG. Herein, we present a description of a mother and baby that supports this hypothesis. Red blood cells and serum were analyzed using saline-tube indirect antiglobulin test methods. RhIG (RhoGAM) was administered after each amniocentesis performed at 28, 31, and 36 weeks' gestation. A group A, D-(cde), K+, Fy(a-b+), MNs, Jk(a+b+) mother with no detectable anti-D had an anti-Fy(a) titer of 4096 before RhIG but only 256 after RhIG. Mother gave birth to a group O, D-(cde), Fy(a+b+) healthy baby boy having a weak-positive direct antiglobulin test with anti-Fy(a) eluted from his cells and the titer in the cord serum was 4. This case demonstrates the potential immunosuppressive properties of RhIG for down regulation of a possible clinically significant alloantibody, not anti-D, where no D+ antigen is in the circulation of the mother. The case illustrates the potential utility for using RhIG to modulate antibody levels in situations other than for classical suppression of anti-D production. Although the mechanism in this case is unknown, TGFβ-1-mediated or antibody-mediated immunosuppression to soluble nonparticulate antigens are possible mechanisms. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Herpes zoster in childhood.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander K C; Robson, W Lane M; Leong, Alexander G

    2006-01-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus that resides in a dorsal root ganglion. Herpes zoster can develop any time after a primary infection. Because varicella vaccine is a live attenuated virus, herpes zoster can develop in a vaccine recipient. The incidence of herpes zoster among vaccine recipients is about 14 cases per 100,000 person-years. In young children, herpes zoster has a predilection for areas supplied by the cervical and sacral dermatomes. The most common complications are secondary bacterial infection, depigmentation, and scarring. Although the diagnosis of herpes zoster is based on a distinct clinical appearance, viral DNA analysis of the lesion by polymerase chain reaction or restriction fragment length polymorphism is necessary to differentiate wild from vaccine-type viruses. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice for herpes zoster.

  10. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... United States will develop shingles, also known as herpes zoster, in their lifetime. There are an estimated ...

  11. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  12. Incidence and Prevention of Herpes Zoster Reactivation in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Eliza F

    2017-02-01

    Herpes zoster is the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus usually occurring decades after initial exposure, and manifesting as a painful vesicular rash occurring along one or more dermatomes. Zoster incidence increases with age as cell mediated immunity against latent virus wanes. Epidemiological evidence suggests that individuals with underlying rheumatic diseases are at increased risk for zoster. It remains unclear whether this is due to immunosuppressive medications or from immune dysregulation of the underlying disease. A vaccine against zoster is available for individuals 50 years and older. Theoretical risks remain about using this live-attenuated virus vaccine in immunosuppressed individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Do HIV-positive adult immigrants need to be screened for measles-mumps-rubella and varicella zoster virus immunization?

    PubMed

    Llenas-García, Jara; Rubio, Rafael; Hernando, Asunción; Arrazola, Pilar; Pulido, Federico

    2013-08-01

    A systematic screening for measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in HIV-positive adult immigrants in Spain was evaluated, and factors associated with MMR and VZV vaccines' indication were studied. Every HIV-positive immigrant was tested for VZV and MMR-IgG. MMR vaccine was indicated to patients with lymphocytes CD4+ >200 cells/mm³ and a negative measles-IgG, a negative mumps-IgG and/or a negative rubella-IgG. VZV vaccine was indicated to every VZV-IgG negative patient with CD4+ >400 cells/mm³. In total, 289 patients were screened; seroprevalence was 95.2%, 92.2%, 70.3% and 89.3% for VZV, measles, mumps and rubella IgG, respectively. Having a negative VZV-IgG was statistically associated with coming from sub-Saharan Africa (prevalence ratio [PR]: 6.52; 95% CI: 1.71-24.84; p=0.006), while having secondary education was a protective factor (PR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07-0.97; p=0.045). Fourteen patients (4.8%) had indication of VZV vaccine; vaccination was feasible in 21.4% of them at first visit. Eighty-one patients (29.7%) had indication of MMR vaccine, most of them due to mumps-IgG negative (53.1%) or rubella-IgG negative (24.7%). Age < 30 years at first visit was the only factor statistically associated with MMR vaccine indication (PR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02-2.11; p=0.04). According to CD4+ cell counts, vaccination was feasible in 71.6% of patients at first visit. In conclusion, more than a third of HIV-infected immigrant patients are susceptible to at least one easily preventable infectious disease. Especial attention should be given to immigrant women of childbearing age.

  14. Update on herpes zoster vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Marla; Kvern, Brent; Watson, Peter; Guenther, Lyn; McElhaney, Janet; McGeer, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To answer frequently asked questions surrounding the use of the new herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. Sources of information Published results of clinical trials and other studies, recommendations from the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization, and the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; data were also obtained from the vaccine’s Health Canada–approved product monograph. Main message Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus; postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is its most common and serious complication. The incidence of PHN after HZ is directly related to age, with 50% of affected individuals older than 60 years experiencing persistent and unrelieved pain. The live virus HZ vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ by about 50% and the occurrence of PHN by two-thirds, with vaccinated individuals experiencing attenuated or shortened symptoms. The vaccine is contraindicated in many immunocompromised patients and might not be effective in patients taking antiviral medications active against the HZ virus. Physicians should be aware of the different recommendations for these groups. Conclusion The HZ vaccine is a safe and effective preventive measure for reducing the overall burden and severity of HZ in older adults. The vaccine appears to be cost-effective when administered to adults aged 60 years and older. PMID:21998225

  15. Efficacy of live zoster vaccine in preventing zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Gilden, D

    2011-05-01

    Declining cell-mediated immunity to varicella zoster virus (VZV) in elderly individuals results in virus reactivation manifest by zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). To prevent virus reactivation, a new VZV vaccine (Zostavax; Merck) that boosts cell-mediated immunity to VZV was developed. The 3-year Shingles Prevention Study showed that Zostavax significantly reduced burden of disease because of zoster and PHN. Despite its cost-effectiveness for adults aged 65-75 years, as determined in the United States, Canada and UK, <2% of immunocompetent adults over age 60 years in the United States were immunized in 2007. This was because of a combination of lack of patient awareness of the vaccine, physicians' uncertainty about the duration of protection and different cost-sharing plans for immunization. Nevertheless, zoster vaccine is safe, effective and highly recommended for immunization of immunocompetent individuals over age 60 years with no history of recent zoster. © 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. Investigation of whether the acute hemolysis associated with Rho(D) immune globulin intravenous (human) administration for treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura is consistent with the acute hemolytic transfusion reaction model

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Ann Reed; Lee-Stroka, Hallie; Byrne, Karen; Scott, Dorothy E.; Uhl, Lynne; Lazarus, Ellen; Stroncek, David F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immune thrombocytopenic purpura and secondary thrombocytopenia patients treated with Rho(D) immune globulin intravenous (human; anti-D IGIV) have experienced acute hemolysis, which is inconsistent with the typical presentation of extravascular hemolysis—the presumed mechanism of action of anti-D IGIV. Although the mechanism of anti-D-IGIV–associated acute hemolysis has not been established, the onset, signs/symptoms, and complications appear consistent with the intravascular hemolysis of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (AHTRs). In transfusion medicine, the red blood cell (RBC) antigen-antibody incompatibility(-ies) that precipitate AHTRs can be detected in vitro with compatibility testing. Under the premise that anti-D-IGIV–associated acute hemolysis results from RBC antigen-antibody–mediated complement activation, this study evaluated whether the incompatibility(-ies) could be detected in vitro with a hemolysin assay, which would support the AHTR model as the hemolytic mechanism. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Seven anti-D IGIV lots were tested to determine the RBC antibody identities in those lots, including four lots that had been implicated in acute hemolytic episodes. Hemolysin assays were performed that tested each of 73 RBC specimens against each lot, including the RBCs of one patient who had experienced acute hemolysis after anti-D IGIV administration. RESULTS Only two anti-D IGIV lots contained RBC antibodies beyond those expected. No hemolysis endpoint was observed in any of the hemolysin assays. CONCLUSION Although the findings did not support the AHTR model, the results are reported to contribute knowledge about the mechanism of anti-D-IGIV–associated acute hemolysis and to prompt continued investigation into cause(s), prediction, and prevention of this potentially serious adverse event. PMID:19220820

  17. Antigenic Structure of Rabbit γ Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Dubiski, S.; Dubiska, Anna; Skalba, Danuta; Kelus, A.

    1961-01-01

    By iso-immunization, antisera to five rabbit γ globulin antigens were obtained. They are called A (former Da), B, C, D and E. Individual sera of 670 rabbits belonging to six separate populations were tested by precipitation methods. The distribution of the iso-antigens and their combinations into serum groups were studied. Each particular γ globulin iso-antigen was found to be of hereditary character; they seem to form three genetic systems: A, C and BDE, statistically independent. Various antisera from England, Poland and U.S.A were compared. PMID:13724581

  18. Safety of Zoster Vaccine in Elderly Adults Following Documented Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Vicki A.; Oxman, Michael N.; Levin, Myron J.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Guatelli, John C.; Betts, Robert F.; Gelb, Larry D.; Pachucki, Constance T.; Keay, Susan K.; Menzies, Barbara; Griffin, Marie R.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Marques, Adriana R.; Toney, John F.; Simberkoff, Michael S.; Serrao, Richard; Arbeit, Robert D.; Gnann, John W.; Greenberg, Richard N.; Holodniy, Mark; Keitel, Wendy A.; Yeh, Shingshing S.; Davis, Larry E.; Crawford, George E.; Neuzil, Kathy M.; Johnson, Gary R.; Zhang, Jane H.; Harbecke, Rith; Chan, Ivan S. F.; Keller, Paul M.; Williams, Heather M.; Boardman, Kathy D.; Silber, Jeffrey L.; Annunziato, Paula W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. After completion of the Shingles Prevention Study (SPS; Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program Number 403), SPS participants who had initially received placebo were offered investigational zoster vaccine without charge. This provided an opportunity to determine the relative safety of zoster vaccine in older adults following documented herpes zoster (HZ). Methods. A total of 13 681 SPS placebo recipients who elected to receive zoster vaccine were followed for serious adverse events (SAE) for 28 days after vaccination. In contrast to the SPS, a prior episode of HZ was not a contraindication to receiving zoster vaccine. The SPS placebo recipients who received zoster vaccine included 420 who had developed documented HZ during the SPS. Results. The mean interval between the onset of HZ and the receipt of zoster vaccine in the 420 recipients with prior HZ was 3.61 years (median interval, 3.77 years [range, 3–85 months]); the interval was <5 years for approximately 80% of recipients. The proportion of vaccinated SPS placebo recipients with prior HZ who developed ≥1 SAE (0.95%) was not significantly different from that of vaccinated SPS placebo recipients with no prior history of HZ (0.66%), and the distribution of SAEs in the 2 groups was comparable. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that the general safety of zoster vaccine in older persons is not altered by a recent history of documented HZ, supporting the safety aspect of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation to administer zoster vaccine to all persons ≥60 years of age with no contraindications, regardless of a prior history of HZ. PMID:23633406

  19. Safety of zoster vaccine in elderly adults following documented herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Vicki A; Oxman, Michael N; Levin, Myron J; Schmader, Kenneth E; Guatelli, John C; Betts, Robert F; Gelb, Larry D; Pachucki, Constance T; Keay, Susan K; Menzies, Barbara; Griffin, Marie R; Kauffman, Carol A; Marques, Adriana R; Toney, John F; Simberkoff, Michael S; Serrao, Richard; Arbeit, Robert D; Gnann, John W; Greenberg, Richard N; Holodniy, Mark; Keitel, Wendy A; Yeh, Shingshing S; Davis, Larry E; Crawford, George E; Neuzil, Kathy M; Johnson, Gary R; Zhang, Jane H; Harbecke, Rith; Chan, Ivan S F; Keller, Paul M; Williams, Heather M; Boardman, Kathy D; Silber, Jeffrey L; Annunziato, Paula W

    2013-08-15

    After completion of the Shingles Prevention Study (SPS; Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program Number 403), SPS participants who had initially received placebo were offered investigational zoster vaccine without charge. This provided an opportunity to determine the relative safety of zoster vaccine in older adults following documented herpes zoster (HZ). A total of 13 681 SPS placebo recipients who elected to receive zoster vaccine were followed for serious adverse events (SAE) for 28 days after vaccination. In contrast to the SPS, a prior episode of HZ was not a contraindication to receiving zoster vaccine. The SPS placebo recipients who received zoster vaccine included 420 who had developed documented HZ during the SPS. The mean interval between the onset of HZ and the receipt of zoster vaccine in the 420 recipients with prior HZ was 3.61 years (median interval, 3.77 years [range, 3-85 months]); the interval was <5 years for approximately 80% of recipients. The proportion of vaccinated SPS placebo recipients with prior HZ who developed ≥ 1 SAE (0.95%) was not significantly different from that of vaccinated SPS placebo recipients with no prior history of HZ (0.66%), and the distribution of SAEs in the 2 groups was comparable. These results demonstrate that the general safety of zoster vaccine in older persons is not altered by a recent history of documented HZ, supporting the safety aspect of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation to administer zoster vaccine to all persons ≥ 60 years of age with no contraindications, regardless of a prior history of HZ.

  20. The role of solar ultraviolet irradiation in zoster.

    PubMed

    Zak-Prelich, M; Borkowski, J L; Alexander, F; Norval, M

    2002-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) suppresses many aspects of cell-mediated immunity but it is uncertain whether solar UV exposure alters resistance to human infectious diseases. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox) and can reactivate from latency to cause zoster (shingles). The monthly incidence of chickenpox and zoster in a defined Polish population over 2 years was recorded and ground level solar UV was measured daily. There was a significant seasonality of UVR. Evidence of seasonal variation was found for all zoster cases and for zoster in males, with the lowest number of cases in the winter. The number of zoster cases with lesions occurring on exposed body sites (the face) demonstrated highly significant seasonality with a peak in July/August. Seasonal models for UVR and zoster cases showed similar temporal patterns. By contrast, for varicella, the maximum number of cases was found in March and the minimum in August/September, probably explained by the respiratory spread of VZV. It is tempting to speculate that the increase in solar UVR in the summer could induce suppression of cellular immunity, thus contributing to the corresponding rise in the incidence of zoster.

  1. The role of solar ultraviolet irradiation in zoster.

    PubMed Central

    Zak-Prelich, M.; Borkowski, J. L.; Alexander, F.; Norval, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) suppresses many aspects of cell-mediated immunity but it is uncertain whether solar UV exposure alters resistance to human infectious diseases. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox) and can reactivate from latency to cause zoster (shingles). The monthly incidence of chickenpox and zoster in a defined Polish population over 2 years was recorded and ground level solar UV was measured daily. There was a significant seasonality of UVR. Evidence of seasonal variation was found for all zoster cases and for zoster in males, with the lowest number of cases in the winter. The number of zoster cases with lesions occurring on exposed body sites (the face) demonstrated highly significant seasonality with a peak in July/August. Seasonal models for UVR and zoster cases showed similar temporal patterns. By contrast, for varicella, the maximum number of cases was found in March and the minimum in August/September, probably explained by the respiratory spread of VZV. It is tempting to speculate that the increase in solar UVR in the summer could induce suppression of cellular immunity, thus contributing to the corresponding rise in the incidence of zoster. PMID:12558343

  2. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Srinivasan; Huang, Philemon; Lavanya, Raghavan

    2011-02-01

    complete. Vasculitis within the orbital apex (orbital apex syndrome) or brainstem dysfunction is postulated to be the cause of cranial nerve palsies. A vaccine of a lyophilized preparation of the oka strain of live, attenuated varicella-zoster virus is suggested for patients who are at risk of developing HZ and has been shown to boost immunity against HZ virus in older patients.

  3. Frequency of Herpes Zoster Recurrence in Central District of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jae Won; Lee, Jin Yong; Her, Young; Kim, Chul Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster is characterized by unilateral grouped vesicles along the distribution of a dermatome. A global recurrence rate as low as 0.5%∼6.2% has been reported for herpes zoster. The recurrence of herpes zoster is higher in immunocompromised patients and older patients. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of herpes zoster recurrence and factors that can influence its recurrence. Methods From January 2005 to December 2015, 14,343 patients with herpes zoster were enrolled in this study. The patients were diagnosed at Hallym University Medical Centers and Kangwon National University Hospital in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Gangwon. Herpes zoster recurrence and patient characteristics were surveyed by medical record review and a telephonic survey. Results The overall frequency of herpes zoster recurrence was 1.18%. The frequency of recurrence was higher in women than in men. It was also higher in patients aged 50∼70 years than in patients who were younger or older than this. Additionally, we assessed that the frequency of recurrence was statistically higher in patients with a compromised immune system and in patients who experienced longer lasting pain during their first episode. Conclusion The frequency of herpes zoster recurrence is more common in women, older age, patient with longer pain duration and immunocompromised patients. PMID:28966517

  4. Frequency of Herpes Zoster Recurrence in Central District of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae Won; Lee, Jin Yong; Her, Young; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Sang Seok

    2017-10-01

    Herpes zoster is characterized by unilateral grouped vesicles along the distribution of a dermatome. A global recurrence rate as low as 0.5%∼6.2% has been reported for herpes zoster. The recurrence of herpes zoster is higher in immunocompromised patients and older patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of herpes zoster recurrence and factors that can influence its recurrence. From January 2005 to December 2015, 14,343 patients with herpes zoster were enrolled in this study. The patients were diagnosed at Hallym University Medical Centers and Kangwon National University Hospital in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Gangwon. Herpes zoster recurrence and patient characteristics were surveyed by medical record review and a telephonic survey. The overall frequency of herpes zoster recurrence was 1.18%. The frequency of recurrence was higher in women than in men. It was also higher in patients aged 50∼70 years than in patients who were younger or older than this. Additionally, we assessed that the frequency of recurrence was statistically higher in patients with a compromised immune system and in patients who experienced longer lasting pain during their first episode. The frequency of herpes zoster recurrence is more common in women, older age, patient with longer pain duration and immunocompromised patients.

  5. Update on recommendations for use of herpes zoster vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hales, Craig M; Harpaz, Rafael; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2014-08-22

    Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax [Merck & Co., Inc.]) was licensed in 2006 and recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) in 2008 for prevention of herpes zoster (shingles) and its complications among adults aged ≥60 years. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in 2011 for adults aged 50 through 59 years based on a large study of safety and efficacy in this age group. ACIP initially considered the use of herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged 50 through 59 years in June 2011, but declined to recommend the vaccine in this age group, citing shortages of Zostavax and limited data on long-term protection afforded by herpes zoster vaccine. In October 2013, ACIP reviewed the epidemiology of herpes zoster and its complications, herpes zoster vaccine supply, short-term vaccine efficacy in adults aged 50 through 59 years, short- and long- term vaccine efficacy and effectiveness in adults aged ≥60 years, an updated cost-effectiveness analysis, and deliberations of the ACIP herpes zoster work group, all of which are summarized in this report. No vote was taken, and ACIP maintained its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged ≥60 years. Meeting minutes are available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/meetings-info.html.

  6. Immunity to Escherichia coli in pigs: Serum Gamma Globulin Levels, Indirect Hemagglutinating Antibody Titres and Bactericidal Activity Against E. coli in pigs up to five Weeks of Age

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. R.; Svendsen, J.

    1972-01-01

    Serum gamma globulin levels, indirect hemagglutinating antibody titres and bactericidal activity against the 0149:K91;K88ac:H10 Serotype of Escherichia coli were determined in pigs up to five weeks of age from vaccinated and non-vaccinated sows. Gamma globulin levels at two days of age were approximately twice adult levels, by three weeks of age they were one quarter of adult levels and remained so until five weeks of age. Indirect hemagglutinating antibody activity was highest at two days of age, fell until three weeks of age and then rose. Little or no indirect hemagglutinating antibody activity was detected in sera taken at two days of age from pigs from non-vaccinated sows. Only three of 26 two day old pigs had demonstrable bactericidal activity; by three weeks of age 16 of 26 had bactericidal activity. Serum from piglets of vaccinated sows had no more bactericidal activity than did sera from non-vaccinated sows. PMID:4110608

  7. Reduced NK cell IFN-γ secretion and psychological stress are independently associated with herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choon Kwan; Choi, Youn Mi; Bae, Eunsin; Jue, Mihn Sook; So, Hyung Seok

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of herpes zoster is closely linked to reduced varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity. However, little is known about the interplay between natural killer cells and psychological stress in the pathogenesis of herpes zoster. This study aimed to investigate possible associations among natural killer cells, T cells and psychological stress in herpes zoster. Interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cell, psychological stress events, stress cognition scale scores and cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity were compared between 44 patients with herpes zoster and 44 age- and gender-matched control subjects. A significantly lower median level of interferon-gamma secreted by natural killer cells was observed in patients with a recent diagnosis of herpes zoster than in control subjects (582.7 pg/ml vs. 1783 pg/ml; P = 0.004), whereas cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity was not associated with herpes zoster. Psychological stress events and high stress cognition scale scores were significantly associated in patients with herpes zoster (P<0.001 and P = 0.037, respectively). However, reduced interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cell and psychological stress were not associated. In conclusion, patients with a recent diagnosis of herpes zoster display reduced interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cells and frequent previous psychological stress events compared with controls. However, reduced natural killer cell activity is not an immunological mediator between psychological stress and herpes zoster. PMID:29466462

  8. Reduced NK cell IFN-γ secretion and psychological stress are independently associated with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon Kwan; Choi, Youn Mi; Bae, Eunsin; Jue, Mihn Sook; So, Hyung Seok; Hwang, Eung-Soo

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of herpes zoster is closely linked to reduced varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity. However, little is known about the interplay between natural killer cells and psychological stress in the pathogenesis of herpes zoster. This study aimed to investigate possible associations among natural killer cells, T cells and psychological stress in herpes zoster. Interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cell, psychological stress events, stress cognition scale scores and cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity were compared between 44 patients with herpes zoster and 44 age- and gender-matched control subjects. A significantly lower median level of interferon-gamma secreted by natural killer cells was observed in patients with a recent diagnosis of herpes zoster than in control subjects (582.7 pg/ml vs. 1783 pg/ml; P = 0.004), whereas cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity was not associated with herpes zoster. Psychological stress events and high stress cognition scale scores were significantly associated in patients with herpes zoster (P<0.001 and P = 0.037, respectively). However, reduced interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cell and psychological stress were not associated. In conclusion, patients with a recent diagnosis of herpes zoster display reduced interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cells and frequent previous psychological stress events compared with controls. However, reduced natural killer cell activity is not an immunological mediator between psychological stress and herpes zoster.

  9. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julie L; Amzat, Rianot; Martin, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a commonly encountered disorder. It is estimated that there are approximately 1 million new cases of herpes zoster in the United States annually, with an incidence of 3.2 per 1000 person-years. Patients with HIV have the greatest risk of developing herpes zoster ophthalmicus compared with the general population. Other risk factors include advancing age, use of immunosuppressive medications, and primary infection in infancy or in utero. Vaccination against the virus is a primary prevention modality. Primary treatments include antivirals, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Management may require surgical intervention and comanagement with pain specialists, psychiatrists, and infectious disease specialists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The herpes zoster subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) causes severe pain and rash in older people and may be complicated by prolonged pain (postherpetic neuralgia; PHN). HZ results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, often associated with age related or other causes of decreased T cell immunity. A concentrated live attenuated vaccine boosts this immunity and provides partial protection against HZ, but this decreases with age and declines over 5-8 years. The new HZ subunit (HZ/su or Shingrix) vaccine combines a key surface VZV glycoprotein (E) with T cell boosting adjuvant (AS01B). It is highly efficacious in protection (97%) against HZ in immunocompetent subjects, with no decline in advancing age and protection maintained for >3 years. Phase I-II trials showed safety and similar immunogenicity in severely immunocompromised patients. Local injection site pain and swelling can be severe in a minority (9.5%) but is transient (2 days). The HZ/su vaccine appears very promising in immunocompetent patients in the ZoE-50 controlled trial. The unblinding of the current ZoE-50 trial and publication of results from the accompanying ZoE-70 trial will reveal more about its mechanism of action and its efficacy against PHN, particularly in subjects >70 years. Phase III trial results in immunocompromised patients are eagerly awaited.

  11. Vaccines for preventing herpes zoster in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna M Z; Gomes Silva, Brenda Nazaré; Torloni, Maria R; Soares, Bernardo G O

    2012-10-17

    Herpes zoster or, as it is commonly called, 'shingles' is a neurocutaneous disease characterised by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV), the virus that causes chickenpox, which is latent in the dorsal spinal ganglia when immunity to VZV declines. It is an extremely painful condition which can often last for many weeks or months, impairing the patient's quality of life. The natural aging process is associated with a reduction of cellular immunity which predisposes to herpes zoster. Vaccination with an attenuated form of VZV activates specific T cell production, therefore avoiding viral reactivation. A herpes zoster vaccine with an active virus has been approved for clinical use among older adults by the Food and Drug Administration and has been tested in large populations. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of vaccination for preventing herpes zoster in older adults. We searched the following sources for relevant studies: CENTRAL 2012, Issue 7, MEDLINE (1948 to July week 1, 2012), EMBASE (2010 to July 2012), LILACS (1982 to July 2012) and CINAHL (1981 to July 2012). We also reviewed reference lists of identified trials and reviews for additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing zoster vaccine with placebo or no vaccine, to prevent herpes zoster in older adults (mean age > 60 years). Two review authors independently collected and analysed data using a data extraction form. They also carried out an assessment of risk of bias. We identified eight RCTs with a total of 52,269 participants. Three studies were classified at low risk of bias. The main outcomes on effectiveness and safety were extracted from one clinical trial with a low risk of bias. Four studies compared zoster vaccine versus placebo; one study compared high-potency zoster vaccine versus low-potency zoster vaccine; one study compared refrigerated zoster vaccine versus frozen zoster vaccine; one study compared live zoster vaccine versus inactivated

  12. Complications of varicella zoster.

    PubMed

    Gücüyener, Kivilcim; Citak, Elvan Cağlar; Elli, Murat; Serdaroğlu, Ayse; Citak, Funda Erkasar

    2002-02-01

    Primary infection with varicella zoster is characterzed by a generalized vesicular rash usually without significant systemic illness. Encephalitis, pneumonitis, pancreatitis, nephritis, Reye and Guillan-Barre syndrome transvers myelitis, myocarditis have been reported before, but there is not any case having all these system to be involved during the same infection in a sequential manner ending up with multiorgan failure. We wanted to represent 21-month-old boy had a multiorgan failure due to varicella zoster infection.

  13. Herpes zoster: Risk and prevention during immunomodulating therapy.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cong Tri; Ducancelle, Alexandra; Masson, Charles; Lunel-Fabiani, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Herpes zoster can be serious or incapacitating, particularly in patients whose immune system is compromised by a disease or treatment. Immunomodulating drugs can increase the risk of infection. Well-established risk factors include advanced age and glucocorticoid therapy. The data are somewhat conflicting for medications such as methotrexate, tofacitinib, TNFα antagonists (infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab, and golimumab), abatacept, tocilizumab, and rituximab. Nevertheless, the risk of herpes zoster is increased in patients taking biological agents, because of the underlying diseases and/or effects of the drugs. A live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine has been proven effective and safe in immunocompetent individuals. At present, however, it is not recommended for patients with immunodeficiencies, including those taking biological drugs, as no studies have assessed its risk/benefit ratio in this population. This situation may change in the near future, as recent data support the effectiveness and safety of the herpes zoster vaccine in patients who take biotherapies or have other causes of immunodeficiency. Alternative approaches designed to protect these patients from herpes zoster and its complications are also under evaluation. There is a need to define the indications of the herpes zoster vaccine in terms of the target population, timing, modalities, and frequency, according to the underlying chronic systemic disease, age group, varicella-zoster virus status, and exposure to therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Disseminated Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in an Immunocompetent 8-Year Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Oladokun, Regina Eziuka; Olomukoro, Chikodili N; Owa, Adewale B.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella results from a primary infection with the varicella virus while herpes zoster is caused by a reactivation of a latent infection. Dissemination of herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Reports of disseminated herpes zoster in children are even less common than in adults. An unusual case of disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 8-year old immunocompetent black boy is presented. He had a previous primary Varicella zoster virus infection at three years of age. In the current report, he presented during an on-going chicken pox outbreak and survived with no significant complications. A breakthrough varicella virus re-infection or a reactivation is possible, both of which could present as zoster. This case emphasizes the need for prevention of varicella virus infection through universal childhood immunization and effective infection control strategies in health care settings. PMID:24765504

  15. Disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 8-year old boy.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Regina Eziuka; Olomukoro, Chikodili N; Owa, Adewale B

    2013-08-02

    Varicella results from a primary infection with the varicella virus while herpes zoster is caused by a reactivation of a latent infection. Dissemination of herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Reports of disseminated herpes zoster in children are even less common than in adults. An unusual case of disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 8-year old immunocompetent black boy is presented. He had a previous primary Varicella zoster virus infection at three years of age. In the current report, he presented during an on-going chicken pox outbreak and survived with no significant complications. A breakthrough varicella virus re-infection or a reactivation is possible, both of which could present as zoster. This case emphasizes the need for prevention of varicella virus infection through universal childhood immunization and effective infection control strategies in health care settings.

  16. Prevention strategies for herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Gershon, Anne A.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Brisson, Marc; Stanberry, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Impairment of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, including impairment due to immunosenescence, is associated with an increased risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ), whereas levels of anti-VZV antibodies do not correlate with HZ risk. This crucial role of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity suggests that boosting these responses by vaccination will be an effective strategy for reducing the burden of HZ. Other strategies focus on preventing the major complication of HZ – post-herpetic neuralgia. These strategies include pre-emptive treatment with drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and analgesics. PMID:20510262

  17. Herpes zoster in children.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Nathan; Goodman, Seth; Peterson, Michael; Peterson, Warren

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) in immunocompetent children is quite uncommon. Initial exposure to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may be from a wild-type or vaccine-related strain. Either strain may cause a latent infection and subsequent eruption of HZ. We present a case of HZ in a 15-month-old boy after receiving the varicella vaccination at 12 months of age. A review of the literature regarding the incidence, clinical characteristics, and diagnosis of HZ in children also is provided.

  18. Herpes Zoster Risk Reduction through Exposure to Chickenpox Patients: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Van Damme, Pierre; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and may subsequently reactivate to cause herpes zoster later in life. The exogenous boosting hypothesis states that re-exposure to circulating VZV can inhibit VZV reactivation and consequently also herpes zoster in VZV-immune individuals. Using this hypothesis, mathematical models predicted widespread chickenpox vaccination to increase herpes zoster incidence over more than 30 years. Some countries have postponed universal chickenpox vaccination, at least partially based on this prediction. After a systematic search and selection procedure, we analyzed different types of exogenous boosting studies. We graded 13 observational studies on herpes zoster incidence after widespread chickenpox vaccination, 4 longitudinal studies on VZV immunity after re-exposure, 9 epidemiological risk factor studies, 7 mathematical modeling studies as well as 7 other studies. We conclude that exogenous boosting exists, although not for all persons, nor in all situations. Its magnitude is yet to be determined adequately in any study field.

  19. Herpes Zoster Risk Reduction through Exposure to Chickenpox Patients: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Van Damme, Pierre; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and may subsequently reactivate to cause herpes zoster later in life. The exogenous boosting hypothesis states that re-exposure to circulating VZV can inhibit VZV reactivation and consequently also herpes zoster in VZV-immune individuals. Using this hypothesis, mathematical models predicted widespread chickenpox vaccination to increase herpes zoster incidence over more than 30 years. Some countries have postponed universal chickenpox vaccination, at least partially based on this prediction. After a systematic search and selection procedure, we analyzed different types of exogenous boosting studies. We graded 13 observational studies on herpes zoster incidence after widespread chickenpox vaccination, 4 longitudinal studies on VZV immunity after re-exposure, 9 epidemiological risk factor studies, 7 mathematical modeling studies as well as 7 other studies. We conclude that exogenous boosting exists, although not for all persons, nor in all situations. Its magnitude is yet to be determined adequately in any study field. PMID:23805224

  20. Herpes Zoster and Recurrent Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Nozomu; Daikoku, Tohru; Yajima, Misako

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. The incidence of recurrent herpes zoster (HZ) and the relationship between initial and recurrent HZ are not clear. Methods. The Miyazaki Dermatologist Society has surveyed ~5000 patients with HZ annually since 1997. A questionnaire regarding HZ and its recurrence was completed by the dermatologists. Results. A total of 34 877 patients with HZ were registered at 43 clinics between June 2009 and November 2015. Among 16 784 patients seen at 10 of the 43 clinics, 1076 patients (6.41%) experienced recurrence. Herpes zoster was more frequent in female than in male patients (5.27 vs 4.25 in 1000 person-years, P < .001), as was HZ recurrence (7.63% vs 4.73%, P < .001). Two and three recurrences were observed in 49 and 3 patients, respectively. Recurrence in the same dermatome was observed in 16.3% of patients, and more frequently this occurred in the left side (P = .027). The number of HZ-experienced persons increased with age, and one third of the population had experienced HZ by the age of 80. Conclusions. Recurrent HZ was observed in 6.41% of patients, with a higher incidence in women. Moreover, HZ experience reduced the HZ incidence to 31.7% of the incidence in the HZ-naive population. PMID:28480280

  1. Herpes Zoster Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Aaron R; Myers, Eileen M; Moster, Mark L; Stanley, Jordan; Kline, Lanning B; Golnik, Karl C

    2018-06-01

    Herpes zoster optic neuropathy (HZON) is a rare manifestation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). The aim of our study was to better characterize the clinical features, therapeutic choices, and visual outcomes in HZON. A retrospective chart review was performed at multiple academic eye centers with the inclusion criteria of all eyes presenting with optic neuropathy within 1 month of cutaneous zoster of the ipsilateral trigeminal dermatome. Data were collected regarding presenting features, treatment regimen, and visual acuity outcomes. Six patients meeting the HZON inclusion criteria were identified. Mean follow-up was 2.75 months (range 0.5-4 months). Herpes zoster optic neuropathy developed at a mean of 14.1 days after initial rash (range 6-30 days). Optic neuropathy was anterior in 2 eyes and retrobulbar in 4 eyes. Other manifestations of HZO included keratoconjunctivitis (3 eyes) and iritis (4 eyes). All patients were treated with systemic antiviral therapy in addition to topical and/or systemic corticosteroids. At the last follow-up, visual acuity in 3 eyes had improved relative to presentation, 2 eyes had worsened, and 1 eye remained the same. The 2 eyes that did not receive systemic corticosteroids had the best observed final visual acuity. Herpes zoster optic neuropathy is an unusual but distinctive complication of HZO. Visual recovery after HZON is variable. Identification of an optimal treatment regiment for HZON could not be identified from our patient cohort. Systemic antiviral agents are a component of HZON treatment regimens. Efficacy of systemic corticosteroids for HZON remains unclear and should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  2. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E.

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle themore » neurons.« less

  3. Zoster Vaccination Increases the Breadth of CD4+ T Cells Responsive to Varicella Zoster Virus

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Kerry J.; Russell, Ronnie M.; Dong, Lichun; Schmid, D. Scott; Stern, Michael; Magaret, Amalia; Haas, Jürgen G.; Johnston, Christine; Wald, Anna; Koelle, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The live, attenuated varicella vaccine strain (vOka) is the only licensed therapeutic vaccine. Boost of varicella zoster virus (VZV)–specific cellular immunity is a likely mechanism of action. We examined memory CD4+ T-cell responses to each VZV protein at baseline and after zoster vaccination. Methods. Serial blood samples were collected from 12 subjects vaccinated with Zostavax and immunogenicity confirmed by ex vivo VZV-specific T-cell and antibody assays. CD4+ T-cell lines enriched for VZV specificity were generated and probed for proliferative responses to every VZV protein and selected peptide sets. Results. Zoster vaccination increased the median magnitude (2.3-fold) and breadth (4.2-fold) of VZV-specific CD4+ T cells one month post-vaccination. Both measures declined by 6 months. The most prevalent responses at baseline included VZV open reading frames (ORFs) 68, 4, 37, and 63. After vaccination, responses to ORFs 40, 67, 9, 59, 12, 62, and 18 were also prevalent. The immunogenicity of ORF9 and ORF18 were confirmed using peptides, defining a large number of discrete CD4 T-cell epitopes. Conclusions. The breadth and magnitude of the VZV-specific CD4+ T-cell response increase after zoster vaccination. In addition to glycoprotein E (ORF68), we identified antigenic ORFs that may be useful components of subunit vaccines. PMID:25784732

  4. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

  5. Varicella and herpes zoster vaccine development: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Forbes, Harriet; Breuer, Judith

    2017-12-01

    Before vaccination, varicella zoster virus (VZV), which is endemic worldwide, led to almost universal infection. This neurotropic virus persists lifelong by establishing latency in sensory ganglia, where its reactivation is controlled by VZV-specific T-cell immunity. Lifetime risk of VZV reactivation (zoster) is around 30%. Vaccine development was galvanised by the economic and societal burden of VZV, including debilitating zoster complications that largely affect older individuals. Areas covered: We describe the story of development, licensing and implementation of live attenuated vaccines against varicella and zoster. We consider the complex backdrop of VZV virology, pathogenesis and immune responses in the absence of suitable animal models and examine the changing epidemiology of VZV disease. We review the vaccines' efficacy, safety, effectiveness and coverage using evidence from trials, observational studies from large routine health datasets and clinical post-marketing surveillance studies and outline newer developments in subunit and inactivated vaccines. Expert commentary: Safe and effective, varicella and zoster vaccines have already made major inroads into reducing the burden of VZV disease globally. As these live vaccines have the potential to reactivate and cause clinical disease, developing alternatives that do not establish latency is an attractive prospect but will require better understanding of latency mechanisms.

  6. Varicella and herpes zoster vaccine development: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Forbes, Harriet; Breuer, Judith

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Before vaccination, varicella zoster virus (VZV), which is endemic worldwide, led to almost universal infection. This neurotropic virus persists lifelong by establishing latency in sensory ganglia, where its reactivation is controlled by VZV-specific T-cell immunity. Lifetime risk of VZV reactivation (zoster) is around 30%. Vaccine development was galvanised by the economic and societal burden of VZV, including debilitating zoster complications that largely affect older individuals. Areas covered: We describe the story of development, licensing and implementation of live attenuated vaccines against varicella and zoster. We consider the complex backdrop of VZV virology, pathogenesis and immune responses in the absence of suitable animal models and examine the changing epidemiology of VZV disease. We review the vaccines’ efficacy, safety, effectiveness and coverage using evidence from trials, observational studies from large routine health datasets and clinical post-marketing surveillance studies and outline newer developments in subunit and inactivated vaccines. Expert commentary: Safe and effective, varicella and zoster vaccines have already made major inroads into reducing the burden of VZV disease globally. As these live vaccines have the potential to reactivate and cause clinical disease, developing alternatives that do not establish latency is an attractive prospect but will require better understanding of latency mechanisms. PMID:29047317

  7. Analysis of T Cell Responses during Active Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation in Human Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Steain, Megan; Sutherland, Jeremy P.; Rodriguez, Michael; Cunningham, Anthony L.; Slobedman, Barry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). During varicella, the virus establishes latency within the sensory ganglia and can reactivate to cause herpes zoster, but the immune responses that occur in ganglia during herpes zoster have not previously been defined. We examined ganglia obtained from individuals who, at the time of death, had active herpes zoster. Ganglia innervating the site of the cutaneous herpes zoster rash showed evidence of necrosis, secondary to vasculitis, or localized hemorrhage. Despite this, there was limited evidence of VZV antigen expression, although a large inflammatory infiltrate was observed. Characterization of the infiltrating T cells showed a large number of infiltrating CD4+ T cells and cytolytic CD8+ T cells. Many of the infiltrating T cells were closely associated with neurons within the reactivated ganglia, yet there was little evidence of T cell-induced neuronal apoptosis. Notably, an upregulation in the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II molecules was observed on satellite glial cells, implying these cells play an active role in directing the immune response during herpes zoster. This is the first detailed characterization of the interaction between T cells and neuronal cells within ganglia obtained from patients suffering herpes zoster at the time of death and provides evidence that CD4+ and cytolytic CD8+ T cell responses play an important role in controlling VZV replication in ganglia during active herpes zoster. IMPORTANCE VZV is responsible for both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). During varicella, the virus establishes a life-long dormant infection within the sensory ganglia and can reawaken to cause herpes zoster, but the immune responses that occur in ganglia during herpes zoster have not previously been defined. We examined ganglia obtained from individuals who, at the time of death, had

  8. [Reactivation of herpes zoster infection by varicella-zoster virus].

    PubMed

    Cvjetković, D; Jovanović, J; Hrnjaković-Cvjetković, I; Brkić, S; Bogdanović, M

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in varicella-zoster virus in the middle of the twentieth century. Virus isolation in 1958 had made it possible to find out the complete DNA sequence of the varicella-zoster virus. Molecular identify of the causative agents of varicella and shingles had been proved. ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND HISTOPATHOLOGY: Varicella-zoster virus is a member of the Herpesviridae family. After primary infection which results in varicella, the virus becomes latent in the cerebral or posterior root ganglia. Some of these individuals develop shingles after several decades because of virus reactivation. It is caused by decline of cellular immune response. Circumstances such as old age, hard work, using of steroids or malignancies contribute to the appearance of shingles. Histopathological findings include degenerative changes of epithelial cells such as ballooning, multinucleated giant cells and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions. Shingles occur sporadically, mainly among the elderly who have had varicella. There is no seasonal appearance of shingles. Individuals suffering from shingles may be sometimes contagious for susceptible children because of enormous amount of virus particles in vesicle fluid. Clinically, shingles is characterized at first by pain or discomfort in involved dermatome, usually without constitutional symptoms. Local edema and erythema appear before developing of rash. Maculopapular and vesicular rash evolves into crusts. The most commonly involved ganglia are: lumbar, thoracic, sacral posterior root ganglia, then geniculate ganglion of the VIIth cranial nerve and the trigeminal ganglion. The most common complication, postherpetic neuralgia, may last for as long as two or three weeks, sometimes even one year or more. Other complications that may be seen in shingles, but more rarely, are ocular (keratitis, iridocyclitis, secondary glaucoma, loss of sight), neurological (various motor neuropathies, encephalitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome

  9. The prevention and management of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Breuer, Judith; Dwyer, Dominic E; Gronow, David W; Helme, Robert D; Litt, John C; Levin, Myron J; Macintyre, C Raina

    2008-02-04

    The burden of illness from herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in the Australian community is high. The incidence and severity of HZ and PHN increase with age in association with a progressive decline in cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Antiviral medications (valaciclovir, famciclovir, aciclovir) have been shown to be effective in reducing much but not all of the morbidity associated with HZ and PHN, but are consistently underprescribed in Australia. Zoster-associated pain should be treated early and aggressively, as it is more difficult to treat once established. Clinicians should be proactive in their follow-up of individuals at high risk of developing PHN, and refer patients to a specialist pain clinic earlier, rather than later. A live, attenuated VZV vaccine (Oka/Merck strain, Zostavax [Merck Sharp & Dohme]) has proven to be efficacious in reducing the incidence of and morbidity associated with HZ and PHN in older adults. The vaccine's efficacy has been shown to persist for at least 4 years, but is likely to last a lot longer. Ongoing surveillance will determine the duration of protection and whether a booster dose is required. Clinicians should consider recommending the vaccine, which can be safely administered at the same time as the inactivated influenza vaccine, to all immunocompetent patients aged 60 years or older. Clinicians should refer to the Australian immunisation handbook for advice on the use of the live vaccine in immunosuppressed individuals.

  10. Vaccines for preventing herpes zoster in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna M Z; Andriolo, Brenda N G; Torloni, Maria R; Soares, Bernardo G O

    2016-03-03

    Herpes zoster, also known as 'shingles', is a neurocutaneous disease characterised by the reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV), the virus that causes chickenpox when immunity to VZV declines. It is an extremely painful condition that can last many weeks or months and it can significantly compromise the quality of life of affected individuals. The natural process of aging is associated with a reduction in cellular immunity and this predisposes older people to herpes zoster. Vaccination with an attenuated form of VZV activates specific T cell production avoiding viral reactivation. The Food and Drug Administration has approved a herpes zoster vaccine with an attenuated active virus for clinical use among older adults, which has been tested in large populations. A new adjuvanted recombinant VZV subunit zoster vaccine has also been tested. It consists of recombinant VZV glycoprotein E and a liposome-based AS01B adjuvant system. This new vaccine is not yet available for clinical use. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of vaccination for preventing herpes zoster in older adults. For this 2015 update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1948 to the 3rd week of October 2015), EMBASE (2010 to October 2015), CINAHL (1981 to October 2015) and LILACS (1982 to October 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing zoster vaccine with placebo or no vaccine, to prevent herpes zoster in older adults (mean age > 60 years). Two review authors independently collected and analysed data using a data extraction form. They also performed 'Risk of bias' assessment. We identified 13 studies involving 69,916 participants. The largest study included 38,546 participants. All studies were conducted in high-income countries and included only healthy Caucasian individuals ≥ 60 years of age without immunosuppressive comorbidities. Ten studies used live attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV

  11. Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness against incident herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in an older US population: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Langan, Sinéad M; Smeeth, Liam; Margolis, David J; Thomas, Sara L

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster is common and has serious consequences, notably post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Vaccine efficacy against incident zoster and PHN has been demonstrated in clinical trials, but effectiveness has not been studied in unselected general populations unrestricted by region, full health insurance coverage, or immune status. Our objective was to assess zoster vaccine effectiveness (VE) against incident zoster and PHN in a general population-based setting. A cohort study of 766,330 fully eligible individuals aged ≥ 65 years was undertaken in a 5% random sample of Medicare who received and did not receive zoster vaccination between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2009. Incidence rates and hazard ratios for zoster and PHN were determined in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, race, low income, immunosuppression, and important comorbidities associated with zoster, and then stratified by immunosuppression status. Adjusted hazard ratios were estimated using time-updated Cox proportional hazards models. Vaccine uptake was low (3.9%) particularly among black people (0.3%) and those with evidence of low income (0.6%). 13,112 US Medicare beneficiaries developed incident zoster; the overall zoster incidence rate was 10.0 (9.8-10.2) per 1,000 person-years in the unvaccinated group and 5.4 (95% CI 4.6-6.4) per 1,000 person-years in vaccinees, giving an adjusted VE against incident zoster of 0.48 (95% CI 0.39-0.56). In immunosuppressed individuals, VE against zoster was 0.37 (95% CI 0.06-0.58). VE against PHN was 0.59 (95% CI 0.21-0.79). Vaccine uptake was low with variation in specific patient groups. In a general population cohort of older individuals, zoster vaccination was associated with reduction in incident zoster, including among those with immunosuppression. Importantly, this study demonstrates that zoster vaccination is associated with a reduction in PHN. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  12. Herpes Zoster Vaccine Effectiveness against Incident Herpes Zoster and Post-herpetic Neuralgia in an Older US Population: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Langan, Sinéad M.; Smeeth, Liam; Margolis, David J.; Thomas, Sara L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster is common and has serious consequences, notably post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Vaccine efficacy against incident zoster and PHN has been demonstrated in clinical trials, but effectiveness has not been studied in unselected general populations unrestricted by region, full health insurance coverage, or immune status. Our objective was to assess zoster vaccine effectiveness (VE) against incident zoster and PHN in a general population-based setting. Methods and Findings A cohort study of 766,330 fully eligible individuals aged ≥65 years was undertaken in a 5% random sample of Medicare who received and did not receive zoster vaccination between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2009. Incidence rates and hazard ratios for zoster and PHN were determined in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, race, low income, immunosuppression, and important comorbidities associated with zoster, and then stratified by immunosuppression status. Adjusted hazard ratios were estimated using time-updated Cox proportional hazards models. Vaccine uptake was low (3.9%) particularly among black people (0.3%) and those with evidence of low income (0.6%). 13,112 US Medicare beneficiaries developed incident zoster; the overall zoster incidence rate was 10.0 (9.8–10.2) per 1,000 person-years in the unvaccinated group and 5.4 (95% CI 4.6–6.4) per 1,000 person-years in vaccinees, giving an adjusted VE against incident zoster of 0.48 (95% CI 0.39–0.56). In immunosuppressed individuals, VE against zoster was 0.37 (95% CI 0.06–0.58). VE against PHN was 0.59 (95% CI 0.21–0.79). Conclusions Vaccine uptake was low with variation in specific patient groups. In a general population cohort of older individuals, zoster vaccination was associated with reduction in incident zoster, including among those with immunosuppression. Importantly, this study demonstrates that zoster vaccination is associated with a reduction in PHN. Please

  13. Shingrix: The New Adjuvanted Recombinant Herpes Zoster Vaccine.

    PubMed

    James, Stephanie F; Chahine, Elias B; Sucher, Allana J; Hanna, Cassandra

    2018-02-01

    To review the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) for use in adult patients for the prevention of shingles. A literature search through PubMed was conducted (June 2008 to October 2017) using the terms shingles vaccine and varicella zoster virus. References from retrieved articles and the prescribing information were also reviewed for any additional material. The literature search was limited to human studies published in English. Randomized controlled, multicenter trials were reviewed and included to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HZ/su. Literature on the epidemiology and pathology of herpes zoster virus infections and recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) were also reviewed. HZ/su is a new adjuvanted recombinant vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of herpes zoster in adults 50 years of age and older. HZ/su significantly reduced the risk of developing herpes zoster by more than 90% as compared with placebo and displayed a comparable adverse effect profile. The most common local adverse events were injection site pain, redness, and swelling, and the most common systemic adverse events were myalgia, fatigue, and headache. The ACIP recommends the routine use of HZ/su as the preferred vaccine for the prevention of herpes zoster in immunocompetent adults 50 years of age and older. Based on published immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety data, as well as the recent recommendations by the ACIP, HZ/su should be included on both hospital and community pharmacy formularies and recommended to all immunocompetent patients older than 50 years to prevent herpes zoster.

  14. Definition and management of varicella zoster virus-associated meningoradiculitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Luisier, Vincent; Weber, Lalensia; Fishman, Daniel; Praz, Gérard; Ghika, Joseph-André; Genoud, Didier; Chabwine, Joelle Nsimire

    2016-09-26

    The varicella zoster virus affects the central or peripheral nervous systems upon reactivation, especially when cell-mediated immunity is impaired. Among varicella zoster virus-related neurological syndromes, meningoradiculitis is an ill-defined condition for which clear management guidelines are still lacking. Zoster paresis is usually considered to be a varicella zoster virus-peripheral nervous system complication and treated with oral antiviral therapy. Yet in the literature, the few reported cases of herpes zoster with mild cerebral spinal fluid inflammation were all considered meningoradiculitis and treated using intravenous antiviral drugs, despite absence of systemic signs of meningitis. Nevertheless, these two clinical pictures are very similar. We report the case of an alcohol-dependent elderly Caucasian man presenting with left lower limb zoster paresis and mild cerebral spinal fluid inflammation, with favorable outcome upon IV antiviral treatment. We discuss interpretation of liquor inflammation in the absence of clinical meningitis and implications for the antiviral treatment route. From this case report we suggest that varicella zoster virus-associated meningoradiculitis should necessarily include meningitis symptoms with the peripheral neurological deficits and cerebral spinal fluid inflammation, requiring intravenous antiviral treatment. In the absence of (cell-mediated) immunosuppression, isolated zoster paresis does not necessitate spinal tap or intravenous antiviral therapy.

  15. Varicella zoster virus vaccines: potential complications and possible improvements.

    PubMed

    Silver, Benjamin; Zhu, Hua

    2014-10-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). After primary infection, the virus remains latent in sensory ganglia, and reactivates upon weakening of the cellular immune system due to various conditions, erupting from sensory neurons and infecting the corresponding skin tissue. The current varicella vaccine (v-Oka) is highly attenuated in the skin, yet retains its neurovirulence and may reactivate and damage sensory neurons. The reactivation is sometimes associated with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), a severe pain along the affected sensory nerves that can linger for years, even after the herpetic rash resolves. In addition to the older population that develops a secondary infection resulting in herpes zoster, childhood breakthrough herpes zoster affects a small population of vaccinated children. There is a great need for a neuro-attenuated vaccine that would prevent not only the varicella manifestation, but, more importantly, any establishment of latency, and therefore herpes zoster. The development of a genetically-defined live-attenuated VZV vaccine that prevents neuronal and latent infection, in addition to primary varicella, is imperative for eventual eradication of VZV, and, if fully understood, has vast implications for many related herpesviruses and other viruses with similar pathogenic mechanisms.

  16. Real World Evidence for Regulatory Decisions: Concomitant Administration of Zoster Vaccine Live and Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bruxvoort, Katia; Sy, Lina S; Luo, Yi; Tseng, Hung Fu

    2018-04-11

    The US Food and Drug Administration is charged with expanding the use of real world evidence (RWE) for regulatory decisions. As a test case for RWE to support regulatory decisions, we present the scenario of concomitant vaccination with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). The prescribing information states that these vaccines should not be given concurrently, based on a small trial using varicella zoster virus antibody levels as a correlate of ZVL efficacy, even though ZVL protects against herpes zoster via cell-mediated immunity. We conducted an observational cohort study involving >30,000 members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California receiving concomitant ZVL and PPSV23 versus PPSV23 prior to ZVL. Occurrence of herpes zoster was assessed through electronic health records from January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2016. The adjusted hazard ratio comparing incidence rates of herpes zoster in the concomitant vaccination cohort and the prior vaccination cohort was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.16). This RWE study provides direct evidence for a lack of vaccine interference, relying on herpes zoster occurrence rather than an intermediate marker of immunity. RWE is essential for regulators and policy makers in addressing evidentiary gaps regarding safety, effectiveness, compliance, and vaccine interactions for the new recombinant zoster vaccine.

  17. Combination of lamivudine and adefovir without hepatitis B immune globulin is safe and effective prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus recurrence in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Gane, Edward J; Patterson, Scott; Strasser, Simone I; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Angus, Peter W

    2013-03-01

    Without effective prophylaxis, liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease is frequently complicated by severe and rapidly progressive HBV recurrence. Combination prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and lamivudine (LAM) reduces long-term recurrence rates below 10%; however, HBIG is costly and inconvenient to administer. We, therefore, conducted a multicenter, prospective study of outcomes with an HBIG-sparing regimen of LAM plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) initiated at the time of listing for liver transplantation and continued after transplantation. Twenty-six patients were recruited into this study at the time of listing for transplantation, and 20 subsequently underwent transplantation. Twelve of the 26 patients had LAM exposure before the study baseline, but none had LAM resistance. The median HBV viral load before the institution of antiviral therapy was approximately 4.0 log(10) IU/mL (range=2.3-7.5 log(10) IU/mL). To the 20 patients who underwent transplantation, 800 IU of intramuscular HBIG was given immediately after transplantation and daily for 7 days only (total HBIG dose=6400 IU). All transplant patients remained alive without HBV recurrence (they were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen, and HBV DNA was undetectable) after a median follow-up of 57 months after transplantation (range=27-83 months). The median serum creatinine level in these patients rose from 81 to 119 μmol/L over the course of the study. No patient required dose reduction or cessation. After the completion of this prospective study, the regimen was modified so that no perioperative HBIG was administered if the pretransplant serum HBV DNA level was suppressed below 3 log(10) IU/mL. Another 28 patients with HBV-related liver disease underwent transplantation (18 without HBIG). All remained alive and well without HBV recurrence after a median follow-up of 22 months after transplantation (range=10-58 months). In conclusion, a combination of

  18. Update on herpes zoster vaccine: licensure for persons aged 50 through 59 years.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck & Co., Inc.) was licensed and recommended in 2006 for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older. In March 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in adults aged 50 through 59 years. In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) declined to recommend the vaccine for adults aged 50 through 59 years and reaffirmed its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged 60 years and older.

  19. Eye and Periocular Skin Involvement in Herpes Zoster Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Chris D.; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Moschos, Marilita M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) is a clinical manifestation of the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and is more common in people with diminished cell-mediated immunity. Lesions and pain correspond to the affected dermatomes, mostly in first or second trigeminal branch and progress from maculae, papules to vesicles and form pustules, and crusts. Complications are cutaneous, visceral, neurological, ocular, but the most debilitating is post-herpetic neuralgia. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus may affect all the ophthalmic structures, but most severe eye-threatening complications are panuveitis, acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as well. Antiviral medications remain the primary therapy, mainly useful in preventing ocular involvement when begun within 72 hours after the onset of the rash. Timely diagnosis and management of HZO are critical in limiting visual morbidity. Vaccine in adults over 60 was found to be highly effective to boost waning immunity what reduces both the burden of herpes zoster (HZ) disease and the incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). PMID:27800502

  20. Clinical and immunologic features of recurrent herpes zoster (HZ).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Miyagawa, Fumi; Okazaki, Aiko; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamanishi, Koichi; Asada, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent herpes zoster (HZ) is thought to be rare, but there have been few large-scale studies of recurrent HZ. We conducted a large-scale prospective cohort study to characterize recurrent HZ. We examined 12,522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County and followed them up for 3 years. We compared the incidence of HZ and postherpetic neuralgia, severity of skin lesions and acute pain, cell-mediated immunity, and varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody titer between primary and recurrent HZ. A total of 401 participants developed HZ: 341 with primary HZ and 60 with recurrent HZ. Skin lesions and acute pain were significantly milder and the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was lower in patients aged 50 to 79 years with recurrent HZ than in those with primary HZ. Varicella-zoster virus skin test induced a stronger reaction in patients aged 50 to 79 years with recurrent HZ than in those with primary HZ. Information on previous HZ episodes was self-reported by participants, so it could not be confirmed that they actually had a history of HZ. Recurrent HZ was associated with milder clinical symptoms than primary HZ, probably because of stronger varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity in the patients with recurrence. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The neurobiology of varicella zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gilden, D.; Mahalingam, R.; Nagel, M. A.; Pugazhenthi, S.; Cohrs, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic herpesvirus that infects nearly all humans. Primary infection usually causes chickenpox (varicella), after which virus becomes latent in cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Although VZV cannot be isolated from human ganglia, nucleic acid hybridization and, later, polymerase chain reaction proved that VZV is latent in ganglia. Declining VZV-specific host immunity decades after primary infection allows virus to reactivate spontaneously, resulting in shingles (zoster) characterized by pain and rash restricted to 1-3 dermatomes. Multiple other serious neurological and ocular disorders also result from VZV reactivation. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the clinical and pathological complications of neurological and ocular disease produced by VZV reactivation, molecular aspects of VZV latency, VZV virology and VZV-specific immunity, the role of apoptosis in VZV-induced cell death, and the development of an animal model provided by simian varicella virus infection of monkeys. PMID:21342215

  2. Improving pneumococcal and herpes zoster vaccination uptake: expanding pharmacist privileges.

    PubMed

    Taitel, Michael S; Fensterheim, Leonard E; Cannon, Adam E; Cohen, Edward S

    2013-09-01

    To investigate how state-authorized pharmacist immunization privileges influence pharmacist intervention effectiveness in delivering pneumococcal and herpes zoster vaccinations and assess the implications these privileges have on vaccination rates. Cross-sectional study of Walgreens vaccination records from August 2011 to March 2012. A random sample of patients having a claim for influenza vaccination in the study period was selected. Vaccination uptake rates for pneumococcal disease and herpes zoster were calculated for previously unvaccinated patients at high risk for these conditions. Rates were examined by state-level pharmacist privileges. For states authorizing immunization by protocol or prescriptive authority, the 1-year pneumococcal vaccination uptake rate for previously unvaccinated, high-risk persons was 6.6%, compared with 2.5% for states requiring a prescription (P <.0001), and 2.8% for states with no authorization (P <.0001). For herpes zoster, the 1-year vaccination uptake rate was 3.3% for states authorizing per protocol/prescriptive authority, compared with 2.8% (not significant, P <.05) for states authorizing by prescription, and 1.0% for states with no authorization (P <.0001). A 148% increase of pneumococcal vaccination and a 77% increase of herpes zoster vaccination would result if all states granted pharmacists full immunization privileges. This analysis demonstrates that states that offer pharmacists full immunization privileges have higher vaccination uptake rates than states with restricted or no authorization. Considering the suboptimal vaccination rates of pneumonia and shingles and the public health goals of 2020, states with limited or no immunization authorization for pharmacists should consider expanding pharmacist privileges for these vaccinations.

  3. [Vaccines against varicella-zoster virus (VZV)].

    PubMed

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montserrat; Soldevila, Nuria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domínguez, Ángela

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, two attenuated varicella vaccines derived from the OKA strain are licensed: Varilrix® GlaxoSmithKline (OKA/RIT strain) and Varivax® Merck Sharp and Dohme (OKA/Merck strain). Currently, in Spain, varicella vaccination is only included in the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality official vaccination calendar for administration in adolescents who have not had the disease. Given the good results obtained in Navarra and Madrid with universal administration of the vaccine in children, it would be desirable to include the vaccine in the routine immunization schedule, with the administration of two doses at 15-18 months of age in the future. The protective efficacy of the attenuated herpes zoster vaccine was evaluated in the Shingles Prevention Study, which showed that in the short term (0-4 years) the vaccine reduced the incidence of herpes zoster by 53%, post-herpetic neuralgia by 66%, and the disease burden in immunocompetent persons aged ≥60 years by 61%. Another study demonstrated protective efficacy in persons aged 50-59 years. Over time, the protective efficacy decreases, but remains at acceptable levels, especially for post-herpetic neuralgia and the disease burden. Recently, the results of a controlled clinical trial (phase III) conducted in 18 countries to assess the protective efficacy of the inactivated subunit vaccine (glycoprotein E) adjuvanted with the adjuvant AS01B were published. The study inferred that the vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of herpes zoster in the short term (3.2 years) in people aged ≥50 years. Vaccine protection did not decrease with age at vaccination, ranging between 96.8% and 97.9% in all age groups. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Clinical Herpes Zoster in Antarctica as a Model for Spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Reyes, David P; Brinley, Alaina A; Blue, Rebecca S; Gruschkus, Stephen K; Allen, Andrew T; Parazynski, Scott E

    2017-08-01

    Antarctica is a useful analog for spaceflight, as both environments are remote, isolated, and with limited resources. While previous studies have demonstrated increased asymptomatic viral shedding in both the Antarctic and spaceflight environments, clinical manifestations of reactivated viral disease have been less frequently identified. We sought to identify the incidence of clinical herpes zoster from viral reactivation in the Antarctic winter-over population. Medical records from the 2014 winter season were reviewed for the incidence of zoster in U.S. Antarctic personnel and then compared to the age-matched U.S. Five cases of clinical herpes zoster occurred in the Antarctic Station population of 204 persons, for an incidence of 33.3 per 1000 person-years vs. 3.2 per 1000 person-years in the general population. Four cases were in persons under age 40, yielding an incidence of 106.7 per 1000 person-years in persons ages 30-39 compared to an incidence of 2.0 per 1000 person-years in the same U.S. age group. Immune suppression due to the stressful Antarctic environment may have contributed to the increased incidence of herpes zoster in U.S. Antarctic personnel during the winter of 2014. Working and living in isolated, confined, and extreme environments can cause immune suppression, reactivating latent viruses and increasing viral shedding and symptomatic disease. Such changes have been observed in other austere environments, including spaceflight, suggesting that clinical manifestations of viral reactivation may be seen in future spaceflight.Reyes DP, Brinley AA, Blue RS, Gruschkus SK, Allen AT, Parazynski SE. Clinical herpes zoster in Antarctica as a model for spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):784-788.

  5. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study: Rationale, Design, and Description of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. Methods The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. Results We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. Conclusions The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese. PMID:22343323

  6. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) study: rationale, design, and description of a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese.

  7. Herpes zoster-associated voiding dysfunction in hematopoietic malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Imafuku, Shinichi; Takahara, Masakazu; Uenotsuchi, Takeshi; Iwato, Koji; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction is a rare but important complication of lumbo-sacral herpes zoster. Although the symptoms are transient, the clinical impact on immunocompromised patients cannot be overlooked. To clarify the time course of voiding dysfunction in herpes zoster, 13 herpes zoster patients with voiding dysfunction were retrospectively analyzed. Of 13 patients, 12 had background disease, and six of these were hematopoietic malignancies; four of these patients were hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Ten patients had sacral lesions, two had lumbar, and one had thoracic lesions. Interestingly, patients with severe rash, or with hematopoietic malignancy had later onset of urinary retention than did patients with mild skin symptoms (Mann-Whitney U analysis, P = 0.053) or with other background disease (P = 0.0082). Patients with severe skin rash also had longer durations (P = 0.035). In one case, acute urinary retention occurred as late as 19 days after the onset of skin rash. In immune compromised subjects, attention should be paid to patients with herpes zoster in the lumbo-sacral area for late onset of acute urinary retention even after the resolution of skin symptoms.

  8. Clinical and molecular aspects of varicella zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gilden, Don; Nagel, Maria A.; Mahalingam, Ravi; Mueller, Niklaus H.; Brazeau, Elizabeth A.; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Cohrs, Randall J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A declining cell-mediated immunity to varicella zoster virus (VZV) with advancing age or immunosuppression results in virus reactivation from latently infected human ganglia anywhere along the neuraxis. Virus reactivation produces zoster, often followed by chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia or PHN) as well as vasculopathy, myelopathy, retinal necrosis and cerebellitis. VZV reactivation also produces pain without rash (zoster sine herpete). Vaccination after age 60 reduces the incidence of shingles by 51%, PHN by 66% and the burden of illness by 61%. However, even if every healthy adult over age 60 years is vaccinated, there would still be about 500,000 zoster cases annually in the United States alone, about 200,000 of whom will experience PHN. Analyses of viral nucleic acid and gene expression in latently infected human ganglia and in an animal model of varicella latency in primates are serving to determine the mechanism(s) of VZV reactivation with the aim of preventing reactivation and the clinical sequelae. PMID:19946620

  9. Herpes zoster producing temporary erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rix, G H; Carroll, D N; MacFarlane, J R

    2001-12-01

    Varicella Zoster affecting the sacral dermatomes is a rare but well recognised cause of urinary retention. Only one case of erectile dysfunction associated with Varicella Zoster has previously been described, which was longstanding, but no cases of transient erectile dysfunction following Zoster infection are recorded. We present one such case.

  10. Varicella zoster vaccines and their implications for development of HSV vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, Anne A., E-mail: aag1@columbia.edu

    Live attenuated vaccines to prevent varicella and zoster have been available in the US for the past 17 years, with a resultant dramatic decrease in varicella incidence and a predicted future decrease in the incidence of zoster. The pathogenesis and immune responses to varicella zoster virus (VZV) as well as the safety and effectiveness of VZV vaccines are reviewed. The lack of sterilizing immunity provided by VZV vaccines has not prevented them from being safe and effective. Virological and pathological information concerning parallels and differences between VZV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are highlighted. Although VZV and HSV are distinctmore » pathogens, they appear to have similarities in target organs and immunity that provide an expectation of a high likelihood for the success of vaccination against HSV, and predicted to be similar to that of VZV.« less

  11. Varicella zoster vaccines and their implications for development of HSV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Anne A

    2013-01-05

    Live attenuated vaccines to prevent varicella and zoster have been available in the US for the past 17 years, with a resultant dramatic decrease in varicella incidence and a predicted future decrease in the incidence of zoster. The pathogenesis and immune responses to varicella zoster virus (VZV) as well as the safety and effectiveness of VZV vaccines are reviewed. The lack of sterilizing immunity provided by VZV vaccines has not prevented them from being safe and effective. Virological and pathological information concerning parallels and differences between VZV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are highlighted. Although VZV and HSV are distinct pathogens, they appear to have similarities in target organs and immunity that provide an expectation of a high likelihood for the success of vaccination against HSV, and predicted to be similar to that of VZV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibody class capture assays for varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, B; Myoraku, C K; Dupuis, K W; Schmidt, N J

    1984-01-01

    Pooled monoclonal antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were used as "detector" antibodies in a four-phase enzyme immunofluorescence assay for determination of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG antibodies to VZV. Polyclonal antisera specific for heavy chains of human IgM, IgA, and IgG were employed as "capture" antibodies on the solid phase. The antibody class capture assay (ACCA) for VZV IgM antibody detected high titers of virus-specific IgM in all patients with varicella and in 5 of 10 zoster patients. VZV IgM antibody was not detected in patients with primary herpes simplex virus infections or in other individuals without active VZV infection, with one exception, a patient with encephalitis who had other serological findings compatible with a reactivated VZV infection. VZV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers demonstrable by ACCA were compared with those measured by solid-phase indirect enzyme immunofluorescence assay (EIFA). VZV IgA antibody titers detected in patients with varicella and zoster were variable and could not be considered to be reliable markers of active VZV infection. IgA antibody titers detected by ACCA tended to be higher than those demonstrated by solid-phase indirect EIFA in varicella and zoster patients. VZV IgG antibody titers detected by ACCA in patients with varicella, and to a lesser extent in zoster patients, were as high as or higher than those demonstrated by solid-phase indirect EIFA. However, ACCA was totally insensitive in detecting VZV IgG antibody in individuals with past infections with VZV and would not be a suitable approach for determination of immunity status to VZV. PMID:6330163

  13. Herpes zoster: A clinicocytopathological insight.

    PubMed

    Shah, Snehal; Singaraju, Sasidhar; Einstein, A; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side. Cytopathology revealed classic features of herpes infection including inclusion bodies, perinuclear halo and multinucleated cells.

  14. Varicella zoster virus latency

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, Emily; Shahzad, Aamir; Cohrs, Randall J

    2011-01-01

    Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically results in childhood chickenpox, at which time latency is established in the neurons of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. During latency, the histone-associated virus genome assumes a circular episomal configuration from which transcription is epigenetically regulated. The lack of an animal model in which VZV latency and reactivation can be studied, along with the difficulty in obtaining high-titer cell-free virus, has limited much of our understanding of VZV latency to descriptive studies of ganglia removed at autopsy and analogy to HSV-1, the prototype alphaherpesvirus. However, the lack of miRNA, detectable latency-associated transcript and T-cell surveillance during VZV latency highlight basic differences between the two neurotropic herpesviruses. This article focuses on VZV latency: establishment, maintenance and reactivation. Comparisons are made with HSV-1, with specific attention to differences that make these viruses unique human pathogens. PMID:21695042

  15. [Recurrent herpes zoster with neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Schwickert, Myriam; Saha, Joyonto

    2006-06-01

    We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Herpes zoster has recurred several times per year for more than 15 years. At admission, rash localised on the right sacral region and accompanied by neuralgia had lasted for 3 months. Standard out-patient treatment remained unsuccessful. A multimodal integrative therapy regimen including fasting, hydrotherapy, leech application and treatment with autologous blood led to rapid healing of herpetic lesions and persistent pain relief. The case is discussed.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions Inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency Inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency is a genetic condition that ...

  17. Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

  18. Overall and Comparative Risk of Herpes Zoster With Pharmacotherapy for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nabeel; Patel, Dhruvan; Trivedi, Chinmay; Shah, Yash; Lichtenstein, Gary; Lewis, James; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2018-01-05

    oldest group of patients without IBD (older than 60 years). In 2 retrospective studies of Veteran populations, we associated IBD and treatment with thiopurines, alone or in combination with TNF antagonists, with increased risk of herpes zoster. With the approval of a new and potentially safer vaccine for herpes zoster, the effects of immunization of patients with IBD should be investigated. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex-hormone-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D C

    1974-01-01

    A review was made to understand how plasma binding protein might influence sex-hormone action in target tissues. Steroids are predominately bound to plasma proteins and only unbound steroids enter the cells. Sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds to both the main circulating steroid T and E2 but changes in SHBG concentrations exert significant results. Increased SHBG levels increase estrogen production and decreases T activity; whereas, increased androgens increase T action and inhibit SHBG production. These disturbances in hormone maintenance may lead to abnormal adult sex differentiation such as hirsutism and forms of hynaecomastia. By developing SHBG concentration measurement methods-responses of hirsutism to glucocorticoid or estrogem may be assessed. In addition, the effect of thyroid hormones on SHBG may also have therapeutic implications in endocrine disease.

  20. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  1. Kinetic of the CMV-specific T-cell immune response and CMV infection in CMV-seropositive kidney transplant recipients receiving rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction therapy: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gandul, Cecilia; Pérez-Romero, Pilar; Mena-Romo, Damián; Molina-Ortega, Alejandro; González-Roncero, Francisco M; Suñer, Marta; Bernal, Gabriel; Cordero, Elisa

    2018-03-23

    Some studies have suggested that rATG treatment may be associated with an increased incidence of CMV infection and delayed CMV immune response. However, the evidences supporting this matter are scarce. This study aims to characterize the kinetic of the CMV-specific T-cell immune response before and after rATG induction therapy and the relationship with the development of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive kidney transplant recipients. An observational prospective study of CMV-seropositive kidney transplant patients that received rATG induction therapy was performed. A pretransplant sample was obtained before the surgery to determine the CMV-specific immunity. CMV viral load (by PCR) and CMV-specific T-cell immune response (by flow cytometry) were determined during the follow-up at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months post transplantation. A total of 23 patients were included in the study. CMV prophylaxis was administrated for a media of 90 days after transplantation. At the end of follow-up, 18 (78.3%) patients had CMV-specific immunity with a median value of 0.31% CD8 + CD69 + INF-γ + T cells at a median of 16 weeks post transplantation. Five patients never acquired CMV-specific immunity. No statistically significant association between CMV infection and CMV-specific T-cell immune response (P = .086) was observed. However, patients with positive pretransplant CMV-specific immunity developed earlier immunity and achieved higher levels of CD8 + CD69 + INF-γ+ T-cell post-transplantation than patients with negative pretransplant immunity. CMV-specific immune monitoring in addition to CMV-serology may be useful to stratify patient's risk of CMV infection before transplantation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Vaccination against Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Oxman, Michael N.; Levin, Myron J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) cause significant morbidity in older adults. The incidence and severity of HZ and PHN increase with age in association with an age-related decline in varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (VZV-CMI). VZV vaccines can boost VZV-CMI. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that VZV vaccination would protect older adults against HZ and PHN. Methods. We enrolled 38,546 adults ⩾60 years of age in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an investigational HZ vaccine and actively followed subjects for the development of HZ. The primary end point was the burden of illness due to HZ (HZ BOI), a composite measure of the incidence, severity, and duration of pain and discomfort caused by HZ. The secondary end point was the incidence of PHN. Results. Subject retention was >95%. HZ vaccine reduced the HZ BOI by 61.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.1%–69.1%; P < .001) and reduced the incidence of PHN by 66.5% (95% CI, 47.5%–79.2%; P < .001). The incidence of HZ was also reduced by 51.3% (95% CI, 44.2%–57.6%; P < .001). HZ vaccine was well tolerated; injection site reactions were generally mild. HZ vaccine neither caused nor induced HZ. Conclusion. The Shingles Prevention Study demonstrated that HZ vaccine significantly reduced the morbidity due to HZ and PHN in older adults. PMID:18419402

  3. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is associated with herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Hens, Niel; Pebody, Richard; Jansens, Hilde; Seale, Holly; Quinlivan, Mark; Theeten, Heidi; Goossens, Herman; Breuer, Judy; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by VZV reactivation that is facilitated by a declined immunity against varicella-zoster virus (VZV), but also occurs in immunocompetent individuals. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with immunosenescence meaning that VZV-specific T-cells could be less responsive. This study aimed to determine whether CMV infection could be a risk factor for the development of HZ. CMV IgG serostatus was determined in stored serum samples from previously prospectively recruited ambulatory adult HZ patients in the UK (N = 223) in order to compare the results with those from UK population samples (N = 1545) by means of a logistic regression (controlling for age and gender). Furthermore, we compared the UK population CMV seroprevalence with those from population samples from other countries (from Belgium (N1 = 1741, N2 = 576), USA (N = 5572) and Australia (N = 2080)). Furthermore, CMV IgG titers could be compared between UK HZ patients and Belgium N2 population samples because the same experimental set-up for analysis was used. We found UK ambulatory HZ patients to have a higher CMV seroprevalence than UK population samples (OR 1.56 [1.11 2.19]). CMV IgG seropositivity was a significant risk factor for HZ in the UK (OR 3.06 [1.32 7.04]. Furthermore, high CMV IgG titers (exceeding the upper threshold) were less abundant in CMV-seropositive Belgian N2 population samples than in CMV-seropositive UK HZ patients (OR 0.51 [0.31 0.82]. We found CMV-seroprevalence to increase faster with age in the UK than in other countries (P < 0.05). We conclude that CMV IgG seropositivity is associated with HZ. This finding could add to the growing list of risk factors for HZ. PMID:25905443

  4. Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing fasciitis preceding herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kelli Y.; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old white man presented with unilateral radicular pain extending across the left side of his chest and back. A diagnosis of postherpetic neuralgia, a sequela of herpes zoster, was made. Herpes zoster represents a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that lies dormant in patients with past chickenpox. Risk factors for the disease include advanced age, stress, immunodeficiency, and immunosuppression. Treatment of herpes zoster entails traditional antiviral medications, while prevention may be achieved with a new prophylactic vaccine. PMID:23382617

  5. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk; Noh, Ji Yun; Huh, Joong Yeon; Jo, Yu Mi; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Kim, Woo Joo; Cheong, Hee Jin

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of herpes zoster can deteriorate the quality of life considerably, resulting in high disease burden. While Korea is assumed to have high disease burden of herpes zoster, there has been no researches analyzing this. We performed this study to investigate the disease burden of herpes zoster in the Korean population as a whole. We used the database of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service of Korea and analyzed the data of patients who had herpes zoster as a principal diagnosis during the period from 2003 to 2007. We investigated the annual prevalence, rate of clinical visits, rate of hospitalization, and the pattern of medical services use. The socioeconomic burden of herpes zoster was calculated by a conversion into cost. Rates of clinic visits and hospitalizations due to herpes zoster during the 5-year period from 2003 to 2007 were 7.93-12.54 per 1000 population and 0.22-0.32 per 1000 population, respectively. Prevalence rates according to age increased sharply after 50 years and reached a peak at 70 years. The total socioeconomic cost of herpes zoster was $75.9-143.8 million per year, increasing every year by 14-20%. There is a heavy socioeconomic burden due to herpes zoster in Korea and indicate that appropriate policies need to be established to reduce this burden. Additional researches are also necessary to assess the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a herpes zoster vaccine in the Korean population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Family history of zoster and risk of developing herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Chi, Margaret; Hung, Peggy; Harpaz, Rafael; Schmid, D Scott; LaRussa, Philip; Sy, Lina S; Luo, Yi; Holmquist, Kimberly; Takhar, Harpreet; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    Studies have investigated a possible association between family history of HZ and the occurrence of HZ. However, the results were inconclusive and susceptible to bias. We evaluated this association in an elderly population. The matched case-control study conducted at Kaiser Permanente Southern California in 2012-2015 included 656 incident HZ patients ≥60 whose skin lesion tested positive for varicella zoster virus by polymerase chain reaction. Half of the HZ patients were vaccinated with zoster vaccine as achieved by stratified sampling. The controls were randomly selected and 1:1 matched to the cases on sex, age (±1year), and zoster vaccination (±3 months of the case's vaccination date). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Having any blood relative with a history of HZ was associated with a slightly increased risk of HZ (adjusted OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.79). The adjusted OR associated with having one and two categories of first-degree blood relatives with a history of HZ was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.97-1.73) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.17-5.44), respectively. Our results suggested a weak association between the development of HZ and a positive family history of HZ among the elderly population. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of live attenuated zoster vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gabutti, G; Valente, N; Sulcaj, N; Stefanati, A

    2014-12-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a viral disease characterized by a dermatologic and neurologic involvement caused by the reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) acquired during primary infection (varicella). HZ incidence increases with age and is related to waning specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). The most frequent complication of HZ is post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) characterized by chronic pain lasting at least 30 days, with impact on patients' quality of life. Available treatments are quite unsatisfactory in reducing pain and length of the disease. The evaluation of the epidemiology, the debilitating complications (PHN), the suboptimal available treatments and the costs related to the diagnosis and clinical/therapeutic management of HZ patients have been the rationale for the search of an adequate preventive measure against this disease. The target of this intervention is to reduce the frequency and severity of HZ and related complications by stimulating CMI. Prevention has recently become possible with the live attenuated vaccine Oka/Merck, with an antigen content at least 10-fold higher than the antigen content of pediatric varicella vaccines. Clinical studies show a good level of efficacy and effectiveness, particularly against the burden of illness and PHN in all age classes. Accordingly to the summary of the characteristics of the product the zoster vaccine is indicated for the prevention of HZ and PHN in individuals 50 years of age or older and is effective and safe in subjects with a positive history of HZ.

  8. Risk of Herpes Zoster and Disseminated Varicella Zoster in Patients Taking Immunosuppressant Drugs at the Time of Zoster Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, T Craig; Marcy, S Michael; Tseng, Hung-Fu; Sy, Lina S; Liu, In-Lu Amy; Bixler, Felicia; Baxter, Roger; Donahue, James G; Naleway, Allison L; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2015-07-01

    To determine the risks associated with zoster vaccine when administered to patients taking immunosuppressant medications. Patients enrolled in 1 of 7 managed care organizations affiliated with the Vaccine Safety Datalink between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009, were eligible. The exposure of interest was zoster vaccination in patients with current or remote immunosuppressant drug use. The primary outcomes were disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes zoster in the 42 days after vaccination. Automated data were collected on immunosuppressant drugs and baseline medical conditions. A logistic regression model using inverse probability treatment weights was used to estimate the odds of developing VZV or herpes zoster. A total of 14,554 individuals had an immunosuppressant medication dispensed around the time of vaccination, including 4826 with current use and 9728 with remote use. Most patients were taking low-dose corticosteroids. No cases of disseminated VZV were found in the current or remote users. The risk of herpes zoster was elevated in the 42 days after vaccination in current vs remote users (adjusted odds ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.58-5.70). We found that patients taking immunosuppressant medications at the time of vaccination had a modest increased risk of herpes zoster in the 42 days after vaccination. The development of herpes zoster within 42 days after vaccination suggests that this is more likely due to reactivation of latent zoster virus than dissemination of the vaccine-derived varicella virus. These findings support the current zoster vaccination guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

  9. [Herpes zoster infection with acute urinary retention].

    PubMed

    Jakab, G; Komoly, S; Juhász, E

    1990-03-11

    The history of a young female patient is presented. She developed urine retention of sudden onset as a complication of herpes zoster infection manifested in the sacral dermatomes. Symptomatic and antiviral treatments were introduced with full recovery of bladder function. The correct diagnosis of this rare and benign complication of herpes zoster infection can help to avoid unnecessary and invasive examinations.

  10. Herpes zoster vaccine. Poorly effective in those who need it most.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    The results of a clinical trial suggest that zoster vaccination (Zostavax, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) of 1000 healthy persons aged 60 years or over prevents approximately one case of postherpetic neuralgia each year over the next 3 years. Vaccination is less effective in persons over 70 years of age. The results of another clinical trial suggest that vaccination of 1000 healthy persons aged 50 to 59 years prevents about 5 cases of herpes zoster over the following year. The impact on the frequency of postherpetic neuralgia is not known. The vaccine might not be protective in persons who subsequently become immunocompromised. In the trial in persons aged 50 years or older, 50% of vaccinees had mild local adverse effects. It should be noted that the protocol excluded immunocompromised patients, in whom the live vaccine virus could potentially cause clinically significant infection. In one study, the immune response to the vaccine was lower after simultaneous immunisation with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. This live zoster vaccine is contraindicated in immunocompromised individuals, yet they are at highest risk of severe zoster. In practice, zoster vaccination is not sufficiently effective in the elderly to justify its widespread use.

  11. Herpes zoster duplex bilateralis in an immunocompetent adolescent boy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chen; Laguna, Benjamin A; Marlowe, Lauren E; Keller, Michael D; Treat, James R

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous involvement of herpes zoster in multiple dermatomes is uncommon, and even more so in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case wherein a healthy adolescent boy presented with herpes zoster in two distinct dermatomes, raising concern for immunodeficiency, but he was found to be immunocompetent on further testing. A 14-year-old boy with no significant past medical history developed painless vesicular eruptions in two distinct distributions. Varicella zoster virus polymerase chain reaction was positive from unroofed vesicles in both regions. Initial laboratory studies disclosed abnormalities of unknown significance in natural killer (NK) cell percentage and function. The patient was treated with appropriate antiviral therapy. Repeat studies while healthy were not suggestive of an underlying NK cell defect. There are few case reports describing herpes zoster in two or more dermatomes in children. Previously described presentations most commonly occurred in the context of primary immunodeficiency, acquired immunodeficiency, or immunosuppressive medications. Because of the rarity of this presentation in immunocompetent patients, the authors recommend a thorough immune evaluation of all children presenting with isolated multidermatomal zoster. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Vaccine profile of herpes zoster (HZ/su) subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Heineman, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) causes an often severe and painful rash in older people and may be complicated by prolonged pain (postherpetic neuralgia; PHN) and by dissemination in immune-compromised patients. HZ results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, often associated with age-related or other causes of decreased T cell immunity. A live attenuated vaccine boosts this immunity and provides partial protection against HZ, but this decreases with age and declines over 8 years. Areas covered: A new HZ subunit (HZ/su) vaccine combines a key surface VZV glycoprotein (E) with a T cell-boosting adjuvant system (AS01 B ) and is administered by two intramuscular injections two months apart. Expert commentary: HZ/su showed excellent efficacy of ~90% in immunocompetent adults ≥50 and ≥70 years of age, respectively, in the ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 phase III controlled trials. Efficacy was unaffected by advancing age and persisted for >3 years. Approximately 9.5% of subjects had severe, but transient (1-2 days) injection site pain, swelling or redness. Compliance with both vaccine doses was high (95%). The vaccine will have a major impact on HZ management. Phase I-II trials showed safety and immunogenicity in severely immunocompromised patients. Phase III trial results are expected soon.

  13. Impact of Underlying Conditions on Zoster-Related Pain and on Quality of Life Following Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Bricout, Hélène; Bertrand, Isabelle; Perinetti, Emilia; Franco, Elisabetta; Gabutti, Giovanni; Volpi, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic conditions have been investigated as risk factors for developing zoster, but in patients suffering from zoster, the impact of underlying conditions in zoster-related pain and quality of life (QOL) remains unclear. Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study in immunocompetent zoster patients aged 50 years or older, conducted by general practitioners in Italy between 2009 and 2010. Zoster symptoms, pain intensity and characteristics, and physical and mental health scores were assessed at baseline (zoster diagnosis) and at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up. Results: Among 413 patients enrolled in the study, 73% (303/413) suffered from underlying conditions of which 69% (209/303) were aged 65 or older. Cardiovascular diseases (75%), diabetes (24%), and respiratory diseases (17%) were most frequent. One to three months after onset, zoster patients with underlying conditions experienced more intense zoster-related pain than those without. QOL scores were significantly lower in patients with underlying conditions, and age-adjusted difference in QOL scores between the groups increased over time, demonstrating a slower recovery for patients with underlying conditions. Conclusions: In addition to age, the main risk factor of zoster occurrence and severity, the presence of underlying conditions results in more painful and impactful zoster episodes, creating a significant burden for these patients. PMID:27793966

  14. Complete unilateral ophthalmoplegia in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Srinivasan; Chan, Errol Wei'en; Gopal, Lekha; Hegde, Smita Rane; Chang, Benjamin Chong-Ming

    2009-12-01

    Based on a review of 20 well-documented cases reported in the English literature between 1968 and 2008, herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) may rarely be associated with complete unilateral ophthalmoplegia, defined here as impaired ocular ductions in all 4 directions within 3 months of onset of manifestations of HZO. Ophthalmoplegia occurred equally in immune-competent and immune-incompetent individuals. HZO preceded ophthalmoplegia in 75% by a mean interval of 9.5 days and a range of 2 to 60 days, occurred simultaneously with ophthalmoplegia in 20%, and followed by 2 days the onset of ophthalmoplegia in only 5%. Concurrent conjunctival inflammation, keratitis, or anterior uveitis was present in 90%. Lumbar puncture showed features of aseptic meningitis in 88%, slightly more than the 40%-50% found in patients with HZO without ophthalmoplegia. On orbit/brain imaging, abnormal enlargement of the extraocular muscles was present in 33%, and orbital soft tissue swelling was present in 17%. Enhancement of ocular motor cranial nerves was not reported. Complete or near-complete resolution of ophthalmoplegia occurred in 65% within a range of 2 weeks to 1.5 years (mean 4.4 months). A single autopsy report described granulomatous angiitis of the meninges and large vessels in the anterior cerebral circulation, as well as periaxial infarction in the optic nerve, pons, and medulla but without viral inclusion bodies or antigen. Unsettled issues are whether the pathogenesis is direct viral invasion or an immune reaction to the virus, whether the impaired ocular ductions are based on myopathic or neuropathic injury, whether there are predisposing factors to the combination of HZO and complete ophthalmoplegia, and whether treatment is effective.

  15. Herpes zoster caused by vaccine-strain varicella zoster virus in an immunocompetent recipient of zoster vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Schmid, D Scott; Harpaz, Rafael; LaRussa, Philip; Jensen, Nancy J; Rivailler, Pierre; Radford, Kay; Folster, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    We report the first laboratory-documented case of herpes zoster caused by the attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) contained in Zostavax in a 68-year-old immunocompetent adult with strong evidence of prior wild-type VZV infection. The complete genome sequence of the isolate revealed that the strain carried 15 of 42 (36%) recognized varicella vaccine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including all 5 of the fixed vaccine markers present in nearly all of the strains in the vaccine. The case of herpes zoster was relatively mild and resolved without complications.

  16. Herpes Zoster Caused by Vaccine-Strain Varicella Zoster Virus in an Immunocompetent Recipient of Zoster Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Schmid, D. Scott; Harpaz, Rafael; LaRussa, Philip; Jensen, Nancy J.; Rivailler, Pierre; Radford, Kay; Folster, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first laboratory-documented case of herpes zoster caused by the attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) contained in Zostavax in a 68-year-old immunocompetent adult with strong evidence of prior wild-type VZV infection. The complete genome sequence of the isolate revealed that the strain carried 15 of 42 (36%) recognized varicella vaccine–associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including all 5 of the fixed vaccine markers present in nearly all of the strains in the vaccine. The case of herpes zoster was relatively mild and resolved without complications. PMID:24470276

  17. Chronic active VZV infection manifesting as zoster sine herpete, zoster paresis and myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Morita, Y; Osaki, Y; Doi, Y; Forghani, B; Gilden, D H

    2003-08-15

    After lumbar-distribution zoster, an HTLV-1-seropositive woman developed chronic radicular sacral-distribution pain (zoster sine herpete), cervical-distribution zoster paresis and thoracic-distribution myelopathy. Detection of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgM and VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with reduced serum/CSF ratios of anti-VZV IgG compared to normal serum/CSF ratios for albumin and total IgG, proved that VZV caused the protracted neurological complications. Diagnosis by antibody testing led to aggressive antiviral treatment and a favorable outcome.

  18. Urinary retention associated with herpes zoster infection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L M; Fowler, J F; Owen, L G; Callen, J P

    1993-01-01

    Herpes zoster infection particularly involving the sacral dermatomes has been associated with bladder and bowel dysfunction, most commonly urinary retention. We report two patients who developed acute urinary retention, one of whom also had constipation, within days of herpes zoster skin lesions of the S2-S4 dermatomes. Herpes zoster is a reversible cause of neurogenic bladder and bowel dysfunction and should be considered in a patient that presents with acute urinary retention and/or constipation. Sensory abnormalities and flaccid detrusor paralysis are most likely involved in the pathogenesis.

  19. Varicella Zoster Virus and Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo, Julio; Corona, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder; however, little is known about the triggering factors of the abnormal immune response. Different viruses from the herpes family have been mentioned as potential participants. Here, we review the evidences that support the association of varicella zoster virus (VZV) with MS. Epidemiological studies from geographical areas, where incidence of MS has increased in recent decades, pointed out a high frequency of varicella and zoster in the clinical antecedents of MS patients, and also laboratory investigations have found large quantities of DNA from VZV in leucocytes and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients restricted to the ephemeral period of MS relapse, followed by disappearance of the virus during remission. The above observations and the peculiar features of VZV, mainly characterized by its neurotropism and long periods of latency followed by viral reactivation, support the idea on the participation of VZV in the etiology of MS. However, as with reports from studies with other viruses, particularly Epstein Barr virus, conflicting results on confirmatory studies about the presence of viral gene products in brain tissue indicate the need for further research on the potential participation of VZV in the etiology of MS. PMID:22096629

  20. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine, successes and difficulties.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Despite intensive efforts in recent decades to develop preventive or therapeutic vaccines against diseases caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), or varicella-zoster virus (VZV), members of the Alpha herpes virinae subfamily of human herpes viruses,a safe and efficient vaccine has been approved for commercial development only against VZV. The VZV vaccine contains a live attenuated strain, OKA. It consists of amixture of at least 13 subpopulations of viruses, all with deletions, insertions or mutations in the genome; the most common mutations are observed in the open reading frame 62 (ORF62). Experience over more than 30 years in Japan, the USA and other countries where VZV vaccination is provided has demonstrated that the vaccine is safe and the effectiveness of two doses compared to unvaccinated children is 98-99%. When administered in a higher dose to stimulate the declining cell-mediated immunity, the same vaccine has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of herpes zoster in immunocompetent individuals older than 60 years. Vaccination of immuno-compromised subjects with this VZV vaccine is problematic and various strategies need to be explored. Differences in the pathomechanisms of infection, latency and immune evasion of VZV and HSV, together with host genetic factors, may explain the availability of the successful VZV vaccine and the failures of the past HSV vaccine candidates.

  1. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Globulin. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Anti-Human Globulin... in tissue cultures or in secondary hosts. [50 FR 5579, Feb. 11, 1985, as amended at 65 FR 77499, Dec...

  2. Poor recall of prior exposure to varicella zoster, rubella, measles, or mumps in patients with IBD.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Makoto; Nagahori, Masakazu; Fujii, Toshimitsu; Morio, Junko; Saito, Eiko; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have measured the levels of antibodies specific for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster/chickenpox viruses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients undergoing treatment with immunomodulators/biologics. We prospectively recruited 139 IBD outpatients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used as the serological tests for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster. We defined anti-rubella IgG < 10 IU/mL, anti-measles IgG < 16 IU/mL, and anti-mumps/varicella zoster IgG <4 IU/mL as seronegative for viruses. We also asked participants about past immunizations against or infections with measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster viruses. The proportion of patients with seronegative levels of antibodies specific for varicella zoster, rubella, measles, and mumps viruses was 5%, 30%, 34%, and 37%, respectively. Approximately 40% of the IBD patients did not remember whether they had previously been infected with any of the viruses, and almost one-third of the patients could not remember whether they had previously been vaccinated. Almost 30% of the patients with a past history of rubella or measles did not have seropositive antibody levels. A total of 54% of the patients being treated with immunosuppressant displayed seronegative levels of antibodies specific for at least one of the viruses. Many IBD patients were unaware of whether they had previously been vaccinated against or infected with the viruses causing varicella zoster, rubella, measles, or mumps. Therefore, measuring the current levels of antibodies specific for such viruses is useful for determining whether patients have seropositive antibody levels before immunomodulators/biologics are used for therapy.

  3. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster <10 years ago, which provides a boost in cell-medicated immunity to VZV (2). No VZV DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease

  4. Providers' lack of knowledge about herpes zoster in HIV-infected patients is among barriers to herpes zoster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M; Kessler, H; Huhn, G

    2013-06-01

    Identification of perceptions about herpes zoster (HZ) disease, vaccine effectiveness and safety, and vaccine recommendations may impact immunization practices of physicians for HIV-infected patients. A survey was used to quantify knowledge of HZ as well as determine physician immunization perceptions and practices. There were 272/1700 respondents (16%). Correct answers for the incidence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in adults and incidence of HZ in HIV-infected patients were recorded by 14% and 10% of providers, respectively. Providers reported poor knowledge of the incidence of disease recurrence in HIV-infected patients (41% correct), potency of HZ vaccine (47.5% correct) and mechanism of protection against reactivation of VZV (66% correct). Most (88%) agreed that HZ was a serious disease, and 73% believed that the burden of disease made vaccination important. A majority (75%) did not vaccinate HIV patients with HZ vaccine regardless of antiretroviral therapy status. Barriers to administration included safety concerns, concern that vaccine would not prevent HZ, risk of HZ dissemination, reimbursement issues and lack of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines. Only 38% of providers agreed that CDC guidelines were clear and 50% believed that clinical trials were needed prior to use of HZ vaccine in HIV-infected patients. Education about HZ is needed among HIV providers. Providers perceived vaccination as important, but data on vaccine safety and clear guidance from the CDC on this issue are lacking.

  5. Community and patient values for preventing herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tracy A; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Ray, G Thomas; Rusinak, Donna; Yih, W Katherine; Choo, Peter W; Shui, Irene; Kleinman, Ken; Harpaz, Rafael; Prosser, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recently recommended a new vaccine against herpes zoster (shingles) for routine use in adults aged > or =60 years. However, estimates of the cost effectiveness of this vaccine vary widely, in part because of gaps in the data on the value of preventing herpes zoster. Our aims were to (i) generate comprehensive information on the value of preventing a range of outcomes of herpes zoster; (ii) compare these values among community members and patients with shingles and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN); and (iii) identify clinical and demographic characteristics that explain the variation in these values. Community members drawn from a nationally representative survey research panel (n = 527) completed an Internet-based survey using time trade-off and willingness-to-pay questions to value a series of scenarios that described cases of herpes zoster with varying pain intensities (on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 represents no pain and 10 represents the worst imaginable pain) and duration (30 days to 1 year). Patients with shingles (n = 382) or PHN (n = 137) [defined as having symptoms for > or =90 days] from two large healthcare systems completed telephone interviews with similar questions to the Internet-based survey and also answered questions about their current experience with herpes zoster. We constructed generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the associations between demographic and clinical characteristics, the length and intensity of the health states and time trade-off and willingness-to-pay values. In time trade-off questions, community members offered a mean of 89 (95% CI 24, 182) discounted days to avoid the least severe scenario (pain level of 3 for 1 month) and a mean of 162 (95% CI 88, 259) discounted days to avoid the most severe scenario (pain level of 8 for 12 months). Compared with patients with shingles, community members traded more days to avoid low-severity scenarios but similar numbers of days

  6. Herpes zoster and vaccination: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Erin N; Parnapy, Sarah; Bautista, Philip

    2010-05-01

    Herpes zoster, herpes zoster vaccine, and the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine are reviewed. Herpes zoster infection is estimated to affect one in three people during their lifetime. Two thirds of people who develop this disease are over age 60 years. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster, occurring in 10-18% of patients. The associated chronic pain can be very debilitating, affecting patients' quality of life. The pain may last for months or years and is difficult to treat, leading to increased health care costs and morbidity. To prevent herpes zoster, a live attenuated vaccine was developed and approved for marketing in 2006 for individuals age > or = 60 years. The safety and efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated in the Shingles Prevention Study in 38,546 adults age > or = 60 years. Compared with placebo, administration of the vaccine resulted in a 51.3% reduction in the incidence of herpes zoster and a 66.5% reduction in the incidence of PHN (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). A single dose of the vaccine is approximately $162 and is not covered by all insurance plans. Several studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, which was found to be most beneficial in individuals age 70 years or older. The use of the vaccine appears to reduce health care costs and protect the public health. The herpes zoster vaccine is effective in preventing herpes zoster and decreasing the incidence of complications. However, insurance coverage may hinder eligible patients from receiving the vaccination.

  7. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the two study groups. In our

  8. Herpes zoster vaccine in older adults and the risk of subsequent herpes zoster disease.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Smith, Ning; Harpaz, Rafael; Bialek, Stephanie R; Sy, Lina S; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2011-01-12

    Approximately 1 million episodes of herpes zoster occur annually in the United States. Although prelicensure data provided evidence that herpes zoster vaccine works in a select study population under idealized circumstances, the vaccine needs to be evaluated in field conditions. To evaluate risk of herpes zoster after receipt of herpes zoster vaccine among individuals in general practice settings. A retrospective cohort study from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2009, of individuals enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan. Participants were immunocompetent community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older. The 75,761 members in the vaccinated cohort were age matched (1:3) to 227,283 unvaccinated members. Incidence of herpes zoster. Herpes zoster vaccine recipients were more likely to be white, women, with more outpatient visits, and fewer chronic diseases. The number of herpes zoster cases among vaccinated individuals was 828 in 130,415 person-years (6.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-6.8), and for unvaccinated individuals it was 4606 in 355,659 person-years (13.0 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 12.6-13.3). In adjusted analysis, vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of herpes zoster (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.42-0.48); this reduction occurred in all age strata and among individuals with chronic diseases. Risk of herpes zoster differed by vaccination status to a greater magnitude than the risk of unrelated acute medical conditions, suggesting results for herpes zoster were not due to bias. Ophthalmic herpes zoster (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.23-0.61) and hospitalizations coded as herpes zoster (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.51) were less likely among vaccine recipients. Among immunocompetent community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older, receipt of the herpes zoster vaccine was associated with a lower incidence of herpes zoster. The risk was reduced among all age strata and among individuals with

  9. Acquired Immunological Tolerance to a Fraction of Bovine Gamma Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, D. W.

    1961-01-01

    A state of acquired immunological tolerance to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) has been observed in CBA mice injected with 10 mg. BGG within 12 hours of birth. Tolerance was demonstrated by a lack of immune elimination of 131I labelled BGG (BGG-131I) after prior challenge with Freund's adjuvant containing BGG. The degree of tolerance was found to diminish when the time between the tolerance injection and the challenge injection with adjuvant was increased. Mice were found to be tolerant 4 months after injection of 10 mg. BGG at birth but other similarly treated mice were found to be partially immune when challenged 6 months after the tolerance injection. This diminution of tolerance could be prevented by injections of antigen into adult mice whilst they were still tolerant. Precipitin and haemagglutination tests showed that antibody to BGG was present in mice shown to be tolerant to BGG by the antigen-elimination technique. The Ouchterlony double-diffusion technique showed that the mice were tolerant to one fraction of BGG but immune to at least one other fraction. The tolerated fraction of BGG was identified by means of starch-gel electrophoresis. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:13724353

  10. Bilateral Retrobulbar Optic Neuritis Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus in a Patient with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Jose F.; Castro, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To report on a case of bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV); and to review the literature focusing on: cases reported, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Presentation of Case A 38-year-old woman with AIDS presented with a 10-day history of progressive bilateral visual loss and ocular pain. She had bilateral dilated pupils with no light perception; the fundoscopic examination was normal. Facial herpes zoster lesions appeared on the second day of hospitalization Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were compatible with a bilateral optic neuritis; the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis, increased proteins and a positive VZV-DNA PCR. She was treated with intravenous acyclovir and corticosteroids and was able, when discharged 2 weeks after admission, to carry out activities of daily living. Discussion VZV retrobulbar optic neuritis has previously been reported in 12 patients with AIDS, more than half of the cases had concomitant herpes zoster and an associated retinopathy. A positive VZV-DNA in the CSF is indicative of VZV infection, initial use of intravenous acyclovir is recommended, and the concomitant use of corticosteroids would be a prudent choice; the duration of antiviral therapy remains undefined. Conclusion VZV retrobulbar optic neuritis in AIDS patients can occur with or without herpes zoster. It is a sight-threatening infectious and inflammatory process requiring the advice of specialists in infectious diseases, ophthalmology, neurology and viral microbiology. PMID:26740936

  11. Human antibodies to bovine alpha-globulin.

    PubMed

    Foucard, T; Bennich, H; Johansson, S G; Lundkvist, U

    1975-01-01

    Antibodies to bovine gamma-globulin (anti-BGG antibodies) were detectable by a radio-immunoassay in 70% of healthy blood donors but, generally, the titres were low. Significantly increased concentrations of anti-BGG antibodies were found in patients lacking IgA but not in patients with allergic disorders. The anti-BGG antibodies were shown to give rise to falsely high IgE values in the radio-immunosorbent test for IgE determination (RIST) when a sheep anti-IgE antiserum was used. Furthermore, falsely positive results can sometimes be caused by such antibodies in the determination of cow-dander- or cow's-milk-specific IgE by the radio-allergosorbent test (RAST). When a rabbit anti-IgE antiserum was used instead of the sheep anti-IgE, normal IgE levels and negative RAST results were obtained. The difference is explained by the higher degree of cross-reactivity between the anti-BGG antibodies and sheep alpha-globulin than between anti-BGG antibodies and rabbit alpha-globulin.

  12. Polyclonal antithymocyte globulin and cardiovascular disease in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ducloux, Didier; Courivaud, Cécile; Bamoulid, Jamal; Crepin, Thomas; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    T-lymphocyte activation may contribute to atherosclerosis, the prevalence of which is increased in transplant patients. However, the cardiovascular consequences of polyclonal antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-induced immune modifications, which include alterations in T-cell subsets, are unknown. We conducted a retrospective single-center study to assess whether ATG associates with an increased incidence of atherosclerotic events (CVEs) in kidney transplant patients. Propensity score analysis was performed to address potential confounding by indication. We also tested whether ATG use induces a proatherogenic immune status. Sixty-nine (12.2%) CVEs occurred during follow-up (87±31 months). The cumulative incidence of CVEs was higher in ATG-treated patients (14.7% versus 8.2%; P=0.03). Cox regression analysis revealed that ATG use was an independent risk factor for CVEs (hazard ratio [HR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.35 to 4.13; P=0.003). Results obtained in the propensity score match analysis recapitulated those obtained from the overall cohort (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.98; P=0.02). Late-stage differentiated CD8(+) T cells increased 1 year after transplantation only in ATG-treated patients. More generally, ATG associated with features of immune activation. These modifications increased markedly in patients exposed to cytomegalovirus (CMV). Subanalyses suggest that the effect of ATG on CVEs is restricted to CMV-exposed patients. However, CMV infection associated significantly with CVEs only in ATG-treated patients (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.16 to 3.70; P=0.01). In conclusion, ATG associated with both immune activation and post-transplant CVEs in this cohort. Further studies should precisely determine whether ATG-induced immune activation is the causal link between ATG and CVEs. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Polyclonal Antithymocyte Globulin and Cardiovascular Disease in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Courivaud, Cécile; Bamoulid, Jamal; Crepin, Thomas; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    T-lymphocyte activation may contribute to atherosclerosis, the prevalence of which is increased in transplant patients. However, the cardiovascular consequences of polyclonal antithymocyte globulin (ATG)–induced immune modifications, which include alterations in T-cell subsets, are unknown. We conducted a retrospective single-center study to assess whether ATG associates with an increased incidence of atherosclerotic events (CVEs) in kidney transplant patients. Propensity score analysis was performed to address potential confounding by indication. We also tested whether ATG use induces a proatherogenic immune status. Sixty-nine (12.2%) CVEs occurred during follow-up (87±31 months). The cumulative incidence of CVEs was higher in ATG-treated patients (14.7% versus 8.2%; P=0.03). Cox regression analysis revealed that ATG use was an independent risk factor for CVEs (hazard ratio [HR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.35 to 4.13; P=0.003). Results obtained in the propensity score match analysis recapitulated those obtained from the overall cohort (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.98; P=0.02). Late-stage differentiated CD8+ T cells increased 1 year after transplantation only in ATG-treated patients. More generally, ATG associated with features of immune activation. These modifications increased markedly in patients exposed to cytomegalovirus (CMV). Subanalyses suggest that the effect of ATG on CVEs is restricted to CMV-exposed patients. However, CMV infection associated significantly with CVEs only in ATG-treated patients (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.16 to 3.70; P=0.01). In conclusion, ATG associated with both immune activation and post-transplant CVEs in this cohort. Further studies should precisely determine whether ATG-induced immune activation is the causal link between ATG and CVEs. PMID:24511120

  14. Herpes zoster vaccine and the incidence of recurrent herpes zoster in an immunocompetent elderly population.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Chi, Margaret; Smith, Ning; Marcy, Stephen M; Sy, Lina S; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2012-07-15

    The benefit of vaccinating immunocompetent patients who have had shingles has not been examined. The study assessed the association between vaccination and the incidence of herpes zoster recurrence among persons with a recent episode of clinically diagnosed herpes zoster. This is a matched cohort study in Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Study populations were immunocompetent elderly individuals ≥ 60 years old with a recent episode of herpes zoster. Incidence of recurrent herpes zoster was compared between the vaccinated and the unvaccinated matched cohorts. A total of 1036 vaccinated and 5180 unvaccinated members were included. On the basis of clinically confirmed cases, the incidence of recurrent herpes zoster among persons aged <70 years was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], .02-5.54) and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.10-3.93) cases per 1000 person-years in the vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.39 (95% CI, .05-4.45) among persons aged <70 years and 1.05 (95% CI, .30-3.69) among persons aged ≥ 70 years. The risk of herpes zoster recurrence following a recent initial episode is fairly low among immunocompetent adults, regardless of vaccination status. Such a low risk suggests that one should evaluate the necessity of immediately vaccinating immunocompetent patients who had a recent herpes zoster episode.

  15. Zoster vaccination is associated with a reduction of zoster in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Langan, Sinéad M; Thomas, Sara L; Smeeth, Liam; Margolis, David J; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2016-12-01

    Growing epidemiological evidence demonstrates increased zoster risks in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Study objectives were to determine zoster vaccine effectiveness in individuals with CKD in pragmatic use. A population-based cohort study was undertaken in a 5% random sample of US Medicare from 2007 to 2009 involving 766 330 eligible individuals aged ≥65 years who were (29 785) and were not (736 545) exposed to the zoster vaccine. Incidence rates for zoster in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals and hazard ratios for zoster comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated were determined for individuals with CKD. Time-updated Cox proportional hazards models were used, adjusting for relevant confounders. CKD was present in 183 762 (24%) of individuals (15% of vaccinees). Adjusted vaccine effectiveness [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] in individuals with CKD was 0.49 (0.36-0.65). The adjusted vaccine effectiveness in participants with both CKD and diabetes mellitus was 0.46 (95% CI 0.09-0.68). Vaccine effectiveness estimates were similar to those previously reported for the general population [vaccine effectiveness 0.48 (95% CI 0.39-0.56)]. Zoster vaccine is effective against incident zoster in older individuals with CKD. Extra efforts are warranted to increase vaccine uptake in individuals with CKD given the known low uptake in these higher risk individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  16. Reactivation of herpes zoster keratitis in an adult after varicella zoster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Charles W; Steigleman, Walter A; Saucedo-Sanchez, Erika; Tuli, Sonal S

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the case of a patient who presented with reactivation of herpes zoster (HZ) keratitis and worsening of neurotrophic keratopathy, keratouveitis, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca after vaccination with live attenuated HZ vaccine (Zostavax) is described. This is a retrospective case review. A 63-year-old man, with a history of HZ keratouveitis and neurotrophic keratopathy that had been quiescent for 3.5 years off medication, presented with keratouveitis 2 weeks after Zostavax administration. Oral acyclovir and topical prednisolone acetate and cyclopentolate were started, with subsequent improvement in inflammation and visual acuity. However, the patient was unable to be tapered completely off the steroids. HZ keratouveitis is the result of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) directed toward viral antigens within the eye. The live attenuated HZ vaccine, Zostavax, boosts the recipient's CMI to prevent reactivation of HZ. However, patients with a history of HZ keratitis may have persistent viral antigens in their corneas and can develop recurrence of keratouveitis because of the vaccine-induced increase in CMI. Vaccination should be undertaken with caution in patients with a history of HZ ophthalmicus.

  17. Varicella zoster virus: chickenpox and shingles.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    The varicella zoster virus causes two infections: varicella, also known as chickenpox occurring mostly in childhood, and herpes zoster, also known as shingles affecting mainly older people. Varicella usually occurs in children under ten years of age. It is generally a mild infection and in the UK vaccination is not offered as part of the routine immunisation programme. However, adults who develop varicella are at risk of developing complications and the infection is likely to be more severe. Serious complications are a particular risk for pregnant women, unborn children, neonates and those who are immunocompromised. Nurses whose work brings them into contact with those at risk have a vital role in providing information about the importance of avoiding varicella. After the acute infection, the varicella zoster virus gains access to the ganglia in the sensory nervous system where it can remain dormant for years. Reactivation results in herpes zoster, a common and unpleasant illness. A vaccine for herpes zoster was introduced for people aged 70-79 in the UK in September 2013.

  18. Incidence of Herpes Zoster and Persistent Post-Zoster Pain in Adults With or Without Diabetes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Suaya, Jose A.; Chen, Shih-Yin; Li, Qian; Burstin, Stuart J.; Levin, Myron J.

    2014-01-01

    Background  This study was designed to assess the association between diabetes and herpes zoster (HZ) and persistent post-zoster pain (PPZP). Methods  We used a United States-based, 2005–2009 retrospective observational study of medical and pharmacy claims from adults in 3 large national databases. Incidence rate ratios were used to compare HZ incidence by diabetes status. Multivariate regressions assessed the age and sex-adjusted risk of diabetes on HZ and PPZP as a function of immune competence. National projections of HZ and PPZP cases were obtained. Results  Among 51 million enrollees (∼88 million person-years [PYs] at risk), we identified 420 515 HZ cases. Patients with diabetes represented 8.7% of the PYs analyzed but accounted for 14.5% of the HZ cases and 20.3% of the PPZP cases. The crude incidence of HZ was 78% higher (7.96 vs 4.48 cases/1000 PY; P < .01) and the rate of PPZP was 50% higher (5.97% vs 3.93%; P < .01) in individuals with diabetes than without. Individuals with diabetes had 45% higher adjusted risk of HZ (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.45; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.43–1.46) and 18% higher adjusted odds of PPZP (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13–1.24). The risk of HZ associated with diabetes among immune-compromised individuals was weaker (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07–1.14) and the risk of PPZP was no longer significant. Every year, approximately 1.2 million HZ cases occur in US adults, 13% of these occur in individuals with diabetes. Conclusions  Diabetes is a risk factor for HZ and PPZP in the US adult population. This association is stronger in immune-competent individuals. PMID:25734121

  19. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... remembers" the germ and can fight it again. Vaccines contain germs that have been killed or weakened. When given to a healthy person, the vaccine triggers the immune system to respond and thus ...

  20. [Four cases of urinary dysfunction associated with sacral herpes zoster].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomohiro; Oba, Kojiro; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki

    2014-02-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by the infection of Varicella-Zoster virus. The anatomical distribution of herpes zoster in the sacral area is only 6. 9%1). Moreover, the onset rate of herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction is 0.6%1). The lesion sites of herpes zoster which cause urinary dysfunction are almost lumber and sacral areas. We describe four cases of sacral herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction in this report. All patients were elderly people (66-84 years old), and all patients were administered anti-virus drugs and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers. Because of urinary retention, three patients have performed clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC) for several weeks. As the lesions of herpes zoster healed, each patient recovered from urinary dysfunction.

  1. Neurogenic bladder from occult herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, J F; Walicke, P A; Swenson, M R

    1986-11-01

    Active infection with herpes zoster may cause acute urinary retention, especially when it involves sacral dermatomes. Although frank retention usually develops days to weeks after eruption of the typical rash, bladder incompetence infrequently develops first, raising concern over other, more ominous etiologies. In the case presented, rash appearance was delayed until six weeks after the initial onset of urinary retention, a much longer interval than previously reported. Occult herpes zoster infection should be considered in patients presenting with an acute neurogenic bladder of obscure cause.

  2. Impact of irradiation and immunosuppressive agents on immune system homeostasis in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, C; Walker, J; Dewane, J; Engelmann, F; Laub, W; Pillai, S; Thomas, Charles R; Messaoudi, I

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of non-myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with immunosuppressive chemotherapy on immune homeostasis in rhesus macaques. Our results show that the administration of cyclosporin A or tacrolimus without radiotherapy did not result in lymphopenia. The addition of TBI to the regimen resulted in lymphopenia as well as alterations in the memory/naive ratio following reconstitution of lymphocyte populations. Dendritic cell (DC) numbers in whole blood were largely unaffected, while the monocyte population was altered by immunosuppressive treatment. Irradiation also resulted in increased levels of circulating cytokines and chemokines that correlated with T cell proliferative bursts and with the shift towards memory T cells. We also report that anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) treatment and CD3 immunotoxin administration resulted in a selective and rapid depletion of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells and increased frequency of memory T cells. We also examined the impact of these treatments on reactivation of latent simian varicella virus (SVV) infection as a model of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection of humans. None of the treatments resulted in overt SVV reactivation; however, select animals had transient increases in SVV-specific T cell responses following immunosuppression, suggestive of subclinical reactivation. Overall, we provide detailed observations into immune modulation by TBI and chemotherapeutic agents in rhesus macaques, an important research model of human disease. PMID:25902927

  3. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

  4. Preparation of a Homologous (Human) Intravenous Botulinal Immune Globulin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    lipoprotein ( HDL ) per ml of plasma to ŗ.06 mg/ml for beta- lipoprotein (LDL). Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were intermediate within this...OF LIPOPROTEIN DURING FRACTIONATION "( HDL ) (LDL) Triglyceride Cholesterol cxLipoprotein 8 LipoproteinSample mg/ml mg/ml mg/mi m/ml IVBG-l.A:"Plasma...plasminogen, prekallikrein, triglycerides , cholesterol , alpha- lipoprotein , beta- lipoprotein , clotting factors, fibrinogen and complement

  5. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  6. Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Practical Consideration for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a transient disease caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in spinal or cranial sensory ganglia. It is characterized by a painful rash in the affected dermatome. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most troublesome side effect associated with HZ. However, PHN is often resistant to current analgesic treatments such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, and topical agents including lidocaine patches and capsaicin cream and can persist for several years. The risk factors for reactivation of HZ include advanced age and compromised cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Early diagnosis and treatment with antiviral agents plus intervention treatments is believed to shorten the duration and severity of acute HZ and reduce the risk of PHN. Prophylactic vaccination against VZV can be the best option to prevent or reduce the incidence of HZ and PHN. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of HZ and PHN, as well as the efficacy of the HZ vaccine. PMID:26175877

  7. Herpes zoster-induced acute urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Addison, Ben; Harvey, Martyn

    2013-06-01

    Urinary retention is a common acute presentation for men in their later decades. Potential contributing pathologies are numerous. We report an unusual case of acute urinary retention requiring catheterisation secondary to sacral herpes zoster reactivation (S2-4) in an 88-year-old man with minimal preceding obstructive symptoms. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. Vaccination against herpes zoster in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, Mélanie; Oxman, Michael N.; Levin, Myron J.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Robert W.; Patrick, David; Mansi, James A.; Brisson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the treatment of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), available therapeutic options are only partially effective. Given evidence that a live-attenuated varicella-zoster-virus vaccine is effective at reducing the incidence of HZ, PHN and the burden of illness, policymakers and clinicians are being asked to make recommendations regarding the use of the zoster vaccine. In this report, we summarize the evidence regarding the: (1) burden of illness; (2) vaccine efficacy and safety; and (3) cost-effectiveness of vaccination, to assist evidence-based policy making and guide clinicians in their recommendations. First, there is general agreement that the overall burden of illness associated with HZ and PHN is substantial. Second, the safety and efficacy of the zoster vaccine at reducing the burden of illness due to HZ and the incidence of PHN have been clearly demonstrated in large placebo-controlled trials. However, uncertainty remains about the vaccine’s duration of protection. Third, vaccination against HZ is likely to be cost-effective when the vaccine is given at approximately 65 y of age, if vaccine duration is longer than 10 y. PMID:23324598

  9. Comparative study of two human diploid rabies vaccines administered with antirabies globulin.

    PubMed

    Vodopija, I; Sureau, P; Smerdel, S; Lafon, M; Baklaic, Z; Ljubicic, M; Svjetlicic, M

    1988-12-01

    The association of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) to the vaccine is recommended for postexposure rabies treatment in cases of severe exposure. In a previous study using an abbreviated postexposure vaccination schedule it was observed that passive immunization could partially inhibit the active immune response, with three cell-culture purified vaccines but not with the concentrated human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV). In order to see if this difference was related to the purification process, the present study was designed comparing two HDCV, one concentrated and the other concentrated and purified, both of them administered in association with HRIG. The neutralizing antibody response in the vaccines was found to be identical with both vaccines, ruling out the role of the purification and confirming the excellent immunogenicity of both human diploid cell vaccines and the absence of inhibition of the active immune response by the association of HRIG to HDCV.

  10. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50 Anti-Human...

  11. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50 Anti-Human...

  12. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50 Anti-Human...

  13. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50 Anti-Human...

  14. Herpes zoster correlates with pyogenic liver abscesses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Mei-Ling, Shen; Kuan-Fu, Liao; Sung-Mao, Tsai; Cheng-Li, Lin Ms; Shih-Wei, Lai

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper was to explore the relationship between herpes zoster and pyogenic liver abscesses in Taiwan. This was a nationwide cohort study. Using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, there were 33049 subjects aged 20-84 years who were newly diagnosed with herpes zoster from 1998 to 2010 that were selected for our study, and they were our herpes zoster group. 131707 randomly selected subjects without herpes zoster were our non-herpes zoster group. Both groups were matched by sex, age, other comorbidities, and the index year of their herpes zoster diagnosis. The incidence of pyogenic liver abscesses at the end of 2011 was then estimated. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for pyogenic liver abscesses associated with herpes zoster and other comorbidities. The overall incidence rate was 1.38-fold higher in the herpes zoster group than in the non-herpes zoster group (4.47 vs. 3.25 per 10000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 1.32, 1.44). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted hazard ratio of pyogenic liver abscesses was 1.34 in the herpes zoster group (95% confidence interval 1.05, 1.72) when compared with the non-herpes zoster group. Sex (in this case male), age, presence of biliary stones, chronic kidney diseases, chronic liver diseases, cancers, and diabetes mellitus were also significantly associated with pyogenic liver abscesses. Patients with herpes zoster are associated with an increased hazard of developing pyogenic liver abscesses.

  15. Synthesis of Globulins in Maize Embryos 1

    PubMed Central

    Kriz, Alan L.; Schwartz, Drew

    1986-01-01

    The two major components of the globulin fraction in Zea mays embryos are specified by the Prot gene. Pulse-chase analysis of protein synthesis in cultured, immature embryos indicates that the smaller Prot-specific polypeptide, PROT, is derived from the larger polypeptide, PROT'. These experiments also demonstrate that PROT' is derived from a short-lived precursor polypeptide, prePROT'. The primary Prot-specific translation product, as detected by in vitro translation of immature embryo RNA, is of a lower apparent molecular weight than pre-PROT', suggesting the involvement of co- and/or post-translational modification in the production of prePROT'. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16665136

  16. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Rebecca T; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A; Fessel, Joshua P; Samuels, David C

    2016-10-01

    Background.  Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods.  Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053-053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results.  European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71-.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.77; P = .01). Conclusions.  Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors.

  17. Reactivation of Herpes Zoster Keratitis With Corneal Perforation After Zoster Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebski, Andre; Brownstein, Seymour; Ziai, Setareh; Saleh, Solin; Lam, Kay; Jackson, W Bruce

    2017-06-01

    We present a case of reactivated herpes zoster keratouveitis of 6 years duration with corneal perforation requiring penetrating keratoplasty shortly after inoculation with herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck, Quebec, Canada). Retrospective case report. A 67-year-old woman with a 5-year history of recurrent unilateral herpes zoster keratouveitis in her right eye presented with another recurrence 2 weeks after Zostavax vaccination. Three months later, she developed descemetocele and 2 months afterward, corneal perforation, which was managed by penetrating keratoplasty. Immunohistopathological examination disclosed positive staining for varicella zoster virus in most of the keratocytes adjacent to the descemetocele and perforation, most vividly in the deeper two-thirds of the stroma where the keratocytes were most dense, but not in corneal epithelium or endothelium. Electron microscopic examination showed universally severely degenerated corneal keratocytes in the corneal stroma adjacent to the perforation with variable numbers of herpes virus capsids present in half of these cells. Only a rare normal-appearing keratocyte was identified in the more peripheral corneal stroma. We present a case of reactivation of herpes keratouveitis shortly after vaccination with Zostavax in a patient with previous herpes zoster ophthalmicus. We demonstrate, for the first time, ultrastructural evidence consistent with inactive virus capsids in diffusely degenerated keratocytes in the extracted corneal tissue.

  18. Safety and effectiveness of the herpes zoster vaccine to prevent postherpetic neuralgia: 2014 Update and consensus statement from the Canadian Pain Society

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Pain Society (CPS) hosted its first Study Day in Toronto in July 2014, attended by experts in various fields of pain management and research (listed below). The aim was to review the National Advisory Committee on Immunization guidelines and to prepare a CPS position statement concerning the use of the zoster vaccine in Canada. PMID:25664540

  19. Prevention of Herpes Zoster and its complications: From clinical evidence to real life experience

    PubMed Central

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Fanelli, Guido; Greco, Donato; Lazzari, Marzia; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Volpi, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes zoster (HZ) is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash with unilateral distribution, which can also result in severe complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. The estimate incidence in Europe ranges between 2.0 and 4.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, with a sharp increase in >50 year-old subjects. Currently, treatment options for HZ are only partially effective in limiting the acute phase, while the management of complications is complex and often unsatisfactory. The total burden of the disease and the high costs related to its diagnostic and therapeutic management led researchers to develop a new preventive approach through a live attenuated virus vaccine. The currently available vaccine, with a high antigen content, is safe, well tolerated and reduces the incidence of HZ, PHN and the burden of illness. Several countries have introduced this vaccination, albeit with different recommendations and methods of financing. Taking into account the barriers to this immunization registered in some areas (difficulty of vaccine distribution, lack of physician recommendations, the cost of vaccine for patients, etc.), this group of Italian experts advocate that a common strategy able to guarantee a good compliance with this vaccination should be implemented. The same group addresses some practical questions concerning the use of zoster vaccine. PMID:27925894

  20. Prevention of Herpes Zoster and its complications: From clinical evidence to real life experience.

    PubMed

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Fanelli, Guido; Franco, Elisabetta; Greco, Donato; Icardi, Giancarlo; Lazzari, Marzia; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Volpi, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash with unilateral distribution, which can also result in severe complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. The estimate incidence in Europe ranges between 2.0 and 4.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, with a sharp increase in >50 year-old subjects. Currently, treatment options for HZ are only partially effective in limiting the acute phase, while the management of complications is complex and often unsatisfactory. The total burden of the disease and the high costs related to its diagnostic and therapeutic management led researchers to develop a new preventive approach through a live attenuated virus vaccine. The currently available vaccine, with a high antigen content, is safe, well tolerated and reduces the incidence of HZ, PHN and the burden of illness. Several countries have introduced this vaccination, albeit with different recommendations and methods of financing. Taking into account the barriers to this immunization registered in some areas (difficulty of vaccine distribution, lack of physician recommendations, the cost of vaccine for patients, etc.), this group of Italian experts advocate that a common strategy able to guarantee a good compliance with this vaccination should be implemented. The same group addresses some practical questions concerning the use of zoster vaccine.

  1. Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine (Zostavax(®)): A Review in the Prevention of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-06-01

    Zostavax(®) is a live attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine approved in the EU for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in adults aged ≥50 years. Zoster vaccine protected against HZ in adults aged 50-59 years (ZEST trial) and ≥60 years [Shingles Prevention Study (SPS)], and also reduced the burden of illness associated with HZ and the risk of PHN in adults aged ≥60 years (SPS). A large amount of real-world data also supports the efficacy of zoster vaccine. Results of the SPS Short- and Long-Term Persistence Substudies and real-world studies indicate that zoster vaccine provided continued benefit in the longer term, albeit with a gradual decline in vaccine efficacy over time; long-term effectiveness studies are ongoing. The need for a booster dose is still unknown, but a study showed that, if necessary, a booster dose administered to adults aged ≥70 years who received their first dose of zoster vaccine ≥10 years previously was immunogenic. Zoster vaccine had a favourable safety and tolerability profile, with the most commonly reported adverse events being non-severe injection-site reactions. In conclusion, zoster vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ and PHN, thereby reducing the burden of illness associated with HZ; improved uptake of zoster vaccine is needed.

  2. Herpes zoster and HIV infection in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Naburi, A E; Leppard, B

    2000-04-01

    Two hundred consecutive patients with herpes zoster attending the skin clinic at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) were examined and checked for HIV infection. They ranged in age from 10 months to 86 years with the majority in their 20s and 30s. The dermatomes involved were thoracic (97), trigeminal (50), cervical (37), lumbar (19) and sacral (3). Six (3%) had more than one dermatome involved and 2 (1%) had disseminated disease. Only 2 (1%) had severe ulceration of the skin and all healed in less than 4 weeks. In children under the age of 10 years and in adults between the ages of 20 and 49 years virtually 100% were HIV positive; even in the age group 50-59 more than three-quarters were HIV positive. We conclude that the presence of herpes zoster at any site is a good indication that the patient is HIV positive except in the teens and the very elderly.

  3. Budget-Impact Analysis of Alternative Herpes Zoster Vaccine Strategies: A U.S. HMO Perspective.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jonathan; Mauskopf, Josephine; Kawai, Kosuke; Johnson, Kelly D; Xu, Ruifeng; Acosta, Camilo J

    2016-07-01

    A herpes zoster vaccine has been approved by the FDA for use in prevention of herpes zoster in individuals who are aged 50 years or older. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination only in individuals who are aged 60 years and older. To (a) estimate the overall budget and health impact of either the introduction of a new vaccination strategy (individuals over the age of 50 years vs. individuals over the age of 60 years) within a hypothetical health plan or simply an increase in coverage within the population aged 60 years and over and (b) discern what effect copayments and changes to copayments have on the health plan's budget. A decision-analytic economic model was developed to inform managed care decision makers of the potential effect on costs and outcomes associated with the use of the herpes zoster vaccine for prevention of herpes zoster (i.e., simple zoster or shingles). The model took a U.S. payer perspective. The number of eligible patients entering the model was estimated by considering the age distribution of the plan population and the percentage of patients contraindicated for vaccination (i.e., those who were immunocompromised or who had a history of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction to gelatin, neomycin, or any other component of the vaccine). Eligible patients were vaccinated based on the projected uptake rates among the unvaccinated population in 2 possible vaccination scenarios: (1) a vaccination strategy in which only individuals over age 60 years can be vaccinated and (2) a vaccination strategy in which individuals over age 50 years can be vaccinated. Vaccination was assumed to reverse the age-related decline in immunity against zoster. The population vaccinated each year was estimated based on the uptake rates (percentage of the eligible unvaccinated that are vaccinated) required to reach a target annual coverage (percentage ever vaccinated). Patients could experience costs and outcomes related to

  4. HERPES ZOSTER FOLLOWING ROENTGEN IRRADIATION (in Hungarian)

    SciTech Connect

    Vetro, E.

    1963-06-01

    This report describes the appearance of herpes zoster in six female patients following x irradiation therapy with total doses of 1400 to 3000 r. Five of the patients received the treatment as postoperative treatment for breast cancer, the sixth patient was treated for rheumatoid anthritis. It is noted that this occurrence of herpes zoster following postoperative irradiation treatment for breast cancer is 100 times its incidence in the normal population where it occurs in an average of 0.025%. In the cases described, herpes appeared on the irradiated side of the body, in one instance it was very severe in amore » patient who had received prior hydrocortisone treatment, which might have accounted for the herpes in this case. It is possible that the herpes virus entered through the incision caused by the operation on the breast, although this has not been proven. The frequent occurrence of herpes zoster following irradiation is not coincidental, and further studies are under way, including measurements of radiation damage to the spinal cord ganglia. (BBB)« less

  5. [Pain in herpes zoster: Prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Mosquera, G; González-Cal, A; Calvo-Rodríguez, D; Primucci, C Y; Plamenov-Dipchikov, P

    Shingles is a painful rash that results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus in the dorsal root ganglia or cranial nerves. In this article an update is presented on the prevention and pharmacological treatment of the secondary pain from the virus infection. The most effective way to prevent post-herpetic neuralgia and its consequences is the prevention of herpes itself. A live attenuated vaccine (the Oka strain varicella zoster virus) has been available for several years, and is approved in adults aged 50 years old. Although this vaccine has shown to be effective against herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia, its effectiveness decreases with age and is contraindicated in patients with some form of immunosuppression. Today the recombinant vaccines provide an alternative, and may be administered to immunocompromised persons. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lal, Himal; Cunningham, Anthony L; Godeaux, Olivier; Chlibek, Roman; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Poder, Airi; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weckx, Lily; Zahaf, Toufik; Heineman, Thomas C

    2015-05-28

    In previous phase 1-2 clinical trials involving older adults, a subunit vaccine containing varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system (called HZ/su) had a clinically acceptable safety profile and elicited a robust immune response. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study in 18 countries to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HZ/su in older adults (≥50 years of age), stratified according to age group (50 to 59, 60 to 69, and ≥70 years). Participants received two intramuscular doses of the vaccine or placebo 2 months apart. The primary objective was to assess the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared with placebo, in reducing the risk of herpes zoster in older adults. A total of 15,411 participants who could be evaluated received either the vaccine (7698 participants) or placebo (7713 participants). During a mean follow-up of 3.2 years, herpes zoster was confirmed in 6 participants in the vaccine group and in 210 participants in the placebo group (incidence rate, 0.3 vs. 9.1 per 1000 person-years) in the modified vaccinated cohort. Overall vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 97.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.7 to 99.0; P<0.001). Vaccine efficacy was between 96.6% and 97.9% for all age groups. Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after vaccination were more frequent in the vaccine group. There were solicited or unsolicited reports of grade 3 symptoms in 17.0% of vaccine recipients and 3.2% of placebo recipients. The proportions of participants who had serious adverse events or potential immune-mediated diseases or who died were similar in the two groups. The HZ/su vaccine significantly reduced the risk of herpes zoster in adults who were 50 years of age or older. Vaccine efficacy in adults who were 70 years of age or older was similar to that in the other two age groups. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; ZOE-50 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01165177.).

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of an AS01-adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine against herpes zoster in adults >=50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Chlibek, Roman; Bayas, José M; Collins, Harry; de la Pinta, Maria Luisa Rodriguez; Ledent, Edouard; Mols, Johann F; Heineman, Thomas C

    2013-12-15

    An adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) subunit vaccine candidate for herpes zoster is in development. In this trial we compared the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of the vaccine antigen combined with different adjuvant doses. This was a phase II, observer-blind, randomized, multinational study. Adults ≥50 years old were randomized 4:4:2:1 to be vaccinated at months 0 and 2 with gE combined with a higher (AS01B) or lower (AS01E) dose adjuvant, unadjuvanted gE, or saline. Following each dose, solicited events were recorded for 7 days and unsolicited adverse events for 30 days. Serious adverse events were collected for 1 year. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed at baseline and following each dose. No vaccine-related severe adverse events were reported. Solicited adverse events were generally mild to moderate and transient. For all gE-based vaccines, pain was the most common local symptom and fatigue the most common general symptom. Immune responses were significantly enhanced by AS01B and AS01E compared to unadjuvanted gE and were significantly stronger for gE/AS01B than for gE/AS01E. AS01 improved the immunogenicity of gE while retaining acceptable safety and reactogenicity profiles. The enhancement of gE-specific cellular and humoral responses was adjuvant dose dependent. NCT00802464.

  8. A clinico-epidemiological study of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, S K; Radhakrishnan, S

    2016-04-01

    Herpes zoster is a common viral infection of skin caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus infection from the spinal ganglia. The clinico-epidemiological patterns of this disease in an Indian setting required to be studied. A cross sectional study was conducted on all consecutive cases of herpes zoster reporting to the Dermatology Outpatient Department at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangalore during a period of one year from 01 Jun 2013 to 31 May 2014. Detailed history, examination, HIV screening and Tzanck smear were carried out in all cases. 84 cases of herpes zoster were seen with a mean age of 30 years. Majority (39%) of cases were seen in the 21-30 year age group. Thoracic segments were involved in 65.4%, cervical in 11.9%, cranial in 11.5%, lumbar in 8.3% and sacral segments in 3.5%. 63% of cases had zoster associated pain. One case had motor involvement.3.57% of the patients were HIV positive. This study shows a lower age incidence of herpes zoster HIV positivity and zoster associated pain as compared to other studies. The pattern of segmental involvement in herpes zoster seen in this study was similar to other studies.

  9. EXPERIMENTS FOR THE ISOLATION OF THE HERPES ZOSTER VIRUS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    From the vesicle fluid of eight herpes zoster patients six virus strains were isolated. On the basis of the cytopathogenic changes observable...carried out with the patients’ acute and convalescent sera and the demonstration of virus within the cell by means of the immunofluorescence method, the virus strains were proved to be herpes zoster virus strains.

  10. 21 CFR 862.1330 - Globulin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... other disorders of blood globulins. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  11. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...

  12. Immunogenicity and Safety of the HZ/su Adjuvanted Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults Previously Vaccinated With a Live Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Grupping, Katrijn; Campora, Laura; Douha, Martine; Heineman, Thomas C; Klein, Nicola P; Lal, Himal; Peterson, James; Vastiau, Ilse; Oostvogels, Lidia

    2017-12-12

    Protection against herpes zoster (HZ) induced by the live attenuated zoster vaccine Zostavax (ZVL) wanes within 3-7 years. Revaccination may renew protection. We assessed whether (re)vaccination with the adjuvanted HZ subunit vaccine candidate (HZ/su) induced comparable immune responses in previous ZVL recipients and ZVL-naive individuals (HZ-NonVac). In an open-label, multicenter study, adults ≥65 years of age, vaccinated with ZVL ≥5 years previously (HZ-PreVac), were matched to ZVL-naive adults (HZ-NonVac). Participants received 2 doses of HZ/su 2 months apart. The primary objective of noninferiority of the humoral immune response 1 month post-dose 2 was considered demonstrated if the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the adjusted anti-glycoprotein E geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio of HZ-NonVac over HZ-PreVac was <1.5. HZ/su cellular immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety were also assessed. In 430 participants, humoral immune response to HZ/su was noninferior in HZ-PreVac compared with HZ-NonVac (adjusted GMC ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, .92-1.17]). Cellular immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety appeared to be comparable between groups. HZ/su was well-tolerated, with no safety concerns raised within 1 month post-dose 2. HZ/su induces a strong immune response irrespective of prior vaccination with ZVL, and may be an attractive option to revaccinate prior ZVL recipients. NCT02581410. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Immunogenicity and Safety of the HZ/su Adjuvanted Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults Previously Vaccinated With a Live Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Grupping, Katrijn; Campora, Laura; Douha, Martine; Heineman, Thomas C; Klein, Nicola P; Lal, Himal; Peterson, James; Vastiau, Ilse; Oostvogels, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Protection against herpes zoster (HZ) induced by the live attenuated zoster vaccine Zostavax (ZVL) wanes within 3–7 years. Revaccination may renew protection. We assessed whether (re)vaccination with the adjuvanted HZ subunit vaccine candidate (HZ/su) induced comparable immune responses in previous ZVL recipients and ZVL-naive individuals (HZ-NonVac). Methods In an open-label, multicenter study, adults ≥65 years of age, vaccinated with ZVL ≥5 years previously (HZ-PreVac), were matched to ZVL-naive adults (HZ-NonVac). Participants received 2 doses of HZ/su 2 months apart. The primary objective of noninferiority of the humoral immune response 1 month post–dose 2 was considered demonstrated if the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the adjusted anti–glycoprotein E geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio of HZ-NonVac over HZ-PreVac was <1.5. HZ/su cellular immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety were also assessed. Results In 430 participants, humoral immune response to HZ/su was noninferior in HZ-PreVac compared with HZ-NonVac (adjusted GMC ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, .92–1.17]). Cellular immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety appeared to be comparable between groups. HZ/su was well-tolerated, with no safety concerns raised within 1 month post–dose 2. Conclusions HZ/su induces a strong immune response irrespective of prior vaccination with ZVL, and may be an attractive option to revaccinate prior ZVL recipients. Clinical Trials Registration NCT02581410. PMID:29029122

  14. Physicochemical, functional and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory properties of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) 7S globulin.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Alejandra V; Aphalo, Paula; Ventureira, Jorge L; Martínez, E Nora; Añón, María C

    2012-01-30

    Amaranth 7S globulin is a minor globulin component and its impact on the properties of an amaranth protein ingredient depends on its proportion in the variety of amaranth being considered. Some physicochemical, functional and angiotesin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of amaranth vicilin were studied in this work and compared with the 11S globulin. Fluorescence spectroscopy results indicated that 7S globulin tryptophans were more exposed to the solvent and, by calorimetry, the 7S globulin denaturation temperature (T(d) ) was found lower than the 11S globulin T(d) , suggesting a more flexible structure. The 7S globulin surface hydrophobicity was higher than that of the 11S globulin, which is in agreement with the better emulsifying properties of the 7S globulin. The solubility in neutral buffer of the 7S globulin (851 ± 25 g kg(-1) ) was also higher than that of the 11S globulin (195 ± 6 g kg(-1) ). Bioinformatic analyses showed the presence of ACE inhibitory peptides encrypted in 7S tryptic sequences and peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion showed a high ACE-inhibitory capacity (IC(50) = 0.17 g L(-1) ), similar to that of 11S globulin peptides. Compared with the 11S globulin, the 7S globulin presents similar ACE inhibitory activity and some functional advantages, better solubility and emulsifying activity, which suits some food requirements. The functional behavior has been related with the structural properties. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Penile herpes zoster: an unusual location for a common disease.

    PubMed

    Bjekic, Milan; Markovic, Milica; Sipetic, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common dermatological condition which affects up to 20% of the population, most frequently involving the thoracic and facial dermatomes with sacral lesions occurring rarely and only a few reported cases of penile shingles. We report two cases of unusual penile clinical presentations of varicella zoster virus infection in immunocompetent men. The patients presented with grouped clusters of vesicles and erythema on the left side of penile shaft and posterior aspect of the left thigh and buttock, involving s2-s4 dermatomes. The lesions resolved quickly upon administration of oral antiviral therapy. Penile herpes zoster should not be overlooked in patients with unilateral vesicular rash.

  16. Shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine (zostavax(®)): a review of its use in the prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged ≥50 years.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-07-01

    The live, attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine Zostavax(®) is approved in the EU for use in the prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged ≥50 years. In adults aged ≥60 years, zoster vaccine reduced the burden of illness associated with herpes zoster, with reductions in the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia and herpes zoster, according to the results of the Shingles Prevention Study. Results of subsequent Short- and Long-Term Persistence Substudies indicate that the efficacy of zoster vaccine is maintained in the longer term, albeit with a gradual decline over time. In the Zostavax Efficacy and Safety Trial, zoster vaccine reduced the incidence of herpes zoster in adults aged 50-59 years. Findings of these studies are supported by the results of large, retrospective, cohort studies. Zoster vaccine was generally well tolerated, with injection-site adverse events being the most commonly reported adverse events. In conclusion, zoster vaccine provides an important opportunity to reduce the burden of illness associated with herpes zoster by reducing the incidence of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

  17. STUDIES ON STRUCTURAL UNITS OF THE γ-GLOBULINS

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, G. M.; Poulik, M. D.

    1961-01-01

    When human and rabbit 7S γ-globulins were reduced in strong urea solutions by a number of procedures, their molecular weights fell to approximately ⅓ of the original values. Partial separation of the reduction products was achieved using chromatography and starch gel electrophoresis in urea solutions. One of the components of reduced human 7S γ-globulin was isolated by chromatography, identified by starch gel electrophoresis, and subjected to amino acid analyses. The amino acid composition of this component differed from that of the starting material and also from that of the remaining components. A reduced pathological macroglobulin dissociated to components with an average molecular weight of 41,000. Several reduced human myeloma proteins, when subjected to starch gel electrophoresis, yielded individual patterns that nevertheless had features in common with those of reduced normal γ-globulins. Reduction of normal and abnormal γ-globulins was accompanied by the appearance of titratable sulfhydryl groups. Chemical treatments other than reduction were used to determine the type of bond holding the subunits together. It was tentatively concluded that they were linked by disulfide bonds. An hypothesis is presented to relate the structural features of the various γ-globulins in terms of the multiplicity of polypeptide chains in these molecules. PMID:13725659

  18. PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS ANTI-γ-GLOBULIN FACTORS IN HUMAN SERA

    PubMed Central

    Harboe, Morten; Rau, Barbara; Aho, Kimmo

    1965-01-01

    The serological and physicochemical properties of the following three forms of human anti-γ-globulin factors were compared: (a) rheumatoid factors; (b) Milgrom type anti-γ-globulin factors; and (c) factors directed against an antigen in human γG-globulin that is hidden in the intact molecule and revealed by enzymatic digestion at low pH. The property common to these factors is ability to interact with human γG-globulin; they are distinguishable because they react with different antigenic groups on this molecule. In all of five sera, the Milgrom type anti-γ-globulin factors were γM-globulins. They reacted with various human γG-globulin antibodies but failed to interact with γM-globulin type antibodies in agglutination and absorption experiments. When isolated from other anti-γ-globulin factors, they agglutinated red cells coated with intact anti-Rh antibodies, but failed to react with cells cells coated with pepsin-digested anti-Rh antibody. These observations indicate that the agglutinator reacts with the crystallizable, inert fragment of γG-globulin. Anti-γ-globulin activity directed against an antigen in human γG-globulin revealed by pepsin digestion was demonstrated in γG-, γA-, and γM-globulins. This anti-γ-globulin factor could be absorbed by antigen-antibody precipitates containing human antibody, which shows that the hidden antigen in human γG-globulin is revealed not only by enzymatic digestion at low pH, but also when γG-globulin is present as antibody in an antigen-antibody precipitate. Rheumatoid factors and Milgrom type anti-γ-globulin factors were also absorbed by antigen-antibody precipitates containing human antibody. The results indicate that the three distinct forms of antiγ-globulin factors may all be produced as a result of antigenic stimulation by autologous antigen-antibody complexes. PMID:14276773

  19. Distribution of Health Effects and Cost-effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination are Shaped by the Impact on Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Alies; Lugnér, Anna; Opstelten, Wim; Jochemsen, Petra; Wallinga, Jacco; Schellevis, François; Sanders, Elisabeth; de Melker, Hester; van Boven, Michiel

    2015-10-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the etiological agent of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ). It has been hypothesised that immune boosting of latently infected persons by contact with varicella reduces the probability of HZ. If true, universal varicella vaccination may increase HZ incidence due to reduced VZV circulation. To inform decision-making, we conduct cost-effectiveness analyses of varicella vaccination, including effects on HZ. Effects of varicella vaccination are simulated with a dynamic transmission model, parameterised with Dutch VZV seroprevalence and HZ incidence data, and linked to an economic model. We consider vaccination scenarios that differ by whether or not they include immune boosting, and reactivation of vaccine virus. Varicella incidence decreases after introduction of vaccination, while HZ incidence may increase or decrease depending on whether or not immune boosting is present. Without immune boosting, vaccination is expected to be cost-effective or even cost-saving. With immune boosting, vaccination at 95% coverage is not expected to be cost-effective, and may even cause net health losses. Cost-effectiveness of varicella vaccination depends strongly on the impact on HZ and the economic time horizon. Our findings reveal ethical dilemmas as varicella vaccination may result in unequal distribution of health effects between generations.

  20. Structural, Functional and Evolutionary Aspects of Seed Globulins.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Pooja; Neetu; Sharma, Anchal; Katiki, Madhusudhanarao; Kumar, Pramod; Gurjar, Bhola R; Tomar, Shailly; Sharma, Ashwani K; Kumar, Pravindra

    2017-01-01

    Globulins are a major class of seed storage proteins which were thought to be enzymatically inactive. These proteins belong to the most ancient cupin superfamily. They can be graded into 11S legumin type and 7S vicilin type based on their sedimentation coefficients. Members from both classes share structural homology are thought to have evolved from either one-domain germin predecessor by duplication or by horizontal gene transfer of two-domain gene from bacteria to eukaryotes. Globulins are known to define the nutritional quality of the seeds, however, they are also involved in sucrose binding, desiccation, defense against microbes, hormone binding and oxidative stress etc. Major drawback with globulins is their tendency to bind to IgE. Studying structural-functional behavior of such protein can help in modifying proteins for enhanced functionality in food processing industries. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Recombinant zoster (shingles) vaccine, RZV - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/007736.htm Recombinant zoster (shingles) vaccine, RZV - what you need to know To use ... in its entirety from the CDC Recombinant Shingles Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/ ...

  2. Sacral herpes-zoster infection presenting as sciatic pain.

    PubMed

    Ablin, J; Symon, Z; Mevorach, D

    1996-06-01

    Acute herpes-zoster infection is a painful dermatomal lesion that can be manifested by a wide array of neurologic symptoms. We present a 55-year-old female with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, who developed a left sciatic pain involving the S roots. Two weeks later, the patient developed fever and vesicular rash over the left gluteal area. Herpes-zoster infection was diagnosed and confirmed by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against varicella-zoster. The pain and rash resolved, after treatment with acyclovir. In the appropriate clinical setting, sacral herpes-zoster infection ought to be considered in the differential diagnosis of new-onset sciatic pain.

  3. Loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Nagumo, Kiyomi; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Fujinawa, Naoto; Hashimoto, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    A case of sacral herpes zoster infection in a 56-year-old man with the complication of loss of urinary voiding sensation is presented. He had typical herpes zoster eruption on the left S2 dermatome, hypalgesia of the S1-S4 dermatomes, and absence of urinary voiding sensation. There was no other urinary symptom at the first medical examination. Urinary complications associated with herpes zoster are uncommon, but two types, acute cystitis and acute retention, have been recognized. No cases of loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster have been reported. In this case, hypalgesia of the sacral dermatomes was mild compared to the marked loss of urethral sensation. This inconsistency is explained by the hypothesis that the number of urethral fibers is very small as compared to that of cutaneous fibers, therefore, urethral sensation would be more severely disturbed than cutaneous sensation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Herpes zoster with dysfunction of bladder and anus.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H; Tulloch, W S

    1976-12-04

    Herpes zoster may give rise to dysfunction of bladder and anus. Mucosal lesions have been reported, and 7 cases are described with retention, loss of sensation, or incontinence. Sacral shingles is associated with sensory loss and flaccid detrusor paralysis. Lumbar shingles may cause retention, and zoster at higher levels can also damage the spinal cord. Recovery is usually complete. The implication for schemes of bladder innervation is discussed.

  5. Varicella zoster virus DNA exists as two isomers.

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, J R; Hyman, R W

    1982-01-01

    Fragments of varicella zoster virus DNA produced by EcoRI endonuclease cleavage were cloned in vector pACYC 184 and those produced by HindIII cleavage were cloned in pBR322. Restriction enzyme cleavage maps established by double digestion and blot hybridization showed that varicella zoster virus DNA has a Mr of 80 +/- 3 x 10(6) and exists as a population of two isomers. Images PMID:6275385

  6. Zoster Vaccine and the Risk of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Patients Who Developed Herpes Zoster Despite Having Received the Zoster Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Lewin, Bruno; Hales, Craig M; Sy, Lina S; Harpaz, Rafael; Bialek, Stephanie; Luo, Yi; Jacobsen, Steven J; Reddy, Kavya; Huang, Po-Yin; Zhang, Jeff; Anand, Sean; Bauer, Erin Mary; Chang, Jennifer; Tartof, Sara Y

    2015-10-15

    Although it is evident that zoster vaccination reduces postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) risk by reducing herpes zoster (HZ) occurrence, it is less clear whether the vaccine protects against PHN among patients who develop HZ despite previous vaccination. This cohort study included immunocompetent patients with HZ. The vaccinated cohort included 1155 individuals who were vaccinated against HZ at age ≥60 years and had an HZ episode after vaccination. Vaccinated patients were matched 1:1 by sex and age with unvaccinated patients. Trained medical residents reviewed the full medical record to determine the presence of HZ-related pain at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after HZ diagnosis. The incidence of PHN was compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated -patients. Thirty vaccinated women (4.2%) experienced PHN, compared with 75 unvaccinated women (10.4%), with an adjusted relative risk of 0.41 (95% confidence interval, .26-.64). PHN occurred in 26 vaccinated men (6.0%) versus 25 unvaccinated men (5.8%), with an adjusted relative risk of 1.06 (.58-1.94). These associations did not differ significantly by age. Among persons experiencing HZ, prior HZ vaccination is associated with a lower risk of PHN in women but not in men. This sex-related difference may reflect differences in healthcare-seeking patterns and deserve further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Herpes zoster and the search for an effective vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV), an exclusively human neurotrophic alphaherpsesvirus, results in varicella, known more commonly as chickenpox. Like other alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate to cause herpes zoster (also known as shingles), a painful and debilitating disease, especially in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The overall incidence of herpes zoster in Europe and the United States is three per 1000 people, but increases sharply after 60 years of age to 10 per 1000 people. Zostavax® is a vaccine approved by the Federal Drug Administration for the prevention of herpes zoster. Unfortunately, this vaccine reduces the incidence of disease by only 51% and the incidence of post‐herpetic neuralgia by 66·5% when administered to those aged 60 and older. Moreover, it is contraindicated for individuals who are immunocompromised or receiving immunosuppressant treatments, although they are at higher risk for herpes zoster compared to immune‐competent older individuals. This paper reviews VZV pathogenesis, host responses and current vaccines available to prevent herpes zoster. PMID:27164323

  8. Long-Term Effectiveness of the Live Zoster Vaccine in Preventing Shingles: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Roger; Bartlett, Joan; Fireman, Bruce; Marks, Morgan; Hansen, John; Lewis, Edwin; Aukes, Laurie; Chen, Yong; Klein, Nicola P; Saddier, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    A live attenuated zoster vaccine was licensed in the United States in 2006 for prevention of shingles in persons aged 60 years or older; the indication was extended in 2011 to cover those aged 50-59 years. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against shingles for 8 years after immunization at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. VE was estimated by Cox regression with a calendar timeline that was stratified by birth year. We adjusted for demographics and time-varying covariates, including comorbidities and immune compromise. From 2007 to 2014, 1.4 million people entered the study when they became age eligible for vaccination; 392,677 (29%) received the zoster vaccine. During 5.8 million person-years of follow-up, 48,889 cases of shingles were observed, including 5,766 among vaccinees. VE was 49.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 47.5, 50.6) across all follow-up. VE was 67.5% (95% CI: 65.4, 69.5) during the first year after vaccination, waned to 47.2% (95% CI: 44.1, 50.1) during the second year after vaccination, and then waned more gradually through year 8, when VE was 31.8% (95% CI: 15.1, 45.2). Unexpectedly, VE in persons vaccinated when they were aged 80 years or older was similar to VE in younger vaccinees, and VE in persons vaccinated when immune compromised was similar to VE in persons vaccinated when immune competent. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Herpes Zoster Vaccine for Persons Aged 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuc; Rothberg, Michael B

    2015-10-06

    Each year, herpes zoster (HZ) affects 1 million U.S. adults, many of whom develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Zoster vaccine is licensed for persons aged 50 years or older, but its cost-effectiveness for those aged 50 to 59 years is unknown. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of HZ vaccine versus no vaccination. Markov model. Medical literature. Adults aged 50 years. Lifetime. Societal. HZ vaccine. Number of HZ and PHN cases prevented and incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved. For every 1000 persons receiving the vaccine at age 50 years, 25 HZ cases and 1 PHN case could be prevented. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for HZ vaccine versus no vaccine was $323 456 per QALY. In deterministic and scenario sensitivity analyses, the only variables that produced an ICER less than $100 000 per QALY were vaccine cost (at a value of $80) and the rate at which efficacy wanes. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the mean ICER was $500 754 per QALY (95% CI, $93 510 to $1 691 211 per QALY). At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY, the probability that vaccination would be cost-effective was 3%. Long-term effectiveness data for HZ vaccine are lacking for 50-year-old adults. Herpes zoster vaccine for persons aged 50 years does not seem to represent good value according to generally accepted standards. Our findings support the decision of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices not to recommend the vaccine for adults in this age group. None.

  10. 21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... globulin test system is a device intended to measure thyroxine (thyroid)-binding globulin (TBG), a plasma protein which binds thyroxine, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... globulin test system is a device intended to measure thyroxine (thyroid)-binding globulin (TBG), a plasma protein which binds thyroxine, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... globulin test system is a device intended to measure thyroxine (thyroid)-binding globulin (TBG), a plasma protein which binds thyroxine, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... globulin test system is a device intended to measure thyroxine (thyroid)-binding globulin (TBG), a plasma protein which binds thyroxine, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... globulin test system is a device intended to measure thyroxine (thyroid)-binding globulin (TBG), a plasma protein which binds thyroxine, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1330 - Globulin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Globulin test system. 862.1330 Section 862.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1330 - Globulin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Globulin test system. 862.1330 Section 862.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5160 - Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5160 Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system. (a) Identification. A beta-globulin immunological test system is a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system. 866.5160...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5400 Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-globulin immunological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may aid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may aid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may aid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may aid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  3. [Herpes Zoster and its prevention in Italy. Scientific consensus statement].

    PubMed

    Franco, Elisabetta; Gabutti, Giovanni; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Stefano Valente, Marco Ercolani; Ferro, Antonio; Icardi, Giancarlo; Antonio Volpi, Marzia Lazzari; Maggi, Stefania; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Greco, Donato

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an Italian group of experts presents a revision of the available data about epidemiology and prevention of Herpes Zoster (HZ). HZ is an acute viral diseases caused by the reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). HZ is characterized by neurological and dermatological symptoms with a dermatomeric localization. The reactivation of the virus from the latent status in the sensitive ganglia increases with age and failing cell mediated immunity. In Europe, more than 95% of adults presents antibodies against VZV. Incidence of HZ is similar all over the world, related to the age of the population: from 2-3/1000 persons/year in the age group 20 to 50 years to 5/1000 in the 60 years old, 6-7/1000 between 70 and 80 up to >1/100 in older than 80. In Italy, about 157,000 new cases of HZ are estimated every year with an incidence of 6.3/1000 persons/year mostly in older adults. Among the hospitalized cases, 60% are over 65 years of age. The more frequent and severe complication of HZ is post herpetic neuralgia (PHN), characterized by severe localized pain lasting at least 3 month after the beginning of the acute phase. The pain is responsible for a sharp decrease in the quality of life. In Europe, PHN is described in 2.6-27% of HZ cases. In Italy, data obtained by a network of General Practitioner show PHN in 20.6% of HZ patients, while 9.2% of the patients still presents PHN at 6 months. The more frequent localization is thoracic; when the virus reactivate at the level of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve most patients develop ocular complications. The clinical and therapeutical managements of HZ patients is difficult and the results are often poor. Prevention of HZ e PHN in the population over 50 years is possible using a live attenuated vaccine containing VZV (Oka/Merck strain, not less than 19.400 plaque forming units), available since 2006. Efficacy of anti-HZ vaccine was demonstrated in two large clinical trials that showed a 51

  4. Herpes–Zoster Infection in a Tertiary Hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Antoniolli, Luciana; Azambuja, Aline; Rodrigues, Camila; Borges, Rafael; Goldani, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background herpes zoster (HZ) is a common infection with potential complications requiring hospital care, especially for patients with multiple comorbities. However, there is little information on HZ from hospital registries. Methods we searched for hospital-based records of B02 code (ICD-10) between March 2000 and January 2017 at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, a tertiary, university hospital in south Brazil. To avoid misclassifications, we considered clinical evaluation for the diagnosis of cutaneous HZ and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), ophthalmological evaluation for ophthalmic HZ and the combination of clinical, radiologic and cerebrospinal fluid analysis for HZ meningo-encephalitis (ME). We analyzed conditions associated with immune dysregulation, complications, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier estimator were used for statistical analyses. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results there were 847 records for this period, of which 801 were confirmed according to our criteria and included in the analysis. Most patients were women (n = 448; 60%), with an average of 48.8 years, standard deviation of 22.2. There were more diagnoses in the inpatients group (74.4%), and fewer in the emergency room (22.4%) and outpatient (3.3%). The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (2-10, P25-P75) when HZ was the main reason for admission. Most patients presented cutaneous HZ (n = 743, 92.8%). There were fewer cases of PHN (6.1%), ophthalmic HZ (7.6%) and ME (4.1%). Seventy percent had some kind of immune dysregulation; more frequently AIDS (31%), use of immunosuppressive agents (18.7%) and malignant disease (16.2%). We followed the subjects for a median of 28.2 (2.8-77.5) months. During this period, there were 105 (13.1%) deaths. Five were related to HZ ME. The 30-day overall mortality rate was 1.5%. There was no statistical difference in cumulative survival (graph 1, P = 0.05) or incidence of

  5. Stress-induced subclinical reactivation of varicella zoster virus in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Forghani, Bagher; Zerbe, Gary; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2004-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in human ganglia after primary infection. VZV reactivation occurs primarily in elderly individuals, organ transplant recipients, and patients with cancer and AIDS, correlating with a specific decline in cell-mediated immunity to the virus. VZV can also reactivate after surgical stress. The unexpected occurrence of thoracic zoster 2 days before space flight in a 47-year-old healthy astronaut from a pool of 81 physically fit astronauts prompted our search for VZV reactivation during times of stress to determine whether VZV can also reactivate after non-surgical stress. We examined total DNA extracted from 312 saliva samples of eight astronauts before, during, and after space flight for VZV DNA by polymerase chain reaction: 112 samples were obtained 234-265 days before flight, 84 samples on days 2 through 13 of space flight, and 116 samples on days 1 through 15 after flight. Before space flight, only one of the 112 saliva samples from a single astronaut was positive for VZV DNA. In contrast, during and after space flight, 61 of 200 (30%) saliva samples were positive in all eight astronauts. No VZV DNA was detected in any of 88 saliva samples from 10 healthy control subjects. These results indicate that VZV can reactivate subclinically in healthy individuals after non-surgical stress. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Varicella zoster virus-associated morbidity and mortality in Africa - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Hannah; Abdullahi, Leila; Collins, Jamie; Muloiwa, Rudzani; Hussey, Gregory; Kagina, Benjamin

    2017-11-14

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and herpes zoster. These vaccine preventable diseases are common globally. Most available data on VZV epidemiology are from industrialised temperate countries and cannot be used to guide decisions on the immunization policy against VZV in Africa. This systematic review aims to review the published data on VZV morbidity and mortality in Africa. All published studies conducted in Africa from 1974 to 2015 were eligible. Eligible studies must have reported any VZV epidemiological measure (incidence, prevalence, hospitalization rate and mortality rate). For inclusion in the review, studies must have used a defined VZV case definition, be it clinical or laboratory-based. Twenty articles from 13 African countries were included in the review. Most included studies were cross-sectional, conducted on hospitalized patients, and half of the studies used varying serological methods for diagnosis. VZV seroprevalence was very high among adults. Limited data on VZV seroprevalence in children showed very low seropositivity to anti-VZV antibodies. Co-morbidity with VZV was common. There is lack of quality data that could be used to develop VZV control programmes, including vaccination, in Africa. PROSPERO 2015: CRD42015026144 .

  7. Childhood varicella-zoster virus vaccination in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Bilcke, Joke; Jan van Hoek, Albert; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a universal childhood varicella-zoster vaccination programme in Belgium (1) using the most recent Belgian data on varicella-zoster burden, (2) exploring different options for the timing of the second dose, (3) obtaining results with and without exogenous natural boosting, and (4) investigating the possible additional benefit of zoster booster vaccination for adults at age 50 or 60 years. Methods: An extensively studied and improved dynamic model is used to estimate primary and breakthrough chickenpox and zoster cases over time. For a range of vaccination options, we compared the direct costs (health care payer perspective) and health outcomes (including Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) lost) associated with chickenpox and herpes zoster.  Estimates of social contact patterns, health care use, costs and QALY losses are almost exclusively based on Belgian databases and surveys. Results and Conclusions: If exogenous natural boosting exists, a net loss in QALYs is expected for several decades after implementing a universal chickenpox vaccination programme, due to an increase in zoster mainly in persons aged 50-80 years. This result holds also for scenarios that minimise or counteract the expected increase in zoster incidence (e.g. additional booster vaccinations in adults). However, if the boosting hypothesis is not true or if costs and QALYs are cumulated over at least 33 to more than 100 years after vaccination (depending on the assumptions made), different options for universal 2-dose vaccination against chickenpox in Belgium would be cost-effective at a vaccine price of €43/dose or lower. PMID:23321955

  8. Sex differences underlying orofacial varicella zoster associated pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Crystal; Deng, Mohong; Yee, Michael B; Bellinger, Larry L; Kinchington, Paul R; Kramer, Phillip R

    2017-05-17

    Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). To date, no model has been developed to study orofacial pain related to varicella zoster. Importantly, the incidence of zoster associated pain and PHN is known to be higher in women, although reasons for this sex difference remain unclear. Prior to this work, no animal model was available to study these sex-differences. Our goal was to develop an orofacial animal model for zoster associated pain which could be utilized to study the mechanisms contributing to this sex difference. To develop this model VZV was injected into the whisker pad of rats resulting in IE62 protein expression in the trigeminal ganglia; IE62 is an immediate early gene in the VZV replication program. Similar to PHN patients, rats showed retraction of neurites after VZV infection. Treatment of rats with gabapentin, an agent often used to combat PHN, ameliorated the pain response after whisker pad injection. Aversive behavior was significantly greater for up to 7 weeks in VZV injected rats over control inoculated rats. Sex differences were also seen such that ovariectomized and intact female rats given the lower dose of VZV showed a longer affective response than male rats. The phase of the estrous cycle also affected the aversive response suggesting a role for sex steroids in modulating VZV pain. These results suggest that this rat model can be utilized to study the mechanisms of 1) orofacial zoster associated pain and 2) the sex differences underlying zoster associated pain.

  9. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... viruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Varicella (chicken pox) is a mild...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... viruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Varicella (chicken pox) is a mild...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... viruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Varicella (chicken pox) is a mild...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... viruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Varicella (chicken pox) is a mild...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... viruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Varicella (chicken pox) is a mild...

  14. Full-Genome Sequence of a Novel Varicella-Zoster Virus Clade Isolated in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Castillo, Araceli; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna María; Gonzalez-Durán, Elizabeth; Segura-Candelas, José Miguel; Pérez-Agüeros, Sandra Ivette; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Diaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Ramirez-González, José Ernesto

    2015-07-09

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of varicella-zoster virus, isolated from a vesicular fluid sample, revealing the circulation of VZV clade VIII in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Garcés-Ayala et al.

  15. Full-Genome Sequence of a Novel Varicella-Zoster Virus Clade Isolated in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Castillo, Araceli; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna María; Gonzalez-Durán, Elizabeth; Segura-Candelas, José Miguel; Pérez-Agüeros, Sandra Ivette; Escobar-Escamilla, Noé; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Diaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of varicella-zoster virus, isolated from a vesicular fluid sample, revealing the circulation of VZV clade VIII in Mexico. PMID:26159533

  16. Herpes Zoster Vaccine Response in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients on Low-dose Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Wasan, Sharmeel K; Zullow, Samantha; Berg, Adam; Cheifetz, Adam S; Ganley-Leal, Lisa; Farraye, Francis A

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients are at an increased risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ), especially when immunosuppressed. HZ may be preventable with the herpes zoster vaccine (HZV), but many patients are not offered vaccination over concern regarding efficacy and fear of adverse events. Although the Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that low-dose immunosuppression is not a contraindication, few IBD patients on these medications are receiving HZV. This study was a prospective clinical trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of HZV among 2 groups of IBD patients. Group A consisted of 14 patients on low-dose immunomodulators and group B consisted of 25 patients either on 5-aminosalicylic acid or no IBD therapy. Blood samples were obtained to measure immune responses. HZ specific immunoglobulin G rose significantly in both groups but the response was lower in the immunosuppressed group (P = 0.0002). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell secretion of Tumor necrosis factor-α in response to HZ antigen increased after HZV in group B, but not in group A. Interleukin-8 secretion increased in both groups, but the response was much higher in group B. There were no significant differences in adverse events between groups. No patients developed a HZ-like rash within 1 year after vaccination. IBD patients on low-dose immunosuppressive therapy have a blunted immune response to HZV as compared with nonimmunosuppressed subjects. Despite this, immunosuppressed IBD patients are able to mount a statistically significant immune response. There were no serious adverse events to HZV.

  17. Modelling the impact of a combined varicella and zoster vaccination programme on the epidemiology of varicella zoster virus in England.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Albert Jan; Melegaro, Alessia; Zagheni, Emelio; Edmunds, W John; Gay, Nigel

    2011-03-16

    This study updates previous work on modelling the incidence of varicella and Herpes Zoster (HZ) following the introduction of childhood vaccination. The updated model includes new data on age-specific contact patterns, as well as data on the efficacy of zoster vaccination in the elderly and allows for HZ among vaccinees. The current study also looks at two-dose varicella childhood programmes, and assesses the combined impact of varicella vaccination in childhood and zoster vaccination of the elderly. The results suggest that a two-dose schedule is likely to reduce the incidence of varicella to very low levels, provided first dose coverage is around 90% and second dose coverage is in excess of 70%. Single dose varicella vaccination programmes are expected to result in large numbers of breakthrough cases. Childhood vaccination is expected to increase the incidence of zoster for more than 40 years after introduction of the programme, the magnitude of this increase being influenced primarily by the duration of boosting following exposure to the varicella zoster virus. Though this increase in zoster incidence can be partly offset by vaccination of the elderly, the effectiveness of this combined strategy is limited, as much of the increase occurs in those adults too young to be vaccinated. Childhood vaccination at intermediate levels of coverage (70% and 60% for first and second dose coverage respectively) is expected to lead to an increase in adult varicella. At high coverage (90% and 80% coverage) this is unlikely to be the case. These results will be used to inform a cost-effectiveness analysis of combined varicella and zoster vaccination programmes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Herpes zoster correlates with increased risk of Parkinson's disease in older people

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known on the relationship between herpes zoster and Parkinson's disease in older people. This study aimed to explore whether herpes zoster could be associated with Parkinson's disease in older people in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the claim data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 10,296 subjects aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed herpes zoster as the herpes zoster group and 39,405 randomly selected subjects aged 65 years and older without a diagnosis of herpes zoster as the nonherpes zoster group from 1998 to 2010. Both groups were followed up until subjects received a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. This follow-up design would explore whether subjects with herpes zoster were at an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. Relative risks were estimated by adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. The incidence of Parkinson's disease was higher in the herpes zoster group than that in the nonherpes zoster group (4.86 vs 4.00 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 1.14, 1.29). After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that the adjusted HR of Parkinson's disease was 1.17 for the herpes zoster group (95% CI 1.10, 1.25), compared with the nonherpes zoster group. Older people with herpes zoster confer a slightly increased hazard of developing Parkinson's disease when compared to those without herpes zoster. We think that herpes zoster correlates with increased risk of Parkinson's disease in older people. When older people with herpes zoster seek help, clinicians should pay more attention to the development of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease. PMID:28207515

  19. Keratitis in association with herpes zoster and varicella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Grillo, A P; Fraunfelder, F W

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this review was to collect reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster virus (HZV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccines. HZV vaccination is intended for at-risk adult populations and VZV vaccination is intended for all pediatric patients. We reviewed the literature and reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster or varicella vaccine from the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects and the World Health Organization. Twenty-four cases of unilateral keratitis in association with VZV vaccines were collected from the adverse reaction databases and literature. In most cases, the onset of keratitis occurred within days of vaccination and resolved with topical steroid eye drops and oral acyclovir. Data suggest that keratitis in association with herpes zoster or varicella vaccine is rare, is usually self-limited or resolves with treatment. The mechanism may be the persistence of viral antigens in the cornea after VZV vaccination or herpes zoster ophthalmicus. This reaction is probable, given the plausible biological mechanism, the temporal relationship between vaccination and keratitis, and overall patterns of presentation after vaccination. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  20. Ultrastructural studies of human and rabbit alpha-M-globulins.

    PubMed

    Bloth, B; Chesebro, B; Svehag, S E

    1968-04-01

    Electron micrographs of isolated human alpha(2)M-molecules, obtained by the negative contrast technique, revealed morphologically homogenous structures resembling a graceful monogram of the two letters H and I. The modal values for the length and width of the alpha(2)M particles were 170 A and 100 A, respectively. Purified rabbit alphamacroglobulins contained about 80% alpha(1)M- and 20% alpha(2)M-globulins. The isolated rabbit alpha(1)M- and alpha(2)M-molecules were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and from human alpha(2)M-molecules. Preliminary immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two rabbit alphaM-globulins were antigenically different. Sedimentation constant determinations gave s(20, w) values of 18.8 and 18.2 for rabbit alpha(1)M and alpha(2)M, respectively.

  1. Urinary retention, erectile dysfunction and meningitis due to sacral herpes zoster: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Erol, B; Avci, A; Eken, C; Ozgok, Y

    2009-01-01

    Zona zoster infection is often associated with painful erythematous vesicular eruptions of the skin or mucous membranes. Varicella zoster virus which stays latent in the sensorial root ganglia causes zona zoster infection. The most recognized feature of zona zoster is the dermatomal distribution of vesicular rashes. In the present case report, we state an unusual presentation of sacral zona zoster with urinary retention, erectile dysfunction and meningitis. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Incidence of herpes zoster and seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus in young adults of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cheol-In; Choi, Chang-Min; Park, Tae-Sung; Lee, Dong-Jun; Oh, Myoung-don; Choe, Kang-Won

    2008-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the incidence of herpes zoster and seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in young adults of South Korea, where VZV seroprevalence remains relatively high. In South Korea, military service is compulsory for all healthy young men and hence those in military service might provide a reflection of the general population. The computerized database of the Armed Forces Medical Command was examined to identify the number of reported herpes zoster cases. In order to evaluate VZV seroprevalence, serum samples were obtained from randomly selected subjects among those who had been admitted to the Armed Forces Capital Hospital. A total of 705 cases of herpes zoster were reported between June 2004 and May 2005. The annual incidence rate of herpes zoster was 141 (95% CI 131.0-151.8) per 100000 population. A total of 192 subjects were enrolled for the analysis of VZV seroprevalence. All subjects were male and their median age was 21 (range 19-24) years. The overall anti-VZV IgG seropositivity prevalence was 92.7% (178/192, 95% CI 88.0-95.7%). We have described a population-based study of the epidemiology of VZV infections in the military personnel of South Korea.

  3. Salivary Varicella Zoster Virus in Astronauts and in Patients of Herpes Zoster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight is a uniquely stressful environment with astronauts experiencing a variety of stressors including: isolation and confinement, psychosocial, noise, sleep deprivation, anxiety, variable gravitational forces, and increased radiation. These stressors are manifested through the HPA and SAM axes resulting in increased stress hormones. Diminished T-lymphocyte functions lead to reactivation of latent herpes viruses in astronauts during spaceflight. Herpes simplex virus reactivated with symptoms during spaceflight whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate and are shed without symptoms. EBV and VZV are shed in saliva and CMV in the urine. The levels of EBV shed in astronauts increased 10-fold during the flight; CMV and VZV are not typically shed in low stressed individuals, but both were shed in astronauts during spaceflight. All herpesviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Culturing revealed that VZV shed in saliva was infectious virus. The PCR technology was extended to test saliva of 54 shingles patients. All shingles patients shed VZV in their saliva, and the levels followed the course of the disease. Viremia was also found to be common during shingles. The technology may be used before zoster lesions appear allowing for prevention of disease. The technology may be used for rapid detection of VZV in doctors? offices. These studies demonstrated the value of applying technologies designed for astronauts to people on Earth.

  4. Incidence and use of resources for chickenpox and herpes zoster in Latin America and the Caribbean--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bardach, Ariel; Cafferata, María Luisa; Klein, Karen; Cormick, Gabriela; Gibbons, Luz; Ruvinsky, Silvina

    2012-12-01

    Varicella-zoster virus causes chickenpox and herpes zoster. More than 90% of varicella cases occur in childhood. The aim of this study was to gather all relevant information on epidemiology and resource use in Latin America and the Caribbean since 2000. Epidemiologic studies published since 2000 with at least 50 cases of varicella or herpes zoster, or at least 10 cases of congenital disease were included. Gray literature was also searched. Outcomes included incidence, admission rate, mortality and case-fatality ratio. Use of resources and both direct and indirect costs associated were extracted. From the 495 records identified, 23 were included in the meta-analysis to report varicella-zoster virus outcomes and 3 in the herpes zoster analysis. The global pooled varicella incidence in subjects under 15 years of age was 42.9 cases per 1000 individuals per year (95% confidence interval: 26.9-58.9); children under 5 years of age were the most affected. Pooled general admission rate was 3.5 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval: 2.9-4.1) and median hospitalization was 5-9 days. The most common varicella complications reported in studies were skin infections (3-61%), followed by respiratory infections (0-15%) and neurologic problems (1-5%). Direct costs averaged (2011/international dollar [I$]) $2040 per admission (range, I$ 298-5369) and I$70 per clinical visit (range, 11-188 I$). Limited information was available on the outcomes studied. Improvements in the surveillance of ambulatory cases are required to obtain a better epidemiologic picture. As of 2011, only 2 countries introduced the vaccine in national immunization programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  5. Rare presentation of acute urinary retention secondary to herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, P C; Harkaway, R C; Elisco, A J; Rosenthal, B D

    1998-09-01

    There are many causes of acute urinary retention. Reported here is a case of one of the more rare causes: herpes zoster. Fewer than 70 cases have been reported in the literature since 1890. In the present clinical environment where many patients are immunocompromised, reports of herpes zoster and its sequelae are no longer thought of as anecdotal. The virus may interrupt the detrusor reflex due to involvement of the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Urinary retention with sensory loss of both bladder and rectum as well as flaccid paralysis of the detrusor can develop in patients with herpes zoster. Fortunately, the outcome of this process is benign and full recovery of the detrusor is likely.

  6. Long-term immunogenicity and safety of an investigational herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chlibek, Roman; Pauksens, Karlis; Rombo, Lars; van Rijckevorsel, Gini; Richardus, Jan H; Plassmann, Georg; Schwarz, Tino F; Catteau, Grégory; Lal, Himal; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-02-03

    An investigational subunit vaccine containing the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) and the AS01B adjuvant system is being evaluated for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) in older adults. A phase II trial evaluating different formulations of this vaccine (containing 25μg, 50μg, or 100μg gE) was conducted in adults ≥60 years of age and showed that all formulations elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses for up to 3 years after vaccination. In this follow-up study in subjects who received two doses of the 50μg gE/AS01B formulation (HZ/su), we assessed the persistence of the immune responses for up to 6 years after vaccination. This phase II, open-label, multicenter, single-group trial conducted in the Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden, and the Netherlands followed 129 subjects who had received two doses (2 months apart) of HZ/su during the initial trial. Vaccine-induced immune responses (frequencies of gE-specific CD4(+) T cells expressing ≥2 activation markers and serum anti-gE antibody concentrations) were evaluated at 48, 60, and 72 months after the first HZ/su dose. Six years after vaccination with HZ/su, gE-specific cell-mediated immune responses and anti-gE antibody concentrations had decreased by 20-25% from month 36, but remained higher than the prevaccination values. At month 72, the gE-specific cell-mediated immune response was 3.8 times higher than the prevaccination value (477.3 vs. 119.4 activated gE-specific CD4(+) T cells per 10(6) cells), and the anti-gE antibody concentration was 7.3 times higher than the prevaccination value (8159.0 vs. 1121.3mIU/mL). No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported between months 36 and 72. gE-specific cellular and humoral immune responses persisted for 6 years after two-dose vaccination with HZ/su in healthy older adults. No safety concerns were identified. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Herpes zoster involving penis and scrotum: an unusual occurrence.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Abdul Rehman; Alvi, Kamran Yousaf; Chaudhary, Ammad Akram

    2015-03-01

    Herpes zoster is an infectious vesicular skin rash in a dermatomal distribution caused by Varicella zoster virus. It occurs very uncommonly in sacral dermatomes. We describe a case with rash on penis and scrotum due to involvement of S2 dermatome in a young male. The disease followed an uneventful course and the patient recovered completely without any sequelae or complications. This case is being presented to highlight its unusual location and to discuss differentiation from another viral infection commonly seen at this site.

  8. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Hortense, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks. PMID:25387508

  9. [S1 Herpes zoster localization: acute urinary retention in woman].

    PubMed

    Vella, Marco; Mastrocinque, Giuseppe; Romeo, Salvatore; Giammanco, Giovanni; Melloni, Darwin

    2011-01-01

    Acute urinary retention in women is rare. The varicella-zoster virus causes inflammatory lesions of the sensory-root ganglions, meninges and, less frequently, spinal cord. Herpes zoster has been reported to affect, although rarely, lower urinary tract innervations, and acute urinary retention can be thought to occur in the presence of sacral dermatome involvement. Usually it is located in S2-4 dermatome and the prognosis for acute urinary retention is benign resolving in about 20 days. We present a case in which the S1 dermatome was involved and acute urinary retention developed. After 10 days of specific therapy and self-catheterization the problem resolved.

  10. [Herpes zoster: the associated burden and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The burden of illness and healthcare resource utilisation associated with herpes zoster in individuals aged 60 years or above is substantial, causing severe loss of quality of life. In the absence of antiviral therapy, up to 45% of over 60 year-olds experience pain which persists for months to years. The importance of preventive strategies for PHN is becoming widely recognised. The aim of the present review is not only to present the herpes zoster-associated burden, but also to detail the effectiveness of the preventive approaches currently available.

  11. Burden of herpes zoster in the UK: findings from the zoster quality of life (ZQOL) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful condition that can have a substantial negative impact on patients’ lives. However, UK-specific data on the debilitating impact of HZ, in terms of patients’ experience of pain and impairments in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) are limited. The Zoster Quality of Life (ZQOL) study, a large-scale UK cross-sectional study, was conducted to quantify the burden of HZ in UK patients. Methods A total of 229 HZ patients aged 50 years or over were recruited from primary and secondary/tertiary care centres throughout the UK. Patients completed a battery of validated questionnaires, including the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory (ZBPI), the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) and the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) on initial presentation to the doctor and again 7–14 days later. At follow-up patients also completed the Treatment Satisfaction with Medication (TSQM) questionnaire. Where available, mean questionnaire scores in the HZ population were compared to scores for age-matched norms to investigate the burden associated with HZ. Results Pain was prominent among patients, with 57.9% at the initial study visit reporting pain in the preceding 24 hours at levels typically considered to have a significant impact on HRQoL (i.e. ZBPI worst pain ≥ 5). This was reflected in SF-36 and EQ-5D scores that were significantly lower for patients when compared to age-matched norms (p < 0.05) - except for the SF-36 domain of physical functioning. HRQoL was inversely associated with levels of reported pain, with those patients in the greatest amount of pain reporting the greatest HRQoL impact. However, there was no association between pain severity and participant age. The majority of patients (69.4%) received antivirals within 72 hours of rash appearing and 69.9% of patients were also taking analgesics for the management of HZ pain. TSQM scores indicated that patients were least satisfied with the effectiveness of their

  12. Increasing Trends of Herpes Zoster in Australia

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Raina; Stein, Alicia; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena; Mahimbo, Abela; Cunningham, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation. Methods Australian data on general practice (GP) encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013) were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period. Results All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods). Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time. Discussion The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly. PMID:25928713

  13. Anti-thymocyte globulins in kidney transplantation: focus on current indications and long-term immunological side effects.

    PubMed

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Staeck, Oliver; Crépin, Thomas; Halleck, Fabian; Saas, Philippe; Brakemeier, Susanne; Ducloux, Didier; Budde, Klemens

    2017-10-01

    Antithymocyte globulins (ATGs) are part of the immunosuppression arsenal currently used by clinicians to prevent or treat acute rejection in solid organ transplantation. ATG is a mixture of non-specific anti-lymphocyte immunoglobulins targeting not only T cell subsets but also several other immune and non-immune cells, rendering its precise immunoglobulin composition difficult to appreciate or to compare from one preparation to another. Furthermore, several mechanisms of action have been described. Taken together, this probably explains the efficacy and the side effects associated with this drug. Recent data suggest a long-term negative impact on allograft and patient outcomes, pointing out the need to better characterize the potential toxicity and the benefit-risk balance associated to this immunosuppressive therapy within large clinical trials. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. [The macrophage disappearance reaction in guinea pigs sensitized with bovine gamma globulin or human scrum albumin (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schimke, R; Bernstein, B; Ambrosius, H

    1977-01-01

    The macrophage disappearance reaction (MDR) is a suitable test for detection of cell mediated immunity against bovine gamma globulin (BGG) and human serum albumin (HSA) in guinea pigs. The MDR is a technical simple, good manipulable, and quantifiable test. The optimal test conditions for the antigens BGC and HSA are the following: Peritoneal exudat cells (PEC) were stimulated with paraffin oil. On the 5th day after receiving oil the animals were injected with 80 microgram BGG or 30 microgram HSA i.p. 5 hours later the PEC were harvested and counted. With the MDR it is possible to detect differences with respect to degree of cell-mediated immunity. Supernatants of sensitized lymphocytes produces the MDR too.

  15. Herpes zoster could be an early manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2016-05-01

    No formal epidemiological research based on systematic analysis has focused on the relationship between herpes zoster and immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Taiwan. Our aim was to explore whether herpes zoster is an early manifestation of undiagnosed human HIV infection in Taiwan. This was a retrospective cohort study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 35,892 individuals aged ≤ 84 years with newly diagnosed herpes zoster from 1998 to 2010 were assigned to the herpes zoster group, whereas 143,568 sex-matched and age-matched, randomly selected individuals without herpes zoster served as the non-herpes zoster group. The incidence of HIV diagnosis at the end of 2011 was estimated in both groups. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of HIV diagnosis associated with herpes zoster and other comorbidities including drug dependence and venereal diseases. The overall incidence of HIV diagnosis was 4.19-fold greater in the herpes zoster group than that in the non-herpes zoster group (3.33 per 10,000 person-years vs. 0.80 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI 4.04-4.35). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the adjusted hazard ratio of HIV diagnosis was 4.37 (95% CI 3.10-6.15) for individuals with herpes zoster and without comorbidities, as compared with individuals without herpes zoster and without comorbidities. Herpes zoster is associated with HIV diagnosis. Patients who have risk behaviors of HIV infection should receive regular surveillance for undiagnosed HIV infection when they present with herpes zoster. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Herpes zoster induced neuropathic bladder--a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsiu-Nan; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Shu-Pin; Su, Chin-Ming; Chen, Chung-Chin; Wang, Chii-Jye; Chou, Yii-Her; Huang, Chun-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    Herpes zoster infection involving the sacral dermatomes has been associated with bladder dysfunction and, although rarely, with acute urinary retention. Less than 150 cases have been reported in the literature. After reviewing our institute's chart records covering a period of time dating from 1991 to 2001, we found that three of our patients had developed acute urinary retention following herpes zoster skin lesions of the S2-4 dermatomes. Herein we report our findings. These three patients had previously been found to have normal voiding status. However, at the time of complaint urodynamic studies revealed detrusor areflexia or detrusor hyporeflexia with decreased sensation of bladder filling. After micturation recovery, repeat urodynamic studies revealed detrusor pressure and bladder sensation recovery. After one to six weeks of treatment, all three patients could void spontaneously without catheterization. We found that, when treated with antiviral medication, supportive analgesics, and temporary urinary drainage, which included urethral catheterization and suprapubic cystostomy, acute urinary retention associated with herpes zoster has a generally favorable prognosis. In other words, we found that in spite of its rarity, herpes zoster induced neuropathic bladder dysfunction is reversible when treated appropriately.

  17. Acute urinary retention attributable to sacral herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Acheson, J; Mudd, D

    2004-11-01

    Acute urinary retention in women is uncommon. A 63 year old woman presented with suprapubic pain, a palpable bladder, and multiple grouped vesicles on the right buttock. Catheterisation showed a residual of 2000 ml. A case is reported of acute urinary retention secondary to herpes zoster infection of the sacral nerves (S2-4).

  18. Epidemic Varicella Zoster Virus among University Students, India.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Josh; Logaraj, Muthunarayanan; Ramraj, Balaji; Narasimhan, Padmanesan; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2018-02-01

    We investigated a yearlong varicella zoster virus outbreak in a highly susceptible young adult population at a large university in India. Outbreaks of varicella infection among adults are not well described in the literature. Infection control measures and vaccination policy for this age group and setting are needed.

  19. Epidemic Varicella Zoster Virus among University Students, India

    PubMed Central

    Logaraj, Muthunarayanan; Ramraj, Balaji; Narasimhan, Padmanesan; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2018-01-01

    We investigated a yearlong varicella zoster virus outbreak in a highly susceptible young adult population at a large university in India. Outbreaks of varicella infection among adults are not well described in the literature. Infection control measures and vaccination policy for this age group and setting are needed. PMID:29350152

  20. Optic neuritis in a child with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Monroe, L D

    1979-03-01

    A 9-year-old black boy was admitted to the hospital for treatment of herpes zoster involving the trigeminal nerve distribution on the left half of his face. Consulting examination of his eye on the involved side revealed moderate iritis as well as papillitis and diffuse retinitis.

  1. Classification of Blood-Group Antibodies as β2M or γ Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, M.; Polley, Margaret J.; Hunter, Denise A.; Mollison, P. L.

    1962-01-01

    Thirty selected blood-group antibodies (excluding anti-A and anti-B) have been classified as β2M (19S γ) globulin, γ (7S γ) globulin or mixtures, using the following three methods: fractionation on a DEAE-cellulose column; indirect anti-globulin tests, using specific anti-β2M-globulin and anti-γ-globulin sera; and treatment with 2-mercapto-ethanol. With only minor exceptions, results obtained with the three methods were in agreement. Most blood-group antibodies within the Le, MNSs and P systems appear to be `naturally occurring' and these were found to be β2M globulin. Blood-group antibodies within the Rh, K and Jk systems, which had arisen after an antigenic stimulus, were usually γ globulin but were occasionally β2M globulin. Antibodies composed of β2M globulin usually behave as agglutinins but may behave as incomplete antibodies (e.g. some examples of anti-Jka); conversely, antibodies composed of γ globulin usually behave as incomplete antibodies but may behave as agglutinins (e.g. an example of anti-M). The ability to bind complement seems to be related more to the blood-group specificity of the particular antibody than to its molecular size. For example, anti-Jka, when composed either of γ or β2M globulin, seems invariably to bind complement, whereas potent anti-M or anti-Rh, whether composed of γ or β2M globulin, do not bind complement. PMID:14011076

  2. Effect of antithymocyte globulin source on outcomes of bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Kekre, Natasha; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Carreras, Jeanette; Ahmed, Parvez; Anderlini, Paolo; Atta, Elias Hallack; Ayas, Mouhab; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Bonfim, Carmem; Deeg, H Joachim; Kapoor, Neena; Lee, Jong-Wook; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Pulsipher, Michael A; Eapen, Mary; Antin, Joseph H

    2017-07-01

    For treatment of severe aplastic anemia, immunosuppressive therapy with horse antithymocyte globulin results in superior response and survival compared with rabbit antithymocyte globulin. This relative benefit may be different in the setting of transplantation as rabbit antithymocyte globulin results in more profound immunosuppression. We analyzed 833 severe aplastic anemia transplants between 2008 and 2013 using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings (n=546) or unrelated donors (n=287) who received antithymocyte globulin as part of their conditioning regimen and bone marrow graft. There were no differences in hematopoietic recovery by type of antithymocyte globulin. Among recipients of HLA-matched sibling transplants, day 100 incidence of acute (17% versus 6%, P <0.001) and chronic (20% versus 9%, P <0.001) graft- versus -host disease were higher with horse compared to rabbit antithymocyte globulin. There were no differences in 3-year overall survival, 87% and 92%, P =0.76, respectively. Among recipients of unrelated donor transplants, acute graft- versus -host disease was also higher with horse compared to rabbit antithymocyte globulin (42% versus 23%, P <0.001) but not chronic graft- versus -host disease (38% versus 32%, P =0.35). Survival was lower with horse antithymocyte globulin after unrelated donor transplantation, 75% versus 83%, P =0.02. These data support the use of rabbit antithymocyte globulin for bone marrow transplant conditioning for severe aplastic anemia. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. From glanders to globulins: A study in comparative medicine.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P E

    2017-05-01

    The anti-globulin test was described in 1945, and ever since has been synonymous with the lead author, Robin Coombs, a young veterinary surgeon, at that time embarking on a career in immunological research. This was marked by a number of important contributions in the field, including the description and categorisation of hypersensitivity reactions, co-authored with Philip Gell. Together they wrote the classical text, Clinical Aspects of Immunology, which has been updated and republished over the ensuing 50 years. Although Robin Coombs is best remembered for his contributions to medical immunology, he made a number of significant early advances in the field of veterinary immunology.

  4. Zoster-associated segmental paresis in a patient with cervical spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Hee; Song, Ho-Kyung; Jang, Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Segmental zoster paresis is a rare complication of herpes zoster, characterized by focal motor weakness that does not always present simultaneously with skin lesions. Zoster paresis can be easily confused with other neuromuscular or spinal diseases. This case report describes the case of a 72-year-old woman with herpes zoster and cervical spinal stenosis at the same spinal level, where it was difficult to distinguish segmental zoster paresis from cervical radiculopathy combined with motor neuropathy. Although segmental zoster paresis in the upper extremity is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of segmental pain and weakness in the extremities, especially in older or immunocompromised patients. Correct diagnosis is required, to avoid unnecessary surgery and allow timely antiviral treatment.

  5. Epidemiological features and costs of herpes zoster in Taiwan: a national study 2000 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Jih, Jaw-Shyang; Chen, Yi-Ju; Lin, Ming-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Huang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Chih-Chiang; Lee, Ding-Dar; Chang, Yun-Ting; Wang, Wen-Jen; Liu, Han-Nan

    2009-11-01

    To analyse the epidemiological characteristics and related costs of herpes zoster in Taiwan, a nationally representative cohort of 1,000,000 individuals from the National Health Insurance register was followed up from 2000 to 2006 and their claims data analysed. Overall, 34,280 patients were diagnosed with zoster (incidence 4.89/1000 person-years) and 2944 patients (8.6%) developed post-herpetic neuralgia 3 months after the start of the zoster rash (incidence 0.42/1000 person-years). People with older age, diabetes, and immunocompromising conditions were at higher risk of developing zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia. The overall hospitalization rate for zoster was 16.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The cost for each home care case and per hospitalized case were approximately 53.30 euro and 1224.70 euro, respectively. Further research into the cost-effectiveness of zoster vaccine is needed.

  6. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michelle P.; Harding, Robert

    2011-01-01

    1.Technology Description-Researchers discovered that when the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) reactivates from latency in the body, the virus is consistently present in saliva before the appearance of skin lesions. A small saliva sample is mixed with a specialized reagent in a test kit. If the virus is present in the saliva sample, the mixture turns a red color. The sensitivity and specificity emanates from an antibody-antigen reaction. This technology is a rapid, non-invasive, point of-of-care testing kit for detecting the virus from a saliva sample. The device is easy to use and can be used in clinics and in remote locations to quickly detect VZV and begin treatment with antiviral drugs. 2.Market Opportunity- RST Bioscience will be the first and only company to market a rapid, same day test kit for the detection of VZV in saliva. The RST detection test kit will have several advantages over existing, competitive technology. The test kit is self contained and laboratory equipment is not required for analysis of the sample. Only a single saliva sample is required to be taken instead of blood or cerebral spinal fluid. The test kit is portable, sterile and disposable after use. RST detection test kits require no electrical power or expensive storage equipment and can be used in remote locations. 3.Market Analysis- According to the CDC, it is estimated that 1 million cases of shingles occur each year in the U.S. with more than half over the age of sixty. There is a high demand for rapid diagnostics by the public. The point-of-care testing (POCT) market is growing faster than other segments of in vitro diagnostics. According to a July 2007 InteLab Corporation industry report the overall market for POCT was forecast to increase from $10.3 billion in 2005 to $18.7 billion by 2011. The market value of this test kit has not been determined. 4.Competition- The VZV vaccine prevents 50% of cases and reduces neuralgia by 66%. The most popular test detects VZV-specific IgM antibody

  7. Does herpes zoster predispose to giant cell arteritis: a geo-epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Ing, Edsel B; Ing, Royce; Liu, Xinyang; Zhang, Angela; Torun, Nurhan; Sey, Michael; Pagnoux, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis in the elderly and can cause irreversible blindness and aortitis. Varicella zoster (VZ), which is potentially preventable by vaccination, has been proposed as a possible immune trigger for GCA, but this is controversial. The incidence of GCA varies widely by country. If VZ virus contributes to the immunopathogenesis of GCA we hypothesized that nations with increased incidence of GCA would also have increased incidence of herpes zoster (HZ). We conducted an ecologic analysis to determine the relationship between the incidence of HZ and GCA in different countries. A literature search for the incidence rates (IRs) of GCA and HZ from different countries was conducted. Correlation and linear regression was performed comparing the disease IR of each country for subjects 50 years of age or older. We found the IR for GCA and HZ from 14 countries. Comparing the IRs for GCA and HZ in 50-year-olds, the Pearson product-moment correlation ( r ) was -0.51, with linear regression coefficient (β) -2.92 (95% CI -5.41, -0.43; p =0.025) using robust standard errors. Comparing the IRs for GCA and HZ in 70-year-olds, r was -0.40, with β -1.78, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -4.10, 0.53; p =0.12). Although this geo-epidemiologic study has potential for aggregation and selection biases, there was no positive biologic gradient between the incidence of clinically evident HZ and GCA.

  8. Does herpes zoster predispose to giant cell arteritis: a geo-epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Ing, Edsel B; Ing, Royce; Liu, Xinyang; Zhang, Angela; Torun, Nurhan; Sey, Michael; Pagnoux, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis in the elderly and can cause irreversible blindness and aortitis. Varicella zoster (VZ), which is potentially preventable by vaccination, has been proposed as a possible immune trigger for GCA, but this is controversial. The incidence of GCA varies widely by country. If VZ virus contributes to the immunopathogenesis of GCA we hypothesized that nations with increased incidence of GCA would also have increased incidence of herpes zoster (HZ). We conducted an ecologic analysis to determine the relationship between the incidence of HZ and GCA in different countries. Methods A literature search for the incidence rates (IRs) of GCA and HZ from different countries was conducted. Correlation and linear regression was performed comparing the disease IR of each country for subjects 50 years of age or older. Results We found the IR for GCA and HZ from 14 countries. Comparing the IRs for GCA and HZ in 50-year-olds, the Pearson product-moment correlation (r) was −0.51, with linear regression coefficient (β) −2.92 (95% CI −5.41, −0.43; p=0.025) using robust standard errors. Comparing the IRs for GCA and HZ in 70-year-olds, r was −0.40, with β −1.78, which was not statistically significant (95% CI −4.10, 0.53; p=0.12). Conclusion Although this geo-epidemiologic study has potential for aggregation and selection biases, there was no positive biologic gradient between the incidence of clinically evident HZ and GCA. PMID:29391771

  9. Herpes Zoster: the rationale for the introduction of vaccination in Italy.

    PubMed

    Paganino, C; Alicino, C; Trucchi, C; Albanese, E; Sticchi, L; Icardi, G

    2015-06-10

    Herpes Zoster (HZ) and its main complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), represent an important public health issue because of their relevant burden within older adult population and the actual suboptimal therapeutic management of the diseases. Incidences of HZ and PHN are comparable all over the world and are closely related with the population age. Epidemiological data collected in Italy about HZ and its complications confirmed the trend registered in North America and Europe. Moreover HZ related burden is exacerbated by a significant economic impact related to both direct and indirect costs. Since 2006 a live, attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine, that contains VZV Oka strain [Zostavax, Merck & Co., Inc.], was licensed for the prevention of HZ and PHN in adults aged ≥ 60 years. Since 2011, the licensure has been extended to adults between 50 and 59 years. The vaccine has demonstrated a good immunogenicity, efficacy and safety profiles in two pivotal phase III clinical trials and the effectiveness was further confirmed after vaccine licensure. Pharmaco-economic studies concluded that HZ vaccine is cost-effective in most European countries and generally supported the economic value of this vaccination. The vaccine is actually recommended in USA, Canada and several European countries. The opportunity to reduce the burden of these diseases by the recommendation of HZ vaccination have been evaluated and suggested also in our Country and some Regions have been recently introduced the vaccine in their immunization plan. If the good results, already obtained with HZ vaccine in other countries, will be confirmed by these Italian pilot experiences, vaccination programs should be made uniform in all Country in order to ensure an equitable offer of this important preventive tool. © Copyright by Pacini Editore SpA, Pisa, Italy.

  10. Using Changes in Binding Globulins to Assess Oral Contraceptive Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Carolyn; Petrie, K.A.; Cremers, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Validity of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) clinical trial results depends on participant compliance. Ethinyl estradiol (EE2) induces increases in hepatic binding globulin (BG) levels. Measuring these BG increases may provide an effective and convenient approach to distinguishing non-compliant from compliant OCP users in research settings. This analysis evaluated the usefulness of measuring increases in corticosteroid, sex hormone and thyroxine binding globulins (CBG, SHBG, TBG) as measures of OCP compliance. Methods We used frozen serum from a trial that compared ovarian suppression between normal weight and obese women randomized to one of two OCPs containing EE2 and levonorgestrel (LNG). Based on serial LNG measurements during the trial, 17% of participants were non-compliant. We matched non-compliant participants with compliant participants by age, BMI, ethnicity and OCP formulation. We measured CBG, SHBG and TBG levels, and compared change from baseline to 3-month follow-up between the non-compliant and compliant participants. Construction of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves allowed comparison of various BG measures. Results Changes in CBG and TBG distinguished OCP non-compliant users from compliant users (area under the ROC curve (AUROC), 0.86 and 0.89, p < 0.01). Changes in SHBG were less discriminating (AUROC 0.69) Conclusions EE2 induced increases in CBG and TBG provide a sensitive integrated marker of compliance with an LNG-containing OCP. PMID:22795088

  11. A 70-year-old woman with shingles: review of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J

    2009-07-01

    Herpes zoster is a common late complication of varicella-zoster virus exposure and can be further complicated by postherpetic neuralgia. Ms A is a 70-year-old woman with shingles and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome who presented to the emergency department with a few days of earache followed by pain in the back of her head. Using her case as a springboard, the diagnosis, natural history, and treatment of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in immunocompetent older adults are reviewed, in addition to the effectiveness of the herpes zoster vaccine.

  12. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    PubMed Central

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  13. Correlation between serum total globulins and gamma globulins and their use to diagnose failure of passive transfer in foals.

    PubMed

    Fouché, Nathalie; Graubner, Claudia; Howard, Judith

    2014-11-01

    Various assays have been used as an aid to diagnose failure of passive transfer (FPT) of immunoglobulins in neonatal foals, but often lack sensitivity as screening tests, or are time consuming to perform and impractical as confirmatory tests. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether measurement of serum total globulins (TG; i.e. total protein minus albumin) can be used to estimate the electrophoretic gamma globulin (EGG) fraction in hospitalised neonatal foals with suspected FPT. Sample data from 56 foals were evaluated retrospectively. The coefficient of rank correlation was 0.84. The area under the curve of ROC analysis was 0.887, 0.922 and 0.930 for EGG concentrations <2 g/L, < 4 g/L and <8 g/L, respectively. Cut-offs for TG achieved ≥90% sensitivity for detecting EGG <2 g/L, < 4 g/L and <8 g/L, with negative predictive values of >97% and >94%, using prevalence of 15% and 30%, respectively. These results suggest that measurement of TG can be used as a guide to predicting EGG, provided that appropriate cut-off values are selected, and this technique could be a useful initial screening test for FPT in foals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of aplastic anaemia with lower-dose anti-thymocyte globulin produces similar response rates and survival as per standard dose anti-thymocyte globulin schedules.

    PubMed

    Scott, A; Morris, K; Butler, J; Mills, A K; Kennedy, G A

    2016-10-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) is a rare acquired bone marrow failure syndrome resulting from the immune-mediated destruction of haemopoietic stem cells. For adults in whom first-line haemopoietic progenitor cell transplantation is not feasible, combination anti-thymocyte globulin (ATGAM) plus cyclosporine A is standard therapy; however, there are minimal data available regarding the optimal ATGAM dosage in terms of efficacy and survival. Our institutions have historically used different dosing protocols of ATGAM in the treatment of AA. We aimed to review the outcome of AA patients treated with these protocols and compare them to the published literature. We conducted a retrospective study of 31 adults who received first-line ATGAM for AA and compared response rates and survival between cohorts who received standard (40 mg/kg/day D1-4) versus lower-dose (15 mg/kg/day D1-5) ATGAM schedules. There were similar rates of response (64 vs 71%, P = 1.0), relapse (33 vs 33%, P = 1.0), transformation (14 vs 24%, P = 0.66) or infection (43 vs 47%, P = 1.0), respectively, between standard and lower-dose cohorts. At a median follow up of 24 months, there was no statistical difference between standard and lower-dose cohorts in either event-free (42.2 vs 64.7%, P = 0.91) or overall survival (73.1 vs 88.2%, P = 0.75). Our experience suggests that lower-dose ATGAM at 15 mg/kg/day D1-5 as treatment of AA produces similar responses and outcomes as per standard-dose ATGAM schedules. Prospective trials comparing ATGAM dose schedules in AA are warranted. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Close correlation of herpes zoster-induced voiding dysfunction with severity of zoster-related pain: A single faculty retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mizue; Takahashi, Ichiro; Honma, Masaru; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2015-11-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ), a common vesiculo-erythematous skin disease associated with reactivation of varicella zoster virus in the cranial nerve, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia, is accompanied by several related symptoms represented by postherpetic neuralgia. Among them, involvement of vesicorectal dysfunction is relatively rare. The vesicorectal symptom can usually be recovered in transient course, but is quite important in terms of impaired quality of life. Male individuals affected with HZ and skin lesions on sacral dermatome have been reported as independent risk factors of zoster-related voiding dysfunction. In this study, urinary symptoms were focused upon and six patients with zoster-related voiding dysfunction at a single faculty of dermatology in Japan from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients showed HZ lesions on the sacral area and the urinary symptom recovered in approximately 2 months (14 days to 7 months). The term of treatment for zoster-associated urinary dysfunction was positively correlated with that for zoster-related pain without significance (r = 0.661, P = 0.153). Average treatment term for pain relief of sacral HZ accompanied by voiding dysfunction (91.3 ± 76.44 days) was significantly longer than that of sacral HZ without urinary symptom (18.9 ± 20.42 days) (P = 0.032). These results suggested that zoster-related voiding dysfunction would mainly be involved in sacral HZ and closely associated with severity of zoster-related pain. Dermatologists should be aware that severe zoster-related pain accompanied by sacral HZ, which is related to prolonged treatment of pain relief, can be a predictive factor of voiding dysfunction. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Susceptibility to measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella-zoster viruses among healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Aypak, Cenk; Bayram, Yasemin; Eren, Hayriye; Altunsoy, Adalet; Berktaş, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify and immunize susceptible healthcare workers to prevent and control hospital infections. Our aim was to evaluate the specific antibodies against the measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and the varicella zoster virus among healthcare workers in a tertiary-care hospital. A total of 284 healthcare workers (89 men and 195 women; mean age, 33.5 ± 11 years), including 111 nurses, 87 physicians, 34 laboratory technicians, and 52 members of the housekeeping staff, of Van Training and Research Hospital were enrolled in this study. Antibodies were detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The numbers of workers with serological susceptibility to mumps, measles, rubella, or chicken pox were 26 (9.2%), 18 (6.3%), 7 (2.5%), and 5 (1.8%), respectively. Although the difference was not statistical significant, the rate of seroprevalence of antibodies was lowest for measles (90.8%; p>0.05). Susceptibility to measles, mumps, and rubella, and chicken pox was more prevalent among young healthcare workers (p<0.001). Not all healthcare workers born before 1957 were immune to these vaccine-preventable diseases. These data confirm that screening and vaccination of susceptible healthcare workers is essential regardless of age.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a herpes zoster vaccination program among the French elderly people.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Emmanuel; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Le Strat, Yann; Herida, Magid

    2016-09-01

    A vaccine against herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications has already proven safe and effective against infection and pain and against the related deterioration of quality of life in the elderly. In order to inform the vaccination decision-making process regarding inclusion of this vaccine in the French immunization schedule, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of several vaccination scenarios, compared to no vaccination. We chose to use a previously published Markov model. Starting vaccination in elderly individuals aged 65, 70 and 75 y old appears more cost-effective than vaccination for those aged 60 y old, with a cost-effectiveness ratio between 30,000 and 35,000 euros per quality-adjusted-life year (QALY) gained for the first 3 age groups versus 54,500 €; for the latter group. These results largely contributed to the recommendation to include the HZ vaccination in the French immunization schedule for people aged between 65 and 74 y old in France.

  18. Live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine for HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Shafran, S D

    2016-04-01

    Multiple guidelines exist for the use of live viral vaccines for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella and yellow fever in people with HIV infections, but these guidelines do not make recommendations regarding live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine (LAHZV), which is approved for people over 50 years in the general population. LAHZV is made with the same virus used in varicella vaccine. The incidence of herpes zoster remains increased in people with HIV infection, even when on suppressive antiretroviral therapy, and a growing proportion of HIV-infected patients are over 50 years of age. The purpose of this article is to review the use of varicella vaccine and LAHZV in people with HIV infection and to make recommendations about the use of LAHZV in adults with HIV infection. A PubMed search was undertaken using the terms 'herpes zoster AND HIV' and 'varicella AND HIV'. Reference lists were also reviewed for pertinent citations. Varicella vaccine is recommended in varicella-susceptible adults, as long as they have a CD4 count > 200 cells/μL, the same CD4 threshold used for MMR and yellow fever vaccines. No transmission of vaccine strain Varicella zoster virus has been documented in people with HIV infections with a CD4 count above this threshold. LAHZV was administered to 295 HIV-infected adults with a CD4 count > 200 cells/μL, and was safe and immunogenic with no cases of vaccine strain infection. It is recommended that LAHZV be administered to HIV-infected adults with a CD4 count above 200 cells/μL, the same CD4 threshold used for other live attenuated viral vaccines. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  19. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  20. Comparative preclinical evaluation of AS01 versus other Adjuvant Systems in a candidate herpes zoster glycoprotein E subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fochesato, Michel; Dendouga, Najoua; Boxus, Mathieu

    2016-08-02

    The candidate vaccine HZ/su is being developed to prevent herpes-zoster disease (HZ). HZ occurrence is attributed to declines in varicella-zoster virus (VZV) specific T-cell immunity. HZ/su contains VZV antigen, gE, and Adjuvant System AS01 B (liposome-based formulation of MPL and QS-21). In clinical trials, AS01 B enhances CD4 + T-cell responses to gE. In clinical trials of other vaccines, Adjuvant Systems AS03 and AS04 also enhance antigen-specific CD4 + T-cell responses. Hence the purpose of this study was to evaluate gE formulated with AS01 B , AS01 E (50% less MPL and QS-21 than AS01 B ), AS03 or AS04 in C57BL6 mice primed with live-attenuated VZV. Four-weeks post-vaccination, the gE-specific CD4 + T-cell response to gE/AS01 B was 5.4, 2.8 and 2.2-fold greater than those to gE/AS03, gE/AS04 and gE/AS03, respectively (p<0.001). Therefore in the VZV-primed mouse model, CD4 + T-cell responses to gE appeared most enhanced by AS01 B , and adds further support for the use of AS01 B in the HZ/su formulation.

  1. Prevention of herpes zoster and its complications: from the clinic to the real-life experience with the vaccine.

    PubMed

    Giovanni, Gabutti; Nicoletta, Valente; Parvanè, Kuhdari; Silvia, Lupi; Armando, Stefanati

    2016-12-01

    The erpes zoster is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash of unilateral distribution, which can eventually cause severe complications, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. In Europe, an incidence of between 2.0 and 4.6 cases per 1000 person-years is estimated, with an increase after 50 years of age. Currently, the therapeutic options for are only partially effective in limiting the acute phase, while the management of complications is frequently complex and not satisfactory. The overall burden of the disease and the elevated costs associated with diagnosis and clinical and therapeutic management led to the development of a new preventive approach through a live attenuated virus vaccine. The vaccine now available decreases the incidence of the disease, post-herpetic neuralgia and the burden of illness. Moreover, the vaccine is safe and well tolerated and it seems to confer long-term protection. Based on the clinical results and evidence provided by the Health Technology Assessment, several countries introduced immunization although with different recommendations and methods of funding.

  2. Real-World Effectiveness and Safety of a Live-Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Ansaldi, Filippo; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Paganino, Chiara; Orsi, Andrea; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common, painful and debilitating disease caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus in ganglia. This clinical event occurs more frequently in the elderly and those who are immunocompromised. The most common complication of HZ is post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) which is responsible for the highest HZ-related burden of illness and is challenging to treat. Due to the important clinical and economic impact of HZ and PHN, and the suboptimal treatments that are currently available, HZ vaccination is an important approach to reduce the burden of illness. Currently, one-dose, live-attenuated vaccine is licensed in the United States and Europe to prevent HZ and it is included in some national immunization programs. The clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of the vaccine has been demonstrated in two large phase III clinical trials, involving more than 38,000 and 22,000 individuals aged ≥60 and 50-59 years, respectively. This comprehensive review summarizes the extensive "real-world" effectiveness and safety data from both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. These data confirm those from the clinical trials, supporting the use of HZ vaccine in clinical practice and provide evidence that the current recommendations for immunocompromised individuals should be revised. Funding for the editorial assistance, article processing charges, and open access fee for this publication was provided by Sanofi Pasteur MSD.

  3. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and strabismus: a unique cause of secondary Brown syndrome.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Kevin M; Raymond, William R; Boden, John H

    2017-08-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus can be associated with a variety of ocular and visual sequelae, including isolated or even multiple cranial neuropathies, potentially affecting the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerves. We report a case of a secondary Brown syndrome following resolution of a unilateral isolated trochlear nerve palsy associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 57-year-old man. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Anaphylaxis after Zoster Vaccine: Implicating Alpha-Gal Allergy as a Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Cosby A.; Hemler, Jonathan A.; Commins, Scott P.; Schuyler, Alexander J.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Peebles, R. Stokes; Fahrenholz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Capsule Summary A patient with alpha-gal allergy presented with anaphylaxis after receiving zoster vaccine. Subsequent testing of selected vaccines revealed the presence of alpha-gal allergen in MMR and zoster vaccines, which have in common a higher content of gelatin and content of bovine calf serum. PMID:27986511

  5. Disease burden and epidemiology of herpes zoster in pre-vaccine Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Huang, Li-Min; Chang, I-Shou; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Lu, Chun-Yi; Shao, Pei-Lan; Chang, Luan-Yin

    2010-02-03

    Herpes zoster, a common disease, has an important impact on the health of adults, particularly the elderly, and the health system. This study evaluated the disease burden and epidemiological characteristics of herpes zoster in Taiwan. Using herpes zoster-related ICD-9-CM codes used on Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims, we analyzed overall and age group differences in incidence, complications, utilization of healthcare facilities, lengths of stay, and cost of their medical care in Taiwan's population from 2000 to 2005. The overall annual incidence of zoster was 4.97 cases per 1000 people, with women having a significantly higher incidence than men (5.20 per 1000 vs. 4.72 per 1000, p<0.001). The incidence increased stepwise with age, with 5.18 cases per 1000 in people 40-50 years old, 8.36 in those 50-60, 11.09 in those 60-70, and 11.77 in those above 70 years old. The estimated lifetime risk of developing herpes zoster was 32.2%. Zoster-related hospitalizations and medical cost per patient increased with age. In conclusion, about two-thirds of Taiwan's zoster cases occur in adults older than 40 years old and about one-third of the population would develop zoster within their lifetime. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meta-analysis of treatment with rabbit and horse antithymocyte globulin for aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Jin; Kanda, Junya; Akahoshi, Yu; Harada, Naonori; Kameda, Kazuaki; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Yamazaki, Rie; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-01

    Aplastic anemia patients who received rabbit antithymocyte globulin exhibited response and survival rates inferior to those who received horse antithymocyte globulin in several studies. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to compare rabbit and horse antithymocyte globulin as immunosuppressive therapy for aplastic anemia. We searched online databases for studies that compared antithymocyte globulin regimens as first-line treatment for aplastic anemia, including both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. The early mortality rate at 3 months and overall response rate at 6 months were evaluated. Thirteen studies were included in the analysis. The risk ratio (RR) of early mortality for rabbit vs. horse antithymocyte globulin was 1.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-2.57; P = 0.39], with significant heterogeneity. A sensitivity analysis suggested higher early mortality rate in patients who received rabbit antithymocyte globulin. The overall response rate was significantly higher in patients who received horse antithymocyte globulin (RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.05-1.54; P = 0.015). In conclusion, in aplastic anemia patients treated with ATG, early mortality rate was not significantly different in patients receiving horse or rabbit ATG, although a sensitivity analysis showed higher early mortality in the rabbit ATG group. Horse ATG was associated with significantly higher response rate than rabbit ATG.

  7. Clinical and economic analysis of delayed administration of antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy, John W; Taber, David J; Pilch, Nicole A; Kohout, Ryan K; Bratton, Charles F; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2013-03-01

    The increasing number of marginal deceased kidney donors and an aging recipient population, prolonged hospitalization, and increased costs have destabilized the economic viability of kidney transplants. To determine if a delay in the administration of the day-of-discharge dose of rabbit antithymocyte globulin would result in equivalent clinical outcomes with cost savings. Single-center, prospective, observational before-and-after study of adult kidney transplant recipients who received induction with rabbit antithymocyte globulin.Intervention-Patients who received a transplant between June 2006 and February 2009 and received rabbit antithymocyte globulin served as the control group. Patients who received a transplant between March 2009 and August 2010 and received rabbit antithymocyte globulin had the day-of-discharge dose delayed to the following day and administered in the clinic. A total of 231 patients (146 in the control group, 85 in the study group) were included. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. Patients who had delayed administration of rabbit antithymocyte globulin had shorter stays (3.9 vs 3.1 days, P< .001) and reduced inpatient costs for rabbit antithymocyte globulin (mean $860/patient); these changes were achieved without affecting acute rejection rates (5% vs 5%, P> .99) or readmission rates. In conclusion, delayed inpatient administration of rabbit antithymocyte globulin provided identical clinical outcomes while helping to reduce inpatient costs and increase timely discharges.

  8. ACTIVITY OF DISSOCIATED AND REASSOCIATED 19S ANTI-γ-GLOBULINS

    PubMed Central

    Schrohenloher, Ralph E.; Kunkel, Henry G.; Tomasi, Thomas B.

    1964-01-01

    19S anti-γ-globulins were isolated in a high state of purity from the sera of two patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Following reduction with ethyl mercaptan and alkylation by iodoacetamide, fragments were produced which retained the capacity to combine with 7S γ-globulin. The fragments from one of the 19S anti-γ-globulins agglutinated red cells coated with incomplete anti-Rh antibodies. This activity was shown by density gradient ultracentrifugation to be associated with low molecular weight fractions. The agglutination of the coated red cells by the fragments was strongly inhibited by normal and myeloma 7S γ-globulins and showed a greater specificity than the parent 19S material. Analytical ultracentrifuge experiments demonstrated that the fragments from either of the 19S anti-γ-globulins formed complexes with 7S γ-globulin. Reassociation of the dissociated fragments through reformation of disulfide bonds resulted in the formation of fast sedimenting molecules having properties similar to those of the untreated 19S material in respect to precipitation with aggregated γ-globulin and agglutination of coated red cells. PMID:14238936

  9. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-07

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contacts with children and young people and adult risk of suffering herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Salleras, M; Domínguez, A; Soldevila, N; Prat, A; Garrido, P; Torner, N; Borrás, E; Salleras, L

    2011-10-13

    We carried out a matched case-control study to analyze the possible association between exposure to the children and the risk of suffering herpes-zoster in adulthood. Cases of herpes zoster in immunocompetent healthy patients aged ≥ 25 years seen in the dermatology department of the Sagrado Corazón Hospital in 2007-2008 were matched with four controls. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. 153 cases and 604 matched controls were included. Contacts with children were significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of suffering herpes zoster in adulthood (adjusted OR 0.56 [0.37-0.85]). Herpes-zoster vaccination in immunocompetent people aged ≥ 50 years could counteract the possible negative effects of mass varicella vaccination in childhood on the epidemiology of herpes zoster in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jian

    2015-06-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster virus and Orientia tsutsugamushi were found in the literature. In the described case, scrub typhus probably induced sufficient stress to reactivate the varicella zoster virus. Early recognition of this problem is imperative for prompt and appropriate management, as misdiagnosis can lead to long-term urinary dysfunction. It is important that a diagnosis of herpes zoster be considered, especially in patients with sudden onset urinary retention.

  12. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster virus and Orientia tsutsugamushi were found in the literature. In the described case, scrub typhus probably induced sufficient stress to reactivate the varicella zoster virus. Early recognition of this problem is imperative for prompt and appropriate management, as misdiagnosis can lead to long-term urinary dysfunction. It is important that a diagnosis of herpes zoster be considered, especially in patients with sudden onset urinary retention. PMID:26157595

  13. Herpes zoster of gingiva in an older woman: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Aditi; Sivaraman, Karthik; Thomas, Betsy S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the article is to highlight the distinguishing features of secondary varicella gingival infection in an older women. Herpes zoster is an acute sporadic, painful viral infection in older people caused by the reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus. Herpes zoster affecting the gingiva without any dermal lesions is a rare pathological condition that mimics many intraoral vesiculobullous lesions. The ambiguous nature of this condition creates a diagnostic dilemma. A 58-year-old woman presented with an acute, unilateral and persistent burning sensation and pain in the gingiva with desqaumating vesicullobulous lesion. The women was diagnosed with secondary varicella zoster infection. Herpes zoster of the gingiva could manifest as painful desquamative vesicular lesions, pulpal or other painful neuralgic condition in older individuals which need careful diagnosis before formulating appropiate treatment plan. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Zoster vaccine live for the prevention of shingles in the elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Zussman, Jamie; Young, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a common disease in the elderly population that is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus. Its manifestations and complications can lead to significant short- and long-term morbidity. In 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved Zoster Vaccine Live (Zostavax®) for the prevention of herpes zoster in immunocompetent adults age 60 and over. The approval was based on the results of a large, multi-center clinical trial, the Shingles Prevention Study. This study showed that vaccination significantly decreased shingles incidence, burden of illness due to disease, and the development of, and severity of postherpetic neuralgia. This review offers an overview of varicella zoster virus infection and complications, a summary of the Shingles Prevention Study, and a critical analysis designed to aid the practicing physician who has questions about vaccine administration. PMID:18686747

  15. Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness and manifestations of herpes zoster and associated pain by vaccination status.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Yawn, Barbara P; Hales, Craig M; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Zhang, John; Kurland, Marge J; Harpaz, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Options for managing herpes zoster (HZ)-related pain and complications have limited effectiveness, making HZ prevention through vaccination an important strategy. Limited data are available on HZ vaccine effectiveness against confirmed HZ and manifestations of HZ among vaccinated persons. We conducted a matched case-control study to assess HZ vaccine effectiveness for prevention of HZ and other HZ-related outcomes and a cohort study of persons with HZ to compare HZ-related outcomes by vaccination status. Cases were identified through active surveillance among persons age ≥ 60 years with HZ onset and health-care encounters during 2010-2011 in Southeastern Minnesota. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Data were collected by medical record review and from participants via interviews and daily pain diaries. 266 HZ case-patients and 362 matched controls were enrolled in the vaccine effectiveness studies and 303 case-patients in the cohort study of HZ characteristics by vaccination status. Vaccination was associated with 54% (95% CI:32%-69%) reduction in HZ incidence, 58% (95% CI:31%-75%) reduction in HZ prodromal symptoms, and 70% (95% CI:33%-87%) reduction in medically-attended prodrome. HZ vaccine was statistically significant effective at preventing postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) measured at 30 d after rash onset, 61% (95% CI: 22%-80%). Among persons who developed HZ, no differences were found by vaccination status in severity or duration of HZ pain after rash onset. In this population-based study, HZ vaccination was associated with >50% reduction in HZ, HZ prodrome, and medically-attended prodrome.

  16. Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness and manifestations of herpes zoster and associated pain by vaccination status

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Mona; Yawn, Barbara P; Hales, Craig M; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Zhang, John; Kurland, Marge J; Harpaz, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Options for managing herpes zoster (HZ)-related pain and complications have limited effectiveness, making HZ prevention through vaccination an important strategy. Limited data are available on HZ vaccine effectiveness against confirmed HZ and manifestations of HZ among vaccinated persons. We conducted a matched case-control study to assess HZ vaccine effectiveness for prevention of HZ and other HZ-related outcomes and a cohort study of persons with HZ to compare HZ-related outcomes by vaccination status. Cases were identified through active surveillance among persons age ≥60 years with HZ onset and health-care encounters during 2010-2011 in Southeastern Minnesota. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Data were collected by medical record review and from participants via interviews and daily pain diaries. 266 HZ case-patients and 362 matched controls were enrolled in the vaccine effectiveness studies and 303 case-patients in the cohort study of HZ characteristics by vaccination status. Vaccination was associated with 54% (95% CI:32%-69%) reduction in HZ incidence, 58% (95% CI:31%-75%) reduction in HZ prodromal symptoms, and 70% (95% CI:33%-87%) reduction in medically-attended prodrome. HZ vaccine was statistically significant effective at preventing postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) measured at 30 d after rash onset, 61% (95% CI: 22%-80%). Among persons who developed HZ, no differences were found by vaccination status in severity or duration of HZ pain after rash onset. In this population-based study, HZ vaccination was associated with >50% reduction in HZ, HZ prodrome, and medically-attended prodrome. PMID:25806911

  17. Fold rise in antibody titers by measured by glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is an excellent correlate of protection for a herpes zoster vaccine, demonstrated via the vaccine efficacy curve.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Peter B; Gabriel, Erin E; Miao, Xiaopeng; Li, Xiaoming; Su, Shu-Chih; Parrino, Janie; Chan, Ivan S F

    2014-11-15

    The phase III Zostavax Efficacy and Safety Trial of 1 dose of licensed zoster vaccine (ZV; Zostavax; Merck) in 50-59-year-olds showed approximately 70% vaccine efficacy (VE) to reduce the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ). An objective of the trial was to assess immune response biomarkers measuring antibodies to varicella zoster virus (VZV) by glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as correlates of protection (CoPs) against HZ. The principal stratification vaccine efficacy curve framework for statistically evaluating immune response biomarkers as CoPs was applied. The VE curve describes how VE against the clinical end point (HZ) varies across participant subgroups defined by biomarker readout measuring vaccine-induced immune response. The VE curve was estimated using several subgroup definitions. The fold rise in VZV antibody titers from the time before immunization to 6 weeks after immunization was an excellent CoP, with VE increasing sharply with fold rise: VE was estimated at 0% for the subgroup with no rise and at 90% for the subgroup with 5.26-fold rise. In contrast, VZV antibody titers measured 6 weeks after immunization did not predict VE, with similar estimated VEs across titer subgroups. The analysis illustrates the value of the VE curve framework for assessing immune response biomarkers as CoPs in vaccine efficacy trials. NCT00534248. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Risk of depressive disorder among patients with herpes zoster: a nationwide population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Wei, Han-Ting; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the endogenous varicella zoster virus infection. Previous studies have shown that herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia were associated with anxiety, depression, and insomnia. However, no prospective study has investigated the association between herpes zoster and the development of depressive disorder. Subjects were identified through the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients 18 years or older with a diagnosis of herpes zoster and without a psychiatric history were enrolled in 2000 and compared with age-/sex-matched controls (1:4). These participants were followed up to the end of 2010 for new-onset depressive disorder. A total of 1888 patients with herpes zoster were identified and compared with 7552 age-/sex-matched controls in 2000. Those with herpes zoster had a higher incidence of developing major depression (2.2% versus 1.4%, p = .018) and any depressive disorder (4.3% versus 3.2%, p = .020) than did the control group. The follow-up showed that herpes zoster was an independent risk factor for major depression (hazard ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.13) and any depressive disorder (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.70), after adjusting demographic data and comorbid medical diseases. This is the first study to investigate the temporal association between herpes zoster and depressive disorder. Further studies would be required to clarify the underlying pathophysiology about this association and whether proper treatment of herpes zoster could decrease the long-term risk of depressive disorder.

  19. Review of the Persistence of Herpes Zoster Vaccine Efficacy in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephen J; Flaherty, Dennis K

    2015-11-01

    The live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine(*) was approved for the prevention of shingles in 2006. Initial Phase III clinical trials proved vaccine efficacy persisted during the study duration; however, assessment of long-term efficacy required additional studies. This article reviews efficacy data for the zoster vaccine that have been published since 2004. It focuses on studies assessing declining vaccine efficacy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL databases were searched for zoster vaccine efficacy trials. Randomized controlled trials published from 2004 to 2015 were included in the review. Six studies were included in the review. The zoster vaccine reduced the risk of herpes zoster by 51.3% to 72.4% in 2 Phase III trials. Primary and other analyses showed the vaccine was effective at reducing the burden of illness (61.1%), postherpetic neuralgia (66.5%), disease interference on functional status (66.2%), and disease impact on health-related quality of life (55%) compared with placebo. Surveillance studies showed a decrease in vaccine efficacy for reducing the incidence of herpes zoster during follow-up years 3.3 to 7.8 (39.6% relative reduction) and 4.7 to 11.6 (21.1% relative reduction). Initial zoster vaccine efficacy is significant, but declines in post-vaccination years 3 to 11. This raises the question about the need for possible revaccination with the zoster vaccine. Clinicians should consider the declining efficacy when administering the zoster vaccine to patients. Future studies will need to address the impact of the varicella vaccine on the incidence of shingles and whether this impacts the efficacy of the zoster vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Herpes Zoster and Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Wu, Shu-I; Huang, Kuo-You; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Kuan-Lun; Gossop, Michael

    Some infectious diseases have been found to be associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the relationship between herpes zoster and dementia has received little attention. This study aimed to investigate this association as well as associations of antiviral treatments for herpes zoster and incident dementia using a large national sample. Cases were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database with a new diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-CM code: 053) between 1997 and 2013. Each identified individual with a case of herpes zoster was compared with 1 sex-, age-, and residence-matched control subject. Both groups were followed until the first diagnosis of dementia (ICD-9-CM codes: 290.0 to 290.4, 294.1, 331.0 to 331.2, and 331.82), withdrawal from the registry, or the end of 2013. Cox regression analyses and competing risk model were applied, adjusting for sex, age, residence, depression, autoimmune disease, ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, alcohol use disorder, and antiviral treatments for herpes zoster to evaluate the risk of interest. A total of 39,205 cases with herpes zoster were identified. Of the 78,410 study and comparison subjects, 4,204 were diagnosed as having dementia during a mean (SD) follow-up period of 6.22 (4.05) years. Herpes zoster was associated with a slightly increased risk of dementia in the fully adjusted model (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17). Prescriptions of antiviral therapy were associated with a reduced risk of developing dementia following the diagnosis of herpes zoster (HR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.40-0.77). Herpes zoster was associated with an increased risk of dementia, independent of potential confounding factors. Antiviral treatment might be protective in preventing dementia in patients with herpes zoster. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Herpes zoster risk factors in a national cohort of veterans with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jay R.; Zeringue, Angelique L.; Caplan, Liron; Ranganathan, Prabha; Xian, Hong; Burroughs, Thomas E.; Fraser, Victoria J; Cunningham, Fran; Eisen, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster occurs more commonly in patients taking immunosuppressive medications, though the risk associated with different medications is poorly understood. Methods Retrospective cohort study including 20,357 patients who were followed in the Veterans Affairs healthcare system and treated for rheumatoid arthritis from October 1998 through June 2005. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine risk factors for herpes zoster, and herpes zoster-free survival. Chart review was performed to validate the diagnosis of herpes zoster. Results The incidence of herpes zoster was 9.96 per 1000 patient-years. In time-to-event analysis, patients receiving medications used to treat mild rheumatoid arthritis were less likely to have an episode of herpes zoster than patients receiving medications used to treat moderate and severe rheumatoid arthritis (p<0.001). Independent risk factors for herpes zoster included older age, prednisone use, medications used to treat moderate and severe rheumatoid arthritis, malignancy, chronic lung disease, renal failure, and liver disease. Among patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, etanercept (HR 0.62) and adalimumab (HR 0.53) were associated with lower risk of herpes zoster. There was excellent agreement between ICD-9-CM diagnosis of herpes zoster and diagnosis by chart review (kappa = 0.92). Conclusions Risk factors for herpes zoster included older age, prednisone use, medications used to treat moderate and severe rheumatoid arthritis, and several comorbid medical conditions. These results demonstrate that the Department of Veterans Affairs’ national administrative databases can be used to study rare adverse drug events. PMID:19368499

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis on herpes zoster and the risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Nathaniel; Tran, Hoang; Levin, Leonard; Ulbricht, Christine; Fingeroth, Joyce; Kiefe, Catarina; Singh, Sonal

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. Methods/Results Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on the occurrence of the examined events were abstracted. Odds ratios and their accompanying confidence intervals were estimated using random and fixed effects models with statistical heterogeneity estimated with the I2 statistic. Twelve studies examining 7.9 million patients up to 28 years after the onset of herpes zoster met our pre-defined eligibility criteria. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses showed that herpes zoster, type unspecified, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus were associated with a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events, without any evidence of statistical heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also found a significantly increased risk of cardiac events associated with herpes zoster, type unspecified. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the accumulating body of evidence that herpes zoster and herpes zoster ophthalmicus are significantly associated with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. PMID:28749981

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis on herpes zoster and the risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Nathaniel; Tran, Hoang; Levin, Leonard; Ulbricht, Christine; Fingeroth, Joyce; Kiefe, Catarina; Goldberg, Robert J; Singh, Sonal

    2017-01-01

    Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on the occurrence of the examined events were abstracted. Odds ratios and their accompanying confidence intervals were estimated using random and fixed effects models with statistical heterogeneity estimated with the I2 statistic. Twelve studies examining 7.9 million patients up to 28 years after the onset of herpes zoster met our pre-defined eligibility criteria. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses showed that herpes zoster, type unspecified, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus were associated with a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events, without any evidence of statistical heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also found a significantly increased risk of cardiac events associated with herpes zoster, type unspecified. Our results are consistent with the accumulating body of evidence that herpes zoster and herpes zoster ophthalmicus are significantly associated with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.

  4. The impact of 2-dose routine measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccination in France on the epidemiology of varicella and zoster using a dynamic model with an empirical contact matrix.

    PubMed

    Ouwens, Mario J N M; Littlewood, Kavi J; Sauboin, Christophe; Téhard, Bertrand; Denis, François; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Alain, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Varicella has a high incidence affecting the vast majority of the population in France and can lead to severe complications. Almost every individual infected by varicella becomes susceptible to herpes zoster later in life due to reactivation of the latent virus. Zoster is characterized by pain that can be long-lasting in some cases and has no satisfactory treatment. Routine varicella vaccination can prevent varicella. The vaccination strategy of replacing both doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) with a combined MMR and varicella (MMRV) vaccine is a means of reaching high vaccination coverage for varicella immunization. The objective of this analysis was to assess the impact of routine varicella vaccination, with MMRV in place of MMR, on the incidence of varicella and zoster diseases in France and to assess the impact of exogenous boosting of zoster incidence, age shift in varicella cases, and other possible indirect effects. A dynamic transmission population-based model was developed using epidemiological data for France to determine the force of infection, as well as an empirically derived contact matrix to reduce assumptions underlying these key drivers of dynamic models. Scenario analyses tested assumptions regarding exogenous boosting, vaccine waning, vaccination coverage, risk of complications, and contact matrices. The model provides a good estimate of the incidence before varicella vaccination implementation in France. When routine varicella vaccination is introduced with French current coverage levels, varicella incidence is predicted to decrease by 57%, and related complications are expected to decrease by 76% over time. After vaccination, it is observed that exogenous boosting is the main driver of change in zoster incidence. When exogenous boosting is assumed, there is a temporary increase in zoster incidence before it gradually decreases, whereas without exogenous boosting, varicella vaccination leads to a gradual decrease in zoster incidence

  5. Varicella Seroprevalence and Molecular Epidemiology of Varicella-Zoster Virus in Argentina, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Gustavo H.; Panero, María S.; Debbag, Roberto; Urquiza, Ana; Molina, Marta; Prieto, Susana; del Carmen Perego, María; Scagliotti, Graciela; Galimberti, Diana; Carroli, Guillermo; Wolff, Cristina; Schmid, D. Scott; Loparev, Vladimir; Guris, Dalya; Seward, Jane

    2004-01-01

    There is limited data on immunity against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in adults in different parts of Argentina, and it is not known which VZV strains are circulating in Argentina. The objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to evaluate seroprevalence of varicella among adults, assessing the accuracy of clinical history and determining the sociodemographic factors associated with seropositivity; and (ii) to determine the VZV strains circulating in Argentina. A cross-sectional serological survey enrolling 2,807 women aged 15 to 49 years attending public health-care settings in four cities in Argentina (i.e., Buenos Aires, Salta, Mendoza, and Rosario) and one rural area was conducted from August to November 2002. Specimens for identification of VZV strains were obtained from vesicular lesions from 13 pediatric patients with varicella from different areas of the country. PCR amplification was used for genotyping. The overall seroprevalence of varicella antibodies was 98.5% (95% confidence interval, 98.0 to 98.9), ranging from 97.2% in central Buenos Aires to 99.3% in southern Buenos Aires and Salta. Varicella seroprevalence increased with age. Crowding and length of residence in the same place were associated with seropositivity. The positive predictive value of varicella history for immunity to varicella was 99.4%; however, the negative predictive value was 2.5%. The European genotype was identified in all viral specimens. In Argentina, seroprevalence in women more than 15 years old was high regardless of the area of residence. Negative or uncertain varicella history was not a good predictor of immunity. VZV genotype was stable in all areas of the country. PMID:15583301

  6. Validity of medical record documented varicella-zoster virus among unvaccinated cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Salini; Perella, Dana; Jumaan, Aisha; Robinson, Donovan; Forke, Christine M; Schmid, D Scott; Renwick, Mia; Mankodi, Foram; Watson, Barbara; Fiks, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    Background: A varicella diagnosis or verification of disease history by any healthcare provider is currently accepted for determining evidence of immunity by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Objective: To examine the accuracy of medical record (MR) documented varicella history as a measure of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity among unvaccinated individuals born after 1980. We also assessed methods to practically implement ACIP guidelines to verify varicella history using medical records. Study Design: As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted at three Philadelphia clinics from 2004–2006, we recruited 536 unvaccinated patients aged 5–19 y (birth years: 1985–2001). Varicella history was obtained from three sources: parent/patient interview, any MR documentation (sick and well visits) and MR documentation of a sick visit for varicella. All participants were tested for VZV IgG. For each source and three age groups (5–9, 10–14, 15–19 y old), positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated. Specificity of varicella history was compared between different sources using McNemar’s Chi-square. Results: Among participants aged 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 y the PPV for any MR documentation and sick visit diagnosis were 96% and 100%, 92% and 97%, and 99% and 100%, respectively. The specificity for sick visit documentation was higher than any MR documentation and patient/parent recall among all age groups; however, these differences were only statistically significant when comparing sick visit documentation to parent/patient recall for 10-14 y olds. Conclusion: Sick visit documentation of varicella in the MR is an accurate predictor of varicella seropositivity and useful for confirming disease history among unvaccinated persons (birth years: 1985–2001). This method is a practical way to verify varicella history using the ACIP guidelines. PMID:23807363

  7. Clinical and economic impact of herpes zoster vaccination in elderly in Italy.

    PubMed

    Boccalini, Sara; Alicino, Cristiano; Martinelli, Domenico; Bechini, Angela; Tiscione, Emilia; Pellizzari, Barbara; Prato, Rosa; Icardi, Giancarlo; Iannazzo, Stefania; Bonanni, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a very relevant pathology among elderly people (≥ 60 years of age), with a considerable disease burden and loss of quality of life. In the last years a new vaccine against HZ became available in Italy. Therefore, the Italian decision makers are now confronted with the decision whether that vaccination should be implemented. Pharmaco-economic analyses represent useful tools to value the feasibility of new immunization programs and their sustainability. To this aim, an ad hoc population model was developed in order to value the clinical and economic impact of HZ vaccination program for the elderly in Italy. Particularly, different immunization scenarios were modeled: vaccination of 60 years-old subjects (single cohort strategy), simultaneous vaccination of people aged 60 and 65 years (double cohort strategy) and, lastly, immunization of people aged 60, 65 and 70 years (triple cohort strategy), thus leading to the vaccination of 5, 10 and 15 cohorts during the first 5 years of the program. The mathematical model valued the clinical impact of vaccination on the number of HZ, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and ophthalmic HZ. The results of the analysis show that, in Italy, a cohort-based HZ vaccination program in elderly could have a relevant impact on the reduction of clinical cases and a favorable economic profile for the National Health Service (NHS), as already foreseen in other countries. In addition, further benefits could be obtained when extending the study period beyond the 5-year horizon of our analysis.

  8. Posttransplant Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Crepin, Thomas; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Courivaud, Cecile; Saas, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity, disability, and mortality in kidney transplant patients. Cumulative reports indicate that the excessive risk of cardiovascular events is not entirely explained by the increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and it has been postulated that posttransplant immune disturbances may explain the gap between the predicted and observed risks of cardiovascular events. Although concordant data suggest that innate immunity contributes to the posttransplant accelerated atherosclerosis, only few arguments plead for a role of adaptive immunity. We report and discuss here consistent data demonstrating that CD8+ T cell activation is a frequent posttransplant immune feature that may have pro-atherogenic effects. Expansion of exhausted/activated CD8+ T cells in kidney transplant recipients is stimulated by several factors including cytomegalovirus infections, lymphodepletive therapy (e.g., antithymocyte globulins), chronic allogeneic stimulation, and a past history of renal insufficiency. This is observed in the setting of decreased thymic activity, a process also found in elderly individuals and reflecting accelerated immune senescence. PMID:29113470

  9. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... normal and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense ...

  10. Effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccination in an older United Kingdom population.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jemma L; Andrews, Nick J; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Forbes, Harriet; Langan, Sinead M; Thomas, Sara L

    2018-04-19

    Vaccination against herpes zoster was introduced in the United Kingdom in 2013 for individuals aged 70 years, with a phased catch-up campaign for 71-79 year olds. Vaccine introduction has resulted in a marked fall in incident herpes zoster and in post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), but formal evaluation of vaccine effectiveness is needed. In a population-based cohort study of older individuals born between 1933 and 1946, we used linked UK anonymised primary care health records for the first three years of the vaccination programme (01/09/2013-31/08/2016) and multivariable Poisson regression to obtain incidence rates and vaccine effectiveness (VE) against zoster and PHN. Among 516,547 individuals, 21% were vaccinated. Incidence of zoster was 3.15/1000 person-years in vaccinees and 8.80/1000 person-years in unvaccinated individuals. After adjustment, VE was 64% (95%CI = 60-68%) against incident zoster and 81% (95%CI = 61-91%) against PHN, with very similar VE estimates in the routine and catch-up cohorts. VE against zoster was lower in those with a previous history of zoster: 47% (95%CI = 31-58%) versus 64% (95%CI = 60-68%) in those without previous zoster. There was evidence of waning VE over time, from 69% (95%CI = 65-74%) in the first year after vaccination to 45% (95%CI = 29-57%) by the third year. This first formal assessment of VE in the UK zoster vaccination programme demonstrates good effectiveness of zoster vaccine, and very good protection against PHN. The findings provide evidence that VE is similar across the age groups targeted for vaccination in the UK, and on duration of protection of the vaccine in public health use. The study provides key information for decision-makers about the future direction of UK zoster vaccination programme, indicating that the live zoster vaccine may be more cost-effective than estimated previously. It also supports efforts to communicate the benefits of zoster vaccination to address the declining

  11. Cost-effectiveness of a vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, John; Robertus, Katherine

    2006-09-05

    The Shingles Prevention Study showed that a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine administered to adults 60 years of age or older reduced the incidence of herpes zoster from 11.12 to 5.42 cases per 1000 person-years. Median follow-up was 3.1 years, and relative risk reduction was 51.3% (95% CI, 44.2% to 57.6%). To assess the extent to which clinical and cost variables influence the cost-effectiveness of VZV vaccination for preventing herpes zoster in immunocompetent older adults. Decision theoretical model. English-language data published to March 2006 identified from MEDLINE on herpes zoster rates, vaccine effectiveness, quality of life, medical resource use, and unit costs. Immunocompetent adults 60 years of age or older with a history of VZV infection. Lifetime. U.S. societal. Varicella-zoster virus vaccination versus no vaccination. Incremental quality-adjusted survival and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. By reducing incidence and severity of herpes zoster, vaccination can increase quality-adjusted survival by 0.6 day compared with no vaccination. One scenario in which vaccination costs less than 100,000 dollars per QALY gained is when 1) the unit cost of vaccination is less than 200 dollars, 2) the age at vaccination is less than 70 years, and 3) the duration of vaccine efficacy is more than 30 years. Vaccination would be more cost-effective in "younger" older adults (age 60 to 64 years) than in "older" older adults (age > or =80 years). Longer life expectancy and a higher level of vaccine efficacy offset a lower risk for herpes zoster in the younger group. Other factors influencing cost-effectiveness include quality-of-life adjustments for acute zoster, unit cost of the vaccine, risk for herpes zoster, and duration of vaccine efficacy. The effectiveness of VZV vaccination remains uncertain beyond the median 3.1-year duration of follow-up in the Shingles Prevention Study. Varicella-zoster virus vaccination to prevent herpes zoster in older

  12. Global Mapping of O-Glycosylation of Varicella Zoster Virus, Human Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Bagdonaite, Ieva; Nordén, Rickard; Joshi, Hiren J.; King, Sarah L.; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Olofsson, Sigvard; Wandall, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    Herpesviruses are among the most complex and widespread viruses, infection and propagation of which depend on envelope proteins. These proteins serve as mediators of cell entry as well as modulators of the immune response and are attractive vaccine targets. Although envelope proteins are known to carry glycans, little is known about the distribution, nature, and functions of these modifications. This is particularly true for O-glycans; thus we have recently developed a “bottom up” mass spectrometry-based technique for mapping O-glycosylation sites on herpes simplex virus type 1. We found wide distribution of O-glycans on herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins and demonstrated that elongated O-glycans were essential for the propagation of the virus. Here, we applied our proteome-wide discovery platform for mapping O-glycosites on representative and clinically significant members of the herpesvirus family: varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. We identified a large number of O-glycosites distributed on most envelope proteins in all viruses and further demonstrated conserved patterns of O-glycans on distinct homologous proteins. Because glycosylation is highly dependent on the host cell, we tested varicella zoster virus-infected cell lysates and clinically isolated virus and found evidence of consistent O-glycosites. These results present a comprehensive view of herpesvirus O-glycosylation and point to the widespread occurrence of O-glycans in regions of envelope proteins important for virus entry, formation, and recognition by the host immune system. This knowledge enables dissection of specific functional roles of individual glycosites and, moreover, provides a framework for design of glycoprotein vaccines with representative glycosylation. PMID:27129252

  13. Local application of antirabies gamma-globulin in dried form for the prevention of rabies

    PubMed Central

    Soloviev, V. D.; Kobrinski, G. D.

    1962-01-01

    The authors report on guinea-pig experiments conducted to determine the effect of dried antirabies gamma-globulin in the local treatment of wounds infected with street rabies. The results showed that local application of dried gamma-globulin within 30 minutes of the time of infection of the wound protected the majority of animals and resulted in a considerably longer incubation period in the remainder than in the controls. When the preparation was applied later than 30 minutes after infection, the therapeutic effect was slight or absent. Optimum protection in these experiments was obtained through rapid application of gamma-globulin, followed by vaccination every other day for six days. Dried antirabies gamma-globulin exerts a specific, local action on the rabies virus and is entirely painless and non-destructive to body tissues. PMID:13915039

  14. Expression of corticosteroid binding globulin in the rat olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Dölz, Wilfried; Eitner, Annett; Caldwell, Jack D; Jirikowski, Gustav F

    2013-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to act on the olfactory system although their mode of action is still unclear since nuclear glucocorticoid receptors are mostly absent in the olfactory mucosa. In this study we used immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR to study the expression and distribution of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) in the rat olfactory system. Mucosal goblet cells could be immunostained for CBG. Nasal secretion contained measurable amounts of CBG suggesting that CBG is liberated. CBG immunoreactivity was localized in many of the basal cells of the olfactory mucosa, while mature sensory cells contained CBG only in processes as determined by double immunostaining with the olfactory marker protein OMP. This staining was most pronounced in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The appearance of CBG in the non-sensory and sensory parts of the VNO and in nerve terminals in the accessory bulb indicated axonal transport. Portions of the periglomerular cells, the mitral cells and the tufted cells were also CBG positive. CBG encoding transcripts were confirmed by RT-PCR in homogenates of the olfactory mucosa and VNO. Olfactory CBG may be significant for uptake, accumulation and transport of glucocorticoids, including aerosolic cortisol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antithymocyte Globulin Induces a Tolerogenic Phenotype in Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roider, Tobias; Katzfuß, Michael; Matos, Carina; Singer, Katrin; Renner, Kathrin; Oefner, Peter J.; Dettmer-Wilde, Katja; Herr, Wolfgang; Holler, Ernst; Kreutz, Marina; Peter, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is used in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is generally accepted that ATG mediates its immunosuppressive effect primarily via depletion of T cells. Here, we analyzed the impact of ATG-Fresenius (now Grafalon®) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). ATG induced a semi-mature phenotype in DC with significantly reduced expression of CD14, increased expression of HLA-DR, and intermediate expression of CD54, CD80, CD83, and CD86. ATG-DC showed an increase in IL-10 secretion but no IL-12 production. In line with this tolerogenic phenotype, ATG caused a significant induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression and a concomitant increase in levels of tryptophan metabolites in the supernatants of DC. Further, ATG-DC did not induce the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction but actively suppressed the T cell proliferation induced by mature DC. These data suggest that besides its well-known effect on T cells, ATG modulates the phenotype of DC in a tolerogenic way, which might constitute an essential part of its immunosuppressive action in vivo. PMID:27973435

  17. Long-term Persistence of Zoster Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Vicki A.; Johnson, Gary R.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Levin, Myron J.; Zhang, Jane H.; Looney, David J.; Betts, Robert; Gelb, Larry; Guatelli, John C.; Harbecke, Ruth; Pachucki, Connie; Keay, Susan; Menzies, Barbara; Griffin, Marie R.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Marques, Adriana; Toney, John; Boardman, Kathy; Su, Shu-Chih; Li, Xiaoming; Chan, Ivan S. F.; Parrino, Janie; Annunziato, Paula; Oxman, Michael N.; Davis, LE.; Kauffman, CA; Keay, SK; Straus, SE; Marques, AR; Soto, NE; Brunell, P; Gnann, JW; Serrao, R; Cotton, DJ; Goodman, RP; Arbeit, RD; Pachucki, CT; Levin, MJ; Schmader, KE; Keitel, WA; Greenberg, RN; Morrison, VA; Wright, PF; Griffin, MR; Simberkoff, MS; Yeh, SS; Lobo, Z; Holodniy, M; Loutit, J; Betts, RF; Gelb, LD; Crawford, GE; Guatelli, J; Brooks, PA; Looney, DJ; Neuzil, KM; Toney, JF; Kauffman, CA; Keay, SK; Marques, AR; Pachucki, CT; Levin, MJ; Schmader, KE; Morrison, VA; Wright, PF; Griffin, MR; Betts, RF; Gelb, LD; Guatelli, JC; Looney, DJ; Neuzil, KM; Menzies, B; Toney, JF

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Shingles Prevention Study (SPS) demonstrated zoster vaccine efficacy through 4 years postvaccination. A Short-Term Persistence Substudy (STPS) demonstrated persistence of vaccine efficacy for at least 5 years. A Long-Term Persistence Substudy (LTPS) was undertaken to further assess vaccine efficacy in SPS vaccine recipients followed for up to 11 years postvaccination. Study outcomes were assessed for the entire LTPS period and for each year from 7 to 11 years postvaccination. Methods. Surveillance, case determination, and follow-up were comparable to those in SPS and STPS. Because SPS placebo recipients were offered zoster vaccine before the LTPS began, there were no unvaccinated controls. Instead, SPS and STPS placebo results were used to model reference placebo groups. Results. The LTPS enrolled 6867 SPS vaccine recipients. Compared to SPS, estimated vaccine efficacy in LTPS decreased from 61.1% to 37.3% for the herpes zoster (HZ) burden of illness (BOI), from 66.5% to 35.4% for incidence of postherpetic neuralgia, and from 51.3% to 21.1% for incidence of HZ, and declined for all 3 outcome measures from 7 through 11 years postvaccination. Vaccine efficacy for the HZ BOI was significantly greater than zero through year 10 postvaccination, whereas vaccine efficacy for incidence of HZ was significantly greater than zero only through year 8. Conclusions. Estimates of vaccine efficacy decreased over time in the LTPS population compared with modeled control estimates. Statistically significant vaccine efficacy for HZ BOI persisted into year 10 postvaccination, whereas statistically significant vaccine efficacy for incidence of HZ persisted only through year 8. PMID:25416754

  18. Herpes zoster sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koda, Masao; Mannoji, Chikato; Oikawa, Makiko; Murakami, Masazumi; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Kon, Tamiyo; Okawa, Akihiko; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2015-07-29

    Symptom of herpes zoster is sometimes difficult to distinguish from sciatica induced by spinal diseases, including lumbar disc herniation and spinal canal stenosis. Here we report a case of sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis. A 74-year-old Chinese male patient visited our hospital for left-sided sciatic pain upon standing or walking for 5 min of approximately 1 month's duration. At the first visit to our hospital, there were no skin lesions. A magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal canal stenosis between the 4th and 5th lumbar spine. Thus, we diagnosed the patient with sciatica induced by spinal canal stenosis. We considered decompression surgery for the stenosis of 4th and 5th lumbar spine because conservative therapy failed to relieve the patient's symptom. At that time, the patient complained of a skin rash involving his left foot for several days. A vesicular rash and erythema were observed on the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the great toe and lateral malleolus. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster in the left 5th lumbar spinal nerve area based on clinical findings, including the characteristics of the pain and vesicular rash and erythema in the 5th lumbar spinal dermatome. The patient was treated with famciclovir (1,500 mg/day) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. After 1 week of medication, the skin rash resolved and pain relief was obtained. In conclusion, spinal surgeons should keep in mind herpes zoster infection as one of the possible differential diagnoses of sciatica, even if there is no typical skin rash.

  19. Follicle stimulating hormone, its novel association with sex hormone binding globulin in men and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningjian; Zhang, Kun; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhai, Hualing; Jiang, Boren; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2017-06-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone plays direct roles in a variety of nongonadal tissues and sex hormone binding globulin is becoming the convergence of the crosstalk among metabolic diseases. However, no studies have explored the association between follicle stimulating hormone and sex hormone binding globulin. We aimed to study this association among men and women. SPECT-China is a population-based study conducted since 2014. This study included 4206 men and 2842 postmenopausal women. Collected serum was assayed for gonadotropins, sex hormone binding globulin, sex hormones etc. Regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between sex hormone binding globulin and follicle stimulating hormone and other variables including metabolic factors, thyroid function and sex hormones. Treatment with follicle stimulating hormone at different concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 100 IU/L for 24 h was performed in HepG2 cells. In Spearman correlation, sex hormone binding globulin was significantly correlated with FSH, triglycerides, thyroxins, body mass index and blood pressure in men and postmenopausal women (all P < 0.05). In regression analyses, follicle stimulating hormone was a significant predictor of sex hormone binding globulin in men and postmenopausal women (P < 0.05), independent of above variables. Follicle stimulating hormone induced sex hormone binding globulin expression in a dose-dependent fashion in HepG2 cells. Serum follicle stimulating hormone levels were positively associated with circulating sex hormone binding globulin levels in men and postmenopausal women. This association is independent of age, insulin resistance, hepatic function, lipid profile, thyroid function, adiposity, blood pressure, and endogenous sex hormones.

  20. Genomic organization of the rat alpha 2u-globulin gene cluster.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, D A; Addison, W; Locke, J

    1999-05-01

    The alpha 2u-globulin are a group of similar proteins, belonging to the lipocalin superfamily of proteins, that are synthesized in a subset of secretory tissues in rats. The many alpha 2u-globulin isoforms are encoded by a multigene family that exhibits extensive homology. Despite a high degree of sequence identity, individual family members show diverse expression patterns involving complex hormonal, tissue-specific, and developmental regulation. Analysis suggests that there are approximately 20 alpha 2u-globulin genes in the rat genome. We have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to show that the alpha 2u-globulin genes are clustered at a single site on rat Chromosome (Chr) 5 (5q22-24). Southern blots of rat genomic DNA separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis indicated that the alpha 2u-globulin genes are contained on two NruI fragments with a total size of 880 kbp. Analysis of three P1 clones containing alpha 2u-globulin genes indicated that the alpha 2u-globulin genes are tandemly arranged in a head-to-tail fashion. The organization of the alpha 2u-globulin genes in the rat as a tandem array of single genes differs from the homologous major urinary protein genes in the mouse, which are organized as tandem arrays of divergently oriented gene pairs. The structure of these gene clusters may have consequences for the proposed function, as a pheromone transporter, for the protein products encoded by these genes.

  1. Herpes zoster infection: a rare cause of acute urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jonathan E; Kapoor, Anil

    2003-06-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) infection has been reported as a rare cause of acute urinary retention. HZ infection involving sacral, thoracolumbar, and rarely high thoracic dermatomes is believed to occasionally cause motor and sensory neuropathy of the bladder. This is specifically achieved by the interruption of the detrusor reflex causing subsequent bladder atonia. As the course and management of this entity is quite benign, HZ should remain a diagnostic consideration in the management of urinary retention. We report a case of acute urinary retention of approximately 2.5 liters associated with HZ infection and review the proposed pathogenesis and therapeutic considerations in the management of this entity.

  2. Hospitalizations realted to herpes zoster infection in the Canary Islands, Spain (2005-2014).

    PubMed

    García-Rojas, Amós; Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Núñez-Gallo, Domingo Ángel; Matute-Cruz, Petra; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel

    2017-08-24

    Herpes zoster is an important problem of public health especially among the elderly in Spain. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in the Canary Islands, Spain was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos. Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster in any position and cases of primary diagnosis (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0-053.9) during a 10-year period (2005-2014), were selected. A total of 1088 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster were identified during the study period. Annually there were 6.99 hospitalizations by herpes zoster per 100,000 population. It increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ≥85 years of age (43.98 admissions per 100,000). Average length of hospitalization was 16 days and 73 patients died, with a case-fatality rate of 4.03%. In 22% of the cases hospitalized, herpes zoster was the primary diagnosis. The hospitalization burden of herpes zoster in adults in the Canary Islands was still important during the last decade and justify the implementation of preventive measures, like vaccination in the elderly or other high risk groups to reduce the most severe cases of the disease.

  3. Varicella zoster meningitis complicating combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and corticosteroid therapy in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Christopher; Walters, Brennan; Fedorak, Richard N

    2013-06-07

    Opportunistic viral infections are a well-recognized complication of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cases of severe or atypical varicella zoster virus infection, both primary and latent reactivation, have been described in association with immunosuppression of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. However, central nervous system varicella zoster virus infections have been rarely described, and there are no previous reports of varicella zoster virus meningitis associated with anti-TNF therapy among the CD population. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old male with severe ileocecal-CD who developed a reactivation of dermatomal herpes zoster after treatment with prednisone and adalimumab. The reactivation presented as debilitating varicella zoster virus meningitis, which was not completely resolved despite aggressive antiviral therapy with prolonged intravenous acyclovir and subsequent oral valacyclovir. This is the first reported case of opportunistic central nervous system varicella zoster infection complicating anti-TNF therapy in the CD population. This paper also reviews the literature on varicella zoster virus infections of immunosuppressed IBD patients and the importance of vaccination prior to initiation of anti-TNF therapy.

  4. Three-Dimensional Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model for Persistent Varicell-Zoster Virus Infection and Platform to Study Viral Infectivity and Oxidative Stress and Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Osterrieder, N.; Cohrs, R. J.; Kaufer, B. B.

    2014-01-01

    The environment of space results in a multitude of challenges to the human physiology that present barriers to extended habitation and exploration. Over 40 years of investigation to define countermeasures to address space flight adaptation has left gaps in our knowledge regarding mitigation strategies partly due to the lack of investigative tools, monitoring strategies, and real time diagnostics to understand the central causative agent(s) responsible for physiologic adaptation and maintaining homeostasis. Spaceflight-adaptation syndrome is the combination of space environmental conditions and the synergistic reaction of the human physiology. Our work addresses the role of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) as a negative and contributing Risk Factor (RF) in the following areas of combined spaceflight related dysregulation: i) radiation induced cellular damage [1], [2] ii) immune impacts and the inflammatory response [3], [4] and iii) varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation [5]. Varicella-zoster (VZV)/Chicken Pox virus is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus resulting in varicella upon primary infection, suppressed by the immune system becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates under stress events to re-express in zoster and possibly shingles. Our laboratory has developed a complex threedimensional (3D) normal human neural tissue model that emulates several characteristics of the human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and allows the study of combinatorial experimentation which addresses, simultaneously, OSaD associated with Spaceflight adaptation and habitation [6].

  5. Economic analysis of a herpes zoster vaccination program in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Hedden, Megan A; Kuehl, Peggy G; Liu, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    To examine the economic impact of providing herpes zoster vaccine (ZOS) in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in a midwestern metropolitan area from the perspective of the pharmacy and to identify factors associated with greater rates of vaccine delivery and profitability. 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Immunizations with ZOS were expanded from 2 pharmacies to all 19 affiliated pharmacies. Various methods to promote the vaccine were used, including personal selling, store signage, and circular ads. In addition to a broad perspective pharmacoeconomic model, a localized perspective model is proposed to determine profitability for the service. Factors associated with greater success in vaccine delivery and profitability were identified. Net financial gains or losses were calculated for each vaccine administered for each of the 19 pharmacies and for the entire supermarket chain. 662 vaccines were given during the study period, accounting for 6.7% of all eligible patients. The profit per vaccine averaged $9.60 (5.7%) and $28.37 (18.9%) using the broad and localized perspective models, respectively. Success of the ZOS program was demonstrated using both models. Certain factors correlated with greater profits when using the localized perspective model.

  6. Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus infection in a cosmopolitan city (Erzurum) in the eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alp, Handan; Altinkaynak, Sevin; Ertekin, Vildan; Kiliçaslan, Buket; Giiraksin, Asuman

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine VZV seroprevalence under age 30 and to identify the relationship of VZV seroprevalence and several sociodemographic characteristics of the study subjects. The results were presented in order to design a strategy for vaccination against varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It was planned to include a total of 568 subjects. The sampling method of 30 clusters recommended for field studies was used for selecting subjects of a predetermined number in the rural and urban areas in eastern Turkey. ELISA method was used to examine the blood samples for VZV seropositivity. Age, gender, place of living, educational level, family size and socioeconomic status was investigated in the study subjects. Positive VZV seroprevalence was detected in 78% of 559 subjects. Seroprevalence increased with age. Seroprevalence was 16.67% at the age of 1 year, subsequently increased to 57.58% at the age of 4 years, 70% at the age of 7 years, 92.31% at the age of 10 years and then remained 86.78-96.36% in subjects over the age of 10 years. No association was found between sociodemographic variables studied and prevalence levels of antibodies except for educational level in the 0-14 year group. These results suggest that the majority of VZV infections occur during the early childhood; the best option to reduce the circulation of wild type VZV in the population would be the immunization of young children. VZV vaccine should be introduced into the routine childhood vaccination programme in Turkey.

  7. Three year seroepidemiological study of varicella-zoster virus in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yu, A L; Costa, J M; Amaku, M; Pannuti, C S; Souza, V A; Zanetta, D M; Burattini, M N; Massad, E; Azevedo, R S

    2000-01-01

    A serosurvey of varicella has been carried out in children attending the public school network of São Paulo city, Brazil, from 1992 to 1994. This study was performed in order to establish the age related prevalence of antibodies against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and its age specific transmission dynamics pattern in these children. Among 2500 schools in the city of São Paulo public network, 304 were randomly selected; 7 children of a given age (ranging from 1 to 15 years) were randomly selected in each school, and blood samples were obtained by fingerprick into filter paper. Blood eluates were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to VZV by ELISA. Proportion of seropositivity were calculated for each age group. Samples consisted of 1768 individuals in 1992, 1758 in 1993, and 1817 in 1994, resulting in 5343 eluates. A high proportion of seropositive children from 1 to 3 years of age was observed, ascending until 10 years of age and reaching a plateau around 90% afterwards. VZV transmission in this community was similar along the three years of the study. In children attending public schools in the city of São Paulo, contact with VZV occurs in early childhood. If immunization against VZV is considered it should be introduced as soon as possible.

  8. Stress-Induced Subclinical Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Forghani, Bagher; Zerbe, Gary; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.

    2003-01-01

    After primary infection, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in ganglia. VZV reactivation occurs primarily in elderly individuals, organ transplant recipients, and patients with cancer and AIDS, correlating with a specific decline in cell-mediated immunity to VZV. VZV can also reactivate after surgical stress. To determine whether VZV can also reactivate after acute non-surgical stress, we examined total DNA extracted from 312 saliva samples of eight astronauts before, during and after space flight for VZV DNA by PCR: 112 samples were obtained 234 to 265 days before flight, 84 samples on days 2 through 13 of space flight, and 116 samples on days 1 through 15 after flight. Before space flight only one of the 112 saliva samples from a single astronaut was positive for VZV DNA. In contrast, during and after space flight, 61 of 200 (30%) saliva samples were positive in all 8 astronauts. No VZV DNA was detected in any of 88 saliva samples from 10 healthy control subjects. These data indicate that VZV can reactivate subclinically in healthy individuals after acute stress.

  9. Herpes zoster epidemiology, management, and disease and economic burden in Europe: a multidisciplinary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert W.; Alvarez-Pasquin, Marie-José; Bijl, Marc; Franco, Elisabetta; Gaillat, Jacques; Clara, João G.; Labetoulle, Marc; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Naldi, Luigi; Sanmarti, Luis S.; Weinke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is primarily a disease of nerve tissue but the acute and longer-term manifestations require multidisciplinary knowledge and involvement in their management. Complications may be dermatological (e.g. secondary bacterial infection), neurological (e.g. long-term pain, segmental paresis, stroke), ophthalmological (e.g. keratitis, iridocyclitis, secondary glaucoma) or visceral (e.g. pneumonia, hepatitis). The age-related increased incidence of HZ and its complications is thought to be a result of the decline in cell-mediated immunity (immunosenescence), higher incidence of comorbidities with age and social-environmental changes. Individuals who are immunocompromised as a result of disease or therapy are also at increased risk, independent of age. HZ and its complications (particularly postherpetic neuralgia) create a significant burden for the patient, carers, healthcare systems and employers. Prevention and treatment of HZ complications remain a therapeutic challenge despite recent advances. This is an overview of the multidisciplinary implications and management of HZ in which the potential contribution of vaccination to reducing the incidence HZ and its complications are also discussed. PMID:26478818

  10. Varicella-zoster virus infections in patients treated with fingolimod: risk assessment and consensus recommendations for management.

    PubMed

    Arvin, Ann M; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Kappos, Ludwig; Morris, Michele I; Reder, Anthony T; Tornatore, Carlo; Gershon, Anne; Gershon, Michael; Levin, Myron J; Bezuidenhoudt, Mauritz; Putzki, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections increasingly are reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and constitute an area of significant concern, especially with the advent of more disease-modifying treatments in MS that affect T-cell-mediated immunity. To assess the incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of VZV infections in fingolimod-treated patients and provide recommendations for prevention and management. Rates of VZV infections in fingolimod clinical trials are based on pooled data from the completed controlled phases 2 and 3 studies (3916 participants) and ongoing uncontrolled extension phases (3553 participants). Male and female patients aged 18 through 55 years (18-60 years for the phase 2 studies) and diagnosed as having relapsing-remitting MS were eligible to participate in these studies. In the postmarketing setting, reporting rates since 2010 were evaluated. In clinical trials, patients received fingolimod at a dosage of 0.5 or 1.25 mg/d, interferon beta-1a, or placebo. In the postmarketing setting, all patients received fingolimod, 0.5 mg/d (total exposure of 54,000 patient-years at the time of analysis). Calculation of the incidence rate of VZV infection per 1000 patient-years was based on the reporting of adverse events in the trials and the postmarketing setting. Overall, in clinical trials, VZV rates of infection were low but higher with fingolimod compared with placebo (11 vs 6 per 1000 patient-years). A similar rate was confirmed in the ongoing extension studies. Rates reported in the postmarketing settings were comparable (7 per 1000 patient-years) and remained stable over time. Disproportionality in reporting herpes zoster infection was higher for patients receiving fingolimod compared with those receiving other disease-modifying treatments (empirical Bayes geometric mean, 2.57 [90% CI, 2.26-2.91]); the proportion of serious herpes zoster infections was not higher than the proportion for other treatments (empirical

  11. 76 FR 14413 - Risk Mitigation Strategies To Address Potential Procoagulant Activity in Immune Globulin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... arterial and venous thrombosis in this context; (3) research to identify specific procoagulant proteins..., and the Plasma Protein Therapeutics Association, are jointly cosponsoring a public workshop on risk... IGIV-associated thrombotic events, to determine which procoagulant proteins may be causative, and to...

  12. Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates

  13. Prevaccination epidemiology of herpes zoster in Denmark: Quantification of occurrence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sigrun A J; Vestergaard, Mogens; Baggesen, Lisbeth M; Pedersen, Lars; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2017-10-09

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. Unfortunately, formulation of recommendations on routine immunization is hampered by a lack of data on disease burden, since most countries do not record cases of HZ in the general population. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify HZ based on routinely collected registry data and used it to quantify HZ occurrence and risk factors in Denmark prior to marketing of the HZ vaccine. We included patients aged ≥40years with a first-time systemic Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, or Famciclovir prescription or a hospital-based HZ diagnosis in the Danish nationwide health registries during 1997-2013. In a validation substudy (n=176), we computed the proportion of persons with HZ among patients who redeemed antiviral prescriptions. In a cohort study, we computed age-specific rates of HZ (45,297,258 person-years). In a case-control study, we then computed odds ratios (ORs) for common chronic diseases and immunosuppressive factors among HZ cases (n=189,025) vs. matched population controls (n=945,111). Medical record review confirmed HZ in 87% (95% confidence interval: 79-93%) of persons ≥40years who dispensed antivirals at doses recommended for HZ. HZ rates increased from 2.15/1000 person-years in 40-year-olds to 9.45/1000 person-years in 95-year-olds. Rates were highest in women. HZ was diagnosed during hospitalization among 3.5%. As expected, persons with severe immunosuppressive conditions had the highest ORs of HZ (between 1.82 and 4.12), but various autoimmune diseases, asthma, chronic kidney disease, and inhaled glucocorticoids were also associated with increased ORs (between 1.06 and 1.64). This algorithm is a valid tool for identifying HZ in routine healthcare data. It shows that HZ is common in Denmark, especially in patients with certain chronic conditions. Prioritized vaccination of such high-risk patients might be an option in countries considering

  14. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of HZ in Europe. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on HZ incidence in Europe and to describe age-specific incidence. Methods The Medline database of the National Library of Medicine was used to conduct a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies of HZ incidence published between 1960 and 2010 carried out in the 27 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. The identified articles were reviewed and scored according to a reading grid including various quality criteria, and HZ incidence data were extracted and presented by country. Results The search identified 21 studies, and revealed a similar annual HZ incidence throughout Europe, varying by country from 2.0 to 4.6/1 000 person-years with no clearly observed geographic trend. Despite the fact that age groups differed from one study to another, age-specific HZ incidence rates seemed to hold steady during the review period, at around 1/1 000 children <10 years, around 2/1 000 adults aged <40 years, and around 1–4/1 000 adults aged 40–50 years. They then increased rapidly after age 50 years to around 7–8/1 000, up to 10/1 000 after 80 years of age. Our review confirms that in Europe HZ incidence increases with age, and quite drastically after 50 years of age. In all of the 21 studies included in the present review, incidence rates were higher among women than men, and this difference increased with age. This review also highlights the need to identify standardized surveillance methods to improve the comparability of data within European Union Member States and to monitor the impact of VZV immunization on the epidemiology of HZ. Conclusions

  15. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pinchinat, Sybil; Cebrián-Cuenca, Ana M; Bricout, Hélène; Johnson, Robert W

    2013-04-10

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of HZ in Europe. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on HZ incidence in Europe and to describe age-specific incidence. The Medline database of the National Library of Medicine was used to conduct a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies of HZ incidence published between 1960 and 2010 carried out in the 27 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. The identified articles were reviewed and scored according to a reading grid including various quality criteria, and HZ incidence data were extracted and presented by country. The search identified 21 studies, and revealed a similar annual HZ incidence throughout Europe, varying by country from 2.0 to 4.6/1 000 person-years with no clearly observed geographic trend. Despite the fact that age groups differed from one study to another, age-specific HZ incidence rates seemed to hold steady during the review period, at around 1/1 000 children <10 years, around 2/1 000 adults aged <40 years, and around 1-4/1 000 adults aged 40-50 years. They then increased rapidly after age 50 years to around 7-8/1 000, up to 10/1 000 after 80 years of age. Our review confirms that in Europe HZ incidence increases with age, and quite drastically after 50 years of age. In all of the 21 studies included in the present review, incidence rates were higher among women than men, and this difference increased with age. This review also highlights the need to identify standardized surveillance methods to improve the comparability of data within European Union Member States and to monitor the impact of VZV immunization on the epidemiology of HZ. Available data in Europe have shortcomings which

  16. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination of the elderly against herpes zoster in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Pieter T; Pouwels, Koen B; Cox, Juul M; Hak, Eelko; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-02-18

    Each year a substantial number of Dutch elderly suffers from herpes zoster (HZ), caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). A potential complication of HZ is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) which results in a prolonged loss of quality of life. A large randomized clinical trial, labelled the Shingles Prevention study (SPS), demonstrated that a live attenuated VZV vaccine can reduce the incidence of HZ and PHN. We aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of vaccination of the elderly against HZ versus no such vaccination in The Netherlands. A cohort model was developed to compare the costs and effects in a vaccinated and a non-vaccinated age- and gender-stratified cohort of immune-competent elderly. Vaccination age was varied from 60 to 75 years. Data from published literature such as the SPS were used for transition probabilities. The study was performed from the societal as well as the health care payer's perspective and results were expressed in euros per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. In the base case, we estimated that vaccination of a cohort of 100,000 60-year-olds would prevent 4136 cases of HZ, 305 cases of PHN resulting in a QALY-gain of 209. From the societal perspective, a total of €1.9 million was saved and the ICER was €35,555 per QALY gained when a vaccine price of €87 was used. Vaccination of women resulted in a lower ICER than vaccination of men (€33,258 vs. €40,984 per QALY gained). The vaccination age with the most favourable ICER was 70 years (€29,664 per QALY gained). Parameters with a major impact on the ICER were the vaccine price and HZ incidence rates. In addition, the model was sensitive to utility of mild pain, vaccine efficacy at the moment of uptake and the duration of protection induced by the vaccine. Vaccination against HZ might be cost-effective for ages ranging from 60 to 75 when a threshold of €50,000 per QALY gained would be used, at €20,000 per QALY this might

  17. Zeroing in on zoster: a tale of many disorders produced by one virus

    PubMed Central

    Galetta, Kristin M.; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    While herpes zoster infection has been recognized since antiquity, chickenpox (varicella) was confused with smallpox until the 1800s, when both illnesses became better understood. In the 20th century, varicella zoster virus (VZV) was shown to cause varicella upon primary (first-time) infection and herpes zoster (shingles) after reactivation of latent VZV. Scientific progress over the past 50 years has rapidly advanced the understanding and prevention of disease produced by VZV. Combined imaging and virological studies continue to reveal the protean neurological, ocular and visceral disorders produced by VZV. PMID:26454371

  18. The effects of ALG on the murine immune response to sheep erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Hilary R.; Dresser, D. W.; Iverson, G. M.; Lance, E. M.; Wortis, H. H.; Zebra, J.

    1972-01-01

    Antilymphocyte globulin (ALG), and to a lesser extent normal rabbit globulin (NRG), when given to mice prior to immunization with sheep-RBC suppress both the γM and γG2a responses. Globulin injected after the antigen suppresses the γG2a response, augments the γG1 response and has little effect on the γM response. These effects are also observed in mice partially paralysed to rabbit γ globulin. In another system—the response to hapten—protein conjugates precursors of antibody producing cells were found to be more resistant to ALS treatment in vivo than were helper cells. It is concluded that the suppressive effects of ALG treatment are largely due to the direct action of ALG on helper cells (T-cells). The mechanism of the adjuvant-like effect is unclear. PMID:4550853

  19. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Varicella-Zoster Virus in Korean Adults Using Glycoprotein Enzyme Immuno Assay and Fluorescent Antibody to Membrane Antigen Test

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Hwa; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Jin Hee; Lee, Tae Yoon; Choi, Jong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) occurs mainly in the elderly and Korea is rapidly becoming an aging society. Therefore, it is important to know the immune status against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Korean adults to prevent the disease. Objective The aim of this study was to survey the immune status of Korean adults over 40 years of age against VZV. Methods Antibody titer was measured using a VaccZyme™ VZV glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay (gpEIA) (Binding Site, UK). Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test was performed to measure the seropositive rate. Results HZ incidence in the 214 adults enrolled in this study was 10.3%. The gpEIA geometric mean titer (GMT) was 490 mIU/ml and 90.2% of the subjects had a protective level of gpEIA antibody titer against varicella. The average gpEIA GMT of adults who previously had HZ was 1,122 mIU/ml, which was higher than the average gpEIA GMT of 457 mIU/ml in adults who had not had HZ. The FAMA positive rate was 98.6%. Conclusion Most (90.2%) Korean adults ≥40-years-of-age have a protective level of gpEIA antibody against varicella and 98.6% were FAMA seropositive. The GMT of gpEIA antibody was significantly increased with age, and was higher in adults with a history of HZ. PMID:21738361

  20. Management of Corneal Scarring Secondary to Herpes Zoster Keratitis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Omar M; Farooq, Asim V; Soin, Ketki; Djalilian, Ali R; Hou, Joshua H

    2017-08-01

    To review the management of visually significant corneal scarring secondary to herpes zoster keratitis (HZK). Literature review. Management options for visually significant corneal scarring secondary to HZK include scleral contact lenses, photorefractive or phototherapeutic keratectomy, lamellar keratoplasty, penetrating keratoplasty, and keratoprosthesis. Many authors recommend tarsorrhaphy in at-risk patients at the time of corneal transplantation. Most published studies either did not mention or did not use systemic antivirals at the time of surgery. Longer quiescent periods before surgical intervention may be associated with increased rates of graft survival. Reports of HZK recurrence after live-attenuated vaccine administration suggest that risks and benefits of the vaccine should be carefully considered. Overall, the prognosis of surgical intervention for corneal scarring due to HZK relies on appropriate patient selection and measures to ensure ocular surface stability. There remains a serious risk of ocular surface instability and corneal melt in these patients. Unfortunately, there is a lack of prospective studies in this area to guide clinical management. Patients with visually significant corneal scarring secondary to HZK may have good outcomes with the appropriate medical and surgical considerations, particularly in the absence of active ocular surface disease and inflammation. Those with active disease may benefit from delaying surgical intervention until a satisfactory quiescent period has been achieved. Prospective studies, such as the proposed Zoster Eye Disease Study, are imperative for validating these principles and determining evidence-based management guidelines.

  1. Zoster duplex: a clinical report and etiologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) duplex is a rare disease presentation. The mechanisms of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation in multiple dermal regions are unknown. To present a HZ duplex case occurring in an immunocompetent woman and to analyze the possible underlying causes of HZ duplex. We present a HZ duplex case in an immunocompetent woman and analyzed the possible contributing factors in 36 HZ duplex cases. Continuously distributed variables were categorized by numbers and percentages. In our study, 24 cases (66.7%) were from Asia, 16 cases (44.4%) were in individuals ≥ 50 years of age, and 17 cases (47.2%) occurred in immunocompromised patients. Of the 36 cases, 23 involved women (63.9%) and 13 involved men. Eighteen patients suffering from HZ duplex, 13 of which were women (72.2%), did not suffer from any chronic systemic disease or have a long history of taking drugs. HZ duplex is a rare event that can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. HZ duplex might be associated with the Asia region, advanced age, immunosuppression, and being female.

  2. Occipital neuralgia evoked by facial herpes zoster infection.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Takeshi; Shimohama, Shun

    2006-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a pain syndrome which may usually be induced by spasms of the cervical muscles or trauma to the greater or lesser occipital nerves. We report a patient with occipital neuralgia followed by facial herpes lesion. A 74-year-old male experienced sudden-onset severe headache in the occipital area. The pain was localized to the distribution of the right side of the greater occipital nerve, and palpation of the right greater occipital nerve reproduces the pain. He was diagnosed with occipital neuralgia according to ICHD-II criteria. A few days later, the occipital pain was followed by reddening of the skin and the appearance, of varying size, of vesicles on the right side of his face (the maxillary nerve and the mandibular nerve region). This was diagnosed as herpes zoster. This case represents a combination of facial herpes lesions and pain in the C2 and C3 regions. The pain syndromes can be confusing, and the classic herpes zoster infection should be considered even when no skin lesions are established.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Pieter T; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common disease among elderly, which may develop into a severe pain syndrome labeled postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live-attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence and burden of illness of HZ and PHN, providing the opportunity to prevent significant health-related and financial consequences of HZ. In this review, we summarize the available literature on cost-effectiveness of HZ vaccination and discuss critical parameters for cost-effectiveness results. A search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify full cost-effectiveness studies published before April 2013. Fourteen cost-effectiveness studies were included, all performed in western countries. All studies evaluated cost-effectiveness among elderly above 50 years and used costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained as primary outcome. The vast majority of studies showed vaccination of 60- to 75-year-old individuals to be cost-effective, when duration of vaccine efficacy was longer than 10 years. Duration of vaccine efficacy, vaccine price, HZ incidence, HZ incidence and discount rates were influential to the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). HZ vaccination may be a worthwhile intervention from a cost-effectiveness point of view. More extensive reporting on methodology and more detailed results of sensitivity analyses would be desirable to address uncertainty and to guarantee optimal comparability between studies, for example regarding model structure, discounting, vaccine characteristics and loss of quality of life due to HZ and PHN.

  4. Novel polyvalent live vaccine against varicella-zoster and mumps virus infections.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Somboonthum, Pranee; Murakami, Kouki; Ota, Megumi; Shoji, Masaki; Kawabata, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2013-10-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Oka vaccine strain (vOka) is a highly immunogenic and safe live vaccine that has long been used worldwide. Because its genome is large, making it suitable for inserting foreign genes, vOka is considered a candidate vector for novel polyvalent vaccines. Previously, a recombinant vOka, rvOka-HN, that expresses mumps virus (MuV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) was generated by the present team. rvOka-HN induces production of neutralizing antibodies against MuV in guinea pigs. MuV also expresses fusion (F) protein, which is important for inducing neutralizing antibodies, in its viral envelope. To induce a more robust immune response against MuV than that obtained with rvOka-HN, here an rvOka expressing both HN and F (rvOka-HN-F) was generated. However, co-expression of HN and F caused the infected cells to form syncytia, which reduced virus titers. To reduce the amount of cell fusion, an rvOka expressing HN and a mutant F, F(S195Y) were generated. Almost no syncytia formed among the rvOka-HN-F(S195Y)-infected cells and the growth of rvOka-HN-F(S195Y) was similar to that of the original vOka clone. Moreover, replacement of serine 195 with tyrosine had no effect on the immunogenicity of F in mice and guinea pigs. Although obvious augmentation of neutralizing antibody production was not observed after adding F protein to vOka-HN, the anti-F antibodies did have neutralizing activity. These data suggest that F protein contributes to induction of immune protection against MuV. Therefore this recombinant virus is a promising candidate vaccine for polyvalent protection against both VZV and MuV. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Simian Varicella Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques Recapitulates Essential Features of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Barron, Alexander; Wellish, Mary; Engelmann, Flora; Legasse, Alfred; Planer, Shannon; Gilden, Don; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Mahalingam, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Simian varicella virus (SVV), the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (VZV). Early attempts to develop a model of VZV pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (NHP) resulted in persistent infection. More recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. Thus, previous NHP models were not ideally suited to analyze the immune response to SVV during acute infection and the transition to latency. Here, we show for the first time that intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV closely mimics naturally occurring varicella (chickenpox) in humans. Infected monkeys developed varicella and viremia that resolved 21 days after infection. Months later, viral DNA was detected only in ganglia and not in non-ganglionic tissues. Like VZV latency in human ganglia, transcripts corresponding to SVV ORFs 21, 62, 63 and 66, but not ORF 40, were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, as described for VZV, SVV ORF 63 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons in latently infected monkey ganglia by immunohistochemistry. We also present the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Infected animals produced a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response to SVV, as assessed by immunohistology, serology and flow cytometry. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation. PMID:19911054

  6. Simian varicella virus infection of rhesus macaques recapitulates essential features of varicella zoster virus infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Barron, Alexander; Wellish, Mary; Engelmann, Flora; Legasse, Alfred; Planer, Shannon; Gilden, Don; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Mahalingam, Ravi

    2009-11-01

    Simian varicella virus (SVV), the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (VZV). Early attempts to develop a model of VZV pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (NHP) resulted in persistent infection. More recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. Thus, previous NHP models were not ideally suited to analyze the immune response to SVV during acute infection and the transition to latency. Here, we show for the first time that intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV closely mimics naturally occurring varicella (chickenpox) in humans. Infected monkeys developed varicella and viremia that resolved 21 days after infection. Months later, viral DNA was detected only in ganglia and not in non-ganglionic tissues. Like VZV latency in human ganglia, transcripts corresponding to SVV ORFs 21, 62, 63 and 66, but not ORF 40, were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, as described for VZV, SVV ORF 63 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons in latently infected monkey ganglia by immunohistochemistry. We also present the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Infected animals produced a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response to SVV, as assessed by immunohistology, serology and flow cytometry. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation.

  7. Herpes zoster in African patients: an early manifestation of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Van de Perre, P; Bakkers, E; Batungwanayo, J; Kestelyn, P; Lepage, P; Nzaramba, D; Bogaerts, J; Serufilira, A; Rouvroy, D; Uwimana, A

    1988-01-01

    During a 3-month period, 131 cases of herpes zoster were diagnosed in Kigali, Rwanda. There were 46 female and 85 male patients. Mean age was 29 years (range 1-66). An unusually high proportion of patients presented with cranial and sacral nerve localisation of their cutaneous lesions. 55/131 patients (42%) had involvement of more than one dermatome. None of the patients had an underlying condition known to favour herpes zoster. 120/131 (92%) had antibodies to HIV detected by an immunoenzymatic assay (EIA) and indirect immunofluorescence. 92/125 adult patients (74%) had no sign or symptom related to HIV infection other than herpes zoster. This study suggests that herpes zoster in Central Africa is an early and readily detectable manifestation of HIV-induced immunosuppression.

  8. Pathogenesis and Current Approaches to Control of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was once thought to be a fairly innocuous pathogen. That view is no longer tenable. The morbidity and mortality due to the primary and secondary diseases that VZV causes, varicella and herpes zoster (HZ), are significant. Fortunately, modern advances, including an available vaccine to prevent varicella, a therapeutic vaccine to diminish the incidence and ameliorate sequelae of HZ, effective antiviral drugs, a better understanding of VZV pathogenesis, and advances in diagnostic virology have made it possible to control VZV in the United States. Occult forms of VZV-induced disease have been recognized, including zoster sine herpete and enteric zoster, which have expanded the field. Future progress should include development of more effective vaccines to prevent HZ and a more complete understanding of the consequences of VZV latency in the enteric nervous system. PMID:24092852

  9. Reducing pain in acute herpes zoster with plain occlusive dressings: a case report.

    PubMed

    Keegan, David A

    2015-04-25

    The pain of acute herpes zoster (shingles) is severe and difficult to control. The medications used to control pain have a variety of important and potentially serious side effects. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first case report of using a plain topical occlusive dressing to reduce the pain of herpes zoster, avoiding the use of medication. A 40-year-old Caucasian man and a qualified physician (the author), developed a dermatomal vesicular rash consistent with herpes zoster. Applying plain topical occlusive dressings reduced the severity of his pain to an ignorable level. Plain topical occlusive dressings provide effective pain relief for acute herpes zoster, thereby avoiding the risks accompanying medication use.

  10. [Neurological complications among patients with zoster hospitalized in Department of Infectious Diseases in Cracow in 2001-2006].

    PubMed

    Biesiada, Grazyna; Czepiel, Jacek; Sobczyk-Krupiarz, Iwona; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2010-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infectious disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). After replication at the place of entry, VZV spreads via the blood into the skin and mucosa, causing the varicella. From these regions VZV migrates into the sensory ganglia where it establishes a latent infection. The aim of our study was to analyze the localization of the skin changes and correlations of neurological complications among patient with zoster. We have reviewed medical documentation of the 67 patients with herpes zoster, hospitalized in our Department during the years 2001-2006. We have studied localization of the herpes zoster changes and frequency of neurological complications among these patients. Neuralgia was less intensive and last shorter time, when antiviral treatment had been started earlier. Neuralgia, meningitis, encephalitis and complications of the eye zoster were present more often among patients over 65 years old.

  11. Does monastic life predispose to the risk of Saint Anthony's fire (herpes zoster)?

    PubMed

    Gaillat, Jacques; Gajdos, Vincent; Launay, Odile; Malvy, Denis; Demoures, Bruno; Lewden, Lucie; Pinchinat, Sybil; Derrough, Tarik; Sana, Claudine; Caulin, Evelyne; Soubeyrand, Benoît

    2011-09-01

    The consequences of the epidemiology of varicella for zoster epidemiology are still debated. We therefore compared the frequency of herpes zoster in an adult population with virtually no varicella zoster virus (VZV) exposure with that in the general population (GP). We performed a national, multicenter, observational, exposed versus nonexposed, comparative study. The nonexposed population consisted of members of contemplative monastic orders (CMO) of the Roman Catholic Church living in 40 isolated monasteries in France. The exposed population consisted of a sample of the GP representative of the French population in terms of age group, sex, socio-occupational categories, and regions. The primary analysis population comprised 920 members of CMO (41.5% nuns; mean age, 64.2 years) and 1533 members of the GP (51.9% women; mean age, 64.6 years). The reported frequency of zoster was 16.2% among CMO and 15.1% in the GP (P = .27, adjusted for sex and age). The reported mean age of onset of zoster was 54.8 and 48.6 years, respectively (P = .06). This study failed to demonstrate an increased risk or earlier onset of zoster in members of CMO not exposed to VZV, compared with that in the GP. Although adults highly exposed to VZV could have a reduced risk of zoster, compared with the GP, our results suggest that the opposite is not true: adults not exposed to VZV are not at increased risk of zoster when compared with the GP, challenging the relevance of the assumptions and forecasts of current epidemiological models.

  12. Late Pregnancy Thyroid-Binding Globulin Predicts Perinatal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Garcia, Nacire; Stansbury, Melissa; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Johnson, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Previously we found that late pregnancy total and free thyroxine (TT4, FT4) concentrations were negatively related to greater pre and/or postpartum depressive symptoms. In a much larger cohort, the current study examined whether these thyroid indices measured earlier in the third trimester (31-33 weeks) predict subsequent perinatal depression and anxiety ratings as well as syndromal depression. Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations increase markedly during pregnancy and may be an index of sensitivity to elevated estrogen levels. TBG was examined in this study because prior findings suggest that postpartum depression is related to sensitivity to mood destabilization by elevated sex hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Our cohort was 199 euthyroid women recruited from a public health obstetrics clinic (63.8% Hispanic, 21.6% Black). After screening and blood draws for hormone measures at pregnancy weeks 31-33, subjects were evaluated during home visits at pregnancy weeks 35-36 as well as postpartum weeks 6 and 12. Evaluations included psychiatric interviews for current and life-time DSM-IV psychiatric history (M.I.N.I.-Plus), subject self-ratings and interviewer ratings for depression and anxiety (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale; Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Inventory), as well as a standardized interview to obtain life-time trauma history. Numerous covariates were included in all regression analyses. Trauma and major depression history were robustly significant predictors of depression and anxiety ratings over the study period when these variables were analyzed individually or in a combined model including FT4 or TBG (p<.001). When analyzed alone, FT4 levels were a less strong but still significant predictor of all depression and anxiety ratings (p<.05) while TBG levels was a significant or nearly significant predictor of most ratings. FT4, TBG and trauma history, but not

  13. Incidence and case-fatality of varicella-zoster virus infection among pediatric cancer patients in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Rohit P; Stallings-Smith, Sericea; Aviles-Robles, Martha J; Gomez, Sergio; Somarriba, María Mercedes; Caniza, Miguela A

    2016-04-01

    Limited evidence is available about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection among pediatric cancer patients in developing countries, which raises questions about the generalizability of VZV vaccine recommendations for pediatric cancer patients (derived from developed countries) to these settings. We assessed the incidence and case-fatality of VZV infection at three institutions in developing countries (Argentina, Mexico, and Nicaragua). Individuals eligible for our study were aged <20 years and actively receiving cancer-directed therapy. We estimated a summary incidence rate (IR) and case-fatality risk with corresponding 95 % confidence limits (CL) of VZV infection across sites using random-effects models. Our study population comprised 511 pediatric cancer patients, of whom 64 % were aged <10 years, 58 % were male, and 58 % were diagnosed with leukemia. We observed a total of 10 infections during 44,401 person-days of follow-up across the 3 sites (IR = 2.3, 95 % CL 1.2, 4.2). The summary case-fatality risk was 10 % (95 % CL 1.4, 47 %) based on one death. Our results suggest low incidence and case-fatality of VZV infections among pediatric cancer patients in three developing countries. VZV vaccine recommendations for pediatric cancer patients in developed countries may be generalizable to developing countries. • Current recommendations, based on evidence from pediatric cancer patients in developed countries, contraindicate varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccination until completion of cancer-directed therapy and recovery of immune function. • The generalizability of these VZV vaccine recommendations to pediatric cancer patients in developing countries is unknown because of limited information about the incidence and case-fatality of VZV in these settings. What is New: • Our results suggest low incidence and case-fatality of VZV infections among pediatric cancer patients in three developing countries. • VZV vaccine recommendations based on evidence from

  14. Secular trends of chickenpox among military population in Israel in relation to introduction of varicella zoster vaccine 1979–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mimouni, Daniel; Levine, Hagai; Tzurel Ferber, Anat; Rajuan-Galor, Inbal; Huerta-Hartal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chickenpox is a contagious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus. There is scarce data on long-term trends of chickenpox and its relation to vaccinations practices. We aimed to evaluate trends of chickenpox in a military population during the period 1979–2010 and to assess temporal associations in relation with the introduction of varicella zoster vaccine to the civilian population in Israel in 2000. The archives of the Epidemiology Section of the Israel Defense Forces, where chickenpox is a notifiable disease, were reviewed for all cases of chickenpox from January 1, 1979–December 31, 2010. Annual and monthly incidence rates were calculated and analyzed in relation to vaccine introduction. Between 1979–2000, incidence rates fluctuated around 10 cases per 10,000 soldiers without a clear trend. Since 2000 there has been a dramatic 10-fold decline in incidence, especially notable since 2008, from eight per 10,000 soldiers in 2000 to the lowest rate ever recorded, in 2009, of 0.57 cases per 10,000 soldiers. A seasonal sinusoidal pattern was clearly demonstrated, with rising incidence from November to May followed by a gradual decline to October. The results of this long-term study suggest that the rates of chickenpox in the military population have significantly declined since the introduction of the vaccine to the civilian population in Israel and almost disappeared completely since 2008 as the vaccine was included in the state-funded routine childhood immunization schedule. These findings underscore the need for a strong surveillance system and will aid in determing vaccination policies. PMID:23412473

  15. Secular trends of chickenpox among military population in Israel in relation to introduction of varicella zoster vaccine 1979-2010.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Daniel; Levine, Hagai; Tzurel Ferber, Anat; Rajuan-Galor, Inbal; Huerta-Hartal, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Chickenpox is a contagious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus. There is scarce data on long-term trends of chickenpox and its relation to vaccinations practices. We aimed to evaluate trends of chickenpox in a military population during the period 1979-2010 and to assess temporal associations in relation with the introduction of varicella zoster vaccine to the civilian population in Israel in 2000. The archives of the Epidemiology Section of the Israel Defense Forces, where chickenpox is a notifiable disease, were reviewed for all cases of chickenpox from January 1, 1979-December 31, 2010. Annual and monthly incidence rates were calculated and analyzed in relation to vaccine introduction. Between 1979-2000, incidence rates fluctuated around 10 cases per 10,000 soldiers without a clear trend. Since 2000 there has been a dramatic 10-fold decline in incidence, especially notable since 2008, from eight per 10,000 soldiers in 2000 to the lowest rate ever recorded, in 2009, of 0.57 cases per 10,000 soldiers. A seasonal sinusoidal pattern was clearly demonstrated, with rising incidence from November to May followed by a gradual decline to October. The results of this long-term study suggest that the rates of chickenpox in the military population have significantly declined since the introduction of the vaccine to the civilian population in Israel and almost disappeared completely since 2008 as the vaccine was included in the state-funded routine childhood immunization schedule. These findings underscore the need for a strong surveillance system and will aid in determing vaccination policies.

  16. Use of a bacterial expression vector to map the varicella-zoster virus major glycoprotein gene, gC.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R W; Keller, P M; Lowe, R S; Zivin, R A

    1985-01-01

    The genome of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encodes at least three major glycoprotein genes. Among viral gene products, the gC gene products are the most abundant glycoproteins and induce a substantial humoral immune response (Keller et al., J. Virol. 52:293-297, 1984). We utilized two independent approaches to map the gC gene. Small fragments of randomly digested VZV DNA were inserted into a bacterial expression vector. Bacterial colonies transformed by this vector library were screened serologically for antigen expression with monoclonal antibodies to gC. Hybridization of the plasmid DNA from a gC antigen-positive clone revealed homology to the 3' end of the VZV Us segment. In addition, mRNA from VZV-infected cells was hybrid selected by a set of VZV DNA recombinant plasmids and translated in vitro, and polypeptide products were immunoprecipitated by convalescent zoster serum or by monoclonal antibodies to gC. This analysis revealed that the mRNA encoding a 70,000-dalton polypeptide precipitable by anti-gC antibodies mapped to the HindIII C fragment, which circumscribes the entire Us region. We conclude that the VZV gC glycoprotein gene maps to the 3' end of the Us region and is expressed as a 70,000-dalton primary translational product. These results are consistent with the recently reported DNA sequence of Us (A.J. Davison, EMBO J. 2:2203-2209, 1983). Furthermore, glycosylation appears not to be required for a predominant portion of the antigenicity of gC glycoproteins. We also report the tentative map assignments for eight other VZV primary translational products. Images PMID:2981365

  17. [Herpes zoster of the trigeminal nerve: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Carbone, V; Leonardi, A; Pavese, M; Raviola, E; Giordano, M

    2004-01-01

    Herpes zoster (shingles) is caused when the varicella zoster virus that has remained latent since an earlier varicella infection (chicken-pox) is reactivated. Herpes Zoster is a less common and endemic disease than varicella: factors causing reactivation are still not well known, but it occurs in older and/or immunocompromised individuals. Following reactivation, centrifugal migration of herpes zoster virus (HZV) occurs along sensory nerves to produce a characteristic painful cutaneous or mucocutaneous vesicular eruption that is generally limited to the single affected dermatome. Herpes zoster may affect any sensory ganglia and its cutaneous nerve: the most common sites affected are thoracic dermatomes (56%), followed by cranial nerves (13%) and lumbar (13%), cervical (11%) and sacral nerves (4%). Among cranial nerves, the trigeminal and facial nerves are the most affected due to reactivation of HZV latent in gasserian and geniculated ganglia. The 1st division of the trigeminal nerve is commonly affected, whereas the 2nd and the 3rd are rarely involved. During the prodromal stage, the only presenting symptom may be odontalgia, which may prove to be a diagnostic challenge for the dentist, since many diseases can cause orofacial pain, and the diagnosis must be established before final treatment. A literature review of herpes zoster of the trigeminal nerve is presented and the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment modalities are underlined. A case report is presented.

  18. Performance characteristics of a quantitative, standardised varicella zoster IgG time resolved fluorescence immunoassay (VZV TRFIA) for measuring antibody following natural infection.

    PubMed

    Chris Maple, P A; Gray, Jim; Brown, Kevin; Brown, David

    2009-04-01

    Infection by Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) during pregnancy has been associated with adverse foetal development and more severe disease in the mother. Accurate determination of VZV immunity in pregnant women exposed to VZV, with no history of chickenpox, guides therapeutic interventions. The accepted gold standard assay for the determination of immunity/protection against Varicella Zoster virus was for many years the fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) assay which is labour intensive and subjective. A validated alternative is the Merck glycoprotein EIA (Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, West Point, PA, USA) which reports VZV IgG levels in enzyme units per ml (EU/ml) because an internal, non-international reference serum is used as calibrator. Comparison of different VZV IgG detection assays is hampered by a lack of an agreed cut-off in standardised units. A time resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) for VZV IgG using British Standard VZV antibody has been developed and standardised. The limit of detection of VZV IgG by this assay was of the order 39-78mIU/ml. Following comparison with the Merck glycoprotein EIA and the application of the USA Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended 5.0EU/ml cut-off the following standardised cut-offs in mIU/ml are proposed. A VZV TRFIA IgG cut-off of less than 100mIU/ml VZV IgG equates with susceptibility and an equivocal range of 100mIU/ml to less than 150mIU/ml is proposed. VZV IgG levels of 150mIU/ml, or greater, are indicative of natural infection at some time and the ability to mount a protective immune response is inferred.

  19. Longitudinal analysis of varicella-zoster virus-specific antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: No association with subclinical viral reactivations or lupus disease activity.

    PubMed

    Rondaan, C; van Leer, C C; van Assen, S; Bootsma, H; de Leeuw, K; Arends, S; Bos, N A; Westra, J

    2018-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at high risk of herpes zoster. Previously, we found increased immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in SLE patients compared to controls, while antibody levels against diphtheria and cellular immunity to VZV were decreased. We aimed to test our hypothesis that increased VZV-IgG levels in SLE result from subclinical VZV reactivations, caused by stress because of lupus disease activity or immunosuppressive drug use. Methods Antibody levels to VZV (IgG, IgA, IgM), total IgG and VZV-DNA were longitudinally determined in the serum of 34 SLE patients, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records. Reactivation of VZV was defined as an at least fivefold rise in VZV-IgG or presence of VZV-IgM or VZV-DNA. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to longitudinally analyse associations between antibody levels, lupus disease activity and medication use. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, anti-double-stranded DNA and complement levels were used as indicators of lupus disease activity. Results A VZV reactivation was determined in 11 patients (33%). In at least five of them, herpes zoster was clinically overt. No association between SLE disease activity or medication use and VZV-specific antibody levels was found. There was a weak association between total IgG and VZV-IgG. Conclusions Our results indicate that increased VZV-IgG levels in SLE do not result from frequent subclinical VZV reactivations, and are not associated with lupus disease activity. Increased VZV-IgG can only partially be explained by hypergammaglobulinaemia.

  20. Sensitization with 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy or pea induces IgE with different biological activities which are modified by soy tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine L; Rigby, Neil M; Mills, E N Clare; Rogers, Adrian; Madsen, Charlotte B

    2011-01-01

    It is not known why some foods sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract are prevalent allergenic foods and others are not. Eating habits, processing, and the food matrix have been suggested to influence the allergenicity of a given food. Factors related to protein structure, such as stability to digestion, have also been suggested. 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy, and pea were studied to determine whether related proteins would induce a similar sensitization when removed from their 'normal' matrix. Brown Norway rats (soy tolerant or nontolerant) were immunized i.p. 3 times with 100 μg purified peanut, hazelnut, soy, or pea 7S without adjuvant. Sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by different ELISAs (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE), inhibition ELISA, and rat basophilic leukemia cell assay. The 4 related 7S globulins induced a response with an almost identical level of specific antibodies, but peanut 7S induced IgE of higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, had a higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. Soy tolerance reduced the functionality of IgE without influencing antibody titers. Although the 4 7S globulins are structurally related allergens, they induce antibodies with different antigen-binding characteristics. Peanut 7S induces IgE of a higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, has a higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. We also show that soy tolerance influences the function of antibodies to peanut 7S. These findings may help explain how antibodies of different clinical significances can develop in different individuals sensitized to the same allergen. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The Safety and Immunogenicity of Live Zoster Vaccination in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Before Starting Tofacitinib: A Randomized Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Ann G.; Choy, Ernest H.; Soma, Koshika; Hodge, Jennifer A.; Nduaka, Chudy I.; Biswas, Pinaki; Needle, Elie; Passador, Sherry; Mojcik, Christopher F.; Rigby, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of herpes zoster, and vaccination is recommended for patients ages 50 years and older, prior to starting treatment with biologic agents or tofacitinib. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of RA. We evaluated its effect on the immune response and safety of live zoster vaccine (LZV). Methods In this phase II, 14‐week, placebo‐controlled trial, patients ages 50 years and older who had active RA and were receiving background methotrexate were given LZV and randomized to receive tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily or placebo 2–3 weeks postvaccination. We measured humoral responses (varicella zoster virus [VZV]–specific IgG level as determined by glycoprotein enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay) and cell‐mediated responses (VZV‐specific T cell enumeration, as determined by enzyme‐linked immunospot assay) at baseline and 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 14 weeks postvaccination. End points included the geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) in VZV‐specific IgG levels (primary end point) and T cells (number of spot‐forming cells/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) at 6 weeks postvaccination. Results One hundred twelve patients were randomized to receive tofacitinib (n = 55) or placebo (n = 57). Six weeks postvaccination, the GMFR in VZV‐specific IgG levels was 2.11 in the tofacitinib group and 1.74 in the placebo group, and the VZV‐specific T cell GMFR was similar in the tofacitinib group and the placebo group (1.50 and 1.29, respectively). Serious adverse events occurred in 3 patients in the tofacitinib group (5.5%) and 0 patients (0.0%) in the placebo group. One patient, who lacked preexisting VZV immunity, developed cutaneous vaccine dissemination 2 days after starting tofacitinib (16 days postvaccination). This resolved after tofacitinib was discontinued and the patient received antiviral treatment. Conclusion Patients who began treatment with tofacitinib 2–3 weeks

  2. The Safety and Immunogenicity of Live Zoster Vaccination in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Before Starting Tofacitinib: A Randomized Phase II Trial.

    PubMed

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Wouters, Ann G; Choy, Ernest H; Soma, Koshika; Hodge, Jennifer A; Nduaka, Chudy I; Biswas, Pinaki; Needle, Elie; Passador, Sherry; Mojcik, Christopher F; Rigby, William F

    2017-10-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of herpes zoster, and vaccination is recommended for patients ages 50 years and older, prior to starting treatment with biologic agents or tofacitinib. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of RA. We evaluated its effect on the immune response and safety of live zoster vaccine (LZV). In this phase II, 14-week, placebo-controlled trial, patients ages 50 years and older who had active RA and were receiving background methotrexate were given LZV and randomized to receive tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily or placebo 2-3 weeks postvaccination. We measured humoral responses (varicella zoster virus [VZV]-specific IgG level as determined by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and cell-mediated responses (VZV-specific T cell enumeration, as determined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay) at baseline and 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 14 weeks postvaccination. End points included the geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) in VZV-specific IgG levels (primary end point) and T cells (number of spot-forming cells/10 6 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) at 6 weeks postvaccination. One hundred twelve patients were randomized to receive tofacitinib (n = 55) or placebo (n = 57). Six weeks postvaccination, the GMFR in VZV-specific IgG levels was 2.11 in the tofacitinib group and 1.74 in the placebo group, and the VZV-specific T cell GMFR was similar in the tofacitinib group and the placebo group (1.50 and 1.29, respectively). Serious adverse events occurred in 3 patients in the tofacitinib group (5.5%) and 0 patients (0.0%) in the placebo group. One patient, who lacked preexisting VZV immunity, developed cutaneous vaccine dissemination 2 days after starting tofacitinib (16 days postvaccination). This resolved after tofacitinib was discontinued and the patient received antiviral treatment. Patients who began treatment with tofacitinib 2-3 weeks after receiving LZV had VZV-specific humoral and cell

  3. Physician Attitudes toward the Herpes Zoster Vaccination in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Un; Cheong, Hee Jin; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Noh, Ji Yun; Kim, Woo Joo

    2014-09-01

    This survey investigated Korean physician attitudes toward the herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. A total of 400 physicians answered a self-reported questionnaire. Most physicians knew that HZ poses a significant socioeconomic burden and had good knowledge about HZ and its vaccine. Physicians who did not recommend HZ vaccine were concerned about costs (90.7%, 78/86) and doubted the effectiveness of the vaccine (58.1%, 50/86). Patient demand had a profound effect on physicians decisions; 84.9% (73/86) of them who said not recommending HZ vaccine reported that they would provide the vaccine upon patient request. In conclusion, educational initiatives should be targeted toward both physicians and patients.

  4. Burning mouth syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2016-07-05

    We present two cases of burning mouth syndrome (BMS)-of 8-month duration in a 61-year-old woman and of 2-year duration in a 63-year-old woman-both associated with increased levels of antivaricella zoster virus (VZV) IgM antibodies in serum and with pain that improved with antiviral treatment. Combined with our previous finding of BMS due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, we recommend evaluation of patients with BMS not only for VZV or HSV-1 DNA in the saliva, but also for serum anti-VZV and anti-HSV-1 IgM antibodies. Both infections are treatable with oral antiviral agents. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Early CMV Viremia Is Associated with Impaired Viral Control following Nonmyeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with a Total Lymphoid Irradiation and Antithymocyte Globulin Preparative Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Schaenman, Joanna M.; Shashidhar, Sumana; Rhee, Chanu; Wong, Jonathan; Navato, Shelly; Wong, Ruby M.; Ho, Dora Y.; Arai, Sally; Johnston, Laura; Brown, Janice M.

    2017-01-01

    The reconstitution of immune function after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) plays an important role in the control of viral infections. Both donor and recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus has been shown to contribute to effective immune function; however, the influence of a nonmyeloablative preparative (NMA) regimen using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) on antiviral immune reconstitution has not yet been described. In 117 recipients of NMA HCT patients following ATG and TLI, not unexpectedly, CMV viremia was seen in approximately 60% of the seropositive patients regardless of donor serostatus, and recipient seropositivity significantly increased the odds of CMV viremia after transplant in a multivariate analysis. The administration of ATG and TLI resulted in a strikingly earlier viremia in the posttransplant period when compared to the previously reported timing of viremia following myeloablative preparative regimens, especially for transplant recipients who were seropositive for CMV with seronegative donors. Furthermore, early viremia in the setting of a CMV naïve donor was associated with a delay in functional antiviral control. These observations demonstrate the dynamic nature of immunity in relation to CMV antigen exposure in the complex environment resulting from NMA conditions where both donor and residual recipient immune response affect viral control. PMID:20736077

  6. Recombination of Globally Circulating Varicella-Zoster Virus

    PubMed Central

    Depledge, Daniel P.; Kundu, Samit; Atkinson, Claire; Brown, Julianne; Haque, Tanzina; Hussaini, Yusuf; MacMahon, Eithne; Molyneaux, Pamela; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Sengupta, Nitu; Koay, Evelyn S. C.; Tang, Julian W.; Underhill, Gillian S.; Grahn, Anna; Studahl, Marie; Breuer, Judith; Bergström, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus, which during primary infection typically causes varicella (chicken pox) and establishes lifelong latency in sensory and autonomic ganglia. Later in life, the virus may reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ; also known as shingles). To prevent these diseases, a live-attenuated heterogeneous vaccine preparation, vOka, is used routinely in many countries worldwide. Recent studies of another alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, demonstrate that live-attenuated vaccine strains can recombine in vivo, creating virulent progeny. These findings raised concerns about using attenuated herpesvirus vaccines under conditions that favor recombination. To investigate whether VZV may undergo recombination, which is a prerequisite for VZV vaccination to create such conditions, we here analyzed 115 complete VZV genomes. Our results demonstrate that recombination occurs frequently for VZV. It thus seems that VZV is fully capable of recombination if given the opportunity, which may have important implications for continued VZV vaccination. Although no interclade vaccine-wild-type recombinant strains were found, intraclade recombinants were frequently detected in clade 2, which harbors the vaccine strains, suggesting that the vaccine strains have already been involved in recombination events, either in vivo or in vitro during passages in cell culture. Finally, previous partial and complete genomic studies have described strains that do not cluster phylogenetically to any of the five established clades. The additional VZV strains sequenced here, in combination with those previously published, have enabled us to formally define a novel sixth VZV clade. IMPORTANCE Although genetic recombination has been demonstrated to frequently occur for other human alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, only a few ancient and isolated recent recombination events have hitherto been demonstrated for VZV. In the

  7. Herpes zoster vaccine: A health economic evaluation for Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Blank, Patricia R; Ademi, Zanfina; Lu, Xiaoyan; Szucs, Thomas D; Schwenkglenks, Matthias

    2017-07-03

    Herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles" results from a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) acquired during primary infection (chickenpox) and surviving in the dorsal root ganglia. In about 20% of cases, a complication occurs, known as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live attenuated vaccine against VZV is available for the prevention of HZ and subsequent PHN. The present study aims to update an earlier evaluation estimating the cost-effectiveness of the HZ vaccine from a Swiss third party payer perspective. It takes into account updated vaccine prices, a different age cohort, latest clinical data and burden of illness data. A Markov model was developed to simulate the lifetime consequences of vaccinating 15% of the Swiss population aged 65-79 y. Information from sentinel data, official statistics and published literature were used. Endpoints assessed were number of HZ and PHN cases, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs of hospitalizations, consultations and prescriptions. Based on a vaccine price of CHF 162, the vaccination strategy accrued additional costs of CHF 17,720,087 and gained 594 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was CHF 29,814 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were most sensitive to epidemiological inputs, utility values, discount rates, duration of vaccine efficacy, and vaccine price. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated a more than 99% chance that the ICER was below 40,000 CHF per QALY. Findings were in line with existing cost-effectiveness analyses of HZ vaccination. This updated study supports the value of an HZ vaccination strategy targeting the Swiss population aged 65-79 y.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Pieter T; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common disease among elderly, which may develop into a severe pain syndrome labeled postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live-attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence and burden of illness of HZ and PHN, providing the opportunity to prevent significant health-related and financial consequences of HZ. In this review, we summarize the available literature on cost-effectiveness of HZ vaccination and discuss critical parameters for cost-effectiveness results. A search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify full cost-effectiveness studies published before April 2013. Fourteen cost-effectiveness studies were included, all performed in western countries. All studies evaluated cost-effectiveness among elderly above 50 years and used costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained as primary outcome. The vast majority of studies showed vaccination of 60- to 75-year-old individuals to be cost-effective, when duration of vaccine efficacy was longer than 10 years. Duration of vaccine efficacy, vaccine price, HZ incidence, HZ incidence and discount rates were influential to the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). HZ vaccination may be a worthwhile intervention from a cost-effectiveness point of view. More extensive reporting on methodology and more detailed results of sensitivity analyses would be desirable to address uncertainty and to guarantee optimal comparability between studies, for example regarding model structure, discounting, vaccine characteristics and loss of quality of life due to HZ and PHN. PMID:25424815

  9. Herpes zoster vaccine: A health economic evaluation for Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Patricia R.; Ademi, Zanfina; Lu, Xiaoyan; Szucs, Thomas D.; Schwenkglenks, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes zoster (HZ) or “shingles” results from a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) acquired during primary infection (chickenpox) and surviving in the dorsal root ganglia. In about 20% of cases, a complication occurs, known as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live attenuated vaccine against VZV is available for the prevention of HZ and subsequent PHN. The present study aims to update an earlier evaluation estimating the cost-effectiveness of the HZ vaccine from a Swiss third party payer perspective. It takes into account updated vaccine prices, a different age cohort, latest clinical data and burden of illness data. A Markov model was developed to simulate the lifetime consequences of vaccinating 15% of the Swiss population aged 65–79 y. Information from sentinel data, official statistics and published literature were used. Endpoints assessed were number of HZ and PHN cases, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs of hospitalizations, consultations and prescriptions. Based on a vaccine price of CHF 162, the vaccination strategy accrued additional costs of CHF 17,720,087 and gained 594 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was CHF 29,814 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were most sensitive to epidemiological inputs, utility values, discount rates, duration of vaccine efficacy, and vaccine price. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated a more than 99% chance that the ICER was below 40,000 CHF per QALY. Findings were in line with existing cost-effectiveness analyses of HZ vaccination. This updated study supports the value of an HZ vaccination strategy targeting the Swiss population aged 65–79 y. PMID:28481678

  10. Biosynthesis and Intracellular Transport of 11S Globulin in Developing Pumpkin Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Nishimura, Mikio; Akazawa, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    In vitro studies to explore the biosynthesis of 11S globulin developing cotyledons of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.) demonstrated that 11S globulin is synthesized on membrane-bound polysomes. Mr of the translation products (preproglobulin) synthesized by the poly(A)+-RNA isolated from developing cotyledons were determined to be 64,000 and 59,000, which are larger than those of the mature globulin subunit (62,000 and 57,000). Preproglobulin is then cotranslationally processed by cleavage of the signal peptide to produce proglobulin. In vivo pulse-chase experiments showed the sequential transformation of the single-chain proglobulin to mature globulin subunit (disulfide-linked doublet polypeptides) indicating posttranslational modification of the proglobulin. Subcellular fractionation of the pulse-chased intact cotyledons showed that the [35S]methionine label is detectable in proglobulin in rough endoplasmic reticulum shortly after the pulse label. With time, the labeled proteins move into other cellular fractions: proglobulin in the density = 1.24 grams per cubic centimeter fractions after 30 minutes and mature globulin subunit associated with protein bodies after 1 to 2 hours. The distribution of proglobulin in sucrose density gradients did not correspond with those of catalase (microbody marker) or fumarase (mitochondria marker). An accumulation of proglobulin occurred in the density = 1.24 grams per cubic centimeter fractions, whereas the mature globulin was scarcely detectable in this fraction. In contrast, proglobulin was not detected by immunochemical blotting analysis in the protein bodies prepared under the mild conditions from cotyledon protoplasts. The results suggest that the d = 1.24 grams per cubic centimeter fractions are engaged in the translocation of proglobulin into the protein bodies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16664128

  11. Pulsed Radiofrequency to the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Acute Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Koohyun; Jo, Daehyun; Kim, EungDon

    2017-03-01

    Latent varicella zoster virus reactivates mainly in sensory ganglia such as the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) or trigeminal ganglion. The DRG contains many receptor channels and is an important region for pain signal transduction. Sustained abnormal electrical activity to the spinal cord via the DRG in acute herpes zoster can result in neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Although the efficacy of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the DRG in various pain conditions has been previously reported, the application of PRF to the DRG in patients with herpes zoster has not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical effects of PRF to the DRG in patients with herpes zoster to those of PRF to the DRG in patients with PHN. Retrospective comparative study. University hospital pain center in Korea. The medical records of 58 patients who underwent PRF to the DRG due to zoster related pain (herpes zoster or PHN) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of PRF after zoster onset: an early PRF group (within 90 days) and a PHN PRF group (more than 90 days). The efficacy of PRF was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS) and by recording patient medication doses before PRF and at one week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after PRF. Pain intensity was decreased after PRF in all participants. However, the degree of pain reduction was significantly higher in the early PRF group. Moreover, more patients discontinued their medication in the early PRF group, and the PRF success rate was also higher in the early PRF group. The relatively small sample size from a single center, short duration of review of medical records, and the retrospective nature of the study. PRF to the DRG is a useful treatment for treatment-resistant cases of herpes zoster and PHN. Particularly in herpes zoster patients with intractable pain, application of PRF to the DRG should be considered for pain control

  12. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Jerzy; Szerszunowicz, Iwona; Nałęcz, Dorota; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo) were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins). Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of ~4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW) ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for identifying pea proteins. Patterns of spots with similar isoelectric

  13. Quantification of risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia in herpes zoster patients: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Harriet J; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Thomas, Sara L; Smeeth, Liam; Clayton, Tim; Mansfield, Kathryn; Minassian, Caroline; Langan, Sinéad M

    2016-07-05

    To investigate risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia, the neuropathic pain that commonly follows herpes zoster. Using primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we fitted multivariable logistic regression models to investigate potential risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia (defined as pain ≥90 days after zoster, based on diagnostic or prescription codes), including demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and characteristics of the acute zoster episode. We also assessed whether the effects were modified by antiviral use. Of 119,413 zoster patients, 6,956 (5.8%) developed postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia risk rose steeply with age, most sharply between 50 and 79 years (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for a 10-year increase, 1.70, 99% confidence interval 1.63-1.78). Postherpetic neuralgia risk was higher in women (6.3% vs 5.1% in men: OR 1.19, 1.10-1.27) and those with severely immunosuppressive conditions, including leukemia (13.7%: 2.07, 1.08-3.96) and lymphoma (12.7%: 2.45, 1.53-3.92); autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (9.1%: 1.20, 0.99-1.46); and other comorbidities, including asthma and diabetes. Current and ex-smokers, as well as underweight and obese individuals, were at increased risk of postherpetic neuralgia. Antiviral use was not associated with postherpetic neuralgia (OR 1.04, 0.97-1.11). However, the increased risk associated with severe immunosuppression appeared less pronounced in patients given antivirals. Postherpetic neuralgia risk was increased for a number of patient characteristics and comorbidities, notably with age and among those with severe immunosuppression. As zoster vaccination is contraindicated for patients with severe immunosuppression, strategies to prevent zoster in these patients, which could include the new subunit zoster vaccine, are an increasing priority. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Vaccination against zoster remains effective in older adults who later undergo chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Tartof, Sara; Harpaz, Rafael; Luo, Yi; Sy, Lina S; Hetcher, Rulin C; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40% of adults develop invasive cancer during their lifetimes, many of whom require chemotherapy. Herpes zoster (HZ) is common and often severe in patients undergoing chemotherapy, yet there are no data regarding whether these patients retain specific protection against HZ if they had previously received zoster vaccine. We conducted a study to determine whether zoster vaccine was effective in patients who subsequently underwent chemotherapy. The cohort study consisted of Kaiser Permanente Southern California members aged ≥60 years treated with chemotherapy. The exposure variable was receipt of zoster vaccine prior to initiation of chemotherapy. Incident HZ cases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic codes. HZ incidence rates were calculated; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. There were 91 and 583 HZ cases in the vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively, yielding an incidence rate of 12.87 (95% CI, 10.48-15.80) vs 22.05 (95% CI, 20.33-23.92) per 1000 person-years. Thirty-month cumulative incidence was 3.28% in the vaccinated group and 5.34% in the unvaccinated group (P < .05). The adjusted HR for HZ was 0.58 (95% CI, .46-.73) and showed no significant variation by age, sex, or race. HZ incidence rates remained increased in the small subgroup of persons receiving zoster vaccine within 60 days before chemotherapy, but this was the only group affected by indication bias. No vaccinated patients underwent hospitalization for HZ, compared with 6 unvaccinated patients. Zoster vaccine continues to protect against HZ if recipients later undergo chemotherapy. Our findings provide an additional rationale for offering zoster vaccine to indicated adults while they are immunocompetent. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved

  15. Peptic ulcer as a risk factor for postherpetic neuralgia in adult patients with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Lan, Kuo-Mao; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Tseng, Su-Feng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication of herpes zoster. Identifying predictors for postherpetic neuralgia may help physicians screen herpes zoster patients at risk of postherpetic neuralgia and undertake preventive strategies. Peptic ulcer has been linked to immunological dysfunctions and malnutrition, both of which are predictors of postherpetic neuralgia. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to determine whether adult herpes zoster patients with peptic ulcer were at greater risk of postherpetic neuralgia. Adult zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia patients were automatically selected from a medical center's electronic database using herpes zoster/postherpetic neuralgia ICD-9 codes supported with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Consequently, medical record review was performed to validate the diagnostic codes and all pertaining data including peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and ulcerogenic medications. Because no standard pain intensity measurement exists, opioid usage was used as a proxy measurement for moderate to severe pain. In total, 410 zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and 115 postherpetic neuralgia patients were included. Multivariate logistic regressions identified 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain as independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia. Among etiologies of peptic ulcer, H. pylori infection and usage of non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were significantly associated with the increased risk of postherpetic neuralgia; conversely, other etiologies were not significantly associated with the postherpetic neuralgia risk. In conclusion, 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain are independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia in adult herpes zoster patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Multihormonal induction of hepatic α2u-globulin mRNA as measured by hybridization to complementary DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, David T.; Feigelson, Philip

    1977-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the preparation of a 3H-labeled complementary DNA (cDNA) specific for the mRNA coding for α2u-globulin, a male rat liver protein under multihormonal control that represents approximately 1% of hepatic protein synthesis. Rat liver polysomes are incubated with monospecific rabbit antiserum to α2u-globulin, which binds to the nascent α2u-globulin chains on the polysomes. These antibody-polysome complexes are then adsorbed to goat antiserum to rabbit IgG that is covalently linked to p-aminobenzylcellulose. mRNA preparations are thus obtained that contain 30-40% α2u-globulin mRNA. A labeled cDNA is made to this α2u-globulin-enriched mRNA preparation by using RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase). To remove the non-α2u-globulin sequences, this cDNA preparation is hybridized to an RNA concentration × incubation time (R0t) of 1000 mol of ribonucleotide per liter × sec with female rat liver mRNA, which, though it shares the vast majority of mRNA sequences with male liver, contains no α2u-globulin mRNA sequences. The cDNA remaining single-stranded is isolated by hydroxylapatite chromatography and is shown to be specific for α2u-globulin mRNA by several criteria. Good correlation was found in all endocrine states studied between the hepatic level of α2u-globulin, the level of functional α2u-globulin mRNA as assayed in a wheat germ cell-free translational system, and the level of α2u-globulin mRNA sequences as measured by hybridization to the α2u-globulin cDNA. Thus, the hormonal control of hepatic α2u-globulin synthesis by sex steroids and thyroid hormone occurs through modulation of the cellular level of α2u-globulin mRNA sequences, presumably by hormonal control of transcriptive synthesis. PMID:73184

  17. Determining the Optimal Vaccination Schedule for Herpes Zoster: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuc; Rothberg, Michael B

    2017-02-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends a single dose of herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine in persons aged 60 years or older, but the efficacy decreases to zero after approximately 10 years. A booster dose administered after 10 years might extend protection, but the cost-effectiveness of a booster strategy has not been examined. We aimed to determine the optimal schedule for HZ vaccine DESIGN: We built a Markov model to follow patients over their lifetime. From the societal perspective, we compared costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved of 11 strategies to start and repeat HZ vaccine at different ages. Adults aged 60 years. HZ vaccine. Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental costs per QALY saved. At a $100,000/QALY threshold, "vaccination at 70 plus one booster" was the most cost-effective strategy, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $36,648/QALY. "Vaccination at 60 plus two boosters" was more effective, but had an ICER of $153,734/QALY. In deterministic sensitivity analysis, "vaccination at 60 plus two boosters" cost < $100,000/QALY if compliance rate was > 67 % or vaccine cost was < $156 per dose. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, "vaccination at 70 plus one booster" was preferred at a willingness-to-pay of up to $135,000/QALY. Under current assumptions, initiating HZ vaccine at age 70 years with one booster dose 10 years later appears optimal. Future data regarding compliance with or efficacy of a booster could affect these conclusions.

  18. Increasing Incidence of Herpes Zoster Over a 60-year Period From a Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Kosuke; Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter; Harpaz, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background. Temporal increases in the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported but studies have examined short study periods, and the cause of the increase remains unknown. We examined the long-term trend of HZ. Methods. A population-based cohort study was conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, using data from 1945–1960 and 1980–2007. Medical records review of possible cases was performed to confirm incident cases of HZ, the patient's immune status, and prescribing of antivirals for HZ. We examined the relative change in the temporal trend in the incidence rates before and after the introduction of the varicella vaccination program. Results. Of the 8017 patients with HZ, 58.7% were females and 6.6% were immunocompromised. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of HZ increased from 0.76 per 1000 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval [CI], .63–.89) in 1945–1949 to 3.15 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 3.04–3.26) in 2000–2007. The rate of increase across the time period was 2.5% per year after adjusting for age and sex (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.025 [95% CI, 1.023–1.026]; P < .001). The incidence of HZ significantly increased among all age groups and both sexes. We found no change in the rate of increase before vs after the introduction of the varicella vaccination program. Conclusions. The incidence of HZ has increased >4-fold over the last 6 decades. This increase is unlikely to be due to the introduction of varicella vaccination, antiviral therapy, or change in the prevalence of immunocompromised individuals. PMID:27161774

  19. Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated varicella-zoster virus vaccine in adults with hematologic malignancies receiving treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Janie; McNeil, Shelly A; Lawrence, Steven J; Kimby, Eva; Pagnoni, Marco F; Stek, Jon E; Zhao, Yanli; Chan, Ivan S F; Kaplan, Susan S

    2017-03-27

    Immunocompromised patients can experience significant morbidity and occasional mortality from complications associated with herpes zoster (HZ), but live attenuated HZ vaccine is contraindicated for these patients. Inactivated zoster vaccine (ZV IN ) is in development for prevention of HZ in immunocompromised patients. However, there are limited data in the literature regarding the effect of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies on vaccine-related cell-mediated immune response. This study evaluated safety and immunogenicity of ZV IN in patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) receiving anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (alone or in combination chemotherapy regimens) and not likely to undergo hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) (n=80). This was an open-label, single-arm, multicenter Phase I study (NCT01460719) of a 4-dose ZV IN regimen (∼30days between doses) in patients ⩾18years old. Blood samples were collected prior to dose 1 and 28days Postdose 4 to measure varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific T-cell responses using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT). The primary hypothesis was that ZV IN would elicit significant VZV-specific immune responses at ∼28days Postdose 4, with a geometric fold rise (GMFR) >1.0. All vaccinated patients were evaluated for adverse events (AE) through 28days Postdose 4. ZV IN elicited a statistically significant VZV-specific immune response measured by IFN-γ ELISPOT at 28days Postdose 4 (GMFR=4.34 [90% CI:3.01, 6.24], p-value<0.001), meeting the pre-specified success criterion. Overall, 85% (68/80) of patients reported ⩾1 AE, 44% (35/80) reported ⩾1 injection-site AE, and 74% (59/80) reported ⩾1 systemic AE. The majority of systemic AEs were non-serious and considered unrelated to vaccination by the investigator. Frequencies of AEs did not increase with subsequent doses of vaccine. No recipient of ZV IN had rash polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for VZV vaccine strain. In adults with HM receiving anti

  20. Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of Herpes Zoster in Nearby Cheonan

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ho Soon; Kang, Jin Ku

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes Zoster is a disease that occurs after the virus is reactivated due to infection of the varicella virus in childhood. Risk factors are advanced age, malignant neoplasm, organ transplantation, immunosuppressive agents taking are known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the seasonal effect and other risk factors on the incidence of herpes zoster. Methods The medical records of 1,105 patients admitted to the outpatient diagnosed with herpes zoster were retrospectively examined. The patients' sex, age, dermatome, onset, underlying disease, residential areas were collected. Results The incidence of women outnumbered men and increased for those above the age of 50. The number of occurrences of herpes zoster patients was higher in the spring and summer than in winter. Unlike men, women had the most frequent outbreaks in March. The most common occurrence of dermatome is in the thoracic region. The number of occurrence was similar on the left as the right. Conclusions In this study, herpes zoster occurs more often in women than in men and more frequently occurs in women in the spring and summer. PMID:26175879

  1. [Data mining analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi AIDS herpes zoster medical record].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi in the treatment of AIDS drug laws of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia, provide reference for the use of Chinese medicine treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. By using the method of analyzing the complex network of Weishi county, Henan in 2007 October to 2011 July during an interview with professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia patients, patients are input structured clinical information collection system, into the analysis of the data, carries on the research analysis theory of traditional Chinese medicine compatibility system algorithm and complex network analysis the use of complex networks. The use of multi-dimensional query analysis of AIDS drugs, the core of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia treated in this study are Scutellariae Radix, Glucyrrhizae Radix, Carthame Flos, Plantaginis Semen, Trichosamthis Fructus, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Gentianae Radix; core prescription for Longdan Xiegan decoction and Trichosanthes red liquorice decoction. Professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia by clearing heat and removing dampness and activating blood circulation to.

  2. Functional decline and herpes zoster in older people: an interplay of multiple factors.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Herpes zoster is a frequent painful infectious disease whose incidence and severity increase with age. In older people, there is a strong bidirectional link between herpes zoster and functional decline, which refers to a decrement in ability to perform activities of daily living due to ageing and disabilities. However, the exact nature of such link remains poorly established. Based on the opinion from a multidisciplinary group of experts, we here propose a new model to account for the interplay between infection, somatic/psychiatric comorbidity, coping skills, polypharmacy, and age, which may account for the functional decline related to herpes zoster in older patients. This model integrates the risk of decompensation of underlying disease; the risk of pain becoming chronic (e.g. postherpetic neuralgia); the risk of herpes zoster non-pain complications; the detrimental impact of herpes zoster on quality of life, functioning, and mood; the therapeutic difficulties due to multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and ageing; and the role of stressful life events in the infection itself and comorbid depression. This model underlines the importance of early treatment, strengthening coping, and vaccine prevention.

  3. Anti-thymocyte globulin as graft-versus-host disease prevention in the setting of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a review from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Frédéric; Mohty, Mohamad; Blaise, Didier; Socié, Gérard; Labopin, Myriam; Esteve, Jordi; Ciceri, Fabio; Giebel, Sebastian; Gorin, Norbert Claude; Savani, Bipin N; Schmid, Christoph; Nagler, Arnon

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is increasingly used as treatment for patients with life-threatening blood diseases. Its curative potential is largely based on immune-mediated graft-versus-leukemia effects caused by donor T cells contained in the graft. Unfortunately, donor T cells are also the cause of graft-versus-host disease. The vast majority of human leukocyte antigen-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants are nowadays carried out with peripheral blood stem cells as the stem cell source. In comparison with bone marrows, peripheral blood stem cells contain more hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells but also one log more T cells. Consequently, the use of peripheral blood stem cells instead of bone marrow has been associated with faster hematologic recovery and a lower risk of relapse in patients with advanced disease, but also with a higher incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. These observations have been the basis for several studies aimed at assessing the impact of immunoregulation with anti-thymocyte globulin on transplantation outcomes in patients given human leukocyte antigen-matched peripheral blood stem cells from related or unrelated donors. After a brief introduction on anti-thymocyte globulin, this article reviews recent studies assessing the impact of anti-thymocyte globulin on transplantation outcomes in patients given peripheral blood stem cells from human leukocyte antigen-matched related or unrelated donors as well as in recipients of grafts from human leukocyte antigen haploidentical donors. PMID:27927772

  4. Biochemistry of Fern Spore Germination: Globulin Storage Proteins in Matteuccia struthiopteris L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Templeman, Thomas S.; DeMaggio, Augustus E.; Stetler, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Two globulin storage proteins have been identified in spores of the ostrich fern, Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro. The two proteins comprise a significant amount of the total spore protein, are predominantly salt-soluble, and can be extracted by other solvents to a limited extent. The large 11.3 Svedberg unit (S) globulin is composed of five polypeptides with molecular weights of 21,000, 22,000, 24,000, 28,000 and 30,000. Each polypeptide has several isoelectric point (pI) variants between pH 5 and 7. The small 2.2S storage protein has a pI > 10.5 and is composed of at least two major polypeptides of 6,000 and 14,000 Mr. The amino acid composition of both storage proteins reveals that the 11.3S protein is particularly rich in aspartic and glutamic acid, while the 2.2S protein has few acidic amino acids. During imbibition and germination the globulin fraction declines rapidly, with a corresponding degradation of individual polypeptides of each protein. Polyclonal antibodies against each of the two proteins were produced and used for immunolocalization to determine the site of storage protein deposition within the quiescent spore. The proteins were sequestered in protein bodies of 2 to 10 micrometers, that are morphologically similar to those found in the seeds of flowering plants. The results suggest that spore globulins are biochemically similar to seed globulins, especially those found in some cruciferous seeds. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:16665699

  5. Cost effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccine in Canada.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Marra, Carlo A; Galanis, Eleni; Patrick, David M

    2009-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, results from reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in the sensory ganglia of adults, and results in significant morbidity in the elderly, including the development of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). The lifetime risk of HZ is about 20-30% and the incidence increases with age. The protective effect of the HZ vaccine has been shown in a large clinical trial; however, the effectiveness of the vaccine decreased with age of vaccination. We sought to compare the incremental cost and health benefits of HZ vaccine over status quo (no HZ vaccine) from the perspective of the Canadian healthcare payer. We developed a discrete-event simulation model comparing the costs and QALYs accrued to patients receiving HZ vaccine to those who did not. The effect of the vaccine on the (i) incidence of severe, moderate or mild HZ; (ii) severity and duration of HZ; (iii) incidence of PHN among patients with HZ; (iv) duration of PHN; and (v) costs associated with treating HZ and PHN were modelled. Data from published literature, including the Shingle Prevention Study, were used for transition probabilities. Health resource utilizations were estimated using administrative data retrieved from the British Columbia Medical Services Plan and hospital separation databases in British Columbia from 1994 to 2003. Utility estimates were obtained from various published sources. Canadian 2008 costs were used and both cost and QALYs were discounted at a 5% annual rate in the base-case analyses. On average, receiving the vaccination lowered mean direct medical costs (excluding the vaccine costs) by $Can35 per person. The incremental cost and QALYs per person receiving the vaccine versus no vaccination were $Can115 and 0.0028 QALYs, respectively, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $Can41 709 per QALY gained for a cohort of elderly subjects aged >or=60 years. Results were robust in probabilistic and univariate sensitivity analyses. Expected value

  6. Safety of herpes zoster vaccination among inflammatory bowel disease patients being treated with anti-TNF medications.

    PubMed

    Khan, N; Shah, Y; Trivedi, C; Lewis, J D

    2017-10-01

    The risk of herpes zoster (HZ) is elevated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients treated with anti-TNF medications. While it is optimal to give herpes zoster vaccine prior to initiation of therapy clinical circumstances may not always allow this. To determine the safety of giving herpes zoster vaccine while patients are on anti-TNF therapy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving IBD patients who were followed in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system between 2001 and 2016. Patients who received herpes zoster vaccine while on anti-TNF medication were identified through vaccination codes and confirmed through individual chart review. Our outcome of interest was development of HZ between 0 and 42 days after herpes zoster vaccine administration. Fifty-six thousand four hundred and seventeen patients with IBD were followed in the VA healthcare system. A total of 59 individuals were on anti-TNF medication when they were given herpes zoster vaccine, and amongst them, 12 (20%) were also taking a thiopurine. Median age at the time of herpes zoster vaccine was 64.9 years and 95% of patients had a Charlson Comorbidity Index of ≥2. Median number of encounters within 42 days after receiving herpes zoster vaccine was two. No case of HZ was found within 0-42 days of HZV administration. Our data suggest that co-administering the herpes zoster vaccine to patients who are taking anti-TNF medications is relatively safe. This study significantly expands the evidence supporting the use of herpes zoster vaccine in this population, having included an elderly group of patients with a high Charlson Comorbidity Index who are likely at a much higher risk of developing HZ. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Association of progressive outer retinal necrosis and varicella zoster encephalitis in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    van den Horn, G J; Meenken, C; Troost, D

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A patient with AIDS who developed the clinical picture of bilateral progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in combination with varicella zoster encephalitis is described. The picture developed more than 2 years after an episode of ophthalmic zoster infection, and following intermittent exposure to oral acyclovir because of recurrent episodes of cutaneous herpes simplex infection. METHODS: Aqueous humour, obtained by paracentesis of the anterior chamber, was analysed using immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Postmortem analysis of eye and brain tissue was performed by using conventional techniques and in situ hybridisation. RESULTS: While conventional techniques all failed to detect a causative agent, analysis of the aqueous humour using PCR, and histological examination of necropsy specimens from eyes and brain using in situ hybridisation were conclusive for the diagnosis varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. CONCLUSION: This case documents the presumed association of PORN and VZV encephalitis in a severely immunocompromised AIDS patient. Images PMID:8976726

  8. Horner's syndrome and contralateral abducens nerve palsy associated with zoster meningitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum-Joo; Kim, Ji-Soo; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2013-12-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with diplopia following painful skin eruptions on the right upper extremity. On presentation, she was found to have 35 prism diopters of esotropia and an abduction limitation in the left eye. Two weeks later, she developed blepharoptosis and anisocoria with a smaller pupil in the right eye, which increased in the darkness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and a positive result for immunoglobulin G antibody to varicella zoster virus. She was diagnosed to have zoster meningitis with Horner's syndrome and contralateral abducens nerve palsy. After intravenous antiviral and steroid treatments, the vesicular eruptions and abducens nerve palsy improved. Horner's syndrome and diplopia resolved after six months. Here we present the first report of Horner's syndrome and contralateral abducens nerve palsy associated with zoster meningitis.

  9. Pain, Itch, Quality of Life, and Costs after Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    van Wijck, Albert J M; Aerssens, Yannick R

    2017-07-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia are known to have a profound effect on the patient's quality of life, but the incidence and severity of itch and its relation with pain and quality of life in the long term are still relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to measure the presence and severity of pain and itch and impact on quality of life in patients over 50 years old with HZ. We enrolled 661 patients with HZ in this 12-month observational study. Patient data were collected via a web-based questionnaire. Outcomes were pain, itch, burden of illness, impact on patient's daily life, impact on quality of life, and healthcare costs. At inclusion, 94% of patients reported any pain, 74.3% significant pain, and 26% severe pain. After 3 months, 18.8% of patients suffered from postherpetic neuralgia. At inclusion, 70.8% of patients had any itch, 39.2% significant itch, and 7.3% severe itch. The occurrence of pain increases costs and has a high impact on the quality of life, lowering EQ-5D scores by an average of 18%. In contrast, itch has little effect on the quality of life. Pain and itch are highly prevalent months after HZ. Pain caused by HZ has a large impact on quality of life, burden of illness, impact on daily life, and health care costs for these patients. The impact of itch on quality of life is relatively small. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention: a case report.

    PubMed

    Julia, Jimmy J; Cholhan, Hilary J

    2007-01-01

    An 87-year-old woman presents with a 4-week history of urinary incontinence during which she had been treated for disseminated herpes zoster virus (HZV). On physical exam painful vesicles involving the entire vulvar region with mainly right sacral distribution were found. A catheterized volume exceeded 600 ml of retained urine after the patient failed to void spontaneously. Multichannel voiding-pressure urodynamic studies revealed an acontractile neurogenic bladder with overflow incontinence. The patient was discharged on a conservative regimen with arrangement for visiting nurse services to perform intermittent self-catheterization twice daily. Urodynamic testing was repeated 10 weeks after initial symptoms. During voiding cystometry a biphasic increase in detrusor pressure of 15 cm H2O was observed with no increase in abdominal pressure. The patient emptied 400 ml with a postvoid residual of 300 ml. Recovery from HZV-associated bladder emptying dysfunction can be achieved usually through conservative management, including intermittent self-catheterization. Complete recovery time ranges from 4 to 10 weeks.

  11. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden. PMID:25483704

  12. Herpes zoster in psoriasis patients treated with tofacitinib.

    PubMed

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Lebwohl, Mark; Cohen, Arnon D; Weinberg, Jeffrey M; Tyring, Stephen K; Rottinghaus, Scott T; Gupta, Pankaj; Ito, Kaori; Tan, Huaming; Kaur, Mandeep; Egeberg, Alexander; Mallbris, Lotus; Valdez, Hernan

    2017-08-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor. Immunomodulatory therapies can increase the risk for herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with psoriasis. To evaluate the relationship between tofacitinib use and HZ risk. We used phases 2 and 3 and long-term extension (LTE) data from the tofacitinib development program in psoriasis to calculate HZ incidence rates (IR; events per 100 patient-years); potential HZ risk factors were evaluated using Cox-proportional hazard models. One hundred thirty (3.6%) patients on tofacitinib (IR 2.55), no patients on placebo, and 2 using etanercept (IR 2.68) developed HZ. Nine patients (7%) were hospitalized, and 8 (6%) had multidermatomal HZ; no encephalitis, visceral involvement, or deaths occurred. In total, 121 (93%) patients on tofacitinib continued or resumed use after HZ. HZ risk factors included Asian descent (hazard ratio [HR] 2.92), using tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily (vs 5 mg twice daily; HR 1.72), prior use of biologics (HR 1.72), and older age (HR 1.30). Generalizability to other psoriasis populations might be limited. The effect of HZ vaccination was not studied. Tofacitinib is associated with increased HZ risk relative to placebo. Asian race, increasing age, higher dose, and prior biologic exposure are associated with heightened risk. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin

    PubMed Central

    Loit, Evelin; Melnyk, Charles W; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Scott, Fraser W; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s) encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health. PMID:19615078

  14. The burden of hospitalisation for varicella and herpes zoster in England from 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Hobbelen, Peter H F; Stowe, Julia; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Miller, Liz; van Hoek, Albert-Jan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to determine the hospital burden of varicella-zoster virus infection (VZV) in England during 2004-2013 to support a future cost-effectiveness analysis of a childhood varicella vaccination programme. We analysed the incidence, duration, outcome and costs of hospitalisations for VZV using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database for the general and immunocompetent population. Mortality in HES was validated using data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS). The average annual incidences of admissions due to varicella and herpes zoster were 7.6 (7.3-7.9) and 8.8 (8.6-9.0) per 100,000, respectively. The immunocompetent population accounted for 93% and 82% of the admissions due to varicella and herpes zoster, respectively. The average yearly number of hospital days was 10,748 (10,227-11,234) for varicella and 41,780 (40,257-43,287) for herpes zoster. The average yearly hospital costs (£2013/14) were £6.8 million (6.4-7.2) for varicella and £13.0 million (12.8-13.4) for herpes zoster. The average annual numbers of deaths identified in HES due to varicella and herpes zoster were 18.5 (14.3-22.8) and 160 (147-172), respectively. Comparison with ONS mortality data indicated a high level of uncertainty. Most of the hospital burden due to VZV-virus in England occurs in the immunocompetent population and is potentially vaccine-preventable. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving Herpes Zoster Vaccination Rates Through Use of a Clinical Pharmacist and a Personal Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Shelley H.; Tayal, Neeraj H.; Porter, Kyle; Embi, Peter J.; Beatty, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preventative health services, including herpes zoster vaccination rates, remain low despite known benefits. A new care model to improve preventative health services is warranted. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the functions of an electronic medical record, in combination with a pharmacist as part of the care team, can improve the herpes zoster vaccination rate. METHODS This study was a 6-month, randomized controlled trial at a General Internal Medicine clinic at The Ohio State University. The 2589 patients aged 60 years and older without documented herpes zoster vaccination in the electronic medical record were stratified on the basis of activated personal health record status, an online tool used to share health information between patient and provider. Of the 674 personal health record users, 250 were randomized to receive information regarding the herpes zoster vaccination via an electronic message and 424 were randomized to standard of care. Likewise, of the 1915 nonpersonal health record users, 250 were randomized to receive the same information via the US Postal Service and 1665 were randomized to standard of care. After pharmacist chart review, eligible patients were mailed a herpes zoster vaccine prescription. Herpes zoster vaccination rates were compared by chi-square tests. RESULTS Intervention recipients had significantly higher vaccination rates than controls in both personal health record (relative risk, 2.7; P = .0007) and nonpersonal health record (relative risk, 2.9; P = .0001) patient populations. CONCLUSIONS Communication outside of face-to-face office visits, by both personal health record electronic message and information by mail, can improve preventative health intervention rates compared with standard care. PMID:23830534

  16. Assessment of acquired immune response to Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick infestation in different goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Gopalraj, Jeyanthi B P; Clarke, Francoise C; Donkin, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Changes in serum gamma globulin levels, numbers of replete female ticks and engorged tick mass were used as parameters to monitor the acquired immune response (antibody mediated immune response) elicited by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations. Three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations were applied to South African Indigenous goats (Nguni), Saanen goats and cross-bred goats (Saanen goats crossed with South African Indigenous goats [Nguni]) under laboratory conditions. During the three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations the serum gamma globulin levels increased in all three breeds, whilst the mean replete female tick numbers and engorged tick mass decreased. Even though all three goat breeds exhibited an acquired immune response, the South African Indigenous goats (Nguni) response was significantly higher than that of the Saanen and cross-bred goats. However, the acquired immune response elicited by Saanen goats was significantly lower when compared with cross-bred goats.

  17. Administrative Data to Explore the Role of Family History as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Harpaz, Rafael; Dahl, Rebecca M

    2018-06-01

    We used administrative data to study the impact of family history on the risk of herpes zoster (HZ). Our HZ cases and our HZ family history were both ascertained on the basis of medically attended diagnoses, without reliance on self-report or recall bias. Family history was associated with HZ risk among both siblings and parents. The strength of the association differed when the index child was latently infected with vaccine-strain vs wild-type varicella zoster virus. Copyright © 2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine in HIV-infected adults: a phase 1/2a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Elchonon M; Moyle, Graeme; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Schürmann, Dirk; Kegg, Stephen; Stoll, Matthias; El Idrissi, Mohamed; Oostvogels, Lidia; Heineman, Thomas C

    2015-04-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of herpes zoster (HZ), even in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Because concerns exist about the use of live-attenuated vaccines in immunocompromised individuals, a subunit vaccine may be an appropriate alternative. This phase 1/2, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational HZ subunit vaccine (HZ/su). Three cohorts of HIV-infected adults aged ≥18 years were enrolled: 94 ART recipients with a CD4(+) T-cell count of ≥200 cells/mm(3), 14 ART recipients with a CD4(+) T-cell count of 50-199 cells/mm(3), and 15 ART-naive adults with a CD4(+) T-cell count of ≥500 cells/mm(3). Subjects received 3 doses of HZ/su (50 µg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E [gE] combined with AS01B adjuvant) or 3 doses of saline at months 0, 2, and 6. One month after dose 3, serum anti-gE antibody concentrations and frequencies of gE-specific CD4(+) T cells were higher following HZ/su vaccination than after receipt of saline (P < .0001). Median cell-mediated immune responses peaked after dose 2. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses persisted until the end of the study (month 18). No vaccination-related serious adverse events were reported. No sustained impact on HIV load or CD4(+) T-cell count was noted following vaccinations. HZ/su was immunogenic and had a clinically acceptable safety profile in HIV-infected adults. NCT01165203. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Cellular and Humoral Responses to a Second Dose of Herpes Zoster Vaccine Administered 10 Years After the First Dose Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Schmader, Kenneth E; Pang, Lei; Williams-Diaz, Angela; Zerbe, Gary; Canniff, Jennifer; Johnson, Michael J; Caldas, Yupanqui; Cho, Alice; Lang, Nancy; Su, Shu-Chih; Parrino, Janie; Popmihajlov, Zoran; Weinberg, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster vaccine (ZV) was administered as a second dose to 200 participants ≥ 70 years old who had received a dose of ZV ≥ 10 years previously (NCT01245751). Varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody titers (measured by a VZV glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [gpELISA]) and levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2; markers of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity [CMI], measured by means of ELISPOT analysis) in individuals aged ≥ 70 years who received a booster dose of ZV were compared to responses of 100 participants aged 50-59 years, 100 aged 60-69 years, and 200 aged ≥ 70 years who received their first dose of ZV. The study was powered to demonstrate noninferiority of the VZV antibody response at 6 weeks in the booster-dose group, compared with the age-matched first-dose group. Antibody responses were similar at baseline and after vaccination across all age and treatment groups. Both baseline and postvaccination VZV-specific CMI were lower in the older age groups. Peak gpELISA titers and their fold rise from baseline generally correlated with higher baseline and postvaccination VZV-specific CMI. IFN-γ and IL-2 results for subjects ≥ 70 years old were significantly higher at baseline and after vaccination in the booster-dose group, compared with the first-dose group, indicating that a residual effect of ZV on VZV-specific CMI persisted for ≥ 10 years and was enhanced by the booster dose. These findings support further investigation of ZV administration in early versus later age and of booster doses for elderly individuals at an appropriate interval after initial immunization against HZ. NCT01245751. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of routine varicella vaccination using the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine in France: an economic analysis based on a dynamic transmission model for varicella and herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Kavi J; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Sauboin, Christophe; Tehard, Bertrand; Alain, Sophie; Denis, François

    2015-04-01

    Each year in France, varicella and zoster affect large numbers of children and adults, resulting in medical visits, hospitalizations for varicella- and zoster-related complications, and societal costs. Disease prevention by varicella vaccination is feasible, wherein a plausible option involves replacing the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine with the combined MMR and varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This study aimed to: (1) assess the cost-effectiveness of adding routine varicella vaccination through MMRV, using different vaccination strategies in France; and (2) address key uncertainties, such as the economic consequences of breakthrough varicella cases, the waning of vaccine-conferred protection, vaccination coverage, and indirect costs. Based on the outputs of a dynamic transmission model that used data on epidemiology and costs from France, a cost-effectiveness model was built. A conservative approach was taken regarding the impact of varicella vaccination on zoster incidence by assuming the validity of the hypothesis of an age-specific boosting of immunity against varicella. The model determined that routine MMRV vaccination is expected to be a cost-effective option, considering a cost-effectiveness threshold of €20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year saved; routine vaccination was cost-saving from the societal perspective. Results were driven by a large decrease in varicella incidence despite a temporary initial increase in the number of zoster cases due to the assumption of exogenous boosting. In the scenario analyses, despite moderate changes in assumptions about incidence and costs, varicella vaccination remained a cost-effective option for France. Routine vaccination with MMRV was associated with high gains in quality-adjusted life-years, substantial reduction in the occurrences of varicella- and zoster-related complications, and few deaths due to varicella. Routine MMRV vaccination is also expected to provide reductions in costs related to

  1. Three-Dimensional Normal Human Neutral Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model for Persistent Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection and Platform to Study Oxidate Stress and Damage in Multiple Hit Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; McCarthy, M.; Osterrieder, N.; Cohrs, R. J.; Kaufer, B. B.

    2014-01-01

    The environment of space results in a multitude of challenges to the human physiology that present barriers to extended habitation and exploration. Over 40 years of investigation to define countermeasures to address space flight adaptation has left gaps in our knowledge regarding mitigation strategies partly due to the lack of investigative tools, monitoring strategies, and real time diagnostics to understand the central causative agent(s) responsible for physiologic adaptation and maintaining homeostasis. Spaceflight-adaptation syndrome is the combination of space environmental conditions and the synergistic reaction of the human physiology. Our work addresses the role of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) as a negative and contributing Risk Factor (RF) in the following areas of combined spaceflight related dysregulation: i) radiation induced cellular damage [1], [2] ii) immune impacts and the inflammatory response [3], [4] and iii) varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation [5]. Varicella-zoster (VZV)/Chicken Pox virus is a neurotropic human alphaherpes virus resulting in varicella upon primary infection, suppressed by the immune system becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates under stress events to re-express in zoster and possibly shingles. Our laboratory has developed a complex three-dimensional (3D) normal human neural tissue model that emulates several characteristics of the human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and allows the study of combinatorial experimentation which addresses, simultaneously, OSaD associated with Spaceflight adaptation and habitation [6]. By combining the RFs of microgravity, radiation, and viral infection we will demonstrate that living in the space environment leads to significant physiological consequences for the peripheral and subsequently the central nervous system (PNS, CNS) associated with OSaD generation and consequentially endangers long-duration and exploration-class missions.

  2. Incorporating zosteric acid into silicone coatings to achieve its slow release while reducing fresh water bacterial attachment.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Carlos A; Xu, Qingwei; Cutright, Teresa; Newby, Bi-min Zhang

    2005-03-25

    Biofouling has posed serious problems in maritime industry including increased fuel consumptions, economic loss from ship-hull maintenances, contamination of drinking water, and serious corrosion for mechanical instruments. Minimizing the attachment of bacteria and formation of biofilm could be advantageous in reducing the early stages of biofouling. Zosteric acid, a natural product present in eelgrass, was found to have ability for preventing the attachment of some bacteria and barnacles. In this study, the antifouling ability of zosteric acid during the early stages of fouling was evaluated using attachment studies of fresh water bacteria. Simultaneously, various methods were sought for incorporating zosteric acid into silicone to prolong the release of the compound. The main results from this study were that zosteric acid exhibited anti-bacterial attachment regardless of whether it dispersed in water or incorporated into a coating. In addition, the release rate of zosteric acid from the incorporated coatings, particularly those where zosteric acid was uniformly dispersed with aggregates size of 4 microm or less, was orders of magnitude slower than those of previous reports. The release results indicate that the service life of our coatings could be far extended even with a small amount of zosteric acid incorporated.

  3. Herpes Zoster reactivation in patients with chronic hepatitis C under treatment with directly acting antiviral agents: A case series.

    PubMed

    El Kassas, Mohamed; Wifi, Mohamed Naguib; Mahdy, Reem; Afify, Shimaa; Hafez, Enas; El Latif, Yasmeen Abd; Ezzat, Marwa; El Tahan, Adel; Youssef, Naglaa; Esmat, Gamal

    2017-03-01

    We report a series of cutaneous Herpes Zoster (HZ) reactivation cases in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treated with directly acting antiviral (DAA) agents. Five cases were detected among 2133 treated patients with DAAs at one of the specialized viral hepatitis treatment centers in Egypt. A control group including 2300 age and sex matched HCV patients who were previously treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin did not show any HZ reactivation reports while on treatment. None of cases had an evidence of immunosuppression or a risk factor for HZ reactivation. The DAAs used regimens were sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in 4 cases and sofosbuvir/simeprevir in one case. HCV clearance with antiviral therapy may bring immune changes causing reactivation of other latent viral infections like HZ. A high index of clinical suspicion may be needed to guarantee early and prompt management of such cases. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of demographic changes on the impact of vaccination against varicella and herpes zoster in Germany - a mathematical modelling study.

    PubMed

    Horn, Johannes; Damm, Oliver; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hengel, Hartmut; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; Siedler, Anette; Ultsch, Bernhard; Weidemann, Felix; Wichmann, Ole; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2018-01-09

    Epidemiological studies suggest that reduced exposure to varicella might lead to an increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ). Reduction of exposure to varicella is a consequence of varicella vaccination but also of demographic changes. We analyzed how the combination of vaccination programs and demographic dynamics will affect the epidemiology of varicella and HZ in Germany over the next 50 years. We used a deterministic dynamic compartmental model to assess the impact of different varicella and HZ vaccination strategies on varicella and HZ epidemiology in three demographic scenarios, namely the projected population for Germany, the projected population additionally accounting for increased immigration as observed in 2015/2016, and a stationary population. Projected demographic changes alone result in an increase of annual HZ cases by 18.3% and a decrease of varicella cases by 45.7% between 1990 and 2060. Independently of the demographic scenario, varicella vaccination reduces the cumulative number of varicella cases until 2060 by approximately 70%, but also increases HZ cases by 10%. Unlike the currently licensed live attenuated HZ vaccine, the new subunit vaccine candidate might completely counteract this effect. Relative vaccine effects were consistent across all demographic scenarios. Demographic dynamics will be a major determinant of HZ epidemiology in the next 50 years. While stationary population models are appropriate for assessing vaccination impact, models incorporating realistic population structures allow a direct comparison to surveillance data and can thus provide additional input for immunization decision-making and resource planning.

  5. Sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin mRNA levels in infertile women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Misao, R; Nakanishi, Y; Fujimoto, J; Tamaya, T

    1995-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the biological significance in intracellular expression of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) mRNA in uterine endometrium with luteal phase deficiency (designated as out-of-phase endometrium or low serum progesterone level). The levels of such mRNAs were measured by the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Under the normal serum 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone levels in the mid-luteal phase, the levels of SHBG and CBG mRNAs in the out-of-phase endometria were not significantly different from those in the normal endometria. On the other hand, SHBG and CBG mRNA levels in the endometria of low serum midluteal progesterone level were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced and raised, respectively, compared with normal levels. These findings suggest that the synthesis of endometrial steroid-binding proteins in the out-of-phase endometrium is conserved, as that in the in-phase endometrium, whereas the decreased progesterone level might up-regulate CBG expression with down-regulation of SHBG expression.

  6. Serum IgG, IgM and slow alpha-globulin levels in carrageenan-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, E. F.; Thomson, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    Serum levels of IgM, IgG, slow alpha 1- and slow alpha 2-globulins were measured either by quantitative radial immunodiffusion (IgG) or immunoelectrophoresis (IgM and slow alpha-globulins) during the 3-week period after i.p. injection of 50 mg potassium carrageenan. There was a significant elevation in levels of IgM and slow alpha 1-globulin, maximal on Day 4 and returning to normal by Day 14. Slow alpha 2-globulin was detectable within 24 h, reached a peak at Day 2, and was no longer measurable in most rats by Day 14. Levels of IgG however, were unaffected by carrageenan injection. PMID:92333

  7. Nutritional and physiological responses of young growing rats to diets containing raw cowpea seed meal, protein isolate (globulins), or starch.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Leticia; Canul, Rossana Rodriguez; Pereira-Pacheco, Fabiola; Cockburn, Joanna; Soldani, Florinda; McKenzie, Norma H; Duncan, Michelle; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel A; Grant, George

    2003-01-01

    The nutritional and physiological effects of raw cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seed meal, protein isolate (globulins), or starch on the metabolism of young growing rats have been evaluated in 14-day trials. Wet and dry weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and lipid and protein accretion were significantly reduced as a result of inclusion of seed meal, globulins, or starch in the diet, with growth retardation being most marked with the seed meal. The proportional weights of the small intestine and pancreas were increased by meal diets, and serum cholesterol levels were slightly reduced. The globulins and raw starch also increased relative small intestine weights but had no effect on the pancreas or serum constituents. The effects of cowpeas on rats appeared to be due primarily to the combined actions of globulins, resistant starches, protease inhibitors, and possibly fiber and non-starch polysaccharides on intestinal and systemic metabolism.

  8. Modification of solubility and heat-induced gelation of amaranth 11S globulin by protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Carrazco-Peña, Laura; Osuna-Castro, Juan A; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F; Morales-Rueda, Juan A; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2013-04-10

    The primary structure of amaranth 11S globulin (Ah11S) was engineered with the aim to improve its functional properties. Four continuous methionines were inserted in variable region V, obtaining the Ah11Sr+4M construction. Changes on protein structure and surface characteristics were analyzed in silico. Solubility and heat-induced gelation of recombinant amaranth 11S proglobulin (Ah11Sr and Ah11Sr+4M) were compared with the native protein (Ah11Sn) purified from amaranth seed flour. The Ah11Sr+4 M showed the highest surface hydrophobicity, but as consequence the solubility was reduced. At low ionic strength (μ = 0.2) and acidic pH (<4.1), the recombinant proteins Ah11Sr and Ah11Sr+4 M had the highest and lowest solubility values, respectively. All globulins samples formed gels at 90 °C and low ionic strength, but Ah11Sn produced the weakest and Ah11Sr the strongest gels. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis under gel forming conditions revealed only exothermic transitions for all amaranth 11S globulins analyzed. In conclusion, the 3D structure analysis has revealed interesting molecular features that could explain the thermal resistance and gel forming ability of amaranth 11S globulins. The incorporation of four continuous methionines in amaranth increased the hydrophobicity, and self-supporting gels formed had intermediate hardness between Ah11Sn and Ah11Sr. These functional properties could be used in the food industry for the development of new products based on amaranth proteins.

  9. Management of varicella zoster virus retinitis in AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, R.; Weinberg, D.; Teich, S.; Berger, B.; Minturn, J.; Kumar, S.; Rao, N.; Fowell, S.; Loose, I.; Jampol, L.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Varicella zoster virus retinitis (VZVR) in patients with AIDS, also called progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), is a necrotising viral retinitis which has resulted in blindness in most patients. The purposes of this study were to investigate the clinical course and visual outcome, and to determine if the choice of a systemic antiviral therapy affected the final visual outcome in patients with VZVR and AIDS.
METHODS—A review of the clinical records of 20 patients with VZVR from six centres was performed. Analysis of the clinical characteristics at presentation was performed. Kruskall-Wallis non-parametric one way analysis of variance (KWAOV) of the final visual acuities of patients treated with acyclovir, ganciclovir, foscarnet, or a combination of foscarnet and ganciclovir was carried out.
RESULTS—Median follow up was 6 months (range 1.3-26 months). On presentation, 14 of 20 patients (70%) had bilateral disease, and 75% (15 of 20 patients) had previous or concurrent extraocular manifestations of VZV infection. Median initial and final visual acuities were 20/40 and hand movements, respectively. Of 39 eyes involved, 19 eyes (49%) were no light perception at last follow up; 27 eyes (69%) developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Patients treated with combination ganciclovir and foscarnet therapy or ganciclovir alone had significantly better final visual acuity than those treated with either acyclovir or foscarnet (KWAOV: p = 0.0051).
CONCLUSIONS—This study represents the second largest series, the longest follow up, and the first analysis of visual outcomes based on medical therapy for AIDS patients with VZVR. Aggressive medical treatment with appropriate systemic antivirals may improve long term visual outcome in patients with VZVR. Acyclovir appears to be relatively ineffective in treating this disease.

 PMID:9135381

  10. Herpes Zoster Infection in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Receiving Tofacitinib.

    PubMed

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Melmed, Gil Y; Vermeire, Séverine; Long, Millie D; Chan, Gary; Pedersen, Ronald D; Lawendy, Nervin; Thorpe, Andrew J; Nduaka, Chudy I; Su, Chinyu

    2018-05-30

    Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor that is being investigated for ulcerative colitis (UC). Tofacitinib is approved for rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, where it has been shown to increase herpes zoster (HZ) risk. We evaluated HZ risk among UC patients using tofacitinib. HZ cases were identified in tofacitinib phase II/III/ongoing, open-label, long-term extension (OLE) UC trials. We calculated HZ incidence rates (IRs) per 100 patient-years of tofacitinib exposure within phase III maintenance (Maintenance Cohort) and phase II/III/OLE (Overall Cohort) studies, stratified by baseline demographics and other factors. HZ risk factors were evaluated in the Overall Cohort using Cox proportional hazard models. Overall, 65 (5.6%) patients developed HZ. Eleven patients had multidermatomal involvement (2 nonadjacent or 3-6 adjacent dermatomes), and 1 developed encephalitis (resolved upon standard treatment). Five (7.7%) events led to treatment discontinuation. HZ IR (95% confidence interval [CI]) in the Overall Cohort was 4.07 (3.14-5.19) over a mean (range) of 509.1 (1-1606) days, with no increased risk observed with increasing tofacitinib exposure. IRs (95% CI) were highest in patients age ≥65 years, 9.55 (4.77-17.08); Asian patients, 6.49 (3.55-10.89); patients with prior tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) failure, 5.38 (3.86-7.29); and patients using tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily, 4.25 (3.18-5.56). Multivariate analysis identified older age and prior TNFi failure as independent risk factors. In tofacitinib-treated UC patients, there was an elevated risk of HZ, although complicated HZ was infrequent. Increased HZ rates occurred in patients who were older, Asian, or had prior TNFi failure (NCT00787202, NCT01465763, NCT01458951, NCT01458574, NCT01470612).

  11. Association of Central Obesity with Sex Hormonebinding Globulin: A Cross-sectional Study of 1166 Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangwei; Shen, Xubo; Wang, Ruifeng; Yu, Na; Shi, Yongjun; Xiong, Shimin; Xiong, Chengliang; Zhou, Yuanzhong

    2018-01-01

    Background Both sex hormone-binding globulin and central obesity have been found to be associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, the direct relation between sex hormone-binding globulin and central obesity has not been demonstrated. Methodology We performed a cross-sectional study of 1166 male participants from Zunyi, Guizhou, western China, in 2013. Each participant completed a questionnaire and had a brief clinical exam with a fasting blood sample taken. All blood samples underwent standard laboratory testing for sex hormone-binding globulin. Level of serum sex hormone-binding globulin was compared by demographic characteristics, and multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the independent association of variables and sex hormone-binding globulin level. Results The mean serum level of sex hormone-binding globulin was increased in old-aged men (older than 40 years; mean 44.68±20.58 nmol/L), low diastolic blood pressure (<90mmHg; 43.76±20.50 nmol/L), waist-to-height ratio <0.5 (48.73±20.59 nmol/L), no education (52.36±22.91 nmol/L), farm occupation (43.58±20.60nmol/L), non-alcohol or former user (44.78±20.94 nmol/L) and long-term medication history (44.79±21.50 nmol/L). Factors independently associated with sex hormone binding globulin level on multiple regression were waist-to-height ratio (β=- 11.84 [95% confidence interval -13.96,-9.72]), age(β=12.40 [9.63,15.17]) and diastolic blood pressure (β=-5.07 [-7.44,-2.71]). Conclusions Central obesity has an independent inverse relation with serum level of sex hormone binding globulin among western Chinese men.

  12. Studies on Red Cell Aplasia. V. PRESENCE OF ERYTHROBLAST CYTOTOXICITY IN γG-GLOBULIN FRACTION OF PLASMA

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, Sanford B.; Moore, W. H.; Zaentz, S. Donald

    1973-01-01

    The marrow cells of a patient with pure red cell aplasia markedly increased their rate of heme synthesis when they were freed from the host environment and were incubated in vitro. When the red cell aplasia was treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisone, marrow cell incorporation of 59Fe into heme in vitro increased several weeks before a reticulocytosis was apparent, and was the earliest effect noted. The plasma γG-globulins of this patient inhibited heme synthesis by normal marrow cells or the patient's own marrow cells obtained after remission of the disease. Since the inhibition of heme synthesis could be the result of damage to erythroblasts, the patient's posttreatment marrow cells or normal marrow cells were labeled with 59Fe and were then incubated with the patient's pretreatment, treatment, and posttreatment γG-globulins as well as normal γG-globulins. At the end of this incubation the supernatant and cells were separated and counted. Heme was extracted and also was counted. Treatment of the cells with the patient's pretreatment γG-globulins resulted in a release of 40% of the radioactive heme from the cells. This represented the loss of radioactive hemoglobin and was an index of erythroblast cytotoxicity. A progressive disappearance of the cytotoxic factor in the γG-globulins occurred in the 3 wk period preceding the onset of reticulocytes in the patient's blood. Posttreatment and normal γG-globulins did not produce this effect and increased injury of red cells and lymphocytes was not produced by the patient's pretreatment γG-globulins. These studies demonstrate a method for measuring erythroblast cytoxicity and show that red cell aplasia is associated with γG-globulins that specifically damage erythroblasts. Whether interference with new erythroblast development also occurs and contributes to the inhibition of heme synthesis has not yet been ascertained. Images PMID:4119161

  13. Herpes zoster-induced acute urinary retention: Two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    He, H; Tang, C; Yi, X; Zhou, W

    2018-04-01

    We report two uncommon cases of acute urinary retention in Chinese patients caused by reactivation of sacral herpes zoster and requiring bladder drainage. Indwelling urinary catheterization, antiviral medication (ganciclovir), and physiotherapy with infrared light (830 nm) led to successful recovery of the micturition reflex in both cases.

  14. [Analysis on clinical features and treatment of herpes zoster patients hospitalized in real world].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling-Lian; Wang, Lian-Xin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Zhuang, Yan; Zhang, Yun-Bi

    2014-09-01

    From the hospital information system (HIS) of 20 national grade III-A general hospitals, 2 960 cases of herpes zoster as the research object, analyzes the relations between the general information, syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), western medicine combined diseases, the relationship between the solar term and the incidence of herpes zoster, and the combined use of Chinese and western medicine. Among the patients with 46-65 year old has the highest percentage of diseased; admission to general outpatient clinic is the most; the most common medical payment is medicare; combined disease such as hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease is more common; early treatment effect of herpes zoster is better than the sequelae; summer and autumn solar term patients is hospitalized more, TCM syndrome is damp heat of liver fire; about drugs, western medicine is the most commonly used vitamin B1 and mecobalamin, traditional Chinese medicine is the most frequently used Danhong injection, combination therapy with promoting blood circulation drugs and neurotrophic drugs. Thus, herpes zoster, more common in elderly patients, with no obvious relationship between solar term, should be early diagnosis and early treatment, often with combination of Chinese traditional and western medicine treatment.

  15. Investigation of varicella-zoster virus infection of lymphocytes by in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Koropchak, C.M.; Solem, S.M.; Diaz, P.S.

    1989-05-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells harboring viral gene sequences were detected during primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the human host and the strain 2 guinea pig by in situ hybridization with a /sup 3/H-labeled VZV DNA probe. Activated T lymphocytes were permissive for VZV infection at low frequency in vitro.

  16. Incidence of herpes zoster amongst adults varies by severity of immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Carsten; Enders, Dirk; Schink, Tania; Riedel, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    We examined the incidence of herpes zoster in immunocompromised adults (≥18 years) with different severities of immunosuppression and assessed the prevalence of complications and of various kinds of healthcare resource utilisation. German claims data from more than ten million adults were used to calculate annual incidence rates of herpes zoster for the years 2006-2012 and to analyse the prevalence of complications, physician visits, hospitalisations, and antiviral and analgesic treatments using a cohort design. The analyses were stratified by age, sex, and severity of immunosuppression, defined by immunocompromising conditions and drug therapies. The incidence rate per 1000 person-years of herpes zoster was almost twice as high in immunocompromised patients (11.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.4-11.6)) compared to immunocompetent subjects (5.9 (95% CI: 5.8-5.9)). The incidence rate was higher in highly immunocompromised patients (13.4 (95% CI: 13.2-13.6)) than in patients with a low severity of immunosuppression (10.0 (95% CI: 9.8-10.1)). These differences were observed for both sexes and in all age groups. Complications, outpatient physician visits, hospitalisations, and analgesic treatments occurred more frequently in immunocompromised patients as well. Our results show that immunocompromised individuals are affected by the disease in particular and that the burden of herpes zoster is highest in severely immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vaccination against herpes zoster in developed countries: state of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Mélanie; Oxman, Michael N; Levin, Myron J; Schmader, Kenneth E; Johnson, Robert W; Patrick, David; Mansi, James A; Brisson, Marc

    2013-05-01

    Although progress has been made in the treatment of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), available therapeutic options are only partially effective. Given evidence that a live-attenuated varicella-zoster-virus vaccine is effective at reducing the incidence of HZ, PHN and the burden of illness, policymakers and clinicians are being asked to make recommendations regarding the use of the zoster vaccine. In this report, we summarize the evidence regarding the: (1) burden of illness; (2) vaccine efficacy and safety; and (3) cost-effectiveness of vaccination, to assist evidence-based policy making and guide clinicians in their recommendations. First, there is general agreement that the overall burden of illness associated with HZ and PHN is substantial. Second, the safety and efficacy of the zoster vaccine at reducing the burden of illness due to HZ and the incidence of PHN have been clearly demonstrated in large placebo-controlled trials. However, uncertainty remains about the vaccine's duration of protection. Third, vaccination against HZ is likely to be cost-effective when the vaccine is given at approximately 65 y of age, if vaccine duration is longer than 10 y.

  18. [Vaccines against Herpes zoster: Effectiveness, safety, and cost/benefit ratio].

    PubMed

    Ferahta, Nabila; Achek, Imene; Dubourg, Julie; Lang, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-02-01

    A vaccination against herpes zoster and its complication is available in France since June 2015. Its exact benefit for public health is still controversial and its level of protection is not optimal. All those reasons seem to suggest a low acceptation rate from general practitioners. To evaluate the effectiveness, the safety, and the cost/benefit ratio of the vaccination against herpes zoster in people aged 50 year or over. Systematic review in Medline and PubMed with research by key words: "herpes zoster vaccine", "zoster vaccine" and "post herpetic neuralgia vaccine". Randomized and observational studies published in English and French language have been selected by two readers. On 1886 articles identified, 62 studies were included in this systematic review of which 21 randomized trials, 21 observational studies, and 17 medico-economic studies concerned the unadjuvanted vaccine. Considered studies showed an effectiveness of 50% against herpes zoster and 60% on post-herpetic neuralgia incidence of the unadjuvanted vaccine. Five randomized controlled studies were identified for the adjuvanted vaccine. The overall effectiveness of this vaccine was > 90% whatever the age of subjects including those over age 70 and 80. The medico-economic studies conducted in many countries have shown that vaccine policies were beneficial in individuals aged 60 years or over. Most of data of effectiveness, and tolerance result from 2 large controlled studies only (SPS and ZEST) for the unadjuvanted vaccine and only one for the adjuvanted vaccine. Despite controversy and few uncertainties, the vaccine significantly reduces herpes zoster and its complication incidence. In terms of public health objectives, it reduces the burden of the disease and has a positive medico-economic impact. Preliminary data concerning the adjuvanted vaccine, whilst very promising, are still too limited. Up to now, no group of people with particularly high risk of herpes zoster-related complication who will

  19. A systematic review of the cost effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Thomas D; Pfeil, Alena M

    2013-02-01

    The varicella zoster virus (VZV) can cause two infections: chickenpox or herpes zoster (HZ). Whereas chickenpox infections are normally mild but common among children, HZ infections are common among elderly people and can give rise to post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), a severe and painful complication. This review aimed to summarize the literature available on the cost effectiveness of HZ vaccination and to summarize key issues for decision makers to consider when deciding on the reimbursement of HZ vaccination. We conducted a literature search of the databases PubMed and EMBASE using EndNote X4 from Thomson Reuters. The following combinations of keywords were used: 'herpes zoster vaccine' AND 'cost(-)effectiveness' or AND 'economic evaluation', 'herpes zoster vaccination' AND 'cost(-)effectiveness' or AND 'economic evaluation', 'varicella zoster vaccine' AND 'cost(-)effectiveness' or AND 'economic evaluation', and 'varicella zoster vaccination' AND 'cost(-)effectiveness' or AND 'economic evaluation'. A total of 11 studies were identified and included. Cost-effectiveness analyses of varicella zoster vaccination were excluded. The quality of the included studies ranged from 'moderate' to 'moderate to good' according to the British Medical Journal guidelines of Drummond and Jefferson and the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) score of Ofman et al. Most studies evaluated the cost effectiveness of universal HZ vaccination in adults aged 50 years or 60 years and older. Data sources and model assumptions regarding epidemiology, utility estimates and costs varied between studies. All studies calculated costs per QALY, which allows comparing costs of interventions in different diseases. The costs per QALY gained and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) differed between studies depending on the age at vaccination, duration of vaccine efficacy, cost of vaccine course and economic perspective. All but one of the studies concluded that most vaccination

  20. Immunization Program

    Science.gov Websites

    Department home page Immunizations Search: Search Toggle navigation Medical Services Disease Control Facebook Contacts CoverageRates Diseases Immunization Homepage Immunization Honor Roll HPV NDIIS Medical Providers

  1. Factors associated with herpes zoster vaccination status and acceptance of vaccine recommendation in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Benjamin S; Garza, Kimberly B; Stevenson, T Lynn; Williamson, Margaret A; Zeek, Megan L; Westrick, Salisa C

    2014-09-29

    1. Identify patient characteristics, awareness and knowledge associated with herpes zoster (HZ) vaccination status. 2. Identify self-reported reasons for not receiving Zostavax(®). 3. Assess the impact of a patient education program by measuring post-intervention interest in obtaining the Zostavax(®) vaccine across reasons for being unvaccinated. A cross-sectional design with patients aged 60 years or older in 51 community pharmacies in Alabama and Florida was utilized. During the Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience in summer 2013, 137 immunization-certified student pharmacists provided patient education on HZ and Zostavax(®) to unvaccinated patients using the Shingles Vaccine Information Statement. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed patient awareness of HZ, receipt of recommendations to receive Zostavax(®), and patient characteristics as well as vaccination status, reasons for being unvaccinated and interest in obtaining Zostavax(®) after the educational session. A total of 681 patients participated in a conversation with a student pharmacist regarding their HZ vaccination status. The majority were female (57.6%), white (84.6%), and unvaccinated (73.6%). Results from logistic regression suggest that participants were more likely to be vaccinated if they received a recommendation from a healthcare provider (OR=5.15), received the influenza vaccine during the previous year (OR=3.56), or knew that Zostavax(®) was recommended for individuals over 60 years of age (OR=3.55). The most frequently provided reasons for being unvaccinated were "haven't gotten around to it/forgot" (27.2%) and "didn't know it was needed" (27.1%). After the educational session, the majority (72.5%) of unvaccinated patients were interested in speaking with their pharmacist or physician about receiving Zostavax(®). Analysis suggests that interest differed across initial reason for being unvaccinated (χ(2)=64.44; p<0.01). Recommendations from healthcare providers are

  2. Assessing the potential effects and cost-effectiveness of programmatic herpes zoster vaccination of elderly in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful disease affecting a considerable part of the elderly. Programmatic HZ vaccination of elderly people may considerably reduce HZ morbidity and its related costs, but the extent of these effects is unknown. In this article, the potential effects and cost-effectiveness of programmatic HZ vaccination of elderly in the Netherlands have been assessed according to a framework that was developed to support evidence-based decision making regarding inclusion of new vaccines in the Dutch National Immunization Program. Methods An analytical framework was used combining a checklist, which structured relevant data on the vaccine, pathogen and disease, and a cost-effectiveness analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a societal perspective, using a Markov-cohort-model. Simultaneous vaccination with influenza was assumed. Results Due to the combination of waning immunity after vaccination and a reduced efficacy of vaccination at high ages, the most optimal cost-effectiveness ratio (€21716 per QALY) for HZ vaccination in the Netherlands was found for 70-year olds. This estimated ratio is just above the socially accepted threshold in the Netherlands of €20000 per QALY. If additional reduction of postherpetic neuralgia was included, the cost-effectiveness ratio improved (~€10000 per QALY) but uncertainty for this scenario is high. Conclusions Vaccination against HZ at the age of 70 years seems marginally cost-effective in the Netherlands. Due to limited vaccine efficacy a considerable part of the disease burden caused by HZ will remain, even with optimal acceptance of programmatic vaccination. PMID:20707884

  3. Assessing the potential effects and cost-effectiveness of programmatic herpes zoster vaccination of elderly in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Alies; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Opstelten, Wim; Boot, Hein J; de Melker, Hester E

    2010-08-13

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful disease affecting a considerable part of the elderly. Programmatic HZ vaccination of elderly people may considerably reduce HZ morbidity and its related costs, but the extent of these effects is unknown. In this article, the potential effects and cost-effectiveness of programmatic HZ vaccination of elderly in the Netherlands have been assessed according to a framework that was developed to support evidence-based decision making regarding inclusion of new vaccines in the Dutch National Immunization Program. An analytical framework was used combining a checklist, which structured relevant data on the vaccine, pathogen and disease, and a cost-effectiveness analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a societal perspective, using a Markov-cohort-model. Simultaneous vaccination with influenza was assumed. Due to the combination of waning immunity after vaccination and a reduced efficacy of vaccination at high ages, the most optimal cost-effectiveness ratio (21716 euro per QALY) for HZ vaccination in the Netherlands was found for 70-year olds. This estimated ratio is just above the socially accepted threshold in the Netherlands of 20000 euro per QALY. If additional reduction of postherpetic neuralgia was included, the cost-effectiveness ratio improved (approximately 10000 euro per QALY) but uncertainty for this scenario is high. Vaccination against HZ at the age of 70 years seems marginally cost-effective in the Netherlands. Due to limited vaccine efficacy a considerable part of the disease burden caused by HZ will remain, even with optimal acceptance of programmatic vaccination.

  4. [Seroprevalence of rubella virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19 among pregnant women in the Sousse region, Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Hannachi, N; Marzouk, M; Harrabi, I; Ferjani, A; Ksouri, Z; Ghannem, H; Khairi, H; Hidar, S; Boukadida, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate seroprevalence of rubella virus (RV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and parvovirus B19 (PB19) in 404 Tunisian pregnant women, and to determine reliability of maternal past history of eruption. Sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and past history of eruption were collected through a questionnaire. Serologic tests were performed using enzyme immunoassays. Risk factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Seroprevalences were 79.7% for rubella, 96.3% for CMV, 80.9% for VZV, and 76.2% for PB19. In multivariate analysis, the number of persons per room (> 2) in the house during childhood was associated with CMV infection (P = 0.004), irregular professional husband's activity was correlated with VZV infection (P = 0.04), and an age of more than 30 years was associated with PB19 infection (P = 0.02). History of rubella, varicella, and PB19 infection was unknown for, respectively, 55.8%, 20%, and 100% of women. False history of rubella and varicella were found for 7.4% and 15% of women, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of rubella history were, respectively, 92.6% and 17.2%, and were, respectively, 84.9% and 20.9% for varicella history. Susceptibility to RV, VZV, and PB19 infection remains high in pregnancy in our population. Preventive strategies against congenital rubella must be reinforced. Vaccination against VZV should be considered in seronegative women. Systemic CMV screening is not warranted in our country where high immunity is acquired probably in childhood. Since maternal history of eruption is not reliable, we recommend serologic testing to determine immune status of women.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of a vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Michael B; Virapongse, Anunta; Smith, Kenneth J

    2007-05-15

    A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of this vaccine for different age groups. We constructed a cost-effectiveness model, based on the Shingles Prevention Study, to compare varicella zoster vaccination with usual care for healthy adults aged >60 years. Outcomes included cost in 2005 US dollars and quality-adjusted life expectancy. Costs and natural history data were drawn from the published literature; vaccine efficacy was assumed to persist for 10 years. For the base case analysis, compared with usual care, vaccination increased quality-adjusted life expectancy by 0.0007-0.0024 quality-adjusted life years per person, depending on age at vaccination and sex. These increases came almost exclusively as a result of prevention of acute pain associated with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Vaccination also increased costs by $94-$135 per person, compared with no vaccination. The incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from $44,000 per quality-adjusted life year saved for a 70-year-old woman to $191,000 per quality-adjusted life year saved for an 80-year-old man. For the sensitivity analysis, the decision was most sensitive to vaccine cost. At a cost of $46 per dose, vaccination cost <$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year saved for all adults >60 years of age. Other variables related to the vaccine (duration, efficacy, and adverse effects), postherpetic neuralgia (incidence, duration, and utility), herpes zoster (incidence and severity), and the discount rate all affected the cost-effectiveness ratio by >20%. The cost-effectiveness of the varicella zoster vaccine varies substantially with patient age and often exceeds $100,000 per quality-adjusted life year saved. Age should be considered in vaccine recommendations.

  6. Effect of pharmacist intervention on herpes zoster vaccination in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junling; Ford, Lindsay J; Wingate, La'Marcus; Uroza, Sarah Frank; Jaber, Nina; Smith, Cindy T; Randolph, Richard; Lane, Steve; Foster, Stephan L

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of community pharmacy-based interventions in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine. Prospective intervention study with a pre-post design. Three independent community pharmacies in Tennessee, from December 2007 to June 2008. Patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated that they were eligible for the vaccine and patients presenting to receive the vaccine at study sites. Pharmacists promoted the herpes zoster vaccine through a press release published in local newspapers, a flyer accompanying each prescription dispensed at participating pharmacies, and a personalized letter mailed to patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated that they were eligible for the vaccine. Comparison of vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine during the control and intervention periods and patients' indication for their sources of education and influence in receiving the vaccine. Vaccination rates increased from 0.37% (n = 59 of 16,121) during the control period to 1.20% (n = 193 of 16,062) during the intervention period ( P < 0.0001). Cochran-Armitage trend analyses, including the months before and after the interventions, confirmed a significantly higher vaccination rate during the intervention month than other months analyzed. More patients indicated that they were educated about the herpes zoster vaccine by one of the pharmacist-driven interventions than by a physician, family/friend, or other source during the intervention period ( P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Also, more patients were influenced to receive the vaccination as a result of one of the pharmacist-driven interventions than influenced by a physician ( P = 0.0260) or other source ( P < 0.0001). No difference in the effectiveness of patient influence was found when the pharmacy interventions were compared with family/friends ( P = 0.1025). Three pharmacist-driven interventions were effective in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine.

  7. The Effect of Pharmacist Intervention on Herpes Zoster Vaccination in Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Ford, Lindsay J.; Wingate, La’Marcus; Uroza, Sarah Frank; Jaber, Nina; Smith, Cindy T.; Randolph, Richard; Lane, Steve; Foster, Stephan L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of community pharmacy-based interventions in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine. DESIGN Prospective intervention study with a pre-post design. SETTING Three independent community pharmacies in Tennessee. PATIENTS Patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated they were eligible for the vaccine and patients presenting to receive the vaccine at study sites. INTERVENTIONS Interventions initiated by pharmacists to promote the herpes zoster vaccine included a press release published in local newspapers, a flyer accompanying each prescription dispensed at participating pharmacies, and a personalized letter mailed to patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated they were eligible for the vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Comparison of vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine during the control period and intervention period and patients’ indication for their sources of education and influence in receiving the vaccine. RESULTS Vaccination rates increased from 0.37% (n=59/16121) during the control period to 1.20% (n=193/16062) during the intervention period (P<0.0001). Cochran-Armitage Trend analyses including the months before and after the interventions confirmed a significantly higher vaccination rate during the intervention month than other months analyzed. More patients indicated that they were educated about the herpes zoster vaccine by one of the pharmacist-driven interventions than by a physician, family/friend, or other source during the intervention period (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Also, more patients were influenced to receive the vaccination as a result of one of the pharmacist-driven interventions rather than a physician (P=0.0260) or other source (P<0.0001). No difference in the effectiveness of patient influence was found when the pharmacy interventions were compared with family/friends (P=0.1025). CONCLUSION The three pharmacist-driven interventions were effective in increasing vaccination

  8. Towards universal childhood immunization against chickenpox?

    PubMed Central

    Law, Barbara J

    2000-01-01

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine is available in Canada. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommended immunization of healthy susceptible individuals after one year of age. This was endorsed by a National Varicella Consensus Conference, provided that 90% coverage could be ensured. So far only Prince Edward Island has begun universal childhood immunization. Barriers to achieving high childhood vaccine coverage include: the perception that chickenpox is mild in children but severe in both adults and immunocompromised; concern that vaccine field effectiveness will be much lower than observed in pre-licensure efficacy trials; fear that waning immunity may increase adult cases and the associated disease burden; and uncertainty regarding long term morbidity due to vaccine strain reactivation. In fact, chickenpox is usually an uncomplicated illness in otherwise healthy individuals of all ages. Further, with varicella zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) prophylaxis and acyclovir treatment soon after rash onset, the course in immunocompromised individuals is also usually benign. However, on a population basis, otherwise healthy children with no identifiable risk factors account for 80% to 90% of all chickenpox-associated hospital admissions and 40% to 60% of case fatalities. A more accurate assessment of the relative merits of varicella immunization should contrast the current natural history of disease (90% to 95% infected symptomatically by age 15 years, 15% lifetime risk of a moderate to severe reactivation episode) with the demonstrated vaccine effectiveness of 70% to 86% against any chickenpox, 95% to 100% against moderate to severe illness and significant reduction of frequency and severity of reactivation illness. PMID:20177529

  9. Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Valdez, Hernan; Mortensen, Eric; Chew, Robert; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Kawabata, Thomas; Riese, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) (i.e., shingles). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tofacitinib increases the risk of HZ in patients with RA. Methods HZ cases were identified as those reported by trial investigators from the databases of the phase II, phase III, and long-term extension (LTE) clinical trials in the Tofacitinib RA Development Program. Crude incidence rates (IRs) of HZ per 100 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were calculated by exposure group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential risk factors for HZ (e.g., age, prednisone use). Results Among 4,789 participants, 239 were identified as having tofacitinib-associated HZ during the phase II, phase III, and LTE trials, of whom 208 (87%) were female and whose median age was 57 years (range 21–75 years). One HZ case (0.4%) was multidermatomal; none of the cases involved visceral dissemination or death. Twenty-four patients with HZ (10%) permanently discontinued treatment with tofacitinib, and 16 (7%) were either hospitalized or received intravenous antiviral drugs. The crude HZ IR across the development program was 4.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 3.8–4.9), but the IR was substantially higher within Asia (7.7 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 6.4–9.3). Older age was associated with HZ (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.6), and IRs for HZ were similar between patients receiving 5 mg tofacitinib twice daily (4.4 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.2–6.0) and those receiving 10 mg twice daily (4.2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.1–5.8). In the phase III trials among placebo recipients, the incidence of HZ was 1.5 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5–4.6). Conclusion In the Tofacitinib RA Development Program, increased rates of HZ were observed in patients treated with tofacitinib compared with those receiving placebo, particularly among patients within Asia. Complicated HZ

  10. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montse; Salvador, Patricia; Soldevila, Núria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology and costs of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in people aged ≥50 years in Catalonia (Spain). The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre (Spain) to the population of Catalonia. The incidence of PHN was estimated according to the proportion of cases of HZ in the case series of the Hospital del Sagrado Corazón de Barcelona that evolved to PHN. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record (according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists). The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The estimated annual incidence of HZ was 31 763, of which 21 532 (67.79%) were in patients aged ≥50 years. The respective figures for PHN were 3194 and 3085 (96.59) per annum, respectively. The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN (916.66 euros per patient) than in cases of HZ alone (301.52 euros per patient). The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. The estimated total annual cost of HZ and its complications in Catalonia was € 9.31 million, of which 6.54 corresponded to HZ and 2.77 to PHN. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records. The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. In contrast, the incidence of PHN may be an underestimate, as around 25% of patients in Catalonia attend private clinics financed by insurance companies. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. In Catalonia, HZ and PHN cause an important disease burden (21 532 cases of HZ and 3085 de PHN with an annual cost

  11. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montse; Salvador, Patricia; Soldevila, Núria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domínguez, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology and costs of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in people aged ≥50 years in Catalonia (Spain). The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre (Spain) to the population of Catalonia. The incidence of PHN was estimated according to the proportion of cases of HZ in the case series of the Hospital del Sagrado Corazón de Barcelona that evolved to PHN. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record (according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists). The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The estimated annual incidence of HZ was 31 763, of which 21 532 (67.79%) were in patients aged ≥50 years. The respective figures for PHN were 3194 and 3085 (96.59) per annum, respectively. The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN (916.66 euros per patient) than in cases of HZ alone (301.52 euros per patient). The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. The estimated total annual cost of HZ and its complications in Catalonia was € 9.31 million, of which 6.54 corresponded to HZ and 2.77 to PHN. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records. The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. In contrast, the incidence of PHN may be an underestimate, as around 25% of patients in Catalonia attend private clinics financed by insurance companies. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. In Catalonia, HZ and PHN cause an important disease burden (21 532 cases of HZ and 3085 de PHN with an annual cost

  12. Economic Burden of Herpes Zoster ("culebrilla") in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Pollock, Clare; Vujacich, Claudia; Toniolo Neto, Joao; Ortiz Covarrubias, Alejandro; Monsanto, Homero; Johnson, Kelly D

    2017-05-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is characterized by debilitating pain and blistering dermatomal rash. The most common complication of HZ is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), a persistent pain that can substantially affect patients' quality of life. HZ has significant impact on patients' lives with considerable implications for healthcare systems and society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and medical costs associated with HZ in Latin America. We conducted a pooled-analysis of three prospective cohort studies of HZ patients ≥50 years of age in Argentina (n=96); Brazil (n=145) and Mexico (n=142). Patients were recruited at different time-points during their HZ episode and were followed for six months. The incidence of PHN was defined as a worst ZBPI pain score of ≥3, persisting or appearing more than 90 days after the onset of rash. Work effectiveness was measured on a 100-point Likert scale where 100 was described as completely effective (able to work like before HZ began) and 0 as not effective at all. Direct costs included costs due to use of antiviral medications and all medical services used to treat HZ. Indirect cost was based on foregone earnings from patients due to work loss and presenteeism, and work loss by family caretakers. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impact on total costs. All costs are reported in 2015 USD currency. 383 HZ patients were included and PHN incidence was 38.6%. The most commonly used resources were visits to the doctor's office (79.1% of patients), the emergency room (48.8%) and a specialist (37.9%); hospitalization was reported for 5.7% of patients. The overall direct cost per case was $763.19 USD, indirect cost was $701.40, for a total of $1,464.59 per HZ episode in Latin America. Total cost associated with HZ in patients with PHN was markedly higher compared to patients without PHN ($2,001.13 vs. $867.72, respectively) with indirect costs accounting for the most part

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of a Herpes Zoster subunit vaccine in Japanese population aged ≥50 years when administered subcutaneously vs. intramuscularly.

    PubMed

    Vink, Peter; Shiramoto, Masanari; Ogawa, Masayuki; Eda, Masahiro; Douha, Martine; Heineman, Thomas; Lal, Himal

    2017-03-04

    The impact of alternate routes of vaccine administration, subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM), on the safety and immunogenicity of herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su) was assessed in Japanese adults aged ≥ 50 y. During this phase III open-label study, 60 subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive HZ/su through SC or IM routes in a 0, 2 month schedule. Vaccine response rates (VRRs) and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE)-specific antibodies were determined by ELISA. Solicited and unsolicited symptoms were recorded for 7 and 30 d after each vaccination and graded 1-3 in severity. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study. At one month post-dose 2, VRRs were 100% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 88.1-100) in both groups; anti-gE antibody GMCs were 44126.1 mIU/ml (95% CI: 36326.1-53601.0) and 45521.5 mIU/ml (95% CI; 37549.5-55185.9) in the SC and IM groups, respectively. Injection site reactions (pain, swelling and redness) were common, and observed more frequently following SC administration. Grade 3 redness and swelling were more frequently observed after SC administration. Fatigue and headache were the most frequently reported general symptoms for both routes of administration. Ten and 7 unsolicited AEs were reported in the SC and IM group, respectively. Two unsolicited AEs (1 in SC; 1 in IM) were considered related to vaccination by the investigator. Three non-fatal SAEs considered unrelated to vaccination were reported during the study. Administration of the HZ/su vaccine candidate resulted in a substantial immune response that was comparable between SC and IM subjects, but local reactogenicity may be greater for SC.

  14. Immunogenicity and Safety of an Adjuvanted Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine Coadministered With Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Tino F; Aggarwal, Naresh; Moeckesch, Beate; Schenkenberger, Isabelle; Claeys, Carine; Douha, Martine; Godeaux, Olivier; Grupping, Katrijn; Heineman, Thomas C; Fauqued, Marta Lopez; Oostvogels, Lidia; Van den Steen, Peter; Lal, Himal

    2017-12-12

    The immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit (HZ/su) vaccine when coadministered with a quadrivalent seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) was investigated in a phase 3, open-label, randomized clinical trial in adults aged ≥50 years. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive either HZ/su (varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E; AS01B Adjuvant System) and IIV4 at day 0 followed by a second HZ/su dose at month 2 (coadministration group), or IIV4 at month 0 and HZ/su at months 2 and 4 (control group). The primary objectives were the HZ/su vaccine response rate in the coadministration group and the noninferiority of the antibody responses to HZ/su and IIV4 in the coadministration compared with the control group. Safety information was collected throughout the duration of the study. A total of 413 subjects were vaccinated in the coadministration group and 415 in the control group. The HZ/su vaccine response rate in the coadministration group was 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.3%-97.6%) and the anti-glycoprotein E GMCControl/Coadmin ratio was 1.08 (.97-1.20). The primary noninferiority objectives were met. No safety concerns were observed. No interference in the immune responses to either vaccine was observed when the vaccines were coadministered, and no safety concerns were identified. NCT01954251. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Inequalities in zoster disease burden: a population-based cohort study to identify social determinants using linked data from the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; van Hoek, A J; Walker, J L; Forbes, H J; Langan, S M; Root, A; Smeeth, L; Thomas, S L

    2018-06-01

    Zoster vaccination was introduced in England in 2013, where tackling health inequalities is a statutory requirement. However, specific population groups with higher zoster burden remain largely unidentified. To evaluate health inequalities in zoster disease burden prior to zoster vaccine introduction in England. This population-based cohort study used anonymized U.K. primary care data linked to hospitalization and deprivation data. Individuals aged ≥ 65 years without prior zoster history (N = 862 470) were followed from 1 September 2003 to 31 August 2013. Poisson regression was used to obtain adjusted rate ratios (ARRs) for the association of sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, immigration status, individuals' area-level deprivation, care home residence, living arrangements) with first zoster episode. Possible mediation by comorbidities and immunosuppressive medications was also assessed. There were 37 014 first zoster episodes, with an incidence of 8·79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 8·70-8·88] per 1000 person-years at risk. In multivariable analyses, factors associated with higher zoster rates included care home residence (10% higher vs. those not in care homes), being a woman (16% higher vs. men), nonimmigrants (~30% higher than immigrants) and white ethnicity (for example, twice the rate compared with those of black ethnicity). Zoster incidence decreased slightly with increasing deprivation (ARR most vs. least deprived 0·96 (95% CI 0·92-0·99) and among those living alone (ARR 0·96, 95% CI 0·94-0·98). Mediating variables made little difference to the ARR of social factors but were themselves associated with increased zoster burden (ARR varied from 1·11 to 3·84). The burden of zoster was higher in specific sociodemographic groups. Further study is needed to ascertain whether these individuals are attending for zoster vaccination. © 2018 The Authors British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of

  16. A study of HIV seropositivity with various clinical manifestation of herpes zoster among patients from Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Kikkeri Narayanashetty; Tophakane, R S; Hanumanthayya, Keloji; Pv, Bhagawat; Pai, Varadraj V

    2011-12-15

    To study the various clinical presentations of herpes zoster and to find out the proportion of HIV positivity in these patients. A time bound study was conducted from November 2004 to October 2005. All clinically diagnosed cases of herpes zoster were tested for HIV infection with ELISA and confirmed by Tridot and Coomb AID. Total numbers of 90 zoster cases were recorded. Mean duration of pre herpetic neuralgia was 2.134 (standard deviation=1.424, F=8.951, P<0.001). The thoracic dermatome (46.66%) was most commonly involved, followed by the cranial nerves (18.88%), lumbar (14.44%), cervical (13.33%) and sacral (6.66%) nerves. A substantial proportion, 34 (37.77%) out of 90 cases, were found to be HIV positive. Of these, 64.7 percent of the HIV seropositive herpes zoster patients belonged to the age group of 21-40 years. Out of 39 who had a risk of exposure to STDs and whose ages were less than 50 years, 31 (79.48%) tested positive for HIV infection. The occurrence of zoster in the young age group in patients who report a history of risk factors for HIV, may need testing. Herpes zoster serves as a clinical indicator of HIV seropositivity and one of the earliest manifestations.

  17. Severe Autoimmune Adverse Events Post Herpes Zoster Vaccine: A Case-Control Study of Adverse Events in a National Database.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi Chun; Yew, Yik Weng

    2015-07-01

    Zoster vaccine is recommended to reduce the incidence of herpes zoster and its complication of postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. However, there have been reports of autoimmune side effects post vaccination. We therefore aim to investigate the possible relationship of severe autoimmune adverse events (arthritis, vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thrombocytopenia, alopecia, Guillain-Barre syndrome, optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis) post zoster vaccination with a matched case-control study of reported events in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Our study showed no significantly increased risks of severe autoimmune adverse events, except arthritis and alopecia, after vaccination. Compared to the unexposed, patients with zoster vaccination had 2.2 and 2.7 times the odds of developing arthritis and alopecia, respectively (P<0.001 and P=0.015, respectively). However, almost none of these events was life threatening. Zoster vaccine is, therefore, relatively safe and unlikely to exacerbate or induce autoimmune diseases. Given its benefits and safety but low coverage, dermatologists and primary care physicians should encourage zoster vaccine use in elderly patients, including selected patients with autoimmune diseases.

  18. A rare case report and appraisal of the literature on spontaneous tooth exfoliation associated with trigeminal herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rupinder; Rani, Pooja; Malhotra, Divye; Kaur, Rajwant; Dass, Praveen Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Reports of post herpetic maxillofacial complications have been very rarely documented in the literature that includes periapical lesions, calcified and devitalized pulps, resorption of roots, osteonecrosis, and spontaneous exfoliation of teeth. The atypical feature of the case of concern to the dental surgeon is the rare complication of spontaneous tooth exfoliation following herpes zoster. This case reports a male patient of age 47 years who reported to the Department of Periodontology with the chief complaint of mobility in the left upper central incisor. Patient history revealed herpes zoster infection that began 11 days earlier along with underlying diabetes mellitus condition. We hereby report a known diabetic patient with history of herpes zoster infection who presented with rare complication of spontaneous tooth exfoliation involving the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. Limited number of cases has been reported in the literature regarding spontaneous teeth exfoliation secondary to herpes zoster. The exact pathogenesis regarding the spontaneous exfoliation of teeth in herpes zoster patient is still controversial. Thus, an oral health care provider should be aware of this rare complication while managing a case of tooth mobility with the previous history of herpes zoster of trigeminal nerve.

  19. Clinical, epidemiological and etiological studies of adult aseptic meningitis: Report of 11 cases with varicella zoster virus meningitis.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Shinichi; Shiga, Yuji; Himeno, Takahiro; Tachiyama, Keisuke; Kamimura, Teppei; Kono, Ryuhei; Takemaru, Makoto; Takeshita, Jun; Shimoe, Yutaka; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2017-09-30

    We treated 11 cases (52.7 ± 14.9 years, all male) with varicella zoster virus (VZV) meningitis and 437 cases with adult aseptic meningitis from 2004 to 2016. The incidence rate of adult VZV meningitis in the cases with aseptic meningitis was 2.5%. Herpes zoster infections are reported to have occurred frequently in summer and autumn. VZV meningitis also occurred frequently in the similar seasons, in our patients. The diagnoses were confirmed in 9 cases with positive VZV-DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and in 2 cases with high VZV-IgG indexes (> 2.0). For diagnosis confirmation, the former test was useful for cases within a week of disease onset, and the latter index was useful for cases after a week of disease onset. Zoster preceded the meningitis in 8 cases, while the meningitis preceded zoster in 1 case, and 2 cases did not have zoster (