Science.gov

Sample records for zoster-associeret morbiditet hos

  1. Automated diagnosis of epilepsy using CWT, HOS and texture parameters.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Yanti, Ratna; Zheng, Jia Wei; Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Tan, Jen Hong; Martis, Roshan Joy; Lim, Choo Min

    2013-06-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder which manifests as recurrent seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are generally analyzed to study the characteristics of epileptic seizures. In this work, we propose a method for the automated classification of EEG signals into normal, interictal and ictal classes using Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) and textures. First the CWT plot was obtained for the EEG signals and then the HOS and texture features were extracted from these plots. Then the statistically significant features were fed to four classifiers namely Decision Tree (DT), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to select the best classifier. We observed that the SVM classifier with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel function yielded the best results with an average accuracy of 96%, average sensitivity of 96.9% and average specificity of 97% for 23.6 s duration of EEG data. Our proposed technique can be used as an automatic seizure monitoring software. It can also assist the doctors to cross check the efficacy of their prescribed drugs.

  2. The Arabidopsis E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HOS1 Negatively Regulates CONSTANS Abundance in the Photoperiodic Control of Flowering[W

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Ana; Valverde, Federico; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana early in short days6 (esd6) mutant was isolated in a screen for mutations that accelerate flowering time. Among other developmental alterations, esd6 displays early flowering in both long- and short-day conditions. Fine mapping of the mutation showed that the esd6 phenotype is caused by a lesion in the HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1) locus, which encodes a RING finger–containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. The esd6/hos1 mutation causes decreased FLOWERING LOCUS C expression and requires CONSTANS (CO) protein for its early flowering phenotype under long days. Moreover, CO and HOS1 physically interact in vitro and in planta, and HOS1 regulates CO abundance, particularly during the daylight period. Accordingly, hos1 causes a shift in the regular long-day pattern of expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript, starting to rise 4 h after dawn in the mutant. In addition, HOS1 interacts synergistically with CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1, another regulator of CO protein stability, in the regulation of flowering time. Taken together, these results indicate that HOS1 is involved in the control of CO abundance, ensuring that CO activation of FT occurs only when the light period reaches a certain length and preventing precocious flowering in Arabidopsis. PMID:22408073

  3. 76 FR 30232 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Application of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...-28043] Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Application of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) for... American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) has applied for a limited exemption from FMCSA's regulation that... exemption would apply solely to the operation of CMVs by 9 designated APA-member motor carriers in...

  4. 76 FR 37880 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Granting of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...-28043] Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Granting of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA... exemption from the American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) on behalf of 9 member motor carriers seeking... such exemption'' (49 U.S.C. 31315(b)(1)). The initial APA application for waiver or exemption relief...

  5. 76 FR 37876 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Renewal of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...-28043] Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Renewal of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) Exemption... announces the renewal of the exemption of specified members of the American Pyrotechnics Association (APA... of this exemption in effect, designated APA-member motor carriers will maintain a level of safety...

  6. 77 FR 38378 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Revision of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...-28043] Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Revision of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA... Pyrotechnics Association (APA) that were granted an exemption from FMCSA's prohibition on driving commercial...-July 8, inclusive, in 2011 and 2012. The exemption covered renewal of 53 APA-member motor carriers and...

  7. Recommendations regarding the use of Electronic On-Board Recorders (EOBRs) for reporting Hours of Service (HOS)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-09-28

    This report provides a synthesis of all relevant information on EOBRs and formulates a variety of recommendations, including proposed performance standards for EOBRs, regarding the potential use of EOBRs in satisfying HOS recording and reporting requ...

  8. HOS cell adhesion on Ti6Al4V surfaces texturized by laser engraving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval Amador, A.; Carreño Garcia, H.; Escobar Rivero, P.; Peña Ballesteros, D. Y.; Estupiñán Duran, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    The cell adhesion of the implant is determinate by the chemical composition, topography, wettability, surface energy and biocompatibility of the biomaterial. In this work the interaction between human osteosarcoma HOS cells and textured Ti6Al4V surfaces were evaluated. Ti6Al4V surfaces were textured using a CO2 laser in order to obtain circular spots on the surfaces. Test surfaces were uncoated (C1) used as a control surface, and surfaces with points obtained by laser engraving, with 1mm spacing (C2) and 0.5mm (C3). The HOS cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. No cells toxicity after one month incubation time occurred. The increased cell adhesion and cell spreading was observed after 1, 3 and 5 days without significant differences between the sample surfaces (C2 and C3) and control (uncoated) at the end of the experiment.

  9. HOS cell adhesion on Ti6Al4V ELI texturized by CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Amador, A.; Bayona–Alvarez, Y. M.; Carreño Garcia, H.; Escobar-Rivero, P.; Y Peña-Ballesteros, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the response of HOS cells on Ti6Al4V ELI textured surfaces by a CO2 laser was evaluated. The test surfaces were; smooth Ti6Al4V, used as the control, and four textured surfaces with linear geometry. These four surfaces had different separation distances between textured lines, D1 (1000 microns), D2 (750 microns), D3 (500 microns) and D4 (250 microns). Toxicity of textured surfaces was assessed by MTT and the cellular adhesion test was performed using HOS ATCC CRL 1543 line cells. This test was done after 5 days of culture in a RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. The results showed that the linear textures present 23% toxicity after 30 days of incubation, nevertheless, the adhesion tests results are inconclusive in such conditions and therefore the effect of the line separation on the cell adhesion cannot be determined.

  10. Butyl benzyl phthalate suppresses the ATP-induced cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma HOS cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.-S., E-mail: pslediting@mail.scu.edu.t; Chen, C.-Y.

    2010-05-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), an endocrine disruptor present in the environment, exerts its genomic effects via intracellular steroid receptors and elicits non-genomic effects by interfering with membrane ion-channel receptors. We previously found that BBP blocks the calcium signaling coupled with P2X receptors in PC12 cells (Liu and Chen, 2006). Osteoblast P2X receptors were recently reported to play a role in cell proliferation and bone remodeling. In this present study, the effects of BBP on ATP-induced responses were investigated in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. These receptors mRNA had been detected, named P2X4, P2X7, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y5, P2Y9, and P2Y11, in humanmore » osteosarcoma HOS cells by RT-PCR. The enhancement of cell proliferation and the decrease of cytoviability had both been shown to be coupled to stimulation via different concentrations of ATP. BBP suppressed the ATP-induced calcium influx (mainly coupled with P2X) and cell proliferation but not the ATP-induced intracellular calcium release (mainly coupled with P2Y) and cytotoxicity in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Suramin, a common P2 receptor's antagonist, blocked the ATP-induced calcium signaling, cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity. We suggest that P2X is mainly responsible for cell proliferation, and P2Y might be partially responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. BBP suppressed the calcium signaling coupled with P2X, suppressing cell proliferation. Since the importance of P2X receptors during bone metastasis has recently become apparent, the possible toxic risk of environmental BBP during bone remodeling is a public problem of concern.« less

  11. On the Detectability of the X 2A" HSS, HSO, and HOS Radicals in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2017-02-01

    {\\tilde{X}}2A\\prime\\prime HSS has yet to be observed in the gas phase in the interstellar medium (ISM). HSS has been observed in cometary material and in high abundance. However, its agglomeration to such bodies or dispersal from them has not been observed. Similarly, HSO and HOS have not been observed in the ISM, either, even though models support their formation from reactions of known sulfur monoxide and hydrogen molecules, among other pathways. Consequently, this work provides high-level, quantum chemical rovibrational spectroscopic constants and vibrational frequencies in order to assist in interstellar searches for these radical molecules. Furthermore, the HSO-HOS isomerization energy is determined to be 3.63 kcal mol-1, in line with previous work, and the dipole moment of HOS is 36% larger at 3.87 D than HSO, making the less stable isomer more rotationally intense. Finally, the S-S bond strength in HSS is shown to be relatively weak at 30% of the typical disulfide bond energy. Consequently, HSS may degrade into SH and sulfur atoms, making any ISM abundance of HSS likely fairly low, as recent interstellar surveys have observed.

  12. The effect of idursulfase on growth in patients with Hunter syndrome: data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS).

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon A; Parini, Rossella; Harmatz, Paul; Giugliani, Roberto; Fang, Juanzhi; Mendelsohn, Nancy J

    2013-05-01

    Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) is a rare and life-limiting multisystemic disorder with an X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance. Short stature is a prominent feature of this condition. This analysis aimed to investigate the effects of enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase on growth in patients enrolled in HOS - the Hunter Outcome Survey which is a multinational observational database. As of Jan 2012, height data before treatment were available for 567 of 740 males followed prospectively after HOS entry. Cross-sectional analysis showed that short stature became apparent after approximately 8 years of age; before this, height remained within the normal range. Age-corrected standardized height scores (z-scores) before and after treatment were assessed using piecewise regression model analysis in 133 patients (8-15 years of age at treatment start; data available on ≥ 1 occasion within +/-24 months of treatment start; growth hormone-treated patients excluded). Results showed that the slope after treatment (slope=-0.005) was significantly improved compared with before treatment (slope=-0.043) (difference=0.038, p=0.004). Analysis of covariates (age at treatment start, cognitive involvement, presence of puberty at the start of ERT, mutation type, functional classification), showed a significant influence on growth of mutation type (height deficit in terms of z-scores most pronounced in patients with deletions/large rearrangements/nonsense mutations, p<0.0001) and age (most pronounced in the 12-15-year group, p<0.0001). Cognitive involvement, pubertal status at the start of ERT and functional classification were not related to the growth deficit or response to treatment. In conclusion, the data showed an improvement in growth rate in patients with Hunter syndrome following idursulfase treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intrafamilial variability in the clinical manifestations of mucopolysaccharidosis type II: Data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS)

    PubMed Central

    Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Mendelsohn, Nancy J.; Jego, Virginie; Parini, Rossella

    2017-01-01

    Several cases of phenotypic variability among family members with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) have been reported, but the data are limited. Data from patients enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS) were used to investigate intrafamilial variability in male siblings with MPS II. As of July 2015, data were available for 78 patients aged ≥5 years at last visit who had at least one affected sibling (39 sibling pairs). These patients were followed prospectively (i.e., they were alive at enrollment in HOS). The median age at the onset of signs and symptoms was the same for the elder and younger brothers (2.0 years); however, the younger brothers were typically diagnosed at a younger age than the elder brothers (median age, 2.5 and 5.1 years, respectively). Of the 39 pairs, eight pairs were classified as being discordant (the status of four or more signs and symptoms differed between the siblings); 21 pairs had one, two, or three signs and symptoms that differed between the siblings, and 10 pairs had none. Regression status of the majority of the developmental milestones studied was generally concordant among siblings. Functional classification, a measure of central nervous system involvement, was the same in 24/28 pairs, although four pairs were considered discordant as functional classification differed between the siblings. Overall, this analysis revealed similarity in the clinical manifestations of MPS II among siblings. This information should help to improve our understanding of the clinical presentation of the disease, including phenotype prediction in affected family members. PMID:29210515

  14. Clinical characteristics and surgical history of Taiwanese patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II: data from the hunter outcome survey (HOS).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Ming-Ren; Lin, Shio Jean; Chiu, Pao Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Lin, Ju-Li; Lin, Shuan-Pei

    2018-06-04

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is the most frequently occurring MPS in Taiwan, with an incidence of 2.05 per 100,000 live male births, but little is known about clinical characteristics and surgical history in Taiwanese patients. Medical history, demographics, signs and symptoms, and surgical history were analysed in all patients from Taiwanese centres in the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS; NCT 03292887), a global, multicentre registry that collects real-world data on patients with MPS II. As of January 2016, 61 male Taiwanese patients were enrolled; 49% (24/49) had received at least one infusion of idursulfase. Median (10th, 90th percentiles) ages at signs and symptom onset and at diagnosis were 2.5 (0.2, 5.5) years (n = 55) and 3.5 (1.2, 11.9) years (n = 56), respectively. Hernia, facial features consistent with MPS II and claw hands were the earliest presenting signs and symptoms (median ages of 3.2 [0.4, 12.0] years, 4.3 [1.1, 12.0] years and 4.7 [2.5, 12.2] years [n = 45, 53 and 50], respectively). More than 75% of patients had undergone a surgical procedure, most commonly hernia repair (57% of patients). Median age at first surgery for hernia repair was 4.2 (0.5, 9.8) years (n = 35). Almost one-third (31.1%) of patients had at least one surgical procedure before diagnosis, and of the 20 procedures before diagnosis, 16 were hernia repair. This information from patients in HOS highlights the importance of both medical and surgical history in diagnosing MPS II in Taiwanese patients.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis of psoriasis skin images with HOS, texture and color features: A first comparative study of its kind.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Vimal K; Londhe, Narendra D; Sonawane, Rajendra S; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease with red and scaly plaques on skin and affecting about 125 million people worldwide. Currently, dermatologist use visual and haptic methods for diagnosis the disease severity. This does not help them in stratification and risk assessment of the lesion stage and grade. Further, current methods add complexity during monitoring and follow-up phase. The current diagnostic tools lead to subjectivity in decision making and are unreliable and laborious. This paper presents a first comparative performance study of its kind using principal component analysis (PCA) based CADx system for psoriasis risk stratification and image classification utilizing: (i) 11 higher order spectra (HOS) features, (ii) 60 texture features, and (iii) 86 color feature sets and their seven combinations. Aggregate 540 image samples (270 healthy and 270 diseased) from 30 psoriasis patients of Indian ethnic origin are used in our database. Machine learning using PCA is used for dominant feature selection which is then fed to support vector machine classifier (SVM) to obtain optimized performance. Three different protocols are implemented using three kinds of feature sets. Reliability index of the CADx is computed. Among all feature combinations, the CADx system shows optimal performance of 100% accuracy, 100% sensitivity and specificity, when all three sets of feature are combined. Further, our experimental result with increasing data size shows that all feature combinations yield high reliability index throughout the PCA-cutoffs except color feature set and combination of color and texture feature sets. HOS features are powerful in psoriasis disease classification and stratification. Even though, independently, all three set of features HOS, texture, and color perform competitively, but when combined, the machine learning system performs the best. The system is fully automated, reliable and accurate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of Me2SO overexposure during cryopreservation on HOS TE85 and hMSC viability, growth and quality.

    PubMed

    Morris, Timothy J; Picken, Andrew; Sharp, Duncan M C; Slater, Nigel K H; Hewitt, Christopher J; Coopman, Karen

    2016-12-01

    With the cell therapy industry continuing to grow, the ability to preserve clinical grade cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whilst retaining cell viability and function remains critical for the generation of off-the-shelf therapies. Cryopreservation of MSCs, using slow freezing, is an established process at lab scale. However, the cytotoxicity of cryoprotectants, like Me 2 SO, raises questions about the impact of prolonged cell exposure to cryoprotectant at temperatures >0 °C during processing of large cell batches for allogenic therapies prior to rapid cooling in a controlled rate freezer or in the clinic prior to administration. Here we show that exposure of human bone marrow derived MSCs to Me 2 SO for ≥1 h before freezing, or after thawing, degrades membrane integrity, short-term cell attachment efficiency and alters cell immunophenotype. After 2 h's exposure to Me 2 SO at 37 °C post-thaw, membrane integrity dropped to ∼70% and only ∼50% of cells retained the ability to adhere to tissue culture plastic. Furthermore, only 70% of the recovered MSCs retained an immunophenotype consistent with the ISCT minimal criteria after exposure. We also saw a similar loss of membrane integrity and attachment efficiency after exposing osteoblast (HOS TE85) cells to Me 2 SO before, and after, cryopreservation. Overall, these results show that freezing medium exposure is a critical determinant of product quality as process scale increases. Defining and reporting cell sensitivity to freezing medium exposure, both before and after cryopreservation, enables a fair judgement of how scalable a particular cryopreservation process can be, and consequently whether the therapy has commercial feasibility. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What Fuzzy HOS May Mean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    a fuzzy set of real numbers clustered around m, or as a possibility distribution on the value of some ill-known quantity. A fuzzy relation R on the...distribution of . va.- nossibly clustered around some mean value. STho -Ict.n uf F to X is f. Moreover, It should be noticed that the image of a *uz!y L...10) 1(•)(y)= sup Rjin (i(x),• ()(y)) xcX One may verify that 11(-())(z)= sup min (V(x),N)( 0)(×)(z)) . Gmx ) xCX •) ’ . This shows that the extension

  18. The Application of HOS to PLRS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    of "older," more established fields, like philosophy or mathematics , and more recently, linguistics. But when working with large systems, there is...property of natural language, which is eliminated by using formal, mathematical specifications. 3.4.2.2 Network Management Processing: The Network...the format: y = f(x) That is, we must immediately begin thinking of the problem in terms of mathematical functions (mappings) acting on some input(s

  19. The Human Operator Simulator. Volume IX. HOS Study Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    Ad - 969*91 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 C L.J0 L.J0 - L.i0 LAdO - L~0 wO 0In dJO LAd0 16 1.dQ -WO I ~ PW0 U ~ ~. 46W 4~(.J .* - 4~~Ad 414 4’~ 4~J - 2 ~ ~ T - 4 6J0...only developed from a specific need, but it also grew out of what I consider to be an unusual and fortuitous series of experi- ences to which I had been

  20. HOS network-based classification of power quality events via regression algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomares Salas, José Carlos; González de la Rosa, Juan José; Sierra Fernández, José María; Pérez, Agustín Agüera

    2015-12-01

    This work compares seven regression algorithms implemented in artificial neural networks (ANNs) supported by 14 power-quality features, which are based in higher-order statistics. Combining time and frequency domain estimators to deal with non-stationary measurement sequences, the final goal of the system is the implementation in the future smart grid to guarantee compatibility between all equipment connected. The principal results are based in spectral kurtosis measurements, which easily adapt to the impulsive nature of the power quality events. These results verify that the proposed technique is capable of offering interesting results for power quality (PQ) disturbance classification. The best results are obtained using radial basis networks, generalized regression, and multilayer perceptron, mainly due to the non-linear nature of data.

  1. Integrated Software Development System/Higher Order Software Conceptual Description (ISDS/HOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    Structured Flowchart Conventions 270 6.3.5.3 Design Diagram Notation 273 xii HIGHER ORDER SOFTWARE, INC. 843 MASSACHUSETTS AVENUE. CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS...associated with the process steps. They also reference other HIPO diagrams as well an non-HIPO documentation such as flowcharts or decision tables of...syntax that is easy to learn and must provide the novice with some prompting to help him avoid classic beginner errors. Desirable editing capabilities

  2. 76 FR 50313 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Request for Comment; Extension of an Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ..., ``Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers Regulations.'' The HOS rules require most commercial motor vehicle... motor carriers and enforcement officials in monitoring compliance with the HOS rules. On June 6, 2011... INFORMATION: Title: Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers Regulations. OMB Control Number: 2126-0001. Type of...

  3. 77 FR 40142 - Applications for Exemption: Commercial Driver's License (CDL) and Hours-of-Service (HOS) of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... and Redding (joint FMCSA-2009-0010... application). Rotel Rotel provides motorcoach tours of the... individual, filed a joint application seeking relief for 20 CMV drivers who transport jet fuel in tank CMVs... all public comments received. The Agency concluded in each case that the application for exemption...

  4. 78 FR 26690 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Application for Renewal and Expansion of American Pyrotechnics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Association (APA) Exemption From the 14-Hour Rule During Independence Day Celebrations AGENCY: Federal Motor... exemption; request for comments. SUMMARY: The American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) has requested a renewal of its exemption for 48 APA member-companies from FMCSA's regulation that drivers of commercial...

  5. 76 FR 16852 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Assessing the Safety Impact of the Exemption From the 14-Hour...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... previous decision granting certain members of the American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) an exemption from... renewed (49 CFR 381.300(b)). APA's Independence Day Operations and the Exemption from 49 CFR 395.3(a)(2) APA is a trade association that represents the domestic fireworks industry. Its members have been...

  6. Building a model-based decision support system for solving vehicle routing and driver scheduling problems under hours of service regulations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-08-27

    "In principle, hours-of-service (HOS) regulations are intended to help truck drivers ensure get adequate rest and perform safe operations. The new HOS regulations, however, may lead to substantial cost increases for regional common carriers which hav...

  7. Combined truck routing and driver scheduling problems under hours of service regulations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-08-20

    Regardless of changing variants, hours-of-service (HOS) regulations are intended to help truck drivers ensure get adequate rest and perform safe operations. The new HOS regulations, however, may lead to substantial cost increases for regional common ...

  8. 76 FR 32388 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Request for Comment; Extension of an Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Collection: Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers Regulations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... (HOS) of Drivers Regulations.'' The hours-of-service (HOS) rules require most commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers to maintain on the CMV an accurate record of duty status (RODS) in either paper or...

  9. Should We Add History of Science to Provide Nature of Science into Vietnamese Biology Textbook: A Case of Evolution and Genetics Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Huynh Thi Thuy; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    History of science (HOS) plays a substantial role in the enhancement of rooted understanding in science teaching and learning. HOS of evolution and genetics has not been included in Vietnamese biology textbooks. This study aims to investigate the necessity of introducing evolution and genetics HOS into Vietnamese textbooks. A case study approach…

  10. Visual performance modeling in the human operator simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strieb, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the history of the development of the human operator simulator (HOS) model is presented. Features of the HOS micromodels that impact on the obtainment of visual performance data are discussed along with preliminary details on a HOS pilot model designed to predict the results of visual performance workload data obtained through oculometer studies on pilots in real and simulated approaches and landings.

  11. How In-Service Science Teachers Integrate History and Nature of Science in Elementary Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the in-service science teachers' (IST) perceptions and practices about curriculum and integration of the history of science (HOS) and the nature of science (NOS) affect their science courses. For this aim, how ISTs integrated the NOS and HOS in their elementary science courses for understanding of…

  12. 78 FR 2711 - Hours of Service of Drivers: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Application for Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...) for an exemption from the 30-minute rest break provision of the Agency's hours-of-service (HOS... minutes or more of attendance time to meet the HOS rest break requirements providing they do not perform any other work during the break. FMCSA requests public comment on DOE's application for exemption...

  13. 78 FR 32700 - Hours of Service of Drivers: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Application for Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...) an exemption from the minimum 30-minute rest break provision of the Agency's hours-of-service (HOS... minutes or more of ``attendance time'' to meet the HOS rest break requirements providing they do not perform any other work during the break. DATES: This exemption is effective from July 1, 2013 through June...

  14. 78 FR 76392 - Hours of Service of Drivers: Application for Exemption; David Muresan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...-0047] Hours of Service of Drivers: Application for Exemption; David Muresan AGENCY: Federal Motor... of service (HOS) rules. Mr. Muresan is a long-haul truck driver who teams with a second driver in... co-driver be permitted to operate under HOS rules that he has designed. He believes that his...

  15. History of science content analysis of Chinese science textbooks from the perspective of acculturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-08-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation, and writing intention of the HOS sections in textbooks from different time periods. What's more, the textbooks aim at presenting the scientific culture and aim to help students understand it better. However, the cultural associations of the HOS in textbooks is insufficient and significant differences exist among textbooks of different subjects. In order to explore the reasons why the presentation of HOS in various subjects is different, we made a specific comparison of curriculum standards of two subjects with great differences and interviewed the editors-in-chief of two textbooks. Results show that one of the most important reasons for the different writings of the HOS in textbooks is that different subject curriculum standards attach greater importance to the HOS. In addition, the attention to the HOS by editors-in-chief, the tradition of studying the HOS within the history of the discipline, and the reference textbooks in compiling textbooks are all important influence factors. Some suggestions for future textbooks compilation are given at the end.

  16. 76 FR 72030 - Public Meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee and Joint Public Meeting With Medical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... MCSAC will meet to be updated on recently completed, FMCSA-sponsored research on motorcoach HOS and to begin the process of setting up a subcommittee to consider ideas and concepts on motorcoach HOS for... New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, (202) 385-2395, [email protected] . Services for Individuals...

  17. 78 FR 32295 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC); Public Meetings of the CSA and Motorcoach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... subcommittee will meet to discuss ideas, concepts, and suggestions on FMCSA's CSA program. On Wednesday and... CSA Subcommittee will discuss information, concepts, and ideas concerning FMCSA's CSA program. The...: Motorcoach HOS The Motorcoach HOS Subcommittee will meet to discuss information, concepts, and ideas it...

  18. Using a Professional Development Program for Enhancing Chilean Biology Teachers' Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) and Their Perceptions about Using History of Science to Teach NOS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavez, José M.; Vergara, Claudia A.; Santibañez, David; Cofré, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    A number of authors have recognized the importance of understanding the nature of science (NOS) for scientific literacy. Different instructional strategies such as decontextualized, hands-on inquiry, and history of science (HOS) activities have been proposed for teaching NOS. This article seeks to understand the contribution of HOS in enhancing…

  19. The Use of Help Options in Multimedia Listening Environments to Aid Language Learning: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsen, Mohammed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review on the use of help options (HOs) in the multimedia listening context to aid listening comprehension (LC) and improve incidental vocabulary learning. The paper also aims to synthesize the research findings obtained from the use of HOs in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) literature and reveals the…

  20. Perceptions About the Present and Future of Surgical Simulation: A National Study of Mixed Qualitative and Quantitative Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yiasemidou, Marina; Glassman, Daniel; Tomlinson, James; Song, David; Gough, Michael J

    Assess expert opinion on the current and future role of simulation in surgical education. Expert opinion was sought through an externally validated questionnaire that was disseminated electronically. Heads of Schools of Surgery (HoS) (and deputies) and Training Program Directors (TPD) (and deputies). Simulation was considered a good training tool (HoS: 15/15, TPD: 21/21). The concept that simulation is useful mostly to novices and for basic skills acquisition was rejected (HoS: 15/15, TPDs: 21/21; HoS: 13/15, TPDs: 18/21). Further, simulation is considered suitable for teaching nontechnical skills (HoS: 13/15, TPDs: 20/21) and re-enacting stressful situations (HoS: 14/15, TPDs: 15/21). Most respondents also felt that education centers should be formally accredited (HoS: 12/15, TPDs: 16/21) and that consultant mentors should be appointed by every trust (HoS: 12/15, TPDs: 19/21). In contrast, there were mixed views on its use for trainee assessment (HoS: 6/15, TPDs: 14/21) and whether it should be compulsory (HoS: 8/15, TPDs: 11/21). The use of simulation for the acquirement of both technical and nontechnical skills is strongly supported while views on other applications (e.g., assessment) are conflicting. Further, the need for center accreditation and supervised, consultant-led teaching is highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prognostic value of a pre-freeze hypo-osmotic swelling test on the post-thaw quality of dog semen.

    PubMed

    Karger, S; Geiser, B; Grau, M; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S P

    2016-03-01

    Throughout cryopreservation, sperm are exposed to major osmotic challenges. Only intact membranes of sperm cells are able to regulate these volumetric changes, which can be determined by the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS test). Correlations between the HOS test and conventional semen variables are inconsistent. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to examine relationships between HOS test results and standard semen variables before freezing and after thawing and (2) to evaluate the prognostic value of the HOS assessments on post-thaw quality of dog semen. Semen of 35 dogs was collected and analyzed before freezing and after thawing following a 7-day freeze-thaw interval. Conventional semen variables such as sperm cell motility, membrane integrity morphology were evaluated and the HOS test was conducted with results from this test being recorded. In fresh semen the HOS test was positively correlated with progressive motility of sperm cells: r=0.52, sperm cell membrane integrity: r=0.50 and normal sperm cell morphology: r=0.46 (P<0.05). In frozen-thawed semen, the data obtained with the HOS test were positively correlated with progressive sperm cell motility: r=0.67 and membrane integrity: r=0.86 (P<0.05). The data obtained with the HOS test in fresh semen were positively correlated with sperm cell membrane integrity: r=0.50 normal sperm cell morphology: r=0.55 and data from the HOS test (r=0.43; P<0.05) with frozen-thawed semen. For the prediction of individual cryopreservation capacity, results from assessment of the fresh semen variables of good and poor semen quality were statistically compared. Based on these results, it is not possible to predict the quality of frozen-thawed dog semen using the HOS test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Epigenetic switch from repressive to permissive chromatin in response to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghoon; Lim, Chae Jin; Shen, Mingzhe; Park, Hee Jin; Cha, Joon-Yung; Iniesto, Elisa; Rubio, Vicente; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Bressan, Ray A; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Byeong-Ha; Jin, Jing Bo; Pardo, Jose M; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2018-06-05

    Switching from repressed to active status in chromatin regulation is part of the critical responses that plants deploy to survive in an ever-changing environment. We previously reported that HOS15, a WD40-repeat protein, is involved in histone deacetylation and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis However, it remained unknown how HOS15 regulates cold responsive genes to affect cold tolerance. Here, we show that HOS15 interacts with histone deacetylase 2C (HD2C) and both proteins together associate with the promoters of cold-responsive COR genes, COR15A and COR47 Cold induced HD2C degradation is mediated by the CULLIN4 (CUL4)-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in which HOS15 acts as a substrate receptor. Interference with the association of HD2C and the COR gene promoters by HOS15 correlates with increased acetylation levels of histone H3. HOS15 also interacts with CBF transcription factors to modulate cold-induced binding to the COR gene promoters. Our results here demonstrate that cold induces HOS15-mediated chromatin modifications by degrading HD2C. This switches the chromatin structure status and facilitates recruitment of CBFs to the COR gene promoters. This is an apparent requirement to acquire cold tolerance. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Epigenetic switch from repressive to permissive chromatin in response to cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Park, Junghoon; Lim, Chae Jin; Shen, Mingzhe; Park, Hee Jin; Cha, Joon-Yung; Iniesto, Elisa; Rubio, Vicente; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Bressan, Ray A.; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Byeong-ha; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Switching from repressed to active status in chromatin regulation is part of the critical responses that plants deploy to survive in an ever-changing environment. We previously reported that HOS15, a WD40-repeat protein, is involved in histone deacetylation and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis. However, it remained unknown how HOS15 regulates cold responsive genes to affect cold tolerance. Here, we show that HOS15 interacts with histone deacetylase 2C (HD2C) and both proteins together associate with the promoters of cold-responsive COR genes, COR15A and COR47. Cold induced HD2C degradation is mediated by the CULLIN4 (CUL4)-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in which HOS15 acts as a substrate receptor. Interference with the association of HD2C and the COR gene promoters by HOS15 correlates with increased acetylation levels of histone H3. HOS15 also interacts with CBF transcription factors to modulate cold-induced binding to the COR gene promoters. Our results here demonstrate that cold induces HOS15-mediated chromatin modifications by degrading HD2C. This switches the chromatin structure status and facilitates recruitment of CBFs to the COR gene promoters. This is an apparent requirement to acquire cold tolerance. PMID:29784800

  4. Hip Arthroscopy Outcomes With Respect to Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State and Minimal Clinically Important Difference.

    PubMed

    Levy, David M; Kuhns, Benjamin D; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Philippon, Marc J; Kelly, Bryan T; Nho, Shane J

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether the hip arthroscopy literature to date has shown outcomes consistent with published patient acceptable symptomatic state (PASS) and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) estimates. All clinical investigations of hip arthroscopy using modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and/or Hip Outcome Score (HOS) outcomes with at least 1 year of follow-up were reviewed. Ninety-one studies (9,746 hips) were included for review. Eighty-one studies (9,317 hips) contained only primary hip arthroscopies and were the primary focus of this review. The remaining studies (429 hips) did not exclude patients with prior surgical history and were thus considered separately. Mean mHHS, HOS-ADL (Activities of Daily Living) and HOS-SS (Sports-Specific) scores were compared with previously published PASS and MCID values. After 31 ± 20 months, 5.8% of study populations required revision arthroscopy and 5.5% total hip arthroplasty. A total of 88%, 25%, and 30% of study populations met PASS for mHHS, HOS-ADL, and HOS-SS, respectively, and 97%, 90%, and 93% met MCID. On bivariate analysis, increasing age was associated with significantly worse postoperative mHHS (P < .01, R(2) = 0.14), HOS-SS (P = .05, R(2) = 0.12), and rates of reoperation (P = .02, R(2) = 0.08). Increasing body mass index was associated with significantly worse HOS-ADL (P = .02, R(2) = 0.35) and HOS-SS (P = .03, R(2) = 0.30). In this meta-analysis of 81 studies of primary hip arthroscopy, we have found that more than 90% of study populations meet MCID standards for the most commonly used patient-reported outcomes measures in hip arthroscopy literature, mHHS and HOS. Eighty-eight percent meet PASS standards for the mHHS, but PASS standards are far more difficult to achieve for HOS-ADL (25%) and HOS-SS (30%) subscales. Differences in psychometric properties of the mHHS and HOS likely account for the discrepancies in PASS. Level IV, systematic review of Level I to IV studies. Copyright © 2016

  5. Transcultural adaptation of the Korean version of the Hip Outcome Score.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Martin, RobRoy L; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2015-11-01

    The Hip Outcome Score (HOS) is a questionnaire commonly used to assess the clinical outcome of patients after hip arthroscopy. However, a Korean version of the HOS is not available. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the HOS questionnaire into the Korean language and then assess the psychometric properties of this instrument. Translation and transcultural adaptation of the HOS into Korean (HOS-K) was performed in accordance with the international recommendations. Sixty patients (mean age 38.4 years) planning hip arthroscopy participated in evaluating the psychometric properties of the HOS-K. Psychometric analyses consisted of assessing for the following: (1) floor/ceiling effects, (2) internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, (3) test-retest reliability over 2-3 weeks with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), (4) convergent validity by correlation with the SF-36 and Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), (5) construct validity by assessing for a difference in HOS-K scores based on a rating of hip function, and (6) responsiveness with a change in score over a 6-month period. The English version of the HOS was translated and adapted to Korean without notable discrepancies. The HOS-K scores were reliable with ICC of 0.946 for the activities of daily living (ADL) subscale and 0.929 for the sports subscale. Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha >0.90 for both subscales. Both subscales had a strong correlation to the five subscales of SF-36, except the general health subscale. The ADL subscale showed strong correlations with all the subscales of the HOOS, and sports subscale showed strong correlations with all subscales of the HOOS, except the symptom subscales of HOOS. The HOS-K also demonstrated evidence for responsiveness without floor and ceiling effects. The HOS-K can be recommended as an outcome instrument in hip arthroscopy for Korean-speaking individuals. Surgeons can use the HOS-K to evaluate the outcome of

  6. The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey program: overview, context, and near-term prospects.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathaniel; Jones, Stephanie L; Miller, Nancy A

    2004-07-12

    In 1996, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) initiated the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS). It is the first national survey to measure the quality of life and functional health status of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in managed care. The program seeks to gather valid and reliable health status data in Medicare managed care for use in quality improvement activities, public reporting, plan accountability and improving health outcomes based on competition. The context that led to the development of the HOS was formed by the convergence of the following factors: 1) a recognized need to monitor the performance of managed care plans, 2) technical expertise and advancement in the areas of quality measurement and health outcomes assessment, 3) the existence of a tested functional health status assessment tool (SF-36)1, which was valid for an elderly population, 4) CMS leadership, and 5) political interest in quality improvement. Since 1998, there have been six baseline surveys and four follow up surveys. CMS, working with its partners, performs the following tasks as part of the HOS program: 1) Supports the technical/scientific development of the HOS measure, 2) Certifies survey vendors, 3) Collects Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set(HEDIS)2 HOS data, 4) Cleans, scores, and disseminates annual rounds of HOS data, public use files and reports to CMS, Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs), Medicare+Choice Organizations (M+COs), and other stakeholders, 5) Trains M+COs and QIOs in the use of functional status measures and best practices for improving care, 6) Provides technical assistance to CMS, QIOs, M+COs and other data users, and 7) Conducts analyses using HOS data to support CMS and HHS priorities.CMS has recently sponsored an evaluation of the HOS program, which will provide the information necessary to enhance the future administration of the program. Information collected to date reveals that the HOS program is a valuable tool that

  7. First report of Pandora neoaphidis resting spore formation in vivo in aphid hosts under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The entomopathogenic fungus PANDORA NEOAPHIDIS is a recognized pathogen of aphids, causing natural epizootics in aphid populations, and interacts favorably with aphid predators and parasitoids. Survival of entomophthoralean fungi in periods of unsuitable weather conditions or lack of appropriate hos...

  8. 77 FR 13697 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... for Economic and Clinical Health Act HMO--Health Maintenance Organization HOS--Health Outcomes Survey... rule by early 2014. The stages represent an initial graduated approach to arriving at the ultimate goal...

  9. Final report for the fy 2000 ITS integration component of the ITS Deployment Program : Incident Response Computer Aided Dispatch System, Boise, Idaho

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-12-01

    There is widespread perception among various trucking industry representatives and observers that commercial motor vehicle (CMV) operators are frequently forced to violate the Federal hours-of-service (HOS) regulations because of the tightness of the...

  10. Attitudes of truck drivers and carriers on the use of electronic logging devices and driver harassment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-11-01

    The research contained herein is an examination of managerial harassment experienced by drivers, and whether harassment is associated with the method used to log hours of service (HOS). Similar information was gathered from a sample of carriers. : Tr...

  11. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Restart Study [Research Brief

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-01

    The Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act of 2015 directed the U.S. Department of Transportation to conduct a naturalistic study of the operational, safety, health, and fatigue impacts of the two hours-of-service (HOS) provisions. Un...

  12. Assessment of higher order structure comparability in therapeutic proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Amezcua, Carlos A; Szabo, Christina M

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to rapidly assess higher order structure (HOS) comparability in protein samples. Using a variation of the NMR fingerprinting approach described by Panjwani et al. [2010. J Pharm Sci 99(8):3334-3342], three nonglycosylated proteins spanning a molecular weight range of 6.5-67 kDa were analyzed. A simple statistical method termed easy comparability of HOS by NMR (ECHOS-NMR) was developed. In this method, HOS similarity between two samples is measured via the correlation coefficient derived from linear regression analysis of binned NMR spectra. Applications of this method include HOS comparability assessment during new product development, manufacturing process changes, supplier changes, next-generation products, and the development of biosimilars to name just a few. We foresee ECHOS-NMR becoming a routine technique applied to comparability exercises used to complement data from other analytical techniques. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Return to Sport and Clinical Outcomes After Hip Arthroscopic Labral Repair in Young Amateur Athletes: Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Rohith; Johnson, Nick R; Hevesi, Mario; Gibbs, Christopher M; Levy, Bruce A; Krych, Aaron J

    2017-09-01

    To determine the rate of return of young amateur athletes to sport after hip arthroscopy, their clinical outcomes, and pathologic risk factors for worse outcomes 2 years after surgery. This study included all patients between age 13 and 23 who participated in a sport prior to surgery with intent to return who underwent hip arthroscopy after failure of comprehensive nonoperative management for whom 2-year outcome scores were available. Outcomes collected retrospectively included modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and the Hip Outcome Scores (HOS) subscales for activities of daily living (ADL) and sport (HOS Sport). In addition, sport played, return to sport rates, and Tegner Scores were measured preinjury and postoperatively. Descriptive statistics were used to present demographic data. A priori analysis was used to determine the sample size needed to show minimal clinically important differences for mHHS, HOS ADL, and HOS Sport. The study population included 50 patients with a mean age of 17.8 years. Athletes returned to sport at a rate of 92% (46/50). At a mean follow-up of 34 months, the mean mHHS, HOS ADL, and HOS Sport outcome scores were 85, 91, and 80 for the entire study group; 87, 92, and 84 for the group that returned to sport; and 67, 82, and 41 for the group that did not return to sport, respectively. Median preinjury and postoperative Tegner levels were 8 and 7, respectively. Labral takedown and reattachment was associated with lower HOS ADL (P = .01) and HOS Sport scores (P = .02). Athletes returned to sport at a high rate (92%; 46/50) after hip arthroscopy and perform activities at near preinjury levels. In this group of athletes, arthroscopic labral repair with chondrolabral preservation, which reflected less severe chondrolabral pathology, performed better than labral repair with takedown and reattachment. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using a Professional Development Program for Enhancing Chilean Biology Teachers' Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) and Their Perceptions About Using History of Science to Teach NOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavez, José M.; Vergara, Claudia A.; Santibañez, David; Cofré, Hernán

    2016-05-01

    A number of authors have recognized the importance of understanding the nature of science (NOS) for scientific literacy. Different instructional strategies such as decontextualized, hands-on inquiry, and history of science (HOS) activities have been proposed for teaching NOS. This article seeks to understand the contribution of HOS in enhancing biology teachers' understanding of NOS, and their perceptions about using HOS to teach NOS. These teachers ( N = 8), enrolled in a professional development program in Chile are, according to the national curriculum, expected to teach NOS, but have no specific NOS and HOS training. Teachers' views of NOS were assessed using the VNOS-D+ questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of two modules about science instruction and NOS. Both the pre- and the post-test were accompanied by interviews, and in the second session we collected information about teachers' perceptions of which interventions had been more significant in changing their views on NOS. Finally, the teachers also had to prepare a lesson plan for teaching NOS that included HOS. Some of the most important study results were: significant improvements were observed in teachers' understanding of NOS, although they assigned different levels of importance to HOS in these improvements; and although the teachers improved their understanding of NOS, most had difficulties in planning lessons about NOS and articulating historical episodes that incorporated NOS. The relationship between teachers' improved understanding of NOS and their instructional NOS skills is also discussed.

  15. Anti-fibrosis effects of Huisheng oral solution in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenting; Wu, Yuanbo; Zhu, Chuanlong; Wang, Zheng; Gao, Rentao; Wu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Some gradient of Huisheng oral solution (HOS) has been reported to have anti-fibrosis activity. This study was designed to investigate whether HOS could inhibit liver fibrosis and to elucidate its molecular mechanism of action. Hepatic fibrosis model in rat was induced by subcutaneous injection of CCl4. Rats in the treatment group were administrated with HOS intragastrically. Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and Masson's trichrome staining were used to examine the changes in liver pathology. Levels of ALT, AST, LDH, hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in serum and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in liver were detected by biochemical examination and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The expression and distribution of Smad3, TGF-β1, α-SMA and TIMP-1 were observed and the active TGF-β1 was tested. Our data demonstrated that HOS alleviated CCl4-induced collagen deposition in liver tissue, improved liver condition and liver function in rats. HOS also significantly reduced the expression and distribution of Smad3, TGF-β1, α-SMA and TIMP-1 as well as decreased active TGF-β1. This study revealed that HOS attenuates the development of liver fibrosis through suppressing the TGF-β1 pathway. It provides us a new approach to treatment of liver fibrosis.

  16. Holt-Oram syndrome and diaphragmatic hernia associate with paracentric inversion of chromosome 8

    SciTech Connect

    Eswara, M.S.; Batanian, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) consists of congenital heart disease, usually atrial septal defect, along with thumb anomalies and occasionally more extensive limb defects. Inheritance is autosomal dominant. Previous reports have associated HOS with cytogenetic abnormalities on chromosomes 4, 14 and 20. Recently a linkage study has suggested a HOS locus on chromosome 12. We describe another case of HOS with a de novo cytogenetic abnormality. On prenatal ultrasound, IUGR, oligohydramnios and left diaphragmatic hernia were noted. Following delivery, patient was placed on extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation because of severe lung hypoplasia; diaphragmatic hernia was repaired with mesh graft. He expired on daymore » 17 of life. On exam, he had subtle dysmorphic features with hypotelorism and abnormal folding of the ear lobes. He had bilateral radial aplasia, aplasia of thumbs, index and middle fingers, along with the metacarpals. On autopsy he was found to have atrial septal defect of the ostium secundum type, right side aortic arch with vascular ring formation, bicuspid pulmonic valve and severe lung hypoplasia worse on the left. Cytogenetic analysis on blood and skin showed 48,XX,inv(8)(q24.2q13). Chromosome fragility study was negative. Parental chromosomes were normal. Our observation of inv(8)q with HOS and diaphragmatic hernia may indicate genetic heterogeneity with this condition. Regulation of morphogenesis is likely under the control of a hierarchy of genes; multiple loci for conditions such as HOS would not be surprising.« less

  17. Establishment and characterization of human osteosarcoma cells resistant to pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Ou, Yunsheng; Yin, Hang; Chen, Yanyang; Zhong, Shenxi; Gao, Yongjian; Zhao, Zenghui; He, Bin; Huang, Qiu; Deng, Qianxing

    2017-11-01

    The present study was performed to establish and characterize new human osteosarcoma cell lines resistant to pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester‑mediated photodynamic therapy (MPPa-PDT). MPPa-PDT-resistant cells are isolated from the human osteosarcoma MG63 and HOS cell lines and two resistant populations were finally acquired, including MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to determine the MPPa-PDT, cisplatin (CDDP) resistance and proliferation of MG63, MG63/PDT, HOS and HOS/PDT cells. The intracellular ROS were analyzed using DCFH-DA staining. The colony formation, invasion and migration of parental and resistant cells were compared. FCM was employed to examine the cell cycle distribution, the apoptosis rate and the proportion of CD133+ cells. The fluorescence intensity of intracellular MPPa was observed by fluorescence microscopy and quantified using microplate reader. The protein levels were assessed by western blotting (WB). Compared with two parental cells, MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT were 1.67- and 1.61-fold resistant to MPPa-PDT, respectively, and also exhibited the resistance to CDDP. FCM assays confirmed that both MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT cells treated with MPPa-PDT displayed a significantly lower apoptosis rate in comparison with their corresponding parental cells. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins (i.e. cleaved-caspase 3 and cleaved‑PARP), intracellular ROS and the antioxidant proteins (HO-1 and SOD1) in MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT cells was also lower than that in parental cells. Both MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT cells exhibited changes in proliferation, photosensitizer absorption, colony formation, invasion, migration and the cell cycle distribution as compared to MG63 and HOS cells, respectively. Compared to MG63 and HOS cells, both resistant cell lines had a higher expression of CD133, survivin, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, MRP1, MDR1 and ABCG2, but a lower expression of Bax. The present study successfully established two resistant human

  18. Establishment and characterization of human osteosarcoma cells resistant to pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yong; Ou, Yunsheng; Yin, Hang; Chen, Yanyang; Zhong, Shenxi; Gao, Yongjian; Zhao, Zenghui; He, Bin; Huang, Qiu; Deng, Qianxing

    2017-01-01

    The present study was performed to establish and characterize new human osteosarcoma cell lines resistant to pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy (MPPa-PDT). MPPa-PDT-resistant cells are isolated from the human osteosarcoma MG63 and HOS cell lines and two resistant populations were finally acquired, including MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to determine the MPPa-PDT, cisplatin (CDDP) resistance and proliferation of MG63, MG63/PDT, HOS and HOS/PDT cells. The intracellular ROS were analyzed using DCFH-DA staining. The colony formation, invasion and migration of parental and resistant cells were compared. FCM was employed to examine the cell cycle distribution, the apoptosis rate and the proportion of CD133+ cells. The fluorescence intensity of intracellular MPPa was observed by fluorescence microscopy and quantified using microplate reader. The protein levels were assessed by western blotting (WB). Compared with two parental cells, MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT were 1.67- and 1.61-fold resistant to MPPa-PDT, respectively, and also exhibited the resistance to CDDP. FCM assays confirmed that both MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT cells treated with MPPa-PDT displayed a significantly lower apoptosis rate in comparison with their corresponding parental cells. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins (i.e. cleaved-caspase 3 and cleaved-PARP), intracellular ROS and the antioxidant proteins (HO-1 and SOD1) in MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT cells was also lower than that in parental cells. Both MG63/PDT and HOS/PDT cells exhibited changes in proliferation, photosensitizer absorption, colony formation, invasion, migration and the cell cycle distribution as compared to MG63 and HOS cells, respectively. Compared to MG63 and HOS cells, both resistant cell lines had a higher expression of CD133, survivin, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, MRP1, MDR1 and ABCG2, but a lower expression of Bax. The present study successfully established two resistant human osteosarcoma

  19. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D; Aoki, Stephen K; Anderson, Mike B; Kapron, Ashley L; Peters, Christopher L; Pelt, Christopher E

    2014-12-01

    The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior in all psychometric aspects examined in this study. Future

  20. Minimal Clinically Important Difference and Substantial Clinical Benefit After Revision Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Chang, Brenda; Rotter, Ben-Zion; Kelly, Bryan T; Ranawat, Anil S; Nawabi, Danyal H

    2018-06-01

    To define minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) in revision hip arthroscopy. The modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS), and the international Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) were administered to revision hip arthroscopy patients. At 1 year postoperatively, patients graded their hip function based on anchor responses. SCB was defined as both a net change and an absolute value. Receiver operating characteristic analysis with area under the curve was used to confirm psychometric values. A distribution-based method was used for MCID. Forty-nine patients were included with a mean age of 29.7 (±8.6) years. The most common indication for revision hip arthroscopy was residual femoroacetabular impingement (FAI; N = 34; 69.4%) followed by capsular management (N = 8; 16.3%). At 1-year follow-up, 34 patients reported feeling improved. Outcome score change corresponding to MCID and SCB net change for the mHHS, HOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL), HOS Sports, and iHOT-33 was 7.9/23.1, 7.9/16.2, 13.1/25.0, and 12.8/25.5, respectively. A higher proportion of patients with residual FAI achieved MCID compared with patients with other diagnoses. On the preoperative HOS ADL, HOS Sports, and iHOT-33, patients scoring below 67.7 (0.78), 55.6 (0.81), and 35.7 (0.73) were significantly more likely to achieve SCB postoperatively. Thirty-four patients (73.9%) were classified as receiving physical function improvement, and on the HOS Sports, MCID was achieved by 65% whereas 43% met the SCB criteria. MCID values ranged from 7.9 on the mHHS and the HOS ADL to 13.1 on the HOS Sports. SCB net change ranged from 16.2 on the HOS ADL to 25.2 on the iHOT-33, whereas absolute SCB ranged from 82.4 on the iHOT-33 to 84.7 on the mHHS. Residual FAI and capsular management were the most common indications for revision surgery with patients who underwent surgery for the former found to be most likely to achieve clinically significant

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Aoki, Stephen K.; Anderson, Mike B.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Peters, Christopher L.; Pelt, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. Purpose: To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. Results: All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. Conclusion: The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior

  2. Numerical Simulation of a Seaway with Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommermuth, Douglas; O'Shea, Thomas; Brucker, Kyle; Wyatt, Donald

    2012-11-01

    The focus of this presentation is to describe the recent efforts to simulate a fully non-linear seaway with breaking by using a high-order spectral (HOS) solution of the free-surface boundary value problem to drive a three-dimensional Volume of Fluid (VOF) solution. Historically, the two main types of simulations to simulate free-surface flows are the boundary integral equations method (BIEM) and high-order spectral (HOS) methods. BIEM calculations fail at the point at which the surface impacts upon itself, if not sooner, and HOS methods can only simulate a single valued free-surface. Both also employ a single-phase approximation in which the effects of the air on the water are neglected. Due to these limitations they are unable to simulate breaking waves and air entrainment. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method on the other hand is suitable for modeling breaking waves and air entrainment. However it is computationally intractable to generate a realistic non-linear sea-state. Here, we use the HOS solution to quickly drive, or nudge, the VOF solution into a non-linear state. The computational strategies, mathematical formulation, and numerical implementation will be discussed. The results of the VOF simulation of a seaway with breaking will also be presented, and compared to the single phase, single valued HOS results.

  3. Simultaneous ocular and muscle artifact removal from EEG data by exploiting diverse statistics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xun; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Yu; Zou, Liang; McKeown, Martin J

    2017-09-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings are frequently contaminated by both ocular and muscle artifacts. These are normally dealt with separately, by employing blind source separation (BSS) techniques relying on either second-order or higher-order statistics (SOS & HOS respectively). When HOS-based methods are used, it is usually in the setting of assuming artifacts are statistically independent to the EEG. When SOS-based methods are used, it is assumed that artifacts have autocorrelation characteristics distinct from the EEG. In reality, ocular and muscle artifacts do not completely follow the assumptions of strict temporal independence to the EEG nor completely unique autocorrelation characteristics, suggesting that exploiting HOS or SOS alone may be insufficient to remove these artifacts. Here we employ a novel BSS technique, independent vector analysis (IVA), to jointly employ HOS and SOS simultaneously to remove ocular and muscle artifacts. Numerical simulations and application to real EEG recordings were used to explore the utility of the IVA approach. IVA was superior in isolating both ocular and muscle artifacts, especially for raw EEG data with low signal-to-noise ratio, and also integrated usually separate SOS and HOS steps into a single unified step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A polysaccharide from Agaricus blazei inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Cui, Juncheng; Zhang, Chaogui; Li, Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Many reports have proved that traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCM) have become popular used in disease prevention and as alternatives to cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we purified a polysaccharide (ABP-Ia) from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei and identified its molecular weight to be 4.2×10(5)Da. ABP-Ia was a heteropolysaccharide fraction consisting of glucose, mannose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 1:1:1, along with trace of rhamnose. The effect of ABP-Ia at three concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL on the cell growth and apoptosis was evaluated in osteosarcoma cell lines HOS and a normal human osteoblast cell line NHOst. ABP-Ia had a significant inhibitory effect against the growth of HOS cells, whereas a mild cytotoxicity to the HOS cells mediated by ABP-Ia was observed, which was in accordance with the results that ABP-Ia substantially induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion in the HOS cells. However ABP-Ia had no or minor inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on the viability of NHOst cells even at the high concentration of 400 μg/mL. Base on all the observations, we could conclude that ABP-Ia had an evident inhibitory effect on the growth of HOS cells mainly through induction of apoptosis, with a minor toxicity to normal human osteoblast cell. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of highly-oxidized starch using hydrogen peroxide and its application as a novel ligand for zirconium tanning of leather.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Wang, Ya-Nan; Ding, Wei; Zhou, Jianfei; Shi, Bi

    2017-10-15

    A series of highly-oxidized starch (HOS) were prepared using H 2 O 2 and a copper-iron catalyst as a desired ligand for zirconium tanning of leather. The effects of catalyst and H 2 O 2 dosages, and reaction temperature on the oxidation degree (OD, represented as the amount of carbonyl and carboxyl groups derived) of starch were investigated. The OD reached 76.2% when oxidation was conducted using 60% H 2 O 2 and 0.015% catalyst at 98°C for 2h. 13 C NMR and FT-IR illustrated carbonyl and carboxyl groups were formed in HOS after oxidation. GPC and laser particle size analyses indicated the decrease of HOS molecular size with increasing H 2 O 2 dosage and OD. HOS with moderate OD and molecular weight was able to coordinate with zirconium and remarkably improve tanning process. Leather tanned by Zr complexes using HOS-60 (60% H 2 O 2 , Mn 3516g/mol) as ligand presented considerably better physical and organoleptic properties than those of traditional Zr-tanned leather. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic profiling of two phenotypically distinct outbred rats derived from a colony of the Zucker fatty rats maintained at Tokyo Medical University

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Yokoi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats. PMID:27795491

  7. Patient-Reported Outcome questionnaires for hip arthroscopy: a systematic review of the psychometric evidence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hip arthroscopies are often used in the treatment of intra-articular hip injuries. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are an important parameter in evaluating treatment. It is unclear which PRO questionnaires are specifically available for hip arthroscopy patients. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate which PRO questionnaires are valid and reliable in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Methods A search was conducted in Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Pedro, EMBASE and Web of Science from 1931 to October 2010. Studies assessing the quality of PRO questionnaires in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were included. The quality of the questionnaires was evaluated by the psychometric properties of the outcome measures. The quality of the articles investigating the questionnaires was assessed by the COSMIN list. Results Five articles identified three questionnaires; the Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and the Hip Outcome Score (HOS). The NAHS scored best on the content validity, whereas the HOS scored best on agreement, internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The quality of the articles describing the HOS scored highest. The NAHS is the best quality questionnaire. The articles describing the HOS are the best quality articles. Conclusions This systematic review shows that there is no conclusive evidence for the use of a single patient-reported outcome questionnaire in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Based on available psychometric evidence we recommend using a combination of the NAHS and the HOS for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:21619610

  8. Comparison of the efficacy of treating sperm with low hypoosmotic swelling test scores with chymotrypsin followed by intrauterine insemination vs in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Bollendorf, A; Check, D; Check, J H; Hourani, W; McMonagle, K

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two treatments for sperm with low hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) test scores - intrauterine insemination (IUI) with sperm pretreated with the protein digestive enzyme chymotrypsin versus in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The choice of patient therapy was optional. The pregnancy rates following two IUI cycles vs one IVF cycle with ICSI were then compared. The data were further stratified and compared according to the severity of the HOS score defect. The more severe the HOS test defect the less likely for chymotrypsin therapy to work whereas the severity did not affect IVF with ICSI success. The use of IVF with ICSI was much more effective than IUI with chymotrypsin treatment. Though IVF with ICSI is much more effective, IUI is much less expensive. Couples should be presented with these data and be allowed to make their own choice considering risks and expense versus efficacy and speed of success.

  9. Recent Applications of Higher-Order Spectral Analysis to Nonlinear Aeroelastic Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Hajj, Muhammad R.; Dunn, Shane; Strganac, Thomas W.; Powers, Edward J.; Stearman, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Recent applications of higher-order spectral (HOS) methods to nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena are presented. Applications include the analysis of data from a simulated nonlinear pitch and plunge apparatus and from F-18 flight flutter tests. A MATLAB model of the Texas A&MUniversity s Nonlinear Aeroelastic Testbed Apparatus (NATA) is used to generate aeroelastic transients at various conditions including limit cycle oscillations (LCO). The Gaussian or non-Gaussian nature of the transients is investigated, related to HOS methods, and used to identify levels of increasing nonlinear aeroelastic response. Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) F/A-18 flight flutter test data is presented and analyzed. The data includes high-quality measurements of forced responses and LCO phenomena. Standard power spectral density (PSD) techniques and HOS methods are applied to the data and presented. The goal of this research is to develop methods that can identify the onset of nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, such as LCO, during flutter testing.

  10. Users guide: The LaRC human-operator-simulator-based pilot model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, E. H.; Waller, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    A Human Operator Simulator (HOS) based pilot model has been developed for use at NASA LaRC for analysis of flight management problems. The model is currently configured to simulate piloted flight of an advanced transport airplane. The generic HOS operator and machine model was originally developed under U.S. Navy sponsorship by Analytics, Inc. and through a contract with LaRC was configured to represent a pilot flying a transport airplane. A version of the HOS program runs in batch mode on LaRC's (60-bit-word) central computer system. This document provides a guide for using the program and describes in some detail the assortment of files used during its operation.

  11. Signal transduction and downregulation of C-MET in HGF stimulated low and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Husmann, Knut, E-mail: khusmann@research.balgrist.ch; Ducommun, Pascal; Division of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich

    2015-09-04

    The poor outcome of osteosarcoma (OS), particularly in patients with metastatic disease and a five-year survival rate of only 20%, asks for more effective therapeutic strategies targeting malignancy-promoting mechanisms. Dysregulation of C-MET, its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the fusion oncogene product TPR-MET, first identified in human MNNG-HOS OS cells, have been described as cancer-causing factors in human cancers. Here, the expression of these molecules at the mRNA and the protein level and of HGF-stimulated signaling and downregulation of C-MET was compared in the parental low metastatic HOS and MG63 cell lines and the respective highly metastatic MNNG-HOS andmore » 143B and the MG63-M6 and MG63-M8 sublines. Interestingly, expression of TPR-MET was only observed in MNNG-HOS cells. HGF stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2 in all cell lines investigated, but phospho-Stat3 remained at basal levels. Downregulation of HGF-stimulated Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation was much faster in the HGF expressing MG63-M8 cells than in HOS cells. Degradation of HGF-activated C-MET occurred predominantly through the proteasomal and to a lesser extent the lysosomal pathway in the cell lines investigated. Thus, HGF-stimulated Akt and Erk1/2 signaling as well as proteasomal degradation of HGF activated C-MET are potential therapeutic targets in OS. - Highlights: • Expression of TPR-MET was only observed in MNNG-HOS cells. • HGF stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2 but not of Stat3 in osteosarcoma cell lines. • Degradation of HGF-activated C-MET occurred predominantly through the proteasomal pathway.« less

  12. The Rice E3-Ubiquitin Ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 Modulates the Expression of ROOT MEANDER CURLING, a Gene Involved in Root Mechanosensing, through the Interaction with Two ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR Transcription Factors1

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Tiago F.; Serra, Tânia S.; Cordeiro, André M.; Swanson, Sarah J.; Gilroy, Simon; Saibo, Nelson J.M.; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots can sense and respond to a wide diversity of mechanical stimuli, including touch and gravity. However, little is known about the signal transduction pathways involved in mechanical stimuli responses in rice (Oryza sativa). This work shows that rice root responses to mechanical stimuli involve the E3-ubiquitin ligase rice HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (OsHOS1), which mediates protein degradation through the proteasome complex. The morphological analysis of the roots in transgenic RNA interference::OsHOS1 and wild-type plants, exposed to a mechanical barrier, revealed that the OsHOS1 silencing plants keep a straight root in contrast to wild-type plants that exhibit root curling. Moreover, it was observed that the absence of root curling in response to touch can be reverted by jasmonic acid. The straight root phenotype of the RNA interference::OsHOS1 plants was correlated with a higher expression rice ROOT MEANDER CURLING (OsRMC), which encodes a receptor-like kinase characterized as a negative regulator of rice root curling mediated by jasmonic acid. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we showed that OsHOS1 interacts with two ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors, rice ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN1 (OsEREBP1) and rice OsEREBP2, known to regulate OsRMC gene expression. In addition, we showed that OsHOS1 affects the stability of both transcription factors in a proteasome-dependent way, suggesting that this E3-ubiquitin ligase targets OsEREBP1 and OsEREBP2 for degradation. Our results highlight the function of the proteasome in rice response to mechanical stimuli and in the integration of these signals, through hormonal regulation, into plant growth and developmental programs. PMID:26381316

  13. Validation of the Spanish version of the Hip Outcome Score: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Seijas, Roberto; Sallent, Andrea; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel Angel; Ares, Oscar; Marín-Peña, Oliver; Cuéllar, Ricardo; Muriel, Alfonso

    2014-05-13

    The Hip Outcome Score (HOS) is a self-reported questionnaire evaluating the outcomes of treatment interventions for hip pathologies, divided in 19 items of activities of daily life (ADL) and 9 sports' items. The aim of the present study is to translate and validate HOS into Spanish. A prospective and multicenter study with 100 patients undergoing hip arthroscopy was performed between June 2012 and January 2013. Crosscultural adaptation was used to translate HOS into Spanish. Patients completed the questionnaire before and after surgery. Feasibility, reliability, internal consistency, construct validity (correlation with Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index), ceiling and floor effects and sensitivity to change were assessed for the present study. Mean age was 45.05 years old. 36 women and 64 men were included. Feasibility: 13% had at least one missing item within the ADL subscale and 17% within the sport subscale. Reliability: the translated version of HOS was highly reproducible with intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95 for ADL and 0.94 for the sports subscale. Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha >0.90 in both subscales. Construct validity showed statistically significant correlation with WOMAC. Ceiling effect was observed in 6% and 12% for ADL and sports subscale, respectively. Floor effect was found in 3% and 37% ADL and sports subscale, respectively. Large sensitivity to change was shown in both subscales. The translated version of HOS into Spanish has shown to be feasible, reliable and sensible to changes for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. This validated translation of HOS allows for comparisons between studies involving either Spanish- or English-speaking patients. Prognostic study, Level I.

  14. Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC)-Reflector Antenna Code: Part II. Code Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    SI N*I~iSl NTE. L%) I 82 GO 󈧏) 242 182 1b8. 3 ZL=P3 84 [) HHO =ZL-HOS( I) b5 If- (r)RH,.L[-..21.AND.DRIIO.GF.O.) ZL=RiOS(1)-9).05 80DFHO=ZL-PHOS(2...ALPHA(2) ,X(2),Y(2),Z(2),XS(3), HHOS (2) DIMENSION MI.J(2 ),.ML(2 ),SIGN(2) I]I LOGI CAL L’f[ST, LI)E13! * 12 COMMON /RFFr)Y/fHOS I -"’ICOMMAON /FOCAL

  15. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in Western Washington State, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae), has been reported to be a host of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), an important quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in the western U.S.A. However, all reports of peach as a hos...

  16. Bobcat (Lynx rufus) as a new natural intermediate host for Sarcocystis neurona

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive hos...

  17. An Analysis of the Model and Enacted Curricula for a History of Science Course in a Nationwide Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nouri, Noushin

    2017-01-01

    The UTeach program, a national model for undergraduate teacher preparation, includes "Perspectives on Science and Mathematics," a class designed to share content about the History of Science (HOS) with preservice teachers. UTeach provides a model curriculum as a sample for instructors teaching "Perspectives." The purpose of…

  18. Synthesis of conformationally North-locked pyrimidine nucleosides built on an oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ludek, Olaf R; Marquez, Victor E

    2012-01-20

    Beginning with a known 3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold (I), the relocation of the fused cyclopropane ring bond and the shifting of the oxygen atom to an alternative location engendered a new 2-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane template (II) that mimics more closely the tetrahydrofuran ring of conventional nucleosides. The synthesis of this new class of locked nucleosides involved a novel approach that required the isocyanate II (B = NCO) with a hydroxyl-protected scaffold as a pivotal intermediate that was obtained in 11 steps from a known dihydrofuran precursor. The completion of the nucleobases was successfully achieved by quenching the isocyanate with the lithium salts of the corresponding acrylic amides that led to the uracil and thymidine precursors in a single step. Ring closure of these intermediates led to the target, locked nucleosides. The anti-HIV activity of 29 (uridine analogue), 31 (thymidine analogue), and 34 (cytidine analogue) was explored in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells or modified HOS cells (HOS-313) expressing the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK). Only the cytidine analogue showed moderate activity in HOS-313 cells, which means that the compounds are not good substrates for the cellular kinases.

  19. Synthesis of Conformationally North-Locked Pyrimidine Nucleosides Built on an Oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Ludek, Olaf R.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with a known 3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold (I), the relocation of the fused cyclopropane ring bond and the shifting of the oxygen atom to an alternative location engendered a new 2-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane template (II) that mimics more closely the tetrahydrofuran ring of conventional nucleosides. The synthesis of this new class of locked nucleosides involved a novel approach that required the isocyanate II (B = NCO) with a hydroxyl-protected scaffold as a pivotal intermediate that was obtained in eleven steps from a known dihydrofuran precursor. The completion of the nucleobases was successfully achieved by quenching the isocyanate with the lithium salts of the corresponding acrylic amides that led to the uracil and thymidine precursors in a single step. Ring closure of these intermediates led to the target, locked nucleosides. The anti-HIV activity of 29 (uridine analogue), 31 (thymidine analogue), and 34 (cytidine analogue) was explored in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells or modified HOS cells (HOS-313) expressing the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK). Only the cytidine analogue showed moderate activity in HOS-313 cells, which means that the compounds are not good substrates for the cellular kinases. PMID:22026578

  20. Technical Reliability Studies. EOS/ESD Technology Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    MECHANISMS MELAMINE MESFETS MICROWAVE MIS 15025 AUTOMATIC MACHINE PRECAUTIONS FOR HOS/OiOS 15006 INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLATION AND...ELIMINATION OF EOS INDUCED SECONDARY FAILURE MECHANISMS 15000 USE OF MELAMINE WORK-SURFACE FOR ESD POTENTIAL BLEED OFF 16141 MICROWAVE NANOSECOND... microwave devices, optoelectronics, and selected nonelectronic parts employed in military, space and commercial applications. In addition, a System

  1. 75 FR 82170 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ....J., Hickman, J., Fumero, M.C., Olson, R.L. & Dingus, T.A., ``The Sleep of Commercial Vehicle Drivers... Significant Alternatives to the Proposed Rule which Minimize any Significant Impact on Small Entities C... 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.)). The HOS regulations proposed today concern the ``maximum...

  2. ACUTE METHANOL TOXICITY IN MINIPIGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pig hos been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its reported low liver tetrahydro folate levels and therefore, slower formate metabolism as compared to humans. o determine the validity of the animal model, min...

  3. 78 FR 16189 - Transportation of Agricultural Commodities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... 32934, respectively, of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21). Although prior statutory exemptions involving agriculture are unchanged, some of these exemptions overlap with MAP-21... HM Hazardous Materials HOS Hours of Service MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act...

  4. Unraveling the Slut Narrative: Gender Constraints on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Aleza K.; Kalmuss, Debra; DeAtley, Jenifer; Levack, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists on the slut labeling process, a key means of enforcing rules around appropriate female sexuality. This study explores that process through qualitative interviews with 44 adolescent girls in Travis County, Texas. Labeling girls as sluts or hos was pervasive and was based on a number of factors beyond sexual behavior,…

  5. 76 FR 5537 - Electronic On-Board Recorders and Hours of Service Supporting Documents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ...The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) proposes to amend the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs) to require certain motor carriers operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce to use electronic on-board recorders (EOBRs) to document their drivers' hours of service (HOS). Under this proposal, all motor carriers currently required to maintain Records of Duty Status (RODS) for HOS recordkeeping would be required to use EOBRs to systematically and effectively monitor their drivers' compliance with HOS requirements. Additionally, this proposal sets forth the supporting documents that all motor carriers currently required to use RODS would still be required to obtain and keep, as required by section 113(a) of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Authorization Act (HMTAA). It explains, however, that although motor carriers subject to the proposed EOBR requirements would still need to retain some supporting documents, they would be relieved of the requirements to retain supporting documents to verify driving time. FMCSA also proposes to require all motor carriers--both RODS and timecard users--to systematically monitor their drivers' compliance with HOS requirements. Motor carriers would be given 3 years after the effective date of the final rule to comply with these requirements.

  6. 78 FR 52233 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) and Medical Review Board (MRB): Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... of service requirements for drivers of passenger-carrying vehicles. This will enable MCSAC to complete its deliberations on Task 11-6 concerning hours-of-service (HOS) requirements for drivers of passenger-carrying vehicles. The committees will receive briefings on fatigue research on motorcoach drivers...

  7. Evaluating the potential safety benefits of electronic hours-of-service recorders final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the benefits of installed electronic hours-of-service recorders : (EHSRs) on safety and hours-of-service (HOS) violations related to Class 7 and 8 trucks as they operated during : normal revenue service....

  8. 76 FR 5324 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... to know what factors, issues, and data it should consider as it analyzes responses to its NPRM on HOS... post specific information on how to participate via the Internet and telephone on the FMCSA Web site at... submission must include the Agency name and the docket number for this notice. Note that DOT posts all...

  9. Bile Acid Responses in Methane and Non-Methane Producers to Standard Breakfast Meals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bile acids and their conjugates are important regulators of glucose homeostasis. Previous research has revealed the ratio of cholic acid to deoxycholic acid to affect insulin resistance in humans. Bile acid de-conjugation and intestinal metabolism depend on gut microbes which may be affected by hos...

  10. 75 FR 31790 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... the Management of Urinary Incontinence in Older Adults, Physical Activity in Older Adults, Fall Risk Management, and Osteoporosis Testing in Older Women HEDIS[supreg] measures. The collection of Medicare HOS is... document identifier or OMB control number. To be assured consideration, comments and recommendations must...

  11. North- and South-Bicyclo[3.1.0]Hexene Nucleosides: The Effect of Ring Planarity on Anti-HIV Activity | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The picture shows the locked north (blue) and south (red) bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane nucleosides in the normal pseudorotational cycle, and the corresponding shift to a smaller cycle (nmax=7°) caused by the insertion of a double bond. The former nucleosides are inactive, while the flattening of the embedded cyclopentene ring provides active compounds against HOS cells infected with

  12. Percutaneous Absorption of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (TCDD) From Soil (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight dermal absorption (two in vivo; six in vitro) and one intravenous experiment were conducted using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) either neat (high dose at ~250 µg/cm2 and low dose at 10 ng/cm2) or sorbed on a low organic (LOS) or high organic (HOS) soil at 1 ppm...

  13. Increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with occupational stress in Chinese policemen: A 4-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Xing, Jing-Jing; Shan, An-Qi; Leng, Ling; Liu, Jin-Chuan; Yue, Song; Yu, Hao; Chen, Xi; Tian, Feng-Shi; Tang, Nai-Jun

    2016-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and occupational stress have been recognized as major public health concerns. We aimed to explore whether occupational stress was associated with NAFLD in a police population.A total of 6559 male police officers were recruited for this prospective study in April 2007. Among them, 2367 eligible subjects participated in follow-up from 2008 to 2011. NAFLD was diagnosed based on standard criteria. Occupational stress was evaluated by Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised scores.The incidence of NAFLD was 31.2% in the entire police. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, moderate occupational stress (MOS), high occupational stress (HOS), and high personal strain (HPS) were risk factors (MOS: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.049-1.460; HOS: HR = 1.727, 95% CI = 1.405-2.124; HPS: HR = 3.602, 95% CI = 1.912-6.787); and low occupational stress (LOS) and low personal strain (LPS) were protective factors (LOS: HR = 0.366, 95% CI = 0.173-0.776; LPS: HR = 0.490, 95% CI = 0.262-0.919) for NAFLD in the entire police cohort. HOS and HPS remained robust among traffic police.HOS and HPS were independent predictors for the development of NAFLD in a Chinese police population. Additional future prospective investigations are warranted to validate our findings.

  14. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... 1-2, 2010 to complete its work of providing information, concepts and ideas to the Agency relating... work on Task 10-01, provide information, concepts and ideas to FMCSA relating to the HOS requirements.../or written comments, information, concepts and ideas the Agency should consider in developing the...

  15. The Psychometric Properties of the Agricultural Hazardous Occupations Order Certification Training Program Written Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Breidenbach, Daniel H.; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The written certification exam that accompanies the Gearing Up for Safety-Agricultural Production Safety Training for Youth curriculum was designed to partially meet the testing requirements of the Agricultural Hazardous Occupations Order (AgHOs) Certification Training Program. This curriculum and accompanying assessment tools are available for…

  16. 75 FR 17207 - Electronic On-Board Recorders for Hours-of-Service Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... to data limitation, FMCSA used outdated studies in the analysis for this rule. For future HOS rulemakings, FMCSA will use updated studies and reports to analyze impacts. \\1\\ Estimates of benefits and... percent of the long-distance drivers in 2005 said there were EOBRs or other on-board computers in their...

  17. 75 FR 1843 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act HMO Health Maintenance Organization HOS Health... Sponsored Organization RHC Rural Health Clinic RPPO Regional Preferred Provider Organization SMHP State... proposed rulemaking on the process for organizations to conduct the certification of EHR technology. DATES...

  18. Addressing Nature of Science Core Tenets with the History of Science: An Example with Sickle-Cell Anemia & Malaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Erica M.

    2007-01-01

    The history of science (HOS) has proven to be a useful pedagogical tool to help students learn about what has come to be regarded as an agreed upon set of core nature of science (NOS) tenets. The following article illustrates an example of how teachers can instrumentally use the history of research on heterozygote protection in sickle-cell anemia…

  19. 78 FR 5558 - Medical Review Board Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... studies the Agency could rely upon in making any future decisions about the HOS requirements applicable to... this Notice. Note that DOT posts all comments without change to http://www.regulations.gov , including.... 2013-01510 Filed 1-24-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910-EX-P ...

  20. Different People in Different Places - Secondary School Students' Knowledge About History of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, Haira Emanuela

    2018-05-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study of students' knowledge about scientists and countries' contributions to science, aiming at answering two research questions: "In which ways are students aware of the history of scientific development carried out by different people in different places of the world? What can be influencing and shaping their awareness?" Thus, this study aimed at depicting students' knowledge about History of Science (HOS), focusing on what they know about science being done by people and communities from different parts of the world and on how this knowledge is constructed through their engagement with school science. An exploratory research was carried out at two multicultural state secondary schools in London, UK, involving 200 students aged 12-15 (58.5% girls, 41.5% boys) and five science teachers. The method involved an initial exploration of students' knowledge about HOS through an open-ended survey, followed by classroom-based observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants. Results showed a disconnection between remembering scientists and knowing about their work and background, hinting at an emphasis on illustrative and decontextualised approaches towards HOS. Additionally, there was a lack of diversity in these students' answers in terms of gender and ethnicity when talking about scientists and countries in science. These findings were further analysed in relation to their implications for school science and for the fields of HOS, science education and public perception of science.

  1. Health observatories in iran.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  2. Cyclopiazonic acid is a pathogenicity factor for Aspergillus flavus and a promising target for screening germplasm for ear rot resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus, an opportunistic pathogen, contaminates maize and other key crops with carcinogenic aflatoxins (AF). Besides AF, A. flavus makes many more secondary metabolites (SMs), whose toxicity in insects or vertebrates has been studied. However, the role of SMs in the invasion of plant hos...

  3. Truck parking : an emerging safety hazard to highway users : final report - draft.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-07-01

    It is recognized nationwide that commercial motor vehicle operators are often unable to find safe and adequate parking to meet hours-of-service (HOS) regulations. This holds true in Oregon, where high-use corridor rest areas and truck stops are exper...

  4. History of Science Content Analysis of Chinese Science Textbooks from the Perspective of Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-01-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation,…

  5. On the Analytical Superiority of 1D NMR for Fingerprinting the Higher Order Structure of Protein Therapeutics Compared to Multidimensional NMR Methods.

    PubMed

    Poppe, Leszek; Jordan, John B; Rogers, Gary; Schnier, Paul D

    2015-06-02

    An important aspect in the analytical characterization of protein therapeutics is the comprehensive characterization of higher order structure (HOS). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is arguably the most sensitive method for fingerprinting HOS of a protein in solution. Traditionally, (1)H-(15)N or (1)H-(13)C correlation spectra are used as a "structural fingerprint" of HOS. Here, we demonstrate that protein fingerprint by line shape enhancement (PROFILE), a 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy fingerprinting approach, is superior to traditional two-dimensional methods using monoclonal antibody samples and a heavily glycosylated protein therapeutic (Epoetin Alfa). PROFILE generates a high resolution structural fingerprint of a therapeutic protein in a fraction of the time required for a 2D NMR experiment. The cross-correlation analysis of PROFILE spectra allows one to distinguish contributions from HOS vs protein heterogeneity, which is difficult to accomplish by 2D NMR. We demonstrate that the major analytical limitation of two-dimensional methods is poor selectivity, which renders these approaches problematic for the purpose of fingerprinting large biological macromolecules.

  6. 77 FR 33331 - Regulatory Guidance on the Applicability of Property-Carrier Hours-of-Service Rules to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Regulatory Guidance on the Applicability of Property-Carrier Hours-of-Service Rules to the Driveaway Operation of Vehicles Designed to Transport Passengers AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of regulatory guidance. SUMMARY: The property-carrier hours-of-service (HOS...

  7. Multicenter Analysis of Midterm Clinical Outcomes of Arthroscopic Labral Repair in the Hip: Minimum 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hevesi, Mario; Krych, Aaron J; Johnson, Nick R; Redmond, John M; Hartigan, David E; Levy, Bruce A; Domb, Benjamin G

    2018-02-01

    The technique of hip arthroscopic surgery is advancing and becoming more commonly performed. However, most current reported results are limited to short-term follow-up, and therefore, the durability of the procedure is largely unknown. To perform a multicenter analysis of mid-term clinical outcomes of arthroscopic hip labral repair and determine the risk factors for patient outcomes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Prospectively collected data of primary hip arthroscopic labral repair performed at 4 high-volume centers between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively with the visual analog scale (VAS), modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and Hip Outcome Score-Sports-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) at a minimum of 5 years' follow-up. Factors including age, body mass index (BMI), Tönnis grade, and cartilage grade were analyzed in relation to outcome scores, and revision rates were determined. Failure was defined as subsequent ipsilateral hip surgery, including revision arthroscopic surgery and open hip surgery. A total of 303 patients (101 male, 202 female) with a mean age of 32.0 years (range, 10.7-58.9 years) were followed for a mean of 5.7 years (range, 5.0-7.9 years). Patients achieved mean improvements in VAS of 3.5 points, mHHS of 20.1 points, and HOS-SSS of 29.3 points. Thirty-seven patients (12.2%) underwent revision arthroscopic surgery, and 12 (4.0%) underwent periacetabular osteotomy, resurfacing, or total hip arthroplasty during the study period. Patients with a BMI >30 kg/m 2 had a mean mHHS score 9.5 points lower and a mean HOS-SSS score 15.9 points lower than those with a BMI ≤30 kg/m 2 ( P < .01). Patients aged >35 years at surgery had a mean mHHS score 4.5 points lower and a HOS-SSS score 6.7 points lower than those aged ≤35 years ( P = .03). Patients with Tönnis grade 2 radiographs demonstrated a 12.5-point worse mHHS score ( P = .02) and a 23.0-point worse HOS-SSS score ( P < .01

  8. Rules to fly by: pigeons navigating horizontal obstacles limit steering by selecting gaps most aligned to their flight direction.

    PubMed

    Ros, Ivo G; Bhagavatula, Partha S; Lin, Huai-Ti; Biewener, Andrew A

    2017-02-06

    Flying animals must successfully contend with obstacles in their natural environments. Inspired by the robust manoeuvring abilities of flying animals, unmanned aerial systems are being developed and tested to improve flight control through cluttered environments. We previously examined steering strategies that pigeons adopt to fly through an array of vertical obstacles (VOs). Modelling VO flight guidance revealed that pigeons steer towards larger visual gaps when making fast steering decisions. In the present experiments, we recorded three-dimensional flight kinematics of pigeons as they flew through randomized arrays of horizontal obstacles (HOs). We found that pigeons still decelerated upon approach but flew faster through a denser array of HOs compared with the VO array previously tested. Pigeons exhibited limited steering and chose gaps between obstacles most aligned to their immediate flight direction, in contrast to VO navigation that favoured widest gap steering. In addition, pigeons navigated past the HOs with more variable and decreased wing stroke span and adjusted their wing stroke plane to reduce contact with the obstacles. Variability in wing extension, stroke plane and wing stroke path was greater during HO flight. Pigeons also exhibited pronounced head movements when negotiating HOs, which potentially serve a visual function. These head-bobbing-like movements were most pronounced in the horizontal (flight direction) and vertical directions, consistent with engaging motion vision mechanisms for obstacle detection. These results show that pigeons exhibit a keen kinesthetic sense of their body and wings in relation to obstacles. Together with aerodynamic flapping flight mechanics that favours vertical manoeuvring, pigeons are able to navigate HOs using simple rules, with remarkable success.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of KIN10 and cold-acclimation related genes in wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans).

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lai, Gongti; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars may experience chilling or freezing injury in some of their cultivated regions, where wild banana can still grow very well. The clarification of the cold-resistant mechanism of wild banana is vital for cold-resistant banana breeding. In this study, the central stress integrator gene KIN10 and some cold-acclimation related genes (HOS1 and ICE1s) from the cold-resistant wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans) were cloned and their expression patterns under different temperature treatments were analyzed. Thirteen full-length cDNA transcripts including 6 KIN10s, 1 HOS1 and 6 ICE1s were successfully cloned. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that all these genes had the highest expression levels at the critical temperature of banana (13 °C). Under chilling temperature (4 °C), the expression level of KIN10 reduced significantly but the expression of HOS1 was still higher than that at the optimal temperature (28 °C, control). Both KIN10 and HOS1 showed the lowest expression levels at 0 °C, the expression level of ICE1, however, was higher than control. As sucrose plays role in plant cold-acclimation and in regulation of KIN10 and HOS1 bioactivities, the sucrose contents of wild banana under different temperatures were detected. Results showed that the sucrose content increased as temperature lowered. Our result suggested that KIN10 may participate in cold stress response via regulating sucrose biosynthesis, which is helpful in regulating cold acclimation pathway in wild banana.

  10. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  11. Anemone altaica Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-Chang; Chiang, Tsay-I; Lo, Chun; Lai, Yi-Hua; Yue, Chia-Herng; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Hsu, Li-Sung; Lee, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, no significant improvement has been made in chemotherapy for osteosarcoma (OS). To develop improved agents against OS, we screened 70 species of medicinal plants and treated two human OS cell lines with different agent concentrations. We then examined cell viability using the MTT assay. Results showed that a candidate plant, particularly the rhizomes of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey aqueous extract (AAE), suppressed the viability of HOS and U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that AAE significantly increased the amount of cell shrinkage (Sub-G1 fragments) in HOS and U2OS cells. Moreover, AAE increased cytosolic cytochrome c and Bax, but decreased Bcl-2. The amount of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were significantly increased. AAE suppressed the growth of HOS and U2OS through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Data suggest that AAE is cytotoxic to HOS and U2OS cells and has no significant influence on human osteoblast hFOB cells. The high mRNA levels of apoptosis-related factors (PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4) and cellular proliferation markers (SKA2 and BUB1B) were significantly altered by the AAE treatment of HOS and U2OS cells. Results show that the anticancer activity of AAE could up-regulate the expression of a cluster of genes, especially those in the apoptosis-related factor family and caspase family. Thus, AAE has great potential as a useful therapeutic drug for human OS.

  12. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20-50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0-2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.

  13. Rules to fly by: pigeons navigating horizontal obstacles limit steering by selecting gaps most aligned to their flight direction

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Ivo G.; Bhagavatula, Partha S.; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2017-01-01

    Flying animals must successfully contend with obstacles in their natural environments. Inspired by the robust manoeuvring abilities of flying animals, unmanned aerial systems are being developed and tested to improve flight control through cluttered environments. We previously examined steering strategies that pigeons adopt to fly through an array of vertical obstacles (VOs). Modelling VO flight guidance revealed that pigeons steer towards larger visual gaps when making fast steering decisions. In the present experiments, we recorded three-dimensional flight kinematics of pigeons as they flew through randomized arrays of horizontal obstacles (HOs). We found that pigeons still decelerated upon approach but flew faster through a denser array of HOs compared with the VO array previously tested. Pigeons exhibited limited steering and chose gaps between obstacles most aligned to their immediate flight direction, in contrast to VO navigation that favoured widest gap steering. In addition, pigeons navigated past the HOs with more variable and decreased wing stroke span and adjusted their wing stroke plane to reduce contact with the obstacles. Variability in wing extension, stroke plane and wing stroke path was greater during HO flight. Pigeons also exhibited pronounced head movements when negotiating HOs, which potentially serve a visual function. These head-bobbing-like movements were most pronounced in the horizontal (flight direction) and vertical directions, consistent with engaging motion vision mechanisms for obstacle detection. These results show that pigeons exhibit a keen kinesthetic sense of their body and wings in relation to obstacles. Together with aerodynamic flapping flight mechanics that favours vertical manoeuvring, pigeons are able to navigate HOs using simple rules, with remarkable success. PMID:28163883

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of sucrose-derived oligosaccharides produced by a constitutive mutant L. mesenteroides B-512FMCM dextransucrase in high fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyung; Lee, Hee Jae; Cho, Jae-Young; Kim, Kanghwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Doman

    2016-08-26

    Oligosaccharide (OS) is used as a sugar replacement as well as an ingredient in functional foods because of its beneficial effects, mainly on reducing calorie content and promoting intestinal health. By contrast, the effects of OS on inflammation are less well investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sucrose-derived OS on glucose control and inflammation in high fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Male C57BL6 mice were randomly assigned to six treatment groups (n = 10-14 mice per group): 1) lean control (CON), 2) HF control, 3) HF-low sucrose (LS, 100 mg/kg/day), 4) HF-high sucrose (HS, 1000 mg/kg/day), 5) HF-low OS (LOS, 100 mg/kg/day), and 6) HF-high OS (HOS, 1000 mg/kg/day). PBS (vehicle), sucrose, and OS were administered by stomach gavage. Body weight, food intake, and markers of liver function (activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) were not affected by the treatments. HOS treatment decreased levels of serum glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance compared with sucrose treatment. However, serum adiponectin levels of the HOS group were higher than those of the sucrose groups. Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fetuin-A were lower in the HOS group than in the sucrose groups. Hepatic gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and related factors (fetuin-A, NF-κB, TLR4, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) were decreased and the levels of insulin signaling-related molecules (sirtuin 1, insulin receptor, and Akt) were increased in HOS-treated mice as compared with sucrose-treated mice. These results demonstrate that OS treatment is effective in improving glucose control and inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Knowledge Regarding Basic Facts of Stroke Among Final Year MBBS Students and House Officers: A Cross-Sectional Survey of 708 Respondents from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khubaib, Mohammad U; Rathore, Farooq A; Waqas, Ahmed; Jan, Mohsin M; Sohail, Sana

    2016-03-23

    Stroke is the leading cause of neurological disability in the world. In Pakistan, house officers (HOs) are usually the first contact for a stroke patient in the emergency department. Sometimes they need to make quick decisions regarding diagnosis and management without specialist supervision. Thousands of current final year MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) students will be performing the duties of HOs soon. This study documents the knowledge and confidence levels of final year students and HOs in Pakistan regarding basic facts related to initial diagnosis and management of stroke. A questionnaire was developed using two standard textbooks of medicine and current stroke guidelines of the American Heart Association. The pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 800 final year MBBS students and HOs in 14 medical colleges and hospitals in four different cities. The response rate was 88.5%. Data analysis was done using SPSS V.21. The CMH Lahore Medical College Ethics Review Committee approved this project. Respondents included medical students (n=496) and HOs (N= 212); most were female (n = 452, 63.9%). Of these, 31.4% had managed or assisted in the management of a patient with a stroke and had a higher confidence level in its diagnosis (p< 0.001) and management (p <0.001). Having a family member with stroke was associated with higher confidence in the diagnosis of stroke (p < 0.05) but not with confidence in its management (p = 0.41). Most correctly defined stroke (60.6%), identified the CT scan as the initial diagnostic modality (88.1%), knew the dosage of aspirin (64.9%), knew the time limit for thrombolysis (67.4%), and were familiar with the risk of deep vein thrombosis in immobilized stroke patients (85.4%). Less than half (44.5%) chose tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as the preferred initial intervention for acute ischemic stroke. This multicenter survey shows that the knowledge and confidence of medical students and

  16. FAME, a microprocessor based front-end analysis and modeling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, J. D.; Kutin, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    Higher order software (HOS) is a methodology for the specification and verification of large scale, complex, real time systems. The HOS methodology was implemented as FAME (front end analysis and modeling environment), a microprocessor based system for interactively developing, analyzing, and displaying system models in a low cost user-friendly environment. The nature of the model is such that when completed it can be the basis for projection to a variety of forms such as structured design diagrams, Petri-nets, data flow diagrams, and PSL/PSA source code. The user's interface with the analyzer is easily recognized by any current user of a structured modeling approach; therefore extensive training is unnecessary. Furthermore, when all the system capabilities are used one can check on proper usage of data types, functions, and control structures thereby adding a new dimension to the design process that will lead to better and more easily verified software designs.

  17. A unique TBX5 microdeletion with microinsertion detected in patient with Holt-Oram syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morine, Mikio; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Inagaki, Hidehito; Watanabe, Miki; Naruto, Takuya; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Imoto, Issei

    2015-12-01

    Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by upper limb and congenital heart defects and caused by numerous germline mutations of TBX5 producing preterminal stop codons. Here, we report on a novel and unusual heterozygous TBX5 microdeletion with microinsertion (microindel) mutation (c.627delinsGTGACTCAGGAAACGCTTTCCTGA), which is predicted to synthesize a truncated TBX5 protein, detected in a sporadic patient with clinical features of HOS prenatally diagnosed by ultrasonography. This uncommon and relatively large inserted sequence contains sequences derived from nearby but not adjacent templates on both sense and antisense strands, suggesting two possible models, which require no repeat sequences, causing this complex microindel through the bypass of large DNA adducts via an error-prone DNA polymerase-mediated translesion synthesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tbx5 Buffers Inherent Left/Right Asymmetry Ensuring Symmetric Forelimb Formation

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Satoko; Kucharska, Anna; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Logan, Malcolm P. O.

    2016-01-01

    The forelimbs and hindlimbs of vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric. The mechanisms that ensure symmetric limb formation are unknown but they can be disrupted in disease. In Holt-Oram Syndrome (HOS), caused by mutations in TBX5, affected individuals have left-biased upper/forelimb defects. We demonstrate a role for the transcription factor Tbx5 in ensuring the symmetric formation of the left and right forelimb. In our mouse model, bilateral hypomorphic levels of Tbx5 produces asymmetric forelimb defects that are consistently more severe in the left limb than the right, phenocopying the left-biased limb defects seen in HOS patients. In Tbx hypomorphic mutants maintained on an INV mutant background, with situs inversus, the laterality of defects is reversed. Our data demonstrate an early, inherent asymmetry in the left and right limb-forming regions and that threshold levels of Tbx5 are required to overcome this asymmetry to ensure symmetric forelimb formation. PMID:27992425

  19. Electron heating due to microwave photoexcitation in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanayaka, A. N.; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-12-04

    We extract the electron temperature in the microwave photo-excited high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system (2DES) by studying the influence of microwave radiation on the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdHOs) in a regime where the cyclotron frequency, ω{sub c}, and the microwave angular frequency, ω, satisfy 2ω ≤ ω{sub c} ≤ 3.5ω The results indicate that increasing the incident microwave power has a weak effect on the amplitude of the SdHOs and therefore the electron temperature, in comparison to the influence of modest temperature changes on the dark-specimen SdH effect. The results indicate negligible electron heating under modestmore » microwave photo-excitation, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.« less

  20. Increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with occupational stress in Chinese policemen

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Xing, Jing-Jing; Shan, An-Qi; Leng, Ling; Liu, Jin-Chuan; Yue, Song; Yu, Hao; Chen, Xi; Tian, Feng-Shi; Tang, Nai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and occupational stress have been recognized as major public health concerns. We aimed to explore whether occupational stress was associated with NAFLD in a police population. A total of 6559 male police officers were recruited for this prospective study in April 2007. Among them, 2367 eligible subjects participated in follow-up from 2008 to 2011. NAFLD was diagnosed based on standard criteria. Occupational stress was evaluated by Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised scores. The incidence of NAFLD was 31.2% in the entire police. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, moderate occupational stress (MOS), high occupational stress (HOS), and high personal strain (HPS) were risk factors (MOS: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.049–1.460; HOS: HR = 1.727, 95% CI = 1.405–2.124; HPS: HR = 3.602, 95% CI = 1.912–6.787); and low occupational stress (LOS) and low personal strain (LPS) were protective factors (LOS: HR = 0.366, 95% CI = 0.173–0.776; LPS: HR = 0.490, 95% CI = 0.262–0.919) for NAFLD in the entire police cohort. HOS and HPS remained robust among traffic police. HOS and HPS were independent predictors for the development of NAFLD in a Chinese police population. Additional future prospective investigations are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:27861366

  1. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 3, Fall 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    MOPP) gear and fixed airplanes, loaded airplanes, and flew airplanes. We conducted operations in a hos­ tile environment. That’s what operating...space station. The general commanded the 9th Reconnaissance Wing and Eighth Air Force, and served on the Air Staff and Joint Staff. Prior to assuming...through the eyes of Congress or the me­ dia. The second view is the perspective of joint force commanders and their rep­ resentatives, which typically

  2. CTC Sentinel. Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2010. Evaluating the Al-Qaida Threat to the U.S. Homeland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    February and March 2010 as the suspects allegedly sought to obtain quantities of chemicals suitable for making peroxide-based high explosives, also...used by the 7/7 London bombers as well as by previously intercepted terrorist cells in Denmark and Germany. The amount of chemicals was far smaller...dangerous chemicals with harmless substances.11 9 “Norge var terrormålet,” Aftenposten, July 10, 2010; ”Eksplosivene ble ikke oppbevart hos siktede

  3. Alpha-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive behavior of human osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Daft, Paul G.; Yuan, Kaiyu; Warram, Jason M.; Klein, Michael J.; Siegal, Gene P.; Zayzafoon, Majd

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is among the most frequently occurring primary bone tumors, primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. Despite improvements in osteosarcoma treatment, more specific molecular targets are needed as potential therapeutic options. One target of interest is alpha-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII), a ubiquitous mediator of Ca2+-linked signaling, which has been shown to regulate tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII in the growth and tumorigenicity of human osteosarcoma. We show that α-CaMKII is highly expressed in primary osteosarcoma tissue derived from 114 patients and is expressed in varying levels in different human osteosarcoma cell lines (HOS, MG-63, MNNG/HOS and 143B). To examine whether α-CaMKII regulates osteosarcoma tumorigenic properties, we genetically inhibited α-CaMKII in two osteosarcoma cell lines using two different α-CaMKII shRNAs delivered by lentiviral vectors and overexpressed α-CaMKII by retrovirus. The genetic deletion of α-CaMKII by shRNA in MG-63 and 143B cells resulted in decreased proliferation (50 and 41%), migration (22 and 25%) and invasion (95 and 90%), respectively. The overexpression of α-CaMKII in HOS cells resulted in increased proliferation (240%), migration (640%) and invasion (10,000%). Furthermore, α-CaMKII deletion in MG-63 cells significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo (65%), while α-CaMKII overexpression resulted in tumor formation in a previously non-tumor forming osteosarcoma cell line (HOS). Our results suggest that α-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive phenotype of osteosarcoma, and its inhibition could be an attractive therapeutic target to combat this devastating adolescent disease. PMID:23364534

  4. Public-Private Cooperation in the Department of Defense: A Framework for Analysis and Recommendations for Action (Defense Horizons, October 2012)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    requirements de - fined by the public sector. CRADAs leverage private sector resources and knowledge to meet the needs of government agencies at no financial...situations helps resolve barriers to cooperation. The evolution of CRA- DAs offers insight into how DOD can interact with multiple partners in a mutually...actions among multiple private power companies, the public sector (at Federal, state, local, and tribal levels), and third parties (hos- pitals

  5. Recent Applications of the Volterra Theory to Aeroelastic Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Haji, Muhammad R; Prazenica, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of nonlinear aeroelastic systems based on the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems is presented. Recent applications of the theory to problems in experimental aeroelasticity are reviewed. These results include the identification of aerodynamic impulse responses, the application of higher-order spectra (HOS) to wind-tunnel flutter data, and the identification of nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena from flight flutter test data of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) aircraft.

  6. World Epidemiology Review, Number 110.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-18

    Campaign Against Rhinoceros Beetle (DAILY NATION, 26 Sep 78) 43 LAOS Briefs Nong Bok Pest Eradication 44 Meuang Chanthabouli Pest Eradication...CAMPAIGN AGAINST RHINOCEROS BEETLE Nairobi DAILY NATION in English 26 Sep 78 p 5 [Text] A TINY pest hos become a big problem at the Coast. The... Rhinoceros Beetle (that’s it pictured on the right) is, in its own small way, trying to cause as much damage as the monster it’s named after is sometimes

  7. Measuring the Quality of Care for Psychological Health Conditions in the Military Health System: Candidate Quality Measures for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    therapy CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CESD Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale CGI-BP Clinical Global Impressions Scale for...dimensions GDS Geriatric Depression Scale HEDIS Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set HOS Health Outcomes Survey HRQOL health-related quality of...TBI traumatic brain injury TF-CBT Trauma-Focused Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy TSC-40 Trauma Symptom Checklist—40 TSI Trauma Symptom Inventory VA U.S

  8. Reproducibility, validity, and responsiveness of the hip outcome score in patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Naal, Florian D; Impellizzeri, Franco M; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Mannion, Anne F; Leunig, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate reproducibility, validity, and responsiveness of the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) in patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis. In a cohort of 157 consecutive patients (mean age 66 years; 79 women) undergoing total hip replacement, the HOS was tested for the following measurement properties: feasibility (percentage of evaluable questionnaires), reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] and standard error of measurement [SEM]), construct validity (correlation with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], Oxford Hip Score [OHS], Short Form 12 health survey, and University of California, Los Angeles activity scale), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), factorial validity (factor analysis), floor and ceiling effects, and internal and external responsiveness at 6 months after surgery (standardized response mean and change score correlations). Missing items occurred frequently. Five percent to 6% of the HOS activities of daily living (ADL) subscales and 20-32% of the sport subscales could not be scored. ICCs were 0.92 for both subscales. SEMs were 1.8 points (ADL subscale) and 2.3 points (sport subscale). Highest correlations were found with the OHS (r = 0.81 for ADL subscale and r = 0.58 for sport subscale) and the WOMAC physical function subscale (r = 0.83 for ADL subscale and r = 0.56 for sport subscale). Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 and 0.88 for the ADL and sport subscales, respectively. Neither unidimensionality of the subscales nor the 2-factor structure was supported by factor analysis. Both subscales showed good internal and external responsiveness. The HOS is reproducible and responsive when assessing patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis in whom the items are relevant. However, based on the large proportion of missing data and the findings of the factor analysis, we cannot recommend this questionnaire for routine use in this target group. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Antifungal Wound Penetration of Amphotericin and Voriconazole in Combat-related Injuries: Case Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-15

    trauma can have long and challenging recoveries , which may be complicated by infection. Invasive fungal infections are a rare but serious complication...and massive blood transfu- sion [6]. Inoculation of soil-dwelling molds into wounds is proposed to occur at the time of injury, with subsequent growth...microbiological assays in austere field hos- pitals, histopathological confirmation, and positive fungal culture. Thus, the median time from infection

  10. Nobiletin inhibits human osteosarcoma cells metastasis by blocking ERK and JNK-mediated MMPs expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Jia-Sin; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Lue, Ko-Haung; Lu, Ko-Hsiu; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Nobiletin, a polymethoxyflavone, has a few pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effects. However, its effect on human osteosarcoma progression remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we examined the effectiveness of nobiletin against cellular metastasis of human osteosarcoma and the underlying mechanisms. Nobiletin, up to 100 μM without cytotoxicity, significantly decreased motility, migration and invasion as well as enzymatic activities, protein levels and mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in U2OS and HOS cells. In addition to inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the inhibitory effect of nobiletin on the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and specificity protein 1 (SP-1) in U2OS and HOS cells. Co-treatment with ERK and JNK inhibitors and nobiletin further reduced U2OS cells migration and invasion. These results indicated that nobiletin inhibits human osteosarcoma U2OS and HOS cells motility, migration and invasion by down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions via ERK and JNK pathways and through the inactivation of downstream NF-κB, CREB, and SP-1. Nobiletin has the potential to serve as an anti-metastatic agent for treating osteosarcoma. PMID:27144433

  11. Robust functional statistics applied to Probability Density Function shape screening of sEMG data.

    PubMed

    Boudaoud, S; Rix, H; Al Harrach, M; Marin, F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies pointed out possible shape modifications of the Probability Density Function (PDF) of surface electromyographical (sEMG) data according to several contexts like fatigue and muscle force increase. Following this idea, criteria have been proposed to monitor these shape modifications mainly using High Order Statistics (HOS) parameters like skewness and kurtosis. In experimental conditions, these parameters are confronted with small sample size in the estimation process. This small sample size induces errors in the estimated HOS parameters restraining real-time and precise sEMG PDF shape monitoring. Recently, a functional formalism, the Core Shape Model (CSM), has been used to analyse shape modifications of PDF curves. In this work, taking inspiration from CSM method, robust functional statistics are proposed to emulate both skewness and kurtosis behaviors. These functional statistics combine both kernel density estimation and PDF shape distances to evaluate shape modifications even in presence of small sample size. Then, the proposed statistics are tested, using Monte Carlo simulations, on both normal and Log-normal PDFs that mimic observed sEMG PDF shape behavior during muscle contraction. According to the obtained results, the functional statistics seem to be more robust than HOS parameters to small sample size effect and more accurate in sEMG PDF shape screening applications.

  12. Low concentrations of alendronate increase the local invasive potential of osteoblastic sarcoma cell lines via connexin 43 activation.

    PubMed

    Yoshitani, Kazuhiro; Kido, Akira; Honoki, Kanya; Akahane, Manabu; Fujii, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2011-07-15

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are agents used for treating disorders of excessive bone resorption. In addition, due to their cell-killing activity, BPs were potent candidates for adjuvant cancer therapy. On the other hand, low-concentrations of BPs have been reported to increase cellular viability in several types of tumor cells. Therefore, we focused on the effect of BPs on cellular aggressiveness of malignant bone tumors at low concentrations. MTS assay was performed using osteosarcoma cell lines MG63 and HOS, fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080, and prostate cancer cell line PC3. All the cell lines showed toxicity at high concentrations. On the other hand, at lower concentrations, the cellular viabilities of HOS and MG63 were rather higher than those of untreated controls. Since this tendency was most evident, HOS was used for further assays, including cellular motility, bone resorption activity, and cathepsin K activity. The low-concentration of alendronate enhanced cellular viability and motility, which correlated with the expression of connexin 43 at the mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, oleamide, a potent connexin 43 inhibitor, had an inhibitory effect on the enhanced proliferation. Our data suggest that alendronate may enhance the proliferation of osteoblastic cell line through connexin 43 activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Updated U.S. population standard for the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12).

    PubMed

    Selim, Alfredo J; Rogers, William; Fleishman, John A; Qian, Shirley X; Fincke, Benjamin G; Rothendler, James A; Kazis, Lewis E

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an updated U.S. population standard for the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12). We used a well-defined and nationally representative sample of the U.S. population from 52,425 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) collected between 2000 and 2002. We applied modified regression estimates to update the non-proprietary 1990 scoring algorithms. We applied the updated standard to the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) to compute the VR-12 physical (PCS((MEPS standard))) and mental (MCS((MEPS standard))) component summaries based on the MEPS. We compared these scores to PCS and MCS based on the 1990 U.S. population standard. Using the updated U.S. population standard, the average VR-12 PCS((MEPS standard)) and MCS((MEPS standard)) scores in the Medicare HOS were 39.82 (standard deviation [SD] = 12.2) and 50.08 (SD = 11.4), respectively. For the same Medicare HOS, the average PCS and MCS scores based on the 1990 standard were 1.40 points higher and 0.99 points lower in comparison to VR-12 PCS and MCS, respectively. Changes in the U.S. population between 1990 and today make the old standard obsolete for the VR-12, so the updated standard developed here is widely available to serve as such a contemporary standard for future applications for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments.

  14. CXCR6 promotes tumor cell proliferation and metastasis in osteosarcoma through the Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunsheng; Xu, Xin; Luo, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6 (CXCR6) is up-regulated in many malignancies, indicating that CXCR6 plays an important role in tumor progression. However, the expression and function of CXCR6 in osteosarcoma (OS) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the expression levels and function of CXCR6 in OS tissues and osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63, HOS and U2OS. The protein expression levels of CXCR6 in OS patient tissues and three osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63, HOS and U2OS were assessed. CXCR6-overexpression MG-63 cell lines were established and then the proliferation, invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in those cells were assessed. CXCR6 mRNA levels in OS tissues were significantly higher than those in normal bone tissues. Consistently, both of the mRNA and protein levels of CXCR6 in OS cell lines MG-63, HOS and U2OS were higher than those in normal bone cells hFOB1.19. CXCR6 overexpression not only promoted cell proliferation, invasion and EMT, but also enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt in MG-63 cells. After inhibition of Akt-phosphorylation by Akt inhibitor, LY2940023, CXCR6-induced cell proliferation and invasion were dramatically attenuated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that CXCR6 enhances OS cell proliferation and invasion through the Akt pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced biological properties of biomimetic apatite fabricated polycaprolactone/chitosan nanofibrous bio-composite for tendon and ligament regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geng; Deng, Xuefeng; Song, Jinqi; Chen, Feiqiang

    2018-01-01

    The development of tailored nanofibrous scaffolds for tendon and ligament tissue engineering has been a goal of clinical research for current researchers. Here, we establish a formation of novel nanofibrous matrix with significant mechanical and biological properties by electro-spinning process. The fine fibrous morphology of the nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HAp) dispersed in the polycaprolactone/chitosan (HAp-PCL/CS) nanofibrous matrix was exhibited by microscopic (SEM and TEM) techniques. The favorable mechanical properties (load and modulus) were achieved. The load and modulus of the HAp-PCL/CS composite fibers was 250.1N and 215.5MPa, which is very similar to that of standard value of the human tendon and ligament tissues. The cellular responses and biocompatibility of HAp-PCL/CS nanofibrous scaffolds were investigated with human osteoblast (HOS) cells for tendon regeneration and examined the primary osteoblast mechanism by in vitro method. The morphological (FE-SEM and fluorescence) microscopic images clearly exhibited that HOS cells are well attached and flatted on the nanofibrous composites. The HAp dispersed PCL/CS nanofibrous scaffolds promoted higher adhesion and proliferation of HOS cells comparable to the nanofibrous scaffolds without HAp nanoparticles. The physic-chemical and biological properties of the synthesized nanofibrous scaffold were very close to that of normal ligament and tendon in human body. Over all, these studied results confirmed that the prepared nanofibrous scaffolds will be effective biomaterial of tendon ligament regeneration applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Degraded iota-carrageenan can induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe; Han, Ya-Xin; Han, Xiao-Rui

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a high-grade malignant bone tumor. Therefore, using both in vitro and in vivo assays, the effects of degraded iota-Carrageenan (ι-CGN) on a human osteosarcoma cell line, HOS, were examined. Degraded ι-CGN was observed to induce apoptosis and G(1) phase arrest in HOS cells. Moreover, degraded ι-CGN suppressed tumor growth in established xenograft tumor models. Accordingly, the survival rate of these mice was significantly higher than that of mice bearing tumors treated with native ι-CGN or PBS. In addition, the formation of intratumoral microvessels was inhibited following treatment with degraded ι-CGN. In Western blot assays, degraded ι-CGN was found to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overall, these studies demonstrate the antitumor activity of degraded ι-CGN toward the OS cell line, HOS. Moreover, valuable insight into the mechanisms mediated by degraded ι-CGN was obtained, potentially leading to the identification of novel treatments for OS. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these results in other cell types, particularly in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  17. [gammadelta T cells stimulated by zoledronate kill osteosarcoma cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Chao; Cao, Zhen-Guo; Li, Zhao-Xu; Ye, Zhao-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of human γδT cells from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo and evaluate the relavent pathways. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)of healthy donors were stimulated by single dose zoledronate and cultured in the present of IL-2 for two weeks, analysising the percentage of γδT cells on a FACSCalibur cytometer.Study the cytotoxicity of γδT cells against the osteosarcoma line HOS using LDH release assay kit. Pre-treatment of γδT cells with anti-human γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A to bolck the relavent pathways for evaluating the mechenisms of its cytotoxicity. In vivo, BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously osteosarcoma cell HOS for developing hypodermal tumors. And they were randomized into two groups: unteated group, γδT cell therapy group. Tumor volume and weight of the two groups were compared. After two weeks of culture, γδT cells from zoledronate-stimulated PBMCs could reach (95±3)%. When the E:T as 6:1, 12:1, 25:1, 50:1, the percentage of osteosarcoma cell HOS killed by γδT cells was 26.8%, 31.5%, 37.8%, 40.9%, respectively.When anti-huma γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A blocked the relavent pathways, the percentage was 32.3%, 4.7%, 16.7% ( E:T as 25:1), respectively. In vivo, the tumor inhibition rate of the group of γδT cell therapy was 42.78%. γδT cells derived from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate can acquired pure γδT cells. And they show strong cytoxicity against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Hip Arthroscopy for Femoral-Acetabular Impingement: Do Active Claims Affect Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Gigi, Roy; Rath, Ehud; Sharfman, Zachary T; Shimonovich, Shachar; Ronen, Itai; Amar, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    To compare outcomes of 3 patient groups undergoing hip arthroscopy. This study included 138 consecutive hip arthroscopies (106 analyzed) for femoral-acetabular impingement (FAI) with or without labral tear in patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria included patients older than 18 with clinical or radiologic manifestation of FAI with or without labral tear. Exclusion criteria included previous hip surgery and various hip pathologies. Patients were classified into 3 study groups. Group 1 included work-related injuries with active claims ACs (n = 33); mean age, 32 (range, 19 to 63); group 2 included sports injuries with no ACs (n = 35); mean age, 32 (range, 18 to 69); and group 3 included non-sports-related injuries without pending ACs (NAS; n = 38); mean age, 45 (range, 20 to 68). Outcomes were assessed using modified Harris hip scores (mHHS) and hip outcome scores (HOS) preoperatively and during the final evaluation. Baseline score for all groups did not significantly differ (P = .210 for mHHS, P = .176 for HOS). All groups significantly improved from preoperative to final evaluation (group 1: mHHS P = .42, HOS P = .001; group 2: mHHS P < .001, HOS P < .001; group 3 NAS: mHHS P = .001, HOS P = .007). AC patients had the lowest final evaluation scores, while the sports group had the highest. The NAS group did not differ from either group at final evaluation. Preoperative and final evaluation scores inversely correlated with age (r range, -24 to -28; P < .05). This study has shown that patients may benefit from arthroscopic repair of FAI and labral tears regardless of ACs. The level of improvement, however, is not constant across patients with different characteristics. Moreover, it appears that age may impact perceived improvement after hip arthroscopy. Hip arthroscopy as an intervention in patients with ACs provided positive outcomes, corroborating that an AC is not a contraindication for this procedure. Level III, retrospective comparative

  19. OLIGOCELLULA1/HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES15 Promotes Cell Proliferation With HISTONE DEACETYLASE9 and POWERDRESS During Leaf Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Marina; Shinozuka, Nanae; Hirakata, Tomohiro; Nakata, Miyuki T.; Demura, Taku; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Horiguchi, Gorou

    2018-01-01

    Organ size regulation is dependent on the precise spatial and temporal regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion. A number of transcription factors have been identified that play a key role in the determination of aerial lateral organ size, but their functional relationship to various chromatin modifiers has not been well understood. To understand how leaf size is regulated, we previously isolated the oligocellula1 (oli1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that develops smaller first leaves than the wild type (WT) mainly due to a reduction in the cell number. In this study, we further characterized oli1 leaf phenotypes and identified the OLI1 gene as well as interaction partners of OLI1. Detailed characterizations of leaf development suggested that the cell proliferation rate in oli1 leaf primordia is lower than that in the WT. In addition, oli1 was associated with a slight delay of the progression from the juvenile to adult phases of leaf traits. A classical map-based approach demonstrated that OLI1 is identical to HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES15 (HOS15). HOS15/OLI1 encodes a homolog of human transducin β-like protein1 (TBL1). TBL1 forms a transcriptional repression complex with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) HDAC3 and either nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) or silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid receptor (SMRT). We found that mutations in HISTONE DEACETYLASE9 (HDA9) and a switching-defective protein 3, adaptor 2, N-CoR, and transcription factor IIIB-domain protein gene, POWERDRESS (PWR), showed a small-leaf phenotype similar to oli1. In addition, hda9 and pwr did not further enhance the oli1 small-leaf phenotype, suggesting that these three genes act in the same pathway. Yeast two-hybrid assays suggested physical interactions, wherein PWR probably bridges HOS15/OLI1 and HDA9. Earlier studies suggested the roles of HOS15, HDA9, and PWR in transcriptional repression. Consistently, transcriptome analyses showed several

  20. Are Self-Reported Medication Allergies Associated With Worse Hip Outcome Scores Prior to Hip Arthroscopy?

    PubMed

    Sochacki, Kyle R; Jack, Robert A; Bekhradi, Arya; Delgado, Domenica; McCulloch, Patrick C; Harris, Joshua D

    2018-06-01

    To determine if there are significant differences in preoperative patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores in patients with and without self-reported medication allergies undergoing hip arthroscopy. Consecutive subjects undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. PROs were collected within 6 weeks of the date of surgery. PROs included International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-12), Hip Outcome Score (HOS), and Short-Form (SF-12) scores. Allergies to medications were self-reported preoperatively within 6 weeks of the date of surgery. Patient demographics were recorded. Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression models were calculated to identify associations with baseline hip outcome scores. Two hundred twelve subjects were analyzed (56% female, mean age 35.1 ± 13.2 years). Seventy-two subjects (34%) self-reported allergies (range 1-10; 41 subjects had 1 allergy; 14 subjects had 2; 8 subjects had 3; 2 subjects had 4; 7 subjects had 5 or more). The most commonly reported allergies included penicillin (18), sulfa (13), and codeine (11). Female gender was significantly correlated with number of allergies (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.188; P < .001). SF-12 Mental Component Score (MCS) was significantly correlated with HOS-ADL (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.389; P < .001), HOS-SSS (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.251; P < .001), and iHOT-12 (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.385; P < .001). There was no significant correlation between number of allergies and all hip PROs. In all multivariate models, the SF-12 MCS had the strongest association with HOS-ADL, HOS-SSS, and iHOT-12 (P < .001 for all). Allergies were not significantly associated with any hip PROs. In patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI syndrome, self-reported medication allergies are not significantly associated with preoperative patient-reported hip outcome scores. Level III, retrospective comparative

  1. The effect of colloid osmotic pressure in human spermatozoa exposed to hypoosmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Correa-Pérez, J R; Fernández-Pelegrina, R; Zarmakoupis-Zavos, P N; Zavos, P M

    2003-04-01

    The use of a protein source such as serum and albumin had been extensively employed as supplements of culture media for handling and culture of gametes and embryos. Protein molecules behave as colloids in solution and contribute to the osmotic pressure of fluids. The interaction of proteins in solution and spermatozoa needs to be assessed in order to determine their possible role in osmoregulation. The aim of this study was to assess possible osmoregulatory mechanisms of protein supplementation against exposure to hypoosmotic conditions by assessing the sperm's response to those environments. A stock hypoosmotic solution (HOS) was prepared by using a mixture of fructose and sodium citrate and adjusted to an osmotic pressure of 150 mOsm l-1. Another stock solution was prepared by diluting a preparation of synthetic serum supplement [SSS; 6% (v/v) total protein] with distilled water to obtain an osmotic pressure of 150 mOsm l-1 (hypoosmotic SSS or H-SSS). Three additional solutions were prepared by mixing the stock HOS and H-SSS solutions in the following proportions (v/v): (i) 75% H-SSS/25% HOS, (ii) 50% H-SSS/50% HOS and (iii) 25% H-SSS/75% HOS. Aliquots of washed spermatozoa from 18 men were diluted 1 : 10 (v/v) with each of the testing solutions and incubated for 60 min. Specimens were assessed on wet mounts for total and specific swelling patterns. Swelling patterns were classified as maximal (>50% tail length swollen) and minimal (<50% tail length swollen) swelling with or without associated sperm motility. The major finding of this study was that increasing the concentration of protein supplementation resulted in a decrease in the proportion of maximal sperm tail swelling patterns and an increase in the proportion of minimal tail swelling patterns. A proportion of spermatozoa which exhibited minimal swelling patterns were still motile in all solutions tested, and the percentage of those spermatozoa increased as the protein supplementation was also increased in

  2. Pre-operative Thresholds for Achieving Meaningful Clinical Improvement after Arthroscopic Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Fields, Kara G.; Nawabi, Danyal H.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Ranawat, Anil S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of the thresholds and determinants for successful femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) treatment is evolving. The primary purpose of this study was to define pre-operative outcome score thresholds that can be used to predict patients most likely to achieve meaningful clinically important difference (MCID) after arthroscopic FAI treatment. Secondarily determinants of achieving MCID were evaluated. Methods: A prospective institutional hip arthroscopy registry was reviewed to identify patients with FAI treated with arthroscopic labral surgery, acetabular rim trimming, and femoral osteochondroplasty. The modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and the international Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) tools were administered at baseline and at one year post-operatively. MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate cohort-based threshold values predictive of achieving MCID. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to define predictive ability (strength of association) with AUC >0.7 considered acceptably predictive. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to analyze demographic, radiographic and intra-operative factors associated with achieving MCID. Results: There were 374 patients (mean + SD age, 32.9 + 10.5) and 56.4% were female. The MCID for mHHS, HOS activities of daily living (HOS-ADL), HOS Sports, and iHOT-33 was 8.2, 8.4,14.5, and 12.0 respectively. ROC analysis (threshold, % achieving MCID, strength of association) for these tools in our population was: mHHS (61.6, 78%, 0.68), HOS-ADL (83.8, 68%, 0.84), HOS-Sports (63.9, 64%, 0.74), and iHOT-33 (54.3, 82%, 0.65). Likelihood for achieving MCID declined above and increased below these thresholds. In univariate analysis female sex, femoral version, lower acetabular outerbridge score and increasing CT sagittal center edge angle (CEA) were predictive of achieving MCID. In multivariable analysis

  3. The Importance of Comprehensive Cam Correction: Radiographic Parameters Are Predictive of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures at 2 Years After Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, Drew A; Kunze, Kyle; Ukwuani, Gift; Waterman, Brian R; Nho, Shane J

    2018-06-01

    The specific influence of preoperative and postoperative radiographic measurements on patient-reported outcome measures after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) remains unclear. To investigate the relationship between radiographic measurements and 2-year outcomes after hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAI. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A clinical registry of patients undergoing primary hip arthroscopy for FAI between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, was queried. Outcome measures included the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) Activities of Daily Living (ADL), HOS Sport-Specific Subscale (SSS), modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic measurements were recorded. Univariate analysis was conducted to identify relationships between all radiographic and demographic variables and outcome scores. A multivariate regression analysis, controlling for demographic factors, was used to identify independent associations between radiographic measurements on plain radiographs and patient-reported outcomes. The authors identified 707 patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopic management for FAI who were included for analysis. Two-year outcome surveys were completed for 78% to 84% of patients. The mean age of the patients was 33.2 ± 12.3 years, and 64.4% of the patients (n = 456) were female. The mean anteroposterior (AP) alpha angle decreased by 34.3° ( P < .0001), false profile alpha angle by 25.2° ( P < .0001), Dunn lateral alpha angle by 28.9° ( P < .0001), lateral center edge angle by 2.6° ( P < .0001), and anterior center edge angle by 3.4° ( P < .0001). The HOS-ADL score increased from 65.7 ± 18.7 preoperatively to 85.9 ± 16.7 postoperatively ( P < .0001), HOS-SSS increased from 43.4 ± 23.1 to 72.6 ± 27.2 ( P < .0001), and mHHS increased from 57.7 ± 14.0 to 79.1 ± 17.2 ( P < .0001). With multivariate analysis, independent predictors of the

  4. Relationship Between Age at Onset of Symptoms and Intraoperative Findings in Hip Arthroscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Gui, Chengcheng; Rabe, Stephanie M.; Walsh, John P.; Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Domb, Benjamin G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hip arthroscopic surgery is intended to treat multiple abnormalities in an effort to delay the progression to osteoarthritis, especially in young patients. However, the length of time in which patients experience joint pain before seeking a specialist for a diagnosis can delay hip preservation surgery and influence clinical outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between age at symptom onset and findings during hip arthroscopic surgery as well as outcomes after 2 years of clinical follow-up. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From February 2008 to March 2015, data were prospectively collected on all patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery at a single institution. Anatomic and pathological characteristics were recorded intraoperatively. The mean age at onset of symptoms was calculated and correlated with intraoperative findings using Pearson correlation and logistic regression. All patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively with 4 patient-reported outcome measures: the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS), the Hip Outcome Score–Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and the Hip Outcome Score–Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS). Pain was estimated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Furthermore, patients with an age at onset of symptoms below the mean (34.6 years) were compared with those of an age at onset of symptoms above the mean. The 2 groups were compared using the Student t test and the chi-square test. P values <.05 were considered significant. Results: A total of 1697 patients met the inclusion criteria. Body mass index was weakly correlated with age (r = 0.3). Younger patients had a lower prevalence of combined Seldes type 1 and 2 labral tears; acetabular labrum articular disruption (ALAD) grade 2, 3, and 4 acetabular chondral lesions; and Outerbridge grade 2, 3, and 4 femoral head chondral lesions (P < .05 for all). More advanced age was correlated with wider

  5. Opposite Effects of Soluble Factors Secreted by Adipose Tissue on Proliferating and Quiescent Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Avril, Pierre; Duteille, Franck; Ridel, Perrine; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; De Pinieux, Gonzague; Rédini, Françoise; Blanchard, Frédéric; Heymann, Dominique; Trichet, Valérie; Perrot, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Autologous adipose tissue transfer may be performed for aesthetic needs following resection of osteosarcoma, the most frequent primary malignant tumor of bone, excluding myeloma. The safety of autologous adipose tissue transfer regarding the potential risk of cancer recurrence must be addressed. Adipose tissue injection was tested in a human osteosarcoma preclinical model induced by MNNG-HOS cells. Culture media without growth factors from fetal bovine serum were conditioned with adipose tissue samples and added to two osteosarcoma cell lines (MNNG-HOS and MG-63) that were cultured in monolayer or maintained in nonadherent spheres, favoring a proliferation or quiescent stage, respectively. Proliferation and cell cycle were analyzed. Adipose tissue injection increased local growth of osteosarcoma in mice but was not associated with aggravation of lung metastasis or osteolysis. Adipose tissue-derived soluble factors increased the in vitro proliferation of osteosarcoma cells up to 180 percent. Interleukin-6 and leptin were measured in higher concentrations in adipose tissue-conditioned medium than in osteosarcoma cell-conditioned medium, but the authors' results indicated that they were not implicated alone. Furthermore, adipose tissue-derived soluble factors did not favor a G0-to-G1 phase transition of MNNG-HOS cells in nonadherent oncospheres. This study indicates that adipose tissue-soluble factors activate osteosarcoma cell cycle from G1 to mitosis phases, but do not promote the transition from quiescent G0 to G1 phases. Autologous adipose tissue transfer may not be involved in the activation of dormant tumor cells or cancer stem cells.

  6. Therapeutic implications of an enriched cancer stem-like cell population in a human osteosarcoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is a bone-forming tumor of mesenchymal origin that presents a clinical pattern that is consistent with the cancer stem cell model. Cells with stem-like properties (CSCs) have been identified in several tumors and hypothesized as the responsible for the relative resistance to therapy and tumor relapses. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize CSCs populations in a human osteosarcoma cell line and to explore their role in the responsiveness to conventional therapies. Methods CSCs were isolated from the human MNNG/HOS cell line using the sphere formation assay and characterized in terms of self-renewal, mesenchymal stem cell properties, expression of pluripotency markers and ABC transporters, metabolic activity and tumorigenicity. Cell's sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and to irradiation was analyzed and related with cell cycle-induced alterations and apoptosis. Results The isolated CSCs were found to possess self-renewal and multipotential differentiation capabilities, express markers of pluripotent embryonic stem cells Oct4 and Nanog and the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein and BCRP, exhibit low metabolic activity and induce tumors in athymic mice. Compared with parental MNNG/HOS cells, CSCs were relatively more resistant to both chemotherapy and irradiation. None of the treatments have induced significant cell-cycle alterations and apoptosis in CSCs. Conclusions MNNG/HOS osteosarcoma cells contain a stem-like cell population relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and irradiation. This resistant phenotype appears to be related with some stem features, namely the high expression of the drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and BCRP and their quiescent nature, which may provide a biological basis for resistance to therapy and recurrence commonly observed in osteosarcoma. PMID:22475227

  7. Changes in soil bacterial community triggered by drought-induced gap succession preceded changes in soil C stocks and quality

    PubMed Central

    Yuste, Jorge Curiel; Barba, Josep; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Antonio José; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel; Mattana, Stefania; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Nolis, Pau; Lloret, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how drought-induced tree mortality and subsequent secondary succession would affect soil bacterial taxonomic composition as well as soil organic matter (SOM) quantity and quality in a mixed Mediterranean forest where the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) population, affected by climatic drought-induced die-off, is being replaced by Holm-oaks (HO; Quercus ilex). We apply a high throughput DNA pyrosequencing technique and 13C solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP-MAS 13C NMR) to soils within areas of influence (defined as an surface with 2-m radius around the trunk) of different trees: healthy and affected (defoliated) pines, pines that died a decade ago and healthy HOs. Soil respiration was also measured in the same spots during a spring campaign using a static close-chamber method (soda lime). A decade after death, and before aerial colonization by the more competitive HOs have even taken place, we could not find changes in soil C pools (quantity and/or quality) associated with tree mortality and secondary succession. Unlike C pools, bacterial diversity and community structure were strongly determined by tree mortality. Convergence between the most abundant taxa of soil bacterial communities under dead pines and colonizer trees (HOs) further suggests that physical gap colonization was occurring below-ground before above-ground colonization was taken place. Significantly higher soil respiration rates under dead trees, together with higher bacterial diversity and anomalously high representation of bacteria commonly associated with copiotrophic environments (r-strategic bacteria) further gives indications of how drought-induced tree mortality and secondary succession were influencing the structure of microbial communities and the metabolic activity of soils. PMID:23301169

  8. Zoledronic acid at subtoxic dose extends osteoblastic stage span of primary human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zara, Susi; De Colli, Marianna; di Giacomo, Viviana; Zizzari, Vincenzo Luca; Di Nisio, Chiara; Di Tore, Umberto; Salini, Vincenzo; Gallorini, Marialucia; Tetè, Stefano; Cataldi, Amelia

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to check the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) at subtoxic dose on human osteoblasts (HOs) in terms of cell viability, apoptosis occurrence, and differentiation induction. ZA belongs to the family of bisphosphonates (BPs), largely used in the clinical practice for the treatment of bone diseases, often associated with jaw osteonecrosis onset. Their pharmacological action consists in the direct block of the osteoclast-mediated bone resorption along with indirect action on osteoblasts. HOs were treated choosing the highest limit concentration (10(-5) M) which does not induce toxic effects. Live/dead staining, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, osteocalcin western blotting, gp38 RT-PCR, collagen type I, PGE2, and IL-6 ELISA assays were performed. Similar viability level between control and ZA-treated samples is found along with no significant increase of apoptotic and necrotic cells in ZA-treated sample. To establish if an early apoptotic pathway was triggered, Bax expression and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated finding a higher protein expression in control sample and a good integrity of mitochondrial membrane in both experimental points. Type I collagen secretion and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity appear increased in ZA-treated sample, osteocalcin expression level is reduced in ZA-treated cells, whereas no modifications of gp38 mRNA level are evidenced. No statistical differences are identified in PGE2 secretion level whereas IL-6 secretion is lower in ZA-treated HOs with respect to control ones. These results highlight that ZA, delaying the osteoblastic differentiation process versus the osteocytic lineage, strengthens its pharmacological activity enhancing bone density. The knowledge of ZA effects on osteoblasts at subtoxic dose allows to improve therapeutic protocols in order to strengthen drug pharmacological activity through a combined action on both osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells.

  9. Alpha-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive behavior of human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Daft, Paul G; Yuan, Kaiyu; Warram, Jason M; Klein, Michael J; Siegal, Gene P; Zayzafoon, Majd

    2013-04-01

    Osteosarcoma is among the most frequently occurring primary bone tumors, primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. Despite improvements in osteosarcoma treatment, more specific molecular targets are needed as potential therapeutic options. One target of interest is α-Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII), a ubiquitous mediator of Ca(2+)-linked signaling, which has been shown to regulate tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII in the growth and tumorigenicity of human osteosarcoma. We show that α-CaMKII is highly expressed in primary osteosarcoma tissue derived from 114 patients, and is expressed in varying levels in different human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines [MG-63, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)/HOS, and 143B). To examine whether α-CaMKII regulates osteosarcoma tumorigenic properties, we genetically inhibited α-CaMKII in two osteosarcoma cell lines using two different α-CaMKII shRNAs delivered by lentiviral vectors and overexpressed α-CaMKII by retrovirus. The genetic deletion of α-CaMKII by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in MG-63 and 143B cells resulted in decreased proliferation (50% and 41%), migration (22% and 25%), and invasion (95% and 90%), respectively. The overexpression of α-CaMKII in HOS cells resulted in increased proliferation (240%), migration (640%), and invasion (10,000%). Furthermore, α-CaMKII deletion in MG-63 cells significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo (65%), whereas α-CaMKII overexpression resulted in tumor formation in a previously nontumor forming osteosarcoma cell line (HOS). Our results suggest that α-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive phenotype of osteosarcoma, and its inhibition could be an attractive therapeutic target to combat this devastating adolescent disease. ©2013 AACR.

  10. Establishment and characterization of in vivo orthotopic bioluminescent xenograft models from human osteosarcoma cell lines in Swiss nude and NSG mice.

    PubMed

    Marques da Costa, Maria Eugenia; Daudigeos-Dubus, Estelle; Gomez-Brouchet, Anne; Bawa, Olivia; Rouffiac, Valerie; Serra, Massimo; Scotlandi, Katia; Santos, Conceição; Geoerger, Birgit; Gaspar, Nathalie

    2018-03-01

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary bone tumors in childhood and adolescence. Metastases occurrence at diagnosis or during disease evolution is the main therapeutic challenge. New drug evaluation to improve patient survival requires the development of various preclinical models mimicking at best the complexity of the disease and its metastatic potential. We describe here the development and characteristics of two orthotopic bioluminescent (Luc/mKate2) cell-derived xenograft (CDX) models, Saos-2-B-Luc/mKate2-CDX and HOS-Luc/mKate2-CDX, in different immune (nude and NSG mouse strains) and bone (intratibial and paratibial with periosteum activation) contexts. IVIS SpectrumCT system allowed both longitudinal computed tomography (CT) and bioluminescence real-time follow-up of primary tumor growth and metastatic spread, which was confirmed by histology. The murine immune context influenced tumor engraftment, primary tumor growth, and metastatic spread to lungs, bone, and spleen (an unusual localization in humans). Engraftment in NSG mice was found superior to that found in nude mice and intratibial bone environment more favorable to engraftment compared to paratibial injection. The genetic background of the two CDX models also led to distinct primary tumor behavior observed on CT scan. Saos-2-B-Luc/mKate2-CDX showed osteocondensed, HOS-Luc/mKate2-CDX osteolytic morphology. Bioluminescence defined a faster growth of the primary tumor and metastases in Saos-2-B-Luc/mKate2-CDX than in HOS-Luc/mKate2-CDX. The early detection of primary tumor growth and metastatic spread by bioluminescence allows an improved exploration of osteosarcoma disease at tumor progression, and metastatic spread, as well as the evaluations of anticancer treatments. Our orthotopic models with metastatic spread bring complementary information to other types of existing osteosarcoma models. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Simultaneous quantum yield measurements of carbon uptake and oxygen evolution in microalgal cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Pardis; Kline, David I.; DuPont, Christopher L.; Dickson, Andrew G.; Mendola, Dominick; Martz, Todd; Allen, Andrew E.; Mitchell, B. Greg

    2018-01-01

    The photosynthetic quantum yield (Φ), defined as carbon fixed or oxygen evolved per unit of light absorbed, is a fundamental but rarely determined biophysical parameter. A method to estimate Φ for both net carbon uptake and net oxygen evolution simultaneously can provide important insights into energy and mass fluxes. Here we present details for a novel system that allows quantification of carbon fluxes using pH oscillation and simultaneous oxygen fluxes by integration with a membrane inlet mass spectrometer. The pHOS system was validated using Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured with continuous illumination of 110 μmole quanta m-2 s-1 at 25°C. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements of carbon and oxygen flux using the pHOS-MIMS and photon flux based on spectral absorption were carried out to explore the kinetics of Φ in P. tricornutum during its acclimation from low to high light (110 to 750 μmole quanta m-2 s-1). Comparing results at 0 and 24 hours, we observed strong decreases in cellular chlorophyll a (0.58 to 0.21 pg cell-1), Fv/Fm (0.71 to 0.59) and maximum ΦCO2 (0.019 to 0.004) and ΦO2 (0.028 to 0.007), confirming the transition toward high light acclimation. The Φ time-series indicated a non-synchronized acclimation response between carbon uptake and oxygen evolution, which has been previously inferred based on transcriptomic changes for a similar experimental design with the same diatom that lacked physiological data. The integrated pHOS-MIMS system can provide simultaneous carbon and oxygen measurements accurately, and at the time-resolution required to resolve high-resolution carbon and oxygen physiological dynamics. PMID:29920568

  12. The influence of differential processing of procathepsin H on its aminopeptidase activity, secretion and subcellular localization in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rojnik, Matija; Jevnikar, Zala R; Doljak, Bojan; Turk, Samo; Zidar, Nace; Kos, Janko

    2012-10-01

    Cathepsin H is a unique member of the cysteine cathepsins that acts primarily as an aminopeptidase. Like other cysteine cathepsins, it is synthesized as an inactive precursor and activated by proteolytic removal of its propeptide. Here we demonstrate that, in human cells, the processing of the propeptide is an autocatalytic, multistep process proceeding from an inactive 41kDa pro-form, through a 30kDa intermediate form, to the 28kDa mature form. Tyr87P and Gly90P were identified as the two major endopeptidase cleavage sites, converting the 30kDa form into the mature 28kDa form. The level of processing differs significantly in different human cell lines. In monocyte-derived macrophages U937 and prostate cancer cells PC-3, the 28kDa form is predominant, whereas in osteoblasts HOS the processing from the 30kDa form to the 28kDa form is significantly lower. The aminopeptidase activity of the enzyme and its subcellular localization are independent of the product, however the 30kDa form was not secreted in HOS cells. The activity of the resulting cathepsin H in U937 cells was significantly lower than that in HOS cells, presumably due to the high levels of endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin F present specifically in this cell line. These results provide an insight into the dependence of human cathepsin H processing and regulation on cell type. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. [Abnormal growth of spine in patients with adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Bao, Hongda; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Feng; Zhu, Zezhang; Zhang, Wen

    2014-05-01

    To investigate if the growth patterns of the spine and pelvis are consistent in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with single thoracic curves. Forty-eight thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (T-AIS) female patients and 48 healthy age-matched adolescents were recruited consecutively between December 2011 and October 2012. Radiographic parameters including height of spine (HOS), length of spine (LOS), height of thoracic spine (HOT), length of thoracic spine (LOT), height of pelvis (HOP), width of pelvis (WOP) and width of thorax (WOT) were measured on the long-cassette posteroanterior standing radiographs. In addition, ratios including HOS/HOP, LOS/HOP, HOT/HOP, LOT/HOP, LOS/LOT, WOT/WOP were also calculated. Independent t-test was performed to compare the radiographic parameters and ratios between the two groups. Compared to the age-matched healthy adolescents, T-AIS patients had a significantly higher LOS and LOT (t = -2.364 and -1.495, P = 0.020 and 0.043) and smaller HOS and HOT (t = 2.060 and 3.359, P = 0.042 and 0.001). Yet, all of HOP, WOP and WOT showed no significant difference between T-AIS patients and healthy adolescents. Similarly, LOS/HOP and LOT/HOP were significantly higher in T-AIS patients as may be expected with an average LOS/HOP of 2.26 ± 0.14 in normal controls.In addition, LOS/LOT in normal controls had a trend of increase with age which was different from the stable LOS/LOT in T-AIS patients, indicating an increased growth of thoracic vertebra compared to lumbar vertebra. Compared to the age-matched healthy adolescents, T-AIS patients have an abnormal growth characteristics with longer spine. The growth of pelvis and thorax show no significant differences between T-AIS patients and healthy adolescents.

  14. Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), Modulates Purinoceptor-Coupled Calcium Signaling and Murine Nociceptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Shan; Chueh, Sheau-Huei; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lee, Li-Ya; Shiu, Li-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus is well known for the neurotrophic effect it confers by promoting nerve growth factor biosynthesis. We discovered a novel bioactivity of H. erinaceus in its ability to suppress adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced calcium signaling in neuronal PC12 cells. ATP, known primarily as a neurotransmitter, also acts on purinoceptors (P2 purinergic receptor [P2R]) to generate the cellular calcium signaling and secretion that mediate P2R physiological manifestations, including pain. Chronic pain reduces quality of life. However, constant analgesic administration can cause liver and kidney injury, as well as loss of the analgesic effect because of desensitization. In this study we investigated the analgesic potential of H. erinaceus through measurements of ATP-induced Ca2+ signaling in cell lines and observation of pain behaviors in mice. In P2R-coupled Ca2+ signaling measurements, extracts of H. erinaceus mycelia (HEEs) blocked ATP-induced Ca2+ signaling in both rat PC12 cells and human HOS cells. HEEs completely blocked ATP-induced Ca2+ signaling in human HOS cells, suggesting that this effect of HEEs is exerted through the P2R subtypes present in HOS cells, which include the P2X4, P2X7, P2Y2, and P2Y4 subtypes. In observations of animal behavior during pain, HEEs significantly reduced heat-induced pain, including postponing both the tail-flick response to heat stimulation and the paw-lifting response to a hot plate. This study demonstrates novel characteristics of H. erinaceus in reducing nociceptive behavior and blocking the functional activity of P2R. Further studies are required to verify this linkage and its molecular mechanisms.

  15. Classification of emotional states from electrocardiogram signals: a non-linear approach based on hurst

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying the emotional state is helpful in applications involving patients with autism and other intellectual disabilities; computer-based training, human computer interaction etc. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, being an activity of the autonomous nervous system (ANS), reflect the underlying true emotional state of a person. However, the performance of various methods developed so far lacks accuracy, and more robust methods need to be developed to identify the emotional pattern associated with ECG signals. Methods Emotional ECG data was obtained from sixty participants by inducing the six basic emotional states (happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise and neutral) using audio-visual stimuli. The non-linear feature ‘Hurst’ was computed using Rescaled Range Statistics (RRS) and Finite Variance Scaling (FVS) methods. New Hurst features were proposed by combining the existing RRS and FVS methods with Higher Order Statistics (HOS). The features were then classified using four classifiers – Bayesian Classifier, Regression Tree, K- nearest neighbor and Fuzzy K-nearest neighbor. Seventy percent of the features were used for training and thirty percent for testing the algorithm. Results Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) conveyed that Hurst and the proposed features were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Hurst computed using RRS and FVS methods showed similar classification accuracy. The features obtained by combining FVS and HOS performed better with a maximum accuracy of 92.87% and 76.45% for classifying the six emotional states using random and subject independent validation respectively. Conclusions The results indicate that the combination of non-linear analysis and HOS tend to capture the finer emotional changes that can be seen in healthy ECG data. This work can be further fine tuned to develop a real time system. PMID:23680041

  16. Development of small molecule biosensors by coupling the recognition of the bacterial allosteric transcription factor with isothermal strand displacement amplification.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongpeng; Li, Shanshan; Cao, Jiaqian; Liu, Weiwei; Fan, Keqiang; Xiang, Wensheng; Yang, Keqian; Kong, Deming; Wang, Weishan

    2018-05-08

    Here, we demonstrate an easy-to-implement and general biosensing strategy by coupling the small-molecule recognition of the bacterial allosteric transcription factor (aTF) with isothermal strand displacement amplification (SDA) in vitro. Based on this strategy, we developed two biosensors for the detection of an antiseptic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and a disease marker, uric acid, using bacterial aTF HosA and HucR, respectively, highlighting the great potential of this strategy for the development of small-molecule biosensors.

  17. Simultaneous Versus Staged Bilateral Hip Arthroscopy in the Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    PubMed

    Degen, Ryan M; Nawabi, Danyal H; Fields, Kara G; Wentzel, C Sally; Kelly, Bryan T; Coleman, Struan H

    2016-07-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes and complication rates of patients undergoing simultaneous versus staged bilateral hip arthroscopy for bilateral symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 1,800 hip arthroscopy cases were retrospectively reviewed for cases of simultaneous bilateral hip arthroscopy. All patients with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. This group was matched 1:2 for age, sex, and alpha angle, to a control group of patients who underwent staged, bilateral procedures. Patient-reported outcome scores, including the Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score-Activity of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and the Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) were obtained preoperatively at 6 months and 1 and 2 years postoperatively. Eighty-one patients (162 hips) were identified who underwent bilateral hip arthroscopy for symptomatic FAI. Twelve patients (24 hips) who underwent simultaneous bilateral arthroscopy with minimum 1-year follow-up were compared with a matched cohort of 24 patients (48 hips) who underwent staged bilateral procedures. Mean preoperative alpha angle was 65.3° ± 9.6° in the simultaneous group and 65.9° ± 11.2° in the staged group (P = .6). At a mean follow-up of 17.8 months (range, 12 to 33 months), there were comparable improvements in simultaneous versus staged patient-reported outcome scores (mHHS 90.8 ± 11 v 88.9 ± 12.5, P = .662; HOS-ADL 97.3 ± 3.8 v 92.6 ± 10.3, P = .057; HOS-SSS 93.3 ± 10.2 v 86.5 ± 16.6, P = .203). The mean single anesthetic traction time was 90.8 ± 21.9 minutes (sum of both hips) in the simultaneous group, compared with a combined 2-anesthetic traction time of 85.7 ± 27.2 minutes in the staged group (P = .579). There were no traction-related complications in either group. No patients in the simultaneous group required revision surgery, whereas 1 patient in the staged group required lysis of adhesions at 24 months postoperatively

  18. Outcomes of Revision Hip Arthroscopy: 2-Year Clinical Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Asheesh; Redmond, John M; Stake, Christine E; Dunne, Kevin F; Hammarstedt, Jon E; Domb, Benjamin G

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate clinical outcomes, pain, and patient satisfaction following revision hip arthroscopy with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From April 2008 to October 2011, data were prospectively collected on all patients undergoing revision hip arthroscopy. All patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively with 4 patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures: the modified Harris hip score (mHHS), nonarthritic hip score (NAHS), hip outcome score-activities of daily living (HOS-ADL), and hip outcome score-sport-specific subscales (HOS-SSS). Pain was estimated on the visual analog scale (VAS). Patient satisfaction was measured on a scale from 0 to 10. The number of patients who underwent subsequent revision arthroscopy or total hip arthroplasty during the study period is also reported. Eighty-seven patients underwent revision hip arthroscopy during the study period. Seventy (80.5%) patients were included in our study. Average follow-up time was 28 months (range, 20 to 47.4 months). In terms of residual femoroacetabular impingement morphology, 45.7% of patients had preoperative alpha angles ≥ 55°, and 7.14% of patients had a lateral center-edge angle ≥ 40°. The score improvement from preoperative to 2-year follow-up was 57.84 to 73.65 for mHHS, 62.79 to 83.04 for HOS-ADL, 37.33 to 54.93 for HOS-SSS, and 55.65 to 70.79 for NAHS. VAS decreased from 6.72 to 4.08. All scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement (P < .001). Overall patient satisfaction was 7.67. Our success rate was 74.58%. Ten (14.29%) patients underwent total hip arthroplasty during the study period. Our hip survivorship was 85.7%. Five (7.14%) patients underwent secondary revision hip arthroscopy during the study period. We found an overall minor complication rate of 10%. Revision hip arthroscopy for all procedures performed on aggregate has improved clinical outcomes for all PROs, high survivorship, and high patient satisfaction scores at short-term follow-up. Patients should be counseled

  19. High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high–oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Robert; Latham, Sally H; Botham, Kathleen M; Hall, Wendy L; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline PD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has beneficial cardiovascular effects, but postprandial influences of these individual fatty acids are unclear. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the vascular effects of EPA + DHA compared with DHA only during postprandial lipemia relative to control high–oleic acid meals; the secondary objective was to characterize the effects of linoleic acid–enriched high-fat meals relative to the control meal. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial of 4 high-fat (75-g) meals containing 1) high–oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS; control), 2) HOS + fish oil (FO; 5 g EPA and DHA), 3) HOS + algal oil (AO; 5 g DHA), and 4) high–linoleic acid sunflower oil (HLS) in 16 healthy men (aged 35–70 y) with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations (mean ± SD triacylglycerol, 1.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Results: Elevations in triacylglycerol concentration relative to baseline were slightly reduced after FO and HLS compared with the HOS control (P < 0.05). The characteristic decrease from baseline in plasma nonesterified fatty acids after a mixed meal was inhibited after AO (Δ 0–3 h, P < 0.05). HLS increased the augmentation index compared with the other test meals (P < 0.05), although the digital volume pulse–reflection index was not significantly different. Plasma 8-isoprostane F2α analysis revealed opposing effects of FO (increased) and AO (reduced) compared with the control (P < 0.05). No differences in nitric oxide metabolites were observed. Conclusions: These data show differential postprandial 8-isoprostane F2α responses to high-fat meals containing EPA + DHA–rich fish oil compared with DHA-rich AO, but these differences were not associated with consistent effects on postprandial vascular function or lipemia. More detailed analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acid–derived lipid mediators are required to determine possible

  20. Evaluation of Apoptosis and Autophagy Inducing Potential of Berberis aristata, Azadirachta indica, and Their Synergistic Combinations in Parental and Resistant Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pracheta; Raman, Sukanya; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Lohitesh, K.; Saini, Heena; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Paul, Atish

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and hence can be effectively overcome by a multi-constituently therapeutic strategy. Medicinal plant extracts represent a perfect example of such stratagem. However, minimal studies have been done till date that portray the effect of extraction techniques on the phyto-constituent profile of plant extracts and its impact on anticancer activity. In the present study, we have evaluated the anticancer potential of methanolic extracts of Berberis aristata root and Azadirachta indica seeds prepared by various extraction techniques in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. Soxhlation extract of B. aristata (BAM-SX) and sonication extract of A. indica (AIM-SO) were most effective in inducing apoptosis in parental drug sensitive, as well as resistant cell type developed by repeated drug exposure. Generation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest preceded caspase-mediated apoptosis in HOS cells. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy enhanced cell death suggesting the cytoprotective role of autophagy. Combination studies of different methanolic extracts of BAM and AIM were performed, among which, the combination of BAM-SO and AIM-SO (BAAISO) was found to show synergism (IC50 10.27 µg/ml) followed by combination of BAM-MC and AIM-MC (BAAIMC) with respect to other combinations in the ratio of 1:1. BAAISO also showed synergism when it was added to cisplatin-resistant HOS cells (HCR). Chromatographic profiling of BAM-SX and AIM-SO by high performance thin layer chromatography resulted in identification of berberine (Rf 0.55), palmitine (Rf 0.50) in BAM-SX and azadirachtin A (Rf 0.36), azadirachtin B (Rf 0.56), nimbin (Rf 0.80), and nimbolide (Rf 0.43) in AIM-SO. The cytotoxic sensitivity obtained can be attributed to the above compounds. Our results highlight the importance of extraction technique and subsequent mechanism of action of multi-constituential B. aristata and A. indica against both sensitive and drug refractory HOS cells. PMID

  1. Evaluation of Apoptosis and Autophagy Inducing Potential of Berberis aristata, Azadirachta indica, and Their Synergistic Combinations in Parental and Resistant Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pracheta; Raman, Sukanya; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Lohitesh, K; Saini, Heena; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Paul, Atish

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and hence can be effectively overcome by a multi-constituently therapeutic strategy. Medicinal plant extracts represent a perfect example of such stratagem. However, minimal studies have been done till date that portray the effect of extraction techniques on the phyto-constituent profile of plant extracts and its impact on anticancer activity. In the present study, we have evaluated the anticancer potential of methanolic extracts of Berberis aristata root and Azadirachta indica seeds prepared by various extraction techniques in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. Soxhlation extract of B. aristata (BAM-SX) and sonication extract of A. indica (AIM-SO) were most effective in inducing apoptosis in parental drug sensitive, as well as resistant cell type developed by repeated drug exposure. Generation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest preceded caspase-mediated apoptosis in HOS cells. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy enhanced cell death suggesting the cytoprotective role of autophagy. Combination studies of different methanolic extracts of BAM and AIM were performed, among which, the combination of BAM-SO and AIM-SO (BAAISO) was found to show synergism (IC 50 10.27 µg/ml) followed by combination of BAM-MC and AIM-MC (BAAIMC) with respect to other combinations in the ratio of 1:1. BAAISO also showed synergism when it was added to cisplatin-resistant HOS cells (HCR). Chromatographic profiling of BAM-SX and AIM-SO by high performance thin layer chromatography resulted in identification of berberine (R f 0.55), palmitine (R f 0.50) in BAM-SX and azadirachtin A (R f 0.36), azadirachtin B (R f 0.56), nimbin (R f 0.80), and nimbolide (R f 0.43) in AIM-SO. The cytotoxic sensitivity obtained can be attributed to the above compounds. Our results highlight the importance of extraction technique and subsequent mechanism of action of multi-constituential B. aristata and A. indica against both sensitive and drug refractory HOS

  2. Assessing long-term return to play after hip arthroscopy in football players evaluating risk factors for good prognosis.

    PubMed

    Barastegui, D; Seijas, R; Alvarez-Diaz, P; Rivera, E; Alentorn-Geli, E; Steinbacher, G; Cuscó, X; Cugat, R

    2018-03-01

    Groin pain is the third most common disease in football players and has often been associated with hip pathology such as femoroacetabular impingement and labral lesions. Hip arthroscopy offers possibilities of function restoration via minimally invasive procedures. The aim of this study is to evaluate professional football player's injuries and their return to play after hip arthroscopy for FAI and labral injuries. Patients that underwent hip arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were selected retrospectively. From this population, only professional soccer players competing at national level were included (Tegner 10). Arthroscopic surgery was proposed in patients with persistent pain. All patients were assessed for VAS score preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-op. HOS (sport and DLA) and mHHS tests were performed at the same time periods. All patients were men with a mean age of 26.5 ± 7.1 years old. Preoperative VAS (7.4 ± 1.3), HOS ADL (67.7 ± 5.5), HOS sport (37.6 ± 18.7) and mHHS (72.5 ± 8.8) showed improved scores during long-term follow-up. Time to return to play was 10.8 months (SD ± 4.3), with range between 4 and 20 months. Mean follow-up was 45.4 ± 15.6 months (range from 26 to 72 months). No differences were observed between non-active and active patients at final follow-up with respect to chondral lesions, but significant differences were observed with reference to management of the labrum (p = 0.031), where a higher rate of labrectomies existed among inactive patients and a higher rate of suture among active patients. Hip arthroscopy is a safe procedure with very good return to play results, but for optimized return to football one should consider patient age at the time of surgery, the condition of the labrum and low scores on the Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and HOS (sport version) as predictive factors for poor prognosis. Level of evidence IV.

  3. A Review of Models of the Fluidic Generator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    ATTN l)ELA SAS-T INI. R ’ C’S N VANRIF ’ PORN )LC.iS C ENTER W HITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NIM HOS02 mMANDICE 1.PA IFD)LOS’ 1CS ARPMY "SH " STO G CPOR...ENiINEERIN’, TECHNICAL REP RTS, ATT’I F. HOWARD F. ’-. BOY I CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY R’ 10-408 ’AE RIDGE, TN 37H3D SCRENIEY PARK ATTN DAVID WORMLEY, MECH

  4. Arthroscopic Surgery or Physical Therapy for Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial With 2-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Nancy S; Rhon, Daniel I; Meyer, John; Slevin, John M; Marchant, Bryant G

    2018-05-01

    Arthroscopic hip surgery has risen 18-fold in the past decade; however, there is a dearth of clinical trials comparing surgery with nonoperative management. To determine the comparative effectiveness of surgery and physical therapy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Patients were recruited from a large military hospital after referral to the orthopaedic surgery clinic and were eligible for surgery. Of 104 eligible patients, 80 elected to participate, and the majority were active-duty service members (91.3%). No patients withdrew because of adverse events. The authors randomly selected patients to undergo either arthroscopic hip surgery (surgery group) or physical therapy (rehabilitation group). Patients in the rehabilitation group began a 12-session supervised clinic program within 3 weeks, and patients in the surgery group were scheduled for the next available surgery at a mean of 4 months after enrollment. Patient-reported outcomes of pain, disability, and perception of improvement over a 2-year period were collected. The primary outcome was the Hip Outcome Score (HOS; range, 0-100 [lower scores indicating greater disability]; 2 subscales: activities of daily living and sport). Secondary measures included the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33), Global Rating of Change (GRC), and return to work at 2 years. The primary analysis was on patients within their original randomization group. Statistically significant improvements were seen in both groups on the HOS and iHOT-33, but the mean difference was not significant between the groups at 2 years (HOS activities of daily living, 3.8 [95% CI, -6.0 to 13.6]; HOS sport, 1.8 [95% CI, -11.2 to 14.7]; iHOT-33, 6.3 [95% CI, -6.1 to 18.7]). The median GRC across all patients was that they "felt about the same" (GRC = 0). Two patients assigned to the surgery group did not undergo surgery, and 28 patients in the rehabilitation group ended up undergoing surgery. A

  5. Age effect on post freezing sperm viability of Bali cattle (Bos javanicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapsari, R. D.; Khalifah, Y.; Widyas, N.; Pramono, A.; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Post freezing sperm viability is one of factors which determine artificial insemination success. In the other side, bull’s or sire age influences the semen quality through sperm membrane constituent. It is known that freezing process change the sperm membrane during the processing stage. This research aims to know the effect of sire age on post freezing sperm viability of Bali cattle. The samples were collected in Singosari Artificial Insemination Centre, Malang, East Java, Indonesia on September - November 2016. Eight Bali cattle (4 and 7 y.o, 4 heads in each group) were used as semen source. Semen was collected using artificial vagina, 10 times spanning for 5 weeks (2 times per week, interval 3 and 4 days) in a row. The samples were then evaluated at fresh, chill and frozen stage. Fresh semen was diluted in Tris-citrate-egg yolk 20% (v/v) followed with chilling and freezing. Semen qualities were observed as sperm % motility (MOT), % live sperm using eosin-nigrosine staining (EOS) and % sperm membrane integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS). Variable comparisons between age groups were done using t-test. On the average, 4 y.o bulls showed higher semen quality at fresh, chill and frozen compared to 7 y.o in MOT (68.00±6.39 vs 65.9±7.62 56.40±3.71 vs 54.33±5.83 44.25±3.52 vs 40.40±7.06), EOS (72.08±6.63 vs 71.82±7.38 57.81±3.83 vs 57.41±6.32 53.16 ±8.41 vs 46.49±9.13) and HOS (60.85±13.91 vs 54.84±13.43 53.16 ±8.41 vs 46.49±9.13 44.6±9.39 vs 33.8±10.70) respectively. Statistical analysis results showed that age was significantly (P<0.05) affecting HOS at chill stage and MOT and HOS at frozen. In conclusion, younger Bali cattle (4 y.o) have more viable post freezing sperm compared to the older ones (7 y.o).

  6. High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high-oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Robert; Latham, Sally H; Botham, Kathleen M; Hall, Wendy L; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P D

    2014-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has beneficial cardiovascular effects, but postprandial influences of these individual fatty acids are unclear. The primary objective was to determine the vascular effects of EPA + DHA compared with DHA only during postprandial lipemia relative to control high-oleic acid meals; the secondary objective was to characterize the effects of linoleic acid-enriched high-fat meals relative to the control meal. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial of 4 high-fat (75-g) meals containing 1) high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS; control), 2) HOS + fish oil (FO; 5 g EPA and DHA), 3) HOS + algal oil (AO; 5 g DHA), and 4) high-linoleic acid sunflower oil (HLS) in 16 healthy men (aged 35-70 y) with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations (mean ± SD triacylglycerol, 1.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Elevations in triacylglycerol concentration relative to baseline were slightly reduced after FO and HLS compared with the HOS control (P < 0.05). The characteristic decrease from baseline in plasma nonesterified fatty acids after a mixed meal was inhibited after AO (Δ 0-3 h, P < 0.05). HLS increased the augmentation index compared with the other test meals (P < 0.05), although the digital volume pulse-reflection index was not significantly different. Plasma 8-isoprostane F2α analysis revealed opposing effects of FO (increased) and AO (reduced) compared with the control (P < 0.05). No differences in nitric oxide metabolites were observed. These data show differential postprandial 8-isoprostane F2α responses to high-fat meals containing EPA + DHA-rich fish oil compared with DHA-rich AO, but these differences were not associated with consistent effects on postprandial vascular function or lipemia. More detailed analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators are required to determine possible divergent functional effects of single meals rich in either DHA or EPA

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Short-Period Requirements of MIL-F-8785C. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    instrument displays featuring an Attitude Direction Indicator (WDI) and a Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) as the primary instruments. The...34 + 2. w s + wi- eg sp sp The primary experiment matrix consisted of three short period fre- quency configurations at three values of (n/a). The points...radians per second. The cost fuction for each match was: NPTS cost= 11 [(AG i) 1 + W (AP)] where AGu X GainHo S - GainLOS [dB] Api = PhaseHOS _ PhaseLOS

  8. Monitoring outcomes for the Medicare Advantage program: methods and application of the VR-12 for evaluation of plans.

    PubMed

    Kazis, Lewis E; Selim, Alfredo J; Rogers, William; Qian, Shirley X; Brazier, John

    2012-01-01

    The Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) is one of the major patient-reported outcomes for ranking the Medicare Advantage (MA) plans in the Health Outcomes Survey (HOS). Approaches for scoring physical and mental health are given using contemporary norms and regression estimators. A new metric approach for the VR-12 called the "VR-6D" is presented with case-mix adjustments for monitoring plans that combine utilities and mortality. Results show that the models for ranking health outcomes of the plans are robust and credible. Future directions include the use of utilities for evaluating and ranking of MA plans.

  9. Computer Simulated Development of Improved Command to Line-of-Sight Missile Guidance Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    INaval Postgraduate School Ma//MW Monterey, CA 93940 C -" 10 6 -VA. MONITORING A41INCY MAMIE 6 AOORESS(it 011f.,.t frau Cdfltt.I01gg 01HOS). IS. SECURITY...States Navy B.S., United States Naval Academy, 1967 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN SYSTEM4S...i i i it +P~4 to i if 1 . 1 - ztnco C3i.- Z-, a O.) Z (~VI- (M CWn4 Ul% 103 4-7 A BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. U.S. Army Foreign Science and Technology Center

  10. Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine Morphology and Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopy in Soccer Athletes: A Comparison to Nonkicking Athletes.

    PubMed

    Nawabi, Danyal H; Degen, Ryan M; Fields, Kara G; Wentzel, Catherine S; Adeoye, Olusanjo; Kelly, Bryan T

    2017-04-01

    To describe the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) morphology and clinical outcomes following arthroscopic surgical decompression in a group of high-level soccer athletes presenting with symptomatic hip impingement when compared with a control group of nonkicking athletes. From 2009 to 2012, we retrospectively reviewed our prospective hip registry for soccer athletes who underwent arthroscopic treatment for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) with 2-year follow-up, comparing with a control group of nonkicking athletes. Demographics were collected and radiographic studies (plain radiograph and computed tomographic scan) reviewed for several parameters, including AIIS morphology. Patient-reported outcome scores, including modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and International Hip Outcome Tool-33 (iHOT-33), were administered preoperatively, at 6 months, and at 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Twenty-six soccer players (34 hips) and 87 nonkicking athletes (115) hips were identified. Demographics, including age (19.2 ± 4.1 vs 20.1 ± 3.8 years) and gender distribution (53.8% vs 51.7% male), were similar between the soccer and nonkicking athletes (P = .288, .849). Eighty-four percent of soccer players demonstrated some abnormality of the AIIS extending to (type II, 52%) or below the anterior acetabular rim (type III, 32%), compared with 52% nonkicking athletes (P < .001). At a mean follow-up of 35 months (range, 24-57 months) there was significant improvement in all outcome scores in both groups from pre- to postoperation (P < .001). There was no evidence of differences in outcome scores between groups (mHSS: 89 ± 14.6 vs 88.2 ± 14.4, P = .804; HOS-ADL: 94.1 ± 9.1 vs 92.2 ± 11.1, P = .431; HOS-SSS: 86 ± 17.1 vs 81.3 ± 24.3, P = .362) with the exception of iHOT-33 (81.7 ± 19 vs 70.3 ± 23.6, P = .027). High-level soccer players have a significantly higher rate

  11. High Rate of Return to Cycling After Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frank, Rachel M; Ukwuani, Gift; Clapp, Ian; Chahla, Jorge; Nho, Shane J

    Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) is most commonly diagnosed in athletes who sustain repetitive flexion and rotational loading to their hip. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a patient's ability to return to cycling after hip arthroscopy for FAIS. There is a high rate of return to cycling after hip arthroscopy. Retrospective analysis. Level 4. Consecutive patients who had identified themselves as cyclists and had undergone hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAIS were reviewed. Pre- and postoperative physical examinations, imaging, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) scores, including the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sports-Specific (HOS-SS) subscales, and visual analog scale for pain, as well as a cycling-specific questionnaire, were assessed for all patients. A total of 58 patients (62% female; mean age, 30.0 ± 7.1 years; mean body mass index, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 ) were included. Prior to surgery, patients averaged 30 ± 42 miles per week (range, 2-300 miles). Fifty-five patients (95%) were forced to discontinue cycling at an average of 7.5 ± 6.2 months prior to surgery due to hip pain. Fifty-six patients (97%) returned to cycling at an average of 4.5 ± 2.5 months after surgery, with 33 (59%) returning to a better level of cycling and 23 (41%) to the same cycling level. Postoperatively, there was no difference in the average number of miles patients completed per week compared with preoperative values ( P = 0.08). At a mean follow-up of 31.14 ± 0.71 months (range, 24-48 months), all patients experienced significant improvements in mHHS, HOS-ADL, and HOS-SS PROs (all P < 0.0001), with an overall satisfaction rate of 91% ± 13%. Recreational and competitive cyclists return to cycling 97% of the time after hip arthroscopy for FAIS, with most of these patients returning at an average of 4.5 months after surgery. This information is helpful in counseling patients on their

  12. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas under subterahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q.; Martin, P. D.; Hatke, A. T.; Zudov, M. A.; Watson, J. D.; Gardner, G. C.; Manfra, M. J.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2015-08-01

    We report on magnetotransport measurements in a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas subject to subterahertz radiation in the regime where Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdHOs) and microwave-induced resistance oscillations (MIROs) coexist over a wide magnetic field range, spanning several harmonics of the cyclotron resonance. Surprisingly, we find that the SdHO amplitude is modified by the radiation in a nontrivial way, owing to the oscillatory correction which has the same period and phase as MIROs. This finding challenges our current understanding of microwave photoresistance in 2D electron gas, calling for future investigations.

  13. A human operator simulator model of the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, F. A., III; Doane, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A generic operator model called HOS was used to simulate the behavior and performance of a pilot flying a transport airplane during instrument approach and landing operations in order to demonstrate the applicability of the model to problems associated with interfacing a crew with a flight system. The model which was installed and operated on NASA Langley's central computing system is described. Preliminary results of its application to an investigation of an innovative display system under development in Langley's terminal configured vehicle program are considered.

  14. Power spectral ensity of markov texture fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Texture is an important image characteristic. A variety of spatial domain techniques were proposed for extracting and utilizing textural features for segmenting and classifying images. for the most part, these spatial domain techniques are ad hos in nature. A markov random field model for image texture is discussed. A frequency domain description of image texture is derived in terms of the power spectral density. This model is used for designing optimum frequency domain filters for enhancing, restoring and segmenting images based on their textural properties.

  15. Evaluation of mercury cycling and hypolimnetic oxygenation in mercury-impacted seasonally stratified reservoirs in the Guadalupe River watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Beutel, Marc W.; Dent, Stephen R.; Schladow, S. G.

    2016-10-01

    Surface water reservoirs trap inorganic mercury delivered from their watersheds, create conditions that convert inorganic mercury to highly toxic methylmercury (MeHg), and host sportfish in which MeHg bioaccumulates. The Santa Clara Valley Water District (District) actively manages and monitors four mercury-impaired reservoirs that help to serve communities in South San Francisco Bay, California. The Guadalupe River watershed, which contains three of those reservoirs, also includes the New Almaden mercury-mining district, the largest historic mercury producer in North America. Monthly vertical profiles of field measurements and grab samples in years 2011-2013 portray annual cycling of density stratification, dissolved oxygen (DO), and MeHg. Monitoring results highlight the role that hypolimnetic hypoxia plays in MeHg distribution in the water column, as well as the consistent, tight coupling between MeHg in ecological compartments (water, zooplankton, and bass) across the four reservoirs. Following the 2011-2013 monitoring period, the District designed and installed hypolimnetic oxygenation systems (HOS) in the four reservoirs in an effort to repress MeHg buildup in bottom waters and attain regulatory targets for MeHg in water and fish tissue. Initial HOS operation in Calero Reservoir in 2014 enhanced bottom water DO and depressed hypolimnetic buildup of MeHg, but did not substantially decrease mercury levels in zooplankton or small fish.

  16. Platelets promote osteosarcoma cell growth through activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-Akt signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Satoshi; Takemoto, Ai; Takami, Miho; Oh-Hara, Tomoko; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-08-01

    The interactions of tumor cells with platelets contribute to the progression of tumor malignancy, and the expression levels of platelet aggregation-inducing factors positively correlate with the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cells. However, it is unclear how tumor-platelet interaction contributes to the proliferation of osteosarcomas. We report here that osteosarcoma-platelet interactions induce the release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from platelets, which promotes the proliferation of osteosarcomas. Co-culture of platelets with MG63 or HOS osteosarcoma cells, which could induce platelet aggregation, enhanced the proliferation of each cell line in vitro. Analysis of phospho-antibody arrays revealed that co-culture of MG63 cells with platelets induced the phosphorylation of platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and Akt. The addition of supernatants of osteosarcoma-platelet reactants also increased the growth of MG63 and HOS cells as well as the level of phosphorylated-PDGFR and -Akt. Sunitinib or LY294002, but not erlotinib, significantly inhibited the platelet-induced proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, indicating that PDGF released from platelets plays an important role in the proliferation of osteosarcomas by activating the PDGFR and then Akt. Our results suggest that inhibitors that specifically target osteosarcoma-platelet interactions may eradicate osteosarcomas. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Estrogen-related receptor α participates transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yantao; Zhang, Kunshui; Li, Yang; He, Qing

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Osteosarcoma patients often exhibit pulmonary metastasis, which results in high patient mortality. Understanding the mechanisms of advanced metastasis in osteosarcoma cell is important for the targeted treatment and drug development. Our present study revealed that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) treatment can significantly promote the in vitro migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma MG-63 and HOS cells. The loss of epithelial characteristics E-cadherin (E-Cad) and up regulation of mesenchymal markers Vimentin (Vim) suggested TGF-β induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of osteosarcoma cells. TGF-β treatment obviously increased the expression of Snail, a key EMT-related transcription factor, in both MG-63 and HOS cells. Silencing of Snail markedly attenuated TGF-β induced down regulation of E-cad and up regulation of Vim. TGF-β treatment also significantly increased the expression and nuclear translocation of estrogen-related receptors α (ERRα), while had no obvious effect on the expression of ERα, ERβ, or ERRγ. Knock down of ERRα or its inhibitor XCT-790 significantly attenuated TFG-β induced EMT and transcription of Snail in osteosarcoma cells. Collectively, our present study revealed that TGF-β treatment can trigger the EMT of osteosarcoma cells via ERRα/Snail pathways. Our data suggested that ERRα/Snail pathways might be potential therapeutic targets of metastasis of osteosarcoma cells. PMID:27532429

  18. Highly biological active antibiofilm, anticancer and osteoblast adhesion efficacy from MWCNT/PPy/Pd nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, Balaji; Sonamuthu, Jegatheeswaran; Samayanan, Selvam; Arumugam, Sangili; Mahalingam, Sundrarajan

    2018-03-01

    Multifunctional biologically active materials have approached for antibiofilm, anticancer and osteoblast adhesion activities with significant biomedical applications, owing to this MWCNT modified with polypyrrole (PPy) matrix with the incorporation of palladium nanoparticles (NPs). The synthesized composite displays a tube-shaped morphology with highly dispersed crystalline Pd NPs, which are established through XRD, SEM, TEM and SAED studies. The pyridinic-N(∼402.7), pyrrolic sbnd N (∼400.8) peak in XPS spectra evidenced the interaction of PPy with Pd and MWCNT. Polymer stretching frequencies in FTIR and Raman spectroscopy proves successful formation of PPy and the Pd-N (1609 cm-1) interaction. In the stability aspect, it is up to 58.73% mass withstood at 800 °C in TGA analysis. The composite exhibits an efficient Anti-biofilm against a set of bacterial stain with planktonic cell growth. In vitro cytotoxicity of Vero and HeLa cell line assess the composites toxicity and anticancer activity up to 100 μg. The outcome of cell adhesions showed that human osteosarcoma cells (HOS) can adhere and to develop on the MWCNT/PPy/Pd composites. Furthermore, the proliferation of cells on MWCNT/PPy/Pd composites was also proved the biocompatibility of the composites against HOS cells. These results suggest that Pd-doped MWCNT/PPy composites are promising materials for biomedical applications.

  19. Plasma membrane changes during the liquid storage of boar spermatozoa: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Gaczarzewicz, Dariusz; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Udała, Jan; Błaszczyk, Barbara; Stankiewicz, Tomasz; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2010-03-01

    Studies were performed on boar semen routinely used at the local artificial insemination (AI) centre. The semen was stored in a Safe Cell Plus commercial extender at 17 degrees C for nine days. The aim of our research was focused on changes in sperm plasma membrane integrity. The integrity of the sperm plasma membrane and acrosome as well as sperm motility decreased after dilution and during storage of the semen. The highest percentage of live sperm was identified by the eosin-nigrosin method, a lower percentage by the SYBR-14/PI test, and the lowest percentage of live cells was discovered by the hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) test (P < 0.01). There were significant differences between the results of staining methods and sperm motility (P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between the HOS test results and sperm motility. The plasma membrane integrity parameters positively correlated (P < 0.001) with each other and with sperm motility but negatively with aspartate aminotransferase activity. Our findings confirmed that the boar sperm aging changes, which increased during liquid semen preservation, were connected with the loss of function and integrity of the sperm plasma membrane. The employed complementary tests are comprehensive indicators of sperm membrane integrity during long-term semen preservation, and they can help establish the actual number of 'healthy' cells. The assays may be used in AI laboratories and should be incorporated into the routine of semen analysis.

  20. Physical Therapy Protocol After Hip Arthroscopy: Clinical Guidelines Supported by 2-Year Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Domb, Benjamin G; Sgroi, Terrance A; VanDevender, Jeremy C

    2016-07-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) was first described by Ganz in 2003 and is a significant cause of decreased function and mobility. Femoroacetabular impingement must be treated in an individualized, goal-oriented, stepwise fashion. This protocol was developed with biomechanical considerations of soft tissue and bony structures surrounding the hip joint. The PubMed database was searched for scientific and review articles from the years 2000 to 2015 utilizing the search terms: hip rehabilitation, femoroacetabular impingement, and arthroscopy. Clinical review. Level 5. Five hundred ninety-five of 738 patients were available for follow-up showing improvement from preoperative to 2-year follow-up of 61.29 to 82.02 for modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), 62.79 to 83.04 for Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), 40.96 to 70.07 for Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and 57.97 to 80.41 for Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS); visual analog scale (VAS) scores decreased from 5.86 preoperatively to 2.94 postoperatively. Following a structured, criteria-based program, appropriate patients undergoing hip arthroscopy may achieve excellent outcomes and return to full independent activities of daily living as well as sport. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Do Inquiring Minds Have Positive Attitudes? The Science Education of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Morton, Karisma; Moore, Chelsea; Chimonidou, Antonia; Labrake, Cynthia; Kopp, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Due to their potential impact on students' cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, the negative attitudes towards science held by many elementary teachers are a critical issue that needs to be addressed. This study focuses on the science education of pre-service elementary teachers with the goal of improving their attitudes before they begin their professional lives as classroom teachers. Specifically, this study builds on a small body of research to examine whether exposure to inquiry-based science content courses that actively involve students in the collaborative process of learning and discovery can promote a positive change in attitudes towards science across several different dimensions. To examine this issue, surveys and administrative data were collected from over 200 students enrolled in the Hands on Science (HoS) program for pre-service teachers at the University of Texas at Austin, as well as more than 200 students in a comparison group enrolled in traditional lecture-style classes. Quantitative analyses reveal that after participating in HoS courses, pre-service teachers significantly increased their scores on scales measuring confidence, enjoyment, anxiety, and perceptions of relevance, while those in the comparison group experienced a decline in favorable attitudes to science. These patterns offer empirical support for the attitudinal benefits of inquiry-based instruction and have implications for the future learning opportunities available to students at all education levels. PMID:27667862

  2. Physical Therapy Protocol After Hip Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Domb, Benjamin G.; Sgroi, Terrance A.; VanDevender, Jeremy C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) was first described by Ganz in 2003 and is a significant cause of decreased function and mobility. Femoroacetabular impingement must be treated in an individualized, goal-oriented, stepwise fashion. This protocol was developed with biomechanical considerations of soft tissue and bony structures surrounding the hip joint. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched for scientific and review articles from the years 2000 to 2015 utilizing the search terms: hip rehabilitation, femoroacetabular impingement, and arthroscopy. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Five hundred ninety-five of 738 patients were available for follow-up showing improvement from preoperative to 2-year follow-up of 61.29 to 82.02 for modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), 62.79 to 83.04 for Hip Outcome Score–Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), 40.96 to 70.07 for Hip Outcome Score–Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and 57.97 to 80.41 for Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS); visual analog scale (VAS) scores decreased from 5.86 preoperatively to 2.94 postoperatively. Conclusion: Following a structured, criteria-based program, appropriate patients undergoing hip arthroscopy may achieve excellent outcomes and return to full independent activities of daily living as well as sport. PMID:27173983

  3. Analysis and automatic identification of sleep stages using higher order spectra.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Chua, Kuang Chua; Min, Lim Choo; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2010-12-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are widely used to study the activity of the brain, such as to determine sleep stages. These EEG signals are nonlinear and non-stationary in nature. It is difficult to perform sleep staging by visual interpretation and linear techniques. Thus, we use a nonlinear technique, higher order spectra (HOS), to extract hidden information in the sleep EEG signal. In this study, unique bispectrum and bicoherence plots for various sleep stages were proposed. These can be used as visual aid for various diagnostics application. A number of HOS based features were extracted from these plots during the various sleep stages (Wakefulness, Rapid Eye Movement (REM), Stage 1-4 Non-REM) and they were found to be statistically significant with p-value lower than 0.001 using ANOVA test. These features were fed to a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier for automatic identification. Our results indicate that the proposed system is able to identify sleep stages with an accuracy of 88.7%.

  4. Flight Test of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of flight tests performed on the F/A active aeroelastic wing airplane is shown. The topics include: 1) F/A-18 AAW Airplane; 2) F/A-18 AAW Control Surfaces; 3) Flight Test Background; 4) Roll Control Effectiveness Regions; 5) AAW Design Test Points; 6) AAW Phase I Test Maneuvers; 7) OBES Pitch Doublets; 8) OBES Roll Doublets; 9) AAW Aileron Flexibility; 10) Phase I - Lessons Learned; 11) Control Law Development and Verification & Validation Testing; 12) AAW Phase II RFCS Envelopes; 13) AAW 1-g Phase II Flight Test; 14) Region I - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 15) Region I - Subsonic 1-g 360 Roll; 16) Region II - Supersonic 1-g Rolls; 17) Region II - Supersonic 1-g 360 Roll; 18) Region III - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 19) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (open-loop); 20) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (closed-loop); 21) AAW Phase II Elevated-g Flight Test; 22) Region I - Subsonic 4-g RPO; and 23) Phase II - Lessons Learned

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of bile acid amides of [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbenes as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Devesh S; Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Lohitesh, K; Jha, Prabhat N; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Sakhuja, Rajeev

    2017-12-13

    A series of amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene derivatives and their bile acid (cholic and deoxycholic acid) amides were designed and synthesized. A comparative study on the anticancer and antibacterial activity evaluation on the synthesized analogs was carried against the human osteosarcoma (HOS) cancer cell line, and two gram -ve (E. coli and S. typhi) and two gram [Formula: see text]ve (B. subtilis and S. aureus) bacterial strains. All the cholic acid [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene amides showed an [Formula: see text] in the range 2-13 [Formula: see text] against human osteosarcoma cells (HOS) with the most active analog (6g) possessing an [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]. One of the amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene, 4e, was found to possess an [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]. An increase in the number of cells at the sub-[Formula: see text] phase of the cell was observed in the in vitro cell cycle analysis of two most active compounds in the series (4e, 6g) suggesting a clear indication toward induction of apoptotic cascade. With respect to antibacterial screening, amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbenes were found to be more active than their corresponding bile acid amides. The synthesized compounds were also subjected to in silico study to predict their physiochemical properties and drug-likeness score.

  6. Deciphering the Biophysical Effects of Oxidizing Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in Interferon-beta-1a using MS and HDX-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Damian J.; Bou-Assaf, George M.; Berkowitz, Steven A.

    2017-05-01

    Introduction of a chemical change to one or more amino acids in a protein's polypeptide chain can result in various effects on its higher-order structure (HOS) and biophysical behavior (or properties). These effects range from no detectable change to significant structural or conformational alteration that can greatly affect the protein's biophysical properties and its resulting biological function. The ability to reliably detect the absence or presence of such changes is essential to understanding the structure-function relationship in a protein and in the successful commercial development of protein-based drugs (biopharmaceuticals). In this paper, we focus our attention on the latter by specifically elucidating the impact of oxidation on the HOS, structural dynamics, and biophysical properties of interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a). Oxidation is a common biochemical modification that occurs in many biopharmaceuticals, specifically in two naturally-occurring sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. To carry out this work, we used combinations of hydrogen peroxide and pH to differentially oxidize IFNβ-1a (to focus on only methionine oxidation versus methionine and cysteine oxidation). We then employed several analytical and biophysical techniques to acquire information about the differential impact of these two oxidation scenarios on IFNβ-1a. In particular, the use of MS-based techniques, especially HDX-MS, play a dominant role in revealing the differential effects.

  7. Engineering a Microvascular Capillary Bed in a Tissue-Like Collagen Construct

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Ronald E.; Brochhausen, Christoph; Brown, Robert A.; Kirkpatrick, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that plastic compression (PC) of collagen gels allows a rapid and controlled fabrication of matrix- and cell-rich constructs in vitro that closely mimic the structure and characteristics of tissues in vivo. Microvascular endothelial cells, the major cell type making up the blood vessels in the body, were added to the PC collagen to determine whether cells attach, survive, grow, and express endothelial cell characteristics when seeded alone or in coculture with other cells. Endothelial cells seeded on the PC collagen containing human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) or human osteoblasts (HOS) formed vessel-like structures over 3 weeks in culture without the addition of exogenous growth factors in the medium. In contrast, on the PC scaffolds without HFF or HOS, human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) exhibited a typical cobblestone morphology for 21 days under the same conditions. We propose that the coculture of primary endothelial cells with PC collagen constructs, containing a stromal cell population, is a valuable technique for in vitro modeling of proangiogenic responses toward such biomimetic constructs in vivo. A major observation in the cocultures was the absence of gel contraction, even after 3 weeks of fibroblast culture. This collagen form could, for example, be of great value in tissue engineering of the skin, as contractures are both aesthetically and functionally disabling. PMID:24684395

  8. A preference-based measure of health: the VR-6D derived from the veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Selim, Alfredo J; Rogers, William; Qian, Shirley X; Brazier, John; Kazis, Lewis E

    2011-10-01

    The Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) is currently the major endpoint used in the Medicare managed care outcomes measure in the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS(®)), referred to as the Health Outcomes Survey (HOS). The purpose of this study is to adapt the Brazier SF-6D utility measure to the VR-12 to generate a single utility index. We used the HOS cohorts 2 and 3 for SF-36 data and 9 for VR-12 data. We calculated SF-6D scores from the SF-36 using the algorithms developed by Brazier and colleagues. The values of the Brazier SF-6D were used to estimate utility scores from the VR-12 using a mapping approach based on a 2-stage mapping procedure, named as VR-6D. The VR-6D derived from the VR-12 has similar distributional properties as the SF-6D. The change in VR-6D showed significant variations across disease groups with different levels of morbidity and mortality. This study produced a utility measure for the VR-12 that is comparable to the SF-6D and responsive to change. The VR-6D can be used in evaluations of health care plans and cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the health gains that health care interventions can achieve.

  9. Wind growth and wave breaking in higher-order spectral phase resolved wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, R.; Walker, D. T.

    2016-02-01

    Wind growth and wave breaking are a integral parts of the wave evolution. Higher-OrderSpectral models (HoS) describing the non-linear evolution require empirical models for these effects. In particular, the assimilation of phase-resolved remotesensing data will require the prediction and modeling of wave breaking events.The HoS formulation used in this effort is based on fully nonlinear model of O. Nwogu (2009). The model for wave growth due to wind is based on the early normal and tangential stress model of Munk (1947). The model for wave breaking contains two parts. The first part initiates the breaking events based on the local wave geometry and the second part is a model for the pressure field, which acting against the surface normal velocity extracts energy from the wave. The models are tuned to balance the wind energy input with the breaking wave losses and to be similarfield observations of breaking wave coverage. The initial wave field, based on a Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum for 10 meter wind speed of 5-15 m/s, defined over a region of up to approximate 2.5 km on a side with the simulation running for several hundreds of peak wave periods. Results will be presented describing the evolution of the wave field.Sponsored by Office of Naval Research, Code 322

  10. The Cancer-Related Transcription Factor Runx2 Modulates Cell Proliferation in Human Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Claudia M.J.; Vega, Oscar A.; Osorio, Mariana M.; Tapia, Julio C.; Antonelli, Marcelo; Stein, Gary S.; Van Wijnen, Andre J.; Galindo, Mario A.

    2013-01-01

    Runx2 regulates osteogenic differentiation and bone formation, but also suppresses pre-osteoblast proliferation by affecting cell cycle progression in the G1 phase. The growth suppressive potential of Runx2 is normally inactivated in part by protein destabilization, which permits cell cycle progression beyond the G1/S phase transition, and Runx2 is again up-regulated after mitosis. Runx2 expression also correlates with metastasis and poor chemotherapy response in osteosarcoma. Here we show that six human osteosarcoma cell lines (SaOS, MG63, U2OS, HOS, G292, and 143B) have different growth rates, which is consistent with differences in the lengths of the cell cycle. Runx2 protein levels are cell cycle-regulated with respect to the G1/S phase transition in U2OS, HOS, G292, and 143B cells. In contrast, Runx2 protein levels are constitutively expressed during the cell cycle in SaOS and MG63 cells. Forced expression of Runx2 suppresses growth in all cell lines indicating that accumulation of Runx2 in excess of its pre-established levels in a given cell type triggers one or more anti-proliferative pathways in osteosarcoma cells. Thus, regulatory mechanisms controlling Runx2 expression in osteosarcoma cells must balance Runx2 protein levels to promote its putative oncogenic functions, while avoiding suppression of bone tumor growth. PMID:22949168

  11. Automated characterization of diabetic foot using nonlinear features extracted from thermograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Muhammad; Ng, Eddie Y. K.; Oh, Shu Lih; Heng, Marabelle L.; Hagiwara, Yuki; Tan, Jen Hong; Tong, Jasper W. K.; Acharya, U. Rajendra

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The blood circulation to the foot decreases due to DM and hence, the temperature reduces in the plantar foot. Thermography is a non-invasive imaging method employed to view the thermal patterns using infrared (IR) camera. It allows qualitative and visual documentation of temperature fluctuation in vascular tissues. But it is difficult to diagnose these temperature changes manually. Thus, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) system may help to accurately detect diabetic foot to prevent traumatic outcomes such as ulcerations and lower extremity amputation. In this study, plantar foot thermograms of 33 healthy persons and 33 individuals with type 2 diabetes are taken. These foot images are decomposed using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and higher order spectra (HOS) techniques. Various texture and entropy features are extracted from the decomposed images. These combined (DWT + HOS) features are ranked using t-values and classified using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Our proposed methodology achieved maximum accuracy of 89.39%, sensitivity of 81.81% and specificity of 96.97% using only five features. The performance of the proposed thermography-based CAD system can help the clinicians to take second opinion on their diagnosis of diabetic foot.

  12. Assessment of the structure of pegylated-recombinant protein therapeutics by the NMR fingerprint assay.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Derek J; Aubin, Yves

    2017-05-10

    A number of recombinant protein therapeutic products, such as filgrastim (methionyl granulocyte colony stimulating factor [Met-GCSF] used to boost the immune system in chemotherapy treated cancer patients), and interferon alpha-2 (used for the treatment of various viral infections), have been chemically modified with the addition of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain. This modification prolongs residency of the drug in the body and reduces metabolic degradation, which allows less frequent administration of the products. Here we show how NMR spectroscopy methods can assess the higher order structure (HOS) of pegylated-filgrastim (Neulasta®), pegylated interferon-α2a (Pegasys®) pegylated interferon-α2b (PEG-Intron®) purchased from the marketplace. The addition of the PEG moiety effectively doubles the molecular weight of the three products. This presents a significant challenge for the application of NMR techniques. Nevertheless, the results showed that high-resolution spectra could be recorded for two of the three products. Comparison of the spectra of the pegylated protein and the non-pegylated protein shows that the chemical modification did not alter the HOS of these proteins. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Influence of antisense RNA and sequences of viral transactivators traps on RNA synthesis of HTLV-1 virus].

    PubMed

    Borisenko, A S; Kotus, E V; Kaloshin, A A

    2008-01-01

    Significant number of scientific publications devoted to inhibition of viral replication by antisense RNA (asRNA) genes shows that this approach is useful for gene therapy of viral infections. To investigate the possibility of suppression of HTLV-1 virus reproduction by asRNA we constructed recombinant plasmids containing asRNA genes against U3 long terminal repeats region and X gene under the control of promoter of myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (MPSV) or without such promoter. Using stable calcium-phosphate transfection method with subsequent selection in the presence of G-418, RaHOS line-based cell clones carrying both asRNA genes and sequences able to bind HTLV-1 transactivator proteins (i.e. "traps" of viral transactivators, TVT) were obtained. Data from dot-hybridization analysis of viral RNA extracted from RaHOS cell clones showed that TVT sequences are able to suppress the viral RNA synthesis on 90% and asRNA against X gene synthesis--on 50%.

  14. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  15. Multiple histone deacetylases are recruited by corepressor Sin3 and contribute to gene repression mediated by Opi1 regulator of phospholipid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Grigat, Mathias; Jäschke, Yvonne; Kliewe, Felix; Pfeifer, Matthias; Walz, Susanne; Schüller, Hans-Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Yeast genes of phospholipid biosynthesis are negatively regulated by repressor protein Opi1 when precursor molecules inositol and choline (IC) are available. Opi1-triggered gene repression is mediated by recruitment of the Sin3 corepressor complex. In this study, we systematically investigated the regulatory contribution of subunits of Sin3 complexes and identified Pho23 as important for IC-dependent gene repression. Two non-overlapping regions within Pho23 mediate its direct interaction with Sin3. Previous work has shown that Sin3 recruits the histone deacetylase (HDAC) Rpd3 to execute gene repression. While deletion of SIN3 strongly alleviates gene repression by IC, an rpd3 null mutant shows almost normal regulation. We thus hypothesized that various HDACs may contribute to Sin3-mediated repression of IC-regulated genes. Indeed, a triple mutant lacking HDACs, Rpd3, Hda1 and Hos1, could phenocopy a sin3 single mutant. We show that these proteins are able to contact Sin3 in vitro and in vivo and mapped three distinct HDAC interaction domains, designated HID1, HID2 and HID3. HID3, which is identical to the previously described structural motif PAH4 (paired amphipathic helix), can bind all HDACs tested. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies finally confirmed that Hda1 and Hos1 are recruited to promoters of phospholipid biosynthetic genes INO1 and CHO2.

  16. Flow cytometry application in the assessment of sperm DNA integrity of men with asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Piasecka, M; Gaczarzewicz, D; Laszczyńska, M; Starczewski, A; Brodowska, A

    2007-01-01

    Sperm genomic integrity and ultrastructural features of ejaculated spermatozoa contributing to the assessment of gamete fertility potential in patients with asthenozoospermia are discussed. The proportion of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in the semen of patients with low sperm motility (n=40; p<0.01) as compared to men with normal sperm motility (n=54). Sperm DNA fragmentation negatively correlated (n=94) with sperm motility, sperm concentration, and integrity of the sperm cellular membrane (HOS-test). Two categories of patients were distinguished: (1) patients (23 out of 94 subjects) with < or = 4% of TUNEL-positive cells and (2) patients (71 subjects) with 4% of TUNEL-positive cells. A significant difference was noted in the sperm motility and HOS-test results between patients from both groups. Large numbers of immature spermatozoa with extensive cytoplasmic retention, ultrastructural chromatin and midpiece abnormalities, and conglomerates containing sperm fragments were present more frequently in the semen of asthenozoospermic subjects with >4% of TUNEL-positive sperm cells. Low sperm motility seems to be accompanied by serious defects of gamete chromatin expressed as diminished sperm genomic integrity and abnormal DNA condensation and by defects of sperm midpiece. These abnormalities may reflect developmental failure during the spermatogenic remodeling process. The DNA fragmentation test may be considered as an additional assay for the evaluation of spermatozoa beside standard analysis and taken together with electron microscopy may help to determine the actual number of "healthy" spermatozoa thereby playing an important role during diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  17. Associations of Education Level and Bone Density Tests among Cognitively Intact Elderly White Women in Managed Medicare

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Di; Yin, Michael T.; Shi, Qiuhu; Hoover, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine associations between having bone density tests and level of education among white elderly women in managed Medicare. Method. Data from the ninth through twelfth cohort (2006–2009) of the Medicare Health Outcome Survey (HOS) of managed Medicare plans were analyzed; 239331 white elderly women were included. Respondents were grouped by education level and the percentages of respondents who had lifetime bone density testing done among each group were analyzed. Results. 62.7% of respondents with less than a high school education reported previously taking a bone density test. This was lower than the 73.8% for respondents who completed high school and the 81.0% for respondents with more than a high school education. When potential confounding factors such as age, body mass index, marital status, smoking history, year of HOS survey, and region were factored in, the odds ratios of having a bone density test when compared to respondents with less than a high school education were 1.61 and 2.39, respectively, for those with just a high school education and more than a high school education (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Higher education was independently associated with greater use of bone density test in these elderly white women. PMID:23056041

  18. Does Hip Arthroscopy Provide Meaningful Outcome Improvement for Adolescent Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Benedict Uchenna; Chang, Brenda; Kahlenberg, Cynthia A.; Fields, Kara G.; Nawabi, Danyal H.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Ranawat, Anil S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) produces meaningful outcome improvement in adults. Hip arthroscopy for pediatric FAI is now established as a safe procedure however there is a paucity of evidence reporting on outcome improvement after arthroscopic treatment of FAI in this population. Methods: A prospective institutional hip preservation registry was reviewed to identify hip arthroscopies performed for pediatric FAI. Patients with pre-existing hip conditions such as slipped capital femoral epiphysis and Legg-Calve-Perthese were excluded. Included patients were 18 years and younger. The modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and the international Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) are routinely collected as part of the registry. Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated using a distribution based method and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) was calculated using the an anchor question. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with area under the curve was used. AUC > 0.7 was considered significantly predictive. Results: Forty-seven children and adolescents were identified. The majority of patients were female (N=32, 68.1%) with a mean age of 16.5 (+ 1.1) years. The MCID (% achieving) for the mHHS, HOS activities of daily living (ADL), HOS Sport and iHOT-33 was 9.5 (85%), 9.8 (79%), 12.1 (85%) and 10.7 (94%) respectively. MCID values on these outcome tools were comparable to adult patients within the registry however for each outcome measure pediatric patients were more likely to achieve MCID. In univariate analysis acetabular version was the only predictive variable for achieving MCID in pediatric FAI (p<0.05). The majority of children (91%) reported improved physical ability based on the anchor question and 53% (compared to 40% in adult registry patients) were classified as achieving SCB. The following one-year raw outcome scores were significantly predictive of SCB on the mHHS, HOS

  19. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  20. Automated oral cancer identification using histopathological images: a hybrid feature extraction paradigm.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Venkatraghavan, Vikram; Acharya, U Rajendra; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Min, Lim Choo; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2012-02-01

    Oral cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world. In India it is the most common malignant neoplasm. Histopathological images have widely been used in the differential diagnosis of normal, oral precancerous (oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSF)) and cancer lesions. However, this technique is limited by subjective interpretations and less accurate diagnosis. The objective of this work is to improve the classification accuracy based on textural features in the development of a computer assisted screening of OSF. The approach introduced here is to grade the histopathological tissue sections into normal, OSF without Dysplasia (OSFWD) and OSF with Dysplasia (OSFD), which would help the oral onco-pathologists to screen the subjects rapidly. The biopsy sections are stained with H&E. The optical density of the pixels in the light microscopic images is recorded and represented as matrix quantized as integers from 0 to 255 for each fundamental color (Red, Green, Blue), resulting in a M×N×3 matrix of integers. Depending on either normal or OSF condition, the image has various granular structures which are self similar patterns at different scales termed "texture". We have extracted these textural changes using Higher Order Spectra (HOS), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), and Laws Texture Energy (LTE) from the histopathological images (normal, OSFWD and OSFD). These feature vectors were fed to five different classifiers: Decision Tree (DT), Sugeno Fuzzy, Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Radial Basis Probabilistic Neural Network (RBPNN) to select the best classifier. Our results show that combination of texture and HOS features coupled with Fuzzy classifier resulted in 95.7% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 94.5% and 98.8% respectively. Finally, we have proposed a novel integrated index called Oral Malignancy Index (OMI) using the HOS, LBP, LTE features, to diagnose benign or malignant tissues using just one number. We hope that this OMI can

  1. Sequestration of PDC-109 protein improves freezability of crossbred bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, N; Srivastava, S K; Ghosh, S K; Singh, L P; Prasad, J K; Kumar, Amit; Perumal, P; Jerome, A; Thamizharasan, A

    2012-03-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of sequestration of PDC-109 protein, a majority constituent of heparin binding proteins (HBP) of seminal plasma, on freezability and in vitro fertilizing ability of crossbred bull spermatozoa after cryopreservation. The study consisted of isolation and characterization of PDC-109 protein to raise anti-sera against it in rabbits. Following which, raised antibodies against PDC-109 protein was quantitated and coated in tubes used for collection of ejaculates. Semen ejaculates thus collected were cryopreserved using EYTG extender. Physico-morphological characteristics, viz. motility, viability, acrosomal integrity and HOS response as an indicator of freezability of cryopreserved spermatozoa were determined at pre freeze as well as post thaw stage. At pre freeze stage, a significant (p<0.05) improvement in viability (83.83 ± 2.18 vs 75.17 ± 2.42) and acrosome integrity (81.33 ± 2.38 vs 72.83 ± 2.39) in antibodies treated group than control was observed. Similarly, increase in HOS responsive spermatozoa was highly significant (p<0.01) than control (78.83 ± 1.69 vs 67.5 ± 1.75). At post thaw stage, significant (p<0.05) improvement in viability (69.50 ± 2.16 vs 60.33 ± 2.19) and HOS responsive spermatozoa (68.67 ± 1.62 vs 58.50 ± 1.32) and highly significant (p<0.01) increase in individual motility (56.17 ± 1.83 vs 47.00 ± 1.86) and acrosome integrity (75.17 ± 2.38 vs 61.83 ± 2.1) was observed in antibodies treated group when compared to control was observed. The results from the study revealed that sequestration of PDC-109 protein from semen samples leads to significant improvement in pre-freeze and post-thaw values of above parameters in cryopreserved spermatozoa. It is thus concluded that sequestration of PDC-109 protein from ejaculates improves freezability of crossbred bull spermatozoa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical activity in chronic home-living and sub-acute hospitalized stroke patients using objective and self-reported measures.

    PubMed

    Vanroy, Christel; Vissers, Dirk; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Cras, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Despite confirmed reduced physical activity (PA) after stroke in various stages of recovery, the type of activities stroke patients executed and the time spent at different activity levels have not been sufficiently verified with stroke-validated assessment tools. Observational study. To determine PA of sub-acute stroke patients hospitalized in a rehabilitation centre (HOS) compared to chronic home-living stroke patients (HOM) using objective and self-reported measures during 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Fifteen HOS and 15 HOM patients wore a Sense Wear Pro 2 accelerometer (METs*minutes/24 h) and a knee-worn pedometer Yamax Digi Walker SW 200 (steps) and filled in a coded activity diary (kcal/24 h; METs*minutes/24 h) during three consecutive days. In HOM significantly more steps (stepstotal HOM = 18722.6 ± 10063.6; stepstotal HOS = 7097.8 ± 5850.5) and higher energy expenditure (EE) levels (EEtotal HOM = 7759.34 ± 2243.04; EEtotal HOS = 5860.15 ± 1412.78) were measured. In this group less moderate activity (≥3-6 ≤ METs) was performed on a weekday (pday1 = 0.006; pday2 = 0.027) and in total (p = 0.037). Few therapy hours (physical, occupational and speech therapy, and psychological support) were provided in HOM compared to HOS (p < 0.001). Vigorous activities were only seen in HOM. In both groups few patients executed sport activities. In HOM significantly more steps were performed and higher EE values were measured. However, participation in moderate activities and time spent on therapy were less in HOM. Evaluating PA with quantitative measures is feasible in both chronic home-living and sub-acute hospitalized patients with stroke.

  3. Outcomes for Arthroscopic Treatment of Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (Subspine) Hip Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Chang, Brenda; Fields, Kara; Rinzler, Jeremy; Nawabi, Danyal H.; Ranawat, Anil S.; Kelly, Bryan T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Femoroacetabular hip impingement (FAI) is now well recognized; however, anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS; or subspine) impingement is a form of hip impingement that is underrecognized and can be an important source of hip disability and functional limitation. Purpose: To investigate the outcomes after arthroscopic treatment of AIIS/subspine-related hip impingement in the absence of FAI surgery. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A prospective institutional hip preservation registry was reviewed to identify patients who underwent arthroscopic AIIS decompression without concurrent treatment of FAI. Primary outcome tools captured in the registry included the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS), and the International Hip Outcome Tool–33 (iHOT-33). Patients with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Meaningful outcome improvement was determined per minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Statistical analyses were primarily descriptive. Results: Thirty-three patients with a mean follow-up of 19.1 months (range, 12-44 months) were identified. All patients were female, with a mean ± SD age of 26.1 ± 10.3 years. All patients were found to have an associated labral tear, and the mean acetabular version was increased at 2 and 3 o’clock (14.5° and 19.8°, respectively). Mean preoperative outcome scores on the mHHS, HOS ADL (activities of daily living), HOS sport, and iHOT-33 were 57.2 ± 15.3, 66.9 ± 18.8, 43.9 ± 23.6, and 33.5 ± 18.3, respectively. At final available follow-up, mean scores on these outcome measures were 79.5 ± 19.0, 86.8 ± 15.8, 70.4 ± 32.8, and 65.0 ± 31.0, respectively. By the 1-year follow-up, MCID had been achieved in the majority of patients across all 4 tools. Conclusion: There is a paucity of outcomes evidence on AIIS/subspine-related hip impingement. This study demonstrates that isolated subspine impingement can be a cause of hip disability, even in the absence of

  4. Outcome for Arthroscopic Treatment of Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine/Subspine Related Hip Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Benedict Uchenna; Chang, Brenda; Schairer, William W.; Fields, Kara G.; Nawabi, Danyal H.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Ranawat, Anil S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Extra-articular disorders of the hip are under-recognized and under-reported. Extra-articular forms of hip impingement can include anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) related subspine impingement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome after arthroscopic treatment of anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)/Subspine related hip impingement. Methods: A prospective institutional hip preservation registry was reviewed to identify patients that underwent isolated arthroscopic AIIS decompression. Primary outcome tools captured in the registry included: the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and the international Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33). Patients with minimum one-year follow-up were included. Meaningful outcome improvement was determined based on minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Statistical analyses were primarily descriptive. Results: Thirty-three patients with mean follow-up 19.1 months (range: 12-44 months) were identified. All patients were female with a mean age of 26.1 (+ 10.3) years. All patients were found to have an associated labral tear and the mean acetabular version was increased at 2 and 3 o’clock (14.5 and 19.8 respectively). Mean pre-operative outcome scores on the mHHS, HOS activities of daily living (ADL), HOS Sport and iHOT-33 were 57.2 (SD+15.3), 66.9 (SD+18.8), 43.9 (SD+23.6) and 33.5 (SD+18.3) respectively. At final available follow-up, mean scores on these outcome measures were 79.5 (SD+19.0), 86.8 (SD+15.8), 70.4 (SD+32.8) and 65.0 (SD+31.0) respectively. By the one-year follow-up interval MCID had been achieved in the majority of patients across all four tools. Conclusion: There is a paucity of outcome evidence on AIIS/Subspine related hip impingement. This study demonstrates that isolated subspine impingement can be a cause of hip disability even in the absence of FAI. Patients with isolated subspine impingement are more likely to be women and they present with low patient

  5. Outcomes for Arthroscopic Treatment of Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (Subspine) Hip Impingement.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Chang, Brenda; Fields, Kara; Rinzler, Jeremy; Nawabi, Danyal H; Ranawat, Anil S; Kelly, Bryan T

    2017-08-01

    Femoroacetabular hip impingement (FAI) is now well recognized; however, anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS; or subspine) impingement is a form of hip impingement that is underrecognized and can be an important source of hip disability and functional limitation. To investigate the outcomes after arthroscopic treatment of AIIS/subspine-related hip impingement in the absence of FAI surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A prospective institutional hip preservation registry was reviewed to identify patients who underwent arthroscopic AIIS decompression without concurrent treatment of FAI. Primary outcome tools captured in the registry included the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS), and the International Hip Outcome Tool-33 (iHOT-33). Patients with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Meaningful outcome improvement was determined per minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Statistical analyses were primarily descriptive. Thirty-three patients with a mean follow-up of 19.1 months (range, 12-44 months) were identified. All patients were female, with a mean ± SD age of 26.1 ± 10.3 years. All patients were found to have an associated labral tear, and the mean acetabular version was increased at 2 and 3 o'clock (14.5° and 19.8°, respectively). Mean preoperative outcome scores on the mHHS, HOS ADL (activities of daily living), HOS sport, and iHOT-33 were 57.2 ± 15.3, 66.9 ± 18.8, 43.9 ± 23.6, and 33.5 ± 18.3, respectively. At final available follow-up, mean scores on these outcome measures were 79.5 ± 19.0, 86.8 ± 15.8, 70.4 ± 32.8, and 65.0 ± 31.0, respectively. By the 1-year follow-up, MCID had been achieved in the majority of patients across all 4 tools. There is a paucity of outcomes evidence on AIIS/subspine-related hip impingement. This study demonstrates that isolated subspine impingement can be a cause of hip disability, even in the absence of FAI. Patients with isolated subspine impingement are more likely to

  6. Gold(I) Complexes of 9-Deazahypoxanthine as Selective Antitumor and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vančo, Ján; Gáliková, Jana; Hošek, Jan; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Paráková, Lenka; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    The gold(I) mixed-ligand complexes involving O-substituted derivatives of 9-deazahypoxanthine (HLn) and triphenylphosphine (PPh3) with the general formula [Au(Ln)(PPh3)] (1–5) were prepared and thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI+ mass spectrometry, single crystal X-ray (HL5 and complex 2) and TG/DTA analyses. Complexes 1–5 were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity against nine human cancer lines, i.e. MCF7 (breast carcinoma), HOS (osteosarcoma), A549 (adenocarcinoma), G361 (melanoma), HeLa (cervical cancer), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), A2780R (ovarian carcinoma resistant to cisplatin), 22Rv1 (prostate cancer) and THP-1 (monocytic leukaemia), for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using a model of LPS-activated macrophages, and for their in vivo antiedematous activity by λ-carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model on rats. The results showed that the complexes 1–5 exhibit selective in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF7, HOS, 22Rv1, A2780 and A2780R, with submicromolar IC50 values for 2 against the MCF7 (0.6 µM) and HOS (0.9 µM). The results of in vitro cytotoxicity screening on primary culture of human hepatocytes (HEP220) revealed up to 30-times lower toxicity of compounds against healthy cells as compared with cancer cells. Additionally, the complexes 1–5 significantly influence the secretion and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β by a similar manner as a commercially used anti-arthritic drug Auranofin. The tested complexes also significantly influence the rate and overall volume of the edema, caused by the intraplantar application of λ-carrageenan polysaccharide to rats. Based on these promising results, the presented compounds could qualify to become feasible candidates for advanced testing as potential antitumor and anti-inflammatory drug-like compounds. PMID:25333949

  7. Postoperative alpha angle not associated with patient-centered midterm outcomes following hip arthroscopy for FAI.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Karen K; Soares, Eduardo; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Philippon, Marc J

    2018-04-11

    The most commonly used parameter for defining cam-type femoroacetabular impingement(FAI) has been the alpha angle. The purpose of this study was to determine if patient-reported outcomes 5 years following hip arthroscopy for FAI were associated with postoperative alpha angle. We hypothesized that patient-reported outcomes would not be influenced by postoperative alpha angle in patients with FAI. 230 patients had primary hip arthroscopy for FAI and chondrolabral dysfunction. The median age was 40 years (range 18-69). All patients had preoperative and 1 day postoperative alpha angles recorded. At minimum 5 years following arthroscopy, all patients completed an online questionnaire that included the modified Harris Hip score(MHHS), WOMAC, HOS ADL, HOS Sport, SF12 and patient satisfaction. This study was IRB approved. Patients were grouped into two, based on their postoperative alpha angle: <55° (n = 158) and ≥ 55° (n = 56). The median preoperative alpha angle was 72° (range 50°-105°) and the median postoperative alpha angle was 45° (range 30°-100°). The postoperative alpha angle did not correlate with any outcome measure. The median preoperative alpha angle in the < 55° group was 71° and in ≥ 55° group the median was 74° (p = 0.044). The median follow-up was 5.1 years (range 5-7). The median mHHS was 85 (range 47-100) in the < 55° and 85 (range 54-100) in the ≥ 55° group (n.s); WOMAC was 5 (range 0-73) in the < 55° and 4.5 (range 1-57) in the ≥ 55° group(n.s); HOS ADL was 95 (range 31-100) in the < 55° and 96 (range 50-100) in the ≥ 55° group (n.s); HOS Sport was 88 (range 0-100) in the < 55° and 88 (range 13-100) in the ≥ 55° group (n.s) Median patient satisfaction was 9 (range 1-10) in both groups. This study shows no statistically significant differences between the investigated patient-reported outcome scores at a 5 years postoperatively in relation to a correction of the alpha angle to 55

  8. 10,000-Hour Cyclic Oxidation Behavior at 982 C (1800 F) of 68 High-Temperature Co-, Fe-, and Ni-Base Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles A.

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-eight high temperature Co-, Fe-, and Ni-base alloys were tested for 10-one thousand hour cycles in static air at 982 C (1800 F). The oxidation behavior of the test samples was evaluated by specific weight change/time data, x-ray diffraction of the post-test samples, and their final appearance. The gravimetric and appearance data were combined into a single modified oxidation parameter, KB4 to rank the cyclic oxidation resistance from excellent to catastrophic. The alloys showing the 'best' resistance with no significant oxidation attack were the alumina/aluminate spinel forming Ni-base turbine alloys: U-700, NASA-VIA and B-1900; the Fe-base ferritic alloys with Al: TRW-Valve, HOS-875, NASA-18T, Thermenol and 18SR; and the Ni-base superalloy IN-702.

  9. Impact of changes in Medicare payments on the financial condition of nonprofit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Das, Dhiman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the implications of revenue changes on the financial condition of nonprofit hos pitals. I examine these implications empirically by studying the effect of changes in Medicare payments in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Using data from the Healthcare Cost Report Information System maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services between 1996 and 2004, I show that even though revenue fell significantly, resulting in a decline in profitability, hospitals did not significantly change their capital structure and use of capital. An important implication of this is a higher cost of borrowing for these hospitals, which can affect future capital accumulation and viability. Nonprofit hospitals are a very important part of the healthcare delivery system in the United States. Medicare patients constitute the single largest segment of their revenue sources. Understanding the consequences of the changes in Medicare reimbursement on hospital finances is useful in framing future revisions of Medicare payments.

  10. Establishment of a cell line producing bone morphogenetic protein from a human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, K; Yoshikawa, H; Masuhara, K; Sugamoto, K; Tsuda, T; Aoki, Y; Ono, K; Sakamoto, Y

    1989-07-01

    A human osteosarcoma cell line was established from a biopsy specimen from a 13-year-old girl. The osteosarcoma tissue was maintained in athymic nude mice (Balb C nu/nu) by serial transplantation for three years. The tumor was excised from a host mouse and digested with collagenase. The isolated cells were cultured by 98 passages in 14 months, and clones of osteosarcoma cells were obtained by limiting dilution. A clone named human osteosarcoma cell 6 (H-OS-6) that showed the osteoblastic phenotypes of productions of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and alkaline phosphatase and a response to human parathyroid hormone (h-PTH 1-34) was selected. The morphology of its chromosomes indicated its human origin. This human osteosarcoma cell line is unique in producing BMP under in vitro conditions.

  11. Effects of an exopolysaccharide (kefiran) on lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, and constipation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Zhu, Xia; Omura, Kazunobu; Suzuki, Shiho; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was reported to produce an exopolysaccharide named kefiran. In the present study, we developed a new medium, rice hydrolyzate (RH) medium, for the culture of L. kefiranofaciens. Structural analyses revealed that the exopolysaccharide produced by L. kefiranofaciens from RH medium was composed of a hexasaccharide repeating unit, and essentially identical to the kefiran reported in previous studies. A study on the effects of kefiran in animals demonstrated that kefiran significantly suppressed increase of blood pressure and reduced the serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP/Hos rats when subjects consumed excessive dietary cholesterol. Kefiran supplementation demonstrated the ability to significantly lower blood glucose in KKAy mice. In addition, the administration of kefiran in constipated SD rats caused an obvious improvement in the levels of fecal moisture and wet weights of feces. These results suggest that kefiran could be used as a functional food to prevent some commonly occurring diseases.

  12. Optimized multi-level elongated quinary patterns for the assessment of thyroid nodules in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, U; Gudigar, Anjan; Maithri, M; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Meiburger, Kristen M; Yeong, Chai Hong; Madla, Chakri; Kongmebhol, Pailin; Molinari, Filippo; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Acharya, U Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging is one of the most common visualizing tools used by radiologists to identify the location of thyroid nodules. However, visual assessment of nodules is difficult and often affected by inter- and intra-observer variabilities. Thus, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can be helpful to cross-verify the severity of nodules. This paper proposes a new CAD system to characterize thyroid nodules using optimized multi-level elongated quinary patterns. In this study, higher order spectral (HOS) entropy features extracted from these patterns appropriately distinguished benign and malignant nodules under particle swarm optimization (PSO) and support vector machine (SVM) frameworks. Our CAD algorithm achieved a maximum accuracy of 97.71% and 97.01% in private and public datasets respectively. The evaluation of this CAD system on both private and public datasets confirmed its effectiveness as a secondary tool in assisting radiological findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective activation of heme oxygenase-2 by menadione.

    PubMed

    Vukomanovic, Dragic; McLaughlin, Brian E; Rahman, Mona N; Szarek, Walter A; Brien, James F; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2011-11-01

    While substantial progress has been made in elucidating the roles of heme oxygenases-1 (HO-1) and -2 (HO-2) in mammals, our understanding of the functions of these enzymes in health and disease is still incomplete. A significant amount of our knowledge has been garnered through the use of nonselective inhibitors of HOs, and our laboratory has recently described more selective inhibitors for HO-1. In addition, our appreciation of HO-1 has benefitted from the availability of tools for increasing its activity through enzyme induction. By comparison, there is a paucity of information about HO-2 activation, with only a few reports appearing in the literature. This communication describes our observations of the up to 30-fold increase in the in-vitro activation of HO-2 by menadione. This activation was due to an increase in Vmax and was selective, in that menadione did not increase HO-1 activity.

  14. Discrimination of malignant lymphomas and leukemia using Radon transform based-higher order spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Celenk, Mehmet; Bejai, Prashanth

    2006-03-01

    A new algorithm that can be used to automatically recognize and classify malignant lymphomas and leukemia is proposed in this paper. The algorithm utilizes the morphological watersheds to obtain boundaries of cells from cell images and isolate them from the surrounding background. The areas of cells are extracted from cell images after background subtraction. The Radon transform and higher-order spectra (HOS) analysis are utilized as an image processing tool to generate class feature vectors of different type cells and to extract testing cells' feature vectors. The testing cells' feature vectors are then compared with the known class feature vectors for a possible match by computing the Euclidean distances. The cell in question is classified as belonging to one of the existing cell classes in the least Euclidean distance sense.

  15. Biology of MET: a double life between normal tissue repair and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MNNG HOS transforming gene (MET) is a class IV receptor tyrosine kinase, expressed on the surface of epithelial cells. The interaction with the hepatocyte grow factor (HGF) induces MET dimerization and the activation of multiple intracellular pathways leading to cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, morphogenic differentiation, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis. Knock out mice have demonstrated that MET is necessary for normal embryogenesis including the formation of striate muscles, liver and trophoblastic structures. The overexpression of MET and HGF are common in solid tumors and contribute to determine their growth. Indeed, MET has been cloned as a transforming gene from a chemically induced human osteosarcoma cell line and therefore is considered a proto-oncogene. Germline MET mutations are characteristic of hereditary papillary kidney cancers and MET amplification is observed in tumors including lung and gastric adenocarcinomas. The inhibition of MET signaling is the target for specific drugs that are raising exciting expectation for medical treatment of cancer. PMID:25992381

  16. Aircraft Skin Penetrator and Agent Applicator. Volume 2. Test and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    U IA FR IO%(LANr -,I WWL7 2 - TI) _T 39.75*10F X.Of AR NEOPRENE_ _ NAME TAG I 71LINK LOCK 2 LA CH sl AD 13 b 110 - 2 4 X 1. 25 U 2 SOCKET HEAD SCREW...ensure that it is secured. A broken flex hos(.’s whiplash can be very dangerous. 3) The charging system pressure gauge should be a calibrated gage and be...Seez ’(or -,*iuivalent A. iAi.: theh tool bit shaft with the bear inq/seal in the irrlr ,ssembly and push slowly through wh,_,n the f L,w ~i rr, r-. aches

  17. Integrated Fiber-Optic Coupler.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    p. 563, 1984. 1 .T.H. W. n h= n , G.M. Metze, B.- Y . Tuu ,J.C.C. Far., "A a s double-heterostructure diode lasers fabricated on a monolithic GaAs/Si...INII RAitI) R HR ( OLIlIR HR t( N ,% NOS( I D108 I R IOst\\1 tN( LASS~l1 D R 87 mm mhhh z V. 0 0- z C ,, Technical Document 1086 April 1987 Integrated...Cmeed".~) n Interated Fiber-Optic Coupler 12 PERSONAL AU1HOS) P.L Pruaal, E.R. Foesuim 139 TYPE OF RE[POR 3b, IME COVERED4 DATE OF REPORT (’r. 4#e ow S

  18. A Time Response Approach to Equivalent Aircraft Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Constant seconds e Commanded Pitch Attitude radians c + except in tables 1-6 and figures 2-4 where 6 is in degrees. - vi - A __ NADC-79231-60...4. 1.1 2. 261𔃽 1 . 324 .80 .645 -8.50 r’ 5.668:E 4.6112 2 . 12031 I. 285: . 7879 .6461 TR~rt-.FEP FUNCTION FHAE LAG "IGMA;QOMEGA; .0010 1. ’ c’:1) 0 0...15 - Pitch Rate Resoonse 4 L5- NAOC-179231-60 LAHOS 1-4 C3NFI:URATI:N 1INPUT K 110; %sec. ti -0 .5 vI ! 0.2 HOS LOS - - - - - - - 0 .1 --7 0 2 1 t ’ sec

  19. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: Wave-breaking onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bonnefoy, Félicien

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates a wave-breaking onset criteria to be implemented in the non-linear potential flow solver HOS-NWT. The model is a computationally efficient, open source code, which solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the High-Order Spectral (HOS) method. The goal of this study is to determine the best method to identify the onset of random single and multiple breaking waves over a large domain at the exact time they occur. To identify breaking waves, a breaking onset criteria based on the ratio of local energy flux velocity to the local crest velocity, introduced by Barthelemy et al. (2017) is selected. The breaking parameter is uniquely applied in the numerical model in that calculations of the breaking onset criteria ratio are not made only at the location of the wave crest, but at every point in the domain and at every time step. This allows the model to calculate the onset of a breaking wave the moment it happens, and without knowing anything about the wave a priori. The application of the breaking criteria at every point in the domain and at every time step requires the phase velocity to be calculated instantaneously everywhere in the domain and at every time step. This is achieved by calculating the instantaneous phase velocity using the Hilbert transform and dispersion relation. A comparison between more traditional crest-tracking techniques shows the calculation of phase velocity using Hilbert transform at the location of the breaking wave crest provides a good approximation of crest velocity. The ability of the selected wave breaking criteria to predict single and multiple breaking events in two dimensions is validated by a series of large-scale experiments. Breaking waves are generated by energy focusing and modulational instability methods, with a wide range of primary frequencies. Steep irregular waves which lead to breaking waves, and irregular waves with an energy focusing wave superimposed are also generated. This set of

  20. High Rate of Return to Yoga for Athletes After Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frank, Rachel M; Ukwuani, Gift; Allison, Bradley; Clapp, Ian; Nho, Shane J

    2018-02-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) is most commonly diagnosed in patients who perform activities that require repetitive hip flexion and rotational loading. Yoga is an activity growing in popularity that involves these motions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' ability to return to yoga after hip arthroscopy for FAIS. There would be a high rate of return to yoga after hip arthroscopy. Retrospective analysis. Level 4. Consecutive patients with FAIS who had identified themselves as participating in yoga and had undergone hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAIS between 2012 and 2015 were reviewed. Demographic data were collected and assessed for all patients, as well as preoperative physical examination, imaging, and patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores, including the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sports-Specific (HOS-SS) subscales, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Postoperatively, examination and PRO data were collected at a minimum 1 year after surgery, including a yoga-specific questionnaire. A total of 42 patients (90% female; mean age, 35 ± 9 years; mean body mass index, 23.1 ± 3.2 kg/m 2 ) were included. Thirty patients (71%) had to discontinue their yoga routine preoperatively because of hip-related symptoms at a mean 9.5 ± 8.2 months before surgery. After surgery, 39 patients (93%) were able to return to yoga at a mean 5.3 ± 2.2 months after surgery. Two of the 3 patients who did not return to yoga noted loss of interest as their reason for stopping, while 1 patient was unable to return because of persistent hip pain. Nineteen patients (45%) returned to a higher level of yoga practice, 17 patients (40%) returned to the same level, and 3 patients (7%) returned to a lower level. There was no difference in the number of hours spent practicing yoga per week pre- and postoperatively (2.7 ± 1.9 vs 2.5 ± 1.3 hours; P = 0.44). All patients demonstrated

  1. Evaluation of higher order statistics parameters for multi channel sEMG using different force levels.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    The electromyograpy (EMG) signal provides information about the performance of muscles and nerves. The shape of the muscle signal and motor unit action potential (MUAP) varies due to the movement of the position of the electrode or due to changes in contraction level. This research deals with evaluating the non-Gaussianity in Surface Electromyogram signal (sEMG) using higher order statistics (HOS) parameters. To achieve this, experiments were conducted for four different finger and wrist actions at different levels of Maximum Voluntary Contractions (MVCs). Our experimental analysis shows that at constant force and for non-fatiguing contractions, probability density functions (PDF) of sEMG signals were non-Gaussian. For lesser MVCs (below 30% of MVC) PDF measures tends to be Gaussian process. The above measures were verified by computing the Kurtosis values for different MVCs.

  2. High Rate of Return to High-Intensity Interval Training After Arthroscopic Management of Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riff, Andrew J; Ukwuani, Gift; Clapp, Ian; Movassaghi, Kamran; Kelly, D Michael; Nho, Shane J

    2018-06-01

    Since the inception of CrossFit in 2000, the popularity of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in the United States has risen dramatically. While HIIT is a highly efficient exercise for weight loss and improved conditioning, some literature reports injuries in up to 34% of HIIT participants. We sought to evaluate the functional and sports-specific results of hip arthroscopic surgery in recreational HIIT participants. To evaluate patients' ability to return to HIIT after hip arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Consecutive patients with FAIS who had identified themselves as participating in HIIT and had undergone hip arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of FAIS by a single fellowship-trained surgeon between 2012 and 2015 were reviewed. Demographic data; preoperative physical examination findings; preoperative imaging results; preoperative patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores including the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Score-Sports-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain; and postoperative examination and PRO scores at a minimum 2 years after surgery, including a HIIT-specific questionnaire, were assessed for all patients. Thirty-two patients (13 male, 19 female) with a mean age of 34.7 ± 6.9 years (range, 21-49 years) were identified with a minimum 24-month follow-up. Among these, 22 participated in CrossFit, 4 in Shred415, 3 in Orangetheory, and 3 in self-directed cross-training including plyometrics. Preoperatively, 14 patients had discontinued HIIT because of activity-related hip complaints, 17 patients had scaled back involvement in HIIT, and 1 patient maintained her baseline routine. Postoperatively, 28 of 32 patients (88%) returned to HIIT at a mean of 9.8 ± 5.7 months after surgery (range, 3-24 months); 96% returned to HIIT at the same level as or better than before the injury. Fear

  3. Potential reproduction and response of selenium and zinc mineral supplementation on quality of goat samosir semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswoyo, P.; Tafsin, M.; Handarini, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of suppllementattion of selenium and zinc on semen quality and growth of samosir goat. The experimental design used latin square design (4x4). The treatment supplementation mineral on multi nutrient block (MNB) composed of without sipplementation (p0), +10ppm selenium (p1), +10ppm zinc (p2), +10ppm selenium and +10ppm zinc (p3). The result showed that supplementation mineral selenium and zinc increased significantly (p<0.05) average daily growth, feed consumtion, and lower feed convertion ratio. Semen quality of goat were supplemented by selenium and zinc influenced motility, viability, volume concentration, and responding hypo osmotic swelling (HOS). Combination supplementation selenium and zinc significanly had higher semen quality than ither treatment. It is concluded that supplementation selenium and zinc improve growth and semen quality of samosir goat.

  4. Conformational Assessment of Adnectin and Adnectin-Drug Conjugate by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Richard Y.-C.; O'Neil, Steven R.; Lipovšek, Daša; Chen, Guodong

    2018-05-01

    Higher-order structure (HOS) characterization of therapeutic protein-drug conjugates for comprehensive assessment of conjugation-induced protein conformational changes is an important consideration in the biopharmaceutical industry to ensure proper behavior of protein therapeutics. In this study, conformational dynamics of a small therapeutic protein, adnectin 1, together with its drug conjugate were characterized by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) with different spatial resolutions. Top-down HDX allows detailed assessment of the residue-level deuterium content in the payload conjugation region. HDX-MS dataset revealed the ability of peptide-based payload/linker to retain deuterium in HDX experiments. Combined results from intact, top-down, and bottom-up HDX indicated no significant conformational changes of adnectin 1 upon payload conjugation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Experimental tumor growth of canine osteosarcoma cell line on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (in vivo studies).

    PubMed

    Walewska, Magdalena; Dolka, Izabella; Małek, Anna; Wojtalewicz, Anna; Wojtkowska, Agata; Żbikowski, Artur; Lechowski, Roman; Zabielska-Koczywąs, Katarzyna

    2017-05-12

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model is extensively used in human medicine in preclinical oncological studies. The CAM model has several advantages: low cost, simple experimental approach, time saving and following "3R principles". Research has shown that the human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS, MMNG-HOS, and SAOS can form tumors on the CAM. In veterinary medicine, this has been described only for feline fibrosarcomas, feline mammary carcinomas and canine osteosarcomas. However, in case of canine osteosarcomas, it has been shown that only non-adherent osteosarcoma stem cells isolated from KTOSA5 and CSKOS cell lines have the ability to form microtumors on the CAM after an incubation period of 5 days, in contrast to adherent KTOSA5 and CSKOS cells. In the presented study, we have proven that the commercial adherent canine osteosarcoma cell line (D-17) can form vascularized tumors on the CAM after the incubation period of 10 days.

  6. Imatinib Mesylate Exerts Anti-Proliferative Effects on Osteosarcoma Cells and Inhibits the Tumour Growth in Immunocompetent Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Benjamin; Charrier, Céline; Brion, Régis; Blanchard, Frederic; Redini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour characterized by osteoid production and/or osteolytic lesions of bone. A lack of response to chemotherapeutic treatments shows the importance of exploring new therapeutic methods. Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, Novartis Pharma), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was originally developed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Several studies revealed that imatinib mesylate inhibits osteoclast differentiation through the M-CSFR pathway and activates osteoblast differentiation through PDGFR pathway, two key cells involved in the vicious cycle controlling the tumour development. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of imatinib mesylate on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and migration ability of five osteosarcoma cell lines (human: MG-63, HOS; rat: OSRGA; mice: MOS-J, POS-1). Imatinib mesylate was also assessed as a curative and preventive treatment in two syngenic osteosarcoma models: MOS-J (mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic osteosarcoma) and POS-1 (undifferentiated osteosarcoma). Imatinib mesylate exhibited a dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect in all cell lines studied. The drug induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in most cell lines, except for POS-1 and HOS cells that were blocked in the S phase. In addition, imatinib mesylate induced cell death and strongly inhibited osteosarcoma cell migration. In the MOS-J osteosarcoma model, oral administration of imatinib mesylate significantly inhibited the tumour development in both preventive and curative approaches. A phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array kit revealed that PDGFRα, among 7 other receptors (PDFGFRβ, Axl, RYK, EGFR, EphA2 and 10, IGF1R), appears as one of the main molecular targets for imatinib mesylate. In the light of the present study and the literature, it would be particularly interesting to revisit therapeutic evaluation of imatinib mesylate in osteosarcoma according to the tyrosine-kinase receptor status of patients

  7. Results of hip arthroscopy in patients with MRI diagnosis of subchondral cysts—a case series

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, David E; Perets, Itay; Yuen, Leslie C

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article is to examine the results of arthroscopic management of patients with labral pathology who have preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRIs) demonstrating subchondral cysts. This institution’s database was searched for patients who underwent hip arthroscopy and had subchondral cysts on MRI and >2-year follow-up. Exclusion criteria included previous hip surgery, Tönnis grade >1, inflammatory arthritis, Perthes, slipped capital femoral epiphysis or abductor repair. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores including visual analog scale, modified Harris hip score (mHHS), non-arthritic hip score and hip outcome score sports-specific subscale (HOS-SSS) were gathered preoperatively, at 3 months, and annually thereafter. The change in PRO scores was compared with the minimally clinical important difference (MCID) to quantify improvement. Sixty-nine patients were eligible for this study, of which 65 (94%) had >2-year follow-up. All PROs were significantly improved at latest follow-up (P < 0.001). Mean patient satisfaction was 7.2. There was no correlation between Outerbridge grade III or IV cartilage damage noted during arthroscopy and subchondral femoral and acetabular cysts noted on MRI. Seventeen patients required reoperation [13 total hip arthroplasty (THAs) and 4 revision arthroscopies]. Patients with femoral subchondral cysts converted to THA 36% of the time. MCIDs for mHHS and HOS-SSS were surpassed by 63% and 68% of patients, respectively. Hip arthroscopies performed on patients with subchondral cysts present on preoperative MRI should be approached with caution. The rate of conversion to hip arthroplasty appears to be higher than that reported in the literature for patients who undergo arthroscopy without preoperative subchondral cysts. For patients who did not require hip arthroplasty or revision arthroscopy, patients demonstrated significant improvement in symptoms compared with the preoperative state. PMID:29250341

  8. The predisposing factors for the heterotopic ossification after cervical artificial disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Yi, Seong; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Choi, Gwihyun; Shin, Hyun Chul; Kim, Keun Su; Yoon, Do Heum

    2013-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as a formation of bone outside the skeletal system. The reported HO occurrence rate in cervical artificial disc replacement (ADR) is unexpectedly high and is known to vary. However, the predisposing factors for HO in cervical ADR have not yet been elucidated. Investigation of the predisposing factors of HO in cervical arthroplasty and the relationship between degeneration of the cervical spine and HO occurrence. Retrospective study to discover predisposing factors of HO in cervical arthroplasty. A total of 170 patients who underwent cervical ADR were enrolled including full follow-up clinical and radiologic data. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by identification of HOs according to McAfee's classifications. This study enrolled a total of 170 patients who underwent cervical ADR. Pre-existing degenerative change included anterior or posterior osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, or ligamentum nuchae. The relationships between basic patient data, pre-existing degenerative change, and HO were investigated using linear logistic regression analysis. Among all 170 patients, HO was found in 69 patients (40.6%). Among the postulated predisposing factors, only male gender and artificial disc device type were shown to be statistically significant. Unexpectedly, preoperative degenerative changes in the cervical spine exerted no significant influence on the occurrence of HOs. The odds ratio of male gender compared with female gender was 2.117. With regard to device type, the odds ratios of Mobi-C (LDR medical, Troyes, France) and ProDisc-C (Synthes, Inc., West Chester, PA, USA) were 5.262 and 7.449, respectively, compared with the Bryan disc. Definite differences in occurrence rate according to the gender of patients and the prosthesis type were identified in this study. Moreover, factors indefinably expected to influence HO in the past were not shown to be risk factors

  9. Ischiofemoral impingement and hamstring dysfunction as a potential pain generator after ischial tuberosity apophyseal fracture non-union/malunion.

    PubMed

    Spencer-Gardner, Luke; Bedi, Asheesh; Stuart, Michael J; Larson, Christopher M; Kelly, Bryan T; Krych, Aaron J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence of ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) and hamstring dysfunction following malunion or non-union of ischial tuberosity apophyseal avulsion fractures and report the short-term outcomes of surgical treatment with regard to alleviating symptomatic extra-articular impingement. All patients who underwent surgery for recalcitrant hip and buttock pain in the setting of prior ischial tuberosity avulsion fracture at three tertiary-level hip preservation centres were included for this review. A total of ten patients met our inclusion criteria and underwent sciatic neurolysis, resection of the ischial tuberosity fragment and hamstring reattachment. Clinical outcomes scores were collected post-operatively including the Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and the Hip Outcomes Score (HOS). Ten patients with a mean age of 18 years (range 14-28) underwent surgery for symptomatic ischiofemoral impingement after ischial tuberosity avulsion fracture. At a mean of 2.2-year follow-up (range 1.7-3.5), the median post-operative mHHS was 89.7 (65.7-96.8) and HOS ADL and Sport subscales were 90 % or greater in all cases. Five patients (50 %) rated their hip as normal, and five patients (50 %) rated their hip as near normal. Malunion or non-union following ischial tuberosity apophyseal fracture can lead to IFI and hamstring dysfunction. Clinically, the resultant pain and dysfunction is often chronic, and can be debilitating. In select cases, a reliable surgical technique is presented to improve hamstring function and correct ischiofemoral impingement in this setting with good-to-excellent outcomes in the majority of cases at short-term follow-up. IV.

  10. Entropy analysis of muscular near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals during exercise programme of type 2 diabetic patients: quantitative assessment of muscle metabolic pattern.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Filippo; Acharya, U Rajendra; Martis, Roshan Joy; De Luca, Riccardo; Petraroli, Giuliana; Liboni, William

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that is widely rampant throughout the world population these days. The uncontrolled DM may lead to complications of eye, heart, kidney and nerves. The most common type of diabetes is the type 2 diabetes or insulin-resistant DM. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology is widely used in non-invasive monitoring of physiological signals. Three types of NIRS signals are used in this work: (i) variation in the oxygenated haemoglobin (O2Hb) concentration, (ii) deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb), and (iii) ratio of oxygenated over the sum of the oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin which is defined as: tissue oxygenation index (TOI) to analyze the effect of exercise on diabetes subjects. The NIRS signal has the characteristics of non-linearity and non-stationarity. Hence, the very small changes in this time series can be efficiently extracted using higher order statistics (HOS) method. Hence, in this work, we have used sample and HOS entropies to analyze these NIRS signals. These computer aided techniques will assist the clinicians to diagnose and monitor the health accurately and easily without any inter or intra observer variability. Results showed that after a one-year of physical exercise programme, all diabetic subjects increased the sample entropy of the NIRS signals, thus revealing a better muscle performance and an improved recruitment by the central nervous system. Moreover, after one year of physical therapy, diabetic subjects showed a NIRS muscular metabolic pattern that was not distinguished from that of controls. We believe that sample and bispectral entropy analysis is need when the aim is to compare the inner structure of the NIRS signals during muscle contraction, particularly when dealing with neuromuscular impairments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of power spectrum, cepstrum, higher order spectrum and neural network analyses for induction motor fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, B.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-08-01

    The power spectrum is defined as the square of the magnitude of the Fourier transform (FT) of a signal. The advantage of FT analysis is that it allows the decomposition of a signal into individual periodic frequency components and establishes the relative intensity of each component. It is the most commonly used signal processing technique today. If the same principle is applied for the detection of periodicity components in a Fourier spectrum, the process is called the cepstrum analysis. Cepstrum analysis is a very useful tool for detection families of harmonics with uniform spacing or the families of sidebands commonly found in gearbox, bearing and engine vibration fault spectra. Higher order spectra (HOS) (also known as polyspectra) consist of higher order moment of spectra which are able to detect non-linear interactions between frequency components. For HOS, the most commonly used is the bispectrum. The bispectrum is the third-order frequency domain measure, which contains information that standard power spectral analysis techniques cannot provide. It is well known that neural networks can represent complex non-linear relationships, and therefore they are extremely useful for fault identification and classification. This paper presents an application of power spectrum, cepstrum, bispectrum and neural network for fault pattern extraction of induction motors. The potential for using the power spectrum, cepstrum, bispectrum and neural network as a means for differentiating between healthy and faulty induction motor operation is examined. A series of experiments is done and the advantages and disadvantages between them are discussed. It has been found that a combination of power spectrum, cepstrum and bispectrum plus neural network analyses could be a very useful tool for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of induction motors.

  12. Characterisation of Anopheles gambiae heme oxygenase and metalloporphyrin feeding suggests a potential role in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Christopher S; Yunta, Cristina; de Lima, Glauber Pacelli Gomes; Hemmings, Kay; Lian, Lu-Yun; Lycett, Gareth; Paine, Mark J I

    2018-05-03

    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The ability of A. gambiae to transmit malaria is strictly related to blood feeding and digestion, which releases nutrients for oogenesis, as well as substantial amounts of highly toxic free heme. Heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) is a common protective mechanism, and a gene for HO exists in the An. gambiae genome HO (AgHO), although it has yet to be functionally examined. Here, we have cloned and expressed An. gambiae HO (AgHO) in E. coli. Purified recombinant AgHO bound hemin stoichiometrically to form a hemin-enzyme complex similar to other HOs, with a K D of 3.9 ± 0.6 μM; comparable to mammalian and bacterial HOs, but 7-fold lower than that of Drosophila melanogaster HO. AgHO also degraded hemin to biliverdin and released CO and iron in the presence of NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR). Optimal AgHO activity was observed at 27.5 °C and pH 7.5. To investigate effects of AgHO inhibition, adult female A. gambiae were fed heme analogues Sn- and Zn-protoporphyrins (SnPP and ZnPP), known to inhibit HO. These led to a dose dependent decrease in oviposition. Cu-protoporphyrin (CuPP), which does not inhibit HO had no effect. These results demonstrate that AgHO is a catalytically active HO and that it may play a key role in egg production in mosquitoes. It also presents a potential target for the development of compounds aimed at sterilising mosquitoes for vector control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glaucocalyxin A exerts anticancer effect on osteosarcoma by inhibiting GLI1 nuclear translocation via regulating PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianwei; Sun, Yang; Lu, Ying; Jiang, Xiubo; Ma, Bo; Yu, Lisha; Zhang, Jie; Dong, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qi

    2018-06-13

    Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor with recurring disease or lung metastases, has become one of the leading causes of death in humans. In the current study, we made an investigation on the anticancer effect of glaucocalyxin A, a bioactive ent-kauranoid diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia japonica var., and unraveled the underlying mechanisms. Here, we found that Glaucocalyxin A inhibited the cell viability of numerous osteosarcoma cells. Our results showed that Glaucocalyxin A exerted the pro-apoptotic effect on human osteosarcoma cells, MG-63 and HOS cells. Glaucocalyxin A induced apoptosis by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through several steps including increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, triggering the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and inducing cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. We demonstrated that Glaucocalyxin A induced apoptosis via inhibiting Five-zinc finger Glis 1 (GLI1) activation by overexpression and knockdown of GLI1 in vitro. We also found that Glaucocalyxin A inhibited GLI1 activation via regulating phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. We further confirmed our findings by using PI3K activator and inhibitor to verify the inhibitory effect of Glaucocalyxin A on PI3K/Akt/GLI1 pathway. Moreover, our in vivo study revealed that glaucocalyxin A possessed a remarkable antitumor effect with no toxicity in the xenograft model inoculated with HOS tumor through the same mechanisms as in vitro. In conclusion, our results suggested that Glaucocalyxin A induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma by inhibiting nuclear translocation of GLI1 via regulating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, Glaucocalyxin A might be a potential candidate for human osteosarcoma in the future.

  14. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  15. Clinical presentation of intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the hip and preliminary outcomes after arthroscopic resection: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Ben-Zion; Mintz, Douglas N; Kelly, Bryan T

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intra-articular osteoid osteoma (IAOO) of the hip is a relatively rare diagnosis, but one that can closely mimic symptomatic presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Although there are multiple case reports of osteoid osteoma (OO) in the hip, we present the largest case series of hip IAOO treated with hip arthroscopy and discuss limited patient-reported outcomes after treatment with hip arthroscopy. We retrospectively identified patients diagnosed with IAOO of the hip with confirmatory computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or biopsy diagnoses of OO. We analyzed lesion location, main presenting symptoms, symptom duration and treatment undertaken. For the patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for treatment of their IAOO, we reviewed patient-reported outcome scores when available. Forty patients with confirmed IAOO were identified. Thirteen underwent excision with hip arthroscopy. The most common presenting symptom was groin pain. In limited patients who had pre- and post-operative outcome scores, we found significant improvements in modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score-Activity of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and international Hip Outcomes Tool (iHot33) scores. Compared with patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI alone, baseline mHHS, HOS-ADL, Hip Outcome Score–Sport-Specific Subscale and iHot33 scores were almost identical. We found that the presenting symptoms of hip IAOO closely mimic symptomatic FAI, including groin pain and anterior hip pain, so it is important to keep IAOO of the hip in the differential diagnosis of hip pain. Based on our experience, arthroscopy can be an effective treatment option for excision of intra-articular OO and is especially effective in patients with concomitant FAI in treating both pathologies. PMID:29423256

  16. Designing Hydrologic Observatories as a Community Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Duncan, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    CUAHSI convened a workshop in August 2004 to explore what makes a successful hydrologic observatory. Because of their high cost, only a small number of observatories will be operated, at least initially. (CUAHSI has recommended a pilot network of 5 observatories to develop operational experience and an eventual network of approximately 15 sites.) Because hydrologic scientists can work "in their backyard" (unlike oceanographers or astronomers), hydrologic observatories must offer significant advantages over current methods of field work to successfully attract researchers. Twenty-four teams of scientists submitted "prospectuses" of potential locations for hydrologic observatories for consideration by network attendees. These documents (available at http://www.cuahsi.org) were marketing documents to the workshop participants, who voted for a hypothetical network of 5 observatories from the 24 proposed sites. This network formed the basis for a day of discussions on necessary attributes of core data and how to form a network of observatories from a collection of sites that are designed and implemented individually. Key findings included: 1) Core data must be balanced among disciplines. Although the hydrologic cycle is an organizing principle for the design of HOs, physical data cannot dominate the core data; chemical and biological data, although more expensive to collect, must be given equal footing. 2) New data collection must strategically leverage existing data. Resources are always limited, so that a successful HO must carefully target gaps in existing data, as determined by an explicitly stated conceptual model, and fill them rather than designing an independent study. 3) Site logistics must support remote researchers. Significant resources will be necessary for on-site staff to handle housing, transportation, permitting and other needs. 4) Network-level hypotheses are required early in the implementation of HOs. A network will only emerge around hypotheses

  17. In silico characterization of cell-cell interactions using a cellular automata model of cell culture.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Takanori; Kashitani, Kosuke; Miyake, Jun

    2017-07-14

    Cell proliferation is a key characteristic of eukaryotic cells. During cell proliferation, cells interact with each other. In this study, we developed a cellular automata model to estimate cell-cell interactions using experimentally obtained images of cultured cells. We used four types of cells; HeLa cells, human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells, rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and rat smooth muscle A7r5 cells. These cells were cultured and stained daily. The obtained cell images were binarized and clipped into squares containing about 10 4 cells. These cells showed characteristic cell proliferation patterns. The growth curves of these cells were generated from the cell proliferation images and we determined the doubling time of these cells from the growth curves. We developed a simple cellular automata system with an easily accessible graphical user interface. This system has five variable parameters, namely, initial cell number, doubling time, motility, cell-cell adhesion, and cell-cell contact inhibition (of proliferation). Within these parameters, we obtained initial cell numbers and doubling times experimentally. We set the motility at a constant value because the effect of the parameter for our simulation was restricted. Therefore, we simulated cell proliferation behavior with cell-cell adhesion and cell-cell contact inhibition as variables. By comparing growth curves and proliferation cell images, we succeeded in determining the cell-cell interaction properties of each cell. Simulated HeLa and HOS cells exhibited low cell-cell adhesion and weak cell-cell contact inhibition. Simulated MSCs exhibited high cell-cell adhesion and positive cell-cell contact inhibition. Simulated A7r5 cells exhibited low cell-cell adhesion and strong cell-cell contact inhibition. These simulated results correlated with the experimental growth curves and proliferation images. Our simulation approach is an easy method for evaluating the cell-cell interaction properties of cells.

  18. Sperm characteristics following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Liza Paz; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; de Souza Castelo, Thibério; Oliveira, Maria Glaucia Carlos; de Paula, Valéria Veras; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare sperm quality characteristics of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Semen from 11 adult males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, morphology as well as membrane integrity analyzed by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and a fluorescent staining. Moreover, the semen was diluted in a Tris-based extender containing 20% egg yolk (control group) or 5, 10 or 20% LDL (treatment groups). The semen samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath for 60s at 37°C. The treatments did not affect (p>0.05) sperm vigor, morphology or membrane integrity analyzed by the HOS test. However, post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (36.4 ± 5.3%) compared with the egg yolk extender and extender supplemented with 10% LDL. Furthermore, the percentage of membrane-intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa analyzed by the fluorescent staining was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (27.4 ± 6.5%) than in the other groups. In conclusion, 20% LDL can be used to substitute the whole egg yolk as a cryoprotective additive for freezing semen of the collared peccary. Copyright © 2015 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. ActiveSeismoPick3D - automatic first arrival determination for large active seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paffrath, Marcel; Küperkoch, Ludger; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    We developed a tool for automatic determination of first arrivals in active seismic data based on an approach, that utilises higher order statistics (HOS) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC), commonly used in seismology, but not in active seismics. Automatic picking is highly desirable in active seismics as the number of data provided by large seismic arrays rapidly exceeds of what an analyst can evaluate in a reasonable amount of time. To bring the functionality of automatic phase picking into the context of active data, the software package ActiveSeismoPick3D was developed in Python. It uses a modified algorithm for the determination of first arrivals which searches for the HOS maximum in unfiltered data. Additionally, it offers tools for manual quality control and postprocessing, e.g. various visualisation and repicking functionalities. For flexibility, the tool also includes methods for the preparation of geometry information of large seismic arrays and improved interfaces to the Fast Marching Tomography Package (FMTOMO), which can be used for the prediction of travel times and inversion for subsurface properties. Output files are generated in the VTK format, allowing the 3D visualization of e.g. the inversion results. As a test case, a data set consisting of 9216 traces from 64 shots was gathered, recorded at 144 receivers deployed in a regular 2D array of a size of 100 x 100 m. ActiveSeismoPick3D automatically checks the determined first arrivals by a dynamic signal to noise ratio threshold. From the data a 3D model of the subsurface was generated using the export functionality of the package and FMTOMO.

  20. Medical abortions performed by specialists in private practice.

    PubMed

    Pay, Aase Serine Devold; Aabø, Runa Sigrid; Økland, Inger; Janbu, Torunn; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Løkeland, Mette

    2018-05-29

    I Norge utføres abort kun i offentlige sykehus. I 2010 besluttet Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet å iverksette et toårig prøveprosjekt som ga avtalespesialister i fødselshjelp og kvinnesykdommer adgang til å tilby medikamentell abort før utgangen av 9. svangerskapsuke. Prøveprosjektet ble igangsatt 1.3.2015 og varte til 31.3.2017. I denne artikkelen presenterer vi de første erfaringene, herunder hvordan behandlingstilbudet ble mottatt av kvinnene. Gravide med en svangerskapsvarighet < 63 dager ultrasonografisk vurdert, som oppsøkte avtalespesialist for medikamentell abort, ble fortløpende inkludert i prosjektet (n = 476). Kvinnene inntok 200 mg mifepriston peroralt på legekontoret, 36-48 timer senere satte de selv 800 µg misoprostol vaginalt hjemme. Informasjon ble innhentet ved spørreskjema på den første konsultasjonen, under aborten og ved etterkontrollen 2-4 uker etter aborten. Under aborten rapporterte 66 % (296/450) moderat eller sterk smerte og 79 % (358/451) moderat eller sterk blødning. De fleste opplevde det som trygt å være hjemme. 96 % (390/406) ville valgt medikamentell abort hos avtalespesialist ved en eventuell senere abort, og 97 % (392/405) ville anbefalt behandlingstilbudet til andre i samme situasjon. Kvinnene i studien opplevde abortbehandling hos avtalespesialist som trygt. Tilbudet gir større valgfrihet til gravide som ønsker abort, og pasientene er tilfredse.

  1. Influence of substrate modification and C-terminal truncation on the active site structure of substrate-bound heme oxygenase from Neisseriae meningitidis; A 1H NMR study†

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Dungeng; Satterlee, James D.; Ma, Li-Hua; Dallas, Jerry L.; Smith, Kevin M.; Zhang, Xuhong; Sato, Michihiko; La Mar, Gerd N.

    2011-01-01

    Heme oxygenase, HO, from the pathogenic bacterium N. meningitidis, NmHO, which secures host iron, shares many properties with mammalian HOs, but also exhibits some key differences. The crystal structure appears more compact and the crystal-undetected C-terminus interacts with substrate in solution. The unique nature of substrate-protein, specifically pyrrole-I/II-helix-2, peripheral interactions in NmHO are probed by 2D 1H NMR to reveal unique structural features controlling substrate orientation. The thermodynamics of substrate orientational isomerism are mapped for substrates with individual vinyl → methyl → hydrogen substitutions and with enzyme C-terminal deletions. NmHO exhibits significantly stronger orientational preference, reflecting much stronger and selective pyrrole-I/II interactions with the protein matrix, than in mammalian HOs. Thus, replacing bulky vinyls with hydrogens results in a 180° rotation of substrate about the α,γ-meso axis in the active site. A "collapse" of the substrate pocket as substrate size decreases is reflected in movement of helix-2 toward the substrate as indicated by significant and selective increased NOESY cross peak intensity, increase in steric Fe-CN tilt reflected in the orientation of the major magnetic axis, and decrease in steric constraints controlling the rate of aromatic ring reorientation. The active site of NmHO appears "stressed" for native protohemin and its "collapse" upon replacing vinyls by hydrogen leads to a factor ~102 increase in substrate affinity. Interaction of the C-terminus with the active site destabilizes the crystallographic protohemin orientation by ~0.7 kcal/mol, which is consistent with optimizing the His207-Asp27 H-bond. Implications of the active site "stress" for product release are discussed. PMID:21870860

  2. Efficacy of adding a physiotherapy rehabilitation programme to arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: a randomised controlled trial (FAIR)

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Kim L; Spiers, Libby; Takla, Amir; O’Donnell, John; Kasza, Jessica; Hunter, David J; Hinman, Rana S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Although several rehabilitation programmes following hip arthroscopy for femoracetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome have been described, there are no clinical trials evaluating whether formal physiotherapy-prescribed rehabilitation improves recovery compared with self-directed rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding a physiotherapist-prescribed rehabilitation programme to arthroscopic surgery for FAI syndrome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Methods People aged ≥16 years with FAI syndrome scheduled for hip arthroscopy were recruited and randomly allocated to physiotherapy (PT) or control. The PT group received seven PT sessions (one preoperative and six postoperative) incorporating education, manual therapy and a progressive rehabilitation programme of home, aquatic and gym exercises while the control group did not undertake PT rehabilitation. Measurements were taken at baseline (2 weeks presurgery) and 14 and 24 weeks postsurgery. The primary outcomes were the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) and the sport subscale of the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) at week 14. Results Due to slower than expected recruitment and funding constraints, recruitment was ceased after 23 months. Thirty participants (14 PT and 16 control) were randomised and 28 (14 PT and 14 control; 93%) and 22 (11 PT and 11 control; 73%) completed week 14 and 24 measurements, respectively. For the 14-week primary outcomes, the PT group showed significantly greater improvements on the iHOT-33 (mean difference 14.2 units; 95% CI 1.2 to 27.2) and sport subscale of the HOS (13.8 units; 95% CI 0.3 to 27.3). There were no significant between-group differences at week 24. Conclusions An individual PT treatment and rehabilitation programme may augment improvements in patient-reported outcomes following arthroscopy for FAI syndrome. However, given the small sample size, larger trials are needed to validate the findings. Trial registration

  3. Prostate tissue characterization/classification in 144 patient population using wavelet and higher order spectra features from transrectal ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Gyan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Swapna, G; Yantri, Ratna; Martis, Roshan Joy; Saba, Luca; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Mallarini, Giorgio; El-Baz, Ayman; Al Ekish, Shadi; Beland, Michael; Suri, Jasjit S

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we have proposed an on-line computer-aided diagnostic system called "UroImage" that classifies a Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) image into cancerous or non-cancerous with the help of non-linear Higher Order Spectra (HOS) features and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) coefficients. The UroImage system consists of an on-line system where five significant features (one DWT-based feature and four HOS-based features) are extracted from the test image. These on-line features are transformed by the classifier parameters obtained using the training dataset to determine the class. We trained and tested six classifiers. The dataset used for evaluation had 144 TRUS images which were split into training and testing sets. Three-fold and ten-fold cross-validation protocols were adopted for training and estimating the accuracy of the classifiers. The ground truth used for training was obtained using the biopsy results. Among the six classifiers, using 10-fold cross-validation technique, Support Vector Machine and Fuzzy Sugeno classifiers presented the best classification accuracy of 97.9% with equally high values for sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. Our proposed automated system, which achieved more than 95% values for all the performance measures, can be an adjunct tool to provide an initial diagnosis for the identification of patients with prostate cancer. The technique, however, is limited by the limitations of 2D ultrasound guided biopsy, and we intend to improve our technique by using 3D TRUS images in the future.

  4. Intra-articular Diagnostic Injection Exhibits Poor Predictive Value for Outcome After Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Krych, Aaron J; Sousa, Paul L; King, Alexander H; Engasser, William M; Levy, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether the amount of pain relief after preoperative intra-articular (IA) anesthetic injection predicts clinical and functional outcomes after hip arthroscopy, especially when controlling for the presence of chondral degeneration. We identified patients who underwent IA injection and subsequent hip arthroscopy for labral pathology between 2007 and 2013 performed by a single surgeon. Inclusion criteria were ultrasound- or fluoroscopic-guided IA anesthetic injection performed at our institution, prospectively documented pre- and postinjection numerical rating scale pain scores, and minimum 1-year follow-up postoperatively. Patients were divided into 2 groups, those who received >50% pain relief from preoperative IA anesthetic injection and those who received ≤50% relief. Preoperative radiographs were reviewed, and degree of osteoarthritis was determined using the Tonnis classification system. Outcomes were assessed with Modified Harris Hip Score and Hip Outcome Score (HOS). Univariate and multivariate models were performed to assess whether percent pain relief correlated with outcome. Of the 319 arthroscopic hip surgeries performed between 2007 and 2013, 115 (37%) patients were lost to follow-up, 16 (5%) patients did not receive an IA injection, 16 (5%) patients had an injection containing gadolinium, and 40 (13%) patients completed injections at an outside institution. Five (2%) patients were excluded for a history of ipsilateral hip surgery, and 3 (1%) for a history of contralateral hip surgery, leaving 96 hips in 96 patients. There were 71 females (74%) and 25 males (26%) with a mean age of 37.6 ± 14.0 years. Tonnis was grade 0, 1, and 2 for 26 (27%), 55 (56%), and 16 (17%) patients, respectively. Fifty-one (53%) of the injections contained a corticosteroid. The mean pain relief after IA injection was 73% ± 36% (range, 0% to 100%). Twenty-six hips (26%) had ≤50% pain relief, whereas 70 (73%) had >50% pain relief, and the median time interval

  5. Do Patients With Borderline Dysplasia Have Inferior Outcomes After Hip Arthroscopic Surgery for Femoroacetabular Impingement Compared With Patients With Normal Acetabular Coverage?

    PubMed

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Levy, David M; Weber, Alexander E; Kuhns, Benjamin D; Mather, Richard C; Salata, Michael J; Nho, Shane J

    2017-07-01

    The literature contains conflicting reports regarding whether outcomes of hip arthroscopic surgery for patients with borderline dysplasia are inferior to outcomes in patients with normal acetabular coverage. To assess differences in the outcomes of hip arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in groups of patients with borderline dysplasia and normal coverage. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A registry of consecutive patients who had undergone primary hip arthroscopic surgery with capsular plication for FAI between January 2012 and January 2014 were divided based on the preoperative lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) into 2 distinct groups: (1) borderline dysplasia (LCEA 18°-25°) and (2) normal acetabular coverage (LCEA 25.1°-40°). There were 36 patients in the borderline dysplastic group and 312 patients in the normal coverage group. The primary outcome measure was the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures included the HOS-Sports and modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS). The mean preoperative LCEA differed significantly between groups (23.4° ± 1.5° for borderline dysplastic, 32.5° ± 3.8° for normal coverage; P < .001). The borderline dysplastic group had a higher percentage of female patients than the normal coverage group (27/36 [75%] vs 177/312 [57%], respectively; P = .048). There were no differences in other preoperative demographics and radiographic parameters. At a minimum 2 years after hip arthroscopic surgery (mean follow-up, 2.6 ± 0.6 years), both groups demonstrated significant improvements in all patient-reported outcome scores ( P < .001 in all cases). There were no significant differences between the borderline dysplastic and normal coverage groups in final outcome scores, score improvements, or percentage of patients experiencing clinically significant improvements. One patient in the borderline dysplastic group (3%) underwent revision hip

  6. Partial deoxygenation of extender improves sperm quality, reduces lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species during cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, B; Ghosh, S K; Lone, S A; Prasad, J K; Das, G K; Katiyar, R; Mustapha, Abdul Rahman; Kumar, Ajay; Verma, M R

    2018-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of partial deoxygenation of extender on sperm quality, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) during cryopreservation of semen. Semen extender was prepared freshly and split into three sub-extenders [Extender I: control (non-deoxygenated), Extender II (partially deoxygenated by using LN 2 flushing) and Extender III (partially deoxygenated mechanically by vacuum pump)]. Amounts of dissolved oxygen (DO) were determined in all the three extenders and also in post-thaw semen. Ejaculates with mass motility of  ≥3+ and individual progressive motility of 70% or greater were collected from Murrah buffalo bulls and utilized in the study. Each semen sample was divided into Groups I (diluted with Extender I), II (diluted with Extender II) and III (diluted Extender III) with a maximum of 60 × 10 6 sperm/mL. French mini straws (0.25 mL) were filled with the extended semen samples, sealed with polyvinyl alcohol powder, kept for 3 h at 5 °C for equilibration and then stored in an automatic programmable freezer until the temperature of straws reached -145 °C followed by plunging the straws into liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). Semen samples were evaluated at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages for various variables [sperm motility, live sperm count, acrosomal integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) response, LPO and ROS concentrations]. The mean DO was less (P < 0.05) in Extender II as compared to I and III. The DO was less (P < 0.05) in Group II (semen extended with Extender II) as compared with III (semen extended with Extender III) and I (semen extended with Extender I). The percentages for sperm motility, viability and intact acrosomes (PIA) were greater (P < 0.05) in Groups II and III as compared to the control group at the pre-freeze stage, while at the post-thaw stage, percentages of sperm motility, viability, PIA and HOS response were greater (P

  7. Male contraceptive efficacy of Ricinus communis L. extract.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sushmita; Dutta Choudhury, Manabendra; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Talukdar, Anupam Das; Misro, Man Mohan

    2013-08-26

    Ricinus communis L. (Rc), of Euphorbiaceae family is a widespread plant in tropical regions and it is used in traditional medicines as an antifertility agent in India and different parts of the world. The aim of the present study is to revalidate the ethnobotanical knowledge by evaluating the activity of only crude stem bark extracts of Rc. In this study, effects of extracts on male contraceptive efficacy were experimented in vitro with human sperm sample. The work is based on primordial and contemporary therapeutic uses of this plant. In this study, dose of petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract, acetone extract and lyophilised aqueous extract of Rc were added to fresh human semen in 1:1 volumetric ratio. As the aqueous extract showed a promising result in 1:1 ratio, therefore, the Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS), Nuclear chromatin decondensation test (NCD) and Acrosomal status and function test (AFT) were also carried out with the aqueous extract of Rc. The sperm immobilisation effects of the extract appeared immediately in a dose-dependent manner when the samples were treated with four different extracts of this plant. At a concentration of 100mg/mL, 100% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) sperms lost their progressive motility. At a concentration of 300 mg/mL, 100% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) became immotile when treated with aqueous extract. There was 88% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) morphological deformities in sperm sample due the effect of aqueous extract when they were tested for HOS and 91% (p<0.05) sperms behaved against NCD as compared to control group. Also there was a distinct decline (p<0.05) in AFT with increase in dosage concentration. The findings of the study revealed that aqueous stem bark extract of the plant showed dose dependent loss of sperm motility by influencing the morphological deformation, blockage in nuclear envelope and distinct declination in acrosomal status of spermatozoa. This research, thus, opens up scope for future exploration of bark of the

  8. Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopy in Competitive Athletes.

    PubMed

    Perets, Itay; Hartigan, David E; Chaharbakhshi, Edwin O; Ashberg, Lyall; Ortiz-Declet, Victor; Domb, Benjamin G

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the minimum 2-year postoperative clinical outcomes and the rate of return to sports in athletes who underwent capsular plication for the treatment of ligamentous laxity and/or borderline dysplasia during hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and labral pathology. Since 2008, data were prospectively collected on patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and/or labral tears. Inclusion criteria were as follows: athlete at the high school, collegiate, or professional levels preoperatively, underwent capsular plication, and preoperatively recorded patient-reported outcome scores including modified Harris hip score (mHHS), nonarthritic athletic hip score (NAHS), hip outcome score-sports-specific subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale (VAS). Exclusion criteria were as follows: <16 years old, preoperative Tönnis grade >1, and previous hip conditions. Sports activity and competitive levels were collected at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Fifty-one hips (49 patients) met the inclusion criteria, and 41 hips (39 patients) had minimum 2-year follow-up (80.4% follow-up). Mean mHHS increased from 67.1 preoperatively to 83.5 (P < .0001). Mean NAHS increased from 66.8 to 88.8 (P < .0001). Mean HOS-SSS improved from 46.8 to 80.1 (P < .0001). Mean VAS decreased from 5.1 to 1.7 (P < .0001). Thirty-five (85.4%) hip arthroscopies allowed the patients to return to sports at follow-up. Thirty-four (82.9%) hip arthroscopies allowed the patients to maintain their competitive physical abilities at follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes and VAS in athletes significantly improved at a minimum of 2 years after capsular plication as a part of hip arthroscopy addressing varying pathologies. In addition, most patients returned to sports at similar or higher competitive levels. These results suggest that capsular plication is a favorable treatment option in athletes with ligamentous laxity and

  9. High Rate of Return to Running for Athletes After Hip Arthroscopy for the Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement and Capsular Plication.

    PubMed

    Levy, David M; Kuhns, Benjamin D; Frank, Rachel M; Grzybowski, Jeffrey S; Campbell, Kirk A; Brown, Sara; Nho, Shane J

    2017-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is most commonly diagnosed in athletes who sustain repetitive flexion loading to their hips. No studies to date have focused solely on patients' return-to-running ability after hip arthroscopy. To evaluate patients' ability to return to running after hip arthroscopy for FAI and capsular plication. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Clinical data were retrospectively retrieved for 51 consecutive patients with FAI (22 men, 29 women) who had undergone hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAI and identified themselves as recreational or competitive runners on intake forms. Two-year outcome measures included the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and the Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sport-Specific (HOS-SS) subscales. A postoperative return-to-running survey was used to obtain running-specific information. Patient age and body mass index (BMI) were a mean (±SD) of 26.3 ± 7.8 years and 23.7 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 , respectively. Before surgery, patients had refrained from running because of pain for a mean of 8.1 ± 5.7 months. After surgery, 48 patients (94%) returned to running at a mean of 8.5 ± 4.2 months. Patients who had discontinued running for more than 8 months before surgery had a longer return-to-running time than did those who had stopped for less than 8 months (10.6 ± 4.2 vs 7.6 ± 4.1 months; P = .01). After 2 years, mean preoperative distance had decreased significantly ( P < .01) from 9.5 ± 6.5 miles per week when healthy to 6.4 ± 5.8 miles postoperatively. Despite decreased mileage, all 2-year outcomes scores improved significantly ( P < .001). Recreational and competitive runners with FAI returned to running 94% of the time at a mean of 8.5 months after hip arthroscopy. However, runners should be counseled before their surgery that they may run fewer miles than when they were pain free. Additionally, patients with a higher BMI and/or longer preoperative lull may have a longer recovery time.

  10. Intermediate clinical and radiological results of cervical TDR (Mobi-C®) with up to 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Beaurain, J.; Bernard, P.; Dufour, T.; Fuentes, J. M.; Hovorka, I.; Huppert, J.; Steib, J. P.; Vital, J. M.; Aubourg, L.

    2009-01-01

    The interest in cervical total disc replacement (TDR) as an alternative to the so-far gold standard in the surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD), e.g anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), is growing very rapidly. Many authors have established the fact that ACDF may result in progressive degeneration in adjacent segments. On the contrary, but still theoretically, preservation of motion with TDR at the surgically treated level may potentially reduce the occurrence of adjacent-level degeneration (ALD). The authors report the intermediate results of an undergoing multicentre prospective study of TDR with Mobi-C® prosthesis. The aim of the study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the device in the treatment of DDD and secondary to evaluate the radiological status of adjacent levels and the occurrence of ossifications, at 2-year follow-up (FU). 76 patients have performed their 2-year FU visit and have been analyzed clinically and radiologically. Clinical outcomes (NDI, VAS, SF-36) and ROM measurements were analyzed pre-operatively and at the different post-operative time-points. Complications and re-operations were also assessed. Occurrences of heterotopic ossifications (HOs) and of adjacent disc degeneration radiographic changes have been analyzed from 2-year FU X-rays. The mean NDI and VAS scores for arm and neck are reduced significantly at each post-operative time-point compared to pre-operative condition. Motion is preserved over the time at index levels (mean ROM = 9° at 2 years) and 85.5% of the segments are mobile at 2 years. HOs are responsible for the fusion of 6/76 levels at 2 years. However, presence of HO does not alter the clinical outcomes. The occurrence rate of radiological signs of ALD is very low at 2 years (9.1%). There has been no subsidence, no expulsion and no sub-luxation of the implant. Finally, after 2 years, 91% of the patients assume that they would undergo the procedure again. These intermediate

  11. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF HIP ARTHROSCOPY IN AN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY POPULATION UTILIZING A CRITERION-BASED EARLY WEIGHT BEARING PROGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Evanson, J. Richard; Pniewski, Josh; Dickston, Michelle L.; Mueller, Terry; Bojescul, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hip arthroscopy allows surgeons to address intra-articular pathology of the hip while avoiding more invasive open surgical dislocation. However the post-operative rehabilitation protocols have varied greatly in the literature, with many having prolonged periods of limited motion and weight bearing. Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe a criterion-based early weight bearing protocol following hip arthroscopy and investigate functional outcomes in the subjects who were active duty military. Methods Active duty personnel undergoing hip arthroscopy for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement were prospectively assessed in a controlled environment for the ability to incorporate early postoperative weight-bearing with the following criteria: no increased pain complaint with weight bearing and normalized gait pattern. Modified Harris Hip (HHS) and Hip Outcome score (HOS) were performed preoperatively and at six months post-op. Participants were progressed with a standard hip arthroscopy protocol. Hip flexion was limited to not exceed 90 degrees for the first three weeks post-op, with progression back to running beginning at three months. Final discharge was dependent upon the ability to run two miles at military specified pace and do a single leg broad jump within six inches of the contralateral leg without an increase in pain. Results Eleven participants met inclusion criteria over the study period. Crutch use was discontinued at an average of five days following surgery based on established weight bearing criteria. Only one participant required continued crutch use at 15 days. Participants’ functional outcome was improved postoperatively, as demonstrated by significant increases in HOS and HHS. At the six month follow up, eight of 11 participants were able to take and complete a full Army Physical Fitness Test. Conclusions Following completion of the early weight bearing rehabilitation protocol, 81% of participants were able to progress to

  12. Preoperative Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) for Patients Undergoing Hip Arthroscopy: Indices Are Predictive of Magnitude of Improvement in Two-Year Patient-Reported Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Vemula, S Pavan; Lindner, Dror; Lodhia, Parth; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Domb, Benjamin G

    2015-08-19

    Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) has been used in the detection of chondropathy. Our study aimed to determine whether dGEMRIC indices are predictive of two-year patient-reported outcomes and pain scores following hip arthroscopy. Between August 2008 and April 2012, sixty-five patients (seventy-four hips) underwent primary hip arthroscopy with preoperative dGEMRIC and a minimum of two years of follow-up. Exclusion criteria were previous hip surgery, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, inflammatory arthropathy, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, and arthritis of >1 Tönnis grade. Patients were classified in two groups on the basis of a dGEMRIC cutoff of 323 msec, which was one standard deviation (SD) below the study cohort mean dGEMRIC index of 426 msec. Patient-reported outcome tools used included the modified Harris hip score (mHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), the Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and the Hip Outcome Score Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) as well as a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and a patient satisfaction score. There were sixty-four hips that met the inclusion criteria; fifty-two (81.3%) had a minimum of two years of follow-up. Twelve of the sixty-four hips had a dGEMRIC index of <323 msec (Group 1), and fifty-two hips had a dGEMRIC index of ≥323 msec (Group 2). There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to age, sex, and body mass index. There was no significant difference between the groups in mean preoperative patient-reported outcome scores and the VAS for pain. At the two-year follow-up, Group 1 had significant improvement in the mHHS, whereas Group 2 demonstrated significant improvement in all patient-reported outcome scores and the VAS. The improvement in all patient-reported outcome scores was significantly larger for Group 2 compared with Group 1. There was no significant difference in patient satisfaction between groups and no

  13. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF HIP ARTHROSCOPY IN AN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY POPULATION UTILIZING A CRITERION-BASED EARLY WEIGHT BEARING PROGRESSION.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K Aaron; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Evanson, J Richard; Pniewski, Josh; Dickston, Michelle L; Mueller, Terry; Bojescul, John A

    2017-10-01

    Hip arthroscopy allows surgeons to address intra-articular pathology of the hip while avoiding more invasive open surgical dislocation. However the post-operative rehabilitation protocols have varied greatly in the literature, with many having prolonged periods of limited motion and weight bearing. The purpose of this study was to describe a criterion-based early weight bearing protocol following hip arthroscopy and investigate functional outcomes in the subjects who were active duty military. Active duty personnel undergoing hip arthroscopy for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement were prospectively assessed in a controlled environment for the ability to incorporate early postoperative weight-bearing with the following criteria: no increased pain complaint with weight bearing and normalized gait pattern. Modified Harris Hip (HHS) and Hip Outcome score (HOS) were performed preoperatively and at six months post-op. Participants were progressed with a standard hip arthroscopy protocol. Hip flexion was limited to not exceed 90 degrees for the first three weeks post-op, with progression back to running beginning at three months. Final discharge was dependent upon the ability to run two miles at military specified pace and do a single leg broad jump within six inches of the contralateral leg without an increase in pain. Eleven participants met inclusion criteria over the study period. Crutch use was discontinued at an average of five days following surgery based on established weight bearing criteria. Only one participant required continued crutch use at 15 days. Participants' functional outcome was improved postoperatively, as demonstrated by significant increases in HOS and HHS. At the six month follow up, eight of 11 participants were able to take and complete a full Army Physical Fitness Test. Following completion of the early weight bearing rehabilitation protocol, 81% of participants were able to progress to full weight bearing by four days post

  14. Synthesis, metabolism, and biological activity of 2-[3-(tetrazolyl)propyl]-1α,25-dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Takano, Masashi; Yasuda, Kaori; Higuchi, Erika; Tohyama, Eri; Takeuchi, Akiko; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Kittaka, Atsushi

    2016-11-01

    Recently, we found that 2α-[2-(tetrazol-2-yl)ethyl]-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 showed higher osteocalcin promoter transactivation activity in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and a greater therapeutic effect in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in vivo than those of active vitamin D 3 , 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 . We were interested in introducing a heterocyclic ring to the C2 position of the seco-steroidal structure via an alkyl linker, and four novel C2-(3-tetrazolylpropyl) substituted 1α,25-dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D 3 analogs, 2α-[3-(tetrazol-1-yl)propyl]-, 2β-[3-(tetrazol-1-yl)propyl]-, 2α-[3-(tetrazol-2-yl)propyl]-, and 2β-[3-(tetrazol-2-yl)propyl]-19-nor-1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 were synthesized. Among them, 2α-[3-(tetrazol-1-yl)propyl]-19-nor-1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 showed weak binding affinity for human vitamin D receptor (hVDR) (2.6% of 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and ca. 15% of 19-nor-1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) and weak VDR transactivation activity in HOS cells (EC 50 7.3nM, when 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 0.23nM). Although the other three compounds could not act as VDR binders by evaluation of the competition assays, 2α-[3-(tetrazol-2-yl)propyl]-19-nor-1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 showed weak transactivation activity (EC 50 12.5nM). Metabolic stability of the 2α-substituted compounds 2α-[3-(tetrazol-1-yl)propyl]- and 2α-[3-(tetrazol-2-yl)propyl]-19-nor-1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 was higher than that of the 2β-substituted counterparts 2β-[3-(tetrazol-1-yl)propyl]- and 2β-[3-(tetrazol-2-yl)propyl]-19-nor-1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 against human CYP24A1. Introduction of a tetrazole ring to the C2-position of the 19-norvitamin D 3 skeleton with the propyl linker led to weak VDR agonistic activity with stability against CYP24A1 metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acetabular labral tears in patients with sports injury.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chan; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Cha, Soo-Min

    2009-12-01

    We wanted to investigate acetabular labral tears and their correlation with femoroacetabular impingement in patients with sports injury. Among 111 patients who were diagnosed with the acetabular labral tears after arthroscopic treatment from January 2004 to December 2007, we selected 41 patients with sports injury. There were 12 cases of Taekwondo injury, 5 of golf injury, 4 of soccer injury, 3 of gymnastics injury, 2 of Hapkido injury, 2 of aerobics injury, 2 of rock-climbing injury, 2 of fitness training injury and 9 of other sports injuries. We checked the subtypes of acetabular labral tears and the accompanying femoroacetabular impingement. For the cases with accompanying femoroacetabular impingement, we investigated the subtypes according to the types of sports, gender and age. At last follow-up, we checked the Harris Hip Score (HHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) sports scale and the percentage of patients who returned to their sports activity. The average age of symptomatic onset was 26 years (range, 12 to 65 years). The ratio of males to females was 29 : 12. An average duration of the hip pain was 17 months (range, 1 to 60 months). The degenerative type of acetabular labral tears was the most prevalent with 32 cases (78%), and there were 9 cases (22%) of the partial tear type. Thirty cases (73%) were accompanied by femoroacetabular impingement. The average age of the 23 cases (56%) of the cam-type was 23 years (range, 12 to 48 years), and it was more likely to occur in men (87%) and for people practicing martial arts such as Taekwondo or Hapkido. An average age of the 5 cases (12%) of the pincer-type was 26 (range, 16 to 43 years), it usually occurred in women (60%) and for non-martial arts such as golf and gymnastics. There were 2 cases of the mixed type (cam + pincer-type). At 27 months follow-up, the HHS was 61 to 92 points, the HOS sports scale increased 43 to 75%, and the rate of returning to sports was 71%. In spite of the early expression of symptoms

  16. Association between adverse mental health and an unhealthy lifestyle in rural-to-urban migrant workers in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Gao, Jian; Wang, Tianhao; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Yao; Shen, Yao; Gong, Jian; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Jie; Pan, Zhigang; Zhu, Shanzhu

    2017-02-01

    The association between adverse mental health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in migrant workers remains poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. A cross-sectional study was conducted regarding health-related behaviors in 5484 migrants (51.3% males) employed in Shanghai for at least 6 months. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess migrant mental health status. Logistic regression was applied to determine the contribution of adverse mental health to lifestyle behaviors. Of the 5484 migrants, 21.1% had potential mental health problems and 63.1% had an unhealthy lifestyle. The three most prevalent mental disorders were obsessions-compulsions (O-C; 13.7%; 751/5484), interpersonal sensitivity (I-S; 11.0%; 603/5484), and hostility (HOS; 10.8%; 590/5484). Compared with the male participants, the female participants exhibited significantly increased mean scores for phobic anxiety (PHOB) and anxiety (ANX) (p < 0.001). Logistic regression indicated that after adjustment for potential confounding factors in both genders, an unhealthy lifestyle score was significantly associated with all nine subscales of the SCL-90-R. The male participants with psychoticism [PSY; odds ratio (OR) = 4.908, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.474-9.735], ANX (OR = 4.022, 95% CI 2.151-7.518), or depression (DEP; OR = 3.378, 95% CI 2.079-5.487) were the most likely to have an unhealthy lifestyle. In the female participants, an unhealthy lifestyle was most associated with HOS (OR = 2.868, 95% CI 2.155-3.819), PSY (OR = 2.783, 95% CI 1.870-4.141), or DEP (OR = 2.650, 95% CI 1.960-3.582). Lifestyle behaviors were significantly associated with mental health in rural-to-urban migrant workers, and these findings indicate the need to develop targeted psychological interventions to foster healthy lifestyles in migrants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. What the multiline signal (MLS) simulation data with average of weighted computations reveal about the Mn hyperfine interactions and oxidation states of the manganese cluster in OEC?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baituti, Bernard

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the structure of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) fully still remains a challenge. Lately computational chemistry with the data from more detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) OEC structure, has been used extensively in exploring the mechanisms of water oxidation in the OEC (Gatt et al., J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 80-93 2011). Knowledge of the oxidation states is very crucial for understanding the core principles of catalysis by photosystem II (PSII) and catalytic mechanism of OEC. The present study involves simulation studies of the X-band continuous wave electron-magnetic resonance (CW-EPR) generated S 2 state signals, to investigate whether the data is in agreement with the four manganese ions in the OEC, being organised as a `3 + 1' (trimer plus one) model (Gatt et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 12025-12028 2012; Petrie et al., Chem. A Eur. J. 21, 6780-6792 2015; Terrett et al., Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50, 8-11 2014) or `dimer of dimers' model (Terrett et al. 2016). The question that still remains is how much does each Mn ion contribute to the " g2multiline" signal through its hyperfine interactions in OEC also to differentiate between the `high oxidation state (HOS)' and `low oxidation state (LOS)' paradigms? This is revealed in part by the structure of multiline (ML) signal studied in this project. Two possibilities have been proposed for the redox levels of the Mn ions within the catalytic cluster, the so called `HOS' and `LOS' paradigms (Gatt et al., J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 80-93 2011). The method of data analysis involves numerical simulations of the experimental spectra on relevant models of the OEC cluster. The simulations of the X-band CW-EPR multiline spectra, revealed three manganese ions having hyperfine couplings with large anisotropy. These are most likely Mn III centres and these clearly support the `LOS' OEC paradigm model, with a mean oxidation of 3.25 in the S2 state. This is consistent with the earlier data by Jin et

  18. Developing a risk prediction model for the functional outcome after hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Patrick; Röling, Maarten A; Mathijssen, Nina M C; Hannink, Gerjon; Bloem, Rolf M

    2018-04-19

    Hip arthroscopic treatment is not equally beneficial for every patient undergoing this procedure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a clinical prediction model for functional outcome after surgery based on preoperative factors. Prospective data was collected on a cohort of 205 patients having undergone hip arthroscopy between 2011 and 2015. Demographic and clinical variables and patient reported outcome (PRO) scores were collected, and considered as potential predictors. Successful outcome was defined as either a Hip Outcome Score (HOS)-ADL score of over 80% or improvement of 23%, defined by the minimal clinical important difference, 1 year after surgery. The prediction model was developed using backward logistic regression. Regression coefficients were converted into an easy to use prediction rule. The analysis included 203 patients, of which 74% had a successful outcome. Female gender (OR: 0.37 (95% CI 0.17-0.83); p = 0.02), pincer impingement (OR: 0.47 (95% CI 0.21-1.09); p = 0.08), labral tear (OR: 0.46 (95% CI 0.20-1.06); p = 0.07), HOS-ADL score (IQR OR: 2.01 (95% CI 0.99-4.08); p = 0.05), WHOQOL physical (IQR OR: 0.43 (95% CI 0.22-0.87); p = 0.02) and WHOQOL psychological (IQR OR: 2.40 (95% CI 1.38-4.18); p = < 0.01) were factors in the final prediction model of successful functional outcome 1 year after hip arthroscopy. The model's discriminating accuracy turned out to be fair, as 71% (95% CI: 64-80%) of the patients were classified correctly. The developed prediction model can predict the functional outcome of patients that are considered for a hip arthroscopic intervention, containing six easy accessible preoperative risk factors. The model can be further improved trough external validation and/or adding additional potential predictors.

  19. Carbon monoxide released from its pharmacological donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer, accelerates the healing of pre-existing gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Ginter, Grzegorz; Pajdo, Robert; Chmura, Anna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous mediator produced by haem oxygenases (HOs), has been shown to prevent stress-, ethanol-, aspirin- and alendronate-induced gastric damage; however, its role in gastric ulcer healing has not been fully elucidated. We investigated whether CO released from tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) can affect gastric ulcer healing and determined the mechanisms involved in this healing action. Gastric ulcers were induced in Wistar rats by serosal application of acetic acid. Animals received 9 days of treatment with RuCl 3 [2.5 mg·kg -1 intragastrically (i.g.)], haemin (5 mg·kg -1 i.g.), CORM-2 (0.1-10 mg·kg -1 i.g.) administered alone or with zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, 10 mg·kg -1 i.g.), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 5 mg·kg -1 i.g.), N G -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 15 mg·kg -1 i.g.), indomethacin (5 mg·kg -1 i.g.) or glibenclamide (10 mg·kg -1 i.g.). Gastric ulcer area and gastric blood flow (GBF) were assessed planimetrically, microscopically and by laser flowmeter respectively. Gastric mRNA/protein expressions of EGF, EGF receptors, VEGFA, HOs, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), COX-2, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and pro-inflammatory iNOS, IL-1β and TNF-α were determined by real-time PCR or Western blots. CORM-2 and haemin but not RuCl 3 or ZnPP decreased ulcer size while increasing GBF. These effects were reduced by ODQ, indomethacin, l-NNA and glibenclamide. CORM-2 significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory markers, Nrf2/HO1 and HIF-1α, and up-regulated EGF. CO released from CORM-2 or endogenously produced by the HO1/Nrf2 pathway accelerates gastric ulcer healing via an increase in GBF, an up-regulation in EGF expression and down-regulation of the inflammatory response. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Spermicidal efficacy of VRP, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, inducing apoptosis and membrane disruption.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prasanta; Bhoumik, Arpita; Saha, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sandipan; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Ghosh, Jimut K; Dungdung, Sandhya R

    2018-02-01

    Presently available contraceptives are mostly hormonal or detergent in nature with numerous side effects like irritation, lesion, inflammation in vagina, alteration of body homeostasis, etc. Antimicrobial peptides with spermicidal activity but without adverse effects may be suitable alternatives. In the present study, spermicidal activity of a cationic antimicrobial peptide VRP on human spermatozoa has been elucidated. Progressive forward motility of human spermatozoa was instantly stopped after 100 μM VRP treatment and at 350 μM, all kinds of sperm motility ceased within 20 s as assessed by the Sander-Cramer assay. The spermicidal effect was confirmed by eosin-nigrosin assay and HOS test. VRP treatment (100 μM) in human spermatozoa induced both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. TUNEL assay showed VRP treatment significantly disrupted the DNA integrity and changed the mitochondrial membrane permeability as evident from MPTP assay. AFM and SEM results depicted ultra structural changes including disruption of the acrosomal cap and plasma membrane of the head and midpiece region after treatment with 350 μM VRP. MTT assay showed after treatments with 100 and 350 μM of VRP for 24 hr, a substantial amount of Lactobacillus acidophilus (about 90% and 75%, respectively) remained viable. Hence, VRP being a small synthetic peptide with antimicrobial and spermicidal activity but tolerable to normal vaginal microflora, may be a suitable target for elucidating its contraceptive potentiality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Wellness engineering for better quality of life of aging baby boomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    Current health care system serving 78M aging baby-boomers is no longer sustainable, as the cost about 1/5 GDP will reach 1/4 GDT when all is retired in decades, unless the system is changed. We design a high-tech safe net to enhance the timeliness of early correct treatment execution (otherwise, causing 1/4 mortality associated with an escalating legal fee waste). We follow the common sense that "a stitch in time saves nine," and adopt the military surveillance know-how in designing early warning health management system, comprising of smart sensor pairs for point-care surveillance. However, the grand plan of affordable smart sensors hardware for households requires an ODM & OEM teaming to conduct parallel designing and sequential marketing strategy. The military software strategy combating a treacherous adversary enemy match well with point cares surveillance overcoming real world microorganism variability. Moreover, such smart military software provides self-reference change detection, not by traditional cohort ensemble average, but by individual own higher order statistics (HOS) independent component analysis (ICA), which take the advantage of known initial condition for each individual and desirable over-sampling daily dynamics. The triggering of warning follows the military algorithms comprising of Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR). To further reduce the unwanted false negative rate, a benchmarked is made against the traditional cohort-ensemble baseline average & the upper & lower bounds of variance as adopted by the gatekeepers - Medical Doctors (MD) and Nurses.

  2. Cytocompatibility and response of osteoblastic-like cells to starch-based polymers: effect of several additives and processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M E; Reis, R L; Cunha, A M; Blitterswijk, C A; de Bruijn, J D

    2001-07-01

    This work reports on the biocompatibility evaluation of new biodegradable starch-based polymers that are under consideration for use in orthopaedic temporary applications and as tissue engineering scaffolds. It has been shown in previous works that by using these polymers it is both possible to produce polymer/hydroxyapatite (HA) composites (with or without the use of coupling agents) with mechanical properties matching those of the human bone, and to obtain 3D structures generated by solid blowing agents, that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. This study was focused on establishing the influence of several additives (ceramic fillers, blowing agents and coupling agents) and processing methods/conditions on the biocompatibility of the materials described above. The cytotoxicity of the materials was evaluated using cell culture methods, according to ISO/EN 109935 guidelines. A cell suspension of human osteosarcoma cells (HOS) was also seeded on a blend of corn starch with ethylene vinyl alcohol (SEVA-C) and on SEVA-C/HA composites, in order to have a preliminary indication on cell adhesion and proliferation on the materials surface. In general, the obtained results show that all the different materials based on SEVA-C, (which are being investigated for use in several biomedical applications), as well as all the additives (including the novel coupling agents) and different processing methods required to obtain the different properties/products, can be used without inducing a cytotoxic behaviour to the developed biomaterials.

  3. Ethylene glycol, but not DMSO, could replace glycerol inclusion in soybean lecithin-based extenders in ram sperm cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Abouzar; Daghigh-Kia, Hossein; Dodaran, Hossein Vaseghi; Mehdipour, Mahdieh; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glycerol, ethylene glycol or DMSO in a soybean lecithin extender for freezing ram semen. In this study, 20 ejaculates were collected from four Ghezel rams and diluted with soybean lecithin extender with glycerol (7%), ethylene glycol (3%, 5% and 7%) or DMSO (3%, 5% and 7%). Sperm motility (CASA), membrane integrity (HOS test), viability, total abnormality, mitochondrial activity (Rhodamine 123) and apoptotic features (Annexin V/Propidium iodide) were assessed after thawing. There was no significant difference between glycerol and ethylene glycol at different concentrations (3% and 5%) regarding sperm total and progressive motility, viability, and membrane integrity. The least percentages of mitochondrial functionality were observed in samples frozen with all different DMSO concentrations tested (P<0.05). Moreover, the percentage of post-thawed dead sperm was the greatest for all the DMSO concentrations compared with other groups (P<0.05). Thus, DMSO had an adverse effect on the post thaw ram sperm parameters. In contrast, ethylene glycol could be a desirable substitute of glycerol in the freezing extender, in view of similar results obtained in post-thaw quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin extender. We propose that glycerol in a soybean lecithin based extender could be replaced by ethylene glycol at 3% or 5% concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New Small Molecules Targeting Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Maugg, Doris; Rothenaigner, Ina; Schorpp, Kenji; Potukuchi, Harish Kumar; Korsching, Eberhard; Baumhoer, Daniel; Hadian, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the option of multimodal therapy in the treatment strategies of osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary malignant bone tumor, the standard therapy has not changed over the last decades and still involves multidrug chemotherapy and radical surgery. Although successfully applied in many patients a large number of patients eventually develop recurrent or metastatic disease in which current therapeutic regimens often lack efficacy. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In this study, we performed a phenotypic high-throughput screening campaign using a 25,000 small-molecule diversity library to identify new small molecules selectively targeting osteosarcoma cells. We could identify two new small molecules that specifically reduced cell viability in OS cell lines U2OS and HOS, but affected neither hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) nor primary human osteoblasts (hOB). In addition, the two compounds induced caspase 3 and 7 activity in the U2OS cell line. Compared to conventional drugs generally used in OS treatment such as doxorubicin, we indeed observed a greater sensitivity of OS cell viability to the newly identified compounds compared to doxorubicin and staurosporine. The p53-negative OS cell line Saos-2 almost completely lacked sensitivity to compound treatment that could indicate a role of p53 in the drug response. Taken together, our data show potential implications for designing more efficient therapies in OS. PMID:26039064

  5. The spleen can influence the metastasis of AH130 hepatoma cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, M; Hiraoka, T; Tanaka, H; Miyauchi, Y

    1993-06-01

    The effect of pathophysiological conditions due to disturbance of the spleen is still unclear. We studied the effects of splenectomy in normal and methylcellulose-induced hypersplenic rats on the development of pulmonary metastases created by intravenous injection of ascites containing AH130 hepatoma cells from male Hos-Donryu rats. Growth of metastatic lesions in the lung was not affected by splenectomy in normal rats, but was increased by splenectomy in hypersplenic rats. Overall, there were fewer pulmonary metastases in rats with hypersplenism, but after splenectomy rats with hypersplenism had a significantly greater number of metastases than did normal rats. The metastases rate correlated somewhat with changes in the blood coagulation and T lymphocyte profile. There is a relationship between the spleen and formation of metastases in cancer. Formation of metastases in the lung was affected most by splenectomy in hypersplenism. To elucidate the mechanism by which metastases are formed in the lung under these pathologic conditions, further studies on the exact role of the spleen are required.

  6. Surveying the Impact of Work Hours and Schedules on Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Hege, Adam; Perko, Michael; Johnson, Amber; Yu, Chong Ho; Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the long hours on the road involving multiple and interacting work stressors (i.e., delivery pressures, irregular shifts, ergonomic hazards), commercial drivers face a plethora of health and safety risks. Researchers goal was to determine whether and to what extent long-haul trucker work schedules influence sleep duration and quality. Methods Survey and biometric data collected from male long-haul truck drivers at a major truckstop in central North Carolina over a six month period. Results Daily hours worked (mean = 11 hours, 55 minutes) and frequency of working over government-mandated daily HOS regulations (23.8% “frequently or always”) were statistically significant predictors of sleep duration. Miles driven per week (mean = 2,812.61), irregular daily hours worked (63.8%), and frequency of working over the daily hour limit (23.8% “frequently or always”) were statistically significant predictors of sleep quality. Conclusion Implications of findings suggest a comprehensive review of the regulations and operational conditions for commercial motor vehicle drivers be undertaken. PMID:26106509

  7. Spectroscopic Identification of the Carbyne Hydride Structure of the Dehydrogenation Product of Methane Activation by Osmium Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armentrout, P. B.; Kuijpers, Stach E. J.; Lushchikova, Olga V.; Hightower, Randy L.; Boles, Georgia C.; Bakker, Joost M.

    2018-04-01

    The present work explores the structures of species formed by dehydrogenation of methane (CH4) and perdeuterated methane (CD4) by the 5d transition metal cation osmium (Os+). Using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT), the structures of the [Os,C,2H]+ and [Os,C,2D]+ products are explored. This study complements previous work on the related species formed by dehydrogenation of methane by four other 5d transition metal cations (M+ = Ta+, W+, Ir+, and Pt+). Osmium cations are formed in a laser ablation source, react with methane pulsed into a reaction channel downstream, and the resulting products spectroscopically characterized through photofragmentation using the Free-Electron Laser for IntraCavity Experiments (FELICE) in the 300-1800 cm-1 range. Photofragmentation was monitored by the loss of H2/D2. Comparison of the experimental spectra and DFT calculated spectra leads to identification of the ground state carbyne hydride, HOsCH+ (2A') as the species formed, as previously postulated theoretically. Further, a full description of the systematic spectroscopic shifts observed for deuterium labeling of these complexes, some of the smallest systems to be studied using IRMPD action spectroscopy, is achieved. A full rotational contour analysis explains the observed linewidths as well as the observation of doublet structures in several bands, consistent with previous observations for HIrCH+ (2A'). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Structural characterization and biological activities of an exopolysaccharide kefiran produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens WT-2B(T).

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Zhu, Xia; Suzuki, Shiho; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2004-08-25

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, isolated from kefir grains, produces an extracellular polysaccharide when cultured, not only in PYG10 medium but also in a liquid medium containing a rice hydrolysate that had been previously degraded by treatment with a glucoamylase. The maximum yield of the polysaccharide, using the rice hydrolysate as the medium, was 2.5 g/L after a 7-day culture period at pH 5.0 and 33 degrees C. Compositional analysis, methylation analysis, specific rotation, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy revealed that the structures of polysaccharides obtained from these two different culture media are essentially identical. The polysaccharide is composed of a hexasaccharide repeating unit and, thus, is known as kefiran. The weight-average molecular weight and the z-average radius of gyration of a sample, purified from the rice hydrolysate medium, were determined to be 7.6 x 10(5) g/mol and 39.9 nm, respectively, by gel permeation chromatography equipped with a multiangle laser-light-scattering photometer. Changes in blood pressure and serum components were examined in SHRSP/Hos rats, using doses of 100 and 300 mg of kefiran/kg of rat. A suppression in the increase in blood pressure was observed in these rats after 30 days. This activity is discussed in terms of the concentration of serum components of the rat, with emphasis on lipid components such as cholesterols, triglycerides, and free fatty acids.

  9. Mapping the Binding Interface of VEGF and a Monoclonal Antibody Fab-1 Fragment with Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) and Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Wecksler, Aaron T.; Molina, Patricia; Deperalta, Galahad; Gross, Michael L.

    2017-05-01

    We previously analyzed the Fab-1:VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) system described in this work, with both native top-down mass spectrometry and bottom-up mass spectrometry (carboxyl-group or GEE footprinting) techniques. This work continues bottom-up mass spectrometry analysis using a fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) platform to map the solution binding interface of VEGF and a fragment antigen binding region of an antibody (Fab-1). In this study, we use FPOP to compare the changes in solvent accessibility by quantitating the extent of oxidative modification in the unbound versus bound states. Determining the changes in solvent accessibility enables the inference of the protein binding sites (epitope and paratopes) and a comparison to the previously published Fab-1:VEGF crystal structure, adding to the top-down and bottom-up data. Using this method, we investigated peptide-level and residue-level changes in solvent accessibility between the unbound proteins and bound complex. Mapping these data onto the Fab-1:VEGF crystal structure enabled successful characterization of both the binding region and regions of remote conformation changes. These data, coupled with our previous higher order structure (HOS) studies, demonstrate the value of a comprehensive toolbox of methods for identifying the putative epitopes and paratopes for biotherapeutic antibodies.

  10. Application of DNA markers to identify the individual-specific hosts of tsetse feeding on cattle.

    PubMed

    Torr, S J; Wilson, P J; Schofield, S; Mangwiro, T N; Akber, S; White, B N

    2001-03-01

    Primer sets for five different ungulate loci were used to obtain individual microsatellite DNA profiles for 29 Mashona cattle from a herd in Zimbabwe. There were 3-13 alleles for each locus and, using the entire suite of five loci, each animal within the herd, including closely related individuals, could be unequivocally distinguished. Wild-caught Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) were fed on specific cattle and the bloodmeal was profiled 0.5-72 h after feeding. The individual specific sources of the bloodmeals, including mixe meals produced by allowing tsetse to feed on two different cattle, were reliabl identified up to 24 h after feeding. The technique was used in field studies of hos selection by G. pallidipes and G. morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera Glossinidae) attracted to pairs of cattle. When the pair comprised an adult and a calf, 100% of meals were from the adult. For some pairs of adult cattle, tsetse were biased significantly towards feeding on one animal, whereas for other pairs there was no such bias. In general, feeding was greater on the animal known to have lower rate of host defensive behaviour. Results suggest that relatively slight differences in the inherent defensive behaviour of cattle produce large difference in host-specific feeding rates when the hosts are adjacent. For flies attracted to pair of cattle, < 2% contained blood from both hosts. The DNA profiling technique will be useful in studying the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases of livestock.

  11. Theoretical survey of the reaction between osmium and acetaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Guo-Liang; Wang, Chuan-Feng

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism of the reaction of osmium atom with acetaldehyde has been investigated with a DFT approach. All the stationary points are determined at the UB3LYP/ sdd/6-311++G** level of the theory. Both ground and excited state potential energy surfaces are investigated in detail. The present results show that the title reaction start with the formation of a CH3CHO-metal complex followed by C-C, aldehyde C-H, C-O, and methyl C-H activation. These reactions can lead to four different products (HOsCH3 + CO, OsCO + CH4, OsCOCH3 + H, and OsO + C2H4). The minimum energy reaction path is found to involve the spin inversion in the initial reaction step. This potential energy curve-crossing dramatically affects reaction exothermic. The present results may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of the title reaction and further experimental investigation of the reaction.

  12. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Tomono, Ayana; Suwa, Eriko; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. HAIRLESS MICE (HOS: HR-1), with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) and betamethasone (0.01%) significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus.

  13. Exploring super-Gaussianity toward robust information-theoretical time delay estimation.

    PubMed

    Petsatodis, Theodoros; Talantzis, Fotios; Boukis, Christos; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-03-01

    Time delay estimation (TDE) is a fundamental component of speaker localization and tracking algorithms. Most of the existing systems are based on the generalized cross-correlation method assuming gaussianity of the source. It has been shown that the distribution of speech, captured with far-field microphones, is highly varying, depending on the noise and reverberation conditions. Thus the performance of TDE is expected to fluctuate depending on the underlying assumption for the speech distribution, being also subject to multi-path reflections and competitive background noise. This paper investigates the effect upon TDE when modeling the source signal with different speech-based distributions. An information theoretical TDE method indirectly encapsulating higher order statistics (HOS) formed the basis of this work. The underlying assumption of Gaussian distributed source has been replaced by that of generalized Gaussian distribution that allows evaluating the problem under a larger set of speech-shaped distributions, ranging from Gaussian to Laplacian and Gamma. Closed forms of the univariate and multivariate entropy expressions of the generalized Gaussian distribution are derived to evaluate the TDE. The results indicate that TDE based on the specific criterion is independent of the underlying assumption for the distribution of the source, for the same covariance matrix.

  14. Who Are the Subjects with Gambling-Related Problems Requiring Treatment? A Study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pavarin, Raimondo Maria; Fioritti, Angelo; Marani, Silvia; Gambini, Daniele; Turino, Elsa; Piazza, Antonella

    2018-04-13

    This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS), Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD), or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs) and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time.

  15. Who Are the Subjects with Gambling-Related Problems Requiring Treatment? A Study in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fioritti, Angelo; Marani, Silvia; Gambini, Daniele; Turino, Elsa; Piazza, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS), Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD), or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs) and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Methods: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. Results: 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time. PMID:29652821

  16. An approach to predict Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) using time domain and bispectrum features from HRV signal.

    PubMed

    Houshyarifar, Vahid; Chehel Amirani, Mehdi

    2016-08-12

    In this paper we present a method to predict Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) with higher order spectral (HOS) and linear (Time) features extracted from heart rate variability (HRV) signal. Predicting the occurrence of SCA is important in order to avoid the probability of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). This work is a challenge to predict five minutes before SCA onset. The method consists of four steps: pre-processing, feature extraction, feature reduction, and classification. In the first step, the QRS complexes are detected from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and then the HRV signal is extracted. In second step, bispectrum features of HRV signal and time-domain features are obtained. Six features are extracted from bispectrum and two features from time-domain. In the next step, these features are reduced to one feature by the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) technique. Finally, KNN and support vector machine-based classifiers are used to classify the HRV signals. We used two database named, MIT/BIH Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) Database and Physiobank Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR). In this work we achieved prediction of SCD occurrence for six minutes before the SCA with the accuracy over 91%.

  17. Implementation of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Guidelines in Clinical Practice: A Retrospective Study in Two Croatian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Marušić, Srećko; Knežević, Aleksandar; Bačić Vrca, Vesna; Marinović, Ivana; Bačić, Julija; Obreli Neto, Paulo Roque; Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Diklić, Dijaneta

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the 9th edition of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP9) guidelines for prevention of venous thromboembolism in nonsurgical patients in clinical practice in one university and one general Croatian hospital. A retrospective study was conducted at Zadar General Hospital from Zadar and Dubrava University Hospital from Zagreb. Medical charts of all patients admitted to Medical Departments in two periods, before and after implementation of the ACCP9 guidelines, were analyzed. The ACCP9 guidelines were made available to all physicians through the hospital electronic information system immediately after the publication. The Hospital Drug Committees promoted implementation of the guidelines during their periodical clinical visits. Overall, 850 patients were included in the study in two periods. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of high-risk patients receiving thromboprophylaxis after the guidelines implementation in either hospital. In both periods, a signifi-cantly higher number of high-risk patients received thromboprophylaxis in Dubrava University Hos-pital in comparison with Zadar General Hospital (31.7% vs. 3.8% and 40.3% vs. 7.3%, respectively; p<0.001). This study revealed insufficient implementation of evidence-based thromboprophylaxis guidelines in clinical practice in two Croatian hospitals.

  18. Biophysical effects on the interannual variation in carbon dioxide exchange of an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Huizhi; Sun, Jihua; Shao, Yaping

    2017-04-01

    Eddy covariance measurements from 2012 to 2015 were used to investigate the interannual variation in carbon dioxide exchange and its control over an alpine meadow on the south-east margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in the 4 years from 2012 to 2015 was -114.2, -158.5, -159.9 and -212.6 g C m-2 yr-1, and generally decreased with the mean annual air temperature (MAT). An exception occurred in 2014, which had the highest MAT. This was attributed to higher ecosystem respiration (RE) and similar gross primary production (GPP) in 2014 because the GPP increased with the MAT, but became saturated due to the limit in photosynthetic capacity. In the spring (March to May) of 2012, low air temperature (Ta) and drought events delayed grass germination and reduced GPP. In the late wet season (September to October) of 2012 and 2013, the low Ta in September and its negative effects on vegetation growth caused earlier grass senescence and significantly lower GPP. This indicates that the seasonal pattern of Ta has a substantial effect on the annual total GPP, which is consistent with results obtained using the homogeneity-of-slopes (HOS) model. The model results showed that the climatic seasonal variation explained 48.6 % of the GPP variability, while the percentages explained by climatic interannual variation and the ecosystem functional change were 9.7 and 10.6 %, respectively.

  19. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Tomono, Ayana; Suwa, Eriko; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1), with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) and betamethasone (0.01%) significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus. PMID:23661987

  20. Dissecting DNA damage response pathways by analyzing protein localization and abundance changes during DNA replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Tkach, Johnny M.; Yimit, Askar; Lee, Anna Y.; Riffle, Michael; Costanzo, Michael; Jaschob, Daniel; Hendry, Jason A.; Ou, Jiongwen; Moffat, Jason; Boone, Charles; Davis, Trisha N.; Nislow, Corey; Brown, Grant W.

    2012-01-01

    Re-localization of proteins is a hallmark of the DNA damage response. We use high-throughput microscopic screening of the yeast GFP fusion collection to develop a systems-level view of protein re-organization following drug-induced DNA replication stress. Changes in protein localization and abundance reveal drug-specific patterns of functional enrichments. Classification of proteins by sub-cellular destination allows the identification of pathways that respond to replication stress. We analyzed pairwise combinations of GFP fusions and gene deletion mutants to define and order two novel DNA damage responses. In the first, Cmr1 forms subnuclear foci that are regulated by the histone deacetylase Hos2 and are distinct from the typical Rad52 repair foci. In a second example, we find that the checkpoint kinases Mec1/Tel1 and the translation regulator Asc1 regulate P-body formation. This method identifies response pathways that were not detected in genetic and protein interaction screens, and can be readily applied to any form of chemical or genetic stress to reveal cellular response pathways. PMID:22842922

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Angelica gigas via Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joon Hyeong; Kwon, Jung Eun; Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Inhye; Kang, Se Chan

    2015-06-15

    Angelica gigas (AG) is effective against various medical conditions such as bacterial infection, inflammation, and cancer. It contains a number of coumarin compounds and the group of interest is the pyranocoumarin, which comprises decursin and decursinol angelate. This group has an effect on controlling inflammation, which is caused by excessive nitric oxide (NO) production. Heme oxygenases (HOs), particularly HO-1, play a role in regulating the production of NO. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AG by measuring HO-1 expression. Treatments with CH2Cl2 layer and Angelica gigas extract (AGE) showed the highest NO inhibition effects. Decursin, decursinol angelate, and nodakenin were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of AGE. Decursin also demonstrated the highest anti-oxidative effect among the coumarins. Although decursin had the best NO inhibition and anti-oxidative effects, the effects of AGE treatment far surpassed that of decursin. This is owing to the combination effect of the coumarins present within AGE, which is a solvent extract of AG. The expression of HO-1 is an effective indicator of the anti-inflammatory effects of AG. Based on the results of the coumarin compounds, HO-1 expression was found to be dose dependent and specific to decursin.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Angelica gigas via Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Joon Hyeong; Kwon, Jung Eun; Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Inhye; Kang, Se Chan

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas (AG) is effective against various medical conditions such as bacterial infection, inflammation, and cancer. It contains a number of coumarin compounds and the group of interest is the pyranocoumarin, which comprises decursin and decursinol angelate. This group has an effect on controlling inflammation, which is caused by excessive nitric oxide (NO) production. Heme oxygenases (HOs), particularly HO-1, play a role in regulating the production of NO. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AG by measuring HO-1 expression. Treatments with CH2Cl2 layer and Angelica gigas extract (AGE) showed the highest NO inhibition effects. Decursin, decursinol angelate, and nodakenin were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of AGE. Decursin also demonstrated the highest anti-oxidative effect among the coumarins. Although decursin had the best NO inhibition and anti-oxidative effects, the effects of AGE treatment far surpassed that of decursin. This is owing to the combination effect of the coumarins present within AGE, which is a solvent extract of AG. The expression of HO-1 is an effective indicator of the anti-inflammatory effects of AG. Based on the results of the coumarin compounds, HO-1 expression was found to be dose dependent and specific to decursin. PMID:26083119

  3. Frequent Attenuation of the WWOX Tumor Suppressor in Osteosarcoma is Associated with Increased Tumorigenicity and Aberrant RUNX2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kurek, Kyle; Del Mare, Sara; Salah, Zaidoun; Abdeen, Suhaib; Sadiq, Hussain; Lee, Sukhee; Gaudio, Eugenio; Zanesi, Nicola; Jones, Kevin B.; DeYoung, Barry; Amir, Gail; Gebhardt, Mark; Warman, Matthew; Stein, Gary S.; Stein, Janet L.; Lian, Jane B.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2011-01-01

    The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor that is deleted or attenuated in most human tumors. Wwox-deficient mice develop osteosarcoma (OS), an aggressive bone tumor with poor prognosis that often metastasizes to lung. On the basis of these observations, we examined the status of WWOX in human OS specimens and cell lines. In human OS clinical samples, WWOX expression was absent or reduced in 58% of tumors examined (P< 0.0001). Compared to the primary tumors, WWOX levels frequently increased in tumors resected following chemotherapy. In contrast, tumor metastases to lung often exhibited reduced WWOX levels, relative to the primary tumor. In human OS cell lines having reduced WWOX expression, ectopic expression of WWOX inhibited proliferation and attenuated invasion in vitro, and suppressed tumorgenicity in nude mice. Expression of WWOX was associated with reduced RUNX2 expression in OS cell lines, whereas Runx2 levels were elevated in femurs of Wwox-deficient mice. Furthermore, WWOX reconstitution in HOS cells was associated with downregulation of RUNX2 levels and RUNX2 target genes, consistent with the ability of WWOX to suppress RUNX2 transactivation activity. In clinical samples, RUNX2 was expressed in the majority of primary tumors and undetectable in most tumors resected following chemotherapy, whereas most metastases were RUNX2 positive. Our results deepen the evidence of a tumor suppressor role for WWOX in OS, furthering its prognostic and therapeutic significance in this disease. PMID:20530675

  4. Tumor Suppressor WWOX inhibits osteosarcoma metastasis by modulating RUNX2 function.

    PubMed

    Del Mare, Sara; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-08-10

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is among the most frequently occurring primary bone tumors, primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. This malignant osteoid forming tumor is characterized by its metastatic potential, mainly to lungs. We recently demonstrated that WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is frequently inactivated in human OS and that WWOX restoration in WWOX-negative OS cells suppresses tumorigenicity. Of note, WWOX levels are reduced in paired OS samples of post-treatment metastastectomies as compared to pre-treatment biopsies suggesting that decreased WWOX levels are associated with a more aggressive phenotype at the metastatic site. Nevertheless, little is known about WWOX function in OS metastasis. Here, we investigated the role of tumor suppressor WWOX in suppressing pulmonary OS metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of WWOX in OS cells, HOS and LM-7, inhibits OS invasion and cell migration in vitro. Furthermore, WWOX expression reduced tumor burden in vivo and inhibited metastases' seeding and colonization. Mechanistically, WWOX function is associated with reduced levels of RUNX2 metastatic target genes implicated in adhesion and motility. Our results suggest that WWOX plays a critical role in determining the aggressive phenotype of OS, and its expression could be an attractive therapeutic target to combat this devastating adolescent disease.

  5. Tumor Suppressor WWOX inhibits osteosarcoma metastasis by modulating RUNX2 function

    PubMed Central

    Del Mare, Sara; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is among the most frequently occurring primary bone tumors, primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. This malignant osteoid forming tumor is characterized by its metastatic potential, mainly to lungs. We recently demonstrated that WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is frequently inactivated in human OS and that WWOX restoration in WWOX-negative OS cells suppresses tumorigenicity. Of note, WWOX levels are reduced in paired OS samples of post-treatment metastastectomies as compared to pre-treatment biopsies suggesting that decreased WWOX levels are associated with a more aggressive phenotype at the metastatic site. Nevertheless, little is known about WWOX function in OS metastasis. Here, we investigated the role of tumor suppressor WWOX in suppressing pulmonary OS metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of WWOX in OS cells, HOS and LM-7, inhibits OS invasion and cell migration in vitro. Furthermore, WWOX expression reduced tumor burden in vivo and inhibited metastases’ seeding and colonization. Mechanistically, WWOX function is associated with reduced levels of RUNX2 metastatic target genes implicated in adhesion and motility. Our results suggest that WWOX plays a critical role in determining the aggressive phenotype of OS, and its expression could be an attractive therapeutic target to combat this devastating adolescent disease. PMID:26256646

  6. Outcomes following neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Boldingh, Anne Marthe; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Nakstad, Britt

    2018-05-29

    Hjerte-lunge-redning av et kritisk sykt barn ved fødsel kan føre til overlevelse eller død. De som overlever kan utvikle komplikasjoner direkte etter fødsel eller senere i småbarns- og skolealder. Hypoksisk iskemisk encefalopati er en tilstand med nevrologiske symptomer hos den nyfødte etter hypoksi ved fødsel. Tilstanden klassifiseres som mild, moderat eller alvorlig. Vi ønsket å gi en oversikt over kort- og langtidsutfall etter hjerte-lunge-redning ved fødsel. Vi søkte i databasen Medline for utfall etter hjerte-lunge-redning ved fødsel. Vi identifiserte 15 indekserte, fagfellevurderte originalartikler og to metaanalyser om utfall etter hjerte-lunge-redning ved fødsel eller fødselsasfyksi. Hypoksisk iskemisk encefalopati rammer generelt 38 % av pasientene i mild til moderat grad og 23 % i alvorlig grad. Dødeligheten varierte fra 10 % i høy- til 28 % i lavinntektsland. Overlevende utvikler ofte motoriske, kognitive og sensoriske utviklingshemninger. I noen tilfeller blir det først avdekket ved skolestart når mer komplekse ferdigheter kreves. Funksjonshemning ved skolealder er sterkt korrelert til tilstanden i småbarnsalder. Endringer i algoritmene ved hjerte-lunge-redning og rutinebehandling med hypotermi har redusert risikoen for alvorlige følgetilstander etter hypoksisk iskemisk encefalopati.

  7. Intelligent Case Based Decision Support System for Online Diagnosis of Automated Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Rabah, N.; Saddem, R.; Ben Hmida, F.; Carre-Menetrier, V.; Tagina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of Automated Production System (APS) is a decision-making process designed to detect, locate and identify a particular failure caused by the control law. In the literature, there are three major types of reasoning for industrial diagnosis: the first is model-based, the second is rule-based and the third is case-based. The common and major limitation of the first and the second reasonings is that they do not have automated learning ability. This paper presents an interactive and effective Case Based Decision Support System for online Diagnosis (CB-DSSD) of an APS. It offers a synergy between the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and the Decision Support System (DSS) in order to support and assist Human Operator of Supervision (HOS) in his/her decision process. Indeed, the experimental evaluation performed on an Interactive Training System for PLC (ITS PLC) that allows the control of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), simulating sensors or/and actuators failures and validating the control algorithm through a real time interactive experience, showed the efficiency of our approach.

  8. Protection of male reproductive toxicity in rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate during embryonic development by testosterone.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Nelli; Reddy, Pamanji Sreenivasula

    2017-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely spread industrial chemical that made drastic alteration in male reproductive system. The present study elucidates the protective role of testosterone on reproductive toxicity in prenatal DBP exposed adult male rats. Pregnant rats were injected with corn oil or 100 and 500mg/kg body weight of DBP on gestation day (GD) 1, 7 and 14. F1 male rats were weaned, injected with either testosterone or vehicle. On postnatal day (PND) 100 F1 adult male rats were cohabited with untreated female rats. Then rats were sacrificed and analyzed for other reproductive end points. Prenatal DBP exposed male rat testes, seminal vesicle weight, sperm count, motility, viability and HOS tail coiled sperm were significantly decreased with increased sperm morphological abnormalities. The levels of testicular 3β, 17βHSD, serum testosterone were significantly decreased with increased FSH, LH levels in experimental rats. The fertility studies revealed that increased pre, post-implantation losses and resorptions in normal females cohabited with experimental rats. Higher testicular LPO with lower SOD, CAT and GPx activity levels in experimental rats. Administration of testosterone to prenatal DBP treated male rats showed significant protection in above all parameters. In conclusions, testosterone deteriorates prenatal DBP induced reproductive and fertility toxicity by decreased oxidative stress and increased testicular antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy--49th annual meeting. Part 1. 11-15 September 2009, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ben; Murch, Lisa

    2009-11-01

    The Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy held in San Francisco included topics covering new therapeutic developments for the treatment of infectious diseases. This conference report highlights selected presentations on a beta-cyclodextrin derivative for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, a type 3 secretion system inhibitor for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, a small-molecule inhibitor of the fungal Hos2 HDAC, a TLR9 agonist used as an adjuvant, a CMV vaccine, a glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic, a topical quinolone for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, a broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic and an HCV RNA replication inhibitor. Investigational drugs discussed include IB-201 (Innovative Biologics Inc), MBX-1641 (Microbiotix Inc), MGCD-290 (MethylGene Inc), agatolimod (Coley Pharmaceutical Group Inc/Pfizer Inc/GlaxoSmithKline plc/Merck & Co Inc/Dynavax Technologies Corp/Novartis AG/Emergent BioSolutions Inc), TD-1792 (Theravance Inc), ozenoxacin (Ferrer Internacional SA/Maruho Co Ltd/Toyama Chemical Co Ltd) and ATI-0810 (Arisyn Therapeutics Inc).

  10. Detection of neovascularization based on fractal and texture analysis with interaction effects in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jack; Zee, Benny Chung Ying; Li, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a result of severe vascular complication and is visible as neovascularization of the retina. Automatic detection of such new vessels would be useful for the severity grading of diabetic retinopathy, and it is an important part of screening process to identify those who may require immediate treatment for their diabetic retinopathy. We proposed a novel new vessels detection method including statistical texture analysis (STA), high order spectrum analysis (HOS), fractal analysis (FA), and most importantly we have shown that by incorporating their associated interactions the accuracy of new vessels detection can be greatly improved. To assess its performance, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (AUC) are obtained. They are 96.3%, 99.1% and 98.5% (99.3%), respectively. It is found that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of new vessels detection significantly over previous methods. The algorithm can be automated and is valuable to detect relatively severe cases of diabetic retinopathy among diabetes patients.

  11. An Automatic Prediction of Epileptic Seizures Using Cloud Computing and Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Sanjay; Sood, Sandeep K; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders which is characterized by the spontaneous and unforeseeable occurrence of seizures. An automatic prediction of seizure can protect the patients from accidents and save their life. In this article, we proposed a mobile-based framework that automatically predict seizures using the information contained in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The wireless sensor technology is used to capture the EEG signals of patients. The cloud-based services are used to collect and analyze the EEG data from the patient's mobile phone. The features from the EEG signal are extracted using the fast Walsh-Hadamard transform (FWHT). The Higher Order Spectral Analysis (HOSA) is applied to FWHT coefficients in order to select the features set relevant to normal, preictal and ictal states of seizure. We subsequently exploit the selected features as input to a k-means classifier to detect epileptic seizure states in a reasonable time. The performance of the proposed model is tested on Amazon EC2 cloud and compared in terms of execution time and accuracy. The findings show that with selected HOS based features, we were able to achieve a classification accuracy of 94.6 %.

  12. Sporulation genes associated with sporulation efficiency in natural isolates of yeast.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Parul; Bhatia, Aatish; Ramdas, Shweta; Diao, Liyang; Bhanot, Gyan; Sinha, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Yeast sporulation efficiency is a quantitative trait and is known to vary among experimental populations and natural isolates. Some studies have uncovered the genetic basis of this variation and have identified the role of sporulation genes (IME1, RME1) and sporulation-associated genes (FKH2, PMS1, RAS2, RSF1, SWS2), as well as non-sporulation pathway genes (MKT1, TAO3) in maintaining this variation. However, these studies have been done mostly in experimental populations. Sporulation is a response to nutrient deprivation. Unlike laboratory strains, natural isolates have likely undergone multiple selections for quick adaptation to varying nutrient conditions. As a result, sporulation efficiency in natural isolates may have different genetic factors contributing to phenotypic variation. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the genetically and environmentally diverse SGRP collection, we have identified genetic loci associated with sporulation efficiency variation in a set of sporulation and sporulation-associated genes. Using two independent methods for association mapping and correcting for population structure biases, our analysis identified two linked clusters containing 4 non-synonymous mutations in genes - HOS4, MCK1, SET3, and SPO74. Five regulatory polymorphisms in five genes such as MLS1 and CDC10 were also identified as putative candidates. Our results provide candidate genes contributing to phenotypic variation in the sporulation efficiency of natural isolates of yeast.

  13. SUB1 Plays a Negative Role during Starvation Induced Sporulation Program in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Sadhale, Parag P; Vijayraghavan, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sub1 is involved in several cellular processes such as, transcription initiation, elongation, mRNA processing and DNA repair. It has also been reported to provide cellular resistance during conditions of oxidative DNA damage and osmotic stress. Here, we report a novel role of SUB1 during starvation stress-induced sporulation, which leads to meiosis and spore formation in diploid yeast cells. Deletion of SUB1 gene significantly increased sporulation efficiency as compared to the wild-type cells in S288c genetic background. Whereas, the sporulation functions of the sub1(Y66A) missense mutant were similar to Sub1. SUB1 transcript and protein levels are downregulated during sporulation, in highly synchronized and sporulation proficient wild-type SK1 cells. The changes in Sub1 levels during sporulation cascade correlate with the induction of middle sporulation gene expression. Deletion of SUB1 increased middle sporulation gene transcript levels with no effect on their induction kinetics. In wild-type cells, Sub1 associates with chromatin at these loci in a temporal pattern that correlates with their enhanced gene expression seen in sub1Δ cells. We show that SUB1 genetically interacts with HOS2, which led us to speculate that Sub1 might function with Set3 repressor complex during sporulation. Positive Cofactor 4, human homolog of Sub1, complemented the sub1Δ sporulation phenotype, suggesting conservation of function. Taken together, our results suggest that SUB1 acts as a negative regulator of sporulation.

  14. Sporulation Genes Associated with Sporulation Efficiency in Natural Isolates of Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ramdas, Shweta; Diao, Liyang; Bhanot, Gyan; Sinha, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Yeast sporulation efficiency is a quantitative trait and is known to vary among experimental populations and natural isolates. Some studies have uncovered the genetic basis of this variation and have identified the role of sporulation genes (IME1, RME1) and sporulation-associated genes (FKH2, PMS1, RAS2, RSF1, SWS2), as well as non-sporulation pathway genes (MKT1, TAO3) in maintaining this variation. However, these studies have been done mostly in experimental populations. Sporulation is a response to nutrient deprivation. Unlike laboratory strains, natural isolates have likely undergone multiple selections for quick adaptation to varying nutrient conditions. As a result, sporulation efficiency in natural isolates may have different genetic factors contributing to phenotypic variation. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the genetically and environmentally diverse SGRP collection, we have identified genetic loci associated with sporulation efficiency variation in a set of sporulation and sporulation-associated genes. Using two independent methods for association mapping and correcting for population structure biases, our analysis identified two linked clusters containing 4 non-synonymous mutations in genes – HOS4, MCK1, SET3, and SPO74. Five regulatory polymorphisms in five genes such as MLS1 and CDC10 were also identified as putative candidates. Our results provide candidate genes contributing to phenotypic variation in the sporulation efficiency of natural isolates of yeast. PMID:23874994

  15. Bioactive and biocompatible pieces of HA/sol-gel glass mixtures obtained by the gel-casting method.

    PubMed

    Padilla, S; Sánchez-Salcedo, S; Vallet-Regí, M

    2005-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/glass mixtures have shown a faster bioactive behaviour than HA itself. On the other hand, the gel-casting method is a simple and reproducible colloidal method to produce ceramic pieces with complex shapes. In this work, pieces of HA/glass mixtures were prepared by the gel-casting method. A study for obtaining concentrated slurries of these mixtures is reported; the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the obtained pieces have been studied also. The influence of pH, dispersant concentration, the content and milling of glass, and the way to prepare the suspensions were investigated. The lowest viscosity and better rheological properties were achieved with the lowest glass content, when the glass was added after the dispersion of the HA powder and when the glass was not milled after calcination. Fluid suspensions with a high solid content (50 vol.%) could be prepared and well-shaped pieces were obtained from these slurries. These pieces showed in vitro bioactive behavior in simulated body fluid; additionally, the proliferation and spreading assays with osteoblastic cells (HOS) showed that the pieces are biocompatible. The results obtained indicate that the gel-casting of HA/glass mixtures produces bioactive and biocompatible pieces with the required shapes. Therefore, these materials could be good candidates for clinical applications and scaffolds for tissue engineering. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. RNAi knockdown of rice SE5 gene is sensitive to the herbicide methyl viologen by the down-regulation of antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Bo; Han, Bin; Xie, Yanjie; Yang, Jie; Zhong, Weigong; Chen, Huiping; Wang, Ren; Wang, Ning; Cui, Weiti; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-09-01

    Plant heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the oxygenation of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron (Fe(2+))-and Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) HOs are involved in light signaling. Here, we identified that the rice PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY 5 (SE5) gene, which encoded a putative HO with high similarity to HO-1 from Arabidopsis (HY1), exhibited HO activity, and localized in the chloroplasts. Rice RNAi mutants silenced for SE5 were generated and displayed early flowering under long-day conditions, consistent with phenotypes of the null mutation in SE5 gene reported previously (se5 and s73). The herbicide methyl viologen (MV), which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), was applied to determine whether SE5 regulates oxidative stress response. Compared with wild-type, SE5 RNAi transgenic plants aggravated seedling growth inhibition, chlorophyll loss and ROS overproduction, and decreased the transcripts of some representative antioxidative genes. By contrast, administration of exogenous CO partially rescued corresponding MV hypersensitivity in the SE5 RNAi plants. Alleviation of seed germination inhibition, chlorophyll loss and ROS overproduction, as well as the induction of antioxidant defense were further observed when SE5 or HY1 was overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, indicating that SE5 may be useful for molecular breeding designed to improve plant tolerance to oxidative stress.

  17. Multivariate Analysis of Two-Dimensional 1H, 13C Methyl NMR Spectra of Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics To Facilitate Assessment of Higher Order Structure.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Luke W; Delaglio, Frank; Schiel, John E; Marino, John P

    2017-11-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) 1 H- 13 C methyl NMR provides a powerful tool to probe the higher order structure (HOS) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), since spectra can readily be acquired on intact mAbs at natural isotopic abundance, and small changes in chemical environment and structure give rise to observable changes in corresponding spectra, which can be interpreted at atomic resolution. This makes it possible to apply 2D NMR spectral fingerprinting approaches directly to drug products in order to systematically characterize structure and excipient effects. Systematic collections of NMR spectra are often analyzed in terms of the changes in specifically identified peak positions, as well as changes in peak height and line widths. A complementary approach is to apply principal component analysis (PCA) directly to the matrix of spectral data, correlating spectra according to similarities and differences in their overall shapes, rather than according to parameters of individually identified peaks. This is particularly well-suited for spectra of mAbs, where some of the individual peaks might not be well resolved. Here we demonstrate the performance of the PCA method for discriminating structural variation among systematic sets of 2D NMR fingerprint spectra using the NISTmAb and illustrate how spectral variability identified by PCA may be correlated to structure.

  18. Automated diagnosis of dry eye using infrared thermography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, U. Rajendra; Tan, Jen Hong; Koh, Joel E. W.; Sudarshan, Vidya K.; Yeo, Sharon; Too, Cheah Loon; Chua, Chua Kuang; Ng, E. Y. K.; Tong, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Dry Eye (DE) is a condition of either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Prolonged DE damages the cornea causing the corneal scarring, thinning and perforation. There is no single uniform diagnosis test available to date; combinations of diagnostic tests are to be performed to diagnose DE. The current diagnostic methods available are subjective, uncomfortable and invasive. Hence in this paper, we have developed an efficient, fast and non-invasive technique for the automated identification of normal and DE classes using infrared thermography images. The features are extracted from nonlinear method called Higher Order Spectra (HOS). Features are ranked using t-test ranking strategy. These ranked features are fed to various classifiers namely, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Nave Bayesian Classifier (NBC), Decision Tree (DT), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to select the best classifier using minimum number of features. Our proposed system is able to identify the DE and normal classes automatically with classification accuracy of 99.8%, sensitivity of 99.8%, and specificity if 99.8% for left eye using PNN and KNN classifiers. And we have reported classification accuracy of 99.8%, sensitivity of 99.9%, and specificity if 99.4% for right eye using SVM classifier with polynomial order 2 kernel.

  19. Oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey decreased transepidermal water loss and prevented the onset of sodium dodecylsulfate-induced dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hidehiko; Masuyama, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Chiaki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Takano, Toshiaki; Ohki, Kohji

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey on the intact and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-exposed skin of Hos:HR-1 hairless mice. The mice were allowed to drink 10% L. helveticus-fermented milk whey in distilled water ad libitum for 5 weeks. SDS solution was topically applied to the dorsal skin at 4 weeks, leading to the development of dermatitis. The skin moisture content, transepidermal water loss, and sizes of the dermatitis areas were periodically measured. Compared with oral intake of water alone, oral intake of water containing L. helveticus-fermented milk whey for 4 weeks significantly lowered transepidermal water loss from intact skin, significantly reduced in size the areas of early SDS-induced dermatitis, and ameliorated both the SDS-induced decrease in moisture content and the increase in transepidermal water loss. These results suggest that oral intake of L. helveticus-fermented milk whey might be effective in promoting the epidermal barrier function and in preventing the onset of dermatitis.

  20. Functional display of family 11 endoxylanases on the surface of phage M13.

    PubMed

    Beliën, T; Hertveldt, K; Van den Brande, K; Robben, J; Van Campenhout, S; Volckaert, G

    2005-02-09

    Two family 11 endoxylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) were functionally displayed on the surface of bacteriophage M13. The genes encoding endo-1,4-xylanase I from Aspergillus niger (ExlA) and endo-1,4-xylanase A from Bacillus subtilis (XynA) were fused to the gene encoding the minor coat protein g3p in phagemid vector pHOS31. Phage rescue resulted in functional monovalent display of the enzymes as was demonstrated by three independent tests. Firstly, purified recombinant phage particles showed a clear hydrolytic activity in an activity assay based on insoluble, chromagenic arabinoxylan substrate. Secondly, specific binding of endoxylanase displaying phages to immobilized endoxylanase inhibitors was demonstrated by interaction ELISA. Finally, two rounds of selection and amplification in a biopanning procedure against immobilized endoxylanase inhibitor were performed. Phages displaying endoxylanases were strongly enriched from background phages displaying unrelated proteins. These results open perspectives to use phage display for analysing protein-protein interactions at the interface between endoxylanases and their inhibitors. In addition, this technology should enable engineering of endoxylanases into novel variants with altered binding properties towards endoxylanase inhibitors.

  1. The history of N-methanocarbathymidine: the investigation of a conformational concept leads to the discovery of a potent and selective nucleoside antiviral agent.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Victor E; Hughes, Stephen H; Sei, Shizuko; Agbaria, Riad

    2006-09-01

    Conformationally locked (North)-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) and (South)-methanocarbathymidine (S-MCT) have been used to investigate the conformational preferences of kinases and polymerases. The herpes kinases show a distinct bias for S-MCT, while DNA polymerases almost exclusively incorporate the North 5'-triphosphate (N-MCT-TP). Only N-MCT demonstrated potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and 2) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The activity of N-MCT depends on its metabolic transformation to N-MCT-TP by the herpes kinases (HSV-tk or KSHV-tk), which catalyze the mono and diphosphorylation steps; cellular kinases generate the triphosphate. N-MCT at a dose of 5.6 mg/kg was totally protective for mice inoculated intranasally with HSV-1. Tumor cells that are not responsive to antiviral therapy became sensitive to N-MCT if the cells expressed HSV-tk. N-MCT given twice daily (100 mg/kg) for 7 days completely inhibited the growth of MC38 tumors derived from cells that express HSV-tk in mice while exhibiting no effect on tumors derived from non-transduced cells. After i.p. administration, N-MCT was rapidly absorbed and distributed in all organs examined with slow penetration into brain and testes. N-MCT-TP was also a potent inhibitor of HIV replication in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells expressing HSV-tk.

  2. New Treatment Options for Osteosarcoma - Inactivation of Osteosarcoma Cells by Cold Atmospheric Plasma.

    PubMed

    Gümbel, Denis; Gelbrich, Nadine; Weiss, Martin; Napp, Matthias; Daeschlein, Georg; Sckell, Axel; Ender, Stephan A; Kramer, Axel; Burchardt, Martin; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Stope, Matthias B

    2016-11-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma has been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth and induce tumor cell death. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric plasma treatment on proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells and to characterize the underlying cellular mechanisms. Human osteosarcoma cells (U2-OS and MNNG/HOS) were treated with cold atmospheric plasma and seeded in culture plates. Cell proliferation, p53 and phospho-p53 protein expression and nuclear morphology were assessed. The treated human osteosarcoma cell lines exhibited attenuated proliferation rates by up to 66%. The cells revealed an induction of p53, as well as phospho-p53 expression, by 2.3-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, compared to controls. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining demonstrated apoptotic nuclear condensation following cold atmospheric plasma treatment. Cold atmospheric plasma treatment significantly attenuated cell proliferation in a preclinical in vitro osteosarcoma model. The resulting increase in p53 expression and phospho-activation in combination with characteristic nuclear changes indicate this was through induction of apoptosis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Different concentrations of cysteamine and ergothioneine improve microscopic and oxidative parameters in ram semen frozen with a soybean lecithin extender.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Abozar; Kia, Hossein Daghigh; Mohammadi, Hossein; Najafi, Mir Hossein; Zanganeh, Zaynab; Sharafi, Mohsen; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Adeldust, Hamideh

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ergothioneine and cysteamine as antioxidant supplements in a soybean lecithin extender for freezing ram semen. Twenty-four ejaculates were collected from four rams and diluted with extenders (1.5% soybean lecithin, 7% glycerol) containing no supplements (control) and cysteamine or ergothioneine (2, 4, 6 or 8mM). Motility by CASA, viability, plasma membrane functionality (HOS test), total abnormality, lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and capacitation status (CTC staining) were assessed after thawing. Using 6mM of either antioxidant improved total motility. Cysteamine at 6mM and ergothioneine at 4 and 6mM improved viability and reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde concentration). Both antioxidants improved membrane functionality significantly, except at 8mM. Progressive motility, kinematic parameters, GPx activity, capacitation status and sperm abnormalities were not influenced by the antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, cysteamine at 6mM and ergothioneine at 4 or 6mM seem to improve the post-thawing quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin extender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Surveying the Impact of Work Hours and Schedules on Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Sleep.

    PubMed

    Hege, Adam; Perko, Michael; Johnson, Amber; Yu, Chong Ho; Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2015-06-01

    Given the long hours on the road involving multiple and interacting work stressors (i.e., delivery pressures, irregular shifts, ergonomic hazards), commercial drivers face a plethora of health and safety risks. Researchers goal was to determine whether and to what extent long-haul trucker work schedules influence sleep duration and quality. Survey and biometric data collected from male long-haul truck drivers at a major truckstop in central North Carolina over a six month period. Daily hours worked (mean = 11 hours, 55 minutes) and frequency of working over government-mandated daily HOS regulations (23.8% "frequently or always") were statistically significant predictors of sleep duration. Miles driven per week (mean = 2,812.61), irregular daily hours worked (63.8%), and frequency of working over the daily hour limit (23.8% "frequently or always") were statistically significant predictors of sleep quality. Implications of findings suggest a comprehensive review of the regulations and operational conditions for commercial motor vehicle drivers be undertaken.

  5. Sulfonated polyaniline-based organic electrodes for controlled electrical stimulation of human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Yong; Yang, Yanyin; Poojari, Yadagiri; Liu, Yidong; Wu, Jen-Chieh; Hansford, Derek J; Epstein, Arthur J

    2013-06-10

    Electrically conducting polymers (CPs) were found to stimulate various cell types such as neurons, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported on the utility of CPs in stimulation of cancer or tumor cells in the literature. Here we report a facile fabrication method of self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN)-based interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) for controlled electrical stimulation of human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. Increased degree of sulfonation was found to increase the SPAN conductivity, which in turn improved the cell attachment and cell growth without electrical stimulation. However, an enhanced cell growth was observed under controlled electrical (AC) stimulation at low applied voltage and frequency (≤800 mV and ≤1 kHz). The cell growth reached a maximum threshold at an applied voltage or frequency and beyond which pronounced cell death was observed. We believe that these organic electrodes may find utility in electrical stimulation of cancer or tumor cells for therapy and research and may also provide an alternative to the conventional metal-based electrodes.

  6. Concise Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Aroyl-5-Amino Benzo[b]thiophene Derivatives As a Novel Class of Potent Antimitotic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Lopez-Cara, Carlota; Preti, Delia; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Balzarini, Jan; Bassetto, Marcella; Brancale, Andrea; Fu, Xian-Hua; Gao, Yang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Hamel, Ernest; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    The biological importance of microtubules make them an interesting target for the synthesis of antitumor agents. The 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-5-aminobenzo[b]thiophene moiety was identified as a novel scaffold for the preparation of potent inhibitors of microtubule polymerization acting through the colchicine site of tubulin. The position of the methoxy group on the benzo[b]thiophene was important for maximal antiproliferative activity. Structure–activity relationship analysis established that the best activities were obtained with amino and methoxy groups placed at the C-5 and C-7 positions, respectively. Compounds 3c–e showed more potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization than combretastatin A-4 and strong binding to the colchicine site. These compounds also demonstrated substantial antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values ranging from 2.6 to 18 nM in a variety of cancer cell lines. Importantly, compound 3c (50 mg/kg), significantly inhibited the growth of the human osteosarcoma MNNG/HOS xenograft in nude mice. PMID:24164557

  7. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ikuko; Yoneda, Toshikazu; Omura, Yoshihiko; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kazuo; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Murahata, Yusuke; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2015-01-01

    Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation. PMID:26703629

  8. Long non-coding RNA LUCAT1 modulates methotrexate resistance in osteosarcoma via miR-200c/ABCB1 axis.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhe; Shi, Liying

    2018-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been verified to participate in the tumorigenesis of multiple cancers. Nevertheless, the deepgoing role molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs on osteosarcoma chemoresistance remain unclear. In present study, we investigate the function of lncRNA LUCAT1 on osteosarcoma methotrexate (MTX) resistant phenotype and discover the potential regulatory mechanism. Results showed that LUCAT1 was up-regulated in MTX-resistant cells (MG63/MTX, HOS/MTX) compared to that in parental cells. LncRNA LUCAT1 and ABCB1 protein expression levels were both up-regulated when induced by different concentration of methotrexate. In vitro and vivo, LUCAT1 knockdown decreased the expression levels drug resistance related genes (MDR1, MRP5, LRP1), proliferation, invasion and tumor growth of osteosarcoma cells. Bioinformatics tools and luciferase assay reveled that miR-200c both targeted the 3'-UTR of LUCAT1 and ABCB1 mRNA, suggesting the modulation of LUCAT1 on ABCB1 through sponging miR-200c. Rescue experiments confirmed the combined role of LUCAT1, miR-200c and ABCB1 on osteosarcoma proliferation, invasion and methotrexate resistance. Overall, results indicate the vital role of LUCAT1 in the methotrexate resistance regulation through miR-200c/ABCB1 pathway, providing a novel insight and treatment strategy for osteosarcoma drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumor and circulating biomarkers in patients with second-line hepatocellular carcinoma from the randomized phase II study with tivantinib

    PubMed Central

    Rimassa, Lorenza; Abbadessa, Giovanni; Personeni, Nicola; Porta, Camillo; Borbath, Ivan; Daniele, Bruno; Salvagni, Stefania; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Trojan, Jörg; De Toni, Enrico N.; Weiss, Alan; Miles, Steven; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Lencioni, Monica; Lamar, Maria E.; Wang, Yunxia; Shuster, Dale; Schwartz, Brian E.; Santoro, Armando

    2016-01-01

    ARQ 197-215 was a randomized placebo-controlled phase II study testing the MET inhibitor tivantinib in second-line hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. It identified tumor MET as a key biomarker in HCC. Aim of this research was to study the prognostic and predictive value of tumor (MET, the receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by the homonymous MNNG-HOS transforming gene) and circulating (MET, hepatocyte growth factor [HGF], alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) biomarkers in second-line HCC. Tumor MET-High status was centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Circulating biomarkers were centrally analyzed on serum samples collected at baseline and every 4-8 weeks, using medians as cut-off to determine High/Low status. Tumor MET, tested in 77 patients, was more frequently High after (82%) versus before (40%) sorafenib. A significant interaction (p = 0.04) between tivantinib and baseline tumor MET in terms of survival was observed. Baseline circulating MET and HGF (102 patients) High status correlated with shorter survival (HR 0.61, p = 0.03, and HR 0.60, p = 0.02, respectively), while the association between AFP (104 patients) or VEGF (103 patients) status and survival was non-significant. Conclusions: Tumor MET levels were higher in patients treated with sorafenib. Circulating biomarkers such as MET and HGF may be prognostic in second-line HCC. These results need to be confirmed in larger randomized clinical trials. PMID:27579536

  10. Role of zoledronic acid in oncolytic virotherapy: Promotion of antitumor effect and prevention of bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Yasuaki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Hasei, Joe; Osaki, Shuhei; Omori, Toshinori; Sugiu, Kazuhisa; Komatsubara, Tadashi; Uotani, Kouji; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Aki; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignant bone tumor that causes bone destruction. Although tumor-specific replicating oncolytic adenovirus OBP-301 induces an antitumor effect in an osteosarcoma tumor, it cannot prevent bone destruction. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a clinically available agent that inhibits bone destruction. In this study, we investigated the potential of combination therapy with OBP-301 and ZOL against osteosarcomas with bone destruction. The antitumor activity of OBP-301 and ZOL in monotherapy or combination therapy was assessed using three human osteosarcoma cell lines (143B, MNNG/HOS, SaOS-2). The cytotoxic effect of OBP-301 and/or ZOL was measured by assay of cell apoptosis. The effect of OBP-301 and ZOL on osteoclast activation was investigated. The potential of combination therapy against tumor growth and bone destruction was analyzed using an orthotopic 143B osteosarcoma xenograft tumor model. OBP-301 and ZOL decreased the viability of human osteosarcoma cells. Combination therapy with OBP-301 and ZOL displayed a synergistic antitumor effect, in which OBP-301 promoted apoptosis through suppression of anti-apoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1). Combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor-mediated osteoclast activation, tumor growth and bone destruction compared to monotherapy. These results suggest that combination therapy of OBP-301 and ZOL suppresses osteosarcoma progression via suppression of MCL1 and osteoclast activation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Heme Oxygenase in the Regulation of Vascular Biology: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Myeong; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Park, Jeong Euy; Lee, Yong Chul; Woo, Je Moon; Kim, Nam-Ho; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Bok-Soo; Kim, So Ri

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Heme oxygenases (HOs) are the rate-limiting enzymes in the catabolism of heme into biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide. Two genetically distinct isoforms of HO have been characterized: an inducible form, HO-1, and a constitutively expressed form, HO-2. HO-1 is a kind of stress protein, and thus regarded as a sensitive and reliable indicator of cellular oxidative stress. The HO system acts as potent antioxidants, protects endothelial cells from apoptosis, is involved in regulating vascular tone, attenuates inflammatory response in the vessel wall, and participates in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Endothelial integrity and activity are thought to occupy the central position in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease risk conditions converge in the contribution to oxidative stress. The oxidative stress leads to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction with increases in vessel tone, cell growth, and gene expression that create a pro-thrombotic/pro-inflammatory environment. Subsequent formation, progression, and obstruction of atherosclerotic plaque may result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. This background provides the rationale for exploring the potential therapeutic role for HO system in the amelioration of vascular inflammation and prevention of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 137–167. PMID:20624029

  12. The role of thermal shock in cyclic oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of thermal shock on the spalling of oxides from the surfaces of several commercial alloys was determined. The average cooling rate was varied from approximately 240 C per second to less than 1.0 C per second during cyclic oxidation tests in air. The tests consisted of one hundred cycles of one hour at the maximum temperature (1100 or 1200 C). The alloys were HOS-875, TD-Ni, TD-NiCrAl, IN-601, IN-702, and B-1900 plus Hf. All of these alloys exhibited partial spalling within the oxide rather than total oxide loss down to bare metal. Thermal shock resulted in deformation of the metal which in turn resulted, in most cases, in changing the oxide failure mode from compressive to tensile. Tensile failures were characterized by cracking of the oxide and little loss, while compressive failures were characterized by explosive loss of platelets of oxide. This behavior was confirmed by examination of mechanically stressed oxide scales. The thermally shocked oxides spalled less than the slow cooled samples with the exception of TD-NiCrAl. This material failed in a brittle manner rather than by plastic deformation.

  13. Reactions occurring during the sulfation of sodium chloride deposited on alumina substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Birks, N.

    1986-01-01

    The reaction between solid NaCl and air containing 1 pct SO2 has been studied between 500 and 700 C. The reaction product, Na2SO4, forms not only on the surface of the NaCl but also on surrounding areas of the substrate due to the volatility of the NaCl at these temperatures. At the higher temperatures, the vapor pressure of NaCl is so high that the majority of the reaction product is distributed on the substrate. Above 625 C, the reaction product is a liquid solution of NaCl and Na2SO4 that exists only so long as NaCl is supplied from the original crystal source. Eventually, the liquid solidifies by constitutional solidification as the NaCl is converted to Na2SO4. While it exists, the liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 solution is shown to be highly corrosive to Al2O3 and, on a scale of Al2O3 growing on alloy HOS 875, particularly attacks the grain boundaries of the scale at preferred sites where chromium and iron oxides and sulfides rapidly develop. This is proposed as one mechanism by which NaCl deposition contributes to the initiation of low temperature hot corrosion.

  14. Effect of lecithin nanoliposome or soybean lecithin supplemented by pomegranate extract on post-thaw flow cytometric, microscopic and oxidative parameters in ram semen.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Mahdieh; Daghigh Kia, Hossein; Nazari, Maryam; Najafi, Abouzar

    2017-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of soybean lecithin 1.5% (wt/vol) (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg l -1 pomegranate extract (PE)) or PE-loaded lecithin nanoliposome (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg l -1 ) to Tris-based extender. Sperm motility (CASA), viability, membrane integrity (HOS test), abnormalities, mitochondrial activity, apoptosis status, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) and antioxidant activities (GPX, SOD) were investigated following freeze-thawing. No significant differences were detected in motility parameters, viability, membrane integrity, and mitochondria activity after thawing sperm between soybean lecithin and lecithin nanoliposomes. It was shown that PE5 significantly improved sperm total and progressive motility, membrane integrity, viability, mitochondria activity, TAC and reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde concentration). Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic sperm in PE5 extenders was significantly the lowest among other treatments. Sperm abnormalities, SOD and GPX were not affected by the antioxidant supplements. For apoptotic status, no differences were observed between soybean lecithin and lecithin nanoliposome. We showed that lecithin nanoliposome extender can be a beneficial alternative extender to protect ram sperm during cryopreservation without any adverse effects. It was also observed that regarding pomegranate concentration, PE5 can improve the quality of ram semen after thawing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p<0.05) higher in pure Jersey as compare to crossbred Jersey bulls. Live sperm percentage and acrosome integrity was significantly (p<0.01) higher in pure Jersey bulls as compared to crossbred Jersey bulls. However, no statistical difference (p>0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA

  16. Arthroscopic Labral Base Repair in the Hip: 5-Year Minimum Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Domb, Benjamin G; Yuen, Leslie C; Ortiz-Declet, Victor; Litrenta, Jody; Perets, Itay; Chen, Austin W

    2017-10-01

    Arthroscopic labral base repair (LBR) in the hip is a previously described technique designed to restore the native functional anatomy of the labrum by reproducing its seal against the femoral head. LBR has been shown to have good short-term outcomes. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate clinical outcomes of an LBR cohort with a minimum 5-year follow-up. It was hypothesized that patients who underwent LBR would continue to have significant improvement from their preoperative scores and maintain scores similar to their 2-year outcomes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Data for patients undergoing primary hip arthroscopic surgery with LBR from February 2008 to May 2011 with a minimum 5-year follow-up were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. Patients with preoperative Tonnis osteoarthritis grade ≥2, previous hip conditions (slipped capital femoral epiphysis, avascular necrosis, Legg-Calv-Perthes disease), severe dysplasia (lateral center-edge angle <18°), or previous ipsilateral hip surgery were excluded. Statistical equivalence tests evaluated patient-reported outcomes (PROs) including the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and patient satisfaction (0-10 scale; 10 = very satisfied). Of the 70 patients (74 hips) who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, 60 (85.7%) patients (64 hips) were available at a minimum 5-year follow-up. All PRO scores significantly improved from preoperative values with a mean follow-up of 67.8 ± 7.4 months (range, 60.0-89.7 months). The mean mHHS increased from 64.4 ±13.8 to 85.3 ± 17.7 ( P < .001), the mean NAHS from 63.7 ± 17.0 to 87.0 ± 14.7 ( P < .001), and the mean HOS-SSS from 47.1 ± 23.2 to 76.5 ± 25.9 ( P < .001). The mean VAS score decreased from 5.9 ± 2.4 to 2.0 ± 2.1 ( P < .001). The mean patient satisfaction score was 8.1 ± 2.0. The improvement in PRO scores was

  17. A Comparison of Open and Endoscopic Repair of Full-Thickness Tears of the Gluteus Medius Tendon at a Minimum of 2 Years Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Nawabi, Danyal H.; Wentzel, Catherine; Ranawat, Anil S.; Bedi, Asheesh; Kelly, Bryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Historically, tears of the gluteus medius tendon were repaired via an open approach yielding excellent outcomes. With the advent of hip arthroscopy, endoscopic techniques have been developed to repair abductor tears which have shown favorable early outcomes. The open technique may still be preferred for large tears with retraction (>4cm), but there is a paucity of data comparing open and endoscopic approaches. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of open and endoscopic repair of full-thickness tears of the gluteus medius tendon. We hypothesized that the outcomes of the two approaches would be similar but that the open technique would have shorter surgical times. Methods: Between March 2010 and June 2012, 1267 patients (1518 hips) undergoing a hip preservation procedure were prospectively entered into a registry. From this cohort, we identified 27 patients (30 hips) that had undergone repair of the gluteus medius tendon with a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Nine patients (9 hips) had an open repair and 18 patients (21 hips) had an endoscopic repair. Patient-reported outcome scores, including the Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score-Activity of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and the Sport-specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) were obtained preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Surgery time was obtained using operating room records. The femoral neck shaft angle (FNSA) and lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) were measured on preoperative radiographs. Continuous and categorical variables were compared between endoscopic and open abductor repair patients using independent-samples t-tests and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests (as appropriate), respectively. Given the limited sample size, no adjusted or matched analyses were performed. Results: The mean age (±SD) of the open and endoscopic groups was 62.0 ± 9.9 years and 51.6 ± 13.6 years respectively (p=0.05). There were 6 females (67%) in the open group and 17 females (94

  18. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06002.pdf, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  19. The Chief Joseph Hatchery Program 2013 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Casey; Pearl, Andrea; Laramie, Matthew; Rohrback, John; Phillips, Pat; Wolf, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The Chief Joseph Hatchery is the fourth hatchery obligated under the Grand Coulee Dam/Dry Falls project, originating in the 1940s. Leavenworth, Entiat, and Winthrop National Fish Hatcheries were built and operated as mitigation for salmon blockage at Grand Coulee Dam, but the fourth hatchery was not built, and the obligation was nearly forgotten. After the Colville Tribes successfully collaborated with the United States to resurrect the project, planning of the hatchery began in 2001 and construction was completed in 2013. The monitoring program began in 2012 and adult Chinook Salmon were brought on station for the first time in June 2013. BPA is the primary funding source for CJH, and the Mid-Columbia PUDs (Douglas, Grant and Chelan County) have entered into cost-share agreements with the tribes and BPA in order to meet some of their mitigation obligations. The CJH production level was set at 60% in 2013 in order to train staff and test hatchery facility systems during the first year of operation. Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery (LNFH) provided 422 Spring Chinook broodstock in June, 2013; representing the official beginning of CJH operations. In July and August the CCT used a purse seine vessel to collect 814 summer/fall Chinook as broodstock that were a continuation and expansion of the previous Similkameen Pond program. In-hatchery survival for most life stages exceeded survival targets and, as of April 2014, the program was on track to exceed the 60% production target for its start-up year. The CJH monitoring project collected field data to determine Chinook population status, trend, and hatchery effectiveness centered on five major activities; 1) rotary screw traps (juvenile outmigration, natural-origin smolt PIT tagging) 2) beach seine (naturalorigin smolt PIT tagging) 3) lower Okanogan adult fish pilot weir (adult escapement, proportion of hatchery-origin spawners [pHOS], broodstock) 4) spawning ground surveys (redd and carcass surveys)(viable salmonid

  20. A Survey on Oocyte Donation: Turkish Fertile and Infertile Women’s Opinions

    PubMed Central

    Akyuz, Aygul; Sever, Nese; Karasahin, Emre; Guvenc, Gulten; Cek, Suzan

    2014-01-01

    Background There are various treatment options for infertility, and new techniques are also being developed as it is an important healthcare problem affecting approximately 15-20% of married couples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of infor- mation of fertile and infertile Turkish women on oocyte donation in order to understand their awareness of the legal, ethical, social and religious issues regarding this technique and to compare these two groups in terms of these variables. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included infertile women being treated at the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) program of a university hos- pital and women who had presented at the gynecology outpatients department of the same university for routine check-ups and who had no previous history of infertility. After consulting with specialists in the field and searching the related literature, a data collection form having 22 questions for infertile women and 18 questions for fertile women was prepared. Results The women were asked whether they would use the oocytes of another woman if necessary. The results showed that 67.6% of the fertile women said they would never want to use this method, while 63.9% of the infertile women stated they may accept to use this method under certain conditions (two distinct answers appeared in the answers, some women stated they would prefer donated oocytes from close relatives, while others stated they would prefer oocytes from total strangers), such as from a close relative or from someone they do not know at all. Conclusion Infertile women mentioned that they could use illegal routes if necessary to have a child at much higher rates than stated by fertile women. This shows that desire to have a child is a strong source of motivation in Turkey. PMID:25379158

  1. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Ruiz-López, Felipe de J.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Montaldo, Hugo H.; Huson, Heather J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican Holstein (HO) industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN + USA) HO germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv) and the low income (Lowi) system. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican HO cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US HO populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303, and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree HO animals from the Conv, Lowi, and CAN + USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE) and Brown Swiss (BS) genotypes (162 and 86, respectively) were used to determine if Mexican HOs were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC), admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (LD; r2) analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HO × JE and HO × BS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN + USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire’s country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN + USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN + USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN + USA. Mexican HO cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN + USA but have different genetic signatures. PMID:25709615

  2. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Leuchs, Barbara; Frank-Stöhr, Monika; Schlehofer, Jörg R.; Rommelaere, Jean; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS) was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells. H-1PV was found to enter osteosarcoma cells and to induce viral DNA replication, transcription of viral genes, and translation to viral proteins. After H-1PV infection, release of infectious viral particles from osteosarcoma cells into the supernatant indicated successful viral assembly and egress. Crystal violet staining revealed progressive cytomorphological changes in all osteosarcoma cell lines. Infection of osteosarcoma cell lines with the standard H-1PV caused an arrest of the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and these lines had a limited capacity for standard H-1PV virus replication. The cytotoxicity of wild-type H-1PV virus towards osteosarcoma cells was compared in vitro with that of two variants, Del H-1PV and DM H-1PV, previously described as fitness variants displaying higher infectivity and spreading in human transformed cell lines of different origins. Surprisingly, wild-type H-1PV displayed the strongest cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in this analysis and thus seems the most promising for the next preclinical validation steps in vivo. PMID:29039746

  3. MicroRNA-143 Regulates Human Osteosarcoma Metastasis by Regulating Matrix Metalloprotease-13 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Sugimoto, Yui; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Yamada, Tesshi; Kawai, Akira; Inoue, Toshiaki; Ito, Hisao; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary metastases are the main cause of death in patients with osteosarcoma, however, the molecular mechanisms of metastasis are not well understood. To detect lung metastasis-related microRNA (miRNA) in human osteosarcoma, we compared parental (HOS) and its subclone (143B) human osteosarcoma cell lines showing lung metastasis in a mouse model. miR-143 was the most downregulated miRNA (P < 0.01), and transfection of miR-143 into 143B significantly decreased its invasiveness, but not cell proliferation. Noninvasive optical imaging technologies revealed that intravenous injection of miR-143, but not negative control miRNA, significantly suppressed lung metastasis of 143B (P < 0.01). To search for miR-143 target mRNA in 143B, microarray analyses were performed using an independent RNA pool extracted by two different comprehensive miR-143-target mRNA collecting systems. Western blot analyses revealed that MMP-13 was mostly protein downregulated by miR-143. Immunohistochemistry using clinical samples clearly revealed MMP-13-positive cells in lung metastasis-positive cases, but not in at least three cases showing higher miR-143 expression in the no metastasis group. Taken together, these data indicated that the downregulation of miR-143 correlates with the lung metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells by promoting cellular invasion, probably via MMP-13 upregulation, suggesting that miRNA could be used to develop new molecular targets for osteosarcoma metastasis. PMID:21427707

  4. Isocyanides inhibit human heme oxygenases at the verdoheme stage.

    PubMed

    Evans, John P; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2009-09-22

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocyanides, isopropyl, n-butyl, and benzyl, to the two major human HO isoforms (hHO-1 and hHO-2), Candida albicans HO (CaHmx1), and human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Isocyanides coordinate to both ferric and ferrous HO-bound heme, with tighter binding by the more hydrophobic isocyanides and 200-300-fold tighter binding to the ferrous form. Benzyl isocyanide was the strongest ligand to ferrous heme in all the enzymes. Because the dissociation constants (KD) of the ligands for ferrous heme-hHO-1 were below the limit of accuracy for equilibrium titrations, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were used to measure the binding parameters of the isocyanides to ferrous hHO-1. Steady-state activity assays showed that benzyl isocyanide was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to heme with a KI = 0.15 microM for hHO-1. Importantly, single turnover assays revealed that the reaction was completely stopped by coordination of the isocyanide to the verdoheme intermediate rather than to the ferric heme complex. Much tighter binding of the inhibitor to the verdoheme intermediate differentiates it from inhibition of, for example, CYP3A4 and offers a possible route to more selective inhibitor design.

  5. Isocyanides Inhibit Human Heme Oxygenases at the Verdoheme Stage†

    PubMed Central

    Evans, John P.; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocyanides; isopropyl, n-butyl, and benzyl, to the two major human HO isoforms (hHO-1 and hHO-2), Candida albicans HO (CaHmx1), and human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Isocyanides coordinate to both ferric and ferrous HO-bound heme, with tighter binding by the more hydrophobic isocyanides, and 200-300-fold tighter binding to the ferrous form. Benzyl isocyanide was the strongest ligand to ferrous heme in all the enzymes. Because the dissociation constants (KD) of the ligands for ferrous heme-hHO-1 were below the limit of accuracy for equilibrium titrations, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were used to measure the binding parameters of the isocyanides to ferrous hHO-1. Steady-state activity assays showed that benzyl isocyanide was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to heme with a KI = 0.15 μM for hHO-1. Importantly, single turnover assays revealed that the reaction was completely stopped by coordination of the isocyanide to the verdoheme intermediate rather than to the ferric heme complex. Much tighter binding of the inhibitor to the verdoheme intermediate differentiates it from inhibition of, for example, CYP3A4 and offers a possible route to more selective inhibitor design. PMID:19694439

  6. α-lipoic acid inhibits oxidative stress in testis and attenuates testicular toxicity in rats exposed to carbimazole during embryonic period.

    PubMed

    Prathima, P; Venkaiah, K; Pavani, R; Daveedu, T; Munikumar, M; Gobinath, M; Valli, M; Sainath, S B

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the probable protective effect of α-lipoic acid against testicular toxicity in rats exposed to carbimazole during the embryonic period. Time-mated pregnant rats were exposed to carbimazole from the embryonic days 9-21. After completion of the gestation period, all the rats were allowed to deliver pups and weaned. At postnatal day 100, F1 male pups were assessed for the selected reproductive endpoints. Gestational exposure to carbimazole decreased the reproductive organ indices, testicular daily sperm count, epididymal sperm variables viz ., sperm count, viable sperm, motile sperm and HOS-tail coiled sperms. Significant decrease in the activity levels of 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and expression of StAR mRNA levels with a significant increase in the total cholesterol levels were observed in the testis of experimental rats over the controls. These events were also accompanied by a significant reduction in the serum testosterone levels in CBZ exposed rats, indicating reduced steroidogenesis. In addition, the deterioration of the testicular architecture and reduced fertility ability were noticed in the carbimazole exposed rats. Significant reduction in the activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione content with a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation were observed in the testis of carbimazole exposed rats over the controls. Conversely, supplementation of α-lipoic acid (70 mg/Kg bodyweight) ameliorated the male reproductive health in rats exposed to carbimazole during the embryonic period as evidenced by enhanced reproductive organ weights, selected sperm variables, testicular steroidogenesis, and testicular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To conclude, diminished testicular antioxidant balance associated with reduced spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis might be responsible for the suppressed reproduction in

  7. Delocalized Claudin-1 promotes metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, Yuekui; Chen, Changqiong; Li, Bo

    2015-10-23

    Tight junction proteins (TJPs) including Claudins, Occludin and tight junction associated protein Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), are the most apical component of junctional complex that mediates cell–cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cells. In human malignancies, TJPs are often deregulated and affect cellular behaviors of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated alternations of TJPs and related biological characteristics in human osteosarcoma (OS). Claudin1 was increased in the metastatic OS cells (KRIB and KHOS) compared with the normal osteoblast cells (hFOB1.19) or primary tumor cells (HOS and U2OS), whereas no significant difference was found in Occludin and ZO-1. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence andmore » Western blotting revealed that Claudin1 was initially localized at cell junctions of normal osteoblasts, but substantially delocalized to the nucleus of metastatic OS cells. Phenotypically, inhibition of the nucleus Claudin1 expression compromised the metastatic potential of KRIB and KHOS cells. Moreover, we found that protein kinase C (PKC) but not PKA phosphorylation influenced Claudin1 expression and cellular functions, as PKC inhibitor (Go 6983 and Staurosporine) or genetic silencing of PKC reduced Claudin1 expression and decreased the motility of KRIB and KHOS cells. Taken together, our study implied that delocalization of claudin-1 induced by PKC phosphorylation contributes to metastatic capacity of OS cells. - Highlights: • Claudin1 is increased during the malignant transformation of human OS. • Delocalization of Claudin1 in metastatic OS cells. • Silencing nuclear Claudin1 expression inhibits cell invasion of OS. • Deregulated Claudin1 is regulated by PKC.« less

  8. Rapid phosphatidic acid accumulation in response to low temperature stress in Arabidopsis is generated through diacylglycerol kinase.

    PubMed

    Arisz, Steven A; van Wijk, Ringo; Roels, Wendy; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Haring, Michel A; Munnik, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using (32)P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid (32)P-PtdOH increase, peaking within 2 and 5 min, respectively. In principle, PtdOH can be generated through three different pathways, i.e., (1) via de novo phospholipid biosynthesis (through acylation of lyso-PtdOH), (2) via phospholipase D hydrolysis of structural phospholipids, or (3) via phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DGK). Using a differential (32)P-labeling protocol and a PLD-transphosphatidylation assay, evidence is provided that the rapid (32)P-PtdOH response was primarily generated through DGK. A simultaneous decrease in the levels of (32)P-PtdInsP, correlating in time, temperature dependency, and magnitude with the increase in (32)P-PtdOH, suggested that a PtdInsP-hydrolyzing PLC generated the DAG in this reaction. Testing T-DNA insertion lines available for the seven DGK genes, revealed no clear changes in (32)P-PtdOH responses, suggesting functional redundancy. Similarly, known cold-stress mutants were analyzed to investigate whether the PtdOH response acted downstream of the respective gene products. The hos1, los1, and fry1 mutants were found to exhibit normal PtdOH responses. Slight changes were found for ice1, snow1, and the overexpression line Super-ICE1, however, this was not cold-specific and likely due to pleiotropic effects. A tentative model illustrating direct cold effects on phospholipid metabolism is presented.

  9. Rapid phosphatidic acid accumulation in response to low temperature stress in Arabidopsis is generated through diacylglycerol kinase

    PubMed Central

    Arisz, Steven A.; van Wijk, Ringo; Roels, Wendy; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Haring, Michel A.; Munnik, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using 32P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid 32P-PtdOH increase, peaking within 2 and 5 min, respectively. In principle, PtdOH can be generated through three different pathways, i.e., (1) via de novo phospholipid biosynthesis (through acylation of lyso-PtdOH), (2) via phospholipase D hydrolysis of structural phospholipids, or (3) via phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DGK). Using a differential 32P-labeling protocol and a PLD-transphosphatidylation assay, evidence is provided that the rapid 32P-PtdOH response was primarily generated through DGK. A simultaneous decrease in the levels of 32P-PtdInsP, correlating in time, temperature dependency, and magnitude with the increase in 32P-PtdOH, suggested that a PtdInsP-hydrolyzing PLC generated the DAG in this reaction. Testing T-DNA insertion lines available for the seven DGK genes, revealed no clear changes in 32P-PtdOH responses, suggesting functional redundancy. Similarly, known cold-stress mutants were analyzed to investigate whether the PtdOH response acted downstream of the respective gene products. The hos1, los1, and fry1 mutants were found to exhibit normal PtdOH responses. Slight changes were found for ice1, snow1, and the overexpression line Super-ICE1, however, this was not cold-specific and likely due to pleiotropic effects. A tentative model illustrating direct cold effects on phospholipid metabolism is presented. PMID:23346092

  10. Di-n-butyl phthalate prompts interruption of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and fertility associated with increased testicular oxidative stress in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Nelli, Giribabu; Pamanji, Sreenivasula Reddy

    2017-08-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is extensively used as plasticizer, and it was ubiquitary released into the environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of DBP on reproductive competence in adult male rats. Adult male rats were received corn oil or DBP injection intraperitoneally (ip) at 100 and 500 mg/kg body weight on 90, 97, 104, and 111 days. Following completion of the experimental period, adult male rats were cohabitated with untreated proestrus female rats for determination of fertilization capacity. Then, adult male rats were sacrificed, and other reproductive endpoints were determined by histopathology and biochemical analysis. The results revealed significant reduction of fertilization potential by decrease mating, fertility indices with increase pre-implantation and post-implantation losses, and resorptions in normal female rat cohabitation with DBP-treated adult male rats. The testes, seminal vesicle tissue somatic indices, epididymal sperm count, motility, viability, and hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) sperm were significantly decreased with increased sperm morphological abnormalities in DBP-treated adult male rats. The disorientation of spermatogenic cells decreased the diameter and epithelial thickness of seminiferous tubule in the testicular histopathology of DBP-exposed rats. Significant reduction of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme levels and serum testosterone with increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were observed in DBP-treated groups. Higher testicular oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation product) with lower antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels in DBP-exposed groups was observed. From these results, it can be concluded that DBP increases oxidative stress; it leads to impairment of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and fertility in adult male rats.

  11. Influence of collagen-fibril-based coatings containing decorin and biglycan on osteoblast behavior.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy; Hempel, Ute; Mietrach, Carolin; Viola, Manuela; Vigetti, Davide; Heinemann, Sascha; Bierbaum, Susanne; Scharnweber, Dieter; Worch, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Collagen is used as a scaffold material for tissue engineering as well as a coating material for implants with a view to enhancing osseointegration by mimicry of the bone extracellular matrix in vivo. The biomimicry strategy can be taken further by incorporating the small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) decorin and biglycan, which are expressed in bone. Both bind to fibrils during fibrillogenesis in vitro. In this study, the ability of collagen types I, II, and III to bind decorin and biglycan was compared. Collagen type II bound significantly more SLRPs in fibrils than collagen I and III, with more biglycan than decorin bound by all three collagen types. Therefore, type II fibrils with bound decorin or biglycan or neither were used to coat titanium surfaces. Bioavailability of SLRPs was confirmed by direct ELISA after SLRP biotinilation. The in vitro behavior of osteoblasts from rat calvaria (rOs) and human knee (hOs) cultured on different surfaces was compared. Proliferation and collagen synthesis were determined. Also, the influence of SLRPs on the formation of focal adhesions by rO was investigated. Biglycan enhanced the formation of focal adhesions after 2 and 24 h. Decorin and biglycan affected rO and hO proliferation and collagen synthesis differently. Biglycan stimulated hO proliferation significantly but had no effect on rO proliferation, and also inhibited rO collagen synthesis significantly while not affecting hO collagen synthesis. Decorin promoted hO proliferation slightly but did not influence rO proliferation. The results could be relevant when designing implant coatings or tissue engineering scaffolds. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Age- and Parkinson's disease-related evaluation of gait by General Tau Theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shutao; Qian, Jinwu; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Linyong; Wu, Xi; Hu, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    The degeneration of postural control in the elderly and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be debilitating and may lead to increased fall risk. This study evaluated the changes in postural control during gait affected by PD and aging using a new method based on the General Tau Theory. Fifteen patients with PD, 11 healthy old adults (HOs), and 15 healthy young adults (HYs) were recruited. Foot trajectories of each participant were monitored during walking by a three-camera Optotrak Certus(®) motion capture system. The anteroposterior direction of foot movement during stepping was analyzed by tau-G and tau-J guidance strategies. Two linear regression analyses suggested that the tau of the step-gap was strongly coupled onto the tau-J guidance during walking. The regression slope K could estimate the coupling ratio in the tau-coupling equation which reflects the performance of postural control during gait. The mean K value for the PD group, which was highest among the three groups, was approximately 0.5. Therefore, participants in the PD group walked with the poorest postural control and exhibited a relatively hard contact with the endpoint during stepping when compared with those in the HO and HY groups. The HY and HO groups obtained mean K values significantly lower than 0.5, which indicated that the gait was well controlled and ended at low speed with low deceleration. However, the HO group showed a decreased tendency for postural control, in which the mean K value was significantly higher than that of the HY group. The K value was moderately positively correlated with the double support time and negatively correlated with the stride length and walking speed. The tau-J coupling ratio can provide additional insight into gait disturbances and may serve as a reliable, objective, and quantitative tool to evaluate dynamic postural control during walking.

  13. Prescribing of asthma drugs for children 2004-2015.

    PubMed

    Mikalsen, Ingvild Bruun; Karlstad, Øystein; Furu, Kari; Øymar, Knut

    2018-02-20

    Astma kan være vanskelig å diagnostisere hos barn. For barn under skolealder finnes det få tilgjengelige objektive diagnostiske undersøkelser, og retningslinjene for diagnose og behandling er basert på sykehistorie og klinisk undersøkelse. Dette kan gi rom for varierende behandlingspraksis. Data fra Reseptregisteret ble brukt til å studere forskrivning av legemidler mot astma til barn i aldersgruppene 0-4 år og 5-9 år fordelt på fylker fra 2004-15. Det var stor variasjon mellom fylkene i andelen per 1 000 barn som fikk forskrevet legemidler mot astma i perioden 2012-14 (aldersgruppen 0-4 år: median: 104/1 000; ekstremverdier: 64-147, aldersgruppen 5-9 år: 68/1000; 46-86). Inhalasjonssteroider var hyppigst forskrevet, og det var her variasjonen mellom fylkene var størst i begge aldersgruppene (aldersgruppen 0-4 år: 85/1 000; 42-116, aldersgruppen 5-9 år: 51/1 000; 31-70). De fleste fikk kun en eller få forskrivninger med inhalasjonssteroider over en treårsperiode. Endring i forskrivningen av inhalasjonssteroider fra 2004 til 2015 varierte betydelig mellom fylkene, mest for aldersgruppen 0-4 år. Stor forskjell i forskrivning av legemidler mot astma fylkene imellom, høy andel sporadisk bruk og endring over tid, særlig i den yngste aldersgruppen, kan tyde på en unaturlig variasjon i behandlingen som ikke kan forklares av forskjeller i astmaforekomst. Uklare retningslinjer som ikke er tilstrekkelig innarbeidet i klinisk praksis kan være én årsak.

  14. Fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stromal cells augment engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Meghnad; Patil, Pradeep B.; He, Zhong; Holgersson, Jan; Olausson, Michael; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Background aims One important problem commonly encountered after hepatocyte transplantation is the low numbers of transplanted cells found in the graft. If hepatocyte transplantation is to be a viable therapeutic approach, significant liver parenchyma repopulation is required. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) produce high levels of various growth factors, cytokines and metalloproteinases, and have immunomodulatory effects. We therefore hypothesized that co-transplantation of MSC with human fetal hepatocytes (hFH) could augment in vivo expansion after transplantation. We investigated the ability of human fetal liver MSC (hFLMSC) to augment expansion of phenotypically and functionally well-characterized hFH. Methods Two million hFH (passage 6) were either transplanted alone or together (1:1 ratio) with green fluorescence protein-expressing hFLMSC into the spleen of C57BL/6 nude mice with retrorsine-induced liver injury. Results After 4 weeks, engraftment of cells was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a human-specific DNA probe. Significantly higher numbers of cells expressing human cytokeratin (CK)8, CK18, CK19, Cysteine-rich MNNG HOS Transforming gene (c-Met), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human nuclear antigen, mitochondrial antigen, hepatocyte-specific antigen and albumin (ALB) were present in the livers of recipient animals co-transplanted with hFLMSC compared with those without. Furthermore, expression of human hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α and HNF-1β, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A7 mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in these animals. In addition, significantly increased amounts of human ALB were detected. Importantly, hFLMSC did not transdifferentiate into hepatocytes. Conclusions Our study reports the use of a novel strategy for enhanced liver repopulation and thereby advances this experimental procedure closer to clinical liver cell therapy. PMID:22424216

  15. Modelization of highly nonlinear waves in coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The proposed work deals with the development of a highly non-linear model for water wave propagation in coastal regions. The accurate modelization of surface gravity waves is of major interest in ocean engineering, especially in the field of marine renewable energy. These marine structures are intended to be settled in coastal regions where the effect of variable bathymetry may be significant on local wave conditions. This study presents a numerical model for the wave propagation with complex bathymetry. It is based on High-Order Spectral (HOS) method, initially limited to the propagation of non-linear wave fields over flat bottom. Such a model has been developed and validated at the LHEEA Lab. (Ecole Centrale Nantes) over the past few years and the current developments will enlarge its application range. This new numerical model will keep the interesting numerical properties of the original pseudo-spectral approach (convergence, efficiency with the use of FFTs, …) and enable the possibility to propagate highly non-linear wave fields over long time and large distance. Different validations will be provided in addition to the presentation of the method. At first, Bragg reflection will be studied with the proposed approach. If the Bragg condition is satisfied, the reflected wave generated by a sinusoidal bottom patch should be amplified as a result of resonant quadratic interactions between incident wave and bottom. Comparisons will be provided with experiments and reference solutions. Then, the method will be used to consider the transformation of a non-linear monochromatic wave as it propagates up and over a submerged bar. As the waves travel up the front slope of the bar, it steepens and high harmonics are generated due to non-linear interactions. Comparisons with experimental data will be provided. The different test cases will assess the accuracy and efficiency of the method proposed.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Titrated Extract of Centella asiatica in Phthalic Anhydride-Induced Allergic Dermatitis Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju Ho; Choi, Ji Yeon; Son, Dong Ju; Park, Eun Kyung; Song, Min Jong; Hellström, Mats; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-01-01

    Centella asiatica has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its anti-dermatitic effect has not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-dermatitic effects of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) in a phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) animal model as well as in vitro model. An AD-like lesion was induced by the topical application of five percent PA to the dorsal skin or ear of Hos:HR-1 mouse. After AD induction, 100 μL of 0.2% and 0.4% of TECA (40 μg or 80 μg/cm2) was spread on the dorsum of the ear or back skin three times a week for four weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and changes in protein expression by Western blotting for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and NF-κB activity, which were determined by electromobility shift assay (EMSA). We also measured TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IgE concentration in the blood of AD mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TECA treatment attenuated the development of PA-induced atopic dermatitis. Histological analysis showed that TECA inhibited hyperkeratosis, mast cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. TECA treatment inhibited expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB activity as well as the release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IgE. In addition, TECA (1, 2, 5 μg/mL) potently inhibited Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 μg/mL)-induced NO production, expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB DNA binding activities in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Our data demonstrated that TECA could be a promising agent for AD by inhibition of NF-κB signaling. PMID:28358324

  17. Difference in occurrence of heterotopic ossification according to prosthesis type in the cervical artificial disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Yi, Seong; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yang, Moon Sul; Yang, Joong Won; Kim, Hoon; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Do Heum; Shin, Hyun Chul

    2010-07-15

    Retrospective study of the difference of heterotopic ossification (HO) occurrence according to 3 different types of prosthesis. This study was designed to investigate the difference of HO occurrence according to different type of prosthesis. HO is defined as formation of the bone outside the skeletal system. Reported HO occurrence rate in cervical artificial disc replacement (ADR) was unexpectedly high and varied. But the influencing factors of HO in cervical ADR have not been elucidated well. The prosthesis-related factors for making difference of HO occurrence were investigated in this study. A total of 170 patients undergoing cervical arthroplasty with the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis (Medtroic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN), Mobi-C disc prosthesis (LDR Medical, Troyes, France), and ProDisc-C (Synthes, Inc., West Chester, PA) were included. Cervical lateral radiographs obtained before and after surgery were used to identify HO. Occurrence rate, occurrence-free period, location, and grade of HOs were investigated according to the different prosthesis. Each prosthesis group included patients as follows: Bryan disc, 81 patients; Mobi-C, 61 patients; and ProDisc-C, 28 patients. Overall HO rate was 40.6% (69 of 170 patients). Each HO occurrence rate by prosthesis was as follows: the Bryan disc group, 21.0%; Mobi-C group, 52.5%; and the ProDisc-C group, 71.4%. In the survival analysis, all patients showed 27.1 +/- 3.7 months as the median survival. The Bryan disc group showed statistically longer survival (48.4 +/- 7.4 months) than the other groups. Occurrence of HO is an inevitable postoperative complication after cervical ADR. The occurrence rate of HO was higher than our expectation. Moreover, definite differences in occurrence rate according to the prosthesis type were identified by this study.

  18. Ability to return to work without restrictions in workers compensation patients undergoing hip arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Mascarenhas, Randy; Wuerz, Thomas H.; Mather, Richard C.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of worker’s compensation (WC) patients to return to work without restrictions after hip arthroscopy. Twenty-nine WC patients along with age and gender matched controls who underwent hip arthroscopy were retrospectively reviewed after achieving maximum medical improvement (MMI) status at minimum 1 year postoperatively. Patient demographic factors were evaluated, along with the Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living and Sports-Specific subscales, and the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS). The majority of WC patients were able to return to work without restrictions after reaching MMI (20/29, 69.0%). WC patients who failed to return to work without restrictions had a prolonged time from injury to surgery (3.01 ± 2.16 months versus 6.36 ± 4.16 months; P = 0.0079), more concomitant orthopedic injuries (4/20, 20.0% versus 9/9, 100%; P = 0.0001), and higher body mass index (BMI) (26.61 ± 3.52 versus 29.54 ± 3.43; P = 0.047) than those who returned to work without restrictions. WC patients had significant improvement of patient-reported outcome scores following hip arthroscopy (P < 0.0001), but WC patients who returned to work without restrictions had higher scores than those who failed to do so (HOD-ADL: P < 0.0001; HOS-SS: P = 0.004; mHHS: P = 0.009). The majority of WC patients are able to return to work without restrictions when they reach MMI status following hip arthroscopy. Factors associated with failure to return to work without restrictions include prolonged time course between injury and surgical treatment, concomitant orthopaedic injuries, and a higher BMI. Level III, retrospective case-control study PMID:28630718

  19. Alleviating anastrozole induced bone toxicity by selenium nanoparticles in SD rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vekariya, Kiritkumar K.; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan, E-mail: tikoo.k@gmail.com

    Aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole play an undisputed key role in the treatment of breast cancer, but on the other hand, various side effects like osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fracture accompany the chronic administration of these drugs. Here we show for the first time that selenium nanoparticles, when given in conjugation to anastrozole, lower the bone toxicity caused by anastrozole and thus reduce the probable damage to the bone. Selenium nanoparticles at a dose of 5 μg/ml significantly reduced the cell death caused by anastrozole (1 μM) in HOS (human osteoblast) cells. In addition, our results also highlighted thatmore » in female SD rat model, SeNPs (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) significantly prevented the decrease in bone density and increase in biochemical markers of bone resorption induced by anastrozole (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment. Histopathological examination of the femurs of SeNP treated group revealed ossification, mineralization, calcified cartilaginous deposits and a marginal osteoclastic activity, all of which indicate a marked restorative action, suggesting the protective action of the SeNPs. Interestingly, SeNPs (1 mg/kg/day) also exhibited protective effect in ovariectomized rat model, by preventing osteoporosis, which signifies that bone loss due to estrogen deficiency can be effectively overcome by using SeNPs. - Highlights: ► SeNPs significantly reduce bone toxicity in anastrozole treated rats. ► SeNPs successfully prevented osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. ► SeNP treatment lowered the levels of TRAP and increased the levels of ALKP.« less

  20. Long non-coding RNA tumor suppressor candidate 7 functions as a tumor suppressor and inhibits proliferation in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cong, Menglin; Li, Jianmin; Jing, Rui; Li, Zhenzhong

    2016-07-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of bone. Recent studies have proven long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the tumorigenesis and progression of cancer. However, few lncRNAs have been investigated in osteosarcoma. Here, we reported a novel lncRNA, tumor suppressor candidate 7 (TUSC7), was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with paired non-tumor tissues and low expression of TUSC7 indicated poor survival (HR = 0.313, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.092-0.867) of osteosarcoma patients. Further analysis revealed that loss copy number of TUSC7 was correlated with low expression of TUSC7, and additionally, loss of TUSC7 copy number also indicated poor prognosis (HR = 3.994, 95 % CI 1.147-13.91) of osteosarcoma patients. Two osteosarcoma cell lines, HOS and MG63, were utilized to investigate biological function of TUSC7. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assay revealed that after silence of TUSC7, cell proliferation ability increased and the colony formation ability also increased. Further results showed that cell cycle was not affected by treatment of si-TUSC7, while the percentage of apoptotic cells decreased. Western blot showed that after silence of TUSC7, the proapoptotic Bcl2 expression was downregulated. Finally, we established xenograft tumor models in nude mice with MG63 cells. Compared with negative control group, silence of TUSC7 significantly promoted tumor growth in vivo. Thus, we demonstrated that TUSC7 could be a potential tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Su, Y; Wagner, E R; Luo, Q; Huang, J; Chen, L; He, B-C; Zuo, G-W; Shi, Q; Zhang, B-Q; Zhu, G; Bi, Y; Luo, J; Luo, X; Kim, S H; Shen, J; Rastegar, F; Huang, E; Gao, Y; Gao, J-L; Yang, K; Wietholt, C; Li, M; Qin, J; Haydon, R C; He, T-C; Luu, H H

    2011-09-15

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. There is a critical need to identify the events that lead to the poorly understood mechanism of OS development and metastasis. The goal of this investigation is to identify and characterize a novel marker of OS progression. We have established and characterized a highly metastatic OS subline that is derived from the less metastatic human MG63 line through serial passages in nude mice via intratibial injections. Microarray analysis of the parental MG63, the highly metastatic MG63.2 subline, as well as the corresponding primary tumors and pulmonary metastases revealed insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) to be one of the significantly downregulated genes in the metastatic subline. Confirmatory quantitative RT-PCR on 20 genes of interest demonstrated IGFBP5 to be the most differentially expressed and was therefore chosen to be one of the genes for further investigation. Adenoviral mediated overexpression and knockdown of IGFBP5 in the MG63 and MG63.2 cell lines, as well as other OS lines (143B and MNNG/HOS) that are independent of our MG63 lines, were employed to examine the role of IGFBP5. We found that overexpression of IGFBP5 inhibited in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion of OS cells. Additionally, IGFBP5 overexpression promoted apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In an orthotopic xenograft animal model, overexpression of IGFBP5 inhibited OS tumor growth and pulmonary metastases. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of IGFBP5 promoted OS tumor growth and pulmonary metastases in vivo. Immunohistochemical staining of patient-matched primary and metastatic OS samples demonstrated decreased IGFBP5 expression in the metastases. These results suggest 1) a role for IGFBP5 as a novel marker that has an important role in the pathogenesis of OS, and 2) that the loss of IGFBP5 function may contribute to more metastatic phenotypes in OS.

  2. Disproportionate growth between the spine and pelvis in patients with thoracic adolescent scoliosis: a new look into the pattern's growth.

    PubMed

    Bao, H; Liu, Z; Yan, P; Qiu, Y; Zhu, F

    2015-12-01

    A self-control ratio, the spine-pelvis index (SPI), was proposed for the assessment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in this study. The aim was to evaluate the disproportionate growth between the spine and pelvis in these patients using SPI. A total of 64 female patients with thoracic AIS were randomly enrolled between December 2010 and October 2012 (mean age 13 years, standard deviation (sd) 2.17; 9 to 18) and a further 73 healthy female patients with a mean age of 12.4 years (mean age 12.4 years, sd 2.24; 9 to 18), were randomly selected from a normal control database at our centre. The radiographic parameters measured included length of spine (LOS), height of spine (HOS), length of thoracic vertebrae (LOT), height of thoracic vertebrae (HOT), width of pelvis (WOP), height of pelvis (HOP) and width of thorax (WOT). SPI was defined as the ratio LOS/HOP. The SPI and LOT/HOP in patients with AIS showed a significant increase when compared with normal girls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 respectively), implying an abnormal pattern of growth of the spine relative to the pelvis in patients with AIS. No significant difference in SPI was found in different age groups in the control group, making the SPI an age-independent parameter with a mean value of 2.219 (2.164 to 2.239). We also found that the SPI was not related to maturity in the control group. This study, for the first time, used a self-control ratio to confirm the disproportionate patterns of growth of the spine and pelvis in patients with thoracic AIS, highlighting that the SPI is not affected by age or maturity. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  3. Circular RNA hsa_circ_0001564 regulates osteosarcoma proliferation and apoptosis by acting miRNA sponge.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Ze; Li, Ji-Feng

    2018-01-15

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) is a novel type of non-coding RNAs generated from back splicing, which has been verified to mediate multiple tumorigenesis. However, the role of circRNA in osteosarcoma is still unclear. In the present study, we preliminarily screened the circRNAs expression profiles in osteosarcoma and investigated the potential regulation mechanism. The circRNAs expression profiles in osteosarcoma were screened using circRNA microarray analysis, and results showed that there were 1152 circRNAs up-regulated and 915 circRNAs down-regulated in tumor tissue compared to adjacent tissue. Hsa_circ_0001564, located at 5q35.3 and its associated-gene symbol is CANX, was one of the significantly overexpressed circRNAs in osteosarcoma tissue, as well as in osteosarcoma cell lines. In functional experiments, hsa_circ_001564 knockdown significantly suppressed the proliferation activity, induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, and promoted apoptosis in HOS and MG-63 cells. Subsequently, we explored the probable mechanism of hsa_circ_001564, and fortunately, bioinformatics analysis revealed that miR-29c-3p contained the complementary binding region with hsa_circ_0001564, which was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, rescue experiments illustrated that miR-29c-3p could reverse the oncogenesis effect of hsa_circ_001564. Our study discovers that hsa_circ_0001564 acts as miR-29c-3p sponge to mediate the tumorigenicity, which could act as a potential biomarker for the osteosarcoma and provide a novel insight for competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) mechanism in osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Ruiz-López, Felipe de J; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Montaldo, Hugo H; Huson, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican Holstein (HO) industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN + USA) HO germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv) and the low income (Lowi) system. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican HO cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US HO populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303, and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree HO animals from the Conv, Lowi, and CAN + USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE) and Brown Swiss (BS) genotypes (162 and 86, respectively) were used to determine if Mexican HOs were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC), admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) ) analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HO × JE and HO × BS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN + USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire's country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN + USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN + USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN + USA. Mexican HO cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN + USA but have different genetic signatures.

  5. Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and its classification.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-12-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) initially considered as only damaging agents in living organisms further were found to play positive roles also. This paper describes ROS homeostasis, principles of their investigation and technical approaches to investigate ROS-related processes. Especial attention is paid to complications related to experimental documentation of these processes, their diversity, spatiotemporal distribution, relationships with physiological state of the organisms. Imbalance between ROS generation and elimination in favor of the first with certain consequences for cell physiology has been called "oxidative stress". Although almost 30years passed since the first definition of oxidative stress was introduced by Helmut Sies, to date we have no accepted classification of oxidative stress. In order to fill up this gape here classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity is proposed. Due to that oxidative stress may be classified as basal oxidative stress (BOS), low intensity oxidative stress (LOS), intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS), and high intensity oxidative stress (HOS). Another classification of potential interest may differentiate three categories such as mild oxidative stress (MOS), temperate oxidative stress (TOS), and finally severe (strong) oxidative stress (SOS). Perspective directions of investigations in the field include development of sophisticated classification of oxidative stresses, accurate identification of cellular ROS targets and their arranged responses to ROS influence, real in situ functions and operation of so-called "antioxidants", intracellular spatiotemporal distribution and effects of ROS, deciphering of molecular mechanisms responsible for cellular response to ROS attacks, and ROS involvement in realization of normal cellular functions in cellular homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SUB1 Plays a Negative Role during Starvation Induced Sporulation Program in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ritu; Vijayraghavan, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sub1 is involved in several cellular processes such as, transcription initiation, elongation, mRNA processing and DNA repair. It has also been reported to provide cellular resistance during conditions of oxidative DNA damage and osmotic stress. Here, we report a novel role of SUB1 during starvation stress-induced sporulation, which leads to meiosis and spore formation in diploid yeast cells. Deletion of SUB1 gene significantly increased sporulation efficiency as compared to the wild-type cells in S288c genetic background. Whereas, the sporulation functions of the sub1(Y66A) missense mutant were similar to Sub1. SUB1 transcript and protein levels are downregulated during sporulation, in highly synchronized and sporulation proficient wild-type SK1 cells. The changes in Sub1 levels during sporulation cascade correlate with the induction of middle sporulation gene expression. Deletion of SUB1 increased middle sporulation gene transcript levels with no effect on their induction kinetics. In wild-type cells, Sub1 associates with chromatin at these loci in a temporal pattern that correlates with their enhanced gene expression seen in sub1Δ cells. We show that SUB1 genetically interacts with HOS2, which led us to speculate that Sub1 might function with Set3 repressor complex during sporulation. Positive Cofactor 4, human homolog of Sub1, complemented the sub1Δ sporulation phenotype, suggesting conservation of function. Taken together, our results suggest that SUB1 acts as a negative regulator of sporulation. PMID:26147804

  7. The post-thaw irradiation of avian spermatozoa with He-Ne laser differently affects chicken, pheasant and turkey sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Paventi, G; Pizzuto, R; Passarella, S; Cerolini, S; Zaniboni, L; Marzoni, M; Castillo, A; Rosato, M P

    2013-11-30

    The effects of post-thaw Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on mobility and functional integrity of frozen/thawed chicken, pheasant and turkey spermatozoa were investigated. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity was also determined as a measure of the effect of irradiation on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Semen samples from each species were collected, processed and frozen according to the pellet procedure. After thawing, each semen sample was divided into two subsamples: the first one was the control; the second one was irradiated with a single mode continuous He-Ne laser wave (wavelength 632.8 nm; 6 mW; 3.96 J/cm(2)). Then the samples were assessed for sperm mobility (Accudenz(®) swim-down test), viability (SYBR-14/PI staining), osmotic-resistance (HOS test) and COX activity. The irradiation was effective P<0.05 increasing sperm motility in the turkey semen (0.228 ± 0.01 compared with 0.294 ± 0.02). The irradiation also caused an increase (P<0.05) of the COX activity in pheasant (+135 ± 4%) and turkey (+116 ± 4%) sperm, without affecting viability and osmotic-resistance. The COX was positively correlated (P<0.05) with the viability of chicken sperm, however no significant interactions were found between mobility and COX activity in the three avian species. Due to the difference in energetic metabolism among avian species used in this study, the He-Ne laser irradiation has a differential action on bio-stimulation of turkey, chicken and pheasant spermatozoa. The present results are the first to elucidate the possibility for restoration of motility of cryopreserved avian spermatozoa by bio-stimulation provided via He-Ne laser irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Bulk Segregant Gene Expression Analysis of a Peach Population Reveals Components of the Underlying Mechanism of the Fruit Cold Response

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Clara; Martí, Cristina; Forment, Javier; Crisosto, Carlos H.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Granell, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruits subjected for long periods of cold storage are primed to develop chilling injury once fruits are shelf ripened at room temperature. Very little is known about the molecular changes occurring in fruits during cold exposure. To get some insight into this process a transcript profiling analyses was performed on fruits from a PopDG population segregating for chilling injury CI responses. A bulked segregant gene expression analysis based on groups of fruits showing extreme CI responses indicated that the transcriptome of peach fruits was modified already during cold storage consistently with eventual CI development. Most peach cold-responsive genes have orthologs in Arabidopsis that participate in cold acclimation and other stresses responses, while some of them showed expression patterns that differs in fruits according to their susceptibility to develop mealiness. Members of ICE1, CBF1/3 and HOS9 regulons seem to have a prominent role in differential cold responses between low and high sensitive fruits. In high sensitive fruits, an alternative cold response program is detected. This program is probably associated with dehydration/osmotic stress and regulated by ABA, auxins and ethylene. In addition, the observation that tolerant siblings showed a series of genes encoding for stress protective activities with higher expression both at harvest and during cold treatment, suggests that preprogrammed mechanisms could shape fruit ability to tolerate postharvest cold-induced stress. A number of genes differentially expressed were validated and extended to individual genotypes by medium-throughput RT-qPCR. Analyses presented here provide a global view of the responses of peach fruits to cold storage and highlights new peach genes that probably play important roles in the tolerance/sensitivity to cold storage. Our results provide a roadmap for further experiments and would help to develop new postharvest protocols and gene directed breeding strategies to better

  9. A bulk segregant gene expression analysis of a peach population reveals components of the underlying mechanism of the fruit cold response.

    PubMed

    Pons, Clara; Martí, Cristina; Forment, Javier; Crisosto, Carlos H; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Granell, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruits subjected for long periods of cold storage are primed to develop chilling injury once fruits are shelf ripened at room temperature. Very little is known about the molecular changes occurring in fruits during cold exposure. To get some insight into this process a transcript profiling analyses was performed on fruits from a PopDG population segregating for chilling injury CI responses. A bulked segregant gene expression analysis based on groups of fruits showing extreme CI responses indicated that the transcriptome of peach fruits was modified already during cold storage consistently with eventual CI development. Most peach cold-responsive genes have orthologs in Arabidopsis that participate in cold acclimation and other stresses responses, while some of them showed expression patterns that differs in fruits according to their susceptibility to develop mealiness. Members of ICE1, CBF1/3 and HOS9 regulons seem to have a prominent role in differential cold responses between low and high sensitive fruits. In high sensitive fruits, an alternative cold response program is detected. This program is probably associated with dehydration/osmotic stress and regulated by ABA, auxins and ethylene. In addition, the observation that tolerant siblings showed a series of genes encoding for stress protective activities with higher expression both at harvest and during cold treatment, suggests that preprogrammed mechanisms could shape fruit ability to tolerate postharvest cold-induced stress. A number of genes differentially expressed were validated and extended to individual genotypes by medium-throughput RT-qPCR. Analyses presented here provide a global view of the responses of peach fruits to cold storage and highlights new peach genes that probably play important roles in the tolerance/sensitivity to cold storage. Our results provide a roadmap for further experiments and would help to develop new postharvest protocols and gene directed breeding strategies to better

  10. Preparation of bone-implants by coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on self-formed titanium dioxide thin-layers on titanium metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, W P S L; Mantilaka, M M M G P G; Chathuranga Senarathna, K G; Herath, H M T U; Premachandra, T N; Ranasinghe, C S K; Rajapakse, R P V J; Rajapakse, R M G; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, S; Bandara, I M C C D; Singh, Sanjleena

    2016-06-01

    Preparation of hydroxyapatite coated custom-made metallic bone-implants is very important for the replacement of injured bones of the body. Furthermore, these bone-implants are more stable under the corrosive environment of the body and biocompatible than bone-implants made up of pure metals and metal alloys. Herein, we describe a novel, simple and low-cost technique to prepare biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated titanium metal (TiM) implants through growth of self-formed TiO2 thin-layer (SFTL) on TiM via a heat treatment process. SFTL acts as a surface binder of HA nanoparticles in order to produce HA coated implants. Colloidal HA nanorods prepared by a novel surfactant-assisted synthesis method, have been coated on SFTL via atomized spray pyrolysis (ASP) technique. The corrosion behavior of the bare and surface-modified TiM (SMTiM) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium is also studied. The highest corrosion rate is found to be for the bare TiM plate, but the corrosion rate has been reduced with the heat-treatment of TiM due to the formation of SFTL. The lowest corrosion rate is recorded for the implant prepared by heat treatment of TiM at 700 °C. The HA-coating further assists in the passivation of the TiM in the SBF medium. Both SMTiM and HA coated SMTiM are noncytotoxic against osteoblast-like (HOS) cells and are in high-bioactivity. The overall production process of bone-implant described in this paper is in high economic value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of astaxanthin in phthalic anhydride-induced atopic dermatitis animal model.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Ho; Yeo, In Jun; Han, Ji Hye; Suh, Jeong Won; Lee, Hee Pom; Hong, Jin Tae

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we investigated anti-dermatitic effects of astaxanthin (AST) in phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) animal model as well as in vitro model. AD-like lesion was induced by the topical application of 5% PA to the dorsal skin or ear of Hos:HR-1 mouse. After AD induction, 100 μL of 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL of AST (10 μg or 20 μg/cm 2 ) was spread on the dorsum of ear or back skin three times a week for four weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and changes in protein expression by Western blotting for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity. We also measured tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration in the blood of AD mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AST treatment attenuated the development of PA-induced AD. Histological analysis showed that AST inhibited hyperkeratosis, mast cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. AST treatment inhibited expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB activity as well as release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IgE. In addition, AST (5, 10 and 20 μM) potently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 μg/mL)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, expression of iNOS and COX-2 and NF-κB DNA binding activities in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Our data demonstrated that AST could be a promising agent for AD by inhibition of NF-κB signalling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Study on the description method of upper limb's muscle force levels during simulated in-orbit operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Li, DongXu; Liu, ZhiZhen; Liu, Liang

    2013-03-01

    The dexterous upper limb serves as the most important tool for astronauts to implement in-orbit experiments and operations. This study developed a simulated weightlessness experiment and invented new measuring equipment to quantitatively evaluate the muscle ability of the upper limb. Isometric maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of right-handed pushing at the three positions were measured for eleven subjects. In order to enhance the comprehensiveness and accuracy of muscle force assessment, the study focused on signal processing techniques. We applied a combination method, which consists of time-, frequency-, and bi-frequency-domain analyses. Time- and frequency-domain analyses estimated the root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) of sEMG signals, respectively. Higher order spectra (HOS) of bi-frequency domain evaluated the maximum bispectrum amplitude ( B max), Gaussianity level (Sg) and linearity level (S l ) of sEMG signals. Results showed that B max, S l , and RMS values all increased as force increased. MDF and Sg values both declined as force increased. The research demonstrated that the combination method is superior to the conventional time- and frequency-domain analyses. The method not only described sEMG signal amplitude and power spectrum, but also deeper characterized phase coupling information and non-Gaussianity and non-linearity levels of sEMG, compared to two conventional analyses. The finding from the study can aid ergonomist to estimate astronaut muscle performance, so as to optimize in-orbit operation efficacy and minimize musculoskeletal injuries.

  13. ADRA2A is involved in neuro-endocrine regulation of bone resorption

    PubMed Central

    Mlakar, Vid; Jurkovic Mlakar, Simona; Zupan, Janja; Komadina, Radko; Prezelj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2015-01-01

    Adrenergic stimulation is important for osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Previous research shows that this happens through β2-adrenergic receptor (AR), but there are conflicting evidence on presence and role of α2A-AR in bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of α2A-AR and its involvement in neuro-endocrine signalling of bone remodelling in humans. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate α2A-AR receptor presence and localization in bone cells. Functionality of rs553668 and rs1800544 single nucleotide polymorphism SNPs located in α2A-AR gene was analysed by qPCR expression on bone samples and luciferase reporter assay in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Using real-time PCR, genetic association study between rs553668 A>G and rs1800544 C>G SNPs and major bone markers was performed on 661 Slovenian patients with osteoporosis. α2A-AR is expressed in osteoblasts and lining cells but not in osteocytes. SNP rs553668 has a significant influence on α2A-AR mRNA level in human bone samples through the stability of mRNA. α2A-AR gene locus associates with important bone remodelling markers (BMD, CTX, Cathepsin K and pOC). The results of this study are providing comprehensive new evidence that α2A-AR is involved in neuro-endocrine signalling of bone turnover and development of osteoporosis. As shown by our results the neurological signalling is mediated through osteoblasts and result in bone resorption. Genetic study showed association of SNPs in α2A-AR gene locus with bone remodelling markers, identifying the individuals with higher risk of development of osteoporosis. PMID:25818344

  14. Do Postoperative Biomechanical Changes Induce Heterotopic Ossification After Cervical Arthroplasty?: A 5-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun Su; Heo, Dong Hwa

    2016-07-01

    Prospective clinical study. To evaluate the factors that would predispose a patient to heterotopic ossification (HO) formation after cervical arthroplasty. HO after arthroplasty is one of the complications of cervical total disk replacement (TDR). However, the predisposing factors and pathophysiology of HO have not been precisely described. We prospectively enrolled and followed up 23 patients, who received single-level arthroplasty with ProDisc-C, for 5 years after the operation. The patients who developed grade 3 or 4 HO were classified into the "high-grade HO group," whereas the patients with grade 0, 1, or 2 HO were classified into the "low-grade HO group." We compared the postoperative changes in the range of motion (ROM) and height of the functional segmental unit (FSU) of the implantation segments between the 2 groups. The mean differences in height and ROM of the FSU were 2.59±1.42 mm and 6.7±3.2 degrees in the high-grade HO group, and 0.87±0.72 mm and 3.1±2.8 degrees in the low-grade HO group. The mean differences in height and ROM of the FSU were significantly higher in the high-grade HO group than in the low-grade HO group (P<0.05). After cervical arthroplasty, the height of the FSU and ROM of the implantation segments were significantly increased in the high-grade HO group compared with the low-grade HO group. Overcorrection of the height of the FSU and increase in the ROM of the implantation segment may influence the formation of HOs after cervical arthroplasty.

  15. Triboluminescent Materials for Smart Optical Damage Sensors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Triboluminescence is light that is produced by pressure, friction or mechanical shock. New composite materials are constantly being reengi neered in an effort to make lightweight spacecrafts for various NASA missions. For these materials there is interest in monitoring the con dition of the composite in real time to detect any delamination or cr acking due to damage, fatigue or external forces. Methods of periodic inspection of composite structures for mechanical damage such as ult rasonic testing are rather mature. However, there is a need to develop a new technique of damage detection for composites, which could dete ct cracking or delamination from any desired location within a materi al structure in real time. This could provide a valuable tool in the confident use of composite materials for various space applications. Recently, triboluminnescent materials have been proposed as smart sen sors of structural damage. To sense the damage, these materials can b e epoxy bonded or coated in a polymer matrix or embedded in a composi te host structure. When the damage or fracture takes place in the hos t structure, it will lead to the fracture of triboluminescent crystal s resulting in a light emission. This will warn, in real time, that a structural damage has occurred. The triboluminescent emission of the candidate phosphor has to be sufficiently bright, so that the light signal reaching from the point of fracture to the detector through a fiber optic cable is sufficiently strong to be detected. There are a large number of triboluminescent materials, but few satisfy the above criterion. Authors have synthesized a Eu based organic material know n as Europium tetrakis (dibenzoylmethide) triethylammonium .(EuD(sub 4)TEA), one of the bright triboluminescent materials, which is a pote ntial candidate for application as a damage sensor and could be made into a wireless sensor with the addition of microchip, antenna and el ectronics. Preliminary results on the synthesis and

  16. ADRA2A is involved in neuro-endocrine regulation of bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Vid; Jurkovic Mlakar, Simona; Zupan, Janja; Komadina, Radko; Prezelj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2015-07-01

    Adrenergic stimulation is important for osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Previous research shows that this happens through β2-adrenergic receptor (AR), but there are conflicting evidence on presence and role of α2A-AR in bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of α2A-AR and its involvement in neuro-endocrine signalling of bone remodelling in humans. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate α2A-AR receptor presence and localization in bone cells. Functionality of rs553668 and rs1800544 single nucleotide polymorphism SNPs located in α2A-AR gene was analysed by qPCR expression on bone samples and luciferase reporter assay in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Using real-time PCR, genetic association study between rs553668 A>G and rs1800544 C>G SNPs and major bone markers was performed on 661 Slovenian patients with osteoporosis. α2A-AR is expressed in osteoblasts and lining cells but not in osteocytes. SNP rs553668 has a significant influence on α2A-AR mRNA level in human bone samples through the stability of mRNA. α2A-AR gene locus associates with important bone remodelling markers (BMD, CTX, Cathepsin K and pOC). The results of this study are providing comprehensive new evidence that α2A-AR is involved in neuro-endocrine signalling of bone turnover and development of osteoporosis. As shown by our results the neurological signalling is mediated through osteoblasts and result in bone resorption. Genetic study showed association of SNPs in α2A-AR gene locus with bone remodelling markers, identifying the individuals with higher risk of development of osteoporosis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Chemometric Methods to Quantify 1D and 2D NMR Spectral Differences Among Similar Protein Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang; Park, Junyong; Li, Feng; Patil, Sharadrao M; Keire, David A

    2018-04-01

    NMR spectroscopy is an emerging analytical tool for measuring complex drug product qualities, e.g., protein higher order structure (HOS) or heparin chemical composition. Most drug NMR spectra have been visually analyzed; however, NMR spectra are inherently quantitative and multivariate and thus suitable for chemometric analysis. Therefore, quantitative measurements derived from chemometric comparisons between spectra could be a key step in establishing acceptance criteria for a new generic drug or a new batch after manufacture change. To measure the capability of chemometric methods to differentiate comparator NMR spectra, we calculated inter-spectra difference metrics on 1D/2D spectra of two insulin drugs, Humulin R® and Novolin R®, from different manufacturers. Both insulin drugs have an identical drug substance but differ in formulation. Chemometric methods (i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), 3-way Tucker3 or graph invariant (GI)) were performed to calculate Mahalanobis distance (D M ) between the two brands (inter-brand) and distance ratio (D R ) among the different lots (intra-brand). The PCA on 1D inter-brand spectral comparison yielded a D M value of 213. In comparing 2D spectra, the Tucker3 analysis yielded the highest differentiability value (D M  = 305) in the comparisons made followed by PCA (D M  = 255) then the GI method (D M  = 40). In conclusion, drug quality comparisons among different lots might benefit from PCA on 1D spectra for rapidly comparing many samples, while higher resolution but more time-consuming 2D-NMR-data-based comparisons using Tucker3 analysis or PCA provide a greater level of assurance for drug structural similarity evaluation between drug brands.

  18. A Comprehensive TALEN-Based Knockout Library for Generating Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Models for Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Karakikes, Ioannis; Termglinchan, Vittavat; Cepeda, Diana A.; Lee, Jaecheol; Diecke, Sebastian; Hendel, Ayal; Itzhaki, Ilanit; Ameen, Mohamed; Shrestha, Rajani; Wu, Haodi; Ma, Ning; Shao, Ning-Yi; Seeger, Timon; Woo, Nicole; Wilson, Kitchener D.; Matsa, Elena; Porteus, Matthew H.; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Wu, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Targeted genetic engineering using programmable nucleases such as transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) is a valuable tool for precise, site-specific genetic modification in the human genome. Objective The emergence of novel technologies such as human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and nuclease-mediated genome editing represent a unique opportunity for studying cardiovascular diseases in vitro. Methods and Results By incorporating extensive literature and database searches, we designed a collection of TALEN constructs to knockout (KO) eighty-eight human genes that are associated with cardiomyopathies and congenital heart diseases. The TALEN pairs were designed to induce double-strand DNA break near the starting codon of each gene that either disrupted the start codon or introduced a frameshift mutation in the early coding region, ensuring faithful gene KO. We observed that all the constructs were active and disrupted the target locus at high frequencies. To illustrate the general utility of the TALEN-mediated KO technique, six individual genes (TNNT2, LMNA/C, TBX5, MYH7, ANKRD1, and NKX2.5) were knocked out with high efficiency and specificity in human iPSCs. By selectively targeting a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)-causing mutation (TNNT2 p.R173W) in patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (iPSC-CMs), we demonstrated that the KO strategy ameliorates the DCM phenotype in vitro. In addition, we modeled the Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) in iPSC-CMs in vitro and uncovered novel pathways regulated by TBX5 in human cardiac myocyte development. Conclusion Collectively, our study illustrates the powerful combination of iPSCs and genome editing technology for understanding the biological function of genes and the pathological significance of genetic variants in human cardiovascular diseases. The methods, strategies, constructs and iPSC lines developed in this study provide a validated, readily available resource for cardiovascular

  19. Biological characterization of HIV type 1 envelope V3 regions from mothers and infants associated with perinatal transmission.

    PubMed

    Matala, E; Hahn, T; Yedavalli, V R; Ahmad, N

    2001-12-10

    Our previous study has shown that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope V3 region minor genotypes of infected mothers were transmitted to their infants and predominated initially as a homogeneous virus population in the infants (Ahmad N, Baroudy BM, Baker RC, et al.: J Virol 1995;69:1001-1012). Here we have characterized the biological properties, including cellular tropism, replication efficiency, cytopathic effects, and coreceptor utilization, of these V3 region isolates from mothers and infants. Nineteen V3 region sequences from three mother-infant pairs, including the minor variants of mothers and the major variants of infants as characterized in our previous study, were reciprocally inserted into an HIV-1 infectious molecular clone, pNL4-3, and chimeric viruses were generated by DNA transfections into HeLa cells. Equal amounts of chimeric viruses were then used to infect T lymphocyte cell lines (A3.01 and MT-2), primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs), primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), and coreceptor cell lines. We found that the V3 region chimeras failed to replicate in T lymphocyte cell lines but replicated in MDMs and PBLs, albeit at reduced levels compared with R5 laboratory HIV-1 strains. In addition, the V3 region chimeras were able to infect the HOS-CD4(+)CCR5(+) cell line, suggesting CCR5 coreceptor utilization. Moreover, the V3 region chimeras were unable to induce syncytia in MT-2 cells, indicative of non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotypes. In conclusion, the HIV-1 minor genotypes of infected mothers with macrophage-tropic and NSI or R5 phenotypes are transmitted to their infants and are initially maintained with the same properties.

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, MsHO1, which is pro-oxidants-regulated.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guang-Qing; Xu, Sheng; Xie, Yan-Jie; Han, Bin; Nie, Li; Shen, Wen-Biao; Wang, Ren

    2011-07-01

    It has been documented that plant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; EC 1.14.99.3) is both development- and stress-regulated, thus it plays a vital role in light signalling and stress responses. In this study, an alfalfa (Medica sativa L.) HO-1 gene MsHO1 was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns within genomic DNA sequence and encodes a polypeptide with 283 amino acids. MsHO1 had a conserved HO signature sequence and showed high similarity to other HOs in plants, especially HO-1 isoform. The MsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Further biochemical activity analysis of mature MsHO1, which was expressed in Escherichia coli, showed that the Vmax was 48.78 nmol biliverdin-IXα (BV) h⁻¹ nmol⁻¹ protein with an apparent Km value for hemin of 2.33 μM, and the optimum Tm and pH were 37 °C and 7.2, respectively. Results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot showed that the expressions of MsHO1 were higher in alfalfa stems and leaves than those in germinating seeds and roots. Importantly, MsHO1 gene expression and protein level were induced significantly by some pro-oxidant compounds, including hemin and nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). In conclusion, MsHO1 may play an important role in oxidative responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Geiss, Carsten; Kis, Zoltán; Leuchs, Barbara; Frank-Stöhr, Monika; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Rommelaere, Jean; Dinsart, Christiane; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2017-10-17

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS) was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells. H-1PV was found to enter osteosarcoma cells and to induce viral DNA replication, transcription of viral genes, and translation to viral proteins. After H-1PV infection, release of infectious viral particles from osteosarcoma cells into the supernatant indicated successful viral assembly and egress. Crystal violet staining revealed progressive cytomorphological changes in all osteosarcoma cell lines. Infection of osteosarcoma cell lines with the standard H-1PV caused an arrest of the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and these lines had a limited capacity for standard H-1PV virus replication. The cytotoxicity of wild-type H-1PV virus towards osteosarcoma cells was compared in vitro with that of two variants, Del H-1PV and DM H-1PV, previously described as fitness variants displaying higher infectivity and spreading in human transformed cell lines of different origins. Surprisingly, wild-type H-1PV displayed the strongest cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in this analysis and thus seems the most promising for the next preclinical validation steps in vivo.

  2. Gold(I)-Triphenylphosphine Complexes with Hypoxanthine-Derived Ligands: In Vitro Evaluations of Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Křikavová, Radka; Hošek, Jan; Vančo, Ján; Hutyra, Jakub; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    A series of gold(I) complexes involving triphenylphosphine (PPh3) and one N-donor ligand derived from deprotonated mono- or disubstituted hypoxanthine (HLn) of the general composition [Au(Ln)(PPh3)] (1–9) is reported. The complexes were thoroughly characterized, including multinuclear high resolution NMR spectroscopy as well as single crystal X-ray analysis (for complexes 1 and 3). The complexes were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast carcinoma), HOS (osteosarcoma) and THP-1 (monocytic leukaemia), which identified the complexes 4–6 as the most promising representatives, who antiproliferative activity was further tested against A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), G-361 (melanoma), HeLa (cervical cancer), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), A2780R (ovarian carcinoma resistant to cisplatin), 22Rv1 (prostate cancer) cell lines. Complexes 4–6 showed a significantly higher in vitro anticancer effect against the employed cancer cells, except for G-361, as compared with the commercially used anticancer drug cisplatin, with IC50 ≈ 1–30 µM. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro by the assessment of the ability of the complexes to modulate secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e. tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in the lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage-like THP-1 cell model. The results of this study identified the complexes as auspicious anti-inflammatory agents with similar or better activity as compared with the clinically applied gold-based antiarthritic drug Auranofin. In an effort to explore the possible mechanisms responsible for the biological effect, the products of interactions of selected complexes with sulfur-containing biomolecules (L-cysteine and reduced glutathione) were studied by means of the mass-spectrometry study. PMID:25226034

  3. The use of kernel local Fisher discriminant analysis for the channelization of the Hotelling model observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.

    2015-03-01

    It is resource-intensive to conduct human studies for task-based assessment of medical image quality and system optimization. Thus, numerical model observers have been developed as a surrogate for human observers. The Hotelling observer (HO) is the optimal linear observer for signal-detection tasks, but the high dimensionality of imaging data results in a heavy computational burden. Channelization is often used to approximate the HO through a dimensionality reduction step, but how to produce channelized images without losing significant image information remains a key challenge. Kernel local Fisher discriminant analysis (KLFDA) uses kernel techniques to perform supervised dimensionality reduction, which finds an embedding transformation that maximizes betweenclass separability and preserves within-class local structure in the low-dimensional manifold. It is powerful for classification tasks, especially when the distribution of a class is multimodal. Such multimodality could be observed in many practical clinical tasks. For example, primary and metastatic lesions may both appear in medical imaging studies, but the distributions of their typical characteristics (e.g., size) may be very different. In this study, we propose to use KLFDA as a novel channelization method. The dimension of the embedded manifold (i.e., the result of KLFDA) is a counterpart to the number of channels in the state-of-art linear channelization. We present a simulation study to demonstrate the potential usefulness of KLFDA for building the channelized HOs (CHOs) and generating reliable decision statistics for clinical tasks. We show that the performance of the CHO with KLFDA channels is comparable to that of the benchmark CHOs.

  4. Classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity

    PubMed Central

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I.

    2014-01-01

    In living organisms production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is counterbalanced by their elimination and/or prevention of formation which in concert can typically maintain a steady-state (stationary) ROS level. However, this balance may be disturbed and lead to elevated ROS levels called oxidative stress. To our best knowledge, there is no broadly acceptable system of classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity due to which proposed here system may be helpful for interpretation of experimental data. Oxidative stress field is the hot topic in biology and, to date, many details related to ROS-induced damage to cellular components, ROS-based signaling, cellular responses and adaptation have been disclosed. However, it is common situation when researchers experience substantial difficulties in the correct interpretation of oxidative stress development especially when there is a need to characterize its intensity. Careful selection of specific biomarkers (ROS-modified targets) and some system may be helpful here. A classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity is proposed here. According to this classification there are four zones of function in the relationship between “Dose/concentration of inducer” and the measured “Endpoint”: I – basal oxidative stress (BOS); II – low intensity oxidative stress (LOS); III – intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS); IV – high intensity oxidative stress (HOS). The proposed classification will be helpful to describe experimental data where oxidative stress is induced and systematize it based on its intensity, but further studies will be in need to clear discriminate between stress of different intensity. PMID:26417312

  5. Recent progresses of neural network unsupervised learning: I. Independent component analyses generalizing PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.

    1999-03-01

    The early vision principle of redundancy reduction of 108 sensor excitations is understandable from computer vision viewpoint toward sparse edge maps. It is only recently derived using a truly unsupervised learning paradigm of artificial neural networks (ANN). In fact, the biological vision, Hubel- Wiesel edge maps, is reproduced seeking the underlying independent components analyses (ICA) among 102 image samples by maximizing the ANN output entropy (partial)H(V)/(partial)[W] equals (partial)[W]/(partial)t. When a pair of newborn eyes or ears meet the bustling and hustling world without supervision, they seek ICA by comparing 2 sensory measurements (x1(t), x2(t))T equalsV X(t). Assuming a linear and instantaneous mixture model of the external world X(t) equals [A] S(t), where both the mixing matrix ([A] equalsV [a1, a2] of ICA vectors and the source percentages (s1(t), s2(t))T equalsV S(t) are unknown, we seek the independent sources approximately equals [I] where the approximated sign indicates that higher order statistics (HOS) may not be trivial. Without a teacher, the ANN weight matrix [W] equalsV [w1, w2] adjusts the outputs V(t) equals tanh([W]X(t)) approximately equals [W]X(t) until no desired outputs except the (Gaussian) 'garbage' (neither YES '1' nor NO '-1' but at linear may-be range 'origin 0') defined by Gaussian covariance G equals [I] equals [W][A] HOS theories since 1991 (advanced by Jutten & Herault, Comon, Oja, Bell-Sejnowski, Amari-Cichocki, Cardoso), the LYAPONOV function L(v1,...,vn, w1,...wn,) equals E(v1,...,vn) - H(w1,...wn) is constructed as the HELMHOTZ free energy to prove both convergences of supervised energy E and unsupervised entropy H learning. Consequently, rather

  6. Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopy for Patients with Symptomatic Borderline Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Nawabi, Danyal H.; Bedi, Asheesh; Ranawat, Anil S.; Kelly, Bryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The outcomes of hip arthroscopy in the treatment of dysplasia are variable. Arthroscopy in severe dysplasia (LCEA<18°) results in poor outcomes and iatrogenic instability. However, in milder forms of dysplasia, favorable outcomes have been demonstrated at short-term follow-up. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of hip arthroscopy in borderline dysplastic patients to a control group of non-dysplastic patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for femorocetabular impingement (FAI). Methods: Between March 2009 and May 2012, 1381 patients (1593 hips) undergoing hip arthroscopy for intra-articular hip disorders were prospectively enrolled into a registry. From this cohort, a borderline dysplasia (BD) group comprising 44 patients (46 hips) with a LCEA ≥ 18° and ≤ 25° and a minimum of 2 years follow-up, was identified. A control group of 100 patients (123 hips) was also identified that had a LCEA ≥ 26° and ≤ 40°, and a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Patient-reported outcome scores, including the Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score-Activity of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), the Sport-specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33), were obtained preoperatively and at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Continuous and categorical variables were compared with independent-samples t-tests and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests (as appropriate) respectively. Changes in outcomes scores within groups were assessed via paired t-tests. Results: The mean age (±SD) of the BD and control groups was 29.3 ± 9.2 years and 29.1 ± 10.1 years respectively. There were 24 females (55%) in the BD group and 53 females (53%) in the control group (p=0.86). The mean LCEA was 21.8° (range, 18°-25°) in the BD group and 31.7° (range, 26°-40°) in the control group (p<0.001). The mean Tönnis angle was 6.2° (range, 1°-12°) in the BD group and 2.6° (range, -10°-12°) in the control group (p<0.001). The mean

  7. Multi-scale cell/surface interaction on modified titanium aluminum vanadium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianbo

    This dissertation presents a series of experimental studies of the effects of multi-scale cell/surface interactions on modified Ti-6Al-4V surfaces. These include laser-grooved surfaces; porous structures and RGD-coated laser-grooved surfaces. A nano-second DPSS UV lasers with a Gaussian pulse energy profile was used to introduce the desired micro-groove geometries onto Ti-6Al-4V surfaces. This was done without inducing micro-cracks or significant changes in surface chemistry within the heat affected zones. The desired 8-12 mum groove depths and widths were achieved by the control of pulse frequency, scan speed, and the lens focal length that controls spot size. The interactions between human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and laser-grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were investigated after 48 hours of cell culture. The cell behavior, including cell spreading, alignment and adhesion, was elucidated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), immuno-fluorescence staining and enzymatic detachment. Contact guidance was shown to increase as grooved spacing decreased. For the range of micro-groove geometries studied, micro-grooves with groove spacings of 20 mum provided the best combination of cell orientation and adhesion. Short-term adhesion experiments (15 mins to 1 day) also revealed that there is a positive correlation between cell orientation and cell adhesion. Contact guidance on the micro-grooved surfaces is shown to be enhanced by nano- and micro-scale asperities that provide sites for the attachment of lamellopodia during cell locomotion and spreading. Contact guidance is also promoted by the geometrical confinement provided by laser grooves. An experimental study of initial cell spreading and ingrowth into Ti-6Al-4V porous structures was also carried out on porous structures with different pore sizes and geometries. A combination of SEM, the tetrazolium salt (MTT) colorimetric assay and enzymatic detachment were used to study cell spreading and adhesion. The extent of cell

  8. Cross-talk between hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide in the mechanism of experimental gastric ulcers healing, regulation of gastric blood flow and accompanying inflammation.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Surmiak, Marcin; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Wierdak, Mateusz; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Chmura, Anna; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbon monoxide (CO) exert gastroprotection against acute gastric lesions. We determined the cross-talk between H 2 S and CO in gastric ulcer healing process and regulation of gastric blood flow (GBF) at ulcer margin. Male Wistar rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers were treated i.g. throughout 9 days with vehicle (control), NaHS (0.1-10 mg/kg) +/- zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 10 mg/kg), d,l-propargylglycine (PAG, 30 mg/kg), CO-releasing CORM-2 (2.5 mg/kg) +/- PAG. GBF was assessed by laser flowmetry, ulcer area was determined by planimetry/histology. Gastric mucosal H 2 S production was analysed spectrophotometrically. Protein and/or mRNA expression at ulcer margin for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), heme oxygenases (HOs), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, TNF-α and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α were determined by real-time PCR or western blot. IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF plasma concentration was assessed using Luminex platform. NaHS dose-dependently decreased ulcer area and increased GBF but ZnPP attenuated these effects. PAG decreased H 2 S production but failed to affect CORM-2-mediated ulcer healing and vasodilation. NaHS increased Nrf-2, EGFr, VEGFA and decreased pro-inflammatory markers expression and IL-1β, IL-2, IL-13, TNF-α, GM-CSF plasma concentration. CORM-2 decreased IL-1β and GM-CSF plasma levels. We conclude that NaHS accelerates gastric ulcer healing increasing microcirculation and Nrf-2, EGFr, VEGFA expression. H 2 S-mediated ulcer healing involves endogenous CO activity while CO does not require H 2 S. NaHS decreases systemic inflammation more effectively than CORM-2. Copyright © 2017

  9. How Do Maternal Subclinical Symptoms Influence Infant Motor Development during the First Year of Life?

    PubMed Central

    Piallini, Giulia; Brunoro, Stefania; Fenocchio, Chiara; Marini, Costanza; Simonelli, Alessandra; Biancotto, Marina; Zoia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    An unavoidable reciprocal influence characterizes the mother-child dyad. Within this relationship, the presence of depression, somatization, hostility, paranoid ideation, and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms at a subclinical level and their possible input on infant motor competences has not been yet considered. Bearing in mind that motor abilities represent not only an indicator of the infant's health-status, but also the principal field to infer his/her needs, feelings and intentions, in this study the quality of infants' movements were assessed and analyzed in relationship with the maternal attitudes. The aim of this research was to investigate if/how maternal symptomatology may pilot infant's motor development during his/her first year of life by observing the characteristics of motor development in infants aged 0–11 months. Participants included 123 mothers and their infants (0–11 months-old). Mothers' symptomatology was screened with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), while infants were tested with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Second Edition. All dyads belonged to a non-clinical population, however, on the basis of SCL-90-R scores, the mothers' sample was divided into two groups: normative and subclinical. Descriptive, t-test, correlational analysis between PDMS-2 scores and SCL-90-R results are reported, as well as regression models results. Both positive and negative correlations were found between maternal perceived symptomatology, Somatization (SOM), Interpersonal Sensitivity (IS), Depression (DEP), Hostility (HOS), and Paranoid Ideation (PAR) and infants' motor abilities. These results were further verified by applying regression models to predict the infant's motor outcomes on the basis of babies' age and maternal status. The presence of positive symptoms in the SCL-90-R questionnaire (subclinical group) predicted good visual-motor integration and stationary competences in the babies. In particular, depressive and hostility

  10. Impact of formal training on agreement of videofluoroscopic swallowing study interpretation across and within disciplines.

    PubMed

    Silbergleit, Alice K; Cook, Diana; Kienzle, Scott; Boettcher, Erica; Myers, Daniel; Collins, Denise; Peterson, Edward; Silbergleit, Matthew A; Silbergleit, Richard

    2018-04-04

    Formal agreement studies on interpretation of the videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) procedure among speech-language pathologists, radiology house officers, and staff radiologists have not been pursued. Each of these professions participates in the procedure, interprets the examination, and writes separate reports on the findings. The aim of this study was to determine reliability of interpretation between and within the disciplines and to determine if structured training improved reliability. Thirteen speech-language pathologists (SLPs), ten diagnostic radiologists (RADs) and twenty-one diagnostic radiology house officers (HOs) participated in this study. Each group viewed 24 VFSS samples and rated the presence or absence of seven aberrant swallowing features as well as the presence of dysphagia and identification of oral dysphagia, pharyngeal dysphagia, or both. During part two, the groups were provided with a training session on normal and abnormal swallowing, using different VFSS samples from those in part one, followed by re-rating of the original 24 VFSS samples. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach with a binomial link function was used to examine each question separately. For each cluster of tests, as example, all pairwise comparisons between the three groups in the pretraining period, a Hochberg's correction for multiple testing was used to determine significance. A GEE approach with a binomial link function was used to compare the premeasure to postmeasure for each of the three groups of raters stratified by experience. The primary result revealed that the HO group scored significantly lower than the SLP and RAD group on identification of the presence of dysphagia (p = 0.008; p = 0.001, respectively), identification of oral phase dysphagia (p = 0.003; p = 0.001, respectively), and identification of both oral and pharyngeal phase dysphagia, (p = 0.014, p = 0.001, respectively) pretraining. Post training there was

  11. Effect of Achillea millefolium-loaded nanophytosome in the post-thawing sperm quality and oxidative status of rooster semen.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Davood; Taheri, Ramezan Ali; Najafi, Abouzar; Rouhollahi, Abbas Abbas; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2018-04-17

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of antioxidants including Achillea millefolium extract (AmE) (n0t1.5: 1.5, n0t3: 3 and n0t4.5: 4.5 mg/L) and AmE loaded in nano phytosome (n1t1.5: 1.5, n1t3: 3 and n1t4.5: 4.5 mg/L) in the freezing of Ross 308 rooster semen. Sperm motility (CASA), membrane integrity (HOS test), viability, total abnormality and enzymatic parameters (SOD, CAT and GPx) were assessed after thawing. AmE-loaded nano phytosome at a concentration of 3 mg/l resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) higher total motility (MOT) (73.78 ± 2.92) and at concentrations of 1.5 mg/L and 3 mg/L in progressive motility (PROG) (14.12 ± 0.38, 16.78 ± 0.38) in comparison with the control group (MOT: 58.48 ± 2.92; PROG: 9.08 ± 0.38). Sperm viability (Vi) was higher (P < 0.05) in n1t3 (74.62 ± 1.55) and membrane integrity (Mi) in n0t3 and n1t3 groups (65.91 ± 1.91, 63.73 ± 1.91, respectively) compared to the control groups (Vi: 66.85 ± 1.55; Mi: 53.18 ± 1.91). Moreover, the lowest percentage of MDA was measured in n1t3 group (1.31 ± 0.31). There was no significant difference for SOD and CAT values with the use of various extenders. In conclusion, we suggest that AmE loaded in nano phytosome at 3 mg/l dose can be added to basic extender for improving rooster sperm motility, viability and oxidative stress values during the freezing procedure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytogenetic damage, oncogenic transformation and p53 induction in human epithelial cells in response to irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Mark

    mutant conformation in all the above cells lines and two other control lines HOS (a human osteosarcoma cell line) and H Tori-3 (SV40 immortalised thyroid epithelial cells).

  13. [Diagnostic approach and therapeutic strategy in 133 infertile patients with astheno-necrozoospermia].

    PubMed

    Vicari, E

    1999-02-01

    One-hundred thirty-three patients (aged 22 to 48, median 27 years) found affected by repetitive severe astheno-necrozoospermia (ASNE) (forward sperm motility < 10%; viable forms < 25%) in their ejaculates detected by both conventional viability tests (eosin Y exclusion and HOS tests) associated with oligo (51.1%), poly (3.7%), terato- (82.7%), -zoospermia, hyperdesfoliation of seminal spermatids (36.8%), hypospermia (11.3%), a comprehensive (history analysis; physical examination; lab: hormonal, microbiological, hemato-chemical blood screening, ultrasound scans at didymo-epididymal and prostato-vesicular glands, genital venous doppler) work-up allowed to recognize the following possible causes of ASNE: infectious (24.1%), spermiotoxyc (16.5%), hormonal (15.0%), iatrogenic (12.8%), chronic extratesticular diseases (CETD) (10.9%), varicocele (6.8%), idiopathic (14.3%). Overall population, except CETD patients gave their written informed consent about trial options for a three month period: a. rational, evidence-based treatment, group-standardised for doses and lenght (treated patients = subgroups T: total number = 71); b. short-term treatment/no treatment, (matched-control = subgroups Co: total number = 47). Follow-up semen data performed after completion of the assigned trial, together detected a conventionally normal percentage (> 25%) of viable sperm (necrozoospermic-responders (NR) in 37 (52.1%) out of subgroup-T patients. All subgroups-T patient, excepted subgroup-T patient affected by idiophathic ASNE (NR = 0%), exhibited NR rate (range 50-69.2%) values always significantly higher than subgroups-Co (NR = 0%, in all subgroups). Moreover, in each subgroup-T patients the percentages of viable and forward motile sperms values were significantly higher than matched-controls. The results of this study indicate that in patients affected by ASNE an andrological comprehensive work-up is mandatory because ASNE has a heterogeneous pathogenesis and a favourable prognosis

  14. Is uniportal thoracoscopic surgery a feasible approach for advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Fieira, Eva; Delgado, Maria; Mendez, Lucía; Fernandez, Ricardo; de la Torre, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy for advanced lung cancer is a feasible and safe surgery in experienced centers. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of uniportal VATS approach in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and compare the perioperative outcomes and survival with those in early-stage tumors operated through the uniportal approach. Methods From June 2010 to December 2012, we performed 163 uniportal VATS major pulmonary resections. Only NSCLC cases were included in this study (130 cases). Patients were divided into two groups: (A) early stage and (B) advanced cases (>5 cm, T3 or T4, or tumors requiring neoadjuvant treatment). A descriptive and retrospective study was performed, comparing perioperative outcomes and survival obtained in both groups. A survival analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test was used to compare survival between patients with early and advanced stages. Results A total of 130 cases were included in the study: 87 (A) vs. 43 (B) patients (conversion rate 1.1 vs. 6.5%, P=0.119). Mean global age was 64.9 years and 73.8% were men. The patient demographic data was similar in both groups. Upper lobectomies (A, 52 vs. B, 21 patients) and anatomic segmentectomies (A, 4 vs. B, 0) were more frequent in group A while pneumonectomy was more frequent in B (A, 1 vs. B, 6 patients). Surgical time was longer (144.9±41.3 vs. 183.2±48.9, P<0.001), and median number of lymph nodes (14 vs. 16, P=0.004) were statistically higher in advanced cases. Median number of nodal stations (5 vs. 5, P=0.165), days of chest tube (2 vs. 2, P=0.098), HOS (3 vs. 3, P=0.072), and rate of complications (17.2% vs. 14%, P=0.075) were similar in both groups. One patient died on the 58th postoperative day. The 30-month survival rate was 90% for the early stage group and 74% for advanced cases Conclusions Uniportal VATS lobectomy for advanced cases of NSCLC is a safe and

  15. Risk of symptomatic heterotopic ossification following plate osteosynthesis in multiple trauma patients: an analysis in a level-1 trauma centre

    PubMed Central

    Zeckey, Christian; Hildebrand, Frank; Mommsen, Philipp; Schumann, Julia; Frink, Michael; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Krettek, Christian; Probst, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background Symptomatic heterotopic ossification (HO) in multiple trauma patients may lead to follow up surgery, furthermore the long-term outcome can be restricted. Knowledge of the effect of surgical treatment on formation of symptomatic heterotopic ossification in polytrauma is sparse. Therefore, we test the effects of surgical treatment (plate osteosynthesis or intramedullary nailing) on the formation of heterotopic ossification in the multiple trauma patient. Methods We retrospectively analysed prospectively documented data of blunt multiple trauma patients with long bone fractures which were treated at our level-1 trauma centre between 1997 and 2005. Patients were distributed to 2 groups: Patients treated by intramedullary nails (group IMN) or plate osteosynthesis (group PLATE) were compared. The expression and extension of symptomatic heterotopic ossifications on 3-6 months follow-up x-rays in antero-posterior (ap) and lateral views were classified radiologically and the maximum expansion was measured in millimeter (mm). Additionally, ventilation time, prophylactic medication like indomethacine and incidence and correlation of head injuries were analysed. Results 101 patients were included in our study, 79 men and 22 women. The fractures were treated by intramedullary nails (group IMN n = 50) or plate osteosynthesis (group PLATE n = 51). Significantly higher radiologic ossification classes were detected in group PLATE (2.9 ± 1.3) as compared to IMN (2.2 ± 1.1; p = 0.013). HO size in mm ap and lateral showed a tendency towards larger HOs in the PLATE group. Additionally PLATE group showed a higher rate of articular fractures (63% vs. 28% in IMN) while IMN demonstrated a higher rate of diaphyseal fractures (72% vs. 37% in PLATE; p = 0.003). Ventilation time, indomethacine and incidence of head injuries showed no significant difference between groups. Conclusion Fracture care with plate osteosynthesis in polytrauma patients is associated with larger formations

  16. Synergistic Activation upon MET and ALK Coamplification Sustains Targeted Therapy in Sarcomatoid Carcinoma, a Deadly Subtype of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Patrizia; Conte, Davide; Fabbri, Alessandra; Perrone, Federica; Tamborini, Elena; Pupa, Serenella M; Ciravolo, Valentina; Caserini, Roberto; Rossi, Giulio; Cavazza, Alberto; Papotti, Mauro; Nakatani, Yukio; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Pastorino, Ugo; Sozzi, Gabriella

    2016-05-01

    Genetic alterations suitable for targeted therapy are poorly known issues in pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC), an uncommon and life-threatening family of non-small cell lung cancers. Ninety-eight PSCs were assessed for MNNG HOS Transforming gene (MET) and anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK) status by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and for relevant protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis, also taking advantage of phosphorylated (p-) antibodies. Moreover, levels of ALK and MET mRNA were also determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis for downstream activation pathways involving p-MET, p-protein kinase B, p-mitogen-activated protein kinase, p-SRC proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase, and p-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK). MET amplification was detected by FISH in 25 of 98 PSCs (25.6%) and ALK amplification (but not the relevant rearrangement) was found in 16 of 98 (16.3%), with all ALK-amplified tumors also showing MET amplification (p < 0.0001). Nine PSCs, however, showed MET amplification without any ALK gene alteration. ALK protein expression was always lacking, whereas MET and p-MET were confined to the relevant amplified tumors only. Increased levels of ALK and MET mRNA were detectable in tumors with no direct relationship between mRNA content, protein expression, or alterations detected by FISH. Western blot assays showed complete activation of downstream signal pathways up to p-SRC proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase, and p-focal adhesion kinase recruitment in MET and ALK-coamplified tumors only, whereas isolated MET amplification, MET and ALK borderline amplification (5%-10% of tumor cells with ≥15 copies of the relevant gene), or negative tumors showing eusomy or chromosome polysomy were confined to p-mitogen-activated protein kinase, p-protein kinase B, and/or p-MET activation. Multivariate survival analysis pushed a higher percentage of MET altered cells or a higher value

  17. Osteosarcoma cells with genetic signatures of BRCAness are susceptible to the PARP inhibitor talazoparib alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Engert, Florian; Kovac, Michal; Baumhoer, Daniel; Nathrath, Michaela; Fulda, Simone

    2017-07-25

    We recently discovered mutation signatures reminiscent of BRCA deficiency in the vast majority of a set of primary osteosarcomas (OS). In the current study, we therefore investigated the sensitivity of a panel of OS cell lines to the poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor talazoparib alone and in combination with several chemotherapeutic drugs (i.e. temozolomide (TMZ), SN-38, doxorubicin, cisplatin, methotrexate (MTX), etoposide/carboplatin). Here, we identified an association between homologous recombination (HR) repair deficiency and the response of OS cell lines to talazoparib. All OS cell lines with molecular features characteristic of BRCA1/2 mutant tumors (so-called "BRCAness"), such as disruptive gains in PTEN or FANCD2 and/or losses of ATM, BAP1, BARD1 or CHEK2, were susceptible to talazoparib-induced reduction of cell viability (i.e. MG63, ZK-58,, SaOS-2 and MNNG-HOS). Consistent with their high sensitivity to talazoparib, MG63 and ZK-58 cells scored positive in a DNA-based measure of genomic instability (i.e. homologous recombination deficiency (HRD)-loss of heterozygosity (LOH) score). In contrast, U2OS cells that carry a heterozygous BRCA2 mutation and therefore most likely have one intact BRCA2 allele left proved to be resistant to talazoparib. Furthermore, we identified TMZ as the most potent chemotherapeutic drug together with talazoparib to synergistically reduce cell viability, as confirmed by calculation of combination index (CI) values, and to suppress long-term clonogenic survival. Mechanistically, talazoparib and TMZ cooperated to induce apoptotic cell death, as demonstrated by activation of BAX and BAK, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-dependent cell death. Genetic silencing of BAX and BAK or pharmacological inhibition of caspases by zVAD.fmk significantly rescued OS cells from talazoparib/TMZ-induced apoptosis. These findings have important implications for the development

  18. Comparative study of the femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) prevalence in male semiprofessional and amateur soccer players.

    PubMed

    Lahner, Matthias; Walter, Philipp Alexander; von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; Hagen, Marco; von Engelhardt, Lars Victor; Lukas, Carsten

    2014-08-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) represents a novel approach to the mechanical etiology of hip osteoarthritis. The cam-type femoroacetabular impingement deformity occurs frequently in young male athletes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of FAI in male semiprofessional soccer players using clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), compared to amateur soccer players. In MRI, the α angle of Nötzli is determined for quantifying FAI. According to power analysis, a total of 22 asymptomatic semiprofessional soccer players with a median of 23.3 years of age (range 18-30 years) and 22 male amateur soccer players with a median of 22.5 years of age (control group, range 18-29 years) underwent an MRI to measure the hip α angle of Nötzli. The α angle of the kicking legs of the semiprofessional group and the amateur group were analyzed. The study group was moreover evaluated by the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and a clinical hip examination including range of motion (ROM) and impingement tests. In the semiprofessional group, 19 soccer players had a right kicking leg and 1 soccer player had a left kicking leg. 2 soccer players kicked with two feet. In the semi-professional group, the mean value of the α angle of the kicking leg (57.3 ± 8.2°) was significantly higher than in the amateur group (51.7 ± 4.8°, P = 0.008). In the semi-professional group, 15 (62.5 %) of 24 kicking legs had an increased α angle >55°, while 5 (27.3 %) kicking legs of the amateur group had an α angle >55°. Five semi professional soccer players had findings in clinical examination, whereof 4 had an increased α angle >55°. No participant of the amateur group showed pathological results in the clinical examination (P = 0.0484). Overall, semiprofessional soccer players had a higher proportion of an increased α angle than the amateur group. Semiprofessional players have a higher prevalence of an increased α angle in the kicking leg than the amateur group at

  19. Contribution of non-resonant wave-wave interactions in the dynamics of long-crested sea wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Gravity waves fields at the surface of the oceans evolve under the combined effects of several physical mechanisms, of which nonlinear wave-wave interactions play a dominant role. These interactions transfer energy between components within the energy spectrum and allow in particular to explain the shape of the distribution of wave energy according to the frequencies and directions of propagation. In the oceanic domain (deep water conditions), dominant interactions are third-order resonant interactions, between quadruplets (or quartets) of wave components, and the evolution of the wave spectrum is governed by a kinetic equation, established by Hasselmann (1962) and Zakharov (1968). The kinetic equation has a number of interesting properties, including the existence of self-similar solutions and cascades to small and large wavelengths of waves, which can be studied in the framework of the wave (or weak) turbulence theory (e.g. Badulin et al., 2005). With the aim to obtain more complete and precise modelling of sea states dynamics, we investigate here the possibility and consequences of taking into account the non-resonant interactions -quasi-resonant in practice- among 4 waves. A mathematical formalism has recently been proposed to account for these non-resonant interactions in a statistical framework by Annenkov & Shrira (2006) (Generalized Kinetic Equation, GKE) and Gramstad & Stiassnie (2013) (Phase Averaged Equation, PAE). In order to isolate the non-resonant contributions, we limit ourselves here to monodirectional (i.e. long-crested) wave trains, since in this case the 4-wave resonant interactions vanish. The (stochastic) modelling approaches proposed by Annenkov & Shrira (2006) and Gramstad & Stiassnie (2013) are compared to phase-resolving (deterministic) simulations based on a fully nonlinear potential approach (using a high-order spectral method, HOS). We study and compare the evolution dynamics of the wave spectrum at different time scales (i.e. over

  20. Nitric oxide and iron modulate heme oxygenase activity as a long distance signaling response to salt stress in sunflower seedling cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neha; Bhatla, Satish C

    2016-02-29

    Nitric oxide is a significant component of iron signaling in plants. Heme is one of the iron sensors in plants. Free heme is highly toxic and can cause cell damage as it catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its catabolism is carried out by heme oxygenase (HOs; EC 1.14.99.3) which uses heme both as a prosthetic group and as a substrate. Two significant events, which accompany adaptation to salt stress in sunflower seedlings, are accumulation of ROS and enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) in roots and cotyledons. Present investigations on the immunolocalization of heme oxygenase distribution in sunflower seedling cotyledons by confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging provide new information on the differential spatial distribution of the inducible form of HO (HO-1) as a long distance in response to NaCl stress. The enzyme is abundantly distributed in the specialized cells around the secretory canals (SCs) in seedling cotyledons. Abundance of tyrosine nitrated proteins has also been observed in the specialized cells around the secretory canals in cotyledons derived from salt stressed seedlings. The spatial distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins and HO-1 expression further correlates with the abundance of mitochondria in these cells. Present findings, thus, highlight a link among distribution of HO-1 expression, abundance of tyrosine nitrated proteins and mitochondria in specialized cells around the secretory canal as a long distance mechanism of salt stress tolerance in sunflower seedlings. Enhanced spatial distribution of HO-1 in response to NaCl stress in seedling cotyledons is in congruence with the observed increase in specific activity of HO-1 in NaCl stressed conditions. The enzyme activity is further enhanced by hemin (HO-1 inducer) both in the absence or presence of NaCl stress and inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin. Western blot analysis of cotyledon homogenates using anti-HO-1 polyclonal antibody shows one major band (29

  1. [Current malaria situation in the Republic of Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Razakov, Sh A; Shakhgunova, G Sh

    2001-01-01

    Malaria was once one of the most common diseases in Uzbekistan. There were massive epidemics with high mortality rates, wherein 140,000 to 700,000 cases of malaria were recorded. Following large-scale malaria control measures, the disease was eradicated in Uzbekistan in 1961 and the epidemiological situation is still favorable. The natural and climatic conditions that prevail in the Republic of Uzbekistan mean that the country is very susceptible to malaria. There are large water areas varying in type and origin, which provide a habitat for a number of epidemiologically dangerous species of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in a single area. These are Anopheles maculipennis, An. pulcherrimus and An. superpictus. The prevailing temperatures promote rapid growth of vector mosquitoes and parasites and the malaria transmission season is over 5 months long. Seven malaria-transmitting mosquito species have been recently recorded in the Republic. DDT resistance has been so far noted in Anopheles maculipennis, An. hyrcanus and An. bifurcatus. An. superpictus is sensitive to all insecticides used in clinical practice (organophosphorus and organochlorine compounds, HOS, carbamates, pyrethroids). The most dangerous areas for transmitting malaria by importation are the flood plains of the country's main rivers, such as Syrdarya, Amudarya, Chirchik, Surkhana, etc., and rice-growing areas (an area of about 150,000 ha was under rice cultivation in 1999). The Republic is still very subjected to large-scale importations of malaria particularly in the towns and areas along the border with Tajikistan. There has been recently an increase in the incidence of infections imported into the Republic: 27 cases in 1995, 51 in 1996, 52 in 1997, 74 in 1998, and 78 in 1999. Eight regions of Uzbekistan border Tajikistan, their population is over 5.6 million people. In addition, close family ties between the populations of the frontier towns and regions further increase the risk for malaria to be