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Sample records for zostera marina tolerance

  1. Comparison of photosynthetic characteristics of the seagrasscongeners Zostera marina L. and Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb.

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America two seagrass species in the genus Zostera co-exist; the native species Zostera marina, and an introduced species, Z. japonica. These two species typically occupy separate habitat niches, with Z. marina occupying the lower intertidal and shal...

  2. ASSESSING ROOT DEMOGRAPHY AND CARBOHYDRATE DYNAMICS OF ZOSTERA MARINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help establish protective criteria for Zostera marina a more complete understanding of the factors affecting the status, condition, distribution and ecophysiology of Z. marina is needed. While Z. marina shoots are readily observed, assessing growth and carbon dynamics of roots...

  3. DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS OF ZOSTERA MARINA LEAF INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods for assessing leaf injury in Zostera marina (eelgrass) utilize subjective indexes for desiccation injury and wasting disease. Because of the subjective nature of these measures, they are inherently imprecise making them difficult to use in quantifying complex leaf...

  4. Non-structural Carbohydrate Reserves of Eelgrass Zostera marina

    Treesearch

    William C. Dennison; Kenneth A. Moore

    1996-01-01

    The high minimum light requirement of eelgrass Zostera marina L. suggests that this species has difficulty in maintaining a positive carbon balance except under high fight conditions. The carbon balance of Z. marina can be studied by following seasonal changes in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves, however, little is...

  5. FACTORS CONTROLLING ZOSTERA MARINA L. GROWTH IN THE EASTERN AND WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN: COMPARISONS BETWEEN SOUTH KOREA AND OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zostera marina distribution is circum-global and tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions. Consequently, it is likely that populations have adapted to local environmental conditions of light, temperature and nutrient supply. We compared Z. marina growth dynamics over a ...

  6. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    PubMed Central

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field with scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods, and stable isotope tracing coupled with a mass balance of sulfur compounds. We found that Z. marina detoxified gaseous sediment-derived sulfide through incorporation and that most of the detoxification occurred in underground tissues, where sulfide intrusion was greatest. Elemental sulfur was a major detoxification compound, precipitating on the inner wall of the aerenchyma of underground tissues. Sulfide was metabolized into thiols and entered the plant sulfur metabolism as well as being stored as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments. PMID:26030258

  7. Current European Labyrinthula zosterae Are Not Virulent and Modulate Seagrass (Zostera marina) Defense Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Brakel, Janina; Werner, Franziska Julie; Tams, Verena; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina

    2014-01-01

    Pro- and eukaryotic microbes associated with multi-cellular organisms are receiving increasing attention as a driving factor in ecosystems. Endophytes in plants can change host performance by altering nutrient uptake, secondary metabolite production or defense mechanisms. Recent studies detected widespread prevalence of Labyrinthula zosterae in European Zostera marina meadows, a protist that allegedly caused a massive amphi-Atlantic seagrass die-off event in the 1930's, while showing only limited virulence today. As a limiting factor for pathogenicity, we investigated genotype×genotype interactions of host and pathogen from different regions (10–100 km-scale) through reciprocal infection. Although the endophyte rapidly infected Z. marina, we found little evidence that Z. marina was negatively impacted by L. zosterae. Instead Z. marina showed enhanced leaf growth and kept endophyte abundance low. Moreover, we found almost no interaction of protist×eelgrass-origin on different parameters of L. zosterae virulence/Z. marina performance, and also no increase in mortality after experimental infection. In a target gene approach, we identified a significant down-regulation in the expression of 6/11 genes from the defense cascade of Z. marina after real-time quantitative PCR, revealing strong immune modulation of the host's defense by a potential parasite for the first time in a marine plant. Nevertheless, one gene involved in phenol synthesis was strongly up-regulated, indicating that Z. marina plants were probably able to control the level of infection. There was no change in expression in a general stress indicator gene (HSP70). Mean L. zosterae abundances decreased below 10% after 16 days of experimental runtime. We conclude that under non-stress conditions L. zosterae infection in the study region is not associated with substantial virulence. PMID:24691450

  8. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  9. INTERTIDAL SEDIMENT TEMPERATURE VARIANCE AS A POSSIBLE LIMITING FACTOR FOR EELGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA AND ZOSTERA JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-occur in most Pacific Northwest estuaries; Z. marina is regarded as a native species, Z. japonica as non-indigenous, introduced in Yaquina Bay in approximately 1975. The mean tidal range is ~2 m, extreme ~3m. The vertical d...

  10. Mobile epifauna on Zostera marina, and infauna of its inflorescences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig-Armonies, Monika

    1988-06-01

    The faunal colonization of the leaves and inflorescences of intertidal Zostera marina L. and of the ambient water has been studied at the Island of Sylt (North Sea). The abundance of the snail Littorina littorea L. and the isopod Jaera albifrons Leach correlates significantly with leaf surface area. This is not the case with the abundance of meiofaunal Plathelminthes, Nematoda, Copepoda, and Polychaeta. However, they increase significantly with the numbers of generative shoots in the sampled seagrass bunches. Members of these taxa inhabit the Zostera inflorescences, and average abundance increases with the degree of decay of inflorescences. This temporary microhabitat presumably offers food and shelter. Copepods and ostracods dominate in the ambient water. Planktonic calanoid copepods correlate with the amount of sampled seawater, while Ostracoda correlate with the amount of resuspended detritus suggesting that they were resuspended themselves. The study shows that some meiofaunal taxa can rapidly exploit a short-lived habitat such as the Zostera inflorescences. Juvenile polychaetes use inflorescences as a nursery.

  11. ZOSTERA MARINA IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY: WHAT FACTORS CONTROL INTERTIDAL DISTRIBUTION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of four factors (desiccation, macroalgae, erosion, light) on the distribution of Zostera marina was examined across tidal and bathymetric slope gradients. Data detailing seagrass characteristics, including 1 production, macroalgae biomass and sediment characteristics ...

  12. Recolonization of intertidal Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) following experimental shoot removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recovery of eelgrass (Zostera marina) from physical disturbances is understudied and no attention has been given to the likely differences in damage recovery rates between the continuous lower intertidal perennial meadows and higher intertidal eelgrass patches. In the present...

  13. Distribution of intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) with bathymetry in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and non-vegetated substrates in three coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) were determined using color infrared (CIR) aerial orthophotography during daylight low tides. Comparison of the digital classif...

  14. The bathymetric distribution of intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three coastal estuaries of Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native eelgrass Zostera marina L. within the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of three Oregon coastal estuaries (Tillamook, Yaquina, and Alsea) were determined by digital classification of aerial color infrared (CIR) orthophotographs. Stratified random surv...

  15. Hydroacoustic basis for detection and characterization of eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    SciTech Connect

    Sabol, B.; McCarthy, E.; Rocha, K.

    1997-06-01

    Understanding the distribution and density of seagrasses is important for a variety of environmental applications. Physical techniques for detection and characterization are labor and cost intensive and provide little insight into spatial distribution. optical-based techniques are limited by water clarity - frequently resulting in systematic underestimation of the extent of seagrasses. Active hydroacoustic techniques have shown the ability to detect seagrasses but the phenomenology behind detection is poorly understood. Laboratory and in-situ hydroacoustic measurements are presented for eelgrass (Zostera marina), a common seagrass in the United States. Based on these data, hydroacoustic approaches for wide area detection and mapping aremore » discussed and several are demonstrated within areas of established eelgrass beds in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.« less

  16. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhr, Maria Emilia; Boström, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (Corg stock) and carbon accumulation rates (Corg accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation. The Corg stock integrated over the top 25 cm of the sediment averaged 627 g C m-2 in Finland, while in Denmark the average Corg stock was over 6 times higher (4324 g C m-2). A conservative estimate of the total organic carbon pool in the regions ranged between 6.98 and 44.9 t C ha-1. Our results suggest that the Finnish eelgrass meadows are minor carbon sinks compared to the Danish meadows, and that majority of the Corg produced in the Finnish meadows is exported. Our analysis further showed that > 40 % of the variation in the Corg stocks was explained by sediment characteristics, i.e. dry density, porosity and silt content. In addition, our analysis show that the root : shoot ratio of Z. marina explained > 12 % and the contribution of Z. marina detritus to the sediment surface Corg pool explained > 10 % of the variation in the Corg stocks. The mean monetary value for the present carbon storage and carbon sink capacity of eelgrass meadows in Finland and Denmark, were 281 and 1809 EUR ha-1, respectively. For a more comprehensive picture of seagrass carbon storage capacity, we conclude that future blue carbon studies should, in a more integrative way, investigate the interactions between sediment biogeochemistry, seascape structure, plant species architecture and the hydrodynamic regime.

  17. Development of approaches to predict the distribution of Zostera marina and Z. japonica in Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dominant species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries is the intertidal and shallow subtidal seagrass, Zostera marina. Beds of Z. marina constitute a critical habitat, including providing habitat for juvenile salmon. Additionally, the n...

  18. Dokdonia flava sp. nov., isolated from the seaweed Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon; Kang, Joo Won; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Seong, Chi Nam

    2018-03-01

    A non-motile, proteorhodopsin-containing, yellow and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated ZODW10 T , was isolated from the seaweed Zostera marina collected from the West Sea, Republic of Korea. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and non-motile. The isolate required sea salts for growth. A carotenoid pigment was produced. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ZODW10 T forms an evolutionary lineage within the radiation enclosing members of the genus Dokdonia with Dokdoniadiaphoros CIP 108745 T (96.7 % sequence similarity) as its nearest neighbour. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1 G. Strain ZODW10 T contained menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified polar lipid as the only isoprenoid quinone and the major polar lipids, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain ZODW10 T was 36 mol%. On the basis of the present polyphasic characterization, it is suggested that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Dokdonia, for which the name Dokdonia flava sp. nov. (type strain, ZODW10 T =KCTC 52953 T =JCM 32293 T ) is proposed.

  19. Sexual Recruitment in Zostera marina: Progress toward a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Furman, Bradley T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Ecophysiological stress and physical disturbance are capable of structuring meadows through a combination of direct biomass removal and recruitment limitation; however, predicting these effects at landscape scales has rarely been successful. To model environmental influence on sexual recruitment in perennial Zostera marina, we selected a sub-tidal, light-replete study site with seasonal extremes in temperature and wave energy. During an 8-year observation period, areal coverage increased from 4.8 to 42.7%. Gains were stepwise in pattern, attributable to annual recruitment of patches followed by centrifugal growth and coalescence. Recruitment varied from 13 to 4,894 patches per year. Using a multiple linear regression approach, we examined the association between patch appearance and relative wave energy, atmospheric condition and water temperature. Two models were developed, one appropriate for the dispersal of naked seeds, and another for rafted flowers. Results indicated that both modes of sexual recruitment varied as functions of wind, temperature, rainfall and wave energy, with a regime shift in wind-wave energy corresponding to periods of rapid colonization within our site. Temporal correlations between sexual recruitment and time-lagged climatic summaries highlighted floral induction, seed bank and small patch development as periods of vulnerability. Given global losses in seagrass coverage, regions of recovery and re-colonization will become increasingly important. Lacking landscape-scale process models for seagrass recruitment, temporally explicit statistical approaches presented here could be used to forecast colonization trajectories and to provide managers with real-time estimates of future meadow performance; i.e., when to expect a good year in terms of seagrass expansion. To facilitate use as forecasting tools, we did not use statistical composites or normalized variables as our predictors. This study, therefore, represents a first step toward linking

  20. Sexual Recruitment in Zostera marina: Progress toward a Predictive Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ecophysiological stress and physical disturbance are capable of structuring meadows through a combination of direct biomass removal and recruitment limitation; however, predicting these effects at landscape scales has rarely been successful. To model environmental influence on sexual recruitment in perennial Zostera marina, we selected a sub-tidal, light-replete study site with seasonal extremes in temperature and wave energy. During an 8-year observation period, areal coverage increased from 4.8 to 42.7%. Gains were stepwise in pattern, attributable to annual recruitment of patches followed by centrifugal growth and coalescence. Recruitment varied from 13 to 4,894 patches per year. Using a multiple linear regression approach, we examined the association between patch appearance and relative wave energy, atmospheric condition and water temperature. Two models were developed, one appropriate for the dispersal of naked seeds, and another for rafted flowers. Results indicated that both modes of sexual recruitment varied as functions of wind, temperature, rainfall and wave energy, with a regime shift in wind-wave energy corresponding to periods of rapid colonization within our site. Temporal correlations between sexual recruitment and time-lagged climatic summaries highlighted floral induction, seed bank and small patch development as periods of vulnerability. Given global losses in seagrass coverage, regions of recovery and re-colonization will become increasingly important. Lacking landscape-scale process models for seagrass recruitment, temporally explicit statistical approaches presented here could be used to forecast colonization trajectories and to provide managers with real-time estimates of future meadow performance; i.e., when to expect a good year in terms of seagrass expansion. To facilitate use as forecasting tools, we did not use statistical composites or normalized variables as our predictors. This study, therefore, represents a first step toward linking

  1. EFFECTS OF EROSION AND MACROALGAE ON INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) IN A NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC ESTUARY (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in open-coast northeastern Pacific estuaries is primarily intertidal, yet little research has been done on the natural factors controlling its upper intertidal growth limits. This two-year study in the Yaquina Estuary (Newport, Oregon, USA) evaluated the...

  2. Photoacclimatory Responses of Zostera marina in the Intertidal and Subtidal Zones.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Rul; Kim, Sangil; Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Photoacclimatory responses of the seagrass Zostera marina in the intertidal and subtidal zones were investigated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigments, leaf δ13C values, and shoot morphology in two bay systems. Intertidal plants had higher carotenoid concentrations than subtidal plants to avoid photodamage under excess light conditions during the day. The maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and minimum saturation irradiance (Ek) of the intertidal plants were higher than those of the subtidal plants, whereas photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were higher in subtidal plants. The intertidal plants also had significantly greater Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than that of the subtidal plants. These results suggest that the subtidal plants photoacclimated to use limited light more efficiently, and the intertidal plants exhibited photosynthetic responses to minimize photodamage at excess irradiance. The δ13C values of leaf tissues were more negative in the intertidal plants than those in the subtidal plants, suggesting that the intertidal plants used atmospheric or dissolved CO2 for photosynthesis during emersion. Effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm´) in the intertidal plants decreased more slowly after emersion than that in the subtidal plants, indicating higher desiccation tolerance of the intertidal plants. The intertidal plants also recovered more rapidly from desiccation damage than the subtidal plants, suggesting photosynthetic adaptation to desiccation stress. The photosynthetic plasticity of Z. marina in response to variable environmental conditions most likely allows this species to occur in the intertidal and subtidal zones.

  3. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  4. Determining bathymetric distributions of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three turbid estuaries of the eastern North Pacific coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved methods for determining bathymetric distributions of dominant intertidal plants throughout their estuarine range are needed. Zostera marina is a seagrass native to estuaries of the northeastern Pacific and many other sectors of the world ocean. The technique described ...

  5. In Situ Carbon Stable Isotope Tracer Experiments Elucidate Carbon Translocation Rates and Allocation Patterns in Zostera marina L. (eelgrass)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intertidal seagrass Zostera marina is an important species that provides critical habitat for a number of estuarine species. Despite its widespread distribution, there is limited information on seasonal patterns of carbon dynamics of plants growing in situ, particularly esti...

  6. Photoacclimatory Responses of Zostera marina in the Intertidal and Subtidal Zones

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Rul; Kim, Sangil; Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Photoacclimatory responses of the seagrass Zostera marina in the intertidal and subtidal zones were investigated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigments, leaf δ13C values, and shoot morphology in two bay systems. Intertidal plants had higher carotenoid concentrations than subtidal plants to avoid photodamage under excess light conditions during the day. The maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and minimum saturation irradiance (Ek) of the intertidal plants were higher than those of the subtidal plants, whereas photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were higher in subtidal plants. The intertidal plants also had significantly greater Stern–Volmer non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than that of the subtidal plants. These results suggest that the subtidal plants photoacclimated to use limited light more efficiently, and the intertidal plants exhibited photosynthetic responses to minimize photodamage at excess irradiance. The δ13C values of leaf tissues were more negative in the intertidal plants than those in the subtidal plants, suggesting that the intertidal plants used atmospheric or dissolved CO2 for photosynthesis during emersion. Effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm´) in the intertidal plants decreased more slowly after emersion than that in the subtidal plants, indicating higher desiccation tolerance of the intertidal plants. The intertidal plants also recovered more rapidly from desiccation damage than the subtidal plants, suggesting photosynthetic adaptation to desiccation stress. The photosynthetic plasticity of Z. marina in response to variable environmental conditions most likely allows this species to occur in the intertidal and subtidal zones. PMID:27227327

  7. Restoring Resiliency: Case Studies from Pacific Northwest Estuarine Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Vavrinec, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of many ecological restoration projects is to establish an ecosystem with fully developed structure and function that exhibits resistance to and resilience from disturbances. Coastal restoration projects in the Pacific Northwest provide opportunities to understand what is required to restore the resilience of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations. Factors influencing resilience observed in three case studies of eelgrass restoration include minimum viable population, adaptations of transplant populations, and natural and anthropogenic disturbances at restoration sites. The evaluation of resiliency depends on selecting appropriate monitoring metrics and the frequency and duration of monitoring. Eelgrass area, cover and shoot densitymore » provide useful and reliable metrics for quantifying resilience of restored meadows. Further, five years of monitoring of these metrics provides data that can reasonably predict the long-term viability of a planted plot. Eelgrass appears to be a resilient ecosystem in general, though one that data suggest may exhibit tipping points brought about by compounded environmental conditions outside of its tolerance ranges. Explicit inclusion of resilience in the planning and practice of habitat restoration may reduce uncertainties and improve the performance of restored systems by increasing buffering capacity, nurturing sources of renewal (e.g., seeds and rhizomes), and managing for habitat forming and maintaining processes (e.g., sediment dynamics) at multiple scales.« less

  8. Phylogeographic differentiation versus transcriptomic adaptation to warm temperatures in Zostera marina, a globally important seagrass.

    PubMed

    Jueterbock, A; Franssen, S U; Bergmann, N; Gu, J; Coyer, J A; Reusch, T B H; Bornberg-Bauer, E; Olsen, J L

    2016-11-01

    Populations distributed across a broad thermal cline are instrumental in addressing adaptation to increasing temperatures under global warming. Using a space-for-time substitution design, we tested for parallel adaptation to warm temperatures along two independent thermal clines in Zostera marina, the most widely distributed seagrass in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. A North-South pair of populations was sampled along the European and North American coasts and exposed to a simulated heatwave in a common-garden mesocosm. Transcriptomic responses under control, heat stress and recovery were recorded in 99 RNAseq libraries with ~13 000 uniquely annotated, expressed genes. We corrected for phylogenetic differentiation among populations to discriminate neutral from adaptive differentiation. The two southern populations recovered faster from heat stress and showed parallel transcriptomic differentiation, as compared with northern populations. Among 2389 differentially expressed genes, 21 exceeded neutral expectations and were likely involved in parallel adaptation to warm temperatures. However, the strongest differentiation following phylogenetic correction was between the three Atlantic populations and the Mediterranean population with 128 of 4711 differentially expressed genes exceeding neutral expectations. Although adaptation to warm temperatures is expected to reduce sensitivity to heatwaves, the continued resistance of seagrass to further anthropogenic stresses may be impaired by heat-induced downregulation of genes related to photosynthesis, pathogen defence and stress tolerance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genome-wide transcriptomic responses of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Nanozostera noltii under a simulated heatwave confirm functional types.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Susanne U; Gu, Jenny; Winters, Gidon; Huylmans, Ann-Kathrin; Wienpahl, Isabell; Sparwel, Maximiliane; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2014-06-01

    Genome-wide transcription analysis between related species occurring in overlapping ranges can provide insights into the molecular basis underlying different ecological niches. The co-occurring seagrass species, Zostera marina and Nanozostera noltii, are found in marine coastal environments throughout the northern hemisphere. Z. marina is often dominant in subtidal environments and subjected to fewer temperature extremes compared to the predominately intertidal and more stress-tolerant N. noltii. We exposed plants of both species to a realistic heat wave scenario in a common-stress-garden experiment. Using RNA-seq (~7million reads/library), four Z. marina and four N. noltii libraries were compared representing northern (Denmark) and southern (Italy) locations within the co-occurring range of the species' European distribution. A total of 8977 expressed genes were identified, of which 78 were directly related to heat stress. As predicted, both species were negatively affected by the heat wave, but showed markedly different molecular responses. In Z. marina the heat response was similar across locations in response to the heatwave at 26°C, with a complex response in functions related to protein folding, synthesis of ribosomal chloroplast proteins, proteins involved in cell wall modification and heat shock proteins (HSPs). In N. noltii the heat response markedly differed between locations, while HSP genes were not induced in either population. Our results suggest that as coastal seawater temperatures increase, Z. marina will disappear along its southern most ranges, whereas N. noltii will continue to move north. As a consequence, sub- and intertidal habitat partitioning may weaken in more northern regions because the higher thermal tolerance of N. noltii provides a competitive advantage in both habitats. Although previous studies have focused on HSPs, the present study clearly demonstrates that a broader examination of stress related genes is necessary. Copyright

  10. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  11. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat? - CERF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  12. Desulfovibrio zosterae sp. nov., a new sulfate reducer isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the seagrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J T; Liesack, W; Finster, K

    1999-04-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain lacT, was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the benthic macrophyte Zostera marina. Cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain lacT utilized lactate, pyruvate, malate, ethanol, L-alanine, fumarate, choline and fructose with sulfate as electron acceptor. In addition, fumarate, pyruvate and fructose were also degraded without an external electron acceptor. Sulfate could be substituted with thiosulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur. Optimal growth was observed between 32.5 and 34.5 degrees C, at an NaCl concentration of 0.2 M and in a pH range between 6.8 and 7.3. The G + C content of the DNA was 42.7 +/- 0.2 mol%. Desulfoviridin and catalase were present. Strain lacT contained c-type cytochromes. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the fatty acid pattern grouped this isolate into the genus Desulfovibrio. However, strain lacT differs from all other described Desulfovibrio species on the bases of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the G + C content, its cellular lipid pattern and the utilization pattern of substrates. These characteristics establish strain lacT (= DSM 11974T) as a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio, for which the name Desulfovibrio zosterae sp. nov. is proposed.

  13. Biochemical characterization of the eelgrass Zostera marina at its southern distribution limit in the North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Munoz-Salazar, R.; Ward, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    The eelgrass Zostera marina L. is distributed along the Baja California Peninsula (Mexico) where it is exposed to a wide range of irradiances and temperatures that could promote changes in its biochemical composition. Consequently, the objective of this study was to characterize the variations in the levels of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, ash and calories in the shoots of Z. marina from the north (San Quintin) and south (Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio lagoons) of the peninsula. Temperature in the southern lagoons was 5-6??C higher than in the northern lagoon; likewise, in situ irradiance was two-fold greater in the south than in the north. As a result of the lower irradiance levels, the concentration of chlorophyll in the shoots of Z. marina was twice as high (1.7 mg gWW-1) in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones (0.8 mg gWW-1). Similar to chlorophyll levels, the concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the shoots was greater in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones, suggesting that the high levels of chlorophyll are enough to compensate for the low irradiance levels and to maintain a positive carbon balance at San Quintin. On the other hand, the levels of proteins in the shoots from the north of the peninsula were slightly lower than those from the southern populations. In general, these results suggest that the different environmental conditions to which Z. marina is exposed along the peninsula impact its biochemical composition.

  14. Effects of microtopographic variation and macroalgal cover on morphometrics and survival of the annual form of eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disjunct population of the annual form of the seagrass Zostera marina that occurred in the upper intertidal zone of Yaquina Bay, Oregon was sampled to determine whether there were differences in recruitment, growth, survivorship and morphology associated with microtopographic l...

  15. APPARENT LACK OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) IN SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA L. AND THALASSIA TESTUDIUM BANKS EX KONIG

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined two populations of Zostera marina L. and one of Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig for presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM). None of these plants showed any VAM colonization. In addition, we were unable to find any literature references on the presence o...

  16. EFFECTS OF RECREATIONAL CLAM HARVESTING ON EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) AND ASSOCIATED INFAUNAL INVERTEBRATES: IN SITU MANIPULATIVE EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of recreational clam harvesting on eelgrass (Zostera marina) was experimentally tested by raking or digging for clams in experimental 1-m2 plots located in a Yaquina Bay (Newport, OR) eelgrass meadow. After three monthly treatments, eelgrass measures of biomass, prima...

  17. Cloning of TPS gene from eelgrass species Zostera marina and its functional identification by genetic transformation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Li, Qiuying; Weng, Manli; Wang, Xiuliang; Guo, Baotai; Wang, Li; Wang, Wei; Duan, Delin; Wang, Bin

    2013-12-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (2613 bp) of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene of eelgrass Zostera marina (ZmTPS) was identified and cloned. Z. marina is a kind of seed-plant growing in sea water during its whole life history. The open reading frame (ORF) region of ZmTPS gene encodes a protein of 870 amino acid residues and a stop codon. The corresponding genomic DNA sequence is 3770 bp in length, which contains 3 exons and 2 introns. The ZmTPS gene was transformed into rice variety ZH11 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. After antibiotic screening, molecular characterization, salt-tolerance and trehalose content determinations, two transgenic lines resistant to 150 mM NaCL solutions were screened. Our study results indicated that the ZmTPS gene was integrated into the genomic DNA of the two transgenic rice lines and could be expressed well. Moreover, the detection of the transformed ZmTPS gene in the progenies of the two transgenic lines was performed from T1 to T4 generations; and results suggested that the transformed ZmTPS gene can be transmitted from parent to the progeny in transgenic rice. © 2013.

  18. Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Marine angiosperms, seagrasses, are sentinel species of marine ecosystem health and function. Seagrass carbon budgets provide insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, growth, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaf exudation or rhizodeposition rates exist for most seagrass species. Here I evaluate how eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) DOC exudation is affected by a single factor manipulation (light, temperature or salinity). Eelgrass plants were hydroponically exposed to treatments in experimental chambers (separate leaf and rhizome/root compartments) with artificial seawater medium. Regression analysis of changes in the DOC concentration through time was used to calculate DOC exudation rates. Results Exudation rates were similar across all treatments in all experiments. For all experiments, pooled leaf DOC exudation ranged between 0.032 and 0.069 mg C gdw-1 h-1, while rhizodeposition ranged between 0.024 and 0.045 mg C gdw-1 h-1. These rates are consistent with previously published values and provide first-order estimates for mechanistic models. Conclusions Zostera marina carbon losses from either leaf exudation or rhizodeposition account for a small proportion of gross primary production (1.2-4.6%) and appear to be insensitive to short-term (e.g., hours to days) environmental variations in chamber experiments. Based on these preliminary experiments, I suggest that Z. marina DOC exudation may be a passive process and not an active transport process. PMID:22938529

  19. Genetic structure of eelgrass Zostera marina meadows in an embayment with restricted water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz-Salazar, R.; Talbot, S.L.; Sage, G.K.; Ward, D.H.; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Genetic structure of the seagrass Zostera marina in a coastal lagoon with restricted water flow, and with heterogeneous water residence times and oceanographic characteristics, was assessed using 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Analyses of genetic differentiation (??) and Bayesian clustering suggested that the Z. marina population in San Quintin Bay (SQB) is genetically substructured, with at least 4 genetically different groups: (1) West Head, (2) Mouth, (3) East Arm, and (4) East Head. The greatest ?? value was observed between the most distant sites (?? = 0.095). The lowest values were found among sites closest to the mouth of the coastal lagoon (?? = 0.000 to 0.009). The maximum likelihood approach showed that the sites at the mouth have a mixed pattern of gene flow without a unidirectional pattern. In contrast, there was a clear pattern of asymmetrical gene flow from the mouth towards the West Head. These results suggested that the restriction of water flow at the heads, current pattern, and the distance between sites can reduce genetic flow and promote genetic differences within Z. marina meadows in small water embayments such as SQB. Though the population is genetically substructured and a 14 % decline in cover has been detected, this study did not show evidence of a recent genetic bottleneck. In contrast, mouth sites have experienced a recent expansion in their population size, and also perhaps a recent influx of rare alleles from genetically distinct immigrants. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  20. DESICCATION INDEX: A MEASURE OF DAMAGE CAUSED BY ADVERSE AERIAL EXPOSURE ON INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) IN AN OREGON (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) blade necrosis resulting from intertidal aerial exposure is describe. A desiccation index was developed to quantitatively assess this damage. This index was then used to evaluate the extent of desiccation damage across intertidal bathymetric slopes (st...

  1. Cerium Binding Activity of Pectins Isolated from the Seagrasses Zostera marina and Phyllospadix iwatensis

    PubMed Central

    Khotimchenko, Yuri; Khozhaenko, Elena; Kovalev, Valeri; Khotimchenko, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Cerium binding activity of three different water soluble pectin compounds of different origin was studied in a batch sorption system. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were adopted to describe the binding reactions between metal ions and pectin molecules. The Langmuir model provided the best fit. Within the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0, the largest amount of the cerium ions was bound by pectin isolated from the seagrass Phylospadix iwatensis in comparison to pectin extracted from the seagrass Zostera marina and pectin obtained from citrus peel (commercial grade). The Langmuir constants were also highest for the pectin samples isolated from the seagrass P. iwatensis. The results obtained from this study suggest that pectin is a prospective source for the development of radioisotope-removing pharmaceuticals. PMID:22690146

  2. Experimental assessment of critical anthropogenic sediment burial in eelgrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Munkes, Britta; Schubert, Philipp R; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2015-11-15

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world's most important and productive coastal habitats, are threatened by a range of anthropogenic actions. Burial of seagrass plants due to coastal activities is one important anthropogenic pressure leading to the decline of local populations. In our study, we assessed the response of eelgrass Zostera marina to sediment burial from physiological, morphological, and population parameters. In a full factorial field experiment, burial level (5-20cm) and burial duration (4-16weeks) were manipulated. Negative effects were visible even at the lowest burial level (5cm) and shortest duration (4weeks), with increasing effects over time and burial level. Buried seagrasses showed higher shoot mortality, delayed growth and flowering and lower carbohydrate storage. The observed effects will likely have an impact on next year's survival of buried plants. Our results have implications for the management of this important coastal plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oyster aquaculture impacts Zostera marina epibiont community composition in Akkeshi-ko estuary, Japan.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carter S; Ito, Minako; Namba, Mizuho; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Coastal fisheries are in decline worldwide, and aquaculture has become an increasingly popular way to meet seafood demand. While finfish aquaculture can have substantial adverse effects on coastal ecosystems due mostly to necessary feed inputs, bivalves graze on natural phytoplankton and are often considered for their positive ecosystem services. We conducted two independent studies to investigate the effects of long-line Crassostrea gigas oyster aquaculture on Zostera marina seagrass beds and associated epibiont communities in Akkeshi-ko estuary, Japan. Results from both studies yielded no evidence of an effect of oyster aquaculture on the morphology, density, or biomass of Z. marina, but significant differences were apparent in the epibiont community. Reference seagrass beds located away from aquaculture had higher seagrass epiphyte loads and higher abundances of amphipods. Conversely, seagrass beds below aquaculture lines had higher sessile polychaete biomass and higher isopod abundances. Our results suggest that the presence of oyster aquaculture may have indirect effects on seagrass by changing epibiont community composition and relative abundances of species. One proposed mechanism is that cultured oysters feed on epiphytic diatoms and epiphyte propagules before they can settle on the seagrass, which reduces epiphyte loads and influences subsequent faunal settlement. If carefully implemented and monitored, long-line oyster aquaculture may be a sustainable option to consider as bivalve aquaculture expands to meet global seafood demand, but further work is needed to fully assess and generalize the community-level effects on seagrass epibionts.

  4. Oyster aquaculture impacts Zostera marina epibiont community composition in Akkeshi-ko estuary, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Coastal fisheries are in decline worldwide, and aquaculture has become an increasingly popular way to meet seafood demand. While finfish aquaculture can have substantial adverse effects on coastal ecosystems due mostly to necessary feed inputs, bivalves graze on natural phytoplankton and are often considered for their positive ecosystem services. We conducted two independent studies to investigate the effects of long-line Crassostrea gigas oyster aquaculture on Zostera marina seagrass beds and associated epibiont communities in Akkeshi-ko estuary, Japan. Results from both studies yielded no evidence of an effect of oyster aquaculture on the morphology, density, or biomass of Z. marina, but significant differences were apparent in the epibiont community. Reference seagrass beds located away from aquaculture had higher seagrass epiphyte loads and higher abundances of amphipods. Conversely, seagrass beds below aquaculture lines had higher sessile polychaete biomass and higher isopod abundances. Our results suggest that the presence of oyster aquaculture may have indirect effects on seagrass by changing epibiont community composition and relative abundances of species. One proposed mechanism is that cultured oysters feed on epiphytic diatoms and epiphyte propagules before they can settle on the seagrass, which reduces epiphyte loads and influences subsequent faunal settlement. If carefully implemented and monitored, long-line oyster aquaculture may be a sustainable option to consider as bivalve aquaculture expands to meet global seafood demand, but further work is needed to fully assess and generalize the community-level effects on seagrass epibionts. PMID:29795609

  5. Potential effects of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla on Zostera marina metabolism and survival.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Holmer, Marianne

    2010-06-01

    The potential threat to seagrasses of the invasive algae, Gracilaria vermiculophylla was assessed through metabolic indicators under experimental conditions. Net leaf photosynthesis (LNP) and dark respiration (LDR) were measured from leaf segments of Zostera marina shoots under different loads of G. vermiculophylla (control, low 2.2kg FW m(-2) and high 4kg FW m(-2)) in mesocosm experiments separated in tanks at four temperatures (19, 23.5, 26 and 30 degrees C). LNP decreased in the presence of the high density G. vermiculophylla mat (25% on average), being the most severe reductions at 30 degrees C (35% less in high). LDR did not respond significantly to differences in algal biomass, whereas a progressive increase was found with increasing temperatures (3.4 times higher at 30 degrees C than at 19 degrees C). Sulphide in porewater was measured weekly in order clarify the role of sediment conditions on seagrass metabolism, and increased both with algal biomass (29% in high) and temperature (from 0.5mM at 26 degrees C to 2.6mM at 30 degrees C), but changes in LNP and LDR were not correlated with sulphide concentrations. Seagrass survival rates showed decreasing trend with algal biomass at all the temperatures (from 74% to 21% survival). G. vermiculophylla showed harmful effects on Z. marina metabolism and survival with synergistic effects of temperature suggesting greater impact of invasive species under future higher water temperatures.

  6. Conservation of Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Genetic Diversity in a Mesocosm-Based Restoration Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Brian S.; Cohen, C. Sarah; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Reynolds, Laura K.; Tam, Sheh May; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms. Following seedling establishment, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity indices from 128 shoots to those found in the source populations. Importantly, allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were not significantly reduced in the mesocosms, which also preserved the strong population differentiation present among source populations. However, the inbreeding coefficient F IS was elevated in two of the three sets of mesocosms when they were grouped according to their source population. This is probably a Wahlund effect from confining all half-siblings within each spathe to a single mesocosm, elevating F IS when the mesocosms were considered together. The conservation of most alleles and preservation of expected heterozygosity suggests that this seeding technique is an improvement over whole-shoot transplantation in the conservation of genetic diversity in eelgrass restoration efforts. PMID:24586683

  7. The impact of the herbicide atrazine on growth and photosynthesis of seagrass, Zostera marina (L.), seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yaping; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Ren, Lihua; Mao, Yuze; Li, Bin; Zhang, Mingliang; Liu, Dinghai; Du, Meirong

    2011-08-01

    The impact of the widely used herbicide atrazine on seedling growth and photosynthesis of eelgrass was determined. The long-term impact of the herbicide atrazine (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) on growth of eelgrass Zostera marina (L.) seedlings, maintained in outdoor aquaria, was monitored over 4 weeks. Exposure to 10 μg/L atrazine resulted in significantly lower plant fresh weight and total chlorophyll concentration and up to 86.67% mortality at the 100 μg/L concentration. Short-term photosynthetic stress on eelgrass seedlings was determined and compared with adult eelgrass using chlorophyll fluorescence. The effective quantum yield in eelgrass seedlings was significantly depressed at all atrazine concentrations (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 μg/L) even within 2 h and remained at a lower level than for adult plants for each concentration. These results indicate that atrazine presents a potential threat to seagrass seedling functioning and that the impact is much higher than for adult plants. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) genetic diversity in a mesocosm-based restoration experiment.

    PubMed

    Ort, Brian S; Cohen, C Sarah; Boyer, Katharyn E; Reynolds, Laura K; Tam, Sheh May; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms. Following seedling establishment, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity indices from 128 shoots to those found in the source populations. Importantly, allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were not significantly reduced in the mesocosms, which also preserved the strong population differentiation present among source populations. However, the inbreeding coefficient F IS was elevated in two of the three sets of mesocosms when they were grouped according to their source population. This is probably a Wahlund effect from confining all half-siblings within each spathe to a single mesocosm, elevating F IS when the mesocosms were considered together. The conservation of most alleles and preservation of expected heterozygosity suggests that this seeding technique is an improvement over whole-shoot transplantation in the conservation of genetic diversity in eelgrass restoration efforts.

  9. Multiple stressors threaten the imperiled coastal foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Chesapeake Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Wilcox, David J; Murphy, Rebecca R; Marion, Scott R; Orth, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Interactions among global change stressors and their effects at large scales are often proposed, but seldom evaluated. This situation is primarily due to lack of comprehensive, sufficiently long-term, and spatially extensive datasets. Seagrasses, which provide nursery habitat, improve water quality, and constitute a globally important carbon sink, are among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. Here, we unite 31 years of high-resolution aerial monitoring and water quality data to elucidate the patterns and drivers of eelgrass (Zostera marina) abundance in Chesapeake Bay, USA, one of the largest and most valuable estuaries in the world, with an unparalleled history of regulatory efforts. We show that eelgrass area has declined 29% in total since 1991, with wide-ranging and severe ecological and economic consequences. We go on to identify an interaction between decreasing water clarity and warming temperatures as the primary drivers of this trend. Declining clarity has gradually reduced eelgrass cover the past two decades, primarily in deeper beds where light is already limiting. In shallow beds, however, reduced visibility exacerbates the physiological stress of acute warming, leading to recent instances of decline approaching 80%. While degraded water quality has long been known to influence underwater grasses worldwide, we demonstrate a clear and rapidly emerging interaction with climate change. We highlight the urgent need to integrate a broader perspective into local water quality management, in the Chesapeake Bay and in the many other coastal systems facing similar stressors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Growth adaptability of Zostera marina at different habitats of the Swan Lake in Rongcheng, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei Yu; Li, Wen Tao; Yang, Xiao Long; Zhang, Xiu Mei; Liu, Jian Ying; Li, Chang Jun

    2017-05-18

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina), a seagrass species widely distributed in the coastal regions of northern hemisphere, has suffered with a great decline due to a variety of anthropogenic and environmental stresses. In order to examine the adaptability of eelgrass to different environmental stresses, studies on the morphology and reproductive capacity of eelgrass had been carried out monthly from November 2014 to October 2015 at four different habitats of the Swan Lake, including patch area inintertidal area and subtidal area, eelgrass meadow edge, and eelgrass meadow area. The results showed significant spatio-temporal variations in the morphological parameters and branch frequency of eelgrass shoots at different habitats of the Swan Lake. The highest values of leaf length, leaf width, aboveground/belowground biomass, and internode length/diameter were observed in the meadow area, i.e., 78.54 cm, 7.93 mm, 7.03 and 3.88, respectively, while the highest branch frequency was observed in the meadow edge (88.4%). The plasticity index for aboveground/belowground biomass was higher (ranging from 0.77 to 0.92) at the four habitats, but those for the leaf width was slightly lower (ranging from 0.41 to 0.64). The number of spathes in each shoot showed no significant difference at different habitats, whereas the number of spathes per unit area was significantly different. Clonal reproduction was more dominant in meadow area than in the patch area where human disturbance was high.

  11. Influence of Zostera marina canopies on unidirectional flow, hydraulic roughness and sediment movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, A.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Amos, C. L.

    2010-09-01

    Seagrasses develop extensive or patchy underwater meadows in coastal areas around the world, forming complex, highly productive ecosystems. Seagrass canopies exert strong effects on water flow inside and around them, thereby affecting flow structure, sediment transport and benthic ecology. The influence of Zostera marina canopies on flow velocity, turbulence, hydraulic roughness and sediment movement was evaluated through laboratory experiments in 2 flumes and using live Z. marina and a mobile sand bed. Profiles of instantaneous velocities were measured and sediment movement was identified upstream, within and downstream of patches of different sizes and shoot density and at different free-stream velocities. Flow structure was characterised by time-averaged velocity, turbulence intensity and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE). When velocity data were available above the canopy, they were fitted to the Law of the Wall and shear velocities and roughness lengths were calculated. When a seagrass canopy was present, three layers were distinguishable in the water column: (1) within canopy represented by low velocities and high turbulence; (2) transition zone around the height of the canopy, where velocities increased, turbulence decreased and TKE was high; and (3) above canopy where velocities were equal or higher than free-stream velocities and turbulence and TKE were lower than below. Shoot density and patch-width influenced this partitioning of the flow when the canopy was long enough (based on flume experiments, at least more than 1 m-long). The enhanced TKE observed at the canopy/water interface suggests that large-scale turbulence is generated at the canopy surface. These oscillations, likely to be related to the canopy undulations, are then broken down within the canopy and high-frequency turbulence takes place near the bed. This turbulence 'cascade' through the canopy may have an important impact on biogeochemical processes. The velocity above the canopy generally

  12. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Christoffer; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredriksen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Möller, Tiia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina, along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km2 eelgrass (maximum >2100 km2), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe.Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4–6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (<2 g dw m-2 d-1) and meadows are isolated and genetically impoverished. Higher salinity areas support monospecific meadows, with higher productivity (3–10 g dw m-2 d-1) and greater genetic connectivity. The salinity gradient further imposes functional differences in biodiversity and food webs, in particular a decline in number, but increase in biomass of mesograzers in the Baltic.Significant declines in eelgrass depth limits and areal cover are documented, particularly in regions experiencing high human pressure. The failure of eelgrass to re-establish itself in affected areas, despite nutrient reductions and improved water quality, signals complex recovery trajectories and calls for much greater conservation effort to protect existing meadows.The knowledge base for Nordic eelgrass meadows is broad and sufficient to establish monitoring objectives across nine national borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them. © 2014 The Authors. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26167100

  13. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Boström, Christoffer; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredriksen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Möller, Tiia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-06-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina , along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km 2 eelgrass (maximum >2100 km 2 ), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe.Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4-6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (<2 g dw m -2 d -1 ) and meadows are isolated and genetically impoverished. Higher salinity areas support monospecific meadows, with higher productivity (3-10 g dw m -2 d -1 ) and greater genetic connectivity. The salinity gradient further imposes functional differences in biodiversity and food webs, in particular a decline in number, but increase in biomass of mesograzers in the Baltic.Significant declines in eelgrass depth limits and areal cover are documented, particularly in regions experiencing high human pressure. The failure of eelgrass to re-establish itself in affected areas, despite nutrient reductions and improved water quality, signals complex recovery trajectories and calls for much greater conservation effort to protect existing meadows.The knowledge base for Nordic eelgrass meadows is broad and sufficient to establish monitoring objectives across nine national borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them. © 2014 The Authors. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Susceptibility of seagrass to oil spills: A case study with eelgrass, Zostera marina in San Francisco Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Mark; Piniak, Gregory A; Cosentino-Manning, Natalie

    2017-02-15

    Existing literature illustrates inconsistent responses of seagrasses to oil exposure, both in the field and in the laboratory. Here, we add a new study that combined morphometric, demographic and photophysiology assessments to determine the potential oiling impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) from the 2007 Cosco Busan event in San Francisco Bay. Shoot densities, reproductive status, and rhizome elongation of Z. marina were examined at sites with pre-spill data, and eelgrass photosynthetic efficiency was measured post-spill. Shoot densities and percent elongation of rhizome internodes formed after the oil spill varied but with no consistent relationship to adjacent shoreline cleanup assessment team (SCAT) oiling categories. Similarly, differences in seagrass photosynthetic efficiency were not consistent with SCAT oiling categories. While thresholds for negative impacts on seagrass in general remain to be defined, conclusive oiling indicators for degree and duration of exposure would be important considerations and need examination under controlled study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sediment Properties as Important Predictors of Carbon Storage in Zostera marina Meadows: A Comparison of Four European Areas

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Martin; Deyanova, Diana; Gütschow, Silvia; Asplund, Maria E.; Lyimo, Liberatus D.; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Santos, Rui; Björk, Mats; Gullström, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems are important natural carbon sinks but their efficiency varies greatly depending on species composition and environmental conditions. What causes this variation is not fully known and could have important implications for management and protection of the seagrass habitat to continue to act as a natural carbon sink. Here, we assessed sedimentary organic carbon in Zostera marina meadows (and adjacent unvegetated sediment) in four distinct areas of Europe (Gullmar Fjord on the Swedish Skagerrak coast, Askö in the Baltic Sea, Sozopol in the Black Sea and Ria Formosa in southern Portugal) down to ~35 cm depth. We also tested how sedimentary organic carbon in Z. marina meadows relates to different sediment characteristics, a range of seagrass-associated variables and water depth. The seagrass carbon storage varied greatly among areas, with an average organic carbon content ranging from 2.79 ± 0.50% in the Gullmar Fjord to 0.17 ± 0.02% in the area of Sozopol. We found that a high proportion of fine grain size, high porosity and low density of the sediment is strongly related to high carbon content in Z. marina sediment. We suggest that sediment properties should be included as an important factor when evaluating high priority areas in management of Z. marina generated carbon sinks. PMID:27936111

  16. The structure of genetic diversity in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea coasts of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  17. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R.; Fowler, Meg C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  18. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R; Fowler, Meg C; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128-0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  19. MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) IN THREE COASTAL ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA USING FALSE-COLOUR NEAR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes a hybrid technique of digitally classifying aerial photography used for mapping the intertidal habitat of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Pacific Northwest USA estuaries. The large tidal range (2-3 m) in this region exposes most of this seagrass community at ...

  20. Comparison of non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) and native eelgrass (Z. marina) distributions in a northeast Pacific estuary: 1997-2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study addressed the following question: In a coastal estuary of the northeastern Pacific Ocean with a relatively large areal extent of the native eelgrass Zostera marina, is an expanding distribution of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica accompanied by a measurab...

  1. ABUNDANCE OF SEAGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) AND MACROALGAE IN RELATION TO THE SALINITY-TEMPERATURE GRADIENT IN YAQUINA BAY, OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution and abundance of the seagrass, Zostera marina, and the associated macroalgae are described for Yaquina Bay, Oregon, U.S.A. Possible relationships between plant abundance and physical-chemical characteristics of the water column were also explored. Study sites w...

  2. An evaluation of factors controlling the abundance of epiphytes on Zostera marina along an estuarine gradient in Yaquina Bay, Oregon, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epiphytes on seagrass (Zostera marina) growing in the lower intertidal were examined along an estuarine gradient within Yaquina Bay, Oregon over a period of 4 years. The Yaquina Estuary receives high levels of nutrients from the watershed during the wet season and from the ocean...

  3. DESICCATION IS A LIMITING FACTOR FOR EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) DISTRIBUTION IN THE INTERTIDAL ZONE OF A NORTHEASTERN P{ACIFIC (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intertidal irradiance, temperature, and aerial exposure were measured for two years in intertidal Zostera marina beds located in Yaquina Bay (Newport, OR, USA). These physical data were correlated with plant growth and other metrics measured at intervals during the study. Pho...

  4. In-situ Phytoremediation of PAH and PCB Contaminated Marine Sediments with Eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    In view of the fact that there are presently no cost-effective in-situ treatment technologies for contaminated sediments, a 60 week long phytoremediation feasibility study was conducted in seawater-supplied outdoor ponds to determine whether eelgrass (Zostera marina) is capable of removing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from submerged marine sediments. It was determined that all PAHs and PCBs, independent of the number of aromatic rings and degree of chlorination, respectively, were removed to a much larger extent in planted sediments compared to unplanted controls. After 60 weeks of treatment, the concentration of total PAHs decreased by 73% inmore » planted sediments but only 25% in unplanted controls. Similarly, total PCBs declined by 60% in the presence of plants while none were removed in the unplanted sediment. Overall, PAH and PCB biodegradation was greatest in the sediment layer that contained most of the eelgrass roots. Abiotic desorption tests conducted at week 32 confirmed that the phytoremediation process was not controlled by mass-transfer or bioavailability limitations since all PAHs and PCBs desorbed rapidly and to a large extent from the sediment. PAHs were detected in both roots and shoots, with root and shoot bioaccumulation factors for total PAHs amounting to approximately 3 and 1, respectively, after 60 weeks of phytoremediation treatment. Similarly, the root bioccumulation factor for total PCBs was around 4, while no PCBs were detected in the eelgrass leaves at the end of the experiment. The total mass fraction of PAHs and PCBs absorbed and translocated by plant biomass during the 60 week period was insignificant, amounting to less than 0.5% of the total mass of PAHs and PCBs which was initially present in the sediment. Finally, the number of total heterotrophic bacteria and hydrocarbon degraders was slightly but not statistically significantly greater in planted sediments than in unplanted

  5. Microbial communities in sediment from Zostera marina patches, but not the Z. marina leaf or root microbiomes, vary in relation to distance from patch edge

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Cassandra L.; Voerman, Sofie E.; Lang, Jenna M.; Stachowicz, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Zostera marina (also known as eelgrass) is a foundation species in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide and is a model for studies of seagrasses (a paraphyletic group in the order Alismatales) that include all the known fully submerged marine angiosperms. In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation of the potential importance of the microbial communities (i.e., microbiomes) associated with various plant species. Here we report a study of variation in Z. marina microbiomes from a field site in Bodega Bay, CA. Methods We characterized and then compared the microbial communities of root, leaf and sediment samples (using 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR and sequencing) and associated environmental parameters from the inside, edge and outside of a single subtidal Z. marina patch. Multiple comparative approaches were used to examine associations between microbiome features (e.g., diversity, taxonomic composition) and environmental parameters and to compare sample types and sites. Results Microbial communities differed significantly between sample types (root, leaf and sediment) and in sediments from different sites (inside, edge, outside). Carbon:Nitrogen ratio and eelgrass density were both significantly correlated to sediment community composition. Enrichment of certain taxonomic groups in each sample type was detected and analyzed in regard to possible functional implications (especially regarding sulfur metabolism). Discussion Our results are mostly consistent with prior work on seagrass associated microbiomes with a few differences and additional findings. From a functional point of view, the most significant finding is that many of the taxa that differ significantly between sample types and sites are closely related to ones commonly associated with various aspects of sulfur and nitrogen metabolism. Though not a traditional model organism, we believe that Z. marina can become a model for studies of marine plant-microbiome interactions. PMID

  6. Annual variation of biomass and photosynthesis in Zostera marina L. along the Pacific Coast of Baja California, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Munoz-Salazar, R.; Ward, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Density, biomass, morphology, phenology and photosynthetic characteristics of Zostera marina were related to continuous measurements of in situ irradiance, attenuation coefficient and temperature at three coastal lagoons in Baja California, Mexico. In situ irradiance was approximately two-fold lower at San Quintin Bay (SQ) than at Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OL) and San Ignacio Lagoon (SI). As a consequence of the greater irradiance plants at OL and SI were established 1 m deeper within the water column than those at SQ. At SQ, there was a four-fold variation in biomass of Z. marina caused by changes on shoot length and not shoot density, while at OL and SI biomass and shoot length did not fluctuate significantly throughout the year. Reproductive shoot density reached maximum values concomitantly with the greater irradiance during spring-summer, however, the density was approximately three-fold greater at SQ than at the southern coastal lagoons. While irradiance levels were two-fold greater at the southern lagoons, in general, photosynthetic characteristics were similar among all three lagoons. The hours of light saturated photosynthesis, calculated from their photosynthetic characteristics and irradiance measurements, suggest that photosynthesis of shoots from OL and SI are saturated for more than 6 h per day throughout the year, while shoots from SQ are likely light limited during approximately 15% of the year. Consequently, an increase in attenuation coefficient values in the water column will likely decrease light availability to Z. marina plants at SQ, potentially decreasing their survival.

  7. An Experimental Comparison of the Effects of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica on the Diurnal Variability of the Carbonate System in the Context of a Pacific Northwest Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C.; Love, B. A.; Yang, S.

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are being absorbed at an unprecedented rate by the global and coastal oceans, shifting the baseline pCO2, and inducing anthropogenic ocean acidification (OA). Recent studies have highlighted the potential benefits of near-shore vegetated habitats, such as seagrass beds as carbon sinks, potentially mitigating the effects of OA for vulnerable calcifying organisms. Seagrasses are capable of raising seawater pH and CaCO3 saturation state during times of high photosynthetic activity; however, the converse occurs during periods of dark respiration, resulting in a cyclical pattern of high and low pH and saturation state. A better understanding of diurnal seagrass induced carbonate system variability is needed to determine whether seagrass beds act as refugia from OA, and if individual species differentially affect the carbonate system. We conducted experiments to compare the effects of the native Zostera marina and non-native Zostera japonica on the carbonate system. Leaf clippings were incubated at five different light intensities (including dark) and pCO2 levels, representing the range of light and pCO2 in a given day. Induced changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via photosynthesis and respiration were measured as well as pH and alkalinity. As irradiance and concentration of bio-available inorganic carbon are the two main drivers of photosynthetic activity, our measurements of the short-term response of photosynthesis to a spectrum of pCO2 and irradiance intensity can predict the diurnal fluctuation of pH and DIC for both species. This lab study provides a mechanistic background for building complex models based on field monitoring of carbonate chemistry in seagrass communities by comparing and integrating our results with in situ measurements. Interpretation of our findings will be placed in the context of short-term seagrass response to the spatiotemporal variability of pCO2 with respect to the progression of ocean acidification.

  8. Effects of anaerobiosis on in vivo protein synthesis in the roots of a marine angiosperm zostera marina

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Alberte, R.S.

    1989-04-01

    The roots of the temperate seagrass Zostera marina undergo daily periods of anaerobiosis at night. These diurnal periods of anoxia alter many metabolic processes in the roots including carbon and nitrogen metabolism, amino acid synthesis, and synthesis and levels of ATP, ADP and AMP. To further characterize the effects of anaerobiosis, we determined in vivo rates of protein synthesis by measuring the relative incorporation of {sup 35}S-MET in TCA precipitated protein samples. Results from these studies show that in vivo protein synthesis decreases continuously during 12 h of anaerobiosis and correlates with changes in ATP levels under similar conditions. Furthermore,more » polypeptide patterns obtained by SDS-PAGE and 2D-SDSPAGE indicate that anaerobiosis leads to differential protein synthesis in the roots.« less

  9. Eelgrass Blue Carbon-Quantification of Carbon Stocks and Sequestration Rates in Zostera Marina Beds in the Salish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, M. D.; Rybczyk, J.; Poppe, K.; Johnson, C.; Kaminsky, M.; Lanphear, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seagrass meadows provide more than habitat, biodiversity support, wave abatement, and water quality improvement; they help mitigate climate change by taking up and storing (sequestering) carbon (C), reportedly at rates only surpassed worldwide by salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems. Now that their climate mitigation capacity has earned seagrass ecosystems a place in the Verified Carbon Standard voluntary greenhouse gas program, accurate ecosystem carbon accounting is essential. Though seagrasses vary in carbon storage and accumulation greatly across species and geography, the bulk of data included in calculating global averages involves tropical and subtropical seagrasses. We know little regarding carbon stocks nor sequestration rates for eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the Pacific Northwest. The intent of our study was to quantify carbon stocks and sequestration rates in the central Salish Sea of Washington State. We gathered sediment cores over three bays, as close to 1 m in depth as possible, both on foot and while scuba diving. We measured bulk density, carbon concentration, carbon stock, grain size, and carbon accumulation rate with depth. Results from our study show lower estimated Corg concentration (mean = 0.39% C, SE=0.01, range=0.11-1.75, SE=0.01), Corg stock (mean=24.46 Mg ha-1, SE=0.00, range=16.31-49.99.70), and C sequestration rates (mean=33.96 g m-2yr-1, range=11.4-49.5) than those reported in published studies from most other locations. Zostera marina is highly productive, yet does not seem to have the capacity to store C in its sediments like seagrasses in warmer climes. These data have implications in carbon market trading, when determining appropriate seagrass restoration site dimensions to offset emissions from transportation, industry, and seagrass habitat disturbance. Awareness of lower rates could prevent underestimating the area appropriate for mitigation or restoration.

  10. Baltic Sea Blue Carbon: Role of environmental factors influencing the carbon sink capacity of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhr, E.; Holmer, M.; Boström, C.

    2016-02-01

    Although the global seagrass coverage area is less than 0.2 % of the worlds ocean floor, the carbon sink capacity of seagrasses may account up to 18 % of oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. Recent studies have shown considerable variation in the global estimates for seagrass meadow Corg accumulation rates and stocks, and indicate lack of understanding the factors influencing this variability. We sampled 20 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in Finland and Denmark to study the variation in Corg accumulation rates and stocks within the Baltic Sea area. The study sites in both regions spanned a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations. The estimates for Corg accumulation rates at the Finnish eelgrass meadows were two orders of magnitude lower than the estimates for the Danish sites. The Corg stock integrated over the top 25 cm of sediment showed similar pattern, suggesting that the Finnish eelgrass meadows are carbon sources rather than carbon sinks, and the produced Corg is exported from the meadows. In contrast, at the Danish sites both Corg accumulation rates and areal Corg stock was more varying suggesting, that in this region the meadows function both as carbon sinks and sources. Our analysis further showed that a large percentage (> 55 %) of the variation in the Corg stocks was explained by sediment characteristics (density, fraction of silt and grain size distribution). In addition, the contribution of Zostera marina detritus to the sediment Corg pool explained >14 % of the variation in the Corg stocks. In order to get more reliable regional and global estimates of the role of seagrass meadows in the ocean carbon cycle, more studies accounting for the full range of environmental and species characteristics are urgently needed.

  11. Sodium-dependent nitrate transport at the plasma membrane of leaf cells of the marine higher plant Zostera marina L.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, M J; Jaime, M P; Ramos, A; Sanders, D; Fernández, J A

    2000-03-01

    NO(3)(-) is present at micromolar concentrations in seawater and must be absorbed by marine plants against a steep electrochemical potential difference across the plasma membrane. We studied NO(3)(-) transport in the marine angiosperm Zostera marina L. to address the question of how NO(3)(-) uptake is energized. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that micromolar concentrations of NO(3)(-) induced depolarizations of the plasma membrane of leaf cells. Depolarizations showed saturation kinetics (K(m) = 2.31 +/- 0.78 microM NO(3)(-)) and were enhanced in alkaline conditions. The addition of NO(3)(-) did not affect the membrane potential in the absence of Na(+), but depolarizations were restored when Na(+) was resupplied. NO(3)(-)-induced depolarizations at increasing Na(+) concentrations showed saturation kinetics (K(m) = 0.72 +/- 0.18 mM Na(+)). Monensin, an ionophore that dissipates the Na(+) electrochemical potential, inhibited NO(3)(-)-evoked depolarizations by 85%, and NO(3)(-) uptake (measured by depletion from the external medium) was stimulated by Na(+) ions and by light. Our results strongly suggest that NO(3)(-) uptake in Z. marina is mediated by a high-affinity Na(+)-symport system, which is described here (for the first time to our knowledge) in an angiosperm. Coupling the uptake of NO(3)(-) to that of Na(+) enables the steep inwardly-directed electrochemical potential for Na(+) to drive net accumulation of NO(3)(-) within leaf cells.

  12. Long-Term Field Study Reveals Subtle Effects of the Invasive Alga Sargassum muticum upon the Epibiota of Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    DeAmicis, Stacey; Foggo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can alter coastal ecosystems both directly, e.g. through competition for substratum and nutrients, and indirectly. Indirect effects may be mediated by creation of dissimilar or inimical habitats, changes in predator and/or prey assemblages, alterations in associated biota, and perturbations of water movement and thermal regimes. Previous studies have shown that invasive algae can modify native habitat architecture, disrupt intricately linked food webs and alter epibiotic assemblages. In the UK, the seagrass Zostera marina supports a diverse epibiotic assemblage, influencing key factors such as sediment dynamics, depositional regime and trophic linkages. Increasing encroachment of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum into seagrass meadows changes the physical and chemical characteristics of the local environment and creates the potential for changes in the epibionts associated with the seagrass blades, threatening the integrity of the seagrass ecosystem. We investigated the effects of S. muticum invasion upon the epibiota of Z. marina in a drowned river valley in SW England seasonally from spring to autumn over four years in an in-situ manipulative experiment, comparing permanent quadrats with and without artificially introduced S. muticum. Epibiota were weighed, identified to the most detailed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) possible, and unitary organisms were enumerated. Multivariate PERMANOVA+ analysis revealed significant differences in epibiont assemblages between Sargassum treatments. Linear mixed effects models indicated that differences in epibiota assemblage composition were not reflected as significant differences in mean biomass per sample, or number of epibiont OTUs per sample. We conclude that S. muticum invasion into Z. marina meadows may significantly alter the species composition and abundance distribution of epibiotic assemblages found on the blades of the seagrass. Thus S. muticum invasion could have more wide-reaching effects on

  13. Annual variations of biomass and photosynthesis in Zostera marina at its southern end of distribution in the North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Munoz-Salazar, R.; Ward, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Density, biomass, morphology, phenology and photosynthetic characteristics of Zostera marina were related to continuous measurements of in situ irradiance, attenuation coefficient and temperature at three coastal lagoons in Baja California, Mexico. In situ irradiance was approximately two-fold lower at San Quintin Bay (SQ) than at Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OL) and San Ignacio Lagoon (SI). As a consequence of the greater irradiance, plants at OL and SI were established 1 m deeper within the water column than those at SQ. At SQ, there was a four-fold variation in biomass of Z. marina caused by changes on shoot length and not shoot density, while at OL and SI biomass and shoot length did not fluctuate significantly throughout the year. Reproductive shoot density reached maximum values concomitantly with the greatest irradiance during spring-summer, however, the density was approximately three-fold greater at SQ than at the southern coastal lagoons. While irradiance levels were two-fold greater at the southern lagoons, in general, photosynthetic characteristics were similar among all three lagoons. The hours of light saturated photosynthesis, calculated from their photosynthetic characteristics and irradiance measurements, suggest that photosynthesis of shoots from OL and SI are saturated for more than 6 h per day throughout the year, while shoots from SQ are likely light limited during approximately 15% of the year. Consequently, an increase in attenuation coefficient values in the water column will likely decrease light availability to Z. marina plants at SQ, potentially decreasing their survival. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Manipulations on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global climate change will have a large impact on the three predominate drivers of estuarine seagrass productivity, temperature, light and nutrients. I experimentally evaluate the response of Pacific Northwest Z. marina to interactive effects of temperature and nutrient conditio...

  15. Identification of Two Novel Amalgaviruses in the Common Eelgrass (Zostera marina) and in Silico Analysis of the Amalgavirus +1 Programmed Ribosomal Frameshifting Sites.

    PubMed

    Park, Dongbin; Goh, Chul Jun; Kim, Hyein; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2018-04-01

    The genome sequences of two novel monopartite RNA viruses were identified in a common eelgrass ( Zostera marina ) transcriptome dataset. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two novel viruses belong to the genus Amalgavirus in the family Amalgaviridae . They were named Zostera marina amalgavirus 1 (ZmAV1) and Zostera marina amalgavirus 2 (ZmAV2). Genomes of both ZmAV1 and ZmAV2 contain two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative replication factory matrix-like protein, while ORF2 encodes a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. The fusion protein (ORF1+2) of ORF1 and ORF2, which mediates RNA replication, was produced using the +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) mechanism. The +1 PRF motif sequence, UUU_CGN, which is highly conserved among known amalgaviruses, was also found in ZmAV1 and ZmAV2. Multiple sequence alignment of the ORF1+2 fusion proteins from 24 amalgaviruses revealed that +1 PRF occurred only at three different positions within the 13-amino acid-long segment, which was surrounded by highly conserved regions on both sides. This suggested that the +1 PRF may be constrained by the structure of fusion proteins. Genome sequences of ZmAV1 and ZmAV2, which are the first viruses to be identified in common eelgrass, will serve as useful resources for studying evolution and diversity of amalgaviruses.

  16. Identification of Two Novel Amalgaviruses in the Common Eelgrass (Zostera marina) and in Silico Analysis of the Amalgavirus +1 Programmed Ribosomal Frameshifting Sites

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dongbin; Goh, Chul Jun; Kim, Hyein; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2018-01-01

    The genome sequences of two novel monopartite RNA viruses were identified in a common eelgrass (Zostera marina) transcriptome dataset. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two novel viruses belong to the genus Amalgavirus in the family Amalgaviridae. They were named Zostera marina amalgavirus 1 (ZmAV1) and Zostera marina amalgavirus 2 (ZmAV2). Genomes of both ZmAV1 and ZmAV2 contain two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative replication factory matrix-like protein, while ORF2 encodes a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. The fusion protein (ORF1+2) of ORF1 and ORF2, which mediates RNA replication, was produced using the +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) mechanism. The +1 PRF motif sequence, UUU_CGN, which is highly conserved among known amalgaviruses, was also found in ZmAV1 and ZmAV2. Multiple sequence alignment of the ORF1+2 fusion proteins from 24 amalgaviruses revealed that +1 PRF occurred only at three different positions within the 13-amino acid-long segment, which was surrounded by highly conserved regions on both sides. This suggested that the +1 PRF may be constrained by the structure of fusion proteins. Genome sequences of ZmAV1 and ZmAV2, which are the first viruses to be identified in common eelgrass, will serve as useful resources for studying evolution and diversity of amalgaviruses. PMID:29628822

  17. Diel and seasonal variation of a molluscan taxocoenosis associated with a Zostera marina bed in southern Spain (Alboran Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Jose L.; Urra, Javier; Salas, Carmen

    2008-09-01

    The diel and seasonal variation of molluscs living in a Zostera marina bed (12-14 m depth) from southern Spain have been studied for one year using a small Agassiz trawl for collecting the samples (222 m2). The frequent and dominant species were very similar in both diurnal and nocturnal samples, including mainly gastropods such as Jujubinus striatus, Nassarius pygmaeus, Mitrella minor, Calliostoma planatum, Rissoa membranacea or Smaragdia viridis. Nevertheless, a significant increase of abundance of scavengers (e.g. Nassarius spp.) and carnivores (e.g. cephalopods) was registered in nocturnal samples. The abundance was maximal in spring and summer in diurnal and nocturnal samples and also in autumn for nocturnal ones, displaying significantly higher values in nocturnal samples. The species richness, diversity and evenness displayed a similar seasonal trend for diurnal and nocturnal samples, with maximum values during summer months. Monthly variation of the molluscan composition (species presence-absence data) was more acute than diel variation, according to the Cluster, MDS and ANOSIM results. Nevertheless, both monthly and diel changes in the structure (species abundance data) of the molluscan taxocoenosis were important throughout the year. Diel changes in the structure of the molluscan fauna are related to an increase of abundance of some species at nighttime due to vertical movements from the sediment to the shoots or along them (e.g. J. striatus, Nassarius spp.) or due to horizontal movements from adjacent habitats (e.g. cephalopods). Nevertheless, some species such as Rissoa spp. or Bittium spp. stay on the leaves of Z. marina during day as well as nighttime.

  18. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Jang, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Min Ji; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name "eelgrass") is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR) = 1.92, clonal diversity (R) = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82), which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061-0.573), suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle) and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne) and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the southern tip of

  19. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Jang, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Min Ji; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name “eelgrass”) is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR) = 1.92, clonal diversity (R) = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82), which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061–0.573), suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle) and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne) and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the southern

  20. Establishing a baseline for regional scale monitoring of eelgrass (Zostera marina) habitat on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogrefe, Kyle R.; Ward, David H.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Dau, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world’s most widespread and productive ecosystems, provide a wide range of services with real economic value. Worldwide declines in the distribution and abundance of seagrasses and increased threats to coastal ecosystems from climate change have prompted a need to acquire baseline data for monitoring and protecting these important habitats. We assessed the distribution and abundance of eelgrass (Zostera marina) along nearly 1200 km of shoreline on the lower Alaska Peninsula, a region of expansive eelgrass meadows whose status and trends are poorly understood. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a multi-scale approach by using Landsat satellite imagery to map the total areal extent of eelgrass while integrating field survey data to improve map accuracy and describe the physical and biological condition of the meadows. Innovative use of proven methods and processing tools was used to address challenges inherent to remote sensing in high latitude, coastal environments. Eelgrass was estimated to cover ~31,000 ha, 91% of submerged aquatic vegetation on the lower Alaska Peninsula, nearly doubling the known spatial extent of eelgrass in the region. Mapping accuracy was 80%–90% for eelgrass distribution at locations containing adequate field survey data for error analysis.

  1. Transplanting of the Seagrasses Zostera marina and Halodula wrightii for Sediment Stabilization and Habitat Development on the East Coast of the United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    term basis (2-3 yr) do not account for substantial accretion or retention of • sediments (only 1 -3 cm above the natural bottom) in open-water areas...ND-Al6 224 TRANSPLANTING OF THE SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA AND 1 / 1 HALODULR MRIGHTII FOR..(U) ARMY ENGINEER NATERNAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS...11.8 un1.051.41. NAIOA SU ____ OFSTN .,.- 1 ,3 ....... ...... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT RESEARCH PROGRAM * Re TECHNICAL REPORT EL-85-9 N TRANSPLANTING OF THE

  2. New Insights into Different Reproductive Effort and Sexual Recruitment Contribution between Two Geographic Zostera marina L. Populations in Temperate China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shaochun; Wang, Pengmei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei; Gu, Ruiting; Liu, Xujia; Liu, Bingjian; Song, Xiaoyue; Xu, Shuai; Yue, Shidong

    2018-01-01

    Seagrasses are important components of global coastal ecosystems, and the eelgrass Zostera marina L. is widely distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts in the temperate northern hemisphere, but limited datum related to the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment have been reported. This study aimed to understand eelgrass sexual reproduction and population recruitment in Swan Lake (SLL), and Huiquan Bay (HQB) was included for comparison. Random sampling, permanent quadrats or cores and laboratory seed germination-based experimental methods were employed. The flowering, seed production, seed banks, seed germination, seedling survival, and seedling growth of eelgrass were investigated from July 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment. Results indicated a dominant role of asexual reproduction in HQB, while sexual reproduction played a relatively important role in SLL. The highest flowering shoot density in SLL was 517.27 ± 504.29 shoots m−2 (June) and represented 53.34% of the total shoots at the center site. The potential seed output per reproductive shoot and per unit area in SLL were 103.67 ± 37.95 seeds shoot−1 and 53,623.66 ± 19,628.11 seeds m−2, respectively. The maximum seed bank density in SLL was 552.21 ± 204.94 seeds m−2 (October). Seed germination mainly occurred from the middle of March to the end of May, and the highest seedling density was 296.88 ± 274.27 seedlings m−2 in April. The recruitment from seedlings accounted for 41.36% of the Z. marina population recruitment at the center site, while the sexual recruitment contribution at the patch site (50.52%) was greater than that at the center site. Seeds in SLL were acclimated to spring germination, while in HQB, they were acclimated to autumn germination (early October–late November). Seed bank density in HQB was very low, with a value of 254.35 ± 613.34 seeds m−2 (early October). However, seeds

  3. New Insights into Different Reproductive Effort and Sexual Recruitment Contribution between Two Geographic Zostera marina L. Populations in Temperate China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaochun; Wang, Pengmei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei; Gu, Ruiting; Liu, Xujia; Liu, Bingjian; Song, Xiaoyue; Xu, Shuai; Yue, Shidong

    2018-01-01

    Seagrasses are important components of global coastal ecosystems, and the eelgrass Zostera marina L. is widely distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts in the temperate northern hemisphere, but limited datum related to the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment have been reported. This study aimed to understand eelgrass sexual reproduction and population recruitment in Swan Lake (SLL), and Huiquan Bay (HQB) was included for comparison. Random sampling, permanent quadrats or cores and laboratory seed germination-based experimental methods were employed. The flowering, seed production, seed banks, seed germination, seedling survival, and seedling growth of eelgrass were investigated from July 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment. Results indicated a dominant role of asexual reproduction in HQB, while sexual reproduction played a relatively important role in SLL. The highest flowering shoot density in SLL was 517.27 ± 504.29 shoots m -2 (June) and represented 53.34% of the total shoots at the center site. The potential seed output per reproductive shoot and per unit area in SLL were 103.67 ± 37.95 seeds shoot -1 and 53,623.66 ± 19,628.11 seeds m -2 , respectively. The maximum seed bank density in SLL was 552.21 ± 204.94 seeds m -2 (October). Seed germination mainly occurred from the middle of March to the end of May, and the highest seedling density was 296.88 ± 274.27 seedlings m -2 in April. The recruitment from seedlings accounted for 41.36% of the Z. marina population recruitment at the center site, while the sexual recruitment contribution at the patch site (50.52%) was greater than that at the center site. Seeds in SLL were acclimated to spring germination, while in HQB, they were acclimated to autumn germination (early October-late November). Seed bank density in HQB was very low, with a value of 254.35 ± 613.34 seeds m -2 (early October). However, seeds in HQB

  4. The interactive effects of the antifouling herbicides Irgarol 1051 and Diuron on the seagrass Zostera marina (L.).

    PubMed

    Chesworth, J C; Donkin, M E; Brown, M T

    2004-02-25

    The herbicides Irgarol 1051 (2-(tert-butylamino)-4-cyclopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-1,3,5-triazine) and Diuron (3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) are commonly incorporated into antifouling paints to boost the efficacy of the compound towards algae. Previous investigations have identified environmental concentrations of these herbicides as being a threat to non-target organisms, such as seagrasses. Their individual toxicity has been assessed, but they can co-occur and interact, potentially increasing their toxicity and the threat posed to seagrass meadows. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv:Fm) and leaf specific biomass ratio (representing plant growth) were examined in Zostera marina L. after a 10-day exposure to the individual herbicides. The EC20 for each herbicide was determined and these then used in herbicide mixtures to assess their interactive effects. Irgarol 1051 was found to be more toxic than Diuron with lowest observable effect concentrations for Fv:Fm reduction of 0.5 and 1.0 +/- microg/l and 10-day EC50 values of 1.1 and 3.2 microg/l, respectively. Plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and Diuron showed a significant reduction in growth at concentrations of 1.0 and 5.0 microg/l, respectively. When Z. marina was exposed to mixtures, the herbicides commonly interacted additively or antagonistically, and no significant further reduction in photosynthetic efficiency was found at any concentration when compared to plants exposed to the individual herbicides. However, on addition of the Diuron EC20 to varying Irgarol 1051 concentrations and the Irgarol 1051 EC20 to varying Diuron concentrations, significant reductions in Fv:Fm were noted at an earlier stage. The growth of plants exposed to Diuron plus the Irgarol 1051 EC20 were significantly reduced when compared to plants exposed to Diuron alone, but only at the lower concentrations. Growth of plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and the Diuron EC20 showed no significant reduction when compared to the growth of

  5. Indirect effects of predators control herbivore richness and abundance in a benthic eelgrass (Zostera marina) mesograzer community.

    PubMed

    Amundrud, Sarah L; Srivastava, Diane S; O'Connor, Mary I

    2015-07-01

    Herbivore communities can be sensitive to changes in predator pressure (top-down effects) and resource availability (bottom-up effects) in a wide range of systems. However, it remains unclear whether such top-down and bottom-up effects reflect direct impacts of predators and/or resources on herbivores, or are indirect, reflecting altered interactions among herbivore species. We quantified direct and indirect effects of bottom-up and top-down processes on an eelgrass (Zostera marina) herbivore assemblage. In a field experiment, we factorially manipulated water column nutrients (with Osmocote(™) slow-release fertilizer) and predation pressure (with predator exclusion cages) and measured the effects on herbivore abundance, richness and beta diversity. We examined likely mechanisms of community responses by statistically exploring the response of individual herbivore species to trophic manipulations. Predators increased herbivore richness and total abundance, in both cases through indirect shifts in community composition. Increases in richness occurred through predator suppression of common gammarid amphipod species (Monocorophium acherusicum and Photis brevipes), permitting the inclusion of rarer gammarid species (Aoroides columbiae and Pontogeneia rostrata). Increased total herbivore abundance reflected increased abundance of a caprellid amphipod species (Caprella sp.), concurrent with declines in the abundance of other common species. Furthermore, predators decreased beta diversity by decreasing variability in Caprella sp. abundance among habitat patches. Osmocote(™) fertilization increased nutrient concentrations locally, but nutrients dissipated to background levels within 3 m of the fertilizer. Nutrient addition weakly affected the herbivore assemblage, not affecting richness and increasing total abundance by increasing one herbivore species (Caprella sp.). Nutrient addition did not affect beta diversity. We demonstrated that assemblage-level effects of

  6. High mortality of Zostera marina under high temperature regimes but minor effects of the invasive macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höffle, H.; Thomsen, M. S.; Holmer, M.

    2011-03-01

    The present study tested for density-dependent effects of the invasive drift macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss on growth and survival of the native eelgrass, Zostera marina L., under different temperature levels. Three weeks laboratory experiments were conducted in Odense, Denmark, combining three algae densities (control, low 1.9 kg WW m -2, high 4.5 kg WW m -2) with typical Danish summer temperatures (18 °C) and elevated temperatures (21 °C and 27 °C). There was a significant effect of temperature on shoot survival with on average 68% mortality in the high temperature treatment but almost no mortality at the two lower temperatures. The higher mortality was probably caused by high sulphide levels in the sediment pore water (0.6 mmol l -1 at 18 °C compared to 3.7 mmol l -1 at 27 °C). Above-ground growth of the surviving shoots was also significantly affected by temperature, with leaf elongation rates being negatively affected, while the leaf plastochrone interval increased. Relative growth rate was significantly higher at 21 °C than at 18 °C or 27 °C, whereas rhizome elongation was significantly lowest at 27 °C. Elemental sulphur content in the plant tissues increased significantly with temperature and was up to 34 times higher (S 0 in rhizomes) at 27 °C compared to the lower temperatures. In contrast to the temperature effects, cover by G. vermiculophylla did not cause significant effects on any seagrass responses. However, there was a (non-significant) negative effect of algal cover at the highest temperature, where the seagrass is already stressed. The latter results suggest that more studies should test for interaction effects between temperature and other anthropogenic stressors given that temperature is predicted to increase in the near future.

  7. Decline in eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) in Long Island Sound near Millstone Point, Connecticut (USA) unrelated to thermal input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keser, Milan; Swenarton, John T.; Vozarik, Joseph M.; Foertch, James F.

    2003-02-01

    Eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) shoot density, seed-bearing shoot abundance, shoot length, and standing stock biomass were monitored during summer months from 1985 to 2000 at three locations in eastern Long Island Sound (LIS) near Millstone Power Station (MPS), Waterford, Connecticut, USA. Short-term declines in eelgrass abundance were directly associated with fouling and overgrowth of eelgrass on two occasions; once by blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) and once by a bloom of green algae ( Cladophora spp.). Analysis of long-term trends indicated some degree of decline in most of the parameters examined at all three areas monitored. The spatial relationship of the long-term eelgrass declines suggests primary causal factors other than the power plant discharge or regional climate change. Two populations to the east of MPS and near the fringes of the thermal plume (<1.5 km from the MPS discharge to LIS) exhibited only slight declines over the 16-y study period and thermal input from MPS to these sites was minimal (<1 °C above ambient conditions). By comparison, heavy eelgrass losses were documented in the Niantic River, located >2 km from the power plant thermal plume. Die-offs of entire individual eelgrass study beds in the Niantic River were observed on five separate occasions during the study with no sign of recovery. While the causes were not determined, anthropogenic influences such as nutrient loading from surface run-off and groundwater sources may have contributed to observed declines. The Niantic River has a more restricted tidal inlet and is closer to sources of nutrient enrichment than Jordan Cove. Historically, eelgrass has ranged to far western reaches of LIS, but over the last century has become restricted to the easternmost third of the Connecticut coastline due to nutrient loading and eutrophication of the western portions. This study suggests that the west-to-east declining trend in eelgrass distribution in LIS may be further progressing.

  8. Effect of abalone farming on seawater movement and benthic foraminiferal assemblage of Zostera marina in the inner bay of Wando, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Choi, Yang Ho; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jung Jun; Choi, Jae Ung

    2016-08-15

    Tidal current survey as well as geochemical and benthic foraminiferal analyses of sediment cores were conducted in an abalone farm and a Zostera bed to understand the degree to which the abalone farm facilities installed along a channel in a shallow sea affect the benthic environment and ecology. In the abalone farm, Ammonia beccarii-Pseudoparrella naraensis-Elphidium somaense-Rosalina globularis-Trochammina hadai and P. naraensis-E. somaense-A. beccarii-T. hadai assemblages appeared owing to an increase in the total nitrogen content from the biodeposits. The Zostera bed consisted of A. beccarii-P. naraensis-Buccella frigida-T. hadai assemblage owing to the gradual expansion of a brackish shallow-water environment by the rapidly decreasing current speed, and it may have flourished. Moreover, the total sulfur, Zn, Cr, and Cu contents in the sediments decreased remarkably more than those of the pre-abalone farming did, caused by the vigorous activity of Zostera marina physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Disturbance of eelgrass Zostera marina by commercial mussel Mytilus edulis harvesting in Maine: Dragging impacts and habitat recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Short, Frederick T.; Barker, Seth; Kopp, Blaine S.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of commercial harvest of blue mussels Mytilus edulis on eelgrass Zostera marina L. in Maquoit Bay, Maine, USA, at a hierarchy of scales. We used aerial photography, underwater video, and eelgrass population- and shoot-based measurements to quantify dragging impacts within 4 sites that had been disturbed at different times over an approximate 7 yr interval, and to project eelgrass meadow recovery rates. Dragging had disturbed 10% of the eelgrass cover in Maquoit Bay, with dragged sites ranging from 3.4 to 31.8 ha in size. Dragging removed above- and belowground plant material from the majority of the bottom in the disturbed sites. One year following dragging, eelgrass shoot density, shoot height and total biomass of disturbed sites averaged respectively 2 to 3%, 46 to 61% and <1% that of the reference sites. Substantial differences in eelgrass biomass persisted between disturbed and reference sites up to 7 yr after dragging. Dragging did not affect physical characteristics of the sediment. The pattern and rate of eelgrass bed recovery depended strongly on initial dragging intensity; areas of relatively light dragging with many remnant eelgrass patches (i.e. patches that were missed by the mussel dredge) showed considerable revegetation in 1 yr. However, by developing recovery trajectories from measurements at sites disturbed in different years, we projected that it would require a mean of 10.6 yr for recovery of eelgrass shoot density within the areas of intense dragging characterizing most of the disturbed sites. A spatial simulation model based on measured rates of lateral patch-expansion (mean 12.5 cm yr-1) and new-patch recruitment (mean 0.19 patches m-2 yr-1) yielded a mean bed recovery time of 9 to 11 yr following dragging, depending on initial degree of plant removal. Model simulations suggested that with favorable environmental conditions, eelgrass beds might recover from dragging disturbance in 6 yr; conversely, recovery under

  10. Disturbance of eelgrass Zostera marina by commercial mussel Mytilus edulis harvesting in Maine: Dragging impacts and habitat recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neckles, H.A.; Short, F.T.; Barker, S.; Kopp, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of commercial harvest of blue mussels Mytilus edulis on eelgrass Zostera marina L. in Maquoit Bay, Maine, USA, at a hierarchy of scales. We used aerial photography, underwater video, and eelgrass population- and shoot-based measurements to quantify dragging impacts within 4 sites that had been disturbed at different times over an approximate 7 yr interval, and to project eelgrass meadow recovery rates. Dragging had disturbed 10% of the eelgrass cover in Maquoit Bay, with dragged sites ranging from 3.4 to 31.8 ha in size. Dragging removed above- and belowground plant material from the majority of the bottom in the disturbed sites. One year following dragging, eelgrass shoot density, shoot height and total biomass of disturbed sites averaged respectively 2 to 3 %, 46 to 61 % and <1 % that of the reference sites. Substantial differences in eelgrass biomass persisted between disturbed and reference sites up to 7 yr after dragging. Dragging did not affect physical characteristics of the sediment. The pattern and rate of eelgrass bed recovery depended strongly on initial dragging intensity; areas of relatively light dragging with many remnant eelgrass patches (i.e. patches that were missed by the mussel dredge) showed considerable revegetation in 1 yr. However, by developing recovery trajectories from measurements at sites disturbed in different years, we projected that it would require a mean of 10.6 yr for recovery of eelgrass shoot density within the areas of intense dragging characterizing most of the disturbed sites. A spatial simulation model based on measured rates of lateral patch-expansion (mean 12.5 cm yr-1) and new-patch recruitment (mean 0.19 patches m-2 yr-1) yielded a mean bed recovery time of 9 to 11 yr following dragging, depending on initial degree of plant removal. Model simulations suggested that with favorable environmental conditions, eelgrass beds might recover from dragging disturbance in 6 yr; conversely, recovery under

  11. Molluscs associated with a subtidal Zostera marina L. bed in southern Spain: Linking seasonal changes of fauna and environmental variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Jose L.; Salas, Carmen

    2008-08-01

    The temporal variation of the molluscan fauna associated with a deep Zostera marina bed (12-14 m depth) in Cañuelo Bay (southern Spain) has been studied in relation to water, sediment and eelgrass variables. Samples of molluscs from the sediment and the eelgrass (5 replicates per season) were seasonally collected using a quadrat of 25 × 25 cm. The water column was characterized by the temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. The grain size distribution of the sediment and percentage of organic matter (%OM) were also studied. Estimations of the shoot density, leaf/rhizome biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) have been obtained for each sample. Statistical analyses have been performed with SYSTAT and PRIMER software. A total of 2396 individuals and 85 species of molluscs were collected. The most dominant species were infaunal bivalves such as Tellina distorta (28.1%), Dosinia lupinus, Tellina fabula and Chamelea gallina. The gastropods Jujubinus striatus (4.6%), Nassarius pygmaeus and Bittium reticulatum were the dominant epifaunal species. The most frequent species was T. distorta (100%), followed by other infaunal bivalves such as T. fabula, Solemya togata or Lucinella divaricata. The most frequent gastropods were J. striatus (95%), followed by B. reticulatum, N. pygmaeus, Nassarius reticulatus, Mitrella minor and Smaragdia viridis. The abundance of molluscs displayed significant maximum values in summer and autumn (above 2500 indiv. m -2) and minimum values in spring (below 1500 indiv. m -2). The abundance of the epifauna was related with leaf biomass, whereas that of the infauna was positively related with %OM. The species richness also followed a significant seasonal variation with maximum values in summer (64 species in all summer samples) and minimum values in autumn (44 in all autumn samples), and was positively related with LAI. In both qualitative and quantitative cluster/MDS, samples (replicates) mainly grouped according to the season, with

  12. The Importance of Zostera marina to a Local Food Web Based on the Analysis of Compound Specific Isotopes in Maquoit Bay, Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doolittle, H. A.; Johnson, B. J.; Ambrose, W. G.; Locke, W.; Harris, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Zostera marina (also known as eelgrass) is an important primary producer in near shore ecosystems in the Gulf of Maine, providing both habitat and nutrients for a variety of organisms (e.g., crustaceans, polychaetes, gastropods, and fish). The purpose of this study is to use compound specific δ13C analyses of essential amino acids to determine the degree to which organic matter derived from isotopically distinct primary producers (e.g., eelgrass, phytoplankton, and epiphytic algae) contribute to the diets of snails, shrimp, and fish in an eelgrass system in Casco Bay. Maquoit Bay, located in northwestern Casco Bay, in the Gulf of Maine, is a shallow estuarine system that is characterized by silt and clay sized sediments and the presence of extensive eelgrass beds. Amino acid concentrations and δ13C compositions were determined for a variety of sample-types collected in July-August, 2010, from three sites in the study area, including muscle tissue from Tautogolabrus adspersus (cunner), Gasterosteus aculeatus (3-spined stickleback), Nassarius obsoletus (snail), and Mysis spp. (shrimp), seston (i.e., phytoplankton), Z. marina, and epiphytic algae. TFAA amino acid derivatives of the total hydrolyzate were analyzed by GC-FID for amino acid concentration, and by GC-c-IRMS- for carbon isotope composition. Muscle tissue was dominated by glutamic and aspartic acids, and leucine, whereas Zostera marina was dominated by aspartic and glutamic acids, and proline. Phenylalanine and leucine in Z. marina are approximately 10 ‰ enriched in 13C relative to these same amino acids in the seston. The carbon isotope values of these essential amino acids are significantly more enriched in 13C for N. obsoletus than for T. adspersus, G. aculeatus, and Mysis spp. These data suggest that organic matter derived from Z. marina and/or epiphytic algae is more important in the diets of N. obsoletus, and organic matter derived from seston is more important for the diets of T. adspersus, G

  13. Nanoparticle-based measurements of pH and O2 dynamics in the rhizosphere of Zostera marina L.: effects of temperature elevation and light-dark transitions.

    PubMed

    Elgetti Brodersen, Kasper; Koren, Klaus; Lichtenberg, Mads; Kühl, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Seagrasses can modulate the geochemical conditions in their immediate rhizosphere through the release of chemical compounds from their below-ground tissue. This is a vital chemical defence mechanism, whereby the plants detoxify the surrounding sediment. Using novel nanoparticle-based optical O2 and pH sensors incorporated in reduced and transparent artificial sediment, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of pH and O2 within the entire rhizosphere of Zostera marina L. during experimental manipulations of light and temperature. We combined such measurements with O2 microsensor measurements of the photosynthetic productivity and respiration of seagrass leaves. We found pronounced pH and O2 microheterogeneity within the immediate rhizosphere of Z. marina, with higher below-ground tissue oxidation capability and rhizoplane pH levels during both light exposure of the leaf canopy and elevated temperature, where the temperature-mediated stimuli of biogeochemical processes seemed to predominate. Low rhizosphere pH microenvironments appeared to correlate with plant-derived oxic microzones stimulating local sulphide oxidation and thus driving local proton generation, although the rhizoplane pH levels generally where much higher than the bulk sediment pH. Our data show that Z. marina can actively alter its rhizosphere pH microenvironment alleviating the local H2 S toxicity and enhancing nutrient availability in the adjacent sediment via geochemical speciation shift. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Identification of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein genes of Zostera marina L. and their expression under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fanna; Zhou, Yang; Sun, Peipei; Cao, Min; Li, Hong; Mao, Yunxiang

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthesis includes the collection of light and the transfer of solar energy using light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHC) proteins. In high plants, the LHC gene family includes LHCA and LHCB sub-families, which encode proteins constituting the light-harvesting complex of photosystems I and II. Zostera marina L. is a monocotyledonous angiosperm and inhabits submerged marine environments rather than land environments. We characterized the Lhca and Lhcb gene families of Z. marina from the expressed sequence tags (EST) database. In total, 13 unigenes were annotated as ZmLhc, 6 in Lhca family and 7 in ZmLhcb family. ZmLHCA and ZmLHCB contained the conservative LHC motifs and amino acid residues binding chlorophyll. The average similarity among mature ZmLHCA and ZmLHCB was 48.91% and 48.66%, respectively, which indicated a high degree of divergence within ZmLHChc gene family. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree showed that the tree topology and phylogenetic relationship were similar to those reported in other high plants, suggesting that the Lhc genes were highly conservative and the classification of ZmLhc genes was consistent with the evolutionary position of Z. marina. Real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR analysis showed that different members of ZmLhca and ZmLhcb responded to a stress in different expression patterns. Salinity, temperature, light intensity and light quality may affect the expression of most ZmLhca and ZmLhcb genes. Inorganic carbon concentration and acidity had no obvious effect on ZmLhca and ZmLhcb gene expression, except for ZmLhca6.

  15. Factors Influencing Spatial and Annual Variability in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) Meadows in Willapa Bay, Washington, and Coos Bay, Oregon, Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Rumrill, Steven

    2003-08-01

    Environmental factors that influence annual variability and spatial differences in eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina L.) were examined within Willapa Bay, WA, and Coos Bay, OR, over a period of 4 years (1998-2001). A suite of eelgrass metrics were recorded annually at field sites that spanned the estuarine gradient from the marine-dominated to mesohaline regions. Growth of eelgrass plants was also monitored on a monthly basis within Sequim Bay, WA. Both the spatial cover and density of Z. marina were positively correlated with estuarine salinity and inversely correlated with temperature of the tideflat sediment. Experimental evidence verified that optimal eelgrass growthmore » occurred at highest salinities and relatively low temperatures. Eelgrass density, biomass, and the incident of flowering plants all increased substantially in Willapa Bay, and less so in Coos Bay, over the duration of the study. Warmer winters and cooler summers associated with the transition from El Ni?o to La Ni?a ocean conditions during the study period were correlated with the increase in eelgrass abundance and flowering. Anthropogenic factors (e.g., disturbance and erosion by vessel wakes and recreational shellfishing activities) may have contributed to spatial variability. Our findings indicate that large-scale changes in climate and nearshore ocean conditions can exert a strong regional influence on eelgrass abundance, which can vary annually by as much as 700% in Willapa Bay. Lower levels of variability observed in Coos Bay may be due to the stronger and more direct influence of the nearshore Pacific Ocean. We conclude that climate variation may have profound effects on the abundance and distribution of eelgrass meadows throughout the Pacific Northwest, and we anticipate that ocean conditions will emerge as a primary driving force for living estuarine resources and ecological processes that are associated with Z. marina beds within the landscape of these estuarine tidal basins.« less

  16. Physiological evidence for a sodium-dependent high-affinity phosphate and nitrate transport at the plasma membrane of leaf and root cells of Zostera marina L.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L; Linares-Rueda, A; García-Sánchez, M J; Fernández, J A

    2005-02-01

    Zostera marina L. is an angiosperm that grows in a medium in which inorganic phosphate (P(i)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) are present in micromolar concentrations and must be absorbed against a steep electrochemical potential gradient. The operation of a Na(+)-dependent NO(3)(-) transport was previously demonstrated in leaf cells of this plant, suggesting that other Na(+)-coupled systems could mediate the uptake of anions. To address this question, P(i) transport was studied in leaves and roots of Z. marina, as well as NO(3)(-) uptake in roots. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that micromolar concentrations of P(i) induced depolarizations of the plasma membrane of root cells. However, this effect was not observed in leaf cells. P(i)-induced depolarizations showed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(m)=1.5+/-0.6 microM P(i); D(max)=7.8+/-0.8 mV), and were not observed in the absence of Na(+). However, depolarizations were restored when Na(+) was resupplied. NO(3)(-) additions also evoked depolarizations of the plasma membrane of root cells only in the presence of Na(+). Both NO(3)(-)- and P(i)-induced depolarizations were accompanied by an increase in cytoplasmic Na(+) activity, detected by Na(+)-sensitive microelectrodes. P(i) net uptake (measured in depletion experiments) was stimulated by Na(+). These results strongly suggest that P(i) uptake in roots of Z. marina is mediated by a high-affinity Na(+)-dependent transport system. Both NO(3)(-) and P(i) transport systems exploit the steep inwardly directed electrochemical potential gradient for Na(+), considering the low cytoplasmic Na(+) activity (10.7+/-3.3 mM Na(+)) and the high external Na(+) concentration (500 mM Na(+)).

  17. An examination of photoacclimatory responses of Zostera marina transplants along a depth gradient for transplant-site selection in a disturbed estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Tao; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2013-02-01

    Growth and photosynthetic responses of Zostera marina transplants along a depth gradient were examined to determine appropriate transplanting areas for seagrass restoration. Seagrass Z. marina was once widely distributed in the Taehwa River estuary in southeastern Korea, but has disappeared since the 1960s due to port construction and large scale pollutant inputs from upstream industrial areas. Recently, water quality has been considerably improved as a result of effective sewage treatment, and the local government is attempting to restore Z. marina to the estuary. For seagrass restoration in this estuary, a pilot transplantation trial of Z. marina at three water depths (shallow: 0.5 m; intermediate: 1.5 m; deep: 2.5 m relative to MLLW) was conducted in November 2008. The transplant shoot density increased gradually at the intermediate and deep sites, whereas the transplants at the shallow site disappeared after 3 months. To find the optimal transplantation locations in this estuary, the growth and photosynthetic responses of the transplants along a depth gradient were examined for approximately 4 months following transplantation in March 2009. In the 2009 experimental transplantation trial, shoot density of transplants at the shallow site was significantly higher than those at the intermediate and deep sites during the first 3 months following transplantation, but rapidly decreased approximately 4 months after transplantation. The chlorophyll content, photosynthetic efficiency (α), and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of the transplants were significantly higher at the deep site than at the shallow site. Shoot size, biomass and leaf productivity were also significantly higher at the deep site than at the shallow site. Although underwater irradiance was significantly lower at the deep site than at the shallow site, transplants at the deep site were morphologically and physiologically acclimated to the low light. Transplants at the shallow site exhibited high

  18. Environmental Impact Research Program. The Use of Fertilizer To Enhance Transplants of the Seagrasses Zostera marina and Halodule wrightii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    throughout Florida, the Gulf Coast, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These two species co-occur only along a narrow band of the middle Atlantic ...Thayer et al. 1984). Zostera dominates the temperate seagrass community on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, while Halodule occurs in the United States...C and allowed to dry to a constant weight. After drying, each 9 - tN.WVunEY .M .UrS, .m w sample was pulverized with a mortar and pestle to ensure

  19. Pollutant tracking for 3 Western North Atlantic sea grasses by remote sensing: Preliminary diminishing white light responses of Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Berlyn, Graeme P; Poulos, Helen M; Goodale, Uromi M

    2015-08-15

    Sea grasses are foundation species for estuarine ecosystems. The available light for sea grasses diminishes rapidly during pollutant spills, effluent releases, disturbances such as intense riverine input, and tidal changes. We studied how sea grasses' remote-sensing signatures and light-capturing ability respond to short term light alterations. In vivo responses were measured over the entire visible-light spectra to diminishing white-light on whole-living-plants' spectral reflectance, including 6h of full oceanic-light fluences from 10% to 100%. We analyzed differences by various reflectance indices. We compared the sea grasses species responses of tropical vs. temperate and intertidals (Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina) vs. subtidal (Thalassia testudinum). Reflectance diminished with decreasing light intensity that coincided with greater accessory pigment stimulation (anthocyanin, carotenoids, xanthins). Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b differed significantly among species (Thalassia vs. Halodule). Photosynthetic efficiency diminished at high light intensities. The NDVI index was inadequate to perceive these differences. Our results demonstrate the leaf-level utility of data to remote sensing for mapping sea grass and sea grass stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism: the effect of limpet grazing on growth, productivity and carbon allocation of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass).

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Richard C; Kohrs, Donald G; Alberte, Randall S

    1996-09-01

    The unusual appearance of a commensal eelgrass limpet [Tectura depicta (Berry)] from southern California at high density (up to 10 shoot -1 ) has coincided with the catastrophic decline of a subtidal Zostera marina L. meadow in Monterey Bay, California. Some commensal limpets graze the chloroplast-rich epidermis of eelgrass leaves, but were not known to affect seagrass growth or productivity. We evaluated the effect on eelgrass productivity of grazing by limpets maintained at natural densities (8±2 shoot -1 ) in a natural light mesocosm for 45 days. Growth rates, carbon reserves, root proliferation and net photosynthesis of grazed plants were 50-80% below those of ungrazed plants, but biomass-specific respiration was unaffected. The daily period of irradiance-saturated photosynthesis (H sat ) needed to maintain positive carbon balance in grazed plants approached 13.5 h, compared with 5-6 h for ungrazed plants. The amount of carbon allocated to roots of ungrazed plants was 800% higher than for grazed plants. By grazing the chlorophyll-rich epidermis, T. depicta induced carbon limitation in eelgrass growing in an other-wise light-replete environment. Continued northward movement of T. depicta, may have significant impacts on eelgrass production and population dynamics in the northeast Pacific, even thought this limpet consumes very little plant biomass. This interaction is a dramatic example of top-down control (grazing/predation) of eelgrass productivity and survival operating via a bottom-up mechanism (photosynthesis limitation).

  1. Desulfomusa hansenii gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine propionate-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Zostera marina roots.

    PubMed

    Finster, K; Thomsen, T R; Ramsing, N B

    2001-11-01

    The physiology and phylogeny of a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium, isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the marine macrophyte Zostera marina, are presented. The strain, designated P1T, was enriched and isolated in defined oxygen-free, bicarbonate-buffered, iron-reduced seawater medium with propionate as sole carbon source and electron donor and sulfate as electron acceptor. Strain P1T had a rod-shaped, slightly curved cell morphology and was motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Cells generally aggregated in clumps throughout the growth phase. High CaCl2 (10 mM) and MgCl2 (50 mM) concentrations were required for optimum growth. In addition to propionate, strain P1T utilized fumarate, succinate, pyruvate, ethanol, butanol and alanine. Oxidation of propionate was incomplete and acetate was formed in stoichiometric amounts. Strain P1T thus resembles members of the sulfate-reducing genera Desulfobulbus and Desulforhopalus, which both oxidize propionate incompletely and form acetate in addition to CO2. However, sequence analysis of the small-subunit rDNA and the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene revealed that strain P1T was unrelated to the incomplete oxidizers Desulfobulbus and Desulforhopalus and that it constitutes a novel lineage affiliated with the genera Desulfococcus, Desulfosarcina, Desulfonema and 'Desulfobotulus'. Members of this branch, with the exception of 'Desulfobotulus sapovorans', oxidize a variety of substrates completely to CO2. Strain P1T (= DSM 12642T = ATCC 700811T) is therefore proposed as Desulfomusa hansenii gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain p1T thus illustrates the difficulty of extrapolating rRNA similarities to physiology and/or ecological function.

  2. Seagrass (Zostera marina) Colonization Promotes the Accumulation of Diazotrophic Bacteria and Alters the Relative Abundances of Specific Bacterial Lineages Involved in Benthic Carbon and Sulfur Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass colonization changes the chemistry and biogeochemical cycles mediated by microbes in coastal sediments. In this study, we molecularly characterized the diazotrophic assemblages and entire bacterial community in surface sediments of a Zostera marina-colonized coastal lagoon in northern China. Higher nitrogenase gene (nifH) copy numbers were detected in the sediments from the vegetated region than in the sediments from the unvegetated region nearby. The nifH phylotypes detected were mostly affiliated with the Geobacteraceae, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, and Pseudomonas. Redundancy analysis based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the distribution of nifH genotypes was mostly shaped by the ratio of total organic carbon to total organic nitrogen, the concentration of cadmium in the sediments, and the pH of the overlying water. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes also indicated the presence of Geobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae phylotypes in these samples. A comparison of these results with those of previous studies suggests the prevalence and predominance of iron(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae diazotrophs in coastal sedimentary environments. Although the entire bacterial community structure was not significantly different between these two niches, Desulfococcus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) presented with much higher proportions in the vegetated sediments, and Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) occurred more frequently in the bare sediments. These data suggest that the high bioavailability of organic matter (indicated by relatively lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratios) and the less-reducing anaerobic condition in vegetated sediments may favor Desulfococcus and Anaerolineae lineages, which are potentially important populations in benthic carbon and sulfur cycling in the highly productive seagrass ecosystem. PMID:26209674

  3. Seagrass (Zostera marina) Colonization Promotes the Accumulation of Diazotrophic Bacteria and Alters the Relative Abundances of Specific Bacterial Lineages Involved in Benthic Carbon and Sulfur Cycling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Fanghua; Zhang, Jianping; Gong, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Seagrass colonization changes the chemistry and biogeochemical cycles mediated by microbes in coastal sediments. In this study, we molecularly characterized the diazotrophic assemblages and entire bacterial community in surface sediments of a Zostera marina-colonized coastal lagoon in northern China. Higher nitrogenase gene (nifH) copy numbers were detected in the sediments from the vegetated region than in the sediments from the unvegetated region nearby. The nifH phylotypes detected were mostly affiliated with the Geobacteraceae, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, and Pseudomonas. Redundancy analysis based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the distribution of nifH genotypes was mostly shaped by the ratio of total organic carbon to total organic nitrogen, the concentration of cadmium in the sediments, and the pH of the overlying water. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes also indicated the presence of Geobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae phylotypes in these samples. A comparison of these results with those of previous studies suggests the prevalence and predominance of iron(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae diazotrophs in coastal sedimentary environments. Although the entire bacterial community structure was not significantly different between these two niches, Desulfococcus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) presented with much higher proportions in the vegetated sediments, and Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) occurred more frequently in the bare sediments. These data suggest that the high bioavailability of organic matter (indicated by relatively lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratios) and the less-reducing anaerobic condition in vegetated sediments may favor Desulfococcus and Anaerolineae lineages, which are potentially important populations in benthic carbon and sulfur cycling in the highly productive seagrass ecosystem. Copyright © 2015

  4. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients - November 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of temperature and nutrient quantity on Z. marina growth and physiology. Ma...

  5. The potential effects of global climate change on the distribution of native and introduced Zostera seagrasses on the Pacific Coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass species in the genus Zostera occur on the Pacific coast of North America: the native species Zostera marina L., and an introduced species, Z. japonica Ascher. & Graeb. Z. marina occurs along the entire Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Zos...

  6. Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management’s...

  7. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically...

  8. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  9. Proteomic analysis on mangrove plant Avicennia marina leaves reveals nitric oxide enhances the salt tolerance by up-regulating photosynthetic and energy metabolic protein expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Juan; Ghoto, Kabir; Hu, Wen-Jun; Gao, Gui-Feng; Luo, Mei-Rong; Li, Zan; Simon, Martin; Zhu, Xue-Yi; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2018-06-15

    Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh is one of the most salt-tolerant mangrove species. Our previous study revealed that nitric oxide (NO) enhanced the salt tolerance of A. marina by promoting salt secretion and Na+ sequestration under salt stress. However, little is known about the regulation of NO on proteomic profiling for this mangrove species. In this study, we used sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, to investigate the regulatory mechanism of NO on salt tolerance of A. marina according to physiological and proteomic aspects. Photosynthesis data showed that the reduction in photosynthesis caused by high salinity treatment (400 mM NaCl) could be partially recovered by addition of SNP (100 μM). Further analysis revealed that the high salinity treatment could induce not only the stomatal limitation but also non-stomatal limitation on photosynthetic reduction, while SNP addition could restore the non-stomatal limitation, implying that the application of SNP was beneficial to the metabolic process in leaves. Proteomic analysis identified 49 differentially expressed proteins involved in various biological processes such as photosynthesis, energy metabolism, primary metabolism, RNA transcription, protein translation and stress response proteins. Under high salinity treatment, the abundances of proteins related to photosynthesis, such as ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE, spot 3), RuBisCO large subunit (RBCL, spot 4, 5, 24), RuBisCO activase A (RCA, spot 17, 18) and quinine oxidoreductase-like protein isoform 1 (QOR1, spot 23), were significantly decreased. However, the abundance of proteins such as RBCL (spot 5, 9) and QOR1 (spot 23) were increased by SNP addition. In addition, exogenous NO supply alleviated salt tolerance by increasing the accumulation of some proteins involved in energy metabolism (spot 15), primary metabolism (spot 25, 45, 46), RNA transcription (spot 36) and stress response proteins (spot 12, 21, 26, 37, 43). The transcriptional levels of nine

  10. Temperature trumps light: Teasing apart interactive factors controlling non-indigenous Zostera japonica growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-exist by occupying separate elevation niches. We conducted two mesocosm experiments to evaluate light and temperature as factors controlling the disjunct distribution of congeners. The first study tests the hypothesis t...

  11. Duration of Temperature exposure controls growth of Zostera japonica: implications for zonation and colonization

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass congeners in the genus Zostera are found along the Pacific Coast of North America: native Z. marina L. and the non-native Z. japonica Aschers. & Graebn. Efforts to understand the drivers behind the expanding colonization of Z. japonica have led to interest ...

  12. Determining bathymetric distributions of the eelgrass Zostera ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Improved methods for determining bathymetric distributions of dominant intertidal plants throughout their estuarine range are needed. Zostera marina is a seagrass native to estuaries of the northeastern Pacific and many other sectors of the world ocean. The technique described here employed large format aerial photography using false color near-infrared film with digital image classification, and the production of digital bathymetric models of shallow estuaries such as those occurring in turbid waters of the Pacific Northwest USA. Application of geographic information system procedures to the eelgrass classifications and bathymetry distributions yielded digital bathymetric distributions based upon a very large number of observations. Similar bathymetric patterns were obtained for the three estuaries surveyed, and approximately 90% of the classified eelgrass occurred within the depth range -1.0 m to +1.0 m (MLLW). Comparison of these distributions with ground surveys of eelgrass lower depth limits indicated that the area of undetected subtidal eelgrass constituted 86% overall accuracy) in each estuary. The pattern of eelgrass in one estuary was distinctly different from those in the other two systems, illustrating the potential usefulness of this technique in exploring causative factors for such differences in estuarine intertidal vegetation distributions. Improved methods for determining bathymetric distributions of dominant intertidal plants throughout

  13. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps beneficial. Z. japonica does not appear on the Federal or the Oregon invasive species or noxious weed lists. However, the State of California lists it as both an invasive and noxious weed; Washington State recently listed it as a noxious weed. We describe the management dynamics in North America with respect to these congener species and highlight the science and policies behind these decisions. In recent years, management strategies at the state level have ranged from historical protection of Z. japonica as a priority habitat in Washington to eradication in California. In 2011, Washington State reversed its long standing policy to protect Z. japonica and is developing permits for chemical control of this plant. This fractured management approach contradicts efforts to conserve and protect seagrass in other regions of the US and around the world. Science must play a critical role in the assessment of Z. japonica ecology and the immediate and long-term effects of management actions. The information and recommendations provided here can serve as a basis for providing scientific data in order to develo

  14. Genetic characterization of Zostera asiatica on the Pacific Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.; Ward, D.H.; Rearick, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Chesney, B.; Phillips, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    We gathered sequence information from the nuclear 5.8S rDNA gene and associated internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2 (5.8S rDNA/ITS), and the chloroplast maturase K (matK) gene, from Zostera samples collected from subtidal habitats in Monterey and Santa Barbara (Isla Vista) bays, California, to test the hypothesis that these plants are conspecific with Z. asiatica Miki of Asia. Sequences from approximately 520 base pairs of the nuclear 5.8S rDNA/ITS obtained from the subtidal Monterey and Isla Vista Zostera samples were identical to homologous sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California. Similarly, sequences from the matK gene from the subtidal Zostera samples were identical to matK sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California, but differed from Z. asiatica sequences accessioned into GenBank. This suggests the subtidal plants are conspecific with Z. marina, not Z. asiatica. However, we found that herbarium samples accessioned into the Kyoto University Herbarium, determined to be Z. asiatica, yielded 5.8S rDNA/ITS sequences consistent with either Z. japonica, in two cases, or Z. marina, in one case. Similar results were observed for the chloroplast matK gene; we found haplotypes that were inconsistent with published matK sequences from Z. asiatica collected from Japan. These results underscore the need for closer examination of the relationship between Z. marina along the Pacific Coast of North America, and Z. asiatica of Asia, for the retention and verification of specimens examined in scientific studies, and for assessment of the usefulness of morphological characters in the determination of taxonomic relationships within Zosteraceae.

  15. Vessels, Marinas and Ports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An overview of EPA’s vessels (recreational/commercial/military), marinas, and ports programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for addressing their associated environmental impacts, such as air and water pollution.

  16. Nonpoint Source: Marinas and Boating

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because marinas are located right at the water's edge, there is a strong potential for marina waters to become contaminated with pollutants generated from the various activities that occur at marinas—such as boat cleaning and fueling operations.

  17. Long-term evolution (1988-2008) of Zostera spp. meadows in Arcachon Bay (Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Plus; Sébastien, Dalloyau; Gilles, Trut; Isabelle, Auby; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Emery, Éric; Claire, Noël; Christophe, Viala

    2010-04-01

    The spatial variability of seagrass meadows in Arcachon Bay, was studied between 1988 and 2008 using a combination of mapping techniques based on aerial photographs for intertidal dwarf-grass ( Zostera noltii) beds and acoustic sonar for permanently submerged eelgrass ( Zostera marina) populations. The results show a severe decline over the period for both species, as well as an acceleration of the decline since 2005 for Z. noltii. The total surface regression over the studied period is estimated to be 22.8 km 2 for Z. noltii and 2.7 km 2 for Z. marina, which represent declines of 33 and 74% respectively. Environmental data time series spanning the same period were investigated in order to seek the causes for such a decline. The calculated inter-annual trends for temperature, salinity, nitrate plus nitrite, ammonia, suspended sediment and chlorophyll a did not identify any clear environmental change capable of explaining the observed seagrass regression. For instance, no evident sign of eutrophication was observed over the study period. On the other hand, we suggest that the observed variations of ammonia in the inner part of the lagoon are a symptom of the seagrasses' disappearance and thus, a first sign indicating a change of the Arcachon Bay ecosystem towards more instability and vulnerability. Several hypotheses to explain the observed seagrass decay are proposed.

  18. The Acid Test: pH Tolerance of the Eggs and Larvae of the Invasive Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) in Southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cane toads are colonizing southeastern Australia via a narrow coastal strip sandwiched between unsuitable areas (Pacific Ocean to the east, mountains to the west). Many of the available spawning sites exhibit abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature, salinity, and pH) more extreme than those encountered elsewhere in the toad's native or already invaded range. Will that challenge impede toad expansion? To answer that question, we measured pH in 35 ponds in northeastern New South Wales and 8 ponds in the Sydney region, in both areas where toads occur (and breed) and adjacent areas where toads are likely to invade, and conducted laboratory experiments to quantify effects of pH on the survival and development of toad eggs and larvae. Our field surveys revealed wide variation in pH (3.9-9.8) among natural water bodies. In the laboratory, the hatching success of eggs was increased at low pH (down to pH 4), whereas the survival, growth, and developmental rates of tadpoles were enhanced by higher pH levels. We found that pH influenced metamorph size and shape (relative head width, relative leg length) but not locomotor performance. The broad tolerance range of these early life-history stages suggests that pH conditions in ponds will not significantly slow the toad's expansion southward. Indeed, toads may benefit from transiently low pH conditions, and habitat where pH in wetlands is consistently low (such as coastal heath) may enhance rather than reduce toad reproductive success. A broad physiological tolerance during embryonic and larval life has contributed significantly to the cane toad's success as a widespread colonizer.

  19. IMPACTS OF SALINITY AND NUTRIENT STRESS TO RUPPIA MARITIMA AND ZOSTERA MARINA: A MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the norther...

  20. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF SALINITY AND NUTRIENT STRESS TO RUPPIA MARITIMA AND ZOSTERA MARINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the norther...

  1. Assessing the impacts of salinity and nutrient stress to Ruppia maritima and Zostera marina.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the northern...

  2. EFFECT OF EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) DENSITY ON THE FEEDING EFFICIENCY OF MUMMICHOG. (R825757)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrass carbon budgets provide valuable insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolv...

  4. Zostera marina root demography in an intertidal estuarine environment measured using minirhizotron technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last four decades there have been major advances in our understanding of the biology, ecology and physiology of seagrasses and their interaction with the environment. Despite these advances, there has been relatively little advancement in our understanding of the belowg...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118...

  10. Saprobic analysis to Marina coastal, Semarang city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuriasih, D. M.; Anggoro, S.; Haeruddin

    2018-02-01

    Semarang city is one of coastal city in Indonesia, that antropogenic activities have impact to coastal of Semarang, including Marina beach. Therefore, it is important to study the quality of seawater related with antropogenic activities. The research purpose was to analyze the saprobic level of Marina beach as an indicator of marine pollution. This case study research used survey method. Purposive method was used for sampling the seawater at five stations at the beach. This research can be concluded that TSI (Tropic Saprobic Index) higher than standard that indicated the Marina Beach Seawaters polution at level of β - Mesosaprobic.

  11. Comparing photophysiology of seagrasses in the Pacific Northwest: potential implications for species interactions - July 28, 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological tolerances are a primary control on species interactions mediated through production and growth. We examined how the physiology of native eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and introduced Japanese eelgrass (Z. japonica Aschers. & Graeb) responded to temperature in ord...

  12. Comparing photophysiology of seagrasses in the Pacific Northwest: potential implications for species interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological tolerances are a primary control on species interactions mediated through production and growth. We examined how the physiology of native eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and introduced Japanese eelgrass (Z. japonica Aschers. & Graeb) responded to temperature in or...

  13. 17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEE ALSO HABS No. CA-2718), WITH RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. S. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. Isolation and characterization of a marine algicidal bacterium against the harmful raphidophyceae Chattonella marina.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Sook; Lee, Dae-Sung; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Lee, Woe Jae; Lee, Myung-Suk

    2009-02-01

    A bacterial strain named AB-4 showing algicidal activity against Chattonella marina was isolated from coastal water of ULjin, Republic of Korea. The isolated strain was identified as Bacillus sp. by culture morphology, biochemical reactions, and homology research based on 16S rDNA. The bacterial culture led to the lysis of algal cells, suggesting that the isolated strain produced a latent algal-lytic compound. Amongst changes in algicidal activity by different culture filtrate volumes, the 10% (100 microl/ml) concentration showed the biggest change in algicidal activity; there, estimated algicidal activity was 95%. The swimming movements of Chattonella marina cells were inhibited because of treatment of the bacterial culture; subsequently, Chattonella marina cells became swollen and rounded. With longer exposure time, algal cells were disrupted and cellular components lost their integrity and decomposed. The released algicide(s) were heat-tolerant and stable in pH variations, except pH 3, 4, and 5. Culture filtrate of Bacillus sp. AB-4 was toxic against harmful algae bloom (HAB) species and nontoxic against livefood organisms. Bacillus sp. AB-4 showed comparatively strong activity against Akashiwo sanguinea, Fibriocapsa japonica, Heterosigma akashiwo, and Scrippsiella trochoidea. These results suggest that the algicidal activity of Bacillus sp. AB-4 is potentially useful for controlling outbreaks of Chattonella marina.

  15. EFFECT OF AMBIENT LIGHT, AERIAL EXPOSURE, AND SEASON ON EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) METRICS IN A NORTHEAST PACIFIC (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although light is the principal factor controlling the lower depth limit of seagrasses, little attention has been given to how reduced winter lighting may affect intertidal plants. In the present study intertidal light intensity, temperature, and aerial exposure were measured ove...

  16. A Method for Calculating the Area of Zostera marina Leaves from Digital Images with Noise Induced by Humidity Content

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Ramirez, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ecological importance of eelgrass, nowadays anthropogenic influences have produced deleterious effects in many meadows worldwide. Transplantation plots are commonly used as a feasible remediation scheme. The characterization of eelgrass biomass and its dynamics is an important input for the assessment of the overall status of both natural and transplanted populations. Particularly, in restoration plots it is desirable to obtain nondestructive assessments of these variables. Allometric models allow the expression of above ground biomass and productivity of eelgrass in terms of leaf area, which provides cost effective and nondestructive assessments. Leaf area in eelgrass can be conveniently obtained by the product of associated length and width. Although these variables can be directly measured on most sampled leaves, digital image methods could be adapted in order to simplify measurements. Nonetheless, since width to length ratios in eelgrass leaves could be even negligible, noise induced by leaf humidity content could produce misidentification of pixels along the peripheral contour of leaves images. In this paper, we present a procedure aimed to produce consistent estimations of eelgrass leaf area in the presence of the aforementioned noise effects. Our results show that digital image procedures can provide reliable, nondestructive estimations of eelgrass leaf area. PMID:24892089

  17. CARBON, NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND HEAVY METAL BUDGETS: HOW LARGE IS THE EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) SINK IN A TEMPERATE ESTUARY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses are often heralded as sentinel or indicator species because they are long-lived and integrate biological, physical and chemical parameters (Schlacher-Hoenlinger and Schlacher, 1998; Hoven et al., 1999; Pergent-Martini and Pergent, 2000). Several studies have shown ...

  18. Minimum light duration needed to maintain winter and summer adapted eelgrass (Zostera marina) as determined by mesocosm experiments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intensity and duration of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is one of the primary factors determining seagrass survival. A commonly used metric to evaluate if there is sufficient PAR is Hsat, which is the number of hours per day in which photosynthetic pigments are s...

  19. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. These stresses include increased temperatures, sea level rise, and high nutrient inputs, all of which may directly affect the productivi...

  20. USING STABLE ISOTOPES AND MECHANISTIC MODELS TO EXAMINE CARBON RESOURCE PARTITIONING IN THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND ZOSTERA MARINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural and anthropogenic stress negatively impact seagrass production and ecosystem function. Our goal is to better understand seagrass response to reduced light, nutrient and organic loading at a variety of ecological scales (individual to landscape) in order to help develop p...

  1. Saint Marina: the protectress of nephrology.

    PubMed

    Eftychiadis, A C; Marketos, S G

    1999-01-01

    Saint virgin and martyr Marina (Margarita) of Antioch in Pisidia (255-270) is recognized as the patron saint of kidney sufferers and the protectress of nephrology. Beginning in the 13th century she heals in particular patients suffering from nephropathies, pregnant women having a difficult childbirth, barren women and sickly children. She protects the patients from every side effect and complication. Saint Marina is represented in hagiography as a victor, defeating the dragon satan, holding a hammer or a cross and wearing a belt around her back in the area of kidneys. According to writers, artists and sculptors the belt is the perceivable means of Saint Marina for the miraculous recovery from and healing of kidney diseases. Therefore, kidney sufferers and pregnant women put belts upon her relics for blessing and then wore them. From the Middle Ages and Renaissance and up to the contemporary period Saint Marina (Margarita) was considered the patron saint of kidney sufferers. Justifiably she is recognized by the modern medical world as the protectress of nephrology.

  2. A SNARE-Like Superfamily Protein SbSLSP from the Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Confers Salt and Drought Tolerance by Maintaining Membrane Stability, K+/Na+ Ratio, and Antioxidant Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dinkar; Yadav, Narendra Singh; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    About 1000 salt-responsive ESTs were identified from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata. Among these, a novel salt-inducible gene SbSLSP (Salicornia brachiata SNARE-like superfamily protein), showed up-regulation upon salinity and dehydration stress. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs related to abiotic stress in the putative promoter region supports our finding that SbSLSP gene is inducible by abiotic stress. The SbSLSP protein showed a high sequence identity to hypothetical/uncharacterized proteins from Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Eucalyptus grandis, and Prunus persica and with SNARE-like superfamily proteins from Zostera marina and Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatics analysis predicted a clathrin adaptor complex small-chain domain and N-myristoylation site in the SbSLSP protein. Subcellular localization studies indicated that the SbSLSP protein is mainly localized in the plasma membrane. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we establish that overexpression of SbSLSP resulted in elevated tolerance to salt and drought stress. The improved tolerance was confirmed by alterations in a range of physiological parameters, including high germination and survival rate, higher leaf chlorophyll contents, and reduced accumulation of Na+ ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, overexpressing lines also showed lower water loss, higher cell membrane stability, and increased accumulation of proline and ROS-scavenging enzymes. Overexpression of SbSLSP also enhanced the transcript levels of ROS-scavenging and signaling enzyme genes. This study is the first investigation of the function of the SbSLSP gene as a novel determinant of salinity/drought tolerance. The results suggest that SbSLSP could be a potential candidate to increase salinity and drought tolerance in crop plants for sustainable agriculture in semi-arid saline soil. PMID:27313584

  3. Development of an Efficient Protein Extraction Method Compatible with LC-MS/MS for Proteome Mapping in Two Australian Seagrasses Zostera muelleri and Posidonia australis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhijian; Kumar, Manoj; Padula, Matthew P.; Pernice, Mathieu; Kahlke, Tim; Kim, Mikael; Ralph, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The availability of the first complete genome sequence of the marine flowering plant Zostera marina (commonly known as seagrass) in early 2016, is expected to significantly raise the impact of seagrass proteomics. Seagrasses are marine ecosystem engineers that are currently declining worldwide at an alarming rate due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Seagrasses (especially species of the genus Zostera) are compromised for proteomic studies primarily due to the lack of efficient protein extraction methods because of their recalcitrant cell wall which is rich in complex polysaccharides and a high abundance of secondary metabolites in their cells. In the present study, three protein extraction methods that are commonly used in plant proteomics i.e., phenol (P); trichloroacetic acid/acetone/SDS/phenol (TASP); and borax/polyvinyl-polypyrrolidone/phenol (BPP) extraction, were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively based on two dimensional isoelectric focusing (2D-IEF) maps and LC-MS/MS analysis using the two most abundant Australian seagrass species, namely Zostera muelleri and Posidonia australis. All three tested methods produced high quality protein extracts with excellent 2D-IEF maps in P. australis. However, the BPP method produces better results in Z. muelleri compared to TASP and P. Therefore, we further modified the BPP method (M-BPP) by homogenizing the tissue in a modified protein extraction buffer containing both ionic and non-ionic detergents (0.5% SDS; 1.5% Triton X-100), 2% PVPP and protease inhibitors. Further, the extracted proteins were solubilized in 0.5% of zwitterionic detergent (C7BzO) instead of 4% CHAPS. This slight modification to the BPP method resulted in a higher protein yield, and good quality 2-DE maps with a higher number of protein spots in both the tested seagrasses. Further, the M-BPP method was successfully utilized in western-blot analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC—a key enzyme for carbon metabolism

  4. Development of an Efficient Protein Extraction Method Compatible with LC-MS/MS for Proteome Mapping in Two Australian Seagrasses Zostera muelleri and Posidonia australis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhijian; Kumar, Manoj; Padula, Matthew P; Pernice, Mathieu; Kahlke, Tim; Kim, Mikael; Ralph, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    The availability of the first complete genome sequence of the marine flowering plant Zostera marina (commonly known as seagrass) in early 2016, is expected to significantly raise the impact of seagrass proteomics. Seagrasses are marine ecosystem engineers that are currently declining worldwide at an alarming rate due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Seagrasses (especially species of the genus Zostera ) are compromised for proteomic studies primarily due to the lack of efficient protein extraction methods because of their recalcitrant cell wall which is rich in complex polysaccharides and a high abundance of secondary metabolites in their cells. In the present study, three protein extraction methods that are commonly used in plant proteomics i.e., phenol (P); trichloroacetic acid/acetone/SDS/phenol (TASP); and borax/polyvinyl-polypyrrolidone/phenol (BPP) extraction, were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively based on two dimensional isoelectric focusing (2D-IEF) maps and LC-MS/MS analysis using the two most abundant Australian seagrass species, namely Zostera muelleri and Posidonia australis . All three tested methods produced high quality protein extracts with excellent 2D-IEF maps in P. australis . However, the BPP method produces better results in Z. muelleri compared to TASP and P. Therefore, we further modified the BPP method (M-BPP) by homogenizing the tissue in a modified protein extraction buffer containing both ionic and non-ionic detergents (0.5% SDS; 1.5% Triton X-100), 2% PVPP and protease inhibitors. Further, the extracted proteins were solubilized in 0.5% of zwitterionic detergent (C7BzO) instead of 4% CHAPS. This slight modification to the BPP method resulted in a higher protein yield, and good quality 2-DE maps with a higher number of protein spots in both the tested seagrasses. Further, the M-BPP method was successfully utilized in western-blot analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC-a key enzyme for carbon metabolism

  5. Genetic evidence for monogamy in the dwarf seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae.

    PubMed

    Rose, Emily; Small, Clayton M; Saucedo, Hector A; Harper, Cristin; Jones, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Syngnathid fishes (pipefishes, seahorses, and seadragons) exhibit a wide array of mating systems ranging from monogamy with long-term pair bonds to more promiscuous mating systems, such as polyandry and polygynandry. Some seahorses, including the dwarf seahorse Hippocampus zosterae, have been found to be socially monogamous. Although several seahorse species have also been shown to be genetically monogamous, parentage analysis has not yet been applied to the dwarf seahorse. We developed 8 novel microsatellites for the dwarf seahorse to conduct genetic parentage analysis to confirm that this species is indeed monogamous. Using 4 selected loci and a total of 16 pregnant male seahorses, with 8 collected in Florida and 8 sampled in Texas, we genotyped all of the offspring within each male's brood to determine the maternal contributions to each brood. We found a maximum of 4 alleles per locus segregating within each pregnant male's brood, a pattern consistent with each brood having exactly 1 mother and 1 father. These results support previous laboratory-based behavioral studies and indicate that the dwarf seahorse, H. zosterae, is genetically monogamous. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Spud Point Marina Breakwater, Bodega Bay, Sonoma County, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    AD-A240 319 ~ MONITORING COMPLETED COASTAL PROJECTS PROGRAM MISCELLANEOUS PAPER CERC-91-5 0SPUD POINT MARINA BREAKWATER, BODEGA BAY SONOMA COUNTY , CALIFORNIA...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Spud Point Marina Breakwater, Bodega Bay, Sonoma County , WU 22123 California 6. AUTHOR(S) Jonathan W. Lott 7. PERFORMING...of the harbor are also shown. The marina docks and shoreside facilities are oper- ated by Sonoma County . The breakwater and access channel are main

  7. Allelopathic effect of Chattonella marina var. marina (Raphidophyceae) on Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophycea).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Herrera, Leyberth J; Band-Schmidt, Christine J; López-Cortés, David J; Hernández-Guerrero, Claudia J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick

    2016-01-01

    The allelopathic effect of the raphidophyte Chattonella marina var. marina on the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum was determined. Both species are harmful algal bloom forming algae, produce toxic metabolites, and can co-exist in the environment. In general, raphidophytes tend to dominate over dinoflagellates, which may indicate an allelopathic effect of the former algae. Strains of C. marina var. marina and G. catenatum isolated from Bahía de La Paz were cultured in bi-algal cultures with and without cell contact. Additionally, cultures of G. catenatum were exposed to cell-free culture filtrates of the raphidophyte to test whether soluble allelopathic molecules are active. During late stationary phase, both species were cultivated in mixed cultures for 72h using the following cell abundance proportions: 20×10 3 cellsL -1 : 20×10 3 cellsL -1 (1:1; G. catenatum: C. marina); 10×10 3 cellsL -1 : 20×10 3 cellsL -1 (1:2), and 20×10 3 cellsL -1 : 10×10 3 cellsL -1 (2:1). Cells of G. catenatum were also exposed to different volumes of cell filtrates of C. marina (10, 20, and 50mL) using the same cell abundance proportions for 24h. Samples were taken daily for cell counts and microscopic observations. Growth inhibition was higher when there was cell contact between both species, however mortality of G. catenatum was also observed without direct cell contact, indicating that toxic metabolites are liberated to the culture medium. Changes in cell morphology of G. catenatum occurred in the presence of cells and filtrates of C. marina, such as loss of flagella and motility, swelling, loss of girdle and sulci, prominent nucleus, rupture of cell membrane, and cell lysis. Induction of temporary cysts was also observed. These results suggest that toxic metabolites are liberated to the medium by C. marina, affecting G. catenatum by inhibiting its growth and causing changes in its life history, providing new insights of interactions between raphidophytes and

  8. Impacts of urban wastewater discharge on seagrass meadows ( Zostera noltii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaço, Susana; Machás, Raquel; Vieira, Vasco; Santos, Rui

    2008-06-01

    The abiotic disturbance of urban wastewater discharge and its effects in the population structure, plant morphology, leaf nutrient content, epiphyte load and macroalgae abundance of Zostera noltii meadows were investigated in Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, southern Portugal using both univariate and multivariate analysis. Four sites were assessed, on a seasonal basis, along a gradient from a major Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTW) discharge to a main navigation channel. The wastewater discharge caused an evident environmental disturbance through the nutrient enrichment of the water and sediment, particularly of ammonium. Zostera noltii of the sites closest to the nutrient source showed higher leaf N content, clearly reflecting the nitrogen load. The anthropogenic nutrient enrichment resulted in higher biomass, and higher leaf and internode length, except for the meadow closest to the wastewater discharge (270 m). The high ammonium concentration (158-663 μM) in the water at this site resulted in the decrease of biomass, and both the leaf and internode length, suggesting a toxic effect on Z. noltii. The higher abundance of macroalgae and epiphytes found in the meadow closest to the nutrient source may also affect the species negatively. Shoot density was higher at the nutrient-undisturbed site. Two of the three abiotic processes revealed by Principal Component Analysis were clearly related to the WWTW discharge, a contrast between water column salinity and nutrient concentration and a sediment contrast between both porewater nutrients and temperature and redox potential. A multiple regression analysis showed that these abiotic processes had a significant effect on the biomass-density dynamics of meadows and on the overall size of Z. noltii plants, respectively. Results show that the wastewater discharge is an important source of environmental disturbance and nutrients availability in Ria Formosa lagoon affecting the population structure, morphology and N content of Z

  9. 33 CFR 80.1124 - Ventura Marina, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventura Marina, CA. 80.1124 Section 80.1124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1124 Ventura Marina, CA. A line drawn from...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1124 - Ventura Marina, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventura Marina, CA. 80.1124 Section 80.1124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1124 Ventura Marina, CA. A line drawn from...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1124 - Ventura Marina, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventura Marina, CA. 80.1124 Section 80.1124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1124 Ventura Marina, CA. A line drawn from...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1124 - Ventura Marina, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventura Marina, CA. 80.1124 Section 80.1124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1124 Ventura Marina, CA. A line drawn from...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1124 - Ventura Marina, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventura Marina, CA. 80.1124 Section 80.1124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1124 Ventura Marina, CA. A line drawn from...

  14. MARINA & MAINE STREETS FACING NW. DARKER COLORED HOME ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MARINA & MAINE STREETS FACING NW. DARKER COLORED HOME ON SE CORNER. NYSTROM VILLAGE, LIKE ATCHISON VILLAGE (HAER CA-326-N), HOUSED WORKERS DURING WORLD WAR II - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Nystrom Village, Marina & Maine Streets, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. TOTAL DISSOLVED AND BIOAVAILABLE METALS AT LAKE TEXOMA MARINAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved metals in water and total metals in sediments have been measured at marina areas in Lake Texoma during June 1999 to October 2001, and October 2001, respectively. The metals most often found in the highest concentrations in marina water were Na and Ca, followed by Mg an...

  16. Environmental and ecological changes associated with a marina.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Natalie K; Dafforn, Katherine A; Coleman, Melinda A; Johnston, Emma L

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic modifications to waterways are common and their ecological consequences must be understood to effectively conserve local biodiversity. The facilitation of recreational boating activities often requires substantial alteration of natural areas, however the environmental and ecological consequences of such alterations are rarely described in the scientific literature. In this study, ecological and physico-chemical conditions were investigated in a recreational boating marina, located inside a marine park on the south-east coast of Australia. Recruitment panels were deployed for 8 weeks both inside and outside the marina, and differences in the composition of the developing fouling communities were observed. The recruitment of taxa, which often have short-lived larvae, was increased inside the marina (bryozoans, spirorbids and sponges) while the recruitment of taxa, which often have longer-lived larvae, was reduced or absent (barnacles, solitary ascidians and non-spirorbid polychaetes). Differences were also observed in environmental conditions inside the marina cf. directly outside. The marina environment had higher turbidity, temperature and pH along with higher concentrations of lead and copper in suspended sediments, while flow rates and trapped sediment loads were reduced inside the marina. The differences observed in the study suggest that there may be marked environmental changes associated with marina developments. The potential ecological consequences of these changes should be a primary consideration during the planning process, particularly for developments in locations of notable ecological value.

  17. Understanding the Ecoydrology of Mangroves: A Simple SPAC Model for Avicennia Marina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Saverio; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Molini, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    Mangroves represent one of the most carbon-rich ecosystems in the Tropics, noticeably impacting ecosystem services and the economy of these regions. Whether the ability of mangroves to exclude and tolerate salt has been extensively investigated in the literature - both from the structural and functional point of view - their eco-hydrological characteristics remains largely understudied, despite the crucial link with productivity, efficient carbon storage and fluxes. In this contribution we develop a "first-order" Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum model for Avicennia Marina, a mangrove able to adapt to hyper-arid intertidal zones and characterized by complex morphological and eco-physiological traits. Among mangroves, Avicennia marina is one of the most tolerant to salinity and arid climatic conditions. Our model, based on a simple macroscopic approach, takes into account the specific characteristics of the mangrove ecosystem and in particular, the salinity of the water in the soil and the levels of salt stress to which the plant may be subjected. Mangrove transpiration is hence obtained by solving the plant and leaf water balance and the leaf energy balance, taking explicitly into account the role of osmotic water potential and salinity in governing plant resistance to water fluxes. The SPAC model of Avicennia is hence tested against experimental data obtained from the literature, showing the reliability and effectiveness of this minimalist model in reproducing observed transpiration fluxes. Finally, sensitivity analysis is used to assess whether uncertainty on the adopted parameters could lead to significant errors in the transpiration assessment.

  18. Expansion of the invasive dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The areal coverage of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is increasing in several estuaries on the US West Coast. As a result, regulatory agencies in the states of California and Washington are considering methods of controlling its expansion. Factors relevan...

  19. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  20. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  1. 75 FR 4783 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... days, closure of the decision record in an administrative appeal filed by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour...

  2. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast... the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display. Unauthorized persons or vessels are... display. Background and Purpose The City of Berkeley Marina will sponsor the 4th of July Festival Berkeley...

  3. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in oyster tissue around three coastal marinas

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Stokes, T.P.

    1985-12-01

    Marinas present the potential for introduction of various pollutants into the surrounding waters such as coliform bacteria, primary pathogens, heavy metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons. Little data have been presented specifically addressing the effects of recreational marinas on petroleum hydrocarbon levels or, for that matter, other constituent levels in oysters near those marinas. In order to obtain such data, a comprehensive assessment of water and oyster quality around three coastal marinas was conducted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental control (SCDHEC) during 1983. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were selected as the petroleum hydrocarbon fraction of interest since theymore » are mainly of pyrogenic origin; have been shown to be the most toxic/carcinogenic fraction of oil; have been shown to affect the respiration and heart rates of mussels; and have been shown to be linked to neoplasia in clams and proliferative disorders in mussels. C. virginica was chosen as the mollusc of interest because of its widespread distribution in the estuaries of South Carolina, its importance as an economic and recreational resource, and its suitability as a sentinel organism for monitoring coastal pollution.« less

  4. 18 CFR 1304.404 - Commercial marina harbor limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities at the dock, navigation and flood control requirements, optimum use of lands and land rights owned... to, changes in the ownership of the land base supporting the marina. ... harbor areas are determined by the extent of land rights held by the dock operator. The lakeward limits...

  5. TOTAL AND BIOAVAILABLE METALS AT MARINA SEDIMENTS IN LAKE TEXOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total and bioavailable metals in sediments were measured at marina areas in Lake Texoma during the fall of 2001. The metals most often found in the highest concentrations in sediments were Ca (56811 mg/kg) and Al (31095 mg/kg), followed by Fe (19393 mg/kg), K (6089 mg/kg), and Mg...

  6. Splenic immunotoxicity in developing cane toads (Rhinella marina) from Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Fort, Troy D; Linzey, Donald W; Bacon, Jamie P

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of contaminated sediment from 2 ponds in Bermuda on immune function in newly metamorphosed cane toads were examined. In the present study, a partial life-cycle experiment exposing Gosner stage 20 cane toad tadpoles to pond sediment and laboratory culture water through metamorphosis and into a juvenile state was performed. A basic immunology battery, including general necropsy, spleen somatic index, spleen white pulp content, splenocyte tissue density, and splenocyte viability, was conducted in newly metamorphosed Rhinella marina exposed to Bermuda freshwater sediment and baseline specimens collected from 2 separate populations in south Texas and south Florida, USA. Immune function was evaluated using a lymphocyte proliferation assay with subset specimens infected with Mycobacterium chelonae. In the Bermuda population exposed to pond sediment, splenocyte tissue density was markedly lower and lymphocyte proliferation substantially less relative to cohorts exposed to control sediment and to the North American populations. Considerable increases in spleen weight and liver and spleen lesions related to M. chelonae infection were recorded in challenged Bermuda R. marina compared with unchallenged specimens. Overall, immune function in Bermuda R. marina was compromised compared with North American mainland R. marina regardless of treatment but more dramatically in specimens exposed to Bermuda pond sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2604-2612. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Seagrass beds as ocean acidification refuges for mussels? High resolution measurements of pCO2 and O2 in a Zostera marina and Mytilus edulis mosaic habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Fietzek, P.; Aßmann, S.; Körtzinger, A.; Hiebenthal, C.

    2015-07-01

    It has been speculated that macrophytes beds might act as a refuge for calcifiers from ocean acidification. In the shallow nearshores of the western Kiel Bay (Baltic Sea), mussel and seagrass beds are interlacing, forming a mosaic habitat. Naturally, the diverse physiological activities of seagrasses and mussels are affected by seawater carbonate chemistry and they locally modify it in return. Calcification by shellfishes is sensitive to seawater acidity; therefore the photosynthetic activity of seagrasses in confined shallow waters creates favorable chemical conditions to calcification at daytime but turn the habitat less favorable or even corrosive to shells at night. In contrast, mussel respiration releases CO2, turning the environment more favorable for photosynthesis by adjacent seagrasses. At the end of summer, these dynamics are altered by the invasion of high pCO2/low O2 coming from the deep water of the Bay. However, it is in summer that mussel spats settle on the leaves of seagrasses until migrating to the permanent habitat where they will grow adult. These early life phases (larvae/spats) are considered as most sensitive with regard to seawater acidity. So far, the dynamics of CO2 have never been continuously measured during this key period of the year, mostly due to the technological limitations. In this project we used a combination of state-of-the-art technologies and discrete sampling to obtain high-resolution time-series of pCO2 and O2 at the interface between a seagrass and a mussel patch in Kiel Bay in August and September 2013. From these, we derive the entire carbonate chemistry using statistical models. We found the monthly average pCO2 more than 50 % (approx. 640 μatm for August and September) above atmospheric equilibrium right above the mussel patch together with large diel variations of pCO2 within 24 h: 887 ± 331 μatm in August and 742 ± 281 μatm in September (mean ± SD). We observed important daily corrosiveness for calcium carbonates (Ωarag and Ωcalc < 1) centered on sunrise. On the positive side, the investigated habitat never suffered from hypoxia during the study period. We emphasize the need for more experiments on the impact of these acidic conditions on (juvenile) mussels with a focus on the distinct day-night variations observed.

  8. Proteome Analysis Reveals Extensive Light Stress-Response Reprogramming in the Seagrass Zostera muelleri (Alismatales, Zosteraceae) Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Padula, Matthew P.; Davey, Peter; Pernice, Mathieu; Jiang, Zhijian; Sablok, Gaurav; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ralph, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses are marine ecosystem engineers that are currently declining in abundance at an alarming rate due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in ecological niches. Despite reports on the morphological and physiological adaptations of seagrasses to extreme environments, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying photo-acclimation, and/or tolerance in these marine plants. This study applies the two-dimensional isoelectric focusing (2D-IEF) proteomics approach to identify photo-acclimation/tolerance proteins in the marine seagrass Zostera muelleri. For this, Z. muelleri was exposed for 10 days in laboratory mesocosms to saturating (control, 200 μmol photons m−2 s−1), super-saturating (SSL, 600 μmol photons m−2 s−1), and limited light (LL, 20 μmol photons m−2 s−1) irradiance conditions. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, 93 and 40 protein spots were differentially regulated under SSL and LL conditions, respectively, when compared to the control. In contrast to the LL condition, Z. muelleri robustly tolerated super-saturation light than control conditions, evidenced by their higher relative maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance values. Proteomic analyses revealed up-regulation and/or appearances of proteins belonging to the Calvin-Benson and Krebs cycle, glycolysis, the glycine cleavage system of photorespiration, and the antioxidant system. These proteins, together with those from the inter-connected glutamate-proline-GABA pathway, shaped Z. muelleri photosynthesis and growth under SSL conditions. In contrast, the LL condition negatively impacted the metabolic activities of Z. muelleri by down-regulating key metabolic enzymes for photosynthesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids, which is consistent with the observation with lower photosynthetic performance under LL condition. This study provides novel insights into the underlying molecular photo-acclimation mechanisms in Z. muelleri, in

  9. Proteome Analysis Reveals Extensive Light Stress-Response Reprogramming in the Seagrass Zostera muelleri (Alismatales, Zosteraceae) Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Padula, Matthew P; Davey, Peter; Pernice, Mathieu; Jiang, Zhijian; Sablok, Gaurav; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ralph, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses are marine ecosystem engineers that are currently declining in abundance at an alarming rate due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in ecological niches. Despite reports on the morphological and physiological adaptations of seagrasses to extreme environments, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying photo-acclimation, and/or tolerance in these marine plants. This study applies the two-dimensional isoelectric focusing (2D-IEF) proteomics approach to identify photo-acclimation/tolerance proteins in the marine seagrass Zostera muelleri . For this, Z. muelleri was exposed for 10 days in laboratory mesocosms to saturating (control, 200 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ), super-saturating (SSL, 600 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ), and limited light (LL, 20 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ) irradiance conditions. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, 93 and 40 protein spots were differentially regulated under SSL and LL conditions, respectively, when compared to the control. In contrast to the LL condition, Z. muelleri robustly tolerated super-saturation light than control conditions, evidenced by their higher relative maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance values. Proteomic analyses revealed up-regulation and/or appearances of proteins belonging to the Calvin-Benson and Krebs cycle, glycolysis, the glycine cleavage system of photorespiration, and the antioxidant system. These proteins, together with those from the inter-connected glutamate-proline-GABA pathway, shaped Z. muelleri photosynthesis and growth under SSL conditions. In contrast, the LL condition negatively impacted the metabolic activities of Z. muelleri by down-regulating key metabolic enzymes for photosynthesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids, which is consistent with the observation with lower photosynthetic performance under LL condition. This study provides novel insights into the underlying molecular photo-acclimation mechanisms in Z. muelleri , in addition

  10. Heavy metals in oyster tissue around three coastal marinas

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Thompson, A.M.

    1986-04-01

    The past decade has presented an unprecedented period of growth and development along the coastline of South Carolina. The majority of this development has been to serve the recreation and tourism industry and, as such, has included the construction of numerous recreational marinas in the coastal waters of the State. Various plans have been presented for the siting of marinas in pristine estuarine waters. This has raised much concern due to the possible impacts of such development on the plentiful oyster resource found in those waters. Marinas present the potential for the introduction of pollutants such as heavy metals intomore » the surrounding waters. This investigation was conducted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) during 1983, and yielded a multifaceted data base composed of physiocochemical and bacteriological analyses from water, chemical analyses from sediment and chemical/bacteriological physiological analyses from the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). C. virginica was chosen as the organism of interest due to its wide distribution in the estuaries of South Carolina, its importance as an economic and recreational resource and its suitability as a sentinel organism for monitoring coastal pollution.« less

  11. Structural heterogeneity leads to functional homogeneity in A. marina phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zvi, Shira; Lahav, Avital; Harris, Dvir; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Blankenship, Robert E; Adir, Noam

    2018-07-01

    The major light harvesting antenna in all cyanobacterial species is the phycobilisome (PBS). The smallest PBS identified to date is that of Acaryochloris marina (A. marina), composed of a single four-hexamer rod. We have determined the crystal structure of phycocyanin (AmPC), the major component of the A. marina PBS (AmPBS) to 2.1 Å. The basic unit of the AmPC is a heterodimer of two related subunits (α and β), and we show that the asymmetric unit contains a superposition of two α and two β isoforms, the products of the simultaneous expression of different genes. This is the first time to our knowledge that isolated proteins crystallized with such identifiable heterogeneity. We believe that the presence of the different isoforms allows the AmPBS to have a significant bathochromic shift in its fluorescence emission spectrum, allowing, in the total absence of allophycocyanin, a better overlap with absorption of the chlorophyll d-containing reaction centers. We show that this bathochromic shift exists in intact AmPBS as well as in its disassembled components, thus suggesting that AmPC can efficiently serve as the AmPBS terminal emitter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of salinity on survival of the exotic seagrass Zostera japonica subjected to extreme high temperature stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zostera japonica is a non-indigenous seagrass that is expanding along the Pacific Coast of North America. The ecophysiology of this seagrass is poorly studied and management of the species is fragmented. We collected Z. japonica plants from Padilla Bay, WA., Yaquina Bay and Coo...

  13. Development and validation of a habitat suitability model for the non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a spatially-explicit, flexible 3-parameter habitat suitability model that can be used to identify and predict areas at higher risk for non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) invasion. The model uses simple environmental parameters (depth, nearshore slope, and s...

  14. PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF THE NON-INDIGENOUS SEAGRASS, DWARF EELGRASS (ZOSTERA JAPONICA ASCHER. & GRAEB.), IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb. (dwarf eelgrass) was first identified in central Oregon (USA) estuaries about 30 years ago. The autecology of this species is poorly described at the southern end of its non-native range although several process orien...

  15. Nutrient dynamics in two seagrass species, Posidonia coriacea and Zostera tasmanica, on Success Bank, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. I.; Campey, M. L.; Kendrick, G. A.

    2004-06-01

    Nutrient concentrations and seasonal differences in atomic ratios (N:P) in plant tissue of Posidonia coriacea Kuo and Cambridge and Zostera tasmanica Aschers (formerly Heterozostera tasmanica (Syst Bot 27 (2002) 468) were measured from multiple locations on Success Bank, southwestern Australia, and used to infer nutritional constraints on seagrass vegetative growth, particularly by phosphorus. Posidonia plant tissue at the west site had higher nitrogen than the east site in both summer and winter. Nitrogen concentrations increased in winter, particularly in sheath tissue, but there was little change in root nitrogen concentrations between sites or seasons. Nitrogen concentrations of leaf tissue were all less than median seagrass values reported by Duarte (Mar Ecol Prog Ser 67 (1990) 201). The seasonality in nutrient concentrations in plant tissues suggests greater nutritional constraints in summer, during periods of high growth. Vegetative growth of Posidonia coriacea was more nutrient limited than that of Zostera tasmanica. Translocation of nutrients along rhizomes to the apex may ensure that growing points are not nutrient limited and that growth can be maintained, and was more apparent in Z. tasmanica than P. coriacea. Sexual reproduction placed large demands on P. coriacea through the high investment of nutrients into fruit, resulting in reduced nutritional constraints on successful seedling recruitment by initially providing seedlings with nutrients.

  16. Oxic microshield and local pH enhancement protects Zostera muelleri from sediment derived hydrogen sulphide.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Kasper Elgetti; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Ralph, Peter J; Kühl, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Seagrass is constantly challenged with transporting sufficient O₂ from above- to belowground tissue via aerenchyma in order to maintain aerobic metabolism and provide protection against phytotoxins. Electrochemical microsensors were used in combination with a custom-made experimental chamber to analyse the belowground biogeochemical microenvironment of Zostera muelleri under changing environmental conditions. Measurements revealed high radial O₂ release of up to 500 nmol O2 cm(-2) h(-1) from the base of the leaf sheath, maintaining a c. 300-μm-wide plant-mediated oxic microzone and thus protecting the vital meristematic regions of the rhizome from reduced phytotoxic metabolites such as hydrogen sulphide (H₂S). H₂S intrusion was prevented through passive diffusion of O₂ to belowground tissue from leaf photosynthesis in light, as well as from the surrounding water column into the flow-exposed plant parts during darkness. Under water column hypoxia, high belowground H₂S concentrations at the tissue surface correlated with the inability to sustain the protecting oxic microshield around the meristematic regions of the rhizome. We also found increased pH levels in the immediate rhizosphere of Z. muelleri, which may contribute to further detoxification of H₂S through shifts in the chemical speciation of sulphide. Zostera muelleri can modify the geochemical conditions in its immediate rhizosphere, thereby reducing its exposure to H₂S. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Population Genetic Structure of the Dwarf Seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Fedrizzi, Nathan; Stiassny, Melanie L. J.; Boehm, J. T.; Dougherty, Eric R.; Amato, George; Mendez, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The dwarf seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) is widely distributed throughout near-shore habitats of the Gulf of Mexico and is of commercial significance in Florida, where it is harvested for the aquarium and curio trades. Despite its regional importance, the genetic structure of dwarf seahorse populations remains largely unknown. As an aid to ongoing conservation efforts, we employed three commonly applied mtDNA markers (ND4, DLoop and CO1) to investigate the genetic structuring of H. zosterae in Florida using samples collected throughout its range in the state. A total of 1450 bp provided sufficient resolution to delineate four populations of dwarf seahorses, as indicated by significant fixation indices. Despite an overall significant population structure, we observed evidence of interbreeding between individuals from geographically distant sites, supporting the hypothesis that rafting serves to maintain a degree of population connectivity. All individuals collected from Pensacola belong to a single distinct subpopulation, which is highly differentiated from the rest of Floridian dwarf seahorses sampled. Our findings highlight the utility of mtDNA markers in evaluating barriers to gene flow and identifying genetically distinct populations, which are vital to the development of comprehensive conservation strategies for exploited taxa. PMID:26200110

  18. Population Genetic Structure of the Dwarf Seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Fedrizzi, Nathan; Stiassny, Melanie L J; Boehm, J T; Dougherty, Eric R; Amato, George; Mendez, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The dwarf seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) is widely distributed throughout near-shore habitats of the Gulf of Mexico and is of commercial significance in Florida, where it is harvested for the aquarium and curio trades. Despite its regional importance, the genetic structure of dwarf seahorse populations remains largely unknown. As an aid to ongoing conservation efforts, we employed three commonly applied mtDNA markers (ND4, DLoop and CO1) to investigate the genetic structuring of H. zosterae in Florida using samples collected throughout its range in the state. A total of 1450 bp provided sufficient resolution to delineate four populations of dwarf seahorses, as indicated by significant fixation indices. Despite an overall significant population structure, we observed evidence of interbreeding between individuals from geographically distant sites, supporting the hypothesis that rafting serves to maintain a degree of population connectivity. All individuals collected from Pensacola belong to a single distinct subpopulation, which is highly differentiated from the rest of Floridian dwarf seahorses sampled. Our findings highlight the utility of mtDNA markers in evaluating barriers to gene flow and identifying genetically distinct populations, which are vital to the development of comprehensive conservation strategies for exploited taxa.

  19. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  20. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  3. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  4. Reconstructing Contaminant Deposition in a San Francisco Bay Marina, California

    PubMed Central

    Love, Adam H.; Esser, Bradley K.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Two sediment cores were collected from a marina in the San Francisco Bay to characterize historical sediment contamination resulting from the direct discharge of industrial wastewater from Naval Air Station Alameda. Depth profiles of trace metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, and radionuclides were determined with a 12-cm spacing down to a depth of 120 cm. The chronology of sediment accumulation is established by depth profiles of sedimentary time markers in conjunction with information on site history. The traditional approach of determining sediment accumulation rates by measuring atmospheric 210Pb deposition was obscured by a larger source of 210Pb in the sediments from the decay of anthropogenic 226Ra, likely from luminescent paints used at this facility and released to the marina. The sedimentation rates inferred from the data indicate that the greatest amount of contamination by trace metals and petroleum hydrocarbons took place between 1940 and 1960. In addition, anthropogenic 226Ra activities are positively correlated with some of the contaminants in the sediments, allowing the wastewater discharged from the facility to be distinguished from baywide contamination. In locations such as this, where there is a complex history of contaminant deposition, a source-specific tracer may be the only feasible method of attributing historical contamination to a point source. PMID:20333267

  5. Rapid assessment of the bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum (Delle Chiaje, 1822) in marinas, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Minchin, Dan

    2012-10-01

    A rapid assessment, using the abundance and distribution range method, was used to evaluate the status of a large branching bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum attached to the immersed part of marina pontoons in the Canary Islands. Colonies were also found attached to the hulls of leisure craft berthed alongside pontoons at three marinas in Lanzarote during 2012. Low levels of abundance and distribution of the bryozoan occurred in marinas with a freshwater influence whereas in a sheltered marina lacking direct freshwater inputs colonies occurred at ∼2 per metre of combined pontoon length. While the occurrence of this bryozoan is recent it may be expected to occur elsewhere in Macaronesia most probably spread by leisure craft. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DIGESTIVE BIOAVAILABILITY TO A DEPOSIT FEDDER (ARENICOLA MARINA) OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTHRPOGENIC PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine sediments around urban areas serve as catch basins for anthropogenic particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using incubations with gut fluids extracted from a deposit-feeding polychaete (Arenicola marina), we determined the digestive bioavailability ...

  7. Settlement with Marina will Result in Cleaner Air on Block Island

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A marina in Block Island, R.I., has reduced its emissions and taken steps to comply with federal clean air laws following an inspection and follow-up action from the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  8. Atlas of susceptibility to pollution in marinas. Application to the Spanish coast.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Aina G; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Fernández, María; Juanes, José A

    2017-01-15

    An atlas of susceptibility to pollution of 320 Spanish marinas is provided. Susceptibility is assessed through a simple, fast and low cost empirical method estimating the flushing capacity of marinas. The Complexity Tidal Range Index (CTRI) was selected among eleven empirical methods. The CTRI method was selected by means of statistical analyses because: it contributes to explain the system's variance; it is highly correlated to numerical model results; and, it is sensitive to marinas' location and typology. The process of implementation to the Spanish coast confirmed its usefulness, versatility and adaptability as a tool for the environmental management of marinas worldwide. The atlas of susceptibility, assessed through CTRI values, is an appropriate instrument to prioritize environmental and planning strategies at a regional scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aerobic scope and cardiovascular oxygen transport is not compromised at high temperatures in the toad Rhinella marina.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Johannes; Andersen, Jonas L; Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Pil B M; Hansen, Kasper; Ozolina, Karlina; Wang, Tobias

    2012-10-15

    Numerous recent studies convincingly correlate the upper thermal tolerance limit of aquatic ectothermic animals to reduced aerobic scope, and ascribe the decline in aerobic scope to failure of the cardiovascular system at high temperatures. In the present study we investigate whether this 'aerobic scope model' applies to an air-breathing and semi-terrestrial vertebrate Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus). To quantify aerobic scope, we measured resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. To include potential effects of acclimation, three groups of toads were acclimated chronically at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. The absolute difference between resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption increased progressively with temperature and there was no significant decrease in aerobic scope, even at temperature immediately below the lethal limit (41-42°C). Haematological and cardiorespiratory variables were measured at rest and immediately after maximal activity at benign (30°C) and critically high (40°C) temperatures. Within this temperature interval, both resting and active heart rate increased, and there was no indication of respiratory failure, judged from high arterial oxygen saturation, P(O2) and [Hb(O2)]. With the exception of elevated resting metabolic rate for cold-acclimated toads, we found few differences in the thermal responses between acclimation groups with regard to the cardiometabolic parameters. In conclusion, we found no evidence for temperature-induced cardiorespiratory failure in R. marina, indicating that maintenance of aerobic scope and oxygen transport is unrelated to the upper thermal limit of this air-breathing semi-terrestrial vertebrate.

  10. Complete genome of Cobetia marina JCM 21022T and phylogenomic analysis of the family Halomonadaceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianghai; Xu, Kuipeng; Han, Xiaojuan; Mo, Zhaolan; Mao, Yunxiang

    2018-03-01

    Cobetia marina is a model proteobacteria in researches on marine biofouling. Its taxonomic nomenclature has been revised many times over the past few decades. To better understand the role of the surface-associated lifestyle of C. marina and the phylogeny of the family Halomonadaceae, we sequenced the entire genome of C. marina JCM 21022T using single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) and performed comparative genomics and phylogenomics analyses. The circular chromosome was 4 176 300 bp with an average GC content of 62.44% and contained 3 611 predicted coding sequences, 72 tRNA genes, and 21 rRNA genes. The C. marina JCM 21022T genome contained a set of crucial genes involved in surface colonization processes. The comparative genome analysis indicated the significant differences between C. marina JCM 21022T and Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296 (formerly named C. marina KMM 296) resulted from sequence insertions or deletions and chromosomal recombination. Despite these differences, pan and core genome analysis showed similar gene functions between the two strains. The phylogenomic study of the family Halomonadaceae is reported here for the first time. We found that the relationships were well resolved among every genera tested, including Chromohalobacter, Halomonas, Cobetia, Kushneria, Zymobacter, and Halotalea.

  11. Effects of used lubricating oil on two mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Tam, N F Y

    2007-01-01

    An outdoor experiment was set up to investigate the effects of used lubricating oil (5 L/m2) on Aegiceras corniculatum Blanco. and Avicennia marina (Forsk) Vierh., two salt-excreting mangroves. A. marina was more sensitive to used lubricating oil than A. corniculatum and canopy-oiling resulted in more direct physical damage and stronger lethal effects than base-oiling. When treated with canopy-oiling, half of A. corniculatum plants survived for the whole treatment time (90 d); but, for A. marina, high mortality (83%) resulted from canopy-oiling within 3 weeks and no plants survived for 80 d. Base-oiling had no lethal effects onA. corniculatum plants even at the termination of this experiment, but 83% of A. marina plants died 80 d after treatment. Forty days after canopy-oiling, 93% of A. corniculatum leaves fell and no live leaves remained on A. marina plants. By the end of the experiment, base-oiling treatment resulted in about 45% of A. corniculatum leaves falling, while all A. marina leaves and buds were burned to die. Lubricating oil resulted in physiological damage to A. corniculatum leaves, including decreases in chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and increases in malonaldehyde contents. For both species, oil pollution significantly reduced leaf, root, and total biomass, but did not significantly affect stem biomass. Oil pollution resulted in damage to the xylem vessels of fine roots but not to those of mediate roots.

  12. Complete genome of Cobetia marina JCM 21022T and phylogenomic analysis of the family Halomonadaceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianghai; Xu, Kuipeng; Han, Xiaojuan; Mo, Zhaolan; Mao, Yunxiang

    2016-09-01

    Cobetia marina is a model proteobacteria in researches on marine biofouling. Its taxonomic nomenclature has been revised many times over the past few decades. To better understand the role of the surface-associated lifestyle of C. marina and the phylogeny of the family Halomonadaceae, we sequenced the entire genome of C. marina JCM 21022T using single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) and performed comparative genomics and phylogenomics analyses. The circular chromosome was 4 176 300 bp with an average GC content of 62.44% and contained 3 611 predicted coding sequences, 72 tRNA genes, and 21 rRNA genes. The C. marina JCM 21022T genome contained a set of crucial genes involved in surface colonization processes. The comparative genome analysis indicated the significant diff erences between C. marina JCM 21022T and Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296 (formerly named C. marina KMM 296) resulted from sequence insertions or deletions and chromosomal recombination. Despite these diff erences, pan and core genome analysis showed similar gene functions between the two strains. The phylogenomic study of the family Halomonadaceae is reported here for the first time. We found that the relationships were well resolved among every genera tested, including Chromohalobacter, Halomonas, Cobetia, Kushneria, Zymobacter, and Halotalea.

  13. Implications of Zostera noltii recolonization on Hydrobia ulvae population structure success.

    PubMed

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pardal, M A

    2012-02-01

    Over 1990-1998, the Mondego estuary, Portugal, experienced profound modifications due to eutrophication, culminating in the disappearance and replacement of Zostera noltii by opportunistic macroalgae in the inner most disturbed areas. A decade after restoration measures implementation, Z. noltii started to gradually recolonize the inner parts, following 20 years of absence. This work explores the factors underlying successful Z. noltii recolonization and its subsequent implications on a mud snail Hydrobia ulvae population. During the macroalgal bloom, highest values in H. ulvae abundance, biomass and production were recorded, strongly declining afterwards. Three recovery attempts characterized the post-restoration phase, with considerably increases in H. ulvae abundance, biomass and production since Z. noltii reappearance. The seagrass provided long-term protection and abundant food resources for reproductive adults, contrarily to the ephemeral macroalgae. Through time, large size individuals increased, becoming the population more stable, structured and similar to the one inhabiting the "original"Z. noltii meadows. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-wide survey of the seagrass Zostera muelleri suggests modification of the ethylene signalling network.

    PubMed

    Golicz, Agnieszka A; Schliep, Martin; Lee, Huey Tyng; Larkum, Anthony W D; Dolferus, Rudy; Batley, Jacqueline; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Sablok, Gaurav; Ralph, Peter J; Edwards, David

    2015-03-01

    Seagrasses are flowering plants which grow fully submerged in the marine environment. They have evolved a range of adaptations to environmental challenges including light attenuation through water, the physical stress of wave action and tidal currents, high concentrations of salt, oxygen deficiency in marine sediment, and water-borne pollination. Although, seagrasses are a key stone species of the costal ecosystems, many questions regarding seagrass biology and evolution remain unanswered. Genome sequence data for the widespread Australian seagrass species Zostera muelleri were generated and the unassembled data were compared with the annotated genes of five sequenced plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Phoenix dactylifera, Musa acuminata, and Spirodela polyrhiza). Genes which are conserved between Z. muelleri and the five plant species were identified, together with genes that have been lost in Z. muelleri. The effect of gene loss on biological processes was assessed on the gene ontology classification level. Gene loss in Z. muelleri appears to influence some core biological processes such as ethylene biosynthesis. This study provides a foundation for further studies of seagrass evolution as well as the hormonal regulation of plant growth and development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Long-term analysis of Zostera noltei: A retrospective approach for understanding seagrasses' dynamics.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Felipe; Galván, Cristina; Silió-Calzada, Ana; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Long-term studies are necessary to establish trends and to understand seagrasses' spatial and temporal dynamic. Nevertheless, this type of research is scarce, as the required databases are often unavailable. The objectives of this study are to create a method for mapping the seagrass Zostera noltei using remote sensing techniques, and to apply it to the characterization of the meadows' extension trend and the potential drivers of change. A time series was created using a novel method based on remote sensing techniques that proved to be adequate for mapping the seagrass in the emerged intertidal. The meadows seem to have a decreasing trend between 1984 and the early 2000s, followed by an increasing tendency that represents a recovery in the extension area of the species. This 30-year analysis demonstrated the Z. noltei's recovery in the study site, similar to that in other estuaries nearby and contrary to the worldwide decreasing behavior of seagrasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal growth dynamics of the seagrass Zostera caulescens on the eastern coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Young Kyun; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2014-12-01

    Zostera caulescens is an endemic seagrass species in Northeastern Asia. Estimated distributional area of this species is approximately 1-5 km2 on the coasts of Korea. Because Z. caulescens has a very limited distribution, the growth dynamics of Z. caulescens is little known in the coastal waters of Korea. In the present study, we investigated the growth dynamics of Z. caulescens in relation to coincident measurements of environmental factors, such as underwater irradiance, water temperature, and nutrient availability. The study was conducted on a monotypic meadow of Z. caulescens in Uljin on the eastern coast of Korea from September 2011 to September 2012. Shoot density and biomass of Z. caulescens showed distinct seasonal variations, and exhibited strong correlations with water temperature suggesting that the seasonal growth of this species was regulated by water temperature. Shoot density and biomass rapidly decreased during the high water temperature period in summer, and thus Z. caulescens is considered a cold water adapted species like other temperate seagrass species on coasts of Korea. Biomass of photosynthetic leaf tissues on reproductive shoots was approximately 4 times higher than that on vegetative shoots. The height of reproductive shoots ranged from 1.2 m in February 2012 to 3.2 m in August 2012, whereas the height of vegetative shoots was usually less than 1.0 m. Leaf tissues on reproductive shoots probably received much more light for photosynthesis than those on vegetative shoots. Thus, reproductive shoots may play an important role in total production of Z. caulescens.

  17. In situ impact of petrochemicals on the photosynthesis of the seagrass Zostera capricorni.

    PubMed

    Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M O; Ralph, Peter J

    2003-11-01

    We used photosynthetic activity (measured as chlorophyll a fluorescence) and photosynthetic pigment concentrations to assess the effect of pulsed exposures of aged crude oil (Champion Crude), dispersant (VDC) and an oil+dispersant mixture on the seagrass Zostera capricorni Aschers in laboratory and field experiments, using custom-made chambers. Samples were exposed for 10 h to 0.25% and 0.1% concentrations of aged crude oil and dispersant as well as mixtures of 0.25% oil+0.05% dispersant and 0.1% oil+0.02% dispersant. During this time and for the subsequent four day recovery period, the maximum and effective quantum yields of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and DeltaF/Fm' respectively) were measured. In the laboratory experiments, both values declined in response to oil exposure and remained low during the recovery period. Dispersant exposure caused a decline in both values during the recovery period, while the mixture of aged crude oil+dispersant had little impact on both quantum yields. In situ samples were less sensitive than laboratory samples, showing no photosynthetic impact due to dispersant and oil+dispersant mixture. Despite an initial decline in DeltaF/Fm', in situ oil-exposed samples recovered by the end of the experiment. Chlorophyll pigment analysis showed only limited ongoing impact in both laboratory and field situations. This study suggests that laboratory experiments may overestimate the ongoing impact of petrochemicals on seagrass whilst the dispersant VDC can reduce the impact of oil on seagrass photosynthesis.

  18. In situ impact of multiple pulses of metal and herbicide on the seagrass, Zostera capricorni.

    PubMed

    Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M O; Ralph, Peter J

    2004-04-28

    Tides and freshwater inflow which influence water movement in estuarine areas govern the exposure-regime of pollutants. In this experiment, we examined the in situ impact of double pulses of copper and the herbicide Irgarol 1051 on the photosynthesis of the seagrass, Zostera capricorni. Despite a 4-day recovery period between the two 10h pulses of toxicant, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (DeltaF/Fm') and total chlorophyll concentrations indicated that multiple-pulses had a greater impact than a single pulse. During the first exposure period, samples exposed to Irgarol 1051 had DeltaF/Fm' values as low as zero while controls remained around 0.6 relative units. After the second exposure period, treated samples recovered to only 0.4 relative units. Samples exposed to copper had DeltaF/Fm' values around 0.3 relative units during the first exposure period and while these samples recovered before the second dose, they remained below 0.2 relative units after the second exposure period. Alternate samples were also exposed to one toxicant, allowed to recover and then exposed to the other toxicant. DeltaF/Fm' values indicated that copper exposure followed by Irgarol 1051 exposure was more toxic than Irgarol 1051 exposure followed by copper exposure.

  19. A new mechanistic understanding of light-limitation in the seagrass Zostera muelleri.

    PubMed

    Davey, Peter A; Pernice, Mathieu; Ashworth, Justin; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Szabó, Milán; Dolferus, Rudy; Ralph, Peter J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of light-limitation (∼20 μmol photons m -2  s -1 ) on the southern hemisphere seagrass, Zostera muelleri. RNA sequencing, chlorophyll fluorometry and HPLC techniques were used to investigate how the leaf-specific transcriptome drives changes in photosynthesis and photo-pigments in Z. muelleri over 6 days. 1593 (7.51%) genes were differentially expressed on day 2 and 1481 (6.98%) genes were differentially expressed on day 6 of the experiment. Differential gene expression correlated with significant decreases in rETR Max , I k , an increase in Yi (initial photosynthetic quantum yield of photosystem II), and significant changes in pigment composition. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed along with evidence that abscisic acid may serve a role in the low-light response of this seagrass. This study provides a novel understanding of how Z. muelleri responds to light-limitation in the marine water column and provides potential molecular markers for future conservation monitoring efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of San Diego Bay marinas.

    PubMed

    Neira, Carlos; Cossaboon, Jennifer; Mendoza, Guillermo; Hoh, Eunha; Levin, Lisa A

    2017-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have garnered much attention due to their bioaccumulation, carcinogenic properties, and persistence in the environment. Investigation of the spatial distribution, composition, and sources of PAHs in sediments of three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California revealed significant differences among marinas, with concentrations in one site exceeding 16,000ngg -1 . 'Hotspots' of PAH concentration suggest an association with stormwater outfalls draining into the basins. High-molecular weight PAHs (4-6 rings) were dominant (>86%); the average percentage of potentially carcinogenic PAHs was high in all sites (61.4-70%) but ecotoxicological risks varied among marinas. Highly toxic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was the main contributor (>90%) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) in marinas. PAHs in San Diego Bay marina sediments appear to be derived largely from pyrogenic sources, potentially from combustion products that reach the basins by aerial deposition and stormwater drainage from nearby streets and parking lots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological Responses of Oxyrrhis marina to the Altered Fatty Acid Composition of Virally Infected Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, A.; Fields, D.; Martinez-Martinez, J.

    2016-02-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a coccolithophore that forms some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the ocean. E. huxleyi abundance, distribution, and composition of essential fatty acids make them a key component in marine food webs. E. huxleyi-specific viruses have been shown to control the bloom duration and change the lipid composition of E. huxleyi cells. Alteration of essential fatty acids at the base of the food web may have downstream effects on trophic interactions. Oxyrrhis marina has been studied extensively, and is used as a micrograzer model organism. We investigated differential physiological responses of O. marina to a diet ( 100:1 prey:predator ratio) of virallyinfected versus uninfected E. huxleyi cells over a maximum 7-day period. Our results showed higher O. marina grazing rates on uninfected cells (p<0.05). However, O. marina had faster growth rates (p<0.05) and a smaller relative increase in saturated fatty acids and decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05) when fed infected E. huxleyi cells. This suggests a higher nutritional value of infected cells and/or better assimilation by O. marina of infected cells' carbon. In the marine environment this would translate into larger carbon transport to higher trophic levels when blooms become infected.

  3. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner, Mauritz; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67–104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  4. Reproductive strategy of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica under different levels of disturbance and tidal inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suonan, Zhaxi; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Qin, Le-Zheng; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2017-10-01

    Zostera japonica populations along the coastline of the northwestern Pacific Ocean are declining, mainly due to anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Although reproductive strategy is an important factor in achieving population persistence, changes in the reproductive strategy of Z. japonica under anthropogenic disturbances and tidal stresses are largely unknown. Thus, the duration and frequency of flowering, reproductive effort, potential seed production, and seed density in sediments were measured at three study stations (undisturbed upper, undisturbed lower, and disturbed stations), which were classified based on the levels of inundation stress and clamming activity, in monospecific meadows of Z. japonica on the southern coast of Korea. The flowering duration was approximately six months in the disturbed station, with disturbance due to clam harvesting, whereas the duration was about five months in the undisturbed lower station, and only three months in the undisturbed upper station. The maximum flowering frequency was 25.5% in the disturbed station, which was approximately 4- and 2-fold higher than in the undisturbed upper (6.1%) and lower (12.3%) stations, respectively. A similar trend in reproductive effort was also found among the three study stations. Potential seed production was 7850, 6220, and 1560 seeds m-2 in the disturbed, undisturbed lower, and undisturbed upper stations, respectively. The annual maximum seed density in sediments was also higher in the disturbed and undisturbed lower stations than in the undisturbed upper station, but the densities were relatively low (ranging from 71 to 254 seeds m-2) at all three study stations. It was found that the allocation to sexual reproduction was highest in the disturbed station, followed by the undisturbed lower station, and lowest in the undisturbed upper station, suggesting that sexual reproduction in Z. japonica tends to be enhanced under disturbed and inundated environmental conditions for population

  5. Effects of CO(2) enrichment on photosynthesis, growth, and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Ana; Silva, João; Buapet, Pimchanok; Björk, Mats; Santos, Rui

    2012-10-01

    Seagrass ecosystems are expected to benefit from the global increase in CO(2) in the ocean because the photosynthetic rate of these plants may be C(i)-limited at the current CO(2) level. As well, it is expected that lower external pH will facilitate the nitrate uptake of seagrasses if nitrate is cotransported with H(+) across the membrane as in terrestrial plants. Here, we investigate the effects of CO(2) enrichment on both carbon and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii in a mesocosm experiment where plants were exposed for 5 months to two experimental CO(2) concentrations (360 and 700 ppm). Both the maximum photosynthetic rate (P(m)) and photosynthetic efficiency (α) were higher (1.3- and 4.1-fold, respectively) in plants exposed to CO(2)-enriched conditions. On the other hand, no significant effects of CO(2) enrichment on leaf growth rates were observed, probably due to nitrogen limitation as revealed by the low nitrogen content of leaves. The leaf ammonium uptake rate and glutamine synthetase activity were not significantly affected by increased CO(2) concentrations. On the other hand, the leaf nitrate uptake rate of plants exposed to CO(2)-enriched conditions was fourfold lower than the uptake of plants exposed to current CO(2) level, suggesting that in the seagrass Z. noltii nitrate is not cotransported with H(+) as in terrestrial plants. In contrast, the activity of nitrate reductase was threefold higher in plant leaves grown at high-CO(2) concentrations. Our results suggest that the global effects of CO(2) on seagrass production may be spatially heterogeneous and depend on the specific nitrogen availability of each system. Under a CO(2) increase scenario, the natural levels of nutrients will probably become limiting for Z. noltii. This potential limitation becomes more relevant because the expected positive effect of CO(2) increase on nitrate uptake rate was not confirmed.

  6. Expressed sequence tags from heat-shocked seagrass Zostera noltii (Hornemann) from its southern distribution range.

    PubMed

    Massa, Sónia I; Pearson, Gareth A; Aires, Tânia; Kube, Michael; Olsen, Jeanine L; Reinhardt, Richard; Serrão, Ester A; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2011-09-01

    Predicted global climate change threatens the distributional ranges of species worldwide. We identified genes expressed in the intertidal seagrass Zostera noltii during recovery from a simulated low tide heat-shock exposure. Five Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) libraries were compared, corresponding to four recovery times following sub-lethal temperature stress, and a non-stressed control. We sequenced and analyzed 7009 sequence reads from 30min, 2h, 4h and 24h after the beginning of the heat-shock (AHS), and 1585 from the control library, for a total of 8594 sequence reads. Among 51 Tentative UniGenes (TUGs) exhibiting significantly different expression between libraries, 19 (37.3%) were identified as 'molecular chaperones' and were over-expressed following heat-shock, while 12 (23.5%) were 'photosynthesis TUGs' generally under-expressed in heat-shocked plants. A time course analysis of expression showed a rapid increase in expression of the molecular chaperone class, most of which were heat-shock proteins; which increased from 2 sequence reads in the control library to almost 230 in the 30min AHS library, followed by a slow decrease during further recovery. In contrast, 'photosynthesis TUGs' were under-expressed 30min AHS compared with the control library, and declined progressively with recovery time in the stress libraries, with a total of 29 sequence reads 24h AHS, compared with 125 in the control. A total of 4734 TUGs were screened for EST-Single Sequence Repeats (EST-SSRs) and 86 microsatellites were identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of CO2 enrichment on photosynthesis, growth, and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Ana; Silva, João; Buapet, Pimchanok; Björk, Mats; Santos, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems are expected to benefit from the global increase in CO2 in the ocean because the photosynthetic rate of these plants may be Ci-limited at the current CO2 level. As well, it is expected that lower external pH will facilitate the nitrate uptake of seagrasses if nitrate is cotransported with H+ across the membrane as in terrestrial plants. Here, we investigate the effects of CO2 enrichment on both carbon and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii in a mesocosm experiment where plants were exposed for 5 months to two experimental CO2 concentrations (360 and 700 ppm). Both the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pm) and photosynthetic efficiency (α) were higher (1.3- and 4.1-fold, respectively) in plants exposed to CO2-enriched conditions. On the other hand, no significant effects of CO2 enrichment on leaf growth rates were observed, probably due to nitrogen limitation as revealed by the low nitrogen content of leaves. The leaf ammonium uptake rate and glutamine synthetase activity were not significantly affected by increased CO2 concentrations. On the other hand, the leaf nitrate uptake rate of plants exposed to CO2-enriched conditions was fourfold lower than the uptake of plants exposed to current CO2 level, suggesting that in the seagrass Z. noltii nitrate is not cotransported with H+ as in terrestrial plants. In contrast, the activity of nitrate reductase was threefold higher in plant leaves grown at high-CO2 concentrations. Our results suggest that the global effects of CO2 on seagrass production may be spatially heterogeneous and depend on the specific nitrogen availability of each system. Under a CO2 increase scenario, the natural levels of nutrients will probably become limiting for Z. noltii. This potential limitation becomes more relevant because the expected positive effect of CO2 increase on nitrate uptake rate was not confirmed. PMID:23145346

  8. Toxicity effects of an environmental realistic herbicide mixture on the seagrass Zostera noltei.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Buffan-Dubau, Evelyne; Budzinski, Hélène; Kallerhoff, Jean; Merlina, Georges; Silvestre, Jérome; Auby, Isabelle; Nathalie Tapie; Elger, Arnaud

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide seagrass declines have been observed due to multiple stressors. One of them is the mixture of pesticides used in intensive agriculture and boat antifouling paints in coastal areas. Effects of mixture toxicity are complex and poorly understood. However, consideration of mixture toxicity is more realistic and ecologically relevant for environmental risk assessment (ERA). The first aim of this study was to determine short-term effects of realistic herbicide mixture exposure on physiological endpoints of Zostera noltei. The second aim was to assess the environmental risks of this mixture, by comparing the results to previously published data. Z. noltei was exposed to a mixture of four herbicides: atrazine, diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor, simulating the composition of typical cocktail of contaminants in the Arcachon bay (Atlantic coast, France). Three stress biomarkers were measured: enzymatic activity of glutathione reductase, effective quantum yield (EQY) and photosynthetic pigment composition after 6, 24 and 96 h. Short term exposure to realistic herbicide mixtures affected EQY, with almost 100% inhibition for the two highest concentrations, and photosynthetic pigments. Effect on pigment composition was detected after 6 h with a no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 1 μg/L total mixture concentration. The lowest EQY effect concentration at 10% (EC 10 ) (2 μg/L) and pigment composition NOEC with an assessment factor of 10 were above the maximal field concentrations along the French Atlantic coast, suggesting that there are no potential short term adverse effects of this particular mixture on Z. noltei. However, chronic effects on photosynthesis may lead to reduced energy reserves, which could thus lead to effects at whole plant and population level. Understanding the consequences of chemical mixtures could help to improve ERA and enhance management strategies to prevent further declines of seagrass meadows worldwide. Copyright © 2016

  9. EFFECTS OF THE INVASIVE, NONINDIGENOUS SEAGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA ON NUTRIENT FLUXES BETWEEN THE WATER COLUMN AND BENTHOS IN A NE PACIFIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its introduction in the early to mid-20th century, the Asian seagrass Zostera japonica has become established in marine and mesohaline portions of many estuaries in the Pacific Northwest. Z. japonica forms dense patches from 0.3-2.4m above mean lower low water, a zone that...

  10. Effects of salinity on photosynthesis and respiration of the seagrass Zostera japonica: A comparison of two established populations in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zostera japonica is a non-native seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America that is distributed from Northern California, USA to British Columbia, Canada. Recent observations indicate that the species is expanding both latitudinally and into areas of lower salinity. Ther...

  11. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats in the US Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuary-wide benthic macrofauna─habitat associations were determined for 9 habitats (intertidal eelgrass [Zostera marina], dwarf eelgrass [Zostera japonica], oyster [Crassostrea gigas], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californiensis], shell, sand, mud,...

  12. ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF INDIGENOUS, NONINDIGENOUS, AND CRYPTOGENIC BENTHIC MACROFAUNA IN WILLAPA BAY, WASHINGTON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Zostera, Spartina, U...

  13. Sinkhole hazard assessment in Lesina Marina area (Apulia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, F.; Caporale, F.; D'Angella, A.; Fidelibus, D.; Gutierrez, F.; Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.

    2012-04-01

    In "Lesina Marina" area, located in the north-western part of the Apulia region (Italy), near the Adriatic coast, sinkhole phenomena are particularly widespread and constitute a risk for the built-up area. These phenomena are due to the structure of the evaporitic rocks located in the study area and to the groundwater regime, influenced by the presence of a channel that connects the sea to the lagoon. The complex sea-channel-lagoon system produces an inland flow towards the channel modulated by the tide with a variable width according to the rules of the coastal aquifers. Further studies have been carried out in order to clarify the context and the causes of this instability phenomenon. A procedure for the sinkhole susceptibility and hazard assessment has been performed, in order to evaluate the spatial distribution of the most unstable areas and the potential spatio-temporal evolution of the phenomenon. The sinkhole susceptibility model has been created in GIS by assessing the spatial relationship between the sinkhole inventory map and a series of thematic maps relative to instability factors. The thematic layers selected for the study are nine and cover geometrical features of the surface, of the gypsum rockhead and of the incoherent soil cover, groundwater and daily and seasonal groundwater level variations. Daily groundwater variation in a semiconfined coastal aquifer can be related to the permeability and to the void structures of the evaporitic mass. In the years subsequent to 1980, when the first reports of the presence of sinkholes are dated, the evolution of these instabilities in terms of their number and of their increase of extension has been monitored with repeated surveys. These data were used for susceptibility model validation and to define the hazard model. The selected layers revealed to be very useful in describing and mapping the hazard coming from suffusion sinkholes in the study area. The sinkhole hazard assessment is carried out, according to

  14. 76 FR 38020 - Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina; Marblehead, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina; Marblehead, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... from portions of Lake Erie for the Bay Point Fireworks. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with fireworks displays. DATES: This regulation...

  15. Two Cases of Peritonitis Caused by Kocuria marina in Patients Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ja Young; Kim, Si Hyun; Jeong, Haeng Soon; Oh, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hye Ran; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Nyeo; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kho, Weon-Gyu; Bae, Il Kwon; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2009-01-01

    Kocuria spp. are members of the Micrococcaceae family that are frequently found in the environment and on human skin. Few human infections have been reported. We describe what appear to be the first two cases of Kocuria marina peritonitis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. PMID:19692561

  16. Bacteraemia caused by Sciscionella marina in a lymphoma patient: phenotypically mimicking Nocardia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, M; Shivaprakash, M R; Chakrabarti, A; Shafiulla, M; Babu, K G; Jayshree, R S

    2013-06-01

    A 55-year-old female patient with malignant lymphoma after induction chemotherapy developed fever. Blood culture yielded an organism biochemically identified as representing Nocardia spp., but molecular identification (16S rRNA gene sequencing) later identified it as representing Sciscionella marina. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of Sciscionella being isolated from a human sample.

  17. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stations and holding tanks. 1304.403 Section 1304.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  18. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ...: The Coast Guard will enforce a 1,000 foot safety zone around the Berkeley Pier in position 37[deg]51... Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley...

  19. OCCURRENCE OF METYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA

    EPA Science Inventory



    Occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in five marinas was monitored between June 1999 and November 2000 in Lake Texoma located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas. MTBE is a commonly used gasoline additive and a suspected carcinogen. Lake water was collected at loc...

  20. ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS AT LAKE MARINAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli, a fecal coliform, and total coliforms were monitored between September 1999 to October 2001 in five marinas on Lake Texoma, located on the Oklahoma and Texas border. General trend was that densities of E. coli were lower in the summer season due to the lower ...

  1. 78 FR 29022 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility... Guard will enforce a 1,000 foot safety zone around the Berkeley Pier in approximate position 37[deg]51... radius 1,000 [[Page 29023

  2. Leaf miner-induced morphological, physiological and molecular changes in mangrove plant Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Lu, Wei-Zhi; Liu, Xiang; Wu, Fei-Hua; Gao, Gui-Feng; Liu, Yi-Ling; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Chong-Ling; Fan, Hang-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Hui; Zheng, Hai-Lei; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2017-01-31

    Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh is a widespread mangrove species along the southeast coasts of China. Recently, the outbreak of herbivorous insect, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, a leaf miner, have impacted on the growth of A. marina. Little is reported about the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. Here, we reported the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection from the aspects of leaf structure, photosynthesis, and antioxidant system and miner responsive genes expression. A. marina leaves attacked by the leaf miner exhibited significant decreases in chlorophyll, carbon and nitrogen contents, as well as a decreased photosynthetic rate. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that the leaf miner only invaded the upper epidermis and destroyed the epidermal cell, which lead to the exposure of salt glands. In addition, the chloroplasts of mined leaves (ML) were swollen and the thylakoids degraded. The maximal net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance (Gs), carboxylation efficiency (CE), dark respiration (Rd), light respiration (Rp) and quantum yields (AQE) significantly decreased in the ML, whereas the light saturation point (Lsp), light compensation point (Lcp), water loss and CO2 compensation point (Г) increased in the ML. Moreover, chlorophyll fluorescence features also had been changed by leaf miner attacks. Interestingly, higher generation rate of O2ˉ· and lower antioxidant enzyme expression in the mined portion (MP) were found; on the contrary, higher H2O2 level and higher antioxidant enzyme expression in the non-mined portion (NMP) were revealed, implying that the NMP may be able to sense that the leaf miner attacks had happened in the MP of the A. marina leaf via H2O2 signaling. Besides, the protein expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the glutathione (GSH) content were increased in the ML. In addition, insect resistance-related gene

  3. Chapter F. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Marina District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Rourke, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    During the earthquake, a total land area of about 4,300 km2 was shaken with seismic intensities that can cause significant damage to structures. The area of the Marina District of San Francisco is only 4.0 km2--less than 0.1 percent of the area most strongly affected by the earthquake--but its significance with respect to engineering, seismology, and planning far outstrips its proportion of shaken terrain and makes it a centerpiece for lessons learned from the earthquake. The Marina District provides perhaps the most comprehensive case history of seismic effects at a specific site developed for any earthquake. The reports assembled in this chapter, which provide an account of these seismic effects, constitute a unique collection of studies on site, as well as infrastructure and societal, response that cover virtually all aspects of the earthquake, ranging from incoming ground waves to the outgoing airwaves used for emergency communication. The Marina District encompasses the area bounded by San Francisco Bay on the north, the Presidio on the west, and Lombard Street and Van Ness Avenue on the south and east, respectively. Nearly all of the earthquake damage in the Marina District, however, occurred within a considerably smaller area of about 0.75 km2, bounded by San Francisco Bay and Baker, Chestnut, and Buchanan Streets. At least five major aspects of earthquake response in the Marina District are covered by the reports in this chapter: (1) dynamic site response, (2) soil liquefaction, (3) lifeline performance, (4) building performance, and (5) emergency services.

  4. CO2 and nutrient-driven changes across multiple levels of organization in Zostera noltii ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Crego, B.; Olivé, I.; Santos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence emphasizes that the effects of human impacts on ecosystems must be investigated using designs that incorporate the responses across levels of biological organization as well as the effects of multiple stressors. Here we implemented a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the individual and interactive effects of CO2 enrichment and eutrophication scale-up from changes in primary producers at the individual (biochemistry) or population level (production, reproduction, and/or abundance) to higher levels of community (macroalgae abundance, herbivory, and global metabolism), and ecosystem organization (detritus release and carbon sink capacity). The responses of Zostera noltii seagrass meadows growing in low- and high-nutrient field conditions were compared. In both meadows, the expected CO2 benefits on Z. noltii leaf production were suppressed by epiphyte overgrowth, with no direct CO2 effect on plant biochemistry or population-level traits. Multi-level meadow response to nutrients was faster and stronger than to CO2. Nutrient enrichment promoted the nutritional quality of Z. noltii (high N, low C : N and phenolics), the growth of epiphytic pennate diatoms and purple bacteria, and shoot mortality. In the low-nutrient meadow, individual effects of CO2 and nutrients separately resulted in reduced carbon storage in the sediment, probably due to enhanced microbial degradation of more labile organic matter. These changes, however, had no effect on herbivory or on community metabolism. Interestingly, individual effects of CO2 or nutrient addition on epiphytes, shoot mortality, and carbon storage were attenuated when nutrients and CO2 acted simultaneously. This suggests CO2-induced benefits on eutrophic meadows. In the high-nutrient meadow, a striking shoot decline caused by amphipod overgrazing masked the response to CO2 and nutrient additions. Our results reveal that under future scenarios of CO2, the responses of seagrass ecosystems will be complex and

  5. MAPPING EELGRASS SPECIES ZOSTERA ZAPONICA AND Z. MARINA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETATION HABITATS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary were conducted during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2000. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communit...

  6. Human tolerances.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1962-04-01

    The ultimate limitations in flight performance and in future civil air carrier equipment are the limitations imposed by what may be termed human tolerances. This is particularly applicable to the matter of the supersonic transport. The discussi...

  7. Contaminant loading to Puget Sound from two marinas. Puget Sound estuary program. Final report, June 1988-October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Kiesser, S.L.

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, PAH's, TBT and FC bacteria were measured in surface sediment, sediment-trap, and water-column samples at two marinas in Puget Sound during summer of 1988. Levels of contaminants inside the marinas were compared with levels outside. TBT had greatest elevation in marina sediments compared to reference sediments. Few of sediments exceeded Puget Sound AET sediment quality values but most did exceed PSDDA screening levels for in-water disposal of dredged sediment. All marinas estimated to contribute less than one percent of total mass loading of Cu, Pb and Zn to main basin of Puget Sound. Contribution ofmore » TBT may be much more significant if antifouling paints are the major source for Puget Sound.« less

  8. Entamoeba marina n. sp.; a New Species of Entamoeba Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment of Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Entamoeba includes anaerobic lobose amoebae, most of which are parasites of various vertebrates and invertebrates. We report a new Entamoeba species, E. marina n. sp. that was isolated from a sample of tidal flat sediment collected at Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Trophozoites of E. marina were 12.8-32.1 μm in length and 6.8-15.9 μm in width, whereas the cysts were 8.9-15.8 μm in diam. and contained four nuclei. The E. marina cells contained a rounded nucleus with a small centric karyosome and uniformly arranged peripheral chromatin. Although E. marina is morphologically indistinguishable from other tetranucleated cyst-forming Entamoeba species, E. marina can be distinguished from them based on the combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA gene and the difference of collection sites. Therefore, we propose E. marina as a new species of the genus Entamoeba. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recreational marina sediments of San Diego Bay, southern California.

    PubMed

    Neira, Carlos; Vales, Melissa; Mendoza, Guillermo; Hoh, Eunha; Levin, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined in surface sediments from three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 23 to 153, 31-294, and 151-1387ngg -1 for Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), Harbor Island West (HW) and Harbor Island East (HE), respectively. PCB concentrations were significantly higher in HE and PCB group composition differed relative to HW and SIYB, which were not significantly different from each other in concentration or group composition. In marina sediments there was a predominance (82-85%) of heavier molecular weight PCBs with homologous groups (6CL-7CL) comprising 59% of the total. In HE 75% of the sites exceeded the effect range median (ERM), and toxicity equivalence (TEQ dioxin-like PCBs) values were higher relative to those of HW and SIYB, suggesting a potential ecotoxicological risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A massive update of non-indigenous species records in Mediterranean marinas

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Ada; Bertolino, Marco; Bogi, Cesare; Chatzigeorgiou, Giorgos; Çiçek, Burak Ali; Deidun, Alan; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso; Koçak, Cengiz; Lorenti, Maurizio; Merlo, Guenda; Scribano, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is home to over 2/3 of the world’s charter boat traffic and hosts an estimated 1.5 million recreational boats. Studies elsewhere have demonstrated marinas as important hubs for the stepping-stone transfer of non-indigenous species (NIS), but these unique anthropogenic, and typically artificial habitats have largely gone overlooked in the Mediterranean as sources of NIS hot-spots. From April 2015 to November 2016, 34 marinas were sampled across the following Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus to investigate the NIS presence and richness in the specialized hard substrate material of these marina habitats. All macroinvertebrate taxa were collected and identified. Additionally, fouling samples were collected from approximately 600 boat-hulls from 25 of these marinas to determine if boats host diverse NIS not present in the marina. Here, we present data revealing that Mediterranean marinas indeed act as major hubs for the transfer of marine NIS, and we also provide evidence that recreational boats act as effective vectors of spread. From this wide-ranging geographical study, we report here numerous new NIS records at the basin, subregional, country and locality level. At the basin level, we report three NIS new to the Mediterranean Sea (Achelia sawayai sensu lato, Aorides longimerus, Cymodoce aff. fuscina), and the re-appearance of two NIS previously known but currently considered extinct in the Mediterranean (Bemlos leptocheirus, Saccostrea glomerata). We also compellingly update the distributions of many NIS in the Mediterranean Sea showing some recent spreading; we provide details for 11 new subregional records for NIS (Watersipora arcuata, Hydroides brachyacantha sensu lato and Saccostrea glomerata now present in the Western Mediterranean; Symplegma brakenhielmi, Stenothoe georgiana, Spirobranchus tertaceros sensu lato, Dendostrea folium sensu lato and Parasmittina egyptiaca now present in the

  11. The effect of wind direction and building surroundings on a marina bay in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katona, Cosmin; Safta, Carmen Anca

    2017-01-01

    The wind effect has usually a major importance in the marina bay. These environmental sites are an interplay between tourist and commercial activities, requiring a high-detailed and definition studies of the dynamic fluid in the harbor. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used elaborately in urban surroundings research. However, most CFD studies were performed for harbors for only a confined number of wind directions and/or without considering the building surroundings effects. This paper presents the results of different simulations based on various wind flows and the CFD simulation of coupled urban wind flow and general wind directions upon a semi-closed area. Thus the importance of wind effects on the evaluation of the marina bay will be pointed out to achieve a safe and secure mooring at the berth and eventually a good potential of renewable energy for an impending green harbor.

  12. Economic Impacts from Spending by Marina Slip Reenter at Raystown Lake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Impacts from Spending by Marina Slip Renters at Raystown Lake Wen-Huei Chang, Richard Kasul, LiChu Lee, and Kathleen Perales Environmental ...water quality, social or environmental impacts , or the like. This study did not include changes in use based on increases in gasoline prices or...1997. Classifcation of Corps of Engineers Projects for Economic Impact Assesment . Unpublished MS Thesis. East Lansing, MI: Department of Park

  13. Direct uptake of canopy rainwater causes turgor-driven growth spurts in the mangrove Avicennia marina.

    PubMed

    Steppe, Kathy; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Van de Wal, Bart A E; Hoste, Pieter; Guyot, Adrien; Lovelock, Catherine E; Lockington, David A

    2018-03-17

    Mangrove forests depend on a dense structure of sufficiently large trees to fulfil their essential functions as providers of food and wood for animals and people, CO2 sinks and protection from storms. Growth of these forests is known to be dependent on the salinity of soil water, but the influence of foliar uptake of rainwater as a freshwater source, additional to soil water, has hardly been investigated. Under field conditions in Australia, stem diameter variation, sap flow and stem water potential of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.) were simultaneously measured during alternating dry and rainy periods. We found that sap flow in A. marina was reversed, from canopy to roots, during and shortly after rainfall events. Simultaneously, stem diameters rapidly increased with growth rates up to 70 μm h-1, which is about 25-75 times the normal growth rate reported in temperate trees. A mechanistic tree model was applied to provide evidence that A. marina trees take up water through their leaves, and that this water contributes to turgor-driven stem growth. Our results indicate that direct uptake of freshwater by the canopy during rainfall supports mangrove tree growth and serve as a call to consider this water uptake pathway if we aspire to correctly assess influences of changing rainfall patterns on mangrove tree growth.

  14. Intolerant tolerance.

    PubMed

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights.

  15. Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates pesticides used to protect crops and sets limits on the amount of pesticide remaining in or on foods in the U.S. The limits on pesticides on foods are called tolerances in the U.S. (maximum residue limits (MRLs) in many other countries).

  16. Resilience of Zostera muelleri seagrass to small-scale disturbances: the relative importance of asexual versus sexual recovery

    PubMed Central

    Macreadie, Peter I; York, Paul H; Sherman, Craig DH

    2014-01-01

    Resilience is the ability of an ecosystem to recover from disturbance without loss of essential function. Seagrass ecosystems are key marine and estuarine habitats that are under threat from a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The ability of these ecosystems to recovery from disturbance will to a large extent depend on the internsity and scale of the disturbance, and the relative importance of sexual versus asexual reproduction within populations. Here, we investigated the resilience of Zostera muelleri seagrass (Syn. Zostera capricorni) to small-scale disturbances at four locations in Lake Macquarie – Australia's largest coastal lake – and monitored recovery over a 65-week period. Resilience of Z. muelleri varied significantly with disturbance intensity; Z. muelleri recovered rapidly (within 2 weeks) from low-intensity disturbance (shoot loss), and rates of recovery appeared related to initial shoot length. Recovery via rhizome encroachment (asexual regeneration) from high-intensity disturbance (loss of entire plant) varied among locations, ranging from 18-35 weeks, whereas the ability to recover was apparently lost (at least within the time frame of this study) when recovery depended on sexual regeneration, suggesting that seeds do not provide a mechanism of recovery against intense small-scale disturbances. The lack of sexual recruits into disturbed sites is surprising as our initial surveys of genotypic diversity (using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci) at these location indicate that populations are maintained by a mix of sexual and asexual reproduction (genotypic diversity [R] varied from 0.24 to 0.44), and populations consisted of a mosaic of genotypes with on average 3.6 unique multilocus genotypes per 300 mm diameter plot. We therefore conclude that Z. muelleri populations within Lake Macquarie rely on clonal growth to recover from small-scale disturbances and that ongoing sexual recruitment by seeds into established seagrass

  17. Isolation and characterization of a SEPALLATA-like gene, ZjMADS1, from marine angiosperm Zostera japonica.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Makoto; Inoue, Miho; Morita, Teruwo; Tominaga, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Miyuki; Coury, Daniel A; Amano, Hideomi

    2012-05-01

    In flowering plants, floral homeotic MADS-box genes, which constitute a large multigene family, play important roles in the specification of floral organs as defined by the ABCDE model. In this study, a MADS-box gene, ZjMADS1, was isolated and characterized from the marine angiosperm Zostera japonica. The predicted length of the ZjMADS1 protein was 246 amino acids (AA), and the AA sequence was most similar to those of the SEPALLATA (SEP) subfamily, corresponding to E-function genes. Southern blot analysis suggested the presence of two SEP3-like genes in the Z. japonica genome. ZjMADS1 mRNA levels were extremely high in the spadices, regardless of the developmental stage, compared to other organs from the reproductive and vegetative shoots. These results suggest that the ZjMADS1 gene may be involved in spadix development in Z. japonica and act as an E-function gene in floral organ development in marine angiosperms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Studies in the Seagrass Zostera muelleri Exposed to Light Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, M.; Pernice, M.; Sinutok, S.; Bryant, C. V.; York, P. H.; Rasheed, M. A.; Ralph, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are threatened by coastal development and global change. In the face of these pressures, molecular techniques such as reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) have great potential to improve management of these ecosystems by allowing early detection of chronic stress. In RT-qPCR, the expression levels of target genes are estimated on the basis of reference genes, in order to control for RNA variations. Although determination of suitable reference genes is critical for RT-qPCR studies, reports on the evaluation of reference genes are still absent for the major Australian species Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni (Z. muelleri). Here, we used three different software (geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper) to evaluate ten widely used reference genes according to their expression stability in Z. muelleri exposed to light limitation. We then combined results from different software and used a consensus rank of four best reference genes to validate regulation in Photosystem I reaction center subunit IV B and Heat Stress Transcription factor A- gene expression in Z. muelleri under light limitation. This study provides the first comprehensive list of reference genes in Z. muelleri and demonstrates RT-qPCR as an effective tool to identify early responses to light limitation in seagrass. PMID:26592440

  19. Sulphate reduction and nitrogen fixation rates associated with roots, rhizomes and sediments from Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima meadows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L B; Finster, K; Welsh, D T; Donelly, A; Herbert, R A; de Wit, R; Lomstein, B A

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate reduction rates (SRR) and nitrogen fixation rates (NFR) associated with isolated roots, rhizomes and sediment from the rhizosphere of the marine macrophytes Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima, and the presence and distribution of Bacteria on the roots and rhizomes, were investigated. Between 1% and 3% of the surface area of the roots and rhizomes of both macrophytes were colonized by Bacteria. Bacteria on the surfaces of S. maritima roots and rhizomes were evenly distributed, while the distribution of Bacteria on Z. noltii roots and rhizomes was patchy. Root- and rhizome-associated SRR and NFR were always higher than rates in the bulk sediment. In particular, nitrogen fixation associated with the roots and rhizomes was 41-650-fold higher than in the bulk sediment. Despite the fact that sulphate reduction was elevated on roots and rhizomes compared with bulk sediment, the contribution of plant-associated sulphate reduction to overall sulphate reduction was small (< or =11%). In contrast, nitrogen fixation associated with the roots and rhizomes accounted for 31% and 91% of the nitrogen fixed in the rhizosphere of Z. noltii and S. maritima respectively. In addition, plant-associated nitrogen fixation could supply 37-1,613% of the nitrogen needed by the sulphate-reducing community. Sucrose stimulated nitrogen fixation and sulphate reduction significantly in the root and rhizome compartments of both macrophytes, but not in the bulk sediment.

  20. Towards a more ecologically relevant assessment of the impact of heavy metals on the photosynthesis of the seagrass, Zostera capricorni.

    PubMed

    Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M O; Ralph, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    This in situ study used photosynthetic activity (measured as chlorophyll a fluorescence) and photosynthetic pigment concentrations to assess the effect of copper, cadmium, lead and zinc on the seagrass Zostera capricorni. Custom-made portable in situ exposure (PIE) chambers were developed so seagrasses could be dosed within the meadow. Z capricorni was exposed to 0.1 and I mg l(-1) of metal solutions for 10 h. During this time and for the subsequent four-day recovery period, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PS II) (deltaF/Fm') was measured. While the results were variable, copper and zinc exposed samples had a depressed deltaF/Fm' during the exposure period. Samples exposed to zinc recovered to pre-exposure levels but those exposed to copper did not. Cadmium and lead did not impact on the chlorophyll a fluorescence and the chlorophyll pigment data supported these findings. This study presents an innovative new application of chlorophyll a fluorescence stress assessment.

  1. Low oxygen affects photophysiology and the level of expression of two-carbon metabolism genes in the seagrass Zostera muelleri.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mikael; Brodersen, Kasper Elgetti; Szabó, Milán; Larkum, Anthony W D; Raven, John A; Ralph, Peter J; Pernice, Mathieu

    2018-05-01

    Seagrasses are a diverse group of angiosperms that evolved to live in shallow coastal waters, an environment regularly subjected to changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide and irradiance. Zostera muelleri is the dominant species in south-eastern Australia, and is critical for healthy coastal ecosystems. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the pathways of carbon fixation in Z. muelleri and their regulation in response to environmental changes. In this study, the response of Z. muelleri exposed to control and very low oxygen conditions was investigated by using (i) oxygen microsensors combined with a custom-made flow chamber to measure changes in photosynthesis and respiration, and (ii) reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR to measure changes in expression levels of key genes involved in C 4 metabolism. We found that very low levels of oxygen (i) altered the photophysiology of Z. muelleri, a characteristic of C 3 mechanism of carbon assimilation, and (ii) decreased the expression levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. These molecular-physiological results suggest that regulation of the photophysiology of Z. muelleri might involve a close integration between the C 3 and C 4 , or other CO 2 concentrating mechanisms metabolic pathways. Overall, this study highlights that the photophysiological response of Z. muelleri to changing oxygen in water is capable of rapid acclimation and the dynamic modulation of pathways should be considered when assessing seagrass primary production.

  2. Resource utilization and trophic position of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods in and adjacent to Zostera noltii beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafeiadou, A.-M.; Materatski, P.; Adão, H.; De Troch, M.; Moens, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the resource use and trophic position of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods at the genus/species level in an estuarine food web in Zostera noltii beds and in adjacent bare sediments, using the natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Microphytobenthos is among the main resources of most taxa, but seagrass-associated resources (i.e. seagrass detritus and epiphytes) also contribute to meiobenthos nutrition, with seagrass detritus being available also in deeper sediments and in unvegetated patches close to seagrass beds. A predominant dependence on chemoautotrophic bacteria was demonstrated for the nematode genus Terschellingia and the copepod family Cletodidae. A predatory feeding mode is illustrated for Paracomesoma and other Comesomatidae, which were previously considered first-level consumers (deposit feeders) according to their buccal morphology. The considerable variation found in both resource use and trophic level among nematode genera from the same feeding type, and even among congeneric nematode species, shows that interpretation of nematode feeding ecology based purely on mouth morphology should be avoided.

  3. Resource utilization and trophic position of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods in and adjacent to Zostera noltii beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafeiadou, A.-M.; Materatski, P.; Adão, H.; De Troch, M.; Moens, T.

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the resource use and trophic position of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods at the genus/species level in an estuarine food web in Zostera noltii beds and in adjacent bare sediments using the natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Microphytobenthos and/or epiphytes are among the main resources of most taxa, but seagrass detritus and sediment particulate organic matter contribute as well to meiobenthos nutrition, which are also available in deeper sediment layers and in unvegetated patches close to seagrass beds. A predominant dependence on chemoautotrophic bacteria was demonstrated for the nematode genus Terschellingia and the copepod family Cletodidae. A predatory feeding mode is illustrated for Paracomesoma and other Comesomatidae, which were previously considered first-level consumers (deposit feeders) according to their buccal morphology. The considerable variation found in both resource use and trophic level among nematode genera from the same feeding type, and even among congeneric nematode species, shows that the interpretation of nematode feeding ecology based purely on mouth morphology should be avoided.

  4. [Vitamin B12-independent strains of Methylophaga marina isolated from Red Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Li, Ts D; Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Two strains (KM3 and KM5) of halophilic methylobacteria isolated from Red Sea algae do not require vitamin B12 for growth and can use methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, and fructose as sources of carbon and energy. The cells of these strains are gram-negative motile monotrichous (strain KM3) or peritrichous (strain KM5) rods. The strains are strictly aerobic and require Na+ ions but not growth factors for growth. They are oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduce nitrates to nitrites. Both strains can grow in a temperature range of 4 to 37 degrees C (with optimal growth at 29-34 degrees C), at pH between 5.5 and 8.5 (with optimal growth at pH 7.5-8.0), and in a range of salt concentrations between 0.5 and 15% NaCl (with optimal growth at 5-9% NaCl). The phospholipids of these strains are dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and also include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin. The dominant fatty acids are C(16:1omega7c) and C(16:0). The major ubiquinone is Q8. The cells accumulate ectoin, glutamate, and sucrose as intracellular osmoprotectants. The strains implement the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate-dependent variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of the DNA is 44.4-44.7 mol %. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that both strains belong to Gammaproteobacteria and have a high degree of homology (99.4%) to Methylophaga marina ATCC 35842T . Based on the data of polyphasic taxonomy, strains KM3 and KM5 are identified as new strains M. marina KM3 (VKM B-2386) and M. marina KM5 (VKM B-2387). The ability of these strains to produce auxins (indole-3-acetic acid) suggests their metabolic association with marine algae.

  5. Light-promoted rhodopsin expression and starvation survival in the marine dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiling; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of microbial rhodopsins in marine proteobacteria changed the dogma that photosynthesis is the only pathway to use the solar energy for biological utilization in the marine environment. Although homologs of these rhodopsins have been identified in dinoflagellates, the diversity of the encoding genes and their physiological roles remain unexplored. As an initial step toward addressing the gap, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome sequencing on Oxyrrhis marina to retrieve rhodopsin transcripts, rapid amplification of cDNA ends to isolate full-length cDNAs of dominant representatives, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR to investigate their expression under varying conditions. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that O. marina contained both the proton-pumping type (PR) and sensory type (SR) rhodopsins, and the transcriptome data showed that the PR type dominated over the SR type. We compared rhodopsin gene expression for cultures kept under light: dark cycle and continuous darkness in a time course of 24 days without feeding. Although both types of rhodopsin were expressed under the two conditions, the expression levels of PR were much higher than SR, consistent with the transcriptomic data. Furthermore, relative to cultures kept in the dark, rhodopsin expression levels and cell survival rate were both higher in cultures grown in the light. This is the first report of light-dependent promotion of starvation survival and concomitant promotion of PR expression in a eukaryote. While direct evidence needs to come from functional test on rhodopsins in vitro or gene knockout/knockdown experiments, our results suggest that the proton-pumping rhodopsin might be responsible for the light-enhanced survival of O. marina, as previously demonstrated in bacteria.

  6. Antifouling biocides in German marinas: Exposure assessment and calculation of national consumption and emission.

    PubMed

    Daehne, Dagmar; Fürle, Constanze; Thomsen, Anja; Watermann, Burkard; Feibicke, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The authorization of biocidal antifouling products for leisure boats is the subject of the European Union Biocides Regulation 528/2012. National specifics may be regarded by the member states in their assessment of environmental risks. The aim of this survey was to collect corresponding data and to create a database for the environmental risk assessment of antifouling active substances in German surface waters. Water concentrations of current antifouling active substances and selected breakdown products were measured in a single-sampling campaign covering 50 marinas at inland and coastal areas. Increased levels were found for Zn, Cu, and cybutryne. For the latter, the maximum allowable concentration according to Directive 2013/39/EU was exceeded at 5 marinas. For Cu, local environmental quality standards were exceeded at 10 marinas. Base data on the total boat inventory in Germany were lacking until now. For that reason, a nationwide survey of mooring berths was conducted by use of aerial photos. About 206 000 mooring berths obviously used by boats with a potential antifouling application were counted. The blind spot of very small marinas was estimated at 20 000 berths. Seventy-one percent of berths were located at freshwater sites, illustrating the importance of navigable inland waterways for leisure boat activities and underlining the need for a customized exposure assessment in these areas. Moreover, the national consumption of all antifouling products for leisure boats was calculated. The total amount of 794 tonnes/annum (t/a) consisted of 179 t/a of inorganic Cu compounds, 19 t/a of organic cobiocides, and 49.5 t/a of Zn. With regard to weight proportion, 141 t/a Cu and 40 t/a Zn were consumed. Assuming an emission ratio of 50% during service life, 70.5 t/a of Cu amounted to 15% of all external sources for Cu release to German surface waters. These figures highlight the need for mitigation measures. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:892-905. © 2017 The

  7. Photosystem Trap Energies and Spectrally-Dependent Energy-Storage Efficiencies in the Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris Marina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Steven P.; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Mauzerall, David

    2012-01-01

    Acaryochloris marina is the only species known to utilize chlorophyll (Chl) d as a principal photopigment. The peak absorption wavelength of Chl d is redshifted approx. 40 nm in vivo relative to Chl a, enabling this cyanobacterium to perform oxygenic phototrophy in niche environments enhanced in far-red light. We present measurements of the in vivo energy-storage (E-S) efficiency of photosynthesis in A. marina, obtained using pulsed photoacoustics (PA) over a 90-nm range of excitation wavelengths in the red and far-red. Together with modeling results, these measurements provide the first direct observation of the trap energies of PSI and PSII, and also the photosystem-specific contributions to the total E-S efficiency. We find the maximum observed efficiency in A. marina (40+/-1% at 735 nm) is higher than in the Chl a cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis (35+/-1% at 690 nm). The efficiency at peak absorption wavelength is also higher in A. marina (36+/-1% at 710 nm vs. 31+/-1% at 670 nm). In both species, the trap efficiencies are approx. 40% (PSI) and approx. 30% (PSII). The PSI trap in A. marina is found to lie at 740+/-5 nm, in agreement with the value inferred from spectroscopic methods. The best fit of the model to the PA data identifies the PSII trap at 723+/-3 nm, supporting the view that the primary electron-donor is Chl d, probably at the accessory (ChlD1) site. A decrease in efficiency beyond the trap wavelength, consistent with uphill energy transfer, is clearly observed and fit by the model. These results demonstrate that the E-S efficiency in A. marina is not thermodynamically limited, suggesting that oxygenic photosynthesis is viable in even redder light environments.

  8. Biofilm Growth and Near-Infrared Radiation-Driven Photosynthesis of the Chlorophyll d-Containing Cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, Lars; Schrameyer, Verena; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lundin, Luisa; Sørensen, Søren J.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

    2012-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is the only known phototroph harboring chlorophyll (Chl) d. It is easy to cultivate it in a planktonic growth mode, and A. marina cultures have been subject to detailed biochemical and biophysical characterization. In natural situations, A. marina is mainly found associated with surfaces, but this growth mode has not been studied yet. Here, we show that the A. marina type strain MBIC11017 inoculated into alginate beads forms dense biofilm-like cell clusters, as in natural A. marina biofilms, characterized by strong O2 concentration gradients that change with irradiance. Biofilm growth under both visible radiation (VIS, 400 to 700 nm) and near-infrared radiation (NIR, ∼700 to 730 nm) yielded maximal cell-specific growth rates of 0.38 per day and 0.64 per day, respectively. The population doubling times were 1.09 and 1.82 days for NIR and visible light, respectively. The photosynthesis versus irradiance curves showed saturation at a photon irradiance of Ek (saturating irradiance) >250 μmol photons m−2 s−1 for blue light but no clear saturation at 365 μmol photons m−2 s−1 for NIR. The maximal gross photosynthesis rates in the aggregates were ∼1,272 μmol O2 mg Chl d−1 h−1 (NIR) and ∼1,128 μmol O2 mg Chl d−1 h−1 (VIS). The photosynthetic efficiency (α) values were higher in NIR-irradiated cells [(268 ± 0.29) × 10−6 m2 mg Chl d−1 (mean ± standard deviation)] than under blue light [(231 ± 0.22) × 10−6 m2 mg Chl d−1]. A. marina is well adapted to a biofilm growth mode under both visible and NIR irradiance and under O2 conditions ranging from anoxia to hyperoxia, explaining its presence in natural niches with similar environmental conditions. PMID:22467501

  9. An assessment of site suitability for marina construction in Istanbul, Turkey, using GIS and AHP multicriteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Gumusay, Mustafa Umit; Koseoglu, Gokalp; Bakirman, Tolga

    2016-12-01

    Marinas play a key role in sea transportation and tourism. The problem of an insufficient marina capacity has revealed in terms of sea traffic due to the demographic structure and increasing tourism potential of Istanbul which is the biggest metropolitan city of Turkey and has around 600-km-long coastline. Therefore, the study area is mainly focused on the Marmara Sea shoreline of Istanbul. Rather than traditional methods, a rapid and cost-effective solution which considers natural and urban environment conditions is essential to satisfy the need for a marina site selection. Thanks to the latest improvements in geographic information systems, it is convenient to perform location selection analysis of marinas taking advantages of geology, land use, demography and accessibility data sets. The goal of this study is to define the areas that are appropriate for building marinas, with the use of topographic and demographic data in a present shoreline applying analytical hierarchy process multicriteria decision-making method. In this study, erosion, landslide, tsunami, land use, geologically hazardous areas, transfer lines, sea traffic data, neighbourhood scale population, age patterns and house income data have been used. Analytical hierarchy process method is used to give a weight to each data set, and a grading system has been developed for the area selection of marinas. The result maps of the analysis that show study area as classified into four categories from good to not suitable are presented. It is possible to create a decision support system for upper scale plans that enable authorities to perform analysis accurately, cost and time effectively using the proposed methodology that integrates multiple data sets with different scales and types.

  10. Outbreak of Paratyphoid Fever Among Naval Personnel in Peru (Brote de Fiebre Paratifoidea Entre Personal de la Marina Del Peru.)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    son menosde 2Okniquecaiusania nvar comun Cs la tifoidea cldsica producida por S parte de las infecciones hunanas La fiebre Isv’lht la parat-foidea. par...TITLE (Include Secunty Clasifi4tin) Brote de Fiebre Parutifoidea Entre Personal de la Marina del Peru 1.PERSON4AL AUTHORCS) Pazzagllia G; Wgnall FS...CLASSIFIATIO F THIS PAGE All othe~redmtons areobolete. ZINCLASSIITIED Best Avai~lable Copy BROTE Dl FIEBRE PARATIFOIDEA ENTRE PERSONAL DE1 LA MARINA DEL PERU G

  11. Friday Harbor Marina Expansion Study--San Juan Island, Washington: Final Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    pollutants from the marina is the leaching of heavy metals and hydrocarbons from various antifouling paints used on boats. Contamination also occurs from...by pleasure boat, placing a heavy demand on moorage and services in the marina and at the town, providing a major source of income for the area. One...First Cost 4-10 d. Cost Apportionment 4-13 SECTION 5. COORDINATION 5.01 Coordination Framework 5-1 5.02 Coordination With Key Agencies 5-1 a

  12. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the genus Wittrockiella (Pithophoraceae, Cladophorales), including the descriptions of W. australis sp. nov. and W. zosterae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boedeker, Christian; O'Kelly, Charles J; West, John A; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Neale, Adele; Wakana, Isamu; Wilcox, Mike D; Karsten, Ulf; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C

    2017-06-01

    Wittrockiella is a small genus of filamentous green algae that occurs in habitats with reduced or fluctuating salinities. Many aspects of the basic biology of these algae are still unknown and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus have not been fully explored. We provide a phylogeny based on three ribosomal markers (ITS, LSU, and SSU rDNA) of the genus, including broad intraspecific sampling for W. lyallii and W. salina, recommendations for the use of existing names are made, and highlight aspects of their physiology and life cycle. Molecular data indicate that there are five species of Wittrockiella. Two new species, W. australis and W. zosterae, are described, both are endophytes. Although W. lyallii and W. salina can be identified morphologically, there are no diagnostic morphological characters to distinguish between W. amphibia, W. australis, and W. zosterae. A range of low molecular weight carbohydrates were analyzed but proved to not be taxonomically informative. The distribution range of W. salina is extended to the Northern Hemisphere as this species has been found in brackish lakes in Japan. Furthermore, it is shown that there are no grounds to recognize W. salina var. kraftii, which was described as an endemic variety from a freshwater habitat on Lord Howe Island, Australia. Culture experiments indicate that W. australis has a preference for growth in lower salinities over full seawater. For W. amphibia and W. zosterae, sexual reproduction is documented, and the split of these species is possibly attributable to polyploidization. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  14. The energy production of juvenile Arenicola marina (Polychaeta) under anoxic and hypoxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiedek, Doris; Schöttler, Udo

    1990-06-01

    The mode of anaerobic energy production of juvenile Arenicola marina (0-generation) was investigated under experimental conditions and in the biotope. Under experimental anaerobic conditions, juvenile A. marina produce energy by the pathways known from the adults and other euryoxic invertebrates with succinate and the volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate, as main end products. However, the juvenile lugworms are less resistent to anoxia than the adults. The reasons for this might be their small glycogen stores and their limited ability to reduce the metabolic rate. Nevertheless, on the tidal flats the juveniles settle particularly in the area next to the high tide line, which offers such extreme conditions that adult lugworms cannot live there. This different behaviour can be explained by the dissimilar ability to use oxygen at very low partial pressures. Juveniles maintain an aerobic energy metabolism even at a PWO 2 of 15 Torr at which adults are forced to produce energy exclusively by the less effective anaerobic mode. In the field, no indications of an anaerobic energy metabolism were detected in juveniles even after an exposure of 8 hours.

  15. A survey of antifoulants in sediments from Ports and Marinas along the French Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Cassi, Roberto; Tolosa, Imma; de Mora, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    Due to deleterious effects on non-target organisms, the use of organotin compounds on boat hulls of small vessels (<25 m) has been widely prohibited. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) resolved that the complete prohibition on organotin compounds acting as biocides in antifouling systems should commence in 2008. As a result of restrictions on the use of organotin based paints, other antifouling formulations containing organic biocides have been utilised. This survey was conducted to assess the contamination of replacement biocides in the marine environment following the ban of TBT-based paints. Surface sediments samples were collected in the major ports and marinas along the France Mediterranean coastline (Cote d'Azur) and analysed for organotin compounds, Irgarol 1051, Sea-nine 211, Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid and Folpet. Every port and marina exhibited high levels of organotin compounds, with concentrations in sediments ranging from 37 ng Sn g(-1) dry wt in Menton Garavan to over 4000 ng Sn g(-1) dry wt close to the ship chandler within the port of Villefranche-sur-Mer. TBT degradation indexes suggested that fresh inputs are still made. Among the other antifoulants monitored, only Irgarol 1051 exhibited measurable concentrations in almost every port, with concentrations ranging from 40 ng g(-1) dry wt (Cannes) to almost 700 ng g(-1) dry wt (Villefranche-sur-Mer, ship chandler).

  16. Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.

    PubMed

    Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsêca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

    2011-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC₅₀ values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenology and Growth dynamics of Avicennia marina in the Central Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    The formation of nodes, stem elongation and the phenology of stunted Avicennia marina was examined in the Central Red Sea, where Avicennia marina is at the limit of its distribution range and submitted to extremely arid conditions with salinity above 38 psu and water temperature as high as 35° C. The annual node production was rather uniform among locations averaging 9.59 node y−1, which resulted in a plastocron interval, the interval in between production of two consecutive nodes along a stem, of 38 days. However, the internodal length varied significantly between locations, resulting in growth differences possibly reflecting the environmental conditions of locations. The reproductive cycle lasted for approximately 12 months, and was characterized by peak flowering and propagule development in November and January. These phenological observations provide a starting point for research and restoration programs on the ecology of mangroves in the Central Red Sea, while the plastochrone index reported here would allow calculations of the growth and production of the species from simple morphological measurements. PMID:27892956

  18. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.).

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Wegner, Anna; Foekema, Edwin M; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2013-01-02

    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of polystyrene (PS) microplastic on survival, activity, and bodyweight, as well as the transfer of 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were assessed in bioassays with Arenicola marina (L.). PS was pre-equilibrated in natively contaminated sediment. A positive relation was observed between microplastic concentration in the sediment and both uptake of plastic particles and weight loss by A. marina. Furthermore, a reduction in feeding activity was observed at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight. A low PS dose of 0.074% increased bioaccumulation of PCBs by a factor of 1.1-3.6, an effect that was significant for ΣPCBs and several individual congeners. At higher doses, bioaccumulation decreased compared to the low dose, which however, was only significant for PCB105. PS had statistically significant effects on the organisms' fitness and bioaccumulation, but the magnitude of the effects was not high. This may be different for sites with different plastic concentrations, or plastics with a higher affinity for POPs.

  19. Potential sources of bacteriological pollution for two bays with marinas in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Christine Ann; Moonesar, Indar

    2005-05-01

    Welcome Bay and Chaguaramas Bay in the northwest peninsula of Trinidad contain large marinas and smaller sections of bathing beaches. Bacteriological surveys were conducted at both bays to assess water quality and to determine potential sources of pollution. These surveys were conducted during the wet season of 1996 and the dry season of 1997. Eleven sample stations were established at Welcome Bay and 12 at Chaguaramas Bay. Freshwater samples were collected from rivers and drains within the survey area. Marine water samples were collected from marinas, bathing beaches and inshore and outer areas at both bays. Five water samples were collected from each sampling station during the wet season of 1996 and six during the dry season of 1997. The membrane filter technique was used to determine faecal coliform and Escherichia coli levels in all samples. There was a seasonal effect on water quality, with significantly higher faecal coliform levels in the wet season, when water quality was not in compliance with international standards. This represents a potential health risk in bathing areas. Water quality was better at the outer area of both bays. Water quality at the inner bay areas was most likely adversely affected by land-based sources of pollution identified in this study. These sources include three drains and two rivers, which discharged into the bays. Yachts were apparently not a source of sewage pollution: there was no significant relationship between yacht number and faecal coliform levels.

  20. A comparative analysis of benthic nematode assemblages from Zostera noltii beds before and after a major vegetation collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materatski, Patrick; Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria; Ribeiro, Rui; Moens, Tom; Adão, Helena

    2015-12-01

    Benthic nematodes are widely regarded as very suitable organisms to monitor potential ecological effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in aquatic ecosystems. During 2008, the seagrass beds of Zostera noltii located in the Mira estuary (SW Portugal) disappeared completely. However, during 2009, slight symptoms of natural recovery were observed, a process which has since evolved intermittently. This study aims to investigate changes in patterns of nematode density, diversity, and trophic composition between two distinct habitat conditions: "before" the collapse of seagrass beds, and during the early recovery "after" the seagrass habitat loss, through the analysis of: i) temporal and spatial distribution patterns of nematode communities, and ii) the most important environmental variables influencing the nematode assemblages. The following hypotheses were tested: i) there would be differences in nematode assemblage density, biodiversity and trophic composition during both ecological conditions, "before" and "after"; and ii) there would be differences in nematode assemblage density, biodiversity and trophic composition at different sampling occasions during both ecological conditions. Nematode density and diversity were significantly different between the two ecological situations. A higher density was recorded before, but a higher diversity was evident after the collapse of Z. noltii. In spite of the disturbance caused by the seagrass habitat loss in the Mira estuary, the nematode trophic composition did not significantly differ between the before and after seagrass collapse situations. Despite the significant differences found among sampling occasions, a consistent temporal pattern was not evident. The response of nematode communities following this extreme event exhibited considerable resistance and resilience to the new environmental conditions.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of the intertidal seagrass, Zostera japonica, on the southern coast of the Korean peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Young Kyun; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-12-01

    Seagrasses require a large amount of nutrient assimilation to support high levels of production, and thus nutrient limitation for growth often occurs in seagrass habitats. Seagrasses can take up nutrients from both the water column and sediments. However, since seagrasses inhabiting in the intertidal zones are exposed to the air during low tide, the intertidal species may exhibit significantly different carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics compared to the subtidal species. To examine C and N dynamics of the intertidal seagrass, Zostera japonica, C and N content and stable isotope ratios of above- and below-ground tissues were measured monthly at the three intertidal zones in Koje Bay on the southern coast of Korea. The C and N content and stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) ratios of seagrass tissues exhibited significant seasonal variations. Both leaf and rhizome C content were not significantly correlated with productivity. Leaf δ13C values usually exhibited negative correlations with leaf productivity. These results of tissue C content and δ13C values suggest that photosynthesis of Z. japonica in the study site was not limited by inorganic C supply, and sufficient inorganic C was provided from the atmosphere. The tissue N content usually exhibited negative correlations with leaf productivity except at the upper intertidal zone, suggesting that Z. japonica growth was probably limited by N availability during high growing season. In the upper intertidal zone, no correlations between leaf productivity and tissue elemental content and stable isotope ratios were observed due to the severely suppressed growth caused by strong desiccation stress.

  2. Fine-scale spatial distribution of the common lugworm Arenicola marina, and effects of intertidal clam fishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldina, Inna; Beninger, Peter G.

    2014-04-01

    Despite its ubiquity and its role as an ecosystem engineer on temperate intertidal mudflats, little is known of the spatial ecology of the lugworm Arenicola marina. We estimated lugworm densities and analyzed the spatial distribution of A. marina on a French Atlantic mudflat subjected to long-term clam digging activities, and compared these to a nearby pristine reference mudflat, using a combination of geostatistical techniques: point-pattern analysis, autocorrelation, and wavelet analysis. Lugworm densities were an order of magnitude greater at the reference site. Although A. marina showed an aggregative spatial distribution at both sites, the characteristics and intensity of aggregation differed markedly between sites. The reference site showed an inhibition process (regular distribution) at distances <7.5 cm, whereas the impacted site showed a random distribution at this scale. At distances from 15 cm to several tens of meters, the spatial distribution of A. marina was clearly aggregated at both sites; however, the autocorrelation strength was much weaker at the impacted site. In addition, the non-impacted site presented multi-scale spatial distribution, which was not evident at the impacted site. The differences observed between the spatial distributions of the fishing-impacted vs. the non-impacted site reflect similar findings for other components of these two mudflat ecosystems, suggesting common community-level responses to prolonged mechanical perturbation: a decrease in naturally-occurring aggregation. This change may have consequences for basic biological characteristics such as reproduction, recruitment, growth, and feeding.

  3. The potential of mangrove Avicennia marina and A. Alba from Nguling district, Pasuruan, East Java as an antioxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iranawati, F.; Muhammad, F.; Fajri, H.; Kasitowati, R. D.; Arifin, S.

    2018-04-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive molecules due to unpaired electron in their outer orbital. Excess of free radicals inside human body as consequences of environmental exposure such cigarette smoke may lead to degenerative diseases such as diabetic, cancer etc. This negative effect can be limited by the utilization of natural antioxidant substances, especially produced from plant. Avicennia alba dan A. marina are mangrove species that widely distributed in Indonesia and are expected potential as antioxidant. The objective of this study is to evaluated Avicennia alba dan A. marina potency as antioxidant performed with DPPD (1,1-diphenyl-β-picryl hydrazyl) method. Leaf and bark of Avicennia alba dan A. marina were collected from Nguling District, Pasuruan, East Java. Results shows that based on 50% inhibition Concentration (IC50), Avicennia alba leaf were categorized had a very high antioxidant potential (IC50 14,85 ppm) whereas the bark were categorized had a weak antioxidant potential IC50 167,17 ppm). For A. marina, the leaf were categorized had a moderate antioxidant (IC50 123,23 ppm) whereas the bark were categorized had a weak antioxidant potential (IC50 198,15 ppm).

  4. WATER QUALITY AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA AS RELATED TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in five marinas was monitored between June 1999 and November 2000 in Lake Texoma located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas. MTBE is a commonly used gasoline additive and a suspected carcinogen. Lake water was collected at locations i...

  5. The transcriptome of the novel dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina (Alveolata: Dinophyceae): response to salinity examined by 454 sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina is increasingly studied in experimental, ecological and evolutionary contexts. Its basal phylogenetic position within the dinoflagellates make O. marina useful for understanding the origin of numerous unusual features of the dinoflagellate lineage; its broad distribution has lent O. marina to the study of protist biogeography; and nutritive flexibility and eurytopy have made it a common lab rat for the investigation of physiological responses of marine heterotrophic flagellates. Nevertheless, genome-scale resources for O. marina are scarce. Here we present a 454-based transcriptome survey for this organism. In addition, we assess sequence read abundance, as a proxy for gene expression, in response to salinity, an environmental factor potentially important in determining O. marina spatial distributions. Results Sequencing generated ~57 Mbp of data which assembled into 7, 398 contigs. Approximately 24% of contigs were nominally identified by BLAST. A further clustering of contigs (at ≥ 90% identity) revealed 164 transcript variant clusters, the largest of which (Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase) was composed of 28 variants displaying predominately synonymous variation. In a genomic context, a sample of 5 different genes were demonstrated to occur as tandem repeats, separated by short (~200-340 bp) inter-genic regions. For HSP90 several intergenic variants were detected suggesting a potentially complex genomic arrangement. In response to salinity, analysis of 454 read abundance highlighted 9 and 20 genes over or under expressed at 50 PSU, respectively. However, 454 read abundance and subsequent qPCR validation did not correlate well - suggesting that measures of gene expression via ad hoc analysis of sequence read abundance require careful interpretation. Conclusion Here we indicate that tandem gene arrangements and the occurrence of multiple transcribed gene variants are common and

  6. Assessment of biotic response to heavy metal contamination in Avicennia marina mangrove ecosystems in Sydney Estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Birch, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    Mangrove forests act as a natural filter of land-derived wastewaters along industrialized tropical and sub-tropical coastlines and assist in maintaining a healthy living condition for marine ecosystems. Currently, these intertidal communities are under serious threat from heavy metal contamination induced by human activity associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization. Studies on the biotic responses of these plants to heavy metal contamination are of great significance in estuary management and maintaining coastal ecosystem health. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the biotic response in Avicennia marina ecosystems to heavy metal contamination through the determination of metal concentrations in leaves, fine nutritive roots and underlying sediments collected in fifteen locations across Sydney Estuary (Australia). Metal concentrations (especially Cu, Pb and Zn) in the underlying sediments of A. marina were enriched to a level (based on Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines) at which adverse biological effects to flora could occasionally occur. Metals accumulated in fine nutritive roots greater than underlying sediments, however, only minor translocation of these metals to A. marina leaves was observed (mean translocation factors, TFs, for all elements <0.13, except for Mn). Translocation factors of essential elements (i.e., common plant micro-nutrients, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn) were greater than non-essential elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb), suggesting that A. marina mangroves of this estuary selectively excluded non-essential elements, while regulating essential elements and limiting toxicity to plants. This study supports the notion that A. marina mangroves act as a phytostabilizer in this highly modified estuary thereby protecting the aquatic ecosystem from point or non-point sources of heavy metal contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance and economics of the PV hybrid power system at Dangling Rope Marina, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Andrew L.

    1999-03-01

    The National Park Service has operated a large photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power system at the Dangling Rope Marina since August 1996. Performance and economic analyses for this system based on its first year of operation have been published elsewhere [1,2]. Now, as the system enters its third year of operation, recent changes to the site electrical load and impending additions to the PV array raise new interest in this site as the subject of analysis and evaluation. In 1998, energy conservation measures reduced the site electrical load by 10-12%. At the same time, funding has been allocated to expand the PV array by 40% in 1999. This paper analyzes the effects that these changes will have on the site's fuel use and 20-year life cycle cost.

  8. Benthic assemblages, biodiversity and invasiveness in marinas and commercial harbours: an investigation using a bioindicator group.

    PubMed

    Megina, Cesar; González-Duarte, Manuel M; López-González, Pablo J

    2016-01-01

    Fouling communities on artificial marine structures are generally different from benthic communities in natural rocky habitats. However, they may also differ among different types of artificial structures. Two artificial structures in direct contact with arriving vessels were compared: floating pontoons within recreational marinas, and sea-walls within commercial harbours. Natural rocky habitats were used as a reference, and the genus Eudendrium (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) was chosen as a bioindicator. The assemblages were different among the three types of habitat studied, with different species characterising each habitat. The probability of finding an invasive Eudendrium species was significantly higher on pontoons. Diversity was the lowest on pontoons, but it was not significantly different between sea-walls and natural rocks. In general, a barrier to the spread of exotic species exists between harbours and natural rocky habitats. Floating pontoons seem to be a less suitable habitat for native fauna and a key element in marine biological invasions.

  9. Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Michael R.; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A.; Capon, Robert J.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

  10. Kocuria marina BS-15 a biosurfactant producing halophilic bacteria isolated from solar salt works in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarafin, Yesurethinam; Donio, Mariathasan Birdilla Selva; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactant screening was made among the eight halophilic bacterial genera isolated from Kovalam solar salt works in Kanyakumari of India. After initial screening, Kocuria sp. (Km), Kurthia sp. (Ku) and Halococcus sp. (Hc) were found to have positive biosurfactant activity. Biosurfactant derived from Kocuria sp. emulsified more than 50% of the crude oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, olive oil and kerosene when compared to the other strains. Further, Kocuria marina BS-15 derived biosurfactant was purified and characterized by TLC, FTIR and GC–MS analysis. The TLC analysis revealed that, the purified biosurfactants belong to the lipopeptide group. The IR spectrum results revealed that functional groups are R2C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 NN, alkenes and N–H. The GC–MS analysis confirmed the compound as Nonanoic acid and Cyclopropane with the retention time of 12.78 and 24.65, respectively. PMID:25473358

  11. Digestive proteases of the lugworm (Arenicola marina) inhibited by Cu from contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Mayer, L.M.

    1998-03-01

    The authors examined potential toxic effects of copper released from contaminated sediments during deposit feeding of the lugworm, Arenicola marina. Titration of Cu solution into gut fluids can result in decreases in protease activity if sufficient Cu is added. The effects of Cu on gut proteases were confirmed by incubation of gut fluids with Cu-contaminated harbor sediments. Monitoring of Cu titration into gut fluids shows that enzyme inhibition and quenching of gut protein fluorescence occur only when sufficient Cu has been added to allow inorganic Cu species to become abundant. This threshold level probably represents the exhaustion of strong bindingmore » sites that act as protection against enzyme inhibition. Thus, sediments contaminated with Cu may have inhibitory effects on digestive processes in lugworms.« less

  12. Photosynthesis at the far-red region of the spectrum in Acaryochloris marina.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Syed Lal; Mabkhot, Yahia; Al-Showiman, Salim S

    2017-05-19

    Acaryochloris marina is an oxygenic cyanobacterium that utilizes far-red light for photosynthesis. It has an expanded genome, which helps in its adaptability to the environment, where it can survive on low energy photons. Its major light absorbing pigment is chlorophyll d and it has α-carotene as a major carotenoid. Light harvesting antenna includes the external phycobilin binding proteins, which are hexameric rods made of phycocyanin and allophycocyanins, while the small integral membrane bound chlorophyll binding proteins are also present. There is specific chlorophyll a molecule in both the reaction center of Photosystem I (PSI) and PSII, but majority of the reaction center consists of chlorophyll d. The composition of the PSII reaction center is debatable especially the role and position of chlorophyll a in it. Here we discuss the photosystems of this bacterium and its related biology.

  13. Release and Consumption of DMSP from Emiliania Huxleyi during grazing by Oxyrrhis Marina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Sherr, Evelyn B.; Sherr, Barry F.

    1994-01-01

    Degradation and release to solution of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) from Emiliania huxleyi 370 was observed during grazing by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina in 24 h bottle incubations. Between 30 and 70% of the lost algal DMSP was metabolized by the grazers without production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) when grazer densities were 150 to 450/ml. The rest was released to solution and about 30% was converted to DMS by bacteria associated with the grazer culture. These experiments demonstrate that grazing by herbivorous protists may be an important sink for DMSP in marine waters, removing a potential source of DMS. Microzooplankton grazing may also indirectly increase the production of DMS by transferring algal DMSP to the dissolved pool, making it available for bacterial metabolism.

  14. Occurrence, fate, and fluxes of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in an urban catchment: Marina Reservoir, Singapore.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Viet Tung; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Reinhard, Martin; Liu, Changhui

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out to characterize the occurrence, sources and sinks of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in the Marina Catchment and Reservoir, Singapore. Salinity depth profiles indicated the reservoir was stratified with lower layers consisting of sea water (salinity ranging from 32 to 35 g L(-1)) and a brackish surface layer containing approximately 14-65% seawater. The PFC mixture detected in catchment waters contained perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), particularly perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFC transformation products. PFC concentrations in storm runoff were generally higher than those in dry weather flow of canals and rivers. PFC concentration profiles measured during storm events indicated 'first flush' behavior, probably because storm water is leaching PFC compounds from non-point sources present in the catchment area. Storm runoff carries high concentrations of suspended solids (SS), which suggests that PFC transport is via SS. In Marina Bay, PFCs are deposited in the sediments along with the SS. In sediments, the total PFC concentration was 4,700 ng kg(-1), approximately 200 times higher than in the bottom water layers. Total perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), particularly PFOS and 6:2 fluoro telomer sulfonate (6:2 FtS) were dominant PFCs in the sediments. PFC sorption by sediments varied with perfluorocarbon chain length, type of functional group and sediment characteristics. A first approximation analysis based on SS transport suggested that the annual PFC input into the reservoir was approximately 35 ± 12 kg y(-1). Contributions of SS, dry weather flow of river/canals, and rainfall were approximately 70, 25 and 5%, respectively. This information will be useful for improving strategies to protect the reservoir from PFC contamination.

  15. Size matters: insights from an allometric approach to evaluate control methods for invasive Australian Rhinella marina.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Lynne E; Salice, Christopher J

    2013-10-01

    Invasive species are costly and difficult to control. In order to gain a mechanistic understanding of potential control measures, individual-based models uniquely parameterized to reflect the salient life-history characteristics of invasive species are useful. Using invasive Australian Rhinella marina as a case study, we constructed a cohort- and individual-based population simulation that incorporates growth and body size of terrestrial stages. We used this allometric approach to examine the efficacy of nontraditional control methods (i.e., tadpole alarm chemicals and native meat ants) that may have indirect effects on population dynamics mediated by effects on body size. We compared population estimates resulting from these control methods with traditional hand removal. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect that model parameters, specifically those associated with growth and body size, had on adult population estimates. Incremental increases in hand removal of adults and juveniles caused nonlinear decreases in adult population estimates, suggesting less return with increased investment in hand-removal efforts. Applying tadpole alarm chemicals or meat ants decreased adult population estimates on the same level as removing 15-25% of adults and juveniles by hand. The combined application of tadpole alarm chemicals and meat ants resulted in approximately 80% decrease in adult abundance, the largest of any applied control method. In further support of the nontraditional control methods, which greatly affected the metamorph stage, our model was most sensitive to changes in metamorph survival, juvenile survival, metamorph growth rate, and adult survival. Our results highlight the use and insights that can be gained from individual-based models that incorporate growth and body size and the potential success that nontraditional control methods could have in controlling established, invasive Rhinella marina populations.

  16. Differences in SEM-AVS and ERM-ERL predictions of sediment impacts from metals in two US Virgin Islands marinas.

    PubMed

    Hinkey, Lynne M; Zaidi, Baqar R

    2007-02-01

    Two US Virgin Islands marinas were examined for potential metal impacts by comparing sediment chemistry data with two sediment quality guideline (SQG) values: the ratio of simultaneously extractable metals to acid volatile sulfides (SEM-AVS), and effects range-low and -mean (ERL-ERM) values. ERL-ERMs predicted the marina/boatyard complex (IBY: 2118 microg/g dry weight total metals, two exceeded ERMs) would have greater impacts than the marina with no boatyard (CBM: 231 microg/g dry weight total metals, no ERMs exceeded). The AVS-SEM method predicted IBY would have fewer effects due to high AVS-forming metal sulfide complexes, reducing trace metal bioavailability. These contradictory predictions demonstrate the importance of validating the results of either of these methods with other toxicity measures before making any management or regulatory decisions regarding boating and marina impacts. This is especially important in non-temperate areas where sediment quality guidelines have not been validated.

  17. The effect of wind induced bottom shear stress and salinity on Zostera noltii replanting in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, E.; Roux, B.; Fougere, D.; Chen, P. G.

    2017-03-01

    The paper concerns the wind influence on bottom shear stress and salinity levels in a Mediterranean semi-enclosed coastal lagoon (Etang de Berre), with respect to a replanting program of Zostera noltii. The MARS3D numerical model is used to analyze the 3D current, salinity and temperature distribution induced by three meteorological, oceanic and anthropogenic forcings in this lagoon. The numerical model has been carefully validated by comparison with daily observations of the vertical salinity and temperature profiles at three mooring stations, for one year. Then, two modelling scenarios are considered. The first scenario (scen.#1), starting with a homogeneous salinity of S = 20 PSU and without wind forcing, studies a stratification process under the influence of a periodic seawater inflow and a strong freshwater inflow from a hydropower plant (250 m3/s). Then, in the second scenario (scen.#2), we study how a strong wind of 80 km/h can mix the haline stratification obtained at the end of scen.#1. The most interesting results concern four nearshore replanting areas; two are situated on the eastern side of EB and two on the western side. The results of scen.#2 show that all these areas are subject to a downwind coastal jet. Concerning bottom salinity, the destratification process is very beneficial; it always remains greater than 12 PSU for a N-NW wind of 80 km/h and an hydropower runoff of 250 m3/s. Special attention is devoted to the bottom shear stress (BSS) for different values of the bottom roughness parameter (for gravels, sands and silts), and to the bottom salinity. Concerning BSS, it presents a maximum near the shoreline and decreases along transects perpendicular to the shoreline. There exists a zone, parallel to the shoreline, where BSS presents a minimum (close to zero). When comparing the BSS value at the four replanting areas with the critical value, BSScr, at which the sediment mobility would occur, we see that for the smaller roughness values (ranging

  18. Geohydrology of deep-aquifer system monitoring-well site at Marina, Monterey County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Everett, Rhett; Newhouse, Mark W.; Crawford, Steven M.; Pimentel, M. Isabel; Smith, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, a deep-aquifer system monitoring-well site (DMW1) was completed at Marina, California to provide basic geologic and hydrologic information about the deep-aquifer system in the coastal region of the Salinas Valley. The monitoring-well site contains four wells in a single borehole; one completed from 930 to 950 feet below land surface (bls) in the Paso Robles Formation (DMW1-4); one 1,040 to 1,060 feet below land surface in the upper Purisima Formation (DMW1-3); one from 1,410 to 1,430 feet below land surface in the middle Purisima Formation (DMW1-2); and one from 1,820 to 1,860 feet below land surface in the lower Purisima Formation (DMW1-1). The monitoring site is installed between the coast and several deep-aquifer system supply wells in the Marina Coast Water District, and the completion depths are within the zones screened in those supply wells. Sediments below a depth of 955 feet at DMW1 are Pliocene age, whereas the sediments encountered at the water-supply wells are Pleistocene age at an equivalent depth. Water levels are below sea level in DMW1 and the Marina Water District deep-aquifer system supply wells, which indicate that the potential for seawater intrusion exists in the deep-aquifer system. If the aquifers at DMW1 are hydraulically connected with the submarine outcrops in Monterey Bay, then the water levels at the DMW1 site are 8 to 27 feet below the level necessary to prevent seawater intrusion. Numerous thick fine-grained interbeds and confining units in the aquifer systems retard the vertical movement of fresh and saline ground water between aquifers and restrict the movement of seawater to narrow water-bearing zones in the upper-aquifer system.Hydraulic testing of the DMW1 and the Marina Water District supply wells indicates that the tested zones within the deep-aquifer system are transmissive water-bearing units with hydraulic conductivities ranging from 2 to 14.5 feet per day. The hydraulic properties of the supply wells and monitoring

  19. High-quality draft genome sequence of Kocuria marina SO9-6, an actinobacterium isolated from a copper mine

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Daniel B.A.; Pereira, Letícia Bianca; Silva, Marcus Vinícius M. e; Silva, Bárbara P. da; Palermo, Bruna Rafaella Z.; Carlos, Camila; Belgini, Daiane R.B.; Limache, Elmer Erasmo G.; Lacerda, Gileno V. Jr; Nery, Mariana B.P.; Gomes, Milene B.; Souza, Salatiel S. de; Silva, Thiago M. da; Rodrigues, Viviane D.; Paulino, Luciana C.; Vicentini, Renato; Ferraz, Lúcio F.C.; Ottoboni, Laura M.M.

    2015-01-01

    An actinobacterial strain, designated SO9-6, was isolated from a copper iron sulfide mineral. The organism is Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, and coccoid. Chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties were consistent with its classification in the genus Kocuria. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Kocuria marina SO9-6 under accession JROM00000000 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/725823918), which provides insights for heavy metal bioremediation and production of compounds of biotechnological interest. PMID:26484219

  20. Growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinity: development and function of shoot hydraulic systems require saline conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoa T.; Stanton, Daniel E.; Schmitz, Nele; Farquhar, Graham D.; Ball, Marilyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Halophytic eudicots are characterized by enhanced growth under saline conditions. This study combines physiological and anatomical analyses to identify processes underlying growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinities ranging from fresh- to seawater conditions. Methods Following pre-exhaustion of cotyledonary reserves under optimal conditions (i.e. 50 % seawater), seedlings of A. marina were grown hydroponically in dilutions of seawater amended with nutrients. Whole-plant growth characteristics were analysed in relation to dry mass accumulation and its allocation to different plant parts. Gas exchange characteristics and stable carbon isotopic composition of leaves were measured to evaluate water use in relation to carbon gain. Stem and leaf hydraulic anatomy were measured in relation to plant water use and growth. Key Results Avicennia marina seedlings failed to grow in 0–5 % seawater, whereas maximal growth occurred in 50–75 % seawater. Relative growth rates were affected by changes in leaf area ratio (LAR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) along the salinity gradient, with NAR generally being more important. Gas exchange characteristics followed the same trends as plant growth, with assimilation rates and stomatal conductance being greatest in leaves grown in 50–75 % seawater. However, water use efficiency was maintained nearly constant across all salinities, consistent with carbon isotopic signatures. Anatomical studies revealed variation in rates of development and composition of hydraulic tissues that were consistent with salinity-dependent patterns in water use and growth, including a structural explanation for low stomatal conductance and growth under low salinity. Conclusions The results identified stem and leaf transport systems as central to understanding the integrated growth responses to variation in salinity from fresh- to seawater conditions. Avicennia marina was revealed as an obligate halophyte

  1. Dietary supplementation of Avicennia marina extract on immune protection and disease resistance in Amphiprion sebae against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Dhayanithi, Nagarajan Balachandran; Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2015-07-01

    The effect of Avicennia marina aqueous leaf extract on innate immune mechanisms such as total white blood cell counts (WBC), serum lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay, alternative complement (ACH50) assay, phagocytic activity assay, disease resistance, gut bacteria, and survival rate of clownfish (Amphiprion sebae) against Vibrio alginolyticus is reported. Healthy fish challenged with V. alginolyticus (1 × 10(7) cells ml(-1)) were fed with diets supplemented (0, 1, 2, and 4%) with A. marina extract. The survival rate was 85% and 80% in infected fish fed with 4% and 8% supplementation diet; with 1% diet it was 70% while in the infected untreated group it was only 10%. The total gut bacteria flora was high in 8% and 4% supplementation diet groups with 2.8 × 10(5) and 4.7 × 10(4) cfu/g while it was 8.9 × 10(3) cfu/g in 1% diet group. The immunological parameters significantly increased on weeks 6 and 8 when infected fish were fed with 1% or 4% supplementation diet. This study reports that in clownfish challenged with V. alginolyticus, dietary administration of the 1% or 4% of A. marina extract improved the immune status and survival rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on a marine ecosystem engineer (Arenicola marina) and sediment nutrient cycling.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Sigwart, Julia; Jiang, Shan; Rocha, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Effects of microplastic pollution on benthic organisms and ecosystem services provided by sedimentary habitats are largely unknown. An outdoor mesocosm experiment was done to realistically assess the effects of three different types of microplastic pollution (one biodegradable type; polylactic acid and two conventional types; polyethylene and polyvinylchloride) at increasing concentrations (0.02, 0.2 and 2% of wet sediment weight) on the health and biological activity of lugworms, Arenicola marina (Linnaeus, 1758), and on nitrogen cycling and primary productivity of the sediment they inhabit. After 31 days, A. marina produced less casts in sediments containing microplastics. Metabolic rates of A. marina increased, while microalgal biomass decreased at high concentrations, compared to sediments with low concentrations or without microplastics. Responses were strongest to polyvinylchloride, emphasising that different materials may have differential effects. Each material needs to be carefully evaluated in order to assess their risks as microplastic pollution. Overall, both conventional and biodegradable microplastics in sandy sediments can affect the health and behaviour of lugworms and directly or indirectly reduce primary productivity of these habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy): a sedimentological/ecological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Massimo; Tropeano, Marcello; Loon, A. J. (Tom) van; Acquafredda, Pasquale; Baldacconi, Rossella; Festa, Vincenzo; Lisco, Stefania; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Moretti, Vincenzo; Scotti, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy) were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth) was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves) shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  4. (In)Tolerable Zero Tolerance Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Sean L.

    2014-01-01

    The spread of zero tolerance policies for school-based scenarios flourished under President William J. Clinton who wanted to close a loophole in the Guns-Free School Zones Act of 1990. Expansion in the coverage of zero tolerance policy to offenses outside the initial scope of weapon and drug offenses has led to a disproportional ratio of African…

  5. Revoking Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA revokes pesticide tolerances when all registrations of a pesticide have been canceled in the U.S. and the tolerances are not needed for imported foods or when there are no registered uses for certain crops.

  6. A new species of nematode (Molineidae) from Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) in Guerrero, México.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; García-Prieto, Luis; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Violante-González, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Oswaldocruzia lamotheargumedoi n. sp., inhabiting the intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina (L.), in Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, México, is described here. The new species differs from 10 congeners infecting bufonid hosts because it has a type I bursa. In contrast, 7 of these species have type II bursa and 3 more a type III bursa. The species most similar to the species described herein is Oswaldocruzia pipiens Walton, 1929 . These 2 species share traits such as body size, bursa type, presence of cervical alae, and dorsal ray morphology. Nevertheless, both species can be distinguished based on the number of synlophe ridges at mid-body (54-56 for O. lamotheargumedoi vs. 45-48 for O. pipiens) and by the presence of a chitinous support in the long, and well developed, cervical alae of O. pipiens. In the new species, these structures are short, poorly developed, and lack chitinous support. Previous records of species of Oswaldocruzia in México include Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1917 in the Neotropical Realm and O. pipiens in the Nearctic.

  7. The Complex Transcriptional Response of Acaryochloris marina to Different Oxygen Levels.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A; Lin, Yuankui; Chen, Min

    2017-02-09

    Ancient oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes produced oxygen as a waste product, but existed for a long time under an oxygen-free (anoxic) atmosphere, before an oxic atmosphere emerged. The change in oxygen levels in the atmosphere influenced the chemistry and structure of many enzymes that contained prosthetic groups that were inactivated by oxygen. In the genome of Acaryochloris marina , multiple gene copies exist for proteins that are normally encoded by a single gene copy in other cyanobacteria. Using high throughput RNA sequencing to profile transcriptome responses from cells grown under microoxic and hyperoxic conditions, we detected 8446 transcripts out of the 8462 annotated genes in the Cyanobase database. Two-thirds of the 50 most abundant transcripts are key proteins in photosynthesis. Microoxic conditions negatively affected the levels of expression of genes encoding photosynthetic complexes, with the exception of some subunits. In addition to the known regulation of the multiple copies of psbA , we detected a similar transcriptional pattern for psbJ and psbU , which might play a key role in the altered components of photosystem II. Furthermore, regulation of genes encoding proteins important for reactive oxygen species-scavenging is discussed at genome level, including, for the first time, specific small RNAs having possible regulatory roles under varying oxygen levels. Copyright © 2017 Hernandez-Prieto et al.

  8. Offshore Energy Mapping for Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean: MARINA PLATFORM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallos, G.; Galanis, G.; Spyrou, C.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Athanasiadis, P.

    2012-04-01

    Deep offshore ocean energy mapping requires detailed modeling of the wind, wave, tidal and ocean circulation estimations. It requires also detailed mapping of the associated extremes. An important issue in such work is the co-generation of energy (generation of wind, wave, tides, currents) in order to design platforms on an efficient way. For example wind and wave fields exhibit significant phase differences and therefore the produced energy from both sources together requires special analysis. The other two sources namely tides and currents have different temporal scales from the previous two. Another important issue is related to the estimation of the environmental frequencies in order to avoid structural problems. These are issues studied at the framework of the FP7 project MARINA PLATFORM. The main objective of the project is to develop deep water structures that can exploit the energy from wind, wave, tidal and ocean current energy sources. In particular, a primary goal will be the establishment of a set of equitable and transparent criteria for the evaluation of multi-purpose platforms for marine renewable energy. Using these criteria, a novel system set of design and optimisation tools will be produced addressing new platform design, component engineering, risk assessment, spatial planning, platform-related grid connection concepts, all focussed on system integration and reducing costs. The University of Athens group is in charge for estimation and mapping of wind, wave, tidal and ocean current resources, estimate available energy potential, map extreme event characteristics and provide any additional environmental parameter required.

  9. Nickel, vanadium, and lead as indicators of sediment contamination of marina, refinery, and shipyard areas.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thayane Lúcia; Wallner-Kersanach, Mônica; Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Costa, Daniel Pereira; Baisch, Paulo Roberto Martins

    2018-01-01

    Metallic elements found in the aquatic environment may originate in areas where petroleum is refined and vessels are maintained and repaired. This study aims to assess contamination caused by nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in sediment of the Lagoa dos Patos estuary (RS, Brazil) and to evaluate them as indicators of areas under the influence of petroleum products and antifouling paints. Surface sediments were collected in summer and in winter in areas of marinas, shipyards, refinery, and a control station. High Pb and V concentrations in shipyards and at the Yacht Club showed that some organisms may be affected by toxicity. High Pb results of the index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) were found at the Yacht Club and shipyards. Al, Ni, and V had similar distribution in the sediment in both seasons. Ni and V had high relation in winter at the Yacht Club and at the Santos Shipyard, thus suggesting that these elements come mainly from petroleum products. The same happened to the relations between Pb and V, as well as Pb and Ni at the Santos Shipyard. These elements are employed as useful tools as indicators to identify places with moderate to high localized anthropogenic inputs of petroleum derivatives and antifouling paints.

  10. Immune response varies with rate of dispersal in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response) might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions.

  11. Effects of Bioadvection by Arenicola marina on Microphytobenthos in Permeable Sediments.

    PubMed

    Chennu, Arjun; Volkenborn, Nils; de Beer, Dirk; Wethey, David S; Woodin, Sarah A; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    We used hyperspectral imaging to study short-term effects of bioturbation by lugworms (Arenicola marina) on the surficial biomass of microphytobenthos (MPB) in permeable marine sediments. Within days to weeks after the addition of a lugworm to a homogenized and recomposed sediment, the average surficial MPB biomass and its spatial heterogeneity were, respectively, 150-250% and 280% higher than in sediments without lugworms. The surficial sediment area impacted by a single medium-sized lugworm (~4 g wet weight) over this time-scale was at least 340 cm2. While sediment reworking was the primary cause of the increased spatial heterogeneity, experiments with lugworm-mimics together with modeling showed that bioadvective porewater transport from depth to the sediment surface, as induced by the lugworm ventilating its burrow, was the main cause of the increased surficial MPB biomass. Although direct measurements of nutrient fluxes are lacking, our present data show that enhanced advective supply of nutrients from deeper sediment layers induced by faunal ventilation is an important mechanism that fuels high primary productivity at the surface of permeable sediments even though these systems are generally characterized by low standing stocks of nutrients and organic material.

  12. Effects of Bioadvection by Arenicola marina on Microphytobenthos in Permeable Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Chennu, Arjun; Volkenborn, Nils; de Beer, Dirk; Wethey, David S.; Woodin, Sarah A.; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    We used hyperspectral imaging to study short-term effects of bioturbation by lugworms (Arenicola marina) on the surficial biomass of microphytobenthos (MPB) in permeable marine sediments. Within days to weeks after the addition of a lugworm to a homogenized and recomposed sediment, the average surficial MPB biomass and its spatial heterogeneity were, respectively, 150-250% and 280% higher than in sediments without lugworms. The surficial sediment area impacted by a single medium-sized lugworm (~4 g wet weight) over this time-scale was at least 340 cm2. While sediment reworking was the primary cause of the increased spatial heterogeneity, experiments with lugworm-mimics together with modeling showed that bioadvective porewater transport from depth to the sediment surface, as induced by the lugworm ventilating its burrow, was the main cause of the increased surficial MPB biomass. Although direct measurements of nutrient fluxes are lacking, our present data show that enhanced advective supply of nutrients from deeper sediment layers induced by faunal ventilation is an important mechanism that fuels high primary productivity at the surface of permeable sediments even though these systems are generally characterized by low standing stocks of nutrients and organic material. PMID:26230398

  13. The Complex Transcriptional Response of Acaryochloris marina to Different Oxygen Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A.; Lin, Yuankui; Chen, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ancient oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes produced oxygen as a waste product, but existed for a long time under an oxygen-free (anoxic) atmosphere, before an oxic atmosphere emerged. The change in oxygen levels in the atmosphere influenced the chemistry and structure of many enzymes that contained prosthetic groups that were inactivated by oxygen. In the genome of Acaryochloris marina, multiple gene copies exist for proteins that are normally encoded by a single gene copy in other cyanobacteria. Using high throughput RNA sequencing to profile transcriptome responses from cells grown under microoxic and hyperoxic conditions, we detected 8446 transcripts out of the 8462 annotated genes in the Cyanobase database. Two-thirds of the 50 most abundant transcripts are key proteins in photosynthesis. Microoxic conditions negatively affected the levels of expression of genes encoding photosynthetic complexes, with the exception of some subunits. In addition to the known regulation of the multiple copies of psbA, we detected a similar transcriptional pattern for psbJ and psbU, which might play a key role in the altered components of photosystem II. Furthermore, regulation of genes encoding proteins important for reactive oxygen species-scavenging is discussed at genome level, including, for the first time, specific small RNAs having possible regulatory roles under varying oxygen levels. PMID:27974439

  14. Need for Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions for Minimum Risk Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ingredients used in minimum risk products used on food, food crops, food contact surfaces, or animal feed commodities generally have a tolerance or tolerance exemption. Learn about tolerances and tolerance exemptions for minimum risk ingredients.

  15. Imposex and tributyltin contamination as a consequence of the establishment of a marina, and increasing yachting activities at Phuket Island, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bech, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate how tributyltin (TBT) contamination resulting from the establishment of a new marina and increasing yachting activities at Phuket Island, Thailand affects the area. A minimum of 30 specimen of the mangrove dwelling muricid Chicoreus capucinus were collected at five stations 2 months before and 5, 9, 18 and 33 months after Yacht Haven Marina was constructed. Imposex measured as RPLI and VDSI were significantly correlated to duration of time after construction and distance from the marina. All females developed imposex close to the marina after 18 months, whereas no significant increase occurred at stations more than 2 km from the marina. To evaluate the range of effects of the increasing yachting activities the muricid Thais distinguenda was used as an indicator of imposex at two popular mooring sites for yachts at Phi Phi and Raja Island in Phangna Bay, Thailand. The incidence of imposex was 100% at stations close to the mooring sites. A significant correlation existed between the distance from the sites and the incidence of imposex. The increasing incidence of imposex suggest that TBT contamination is worsening, against global trends, because regulations prohibiting the use of TBT-based paints, do not exist in Thailand.

  16. Assessing the impacts of salinity and nutrient stress to Ruppia ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the northern shore historically dominated by Zostera marina. Ruppia is extremely salinity tolerant, and may also be more nutrient tolerant than Zostera. To test this hypothesis 6-week microcosm experiments were conducted in the summers of 2014 and 2015. Microcosms were renewed daily to simulate tidal flushing and the water column was dosed with a 15N tracer for the first week of the experiments. In the 2014 microcosm experiment two salinity (20, 30 ppt) and four nutrient (0, 5, 10, 30 µM inorganic N) levels were used to test the species’ relative tolerance. This experiment yielded structurally significant results for Ruppia but no significant differences were detected for Zostera. In 2015 this experiment was performed for a second time with lower salinity (5, 30 ppt) and higher nutrients (0, 30, 100, 300, 1000 µM inorganic N) in order to determine Zostera’s tolerance to nutrient and salinity stress and confirm the previously observed Ruppia results. Both species had significant structural responses to the nutrient and salinity variables. Isotopic analysis run on above-ground tissue indicated that with increasing nutrient levels δ15N in the seagrass shoots increased, suggesting that nutrients

  17. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and captivity in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-01

    Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture have recently been shown for the first time in amphibians, and in the present study urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and to confinement in captivity were measured in adult cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Queensland, Australia. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was used to provide a biological validation for urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Urinary corticosterone metabolite increased 1-2 days after ACTH but not saline injection and then returned to initial values, indicating that the RIA could detect changes in corticosterone secretion in toads. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to short-term capture and restraint in plastic bags were first apparent 2h after capture of wild toads. Toads held communally in captivity for 5 days had elevated urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations. Mean corticosterone concentrations declined significantly after a further 7 days in individual housing chambers. There was no sex difference in urinary corticosterone metabolite responses of toads to ACTH challenge, short-term capture or captivity. The relative amount of variation in the mean corticosterone responses was quantified by calculating coefficients of variation (CV) for each mean corticosterone response. Mean corticosterone at 0 min was more variable for captive toads than wild toads. Furthermore, initial corticosterone concentrations (0 min) were more variable than concentrations during the ACTH challenge, short-term capture and captivity. There was little change in the amount of variation of mean corticosterone levels between male and female toads with increasing time in captivity (12-29 days). This study has shown individual corticosterone responses of amphibians for the first-time, and has provided a novel method for quantifying the relative amount of variation in amphibian corticosterone responses. Copyright © 2011

  18. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  19. Marina di Ravenna Tide Gauge (Italy): rescue of the initial 23 years of data (1873-1896)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, S.; Zerbini, S.; Raicich, F.; Errico, M.; Santi, E.

    2017-12-01

    The tide gauge of Marina di Ravenna, formerly Porto Corsini, Italy, has been first installed in August 1873, but its oldest records, currently available through public archives, only date back to 1896. We found historical documents reporting that the earlier data should have been preserved in the historical archives of the Istituto Geografico Militare (IGM), Florence, Italy. Even if we did not find the original tidal charts in the IGM archives, we were able to retrieve six hand-written volumes reporting the readings of the high and low waters for the period 1873-1922. These volumes and the relevant documents contain important information which allowed clarifying existing doubts on the tide gauge reference levels and constants. The 1873-1922 data were digitized, the quality was assessed as well as the reference to a common datum. With the addition of these initial 23 years of data (1873-1896), the time series of the Marina di Ravenna tide gauge spans now 144 years. The area of Marina di Ravenna was and is affected by subsidence, due to both natural and anthropogenic causes. The effects of human activities started to be noticeable since the 1920s, when the area was interested by reclamation works; during the 60s and 70s, ground-fluid extraction was responsible for subsidence rates up to several cm/year. The newly retrieved records are then particularly valuable for assessing the local sea-level trend in a period when only natural subsidence was affecting the tide-gauge observations.

  20. Comparative study on the toxic effects of red tide flagellates Heterocapsa circularisquama and Chattonella marina on the short-necked clam (Ruditapes philippinarum).

    PubMed

    Kim, Daekyung; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Jiang, Zedong; Zou, Yanan; Choi, Kyu-Sung; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuyama, Yukihiko; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2011-01-01

    Heterocapsa circularisquama showed much higher toxic effects on short-necked clams than Chattonella marina. Clams exposed to H. circularisquama exhibited morphological changes concomitant with an accumulation of mucus-like substances in the gills, a profound reduction in filtration activity, and lysosomal destabilization in hemocytes. Chattonella marina was less effective than H. circularisquama, and Heterocapsa triquetra was almost harmless in all these criteria. These results suggest that H. circularisquama exerted its lethal effect on short-necked clams through gill tissue damage and subsequent induction of physiological stress.

  1. Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3) we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of differentiation at nuclear and mtDNA levels we were able to describe patterns of introgression and infer the history of hybridization between these species. Results All nuclear loci are essentially concordant in revealing two well differentiated groups of haplotypes, corresponding to the morphologically-defined species R. marina and R. schneideri. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also revealed two well-differentiated groups of haplotypes but, in stark contrast with the nuclear genealogies, all R. schneideri sequences are clustered with sequences of R. marina from the right Amazon bank (RAB), while R. marina sequences from the left Amazon bank (LAB) are monophyletic. An Isolation-with-Migration (IM) analysis using nuclear data showed that R. marina and R. schneideri diverged at ≈ 1.69 Myr (early Pleistocene), while R. marina populations from LAB and RAB diverged at ≈ 0.33 Myr (middle Pleistocene). This time of divergence is not consistent with the split between LAB and RAB populations obtained with mtDNA data (≈ 1.59 Myr), which is notably similar to the estimate obtained with nuclear genes between R. marina and R. schneideri. Coalescent simulations of mtDNA phylogeny under the speciation history inferred from nuclear genes rejected the hypothesis of incomplete lineage sorting to explain the conflicting signal between mtDNA and nuclear-based phylogenies. Conclusions The cytonuclear discordance seems to reflect the occurrence of interspecific hybridization between these two closely related

  2. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF SALINITY AND NUTRIENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the northern shore once dominated by Zostera marina. This area is sandy, which may allow groundwater seepage. Ruppia is extremely salinity tolerant, and may also be more nutrient tolerant than Zostera. A six week microcosm experiment at two salinity (20 and 30 ppt) and 4 nutrient (0, 5, 10, and 30 µM inorganic N) levels to test their relative tolerance was conducted in 2014. Treatments were renewed daily to simulate tidal flushing and the exposure water was dosed with 15N for the first week of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the plants were weighed and measured, and dried for later isotopic analysis. In the first experiment, Ruppia had significant structural responses to both nutrients and salinity; there was a slight decline in root weight and a decrease in the total number of shoots with increasing nutrients. Average Ruppia blade length decreased with increasing nutrients and this decrease was more evident at 30 ppt. In contrast, Zostera had no significant structural differences. For both species, there were no differences in shoot or root/rhizome weights in any treatment, nor were there differences in isotopic results due to salinity. However, δ15N in the tissue increase

  3. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimilewas significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  4. Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .

  5. Impacts of Groundwater Discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) on the Phenolic Metabolism of Eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and Grazing by the Juvenile Rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Thomas; Freundlich, Grace; Weilnau, Taylor; Verdi, Arielle; Tibbetts, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH / high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did result in the extraordinary loss of soluble phenolics, including Folin-reactive phenolics, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids by ≥87%. Conversely, seagrass lignin contents were, in this and related experiments, unaffected or increased, suggesting a shift in secondary metabolism away from the production of soluble, but not insoluble, (poly)phenolics. We suggest that groundwater discharge sites such as Myora Springs, and other sites characterized by low pH, are likely to be popular feeding grounds for seagrass grazers seeking to reduce their exposure to soluble phenolics. PMID:25127379

  6. Phenolic chemistry of the seagrass Zostera noltei Hornem. Part 1: First evidence of three infraspecific flavonoid chemotypes in three distinctive geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Grignon-Dubois, Micheline; Rezzonico, Bernadette

    2018-02-01

    The flavonoid content of Zostera noltei leaves was investigated over a broad spatial scale using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (HPLC-DAD, LC/MS and NMR). Samples were collected at fifteen localities covering Mediterranean Sea and NE Atlantic coast, and representative of three types of coastal ecosystems: mesotidal bays, coastal lagoons, and open-sea. Three geographically distinct flavonoid chemotypes were identified on the basis of their respective major compound. One is characterized by apigenin 7-sulfate (Eastern part of Gulf of Cadiz), one by diosmetin 7-sulfate (French Atlantic coast and Mediterranean Sea), and the third contained similar quantities of the above two compounds (Mauritania and South Portugal). Our results show that metabolomic profiling using a combination of analytical techniques is a tool of choice to characterize chemical phenotype accurately. This work emphasizes for the first time the spatial variability in the flavonoid chemistry of Z. noltei throughout Atlantic and Mediterranean range, and constitutes the first report of chemical races in the Zosteraceae family. This infraspecific chemical differentiation should be considered when dealing with the role of Z. noltei in coastal ecosystems or in the selection of the best population donor for Z. noltei beds restoration. Combined with molecular identification, phenolic fingerprinting might be helpful to elucidate the evolutionary history of Z. noltei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical determination of the reducing and stabilization agents present in different Zostera noltii extracts used for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zarzuela, Rafael; Luna, Manuel Jesús; Gil, María Luisa Almoraima; Ortega, María Jesús; Palacios-Santander, José María; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; Delgado, Juan José; Cubillana-Aguilera, Laura María

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this work was to ascertain the nature of the components responsible for the reducing and stabilizing properties of Zostera noltii extracts that lead to gold nanoparticle formation using chemical techniques of analysis. In order to achieve this aim, we try the synthesis of AuNPs with three different extracts from plants collected in the Bay of Cádiz (Spain). The n-butanol extract produced the best results. Taking this into account, four fractions were isolated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography from this extract and we studied their activity. The chemical study of these fractions led to the isolation of several flavone sulfates and these were identified as the species' responsible for the formation and stabilization of the AuNPs. Flavone sulfates were purified by high performance liquid chromatography and the structures were established by means of spectroscopic methods nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. AuNPs have an average lifetime of about 16weeks. Additionally, the morphology and crystalline phase of the gold nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The composition of the nanoparticles was evaluated by electron diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. An 88% of the gold nanoparticles has a diameter in the range 20-35nm, with an average size of 26±2nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Paradoxes of Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasamonik, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Teachers who endeavor to build tolerant attitudes in their students often fall into the trap of political correctness. Political correctness can suspend free reflection on the differences inherent in otherness, which is the subject of tolerance, and creates an ideology of the generalized, abstract Other. As a result, teachers prefer to talk about…

  9. Viral discovery in the invasive Australian cane toad (Rhinella marina) using metatranscriptomic and genomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alice G; Eden, John-Sebastian; Enosi Tuipulotu, Daniel; Shi, Mang; Selechnik, Daniel; Shine, Richard; Rollins, Lee Ann; Holmes, Edward C; White, Peter A

    2018-06-13

    Cane toads are a notorious invasive species, inhabiting over 1.2 million km 2 of Australia and threatening native biodiversity. Release of pathogenic cane toad viruses is one possible biocontrol strategy yet is currently hindered by the poorly-described cane toad virome. Metatranscriptomic analysis of 16 cane toad livers revealed the presence of a novel and full-length picornavirus, Rhimavirus A (RhiV-A), a member of a reptile and amphibian specific-cluster of the Picornaviridae basal to the Kobuvirus -like group. In the combined liver transcriptome, we also identified a complete genome sequence of a distinct epsilonretrovirus, R. marina endogenous retrovirus (RMERV). The recently sequenced cane toad genome contains eight complete RMERV proviruses, as well as 21 additional truncated insertions. The oldest full length RMERV provirus was estimated to have inserted 1.9 MYA. To screen for these viral sequences in additional toads, we analysed publicly available transcriptomes from six diverse Australian locations. RhiV-A transcripts were identified in toads sampled from three locations across 1,000 km of Australia, stretching to the current Western Australia (WA) invasion front, whilst RMERV transcripts were observed at all six sites. Lastly, we scanned the cane toad genome for non-retroviral endogenous viral elements, finding three sequences related to small DNA viruses in the family Circoviridae This shows ancestral circoviral infection with subsequent genomic integration. The identification of these current and past viral infections enriches our knowledge of the cane toad virome, an understanding of which will facilitate future work on infection and disease in this important invasive species. Importance Cane toads are poisonous amphibians which were introduced to Australia in 1935 for insect control. Since then, their population has increased dramatically, and they now threat many native Australian species. One potential method to control the population is to

  10. Rhizosphere of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. as a landmark for polythene degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shahnawaz, Mohd; Sangale, Manisha K; Ade, Avinash B

    2016-07-01

    Due to high durability, cheap cost, and ease of manufacture, 311 million tons of plastic-based products are manufactured around the globe per annum. The slow/least rate of plastic degradation leads to generation of million tons of plastic waste per annum, which is of great environmental concern. Of the total plastic waste generated, polythene shared about 64 %. Various methods are available in the literature to tackle with the plastic waste, and biodegradation is considered as the most accepted, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method of polythene waste disposal. In the present study, an attempt has been made to isolate, screen, and characterize the most efficient polythene degrading bacteria by using rhizosphere soil of Avicennia marina as a landmark. From 12 localities along the west coast of India, a total of 123 bacterial isolates were recorded. Maximum percent weight loss (% WL; 21.87 ± 6.37 %) was recorded with VASB14 at pH 3.5 after 2 months of shaking at room temperature. Maximum percent weight gain (13.87 ± 3.6 %) was reported with MANGB5 at pH 7. Maximum percent loss in tensile strength (% loss in TS; 87.50 ± 4.8 %) was documented with VASB1 at pH 9.5. The results based on the % loss in TS were only reproducible. Further, the level of degradation was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. In SEM analysis, scions/crakes were found on the surface of the degraded polythene, and mass of bacterial cell was also recorded on the weight-gained polythene strips. Maximum reduction in carbonyl index (4.14 %) was recorded in untreated polythene strip with Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain VASB14/WL. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence homology, the most efficient polythene degrading bacteria were identified as L. fusiformis strainVASB14/WL and Bacillus cereus strain VASB1/TS.

  11. Improving crop salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Flowers, T J

    2004-02-01

    Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very limited success, due to the complexity of the trait: salt tolerance is complex genetically and physiologically. Tolerance often shows the characteristics of a multigenic trait, with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tolerance identified in barley, citrus, rice, and tomato and with ion transport under saline conditions in barley, citrus and rice. Physiologically salt tolerance is also complex, with halophytes and less tolerant plants showing a wide range of adaptations. Attempts to enhance tolerance have involved conventional breeding programmes, the use of in vitro selection, pooling physiological traits, interspecific hybridization, using halophytes as alternative crops, the use of marker-aided selection, and the use of transgenic plants. It is surprising that, in spite of the complexity of salt tolerance, there are commonly claims in the literature that the transfer of a single or a few genes can increase the tolerance of plants to saline conditions. Evaluation of such claims reveals that, of the 68 papers produced between 1993 and early 2003, only 19 report quantitative estimates of plant growth. Of these, four papers contain quantitative data on the response of transformants and wild-type of six species without and with salinity applied in an appropriate manner. About half of all the papers report data on experiments conducted under conditions where there is little or no transpiration: such experiments may provide insights into components of tolerance, but are not grounds for claims of enhanced tolerance at the whole plant level. Whether enhanced

  12. Leaf water storage increases with salinity and aridity in the mangrove Avicennia marina: integration of leaf structure, osmotic adjustment and access to multiple water sources.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa T; Meir, Patrick; Sack, Lawren; Evans, John R; Oliveira, Rafael S; Ball, Marilyn C

    2017-08-01

    Leaf structure and water relations were studied in a temperate population of Avicennia marina subsp. australasica along a natural salinity gradient [28 to 49 parts per thousand (ppt)] and compared with two subspecies grown naturally in similar soil salinities to those of subsp. australasica but under different climates: subsp. eucalyptifolia (salinity 30 ppt, wet tropics) and subsp. marina (salinity 46 ppt, arid tropics). Leaf thickness, leaf dry mass per area and water content increased with salinity and aridity. Turgor loss point declined with increase in soil salinity, driven mainly by differences in osmotic potential at full turgor. Nevertheless, a high modulus of elasticity (ε) contributed to maintenance of high cell hydration at turgor loss point. Despite similarity among leaves in leaf water storage capacitance, total leaf water storage increased with increasing salinity and aridity. The time that stored water alone could sustain an evaporation rate of 1 mmol m -2  s -1 ranged from 77 to 126 min from subspecies eucalyptifolia to ssp. marina, respectively. Achieving full leaf hydration or turgor would require water from sources other than the roots, emphasizing the importance of multiple water sources to growth and survival of Avicennia marina across gradients in salinity and aridity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN WILLAPA BAY, WASHINGTON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuary-wide benthic macrofauna-habitat associations in Willapa Bay, Washington, United States, were determined for 4 habitats (eelgrass [Zostera marina], Atlantic cordgrass [Spartina alterniflora], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californiensis]) in 1...

  14. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  15. Calculating bathymetric and spatial distributions of estuarine eelgrass

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native eelgrass Zostera marina L. within the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of three Oregon estuaries (Tillamook, Yaquina, and Alsea) were classified from color infrared aerial orthophotography acquired at extreme low tide. Image processing software, Spati...

  16. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA-HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN WILLAPA BAY, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofauna-habitat relationships were determined estuary-wide in Willapa Bay, WA for four intertidal habitats ((1) eelgrass, Zostera marina, (2) Atlantic cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, (3) ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, (4) mud shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis) i...

  17. NEKTON-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nekton−habitat associations were determined in Yaquina Bay, Oregon, United States, using a stratified-by-habitat, random, estuary-wide sampling design. Three habitats (intertidal eelgrass [Zostera marina], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], and ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californie...

  18. Nekton-habitat associations in Yaquina Bay, Oregon - March 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 3-year field study to determine the relative nekton usage of 4 intertidal habitats (eelgrass [Zostera marina], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californiensis], and unvegetated sand) in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Nekton samples were collected u...

  19. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substratum material, or the speciation of the microorganisms. Tolerance factors do depend on the areal cell density of the biofilm at the time of treatment and on the age of the biofilm as grown in a particular experimental system. This suggests that there is something that happens during biofilm maturation, either physical or physiological, that is essential for full biofilm tolerance. Experimental measurements of antimicrobial penetration times in biofilms range over orders of magnitude, with slower penetration (>12 min) observed for reactive oxidants and cationic molecules. These agents are retarded through the interaction of reaction, sorption, and diffusion. The specific physiological status of microbial cells in a biofilm contributes to antimicrobial tolerance. A conceptual framework for categorizing physiological cell states is discussed in the context of antimicrobial susceptibility. It is likely that biofilms harbor cells in multiple states simultaneously (e.g., growing, stress-adapted, dormant, inactive) and that this physiological heterogeneity is an important factor in the tolerance of the biofilm state. PMID:26185072

  20. Mechanisms of Oral Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia

    2018-02-27

    Oral tolerance is a state of systemic unresponsiveness that is the default response to food antigens in the gastrointestinal tract, although immune tolerance can also be induced by other routes, such as the skin or inhalation. Antigen can be acquired directly by intestinal phagocytes, or pass through enterocytes or goblet cell-associated passages prior to capture by dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria. Mucin from goblet cells acts on DCs to render them more tolerogenic. A subset of regulatory DCs expressing CD103 is responsible for delivery of antigen to the draining lymph node and induction of Tregs. These DCs also imprint gastrointestinal homing capacity, allowing the recently primed Tregs to home back to the lamina propria where they interact with macrophages that produce IL-10 and expand. Tregs induced by dietary antigen include Foxp3 + Tregs and Foxp3 - Tregs. In addition to Tregs, T cell anergy can also contribute to oral tolerance. The microbiota plays a key role in the development of oral tolerance, through regulation of macrophages and innate lymphoid cells that contribute to the regulatory phenotype of gastrointestinal dendritic cells. Absence of microbiota is associated with a susceptibility to food allergy, while presence of Clostridia strains can suppress development of food allergy through enhancement of Tregs and intestinal barrier function. It is not clear if feeding of antigens can also induce true immune tolerance after a memory immune response has been generated, but mechanistic studies of oral immunotherapy trials demonstrate shared pathways in oral tolerance and oral immunotherapy, with a role for Tregs and anergy. An important role for IgA and IgG antibodies in development of immune tolerance is also supported by studies of oral tolerance in humans. The elucidation of key pathways in oral tolerance could identify new strategies to increase efficacy of immunotherapy treatments for food allergy.

  1. Changes in the distribution of the grey mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) using large scale aerial color infrared photographs: are the changes related to habitat modification for mosquito control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Dale, P. E. R.; Chandica, A. L.; Breitfuss, M. J.

    2004-09-01

    Runnelling, a method of habitat modification used for mosquito management in intertidal saltmarshes in Australia, alters marsh hydrology. The objective of this research was to assess if runnelling had affected the distribution of the grey mangrove ( Avicennia marina (Forsk.)) at a study site in southeast Queensland. Since runnelling is carried out in diverse marshes a second aim was to assess differences in mangrove colonisation in the two main saltmarsh species in the area. These are marine couch [ Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth.] and samphire [ Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex Ung.-Stern.)]. Runnels at the study site were in an area dominated by Sporobolus. The mangrove area was measured by classifying digital color infrared (CIR) data obtained from aerial photographs acquired in 1982, which was 3 years before runnelling, and in 1987, 1991 and 1999, 2-14 years after. Changes in the spatial extent of A. marina were identified using difference images produced from post-classification change detection. The results showed that runnels did not significantly influence the distribution of A. marina at the study site. At a more detailed level differences in A. marina establishment in the Sporobolus and Sarcocornia areas were determined from counts of trees on the aerial photographs. There was a greater proportion of mangroves in Sarcocornia than Sporobolus and this increased over time. This may be related to differences in density between the plant species, to grapsid crab activity or to other edaphic conditions. There may be implications for runnelling in Sarcocornia marshes. The large increase observed in A. marina in the area generally is likely to be related to factors such as catchment modification or tidal/sea-level changes. It is concluded that runnelling has not led to mangrove establishment in the Sporobolus dominated saltmarsh.

  2. Tolerance analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Digital computer program determines tolerance values of end to end signal chain or flow path, given preselected probability value. Technique is useful in the synthesis and analysis phases of subsystem design processes.

  3. Vancomycin tolerance in enterococci.

    PubMed

    Saribas, Suat; Bagdatli, Yasar

    2004-11-01

    Tolerance can be defined as the ability of bacteria to grow in the presence of high concentrations of bactericide antimicrobics, so that the killing action of the drug is avoided but the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) remains the same. We investigated vancomycin tolerance in the Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from different clinical specimens. Vancomycin was obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. We studied 100 enterococci strains. Fifty-six and 44 of Enterococcus strains were idendified as E. feacalis and E. faecium, respectively. To determine MICs and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), we inoculated strains from an overnight agar culture to Muller-Hinton broth and incubated them for 4-6 h at 37 degrees C with shaking to obtain a logarithmic phase culture. The inoculum was controlled by performing a colony count for each test. We determined MBC values and MBC/MIC ratios to study tolerance to vancomycin. Vancomycin tolerance was defined as a high MBC value and an MBC/MIC ratio > or =32. Fifty-six and 44 of the Enterococcus strains were identified as E. faecium and E. faecalis, respectively. Thirty-one E. faecium and 48 E. faecalis were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and these susceptible strains were included in this study. The MICs of susceptible strains ranged from < or =1 to 4 mg/l, the MBCs were > or =512 mg/l. Tolerance was detected in all E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. The standard E. faecalis 21913 strain also exhibited tolerance according to the high MBC value and the MBC/MIC ratio. We defined the tolerant strains as having no bactericidal effect and MBC/MIC > or =32. We found that a 100% tolerance was present in susceptible strains. One of the hypotheses for tolerance is that tolerant cells fail to mobilize or create the autolysins needed for enlargement and division. Our data suggests that tolerance may compromise glycopeptide therapy of serious enterococci infections. To add an aminoglycoside to the

  4. On observing high frequency dynamics in coastal regions: latest insights of the MARINA project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roblou, Laurent; Delebecque, Caroline; Vignudelli, Stefano; Jerome, Bouffard; Cipollini, Paolo; Morrow, Rosemary; Birol, Florence

    (ALtimeter-Based Investigations in COrsica, Capraia and Contiguous Areas) project and this leads to the X-TRACK software. Numerous studies have since illustrated the benefits of such software to the overall improvement of al-timeter product quality in the coastal systems. A key-task of MARgin Integrated Approach (MARINA) project funded by the French Space Agency CNES is to extend the potential of the software and its products to the high rate measurements provided in the altimetry prod-ucts. In this paper, high resolution, optimized coastal altimetry products from the X-TRACK processor and other datasets coming from PISTACH and COASTALT projects, respectively funded by CNES and European Space Agency ESA, have been compared to in situ observa-tions in the Straits of Bonifaccio, a pilot site in the area of Corsica and Sardinia islands in the NW Mediterranean Sea. The results of this study are illustrated, highlighting the potential and limitations of such data sets for monitoring coastal dynamics and toward integration into coastal hydrodynamical models.

  5. Sinkhole Geohazard In Deformed Sulphates at Marina di Lesina (Gargano Promontory, Italy): a Combination of Anthropogenic, Lithologic, and Structural Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbianelli, G.; Antonellini, M.; Mancini, F.; Stecchi, F.; Castellarin, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkhole development and collapse of underground caves within a gypsum substrate is focused in proximity to the beach resort of Marina di Lesina on the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This situation constitutes a serious geohazard for the local community and a threat to the development of the tourist activity. Fast sinkhole development has been reported in the last two decades both in terms of newly formed cavities and of widening of already existing ones. Morphologically, the apparent sinkholes are small (from a few meters to a few tens of meters) and restricted to the area of the harbour canal. The substratum of the area consists of evaporite and carbonate platfom sediments of the Apulian margin, Triassic to Cretaceous in age, above which there is a thin layer (2 to 4 m) of Quaternary fine to medium sand deposits. Sheared marls, sub-volcanic igneous rocks, and bituminous limestone connected to a fault scarp, as well as small salt diapirs have been observed in proximity to the city. Below the urban area of Marina di Lesina, the platform sediments consist of fractured, sheared, and karstified sulfates (Burano Formation). Given solubility larger than that of carbonate rock, sulfates is a focus for the dissolution process. From a structural point of view, the Marina di Lesina area is probably in a push-up step between two secondary segments of East-West trending left lateral strike-slip faults with the same trend of the Mattinata fault system. The presence of a push-up structure is confirmed by the existing geological maps, the morphological, and the altimetry data available for the area that point out the presence of arcuate relief structures next to the Pietre Nere (Black Rocks) Head. These high relief areas are probable NW-SE oriented high angle reverse faults in the compressional quadrant of the southernmost strike-slip fault segment. The area within a push-up step is undergoing an intense compressive stress that results in strong pressure solution phenomena

  6. First report of exotic ticks (Amblyomma rotundatum) parasitizing invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) on the Island of Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Hudson, Cameron M; Mertins, James W; Shine, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Our surveys of 1401 invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) from the Hawaiian islands of Hawai'i, O'ahu, and Maui revealed the presence of an exotic tick, Amblyomma rotundatum. Immature and adult female ticks infested three wild adult toads at a single site in the vicinity of a zoo south of Hilo, Island of Hawai'i, Hawai'i, USA. We found no tick-infested toads on O'ahu or Maui. This tick infests cane toads in their native Neotropical range, but it was excluded from Hawai'i when the original founder toads were introduced over 80 years ago. The circumstances of our discovery suggest that A. rotundatum was independently and belatedly introduced to Hawai'i with imported zoo animals, and Hawai'i now joins Florida as the second U.S. state where this tick is established. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Diurnal shifts in co-distributions of sulfide and iron(II) and profiles of phosphate and ammonium in the rhizosphere of Zostera capricorni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagès, Anaïs; Welsh, David T.; Robertson, David; Panther, Jared G.; Schäfer, Jörg; Tomlinson, Rodger B.; Teasdale, Peter R.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution, two dimensional distributions of porewater iron(II) and sulfide were measured, using colourimetric DET (diffusive equilibration in a thin film) and DGT (diffusive gradients in a thin film) techniques, respectively, in Zostera capricorni colonised sediments under both light and dark conditions. Low resolution depth profiles of ammonium and phosphate were measured using conventional DET and DGT methods, respectively. Porewater iron(II) and sulfide distributions showed a high degree of spatial heterogeneity under both light and dark conditions, and distributions were characterised by a complex mosaic of sediment zones dominated by either iron(II) or sulfide. However, there was a clear shift in overall redox conditions between light and dark conditions. During light deployments, iron(II) and sulfide concentrations were generally low throughout the rhizosphere, apart from a few distinct "hotspots" of high concentration. Whereas during dark deployments, high concentrations of iron(II) were sometimes measured in the near surface sediments and sulfide depth distributions migrated towards the sediment surface. Profiles of porewater ammonium and phosphate demonstrated an increase in ammonium concentrations under dark compared to light conditions. Surprisingly, despite the large changes in iron(II) distributions between light and dark conditions, phosphate profiles remained similar, indicating that adsorption/release of phosphate by iron(III) hydr(oxide) mineral formation and reduction was not a major factor regulating porewater phosphate concentrations in these sediments or that phosphate uptake by the seagrass roots persisted during the dark period. Overall, the results demonstrate that the photosynthetic activity of the seagrass played a significant role in regulating sulfide, iron(II) and ammonium concentrations in the rhizosphere, due to rates of radial oxygen loss and ammonium uptake by the roots and rhizomes being lower under dark compared to light

  8. Impacts on the seagrass, Zostera nigricaulis, from the herbicide Fusilade Forte® used in the management of Spartina anglica infestations.

    PubMed

    Carve, Megan; Coggan, Timothy L; Myers, Jackie H; Clarke, Bradley; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Shimeta, Jeff

    2018-02-01

    The herbicide Fusilade Forte ® (FF) is widely applied in agricultural weed management and in the management of the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica (ricegrass or cordgrass). FF (active ingredient fluazifop-P acid, FPA) is selective for poaceous grasses. Its primary mode of action is inhibition of the acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) specific to this taxonomic group, and its secondary mode is by promotion of oxidative stress. FF is applied to S. anglica infestations in the intertidal zone, in proximity to seagrass meadows. Despite the potential for vital seagrass ecosystems to be exposed to FF, there is limited knowledge of any potential impacts. We investigated impacts of FPA on the endemic Australian seagrass, Zostera nigricaulis, measuring ACCase activity and parameters that reflect oxidative stress: photosynthetic performance, lipid peroxidation and photosynthetic pigment content. Seagrass was exposed to FF (0.01-10mgL -1 FPA and a control) for 7d, followed by a 7-d recovery in uncontaminated seawater. An enzyme assay demonstrated that FPA ≤10mgL -1 did not inhibit the activity of ACCase isolated from Z. nigricaulis, demonstrating that this seagrass is resistant to FF's primary mode of action. However, physiological impacts occurred following 7 days exposure to ≥0.1mgL -1 FPA, including up to a 72% reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentration. After 7-d recovery, photosynthetic pigment content improved in treatment plants; however, treated plants exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrates that while Z. nigricaulis is resistant to FF's primary mode of action, significant physiological impacts occur following 7 days exposure to ≥0.1mgL -1 FPA. This study provides valuable information on the effects of FF on a non-target species that can better inform approaches to Spartina management in coastal seagrass ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Peter M. J.; Gottardo, Stefania; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; van Tongeren, Martie; Semenzin, Elena; Fernandes, Teresa F.; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Hunt, Neil; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Landsiedel, Robert; Peijnenburg, Willie J. G. M.; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Kesteren, Petra C. E.; Oomen, Agnes G.

    2015-01-01

    An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA) a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing) a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs) are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment) is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy. PMID:26633430

  10. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter M J; Gottardo, Stefania; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Semenzin, Elena; Fernandes, Teresa F; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Hunt, Neil; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Landsiedel, Robert; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Kesteren, Petra C E; Oomen, Agnes G

    2015-11-27

    An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA) a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing) a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs) are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment) is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy.

  11. Francisella marina sp. nov., etiologic agent of systemic disease in cultured spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) in Central America.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Griffin, Matt J; Morales, Juan Alberto; Barquero Calvo, Elías; de Alexandre Sebastião, Fernanda; Lopez Porras, Adrián; Víquez-Rodríguez, Xindy; Reichley, Stephen R; Rosser, Thomas G; Ware, Cynthia; Byrne, Barbara A; García, Julio C; LaFrentz, Benjamin R; Camus, Alvin C

    2018-06-18

    Historically, piscine francisellosis in various warm, temperate and coldwater fish hosts has been attributed to Francisella noatunensis From 2015-2016, an undescribed Francisella sp. was recovered during mortality events in cultured spotted rose snapper ( Lutjanus guttatus ) off the Pacific coast of Central America. Despite high mortality and emaciation, limited gross findings were observed in affected fish. Histological examination revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions, with the presence of numerous small, pleomorphic coccobacilli, predominantly in the peritoneum, spleen, kidneys, liver, pancreas, heart, and intestine. Sequencing of an ∼1400 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated these isolates to be most similar (99.9% identity) to Francisella sp. isolate TX077308 cultured from sea water in the Gulf of Mexico, while sharing <99% similarity to other Fransicella spp. Biochemical analysis, multi-locus sequence comparisons of select housekeeping-genes, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and fatty acid methyl esters analysis revealed marked differences between these isolates and other described members of the genus. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by experimental intracoelomic injection and immersion trials using Nile ( Oreochromis niloticus ) and blue tilapia ( O. aureus ). Based on observed phenotypic and genotypic differences from recognized Francisella spp., the name Francisella marina sp. nov. (NRRL # B-65518) is proposed to accommodate these novel strains. Importance Finfish aquaculture is the fastest growing global food production sector. Infectious disease, particularly emergent pathogens, pose a significant threat to established and nascent aquaculture industries worldwide. Herein, we characterize a novel pathogen isolated from mortality events in cultured spotted rose snapper in Central America. The bacteria recovered from these outbreaks were

  12. Do low oxygen environments facilitate marine invasions? Relative tolerance of native and invasive species to low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcelo E; Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear. We measured water flow and oxygen availability in marinas and piers at the scales relevant to sessile marine invertebrates (mm). We then measured the capacity of invasive and native marine invertebrates to maintain metabolic rates under decreasing levels of oxygen using standard laboratory assays. We found that marinas reduce water flow relative to piers, and that local oxygen levels can be zero in low flow conditions. We also found that for species with erect growth forms, invasive species can tolerate much lower levels of oxygen relative to native species. Integrating the field and laboratory data showed that up to 30% of available microhabitats within low flow environments are physiologically stressful for native species, while only 18% of the same habitat is physiologically stressful for invasive species. These results suggest that invasive species have adapted to low oxygen habitats associated with manmade habitats, and artificial structures may be creating niche opportunities for invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  14. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  15. Lethal effects of ichthyotoxic raphidophytes, Chattonella marina, C. antiqua, and Heterosigma akashiwo, on post-embryonic stages of the Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    PubMed

    Basti, Leila; Nagai, Kiyohito; Go, Jiyoji; Okano, Sho; Oda, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagai, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    The inimical effects of the ichthyotoxic harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua on the early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii were studied. Fertilized eggs and developing embryos were not affected following exposure to the harmful raphidophytes; however, all three algal species severely affected trochophores and D-larvae, early-stage D-larvae, and late-stage pre-settling larvae. Exposure to C. marina (5×10 2 cellsml -1 ), C. antiqua (10 3 cellsml -1 ), and H. akashiwo (5×10 3 cellsml -1 ) resulted in decreased success of metamorphosis to the trochophore stage. A complete inhibition of trochophore metamorphosis was observed following exposure to C. antiqua at 5×10 3 cellsml -1 and C. marina at 8×10 3 cellsml -1 . In all experiments, more than 80% of newly formed trochophores were anomalous, and in the case of exposure to H. akashiwo at 10 5 cellsml -1 more than 70% of D-larvae were anomalous. The activity rates of D-larvae (1-day-old) were significantly reduced following exposure to C. antiqua (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), C. marina (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), and H. akashiwo (10 4 cellsml -1 , 24h). The activity rates of pre-settling larvae (21-day-old) were also significantly reduced following exposure to C. antiqua (10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h),C. marina (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), and H. akashiwo (5×10 4 cellsml -1 , 24h). Significant mortalities of both larval stages were induced by all three raphidophytes, with higher mortality rates registered for pre-settling larvae than D-larvae, especially following exposure to C. marina (5×10 2 -8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 48-86h) and C. antiqua (10 3 -8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 72-86h). Contact between raphidophyte cells and newly metamorphosed trochophores and D-larvae, 1-day-old D-larvae, and 21-day-old larvae resulted in microscopic changes in the raphidophytes, and then, in the motile early-life stages of pearl oysters. Upon

  16. Metabolic engineering of the Chl d-dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina: production of a novel Chl species by the introduction of the chlorophyllide a oxygenase gene.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Tohru; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Akimoto, Seiji; Tomo, Tatsuya; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Mimuro, Mamoru

    2012-03-01

    In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, the properties of photosynthetic reaction systems primarily depend on the Chl species used. Acquisition of new Chl species with unique optical properties may have enabled photosynthetic organisms to adapt to various light environments. The artificial production of a new Chl species in an existing photosynthetic organism by metabolic engineering provides a model system to investigate how an organism responds to a newly acquired pigment. In the current study, we established a transformation system for a Chl d-dominated cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris marina, for the first time. The expression vector (constructed from a broad-host-range plasmid) was introduced into A. marina by conjugal gene transfer. The introduction of a gene for chlorophyllide a oxygenase, which is responsible for Chl b biosynthesis, into A. marina resulted in a transformant that synthesized a novel Chl species instead of Chl b. The content of the novel Chl in the transformant was approximately 10% of the total Chl, but the level of Chl a, another Chl in A. marina, did not change. The chemical structure of the novel Chl was determined to be [7-formyl]-Chl d(P) by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. [7-Formyl]-Chl d(P) is hypothesized to be produced by the combined action of chlorophyllide a oxygenase and enzyme(s) involved in Chl d biosynthesis. These results demonstrate the flexibility of the Chl biosynthetic pathway for the production of novel Chl species, indicating that a new organism with a novel Chl might be discovered in the future.

  17. Modelling the growth kinetics of Kocuria marina DAGII as a function of single and binary substrate during batch production of β-Cryptoxanthin.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Ruchira; Chaudhuri, Surabhi; Dutta, Debjani

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigation, growth kinetics of Kocuria marina DAGII during batch production of β-Cryptoxanthin (β-CRX) was studied by considering the effect of glucose and maltose as a single and binary substrate. The importance of mixed substrate over single substrate has been emphasised in the present study. Different mathematical models namely, the Logistic model for cell growth, the Logistic mass balance equation for substrate consumption and the Luedeking-Piret model for β-CRX production were successfully implemented. Model-based analyses for the single substrate experiments suggested that the concentrations of glucose and maltose higher than 7.5 and 10.0 g/L, respectively, inhibited the growth and β-CRX production by K. marina DAGII. The Han and Levenspiel model and the Luong product inhibition model accurately described the cell growth in glucose and maltose substrate systems with a R 2 value of 0.9989 and 0.9998, respectively. The effect of glucose and maltose as binary substrate was further investigated. The binary substrate kinetics was well described using the sum-kinetics with interaction parameters model. The results of production kinetics revealed that the presence of binary substrate in the cultivation medium increased the biomass and β-CRX yield significantly. This study is a first time detailed investigation on kinetic behaviours of K. marina DAGII during β-CRX production. The parameters obtained in the study might be helpful for developing strategies for commercial production of β-CRX by K. marina DAGII.

  18. Oilseed cuphea tolerates bromoxynil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed management is a critical feature of all crop production, but especially for new and alternative crops with which most growers have little experience. Oilseed cuphea is a new annual crop for temperate regions and, at present, it is known to tolerate only a narrow spectrum of herbicides. Addition...

  19. Cuphea tolerates clopyralid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cuphea is a new crop of temperate regions that produces seed oil with medium-chain length fatty acids, which can substitute for imported coconut and palm kernels oils. Only four herbicides are known to be tolerated by cuphea to date. More herbicides, especially POST products, are needed for continue...

  20. Tolerant (parallel) Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Bailey, David H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In order to be truly portable, a program must be tolerant of a wide range of development and execution environments, and a parallel program is just one which must be tolerant of a very wide range. This paper first defines the term "tolerant programming", then describes many layers of tools to accomplish it. The primary focus is on F-Nets, a formal model for expressing computation as a folded partial-ordering of operations, thereby providing an architecture-independent expression of tolerant parallel algorithms. For implementing F-Nets, Cooperative Data Sharing (CDS) is a subroutine package for implementing communication efficiently in a large number of environments (e.g. shared memory and message passing). Software Cabling (SC), a very-high-level graphical programming language for building large F-Nets, possesses many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, array operations). Finally, L2(sup 3) is a CASE tool which facilitates the construction, compilation, execution, and debugging of SC programs.

  1. Tolerance through Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Carolyn

    In this project, eighth grade students are exposed to black history, literature, music, and art to enhance the understanding of diversity and to establish an atmosphere of tolerance for diversity. Students are asked to choose a personality or significant historical event to research and present to the class. They focus on issues such as prejudice,…

  2. Zero Tolerance versus Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    In a case involving questionable canine search-and-seizure practices, a circuit court upheld a school board's decision to terminate a teacher's contract. While touting zero tolerance, the board fired an honored teacher 3 years from retirement who may not have known about the marijuana cigarette in her car. (MLH)

  3. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  4. Teaching Tolerance Magazine, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Jim, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This magazine provides teachers with classroom learning materials to help children learn to be tolerant with others. Articles in the magazine are: "A Standard to Sustain" (Mary M. Harrison); "Let's Just Play" (Janet Schmidt); "Who's Helen Keller?" (Ruth Shagoury Hubbard); "Margins of Error" (Joe Parsons);…

  5. A little toleration, please

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, C.

    2000-01-01

    Value pluralism does not imply relativism or subjectivism about values. What it does is allow respect for an at least limited toleration of values with which one may profoundly disagree. Thus a doctor can respect the autonomy of a patient whose values he does not share. Key Words: Pluralism • multiculturalism • relativism • subjectivism • patient autonomy PMID:11129842

  6. Pesticide tolerance in amphibians: induced tolerance in susceptible populations, constitutive tolerance in tolerant populations

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jessica; Morehouse, Nathan I; Relyea, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The role of plasticity in shaping adaptations is important to understanding the expression of traits within individuals and the evolution of populations. With increasing human impacts on the environment, one challenge is to consider how plasticity shapes responses to anthropogenic stressors such as contaminants. To our knowledge, only one study (using mosquitoes) has considered the possibility of induced insecticide tolerance. Using populations of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) located close to and far from agricultural fields, we discovered that exposing some populations of embryos and hatchlings to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide carbaryl induced higher tolerance to a subsequent lethal concentration later in life. Interestingly, the inducible populations were located >800 m from agricultural areas and were the most susceptible to the insecticide. In contrast, the noninducible populations were located close to agricultural areas and were the least susceptible. We also found that sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tadpole AChE concentrations in several cases. This is the first study to demonstrate inducible tolerance in a vertebrate species and the pattern of inducible and constitutive tolerance among populations suggests the process of genetic assimilation. PMID:24187585

  7. Deconstructing tolerance with clobazam

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Robert T.; Sankar, Raman; Montouris, Georgia D.; White, H. Steve; Cloyd, James C.; Kane, Mary Clare; Peng, Guangbin; Tworek, David M.; Shen, Vivienne; Isojarvi, Jouko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate potential development of tolerance to adjunctive clobazam in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Methods: Eligible patients enrolled in open-label extension study OV-1004, which continued until clobazam was commercially available in the United States or for a maximum of 2 years outside the United States. Enrolled patients started at 0.5 mg·kg−1·d−1 clobazam, not to exceed 40 mg/d. After 48 hours, dosages could be adjusted up to 2.0 mg·kg−1·d−1 (maximum 80 mg/d) on the basis of efficacy and tolerability. Post hoc analyses evaluated mean dosages and drop-seizure rates for the first 2 years of the open-label extension based on responder categories and baseline seizure quartiles in OV-1012. Individual patient listings were reviewed for dosage increases ≥40% and increasing seizure rates. Results: Data from 200 patients were included. For patients free of drop seizures, there was no notable change in dosage over 24 months. For responder groups still exhibiting drop seizures, dosages were increased. Weekly drop-seizure rates for 100% and ≥75% responders demonstrated a consistent response over time. Few patients had a dosage increase ≥40% associated with an increase in seizure rates. Conclusions: Two-year findings suggest that the majority of patients do not develop tolerance to the antiseizure actions of clobazam. Observed dosage increases may reflect best efforts to achieve seizure freedom. It is possible that the clinical development of tolerance to clobazam has been overstated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00518713 and NCT01160770. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that the majority of patients do not develop tolerance to clobazam over 2 years of treatment. PMID:27683846

  8. Physiological and Morphological Responses of the Temperate Seagrass Zostera muelleri to Multiple Stressors: Investigating the Interactive Effects of Light and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    York, Paul H.; Gruber, Renee K.; Hill, Ross; Ralph, Peter J.; Booth, David J.; Macreadie, Peter I.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how multiple environmental stressors interact to affect seagrass health (measured as morphological and physiological responses) is important for responding to global declines in seagrass populations. We investigated the interactive effects of temperature stress (24, 27, 30 and 32°C) and shading stress (75, 50, 25 and 0% shade treatments) on the seagrass Zostera muelleri over a 3-month period in laboratory mesocosms. Z. muelleri is widely distributed throughout the temperate and tropical waters of south and east coasts of Australia, and is regarded as a regionally significant species. Optimal growth was observed at 27°C, whereas rapid loss of living shoots and leaf mass occurred at 32°C. We found no difference in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments among temperature treatments by the end of the experiment; however, up-regulation of photoprotective pigments was observed at 30°C. Greater levels of shade resulting in high photochemical efficiencies, while elevated irradiance suppressed effective quantum yield (ΔF/FM’). Chlorophyll fluorescence fast induction curves (FIC) revealed that the J step amplitude was significantly higher in the 0% shade treatment after 8 weeks, indicating a closure of PSII reaction centres, which likely contributed to the decline in ΔF/FM’ and photoinhibition under higher irradiance. Effective quantum yield of PSII (ΔF/FM’) declined steadily in 32°C treatments, indicating thermal damage. Higher temperatures (30°C) resulted in reduced above-ground biomass ratio and smaller leaves, while reduced light led to a reduction in leaf and shoot density, above-ground biomass ratio, shoot biomass and an increase in leaf senescence. Surprisingly, light and temperature had few interactive effects on seagrass health, even though these two stressors had strong effects on seagrass health when tested in isolation. In summary, these results demonstrate that populations of Z. muelleri in south-eastern Australia are sensitive

  9. Physiological and morphological responses of the temperate seagrass Zostera muelleri to multiple stressors: investigating the interactive effects of light and temperature.

    PubMed

    York, Paul H; Gruber, Renee K; Hill, Ross; Ralph, Peter J; Booth, David J; Macreadie, Peter I

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how multiple environmental stressors interact to affect seagrass health (measured as morphological and physiological responses) is important for responding to global declines in seagrass populations. We investigated the interactive effects of temperature stress (24, 27, 30 and 32°C) and shading stress (75, 50, 25 and 0% shade treatments) on the seagrass Zostera muelleri over a 3-month period in laboratory mesocosms. Z. muelleri is widely distributed throughout the temperate and tropical waters of south and east coasts of Australia, and is regarded as a regionally significant species. Optimal growth was observed at 27°C, whereas rapid loss of living shoots and leaf mass occurred at 32°C. We found no difference in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments among temperature treatments by the end of the experiment; however, up-regulation of photoprotective pigments was observed at 30°C. Greater levels of shade resulting in high photochemical efficiencies, while elevated irradiance suppressed effective quantum yield (ΔF/FM'). Chlorophyll fluorescence fast induction curves (FIC) revealed that the J step amplitude was significantly higher in the 0% shade treatment after 8 weeks, indicating a closure of PSII reaction centres, which likely contributed to the decline in ΔF/FM' and photoinhibition under higher irradiance. Effective quantum yield of PSII (ΔF/FM') declined steadily in 32°C treatments, indicating thermal damage. Higher temperatures (30°C) resulted in reduced above-ground biomass ratio and smaller leaves, while reduced light led to a reduction in leaf and shoot density, above-ground biomass ratio, shoot biomass and an increase in leaf senescence. Surprisingly, light and temperature had few interactive effects on seagrass health, even though these two stressors had strong effects on seagrass health when tested in isolation. In summary, these results demonstrate that populations of Z. muelleri in south-eastern Australia are sensitive to

  10. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota of the Cane Toad Rhinella cf. marina in Puerto Rico and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Juan G.; Zuniga, Ibrahim; Ortiz-Morales, Gilmary; Lugo, Armando; Viquez-Cervilla, Mariel; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Natalia; Vázquez-Sánchez, Frances; Murillo-Cruz, Catalina; Torres-Rivera, Ernesto A.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa

    2018-01-01

    Rhinella marina is a toad native to South America that has been introduced in the Antilles, likely carrying high loads of microorganisms, potentially impacting local community diversity. The amphibian skin is involved in pathogen defense and its microbiota has been relatively well studied, however, research focusing on the cane toad microbiota is lacking. We hypothesize that the skin microbial communities will differ between toads inhabiting different geographical regions in Central America and the Caribbean. To test our hypothesis, we compared the microbiota of three populations of R. cf. marina toads, two from Costa Rican (native) and one Puerto Rican (exotic) locations. In Costa Rica, we collected 11 toads, 7 in Sarapiquí and 4 from Turrialba while in Puerto Rico, 10 animals were collected in Santa Ana. Separate swab samples were collected from the dorsal and ventral sites resulting in 42 samples. We found significant differences in the structure of the microbial communities between Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. We detected as much as 35 different phyla; however, communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Alpha diversity and richness were significantly higher in toads from Puerto Rico and betadiversity revealed significant differences between the microbiota samples from the two countries. At the genus level, we found in Santa Ana, Puerto Rico, a high dominance of Kokuria, Niabella, and Rhodobacteraceae, while in Costa Rica we found Halomonas and Pseudomonas in Sarapiquí, and Acinetobacter and Citrobacter in Turrialba. This is the first report of Niabella associated with the amphibian skin. The core microbiome represented 128 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) mainly from five genera shared among all samples, which may represent the symbiotic Rhinella’s skin. These results provide insights into the habitat-induced microbial changes facing this amphibian species. The differences in the microbial diversity in

  11. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota of the Cane Toad Rhinella cf. marina in Puerto Rico and Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Juan G; Zuniga, Ibrahim; Ortiz-Morales, Gilmary; Lugo, Armando; Viquez-Cervilla, Mariel; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Natalia; Vázquez-Sánchez, Frances; Murillo-Cruz, Catalina; Torres-Rivera, Ernesto A; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa

    2017-01-01

    Rhinella marina is a toad native to South America that has been introduced in the Antilles, likely carrying high loads of microorganisms, potentially impacting local community diversity. The amphibian skin is involved in pathogen defense and its microbiota has been relatively well studied, however, research focusing on the cane toad microbiota is lacking. We hypothesize that the skin microbial communities will differ between toads inhabiting different geographical regions in Central America and the Caribbean. To test our hypothesis, we compared the microbiota of three populations of R. cf. marina toads, two from Costa Rican (native) and one Puerto Rican (exotic) locations. In Costa Rica, we collected 11 toads, 7 in Sarapiquí and 4 from Turrialba while in Puerto Rico, 10 animals were collected in Santa Ana. Separate swab samples were collected from the dorsal and ventral sites resulting in 42 samples. We found significant differences in the structure of the microbial communities between Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. We detected as much as 35 different phyla; however, communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Alpha diversity and richness were significantly higher in toads from Puerto Rico and betadiversity revealed significant differences between the microbiota samples from the two countries. At the genus level, we found in Santa Ana, Puerto Rico, a high dominance of Kokuria , Niabella , and Rhodobacteraceae, while in Costa Rica we found Halomonas and Pseudomonas in Sarapiquí, and Acinetobacter and Citrobacter in Turrialba. This is the first report of Niabella associated with the amphibian skin. The core microbiome represented 128 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) mainly from five genera shared among all samples, which may represent the symbiotic Rhinella 's skin. These results provide insights into the habitat-induced microbial changes facing this amphibian species. The differences in the microbial diversity in

  12. Carbon isotope fractionation in the mangrove Avicennia marina has implications for food web and blue carbon research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J.; Mazumder, Debashish; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Saintilan, Neil

    2018-05-01

    The ratio of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) is commonly used to track the flow of energy among individuals and ecosystems, including in mangrove forests. Effective use of this technique requires understanding of the spatial variability in δ13C among primary producer(s) as well as quantification of the isotopic fractionations that occur as C moves within and among ecosystem components. In this experiment, we assessed δ13C variation in the cosmopolitan mangrove Avicennia marina across four sites of varying physico-chemical conditions across two estuaries. We also compared the isotopic values of five distinct tissue types (leaves, woody stems, cable roots, pneumatophores and fine roots) in individual plants. We found a significant site effect (F3, 36 = 15.78; P < 0.001) with mean leaf δ13C values 2.0‰ more depleted at the lowest salinity site compared to the other locations. There was a larger within-plant fractionation effect, however, with leaf samples (mean ± SE = -29.1 ± 0.2) more depleted in 13C than stem samples (-27.1 ± 0.1), while cable root (-25. 8 ± 0.1), pneumatophores (-25.7 ± 0.1) and fine roots (-26.0 ± 0.2) were more enriched in 13C relative to both aboveground tissue types (F4, 36 = 223.45; P < 0.001). The within-plant δ13C fractionation we report for A. marina is greater than that reported in most other ecosystems. This has implications for studies of estuarine carbon cycling. The consistent and large size of the fractionation from leaf to woody stem (∼2.0‰) and mostly consistent fractionation from leaf to root tissues (>3.0‰) means that it may now be possible to partition the individual contributions of various mangrove tissues to estuarine food webs. Similarly, the contributions of mangrove leaves, woody debris and belowground sources to blue carbon stocks might also be quantified. Above all, however, our results emphasize the importance of considering appropriate mangrove tissue types when using δ13C to trace carbon cycling in

  13. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improvemore » lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.« less

  14. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  15. Fault tolerant control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, U. L.; Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic procedure for the synthesis of fault tolerant control laws to actuator failure has been presented. Two design methods were used to synthesize fault tolerant controllers: the conventional LQ design method and a direct feedback controller design method SANDY. The latter method is used primarily to streamline the full-state Q feedback design into a practical implementable output feedback controller structure. To achieve robustness to control actuator failure, the redundant surfaces are properly balanced according to their control effectiveness. A simple gain schedule based on the landing gear up/down logic involving only three gains was developed to handle three design flight conditions: Mach .25 and Mach .60 at 5000 ft and Mach .90 at 20,000 ft. The fault tolerant control law developed in this study provides good stability augmentation and performance for the relaxed static stability aircraft. The augmented aircraft responses are found to be invariant to the presence of a failure. Furthermore, single-loop stability margins of +6 dB in gain and +30 deg in phase were achieved along with -40 dB/decade rolloff at high frequency.

  16. Biocular image misalignment tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; van de Pol, Corina; Rowe, Terri L.; Lont, Lisa M.; Peterson, R. David

    2003-09-01

    Biocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) design flexibility and cost are directly related to image misalignment tolerance standards. Currently recommended tolerance levels are based on highly variable data from a number of studies. This paper presents progress of an ongoing study to evaluate optometric measures sensitive to misalignment in partial-overlap biocular optical systems like that proposed for the Comanche RAH-66 helicopter helmet integrated display sighting system (HIDSS). Horizontal divergent and relative vertical misalignments (offsets) of see-through biocular symbology viewed against a simulated daytime background were chosen for this study. Misalignments within and just beyond current tolerance recommendations were evaluated using pre, pre and post, and during measures of visual performance. Data were obtained from seven experimental and four control subjects. The diplopia responses from experimental and control subjects were essentially the same. However, accommodative facility showed a rate decrement following exposure to both types of misalignment. Horizontal heterophorias showed definite post-misalignment increases. Subject responses to questionnaires universally indicated increased adaptation to (ease with) visual tasks over the testing period.

  17. The Effect of Microplastic on the Uptake of Chemicals by the Lugworm Arenicola marina (L.) under Environmentally Relevant Exposure Conditions.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Foekema, Edwin M; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that ingestion of microplastic increases exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic contaminants. To date, most laboratory studies investigated chemical transfer from ingested microplastic without taking other exposure pathways into account. Therefore, we studied the effect of polyethylene (PE) microplastic in sediment on PCB uptake by Arenicola marina as a model species, quantifying uptake fluxes from all natural exposure pathways. PCB concentrations in sediment, biota lipids (C lip ) and porewater measured with passive samplers were used to derive lipid-normalized bioaccumulation metrics C lip , Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and the Biota plastic accumulation factor (BPAF). Small effects of PE addition were detected suggesting slightly increased or decreased bioaccumulation. However, the differences decreased in magnitude dependent on the metric used to assess bioaccumulation, in the order: C lip > BSAF > BPAF > BAF, and were nonsignificant for BAF. The fact that BAF, that is, normalization of C lip on porewater concentration, largely removed all effects of PE, shows that PE did not act as a measurable vector of PCBs. Biodynamic model analysis confirmed that PE ingestion contributed marginally to bioaccumulation. This work confirmed model-based predictions on the limited relevance of microplastic for bioaccumulation under environmentally realistic conditions, and illustrated the importance of assessing exposure through all media in microplastic bioaccumulation studies.

  18. Individual variation and repeatability in urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-15

    Urinary corticosterone metabolite enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) can be used for the non-invasive assessment of baseline levels and corticosterone responses in amphibians. In this study, urinary corticosterone responses of wild male cane toads (Rhinella marina) to confinement and repeated handling were measured to quantify individual variation in corticosterone responses for the first time in an amphibian species. Urine samples were collected at 0 h in the wild, hourly from 2 to 8 h after transfer into captivity, and again at 12 and 24 h in captivity. Toads were then held in captivity and subjected to the same sampling protocol on three occasions at 14 days intervals to quantify variation in corticosterone metabolite responses within and between toads. Baseline and individual corticosterone metabolite responses in male cane toads were generally consistent, with high statistical repeatabilities for 0 h (r=0.630), 6 h (r=0.793), 12 h (r=0.652) and 24 h (r=0.721) corticosterone metabolite concentrations, and for the total and corrected integrated corticosterone responses (r=0.567, p=0.033; r=0.728, p=0.014 respectively). Urinary corticosterone responses appear to be a stable, repeatable trait within individuals. Corticosterone responses in amphibians can be more readily measured when urine rather than plasma samples are collected, and the protocol established in the current study can now be applied to the study of variation in corticosterone responses in other amphibians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Competition and pesticide exposure affect development of invasive (Rhinella marina) and native (Fejervarya vittigera) rice paddy amphibian larvae.

    PubMed

    Shuman-Goodier, Molly E; Singleton, Grant R; Propper, Catherine R

    2017-12-01

    Increased pesticide use in rice agricultural ecosystems may alter competitive interactions between invasive and native amphibian species. We conducted an experiment with two rice paddy amphibians found in Luzon, Philippines, the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) and the endemic Luzon wart frog (Fejervarya vittigera), to determine whether exposure to a common herbicide, butachlor, drives competitive interactions in favor of the invasive amphibian. Our results revealed that competition had a strong effect on the development of both species, but in opposing directions; Luzon wart frog tadpoles were smaller and developed slower than when raised alone, whereas cane toad tadpoles were larger and developed faster. Contrary to our predictions, development and survival of endemic wart frog tadpoles was not affected by butachlor, whereas invasive cane toad tadpoles were affected across several endpoints including gene expression, body size, and survival. We also observed an interaction between pesticide exposure and competition for the cane toad, where survival declined but body size and expression of thyroid sensitive genes increased. Taken together, our findings indicate that the success of the cane toad larvae in rice fields may be best explained by increased rates of development and larger body sizes of tadpoles in response to competition with native Luzon wart frog tadpoles rather than lower sensitivity to a common pesticide. Our results for the cane toad also provide evidence that butachlor can disrupt thyroid hormone mediated development in amphibians, and further demonstrate that important species interactions such as competition can be affected by pesticide exposure in aquatic ecosystems.

  20. The Effect of Microplastic on the Uptake of Chemicals by the Lugworm Arenicola marina (L.) under Environmentally Relevant Exposure Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that ingestion of microplastic increases exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic contaminants. To date, most laboratory studies investigated chemical transfer from ingested microplastic without taking other exposure pathways into account. Therefore, we studied the effect of polyethylene (PE) microplastic in sediment on PCB uptake by Arenicola marina as a model species, quantifying uptake fluxes from all natural exposure pathways. PCB concentrations in sediment, biota lipids (Clip) and porewater measured with passive samplers were used to derive lipid-normalized bioaccumulation metrics Clip, Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and the Biota plastic accumulation factor (BPAF). Small effects of PE addition were detected suggesting slightly increased or decreased bioaccumulation. However, the differences decreased in magnitude dependent on the metric used to assess bioaccumulation, in the order: Clip > BSAF > BPAF > BAF, and were nonsignificant for BAF. The fact that BAF, that is, normalization of Clip on porewater concentration, largely removed all effects of PE, shows that PE did not act as a measurable vector of PCBs. Biodynamic model analysis confirmed that PE ingestion contributed marginally to bioaccumulation. This work confirmed model-based predictions on the limited relevance of microplastic for bioaccumulation under environmentally realistic conditions, and illustrated the importance of assessing exposure through all media in microplastic bioaccumulation studies. PMID:28682597

  1. Effects of rearing environment and population origin on responses to repeated behavioural trials in cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Gruber, Jodie; Whiting, Martin J; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2018-05-02

    Behavioural response to repeated trials in captivity can be driven by many factors including rearing environment, population of origin, habituation to captivity/trial conditions and an individual's behavioural type (e.g., bold versus shy). We tested the effect of rearing environment (captive raised common-garden versus wild-caught) and population origin (range-edge versus range-front) on the responses of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to repeated exploration and risk-taking assays in captivity. We found that behavioural responses to identical assays performed on two occasions were complex and showed few consistent patterns based on rearing environment or population of origin. However, behavioural traits were repeatable across Trial Blocks when all sample populations were grouped together, indicating general consistency in individual toad behaviour across repeated behavioural assays. Our findings exemplify the complexity and unpredictability of behavioural responses and their effects on the repeatability and interpretation of behavioural traits across repeated behavioural assays in captivity. To meaningfully interpret the results from repeated behavioural assays, we need to consider how multiple factors may affect behavioural responses to these tests and importantly, how these responses may affect the repeatability of behavioural traits across time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Soares, Maurílio José; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

    2011-09-01

    The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  3. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Greenlees, Matthew J; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina) has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai'i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking) but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records). Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai'ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings), foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses) and breeding (artificial ponds). Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors). Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter), and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation). Cane toads in Hawai'i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species' ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance.

  4. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina) has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai’i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking) but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records). Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai’ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings), foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses) and breeding (artificial ponds). Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors). Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter), and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation). Cane toads in Hawai’i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species’ ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27027738

  5. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Potts, M

    1994-01-01

    The removal of cell-bound water through air drying and the addition of water to air-dried cells are forces that have played a pivotal role in the evolution of the prokaryotes. In bacterial cells that have been subjected to air drying, the evaporation of free cytoplasmic water (Vf) can be instantaneous, and an equilibrium between cell-bound water (Vb) and the environmental water (vapor) potential (psi wv) may be achieved rapidly. In the air-dried state some bacteria survive only for seconds whereas others can tolerate desiccation for thousands, perhaps millions, of years. The desiccated (anhydrobiotic) cell is characterized by its singular lack of water--with contents as low as 0.02 g of H2O g (dry weight)-1. At these levels the monolayer coverage by water of macromolecules, including DNA and proteins, is disturbed. As a consequence the mechanisms that confer desiccation tolerance upon air-dried bacteria are markedly different from those, such as the mechanism of preferential exclusion of compatible solutes, that preserve the integrity of salt-, osmotically, and freeze-thaw-stressed cells. Desiccation tolerance reflects a complex array of interactions at the structural, physiological, and molecular levels. Many of the mechanisms remain cryptic, but it is clear that they involve interactions, such as those between proteins and co-solvents, that derive from the unique properties of the water molecule. A water replacement hypothesis accounts for how the nonreducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose preserve the integrity of membranes and proteins. Nevertheless, we have virtually no insight into the state of the cytoplasm of an air-dried cell. There is no evidence for any obvious adaptations of proteins that can counter the effects of air drying or for the occurrence of any proteins that provide a direct and a tangible contribution to cell stability. Among the prokaryotes that can exist as anhydrobiotic cells, the cyanobacteria have a marked capacity to do so. One

  6. SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, Fabrizio; Nieplocha, Jarek; Tipparaju, Vinod

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency—requiring no changes to user applications. Our technology is based on a global coordination mechanism, that enforces transparent recovery lines in the system, and TICK, a lightweight, incremental checkpointing software architecture implemented as a Linux kernel module. TICK is completely user-transparentmore » and does not require any changes to user code or system libraries; it is highly responsive: an interrupt, such as a timer interrupt, can trigger a checkpoint in as little as 2.5μs; and it supports incremental and full checkpoints with minimal overhead—less than 6% with full checkpointing to disk performed as frequently as once per minute.« less

  7. Helminths and Immunological Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Chris J.C.; McSorley, Henry J.; Anderton, Stephen M.; Wigmore, Stephen J.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2014-01-01

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunological tolerance in animal models of transplantation, but translation into routine clinical practice remains elusive. Helminth parasites may provide novel strategies toward achieving this goal. Helminths are remarkably successful parasites: they currently infect more than one quarter of the world’s population. It is now well established that the parasites’ success is the result of active immunomodulation of their hosts’ immune response. Although this primarily secures ongoing survival of the parasites, helminth-induced immunomodulation can also have a number of benefits for the host. Significant reductions in the prevalence of allergy and autoimmune conditions among helminth-infected populations are well recognized and there is now a significant body of evidence to suggest that harmful immune responses to alloantigens may be abrogated as well. Here, we review all existing studies of helminth infection and transplantation, explore the mechanisms involved, and discuss possible avenues for future translation to clinical practice. PMID:24025322

  8. Helminths and immunological tolerance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-27

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunological tolerance in animal models of transplantation, but translation into routine clinical practice remains elusive. Helminth parasites may provide novel strategies toward achieving this goal. Helminths are remarkably successful parasites: they currently infect more than one quarter of the world's population. It is now well established that the parasites' success is the result of active immunomodulation of their hosts' immune response. Although this primarily secures ongoing survival of the parasites, helminth-induced immunomodulation can also have a number of benefits for the host. Significant reductions in the prevalence of allergy and autoimmune conditions among helminth-infected populations are well recognized and there is now a significant body of evidence to suggest that harmful immune responses to alloantigens may be abrogated as well. Here, we review all existing studies of helminth infection and transplantation, explore the mechanisms involved, and discuss possible avenues for future translation to clinical practice.

  9. Intelligent failure-tolerant control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of failure-tolerant control is presented, beginning with robust control, progressing through parallel and analytical redundancy, and ending with rule-based systems and artificial neural networks. By design or implementation, failure-tolerant control systems are 'intelligent' systems. All failure-tolerant systems require some degrees of robustness to protect against catastrophic failure; failure tolerance often can be improved by adaptivity in decision-making and control, as well as by redundancy in measurement and actuation. Reliability, maintainability, and survivability can be enhanced by failure tolerance, although each objective poses different goals for control system design. Artificial intelligence concepts are helpful for integrating and codifying failure-tolerant control systems, not as alternatives but as adjuncts to conventional design methods.

  10. Differences in benthic fauna and sediment among mangrove ( Avicennia marina var. australasica) stands of different ages in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrisey, D. J.; Skilleter, G. A.; Ellis, J. I.; Burns, B. R.; Kemp, C. E.; Burt, K.

    2003-03-01

    Management of coastal environments requires understanding of ecological relationships among different habitats and their biotas. Changes in abundance and distribution of mangroves, like those of other coastal habitats, have generally been interpreted in terms of changes in biodiversity or fisheries resources within individual stands. In several parts of their range, anthropogenically increased inputs of sediment to estuaries have led to the spread of mangroves. There is, however, little information on the relative ecological properties, or conservational values, of stands of different ages. The faunal, floral and sedimentological properties of mangrove ( Avicennia marina var. australasica) stands of two different ages in New Zealand has been compared. Older (>60 years) and younger (3-12 years) stands showed clear separation on the basis of environmental characteristics and benthic macrofauna. Numbers of faunal taxa were generally larger at younger sites, and numbers of individuals of several taxa were also larger at these sites. The total number of individuals was not different between the two age-classes, largely due to the presence of large numbers of the surface-living gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum at the older sites. It is hypothesized that as mangrove stands mature, the focus of faunal diversity may shift from the benthos to animals living on the mangrove plants themselves, such as insects and spiders, though these were not included in the present study. Differences in the faunas were coincident with differences in the nature of the sediment. Sediments in older stands were more compacted and contained more organic matter and leaf litter. Measurement of leaf chemistry suggested that mangrove plants in the younger stands were able to take up more N and P than those in the older stands.

  11. Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid) response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C) and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors). We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score) in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds) was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact amphibians at

  12. Acute Thermal Stressor Increases Glucocorticoid Response but Minimizes Testosterone and Locomotor Performance in the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Edward J.; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid) response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C) and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors). We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score) in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds) was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact amphibians at

  13. A Patchy Growth via Successive and Simultaneous Cambia: Key to Success of the Most Widespread Mangrove Species Avicennia marina?

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Nele; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Verheyden, Anouk; Kairo, James Gitundu; Beeckman, Hans; Koedam, Nico

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Secondary growth via successive cambia has been intriguing researchers for decades. Insight into the mechanism of growth layer formation is, however, limited to the cellular level. The present study aims to clarify secondary growth via successive cambia in the mangrove species Avicennia marina on a macroscopic level, addressing the formation of the growth layer network as a whole. In addition, previously suggested effects of salinity on growth layer formation were reconsidered. Methods A 1-year cambial marking experiment was performed on 80 trees from eight sites in two mangrove forests in Kenya. Environmental (soil water salinity and nutrients, soil texture, inundation frequency) and tree characteristics (diameter, height, leaf area index) were recorded for each site. Both groups of variables were analysed in relation to annual number of growth layers, annual radial increment and average growth layer width of stem discs. Key Results Between trees of the same site, the number of growth layers formed during the 1-year study period varied from only part of a growth layer up to four growth layers, and was highly correlated to the corresponding radial increment (0–5 mm year–1), even along the different sides of asymmetric stem discs. The radial increment was unrelated to salinity, but the growth layer width decreased with increasing salinity and decreasing tree height. Conclusions A patchy growth mechanism was proposed, with an optimal growth at distinct moments in time at different positions around the stem circumference. This strategy creates the opportunity to form several growth layers simultaneously, as observed in 14 % of the studied trees, which may optimize tree growth under favourable conditions. Strong evidence was provided for a mainly endogenous trigger controlling cambium differentiation, with an additional influence of current environmental conditions in a trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and mechanical stability. PMID

  14. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Gray Mangroves (Avicennia marina) from the Red Sea--A Metagenomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Simões, Marta Filipa; Antunes, André; Ottoni, Cristiane A; Amini, Mohammad Shoaib; Alam, Intikhab; Alzubaidy, Hanin; Mokhtar, Noor-Azlin; Archer, John A C; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-10-01

    Covering a quarter of the world's tropical coastlines and being one of the most threatened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal communities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from gray mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%-85%), while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%-24%), yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the gray mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the labile fractions of copper and zinc in marinas and port areas in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Wallner-Kersanach, Mônica

    2013-08-01

    The dissolved labile and labile particulate fractions (LPF) of Cu and Zn were analyzed during different seasons and salinity conditions in estuarine waters of marina, port, and shipyard areas in the southern region of the Patos Lagoon (RS, Brazil). The dissolved labile concentration was determined using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). DGT devices were deployed in seven locations of the estuary for 72 h and the physicochemical parameters were also measured. The LPF of Cu and Zn was determined by daily filtering of water samples. Seasonal variation of DGT-Cu concentrations was only significant (p < 0.05) at one shipyard area, while DGT-Zn was significant (p < 0.05) in every locations. The LPF of Cu and Zn concentrations demonstrated seasonal and spatial variability in all locations, mainly at shipyard areas during high salinity conditions. In general, except the control location, the sampling locations showed mean variations of 0.11-0.45 μg L(-1) for DGT-Cu, 0.89-9.96 μg L(-1) for DGT-Zn, 0.65-3.69 μg g(-1) for LPF-Cu, and 1.35-10.87 μg g(-1) for LPF-Zn. Shipyard areas demonstrated the most expressive values of labile Cu and Zn in both fractions. Strong relationship between DGT-Zn and LPF-Zn was found suggesting that the DGT-Zn fraction originates from the suspended particulate matter. Water salinity and suspended particulate matter content indicated their importance for the control of the labile concentrations of Cu and Zn in the water column. These parameters must be taken into consideration for comparison among labile metals in estuaries.

  16. Understanding the mechanisms of antitropical divergence in the seabird White-faced Storm-petrel (Procellariiformes: Pelagodroma marina) using a multilocus approach.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mónica C; Matias, Rafael; Wanless, Ross M; Ryan, Peter G; Stephenson, Brent M; Bolton, Mark; Ferrand, Nuno; Coelho, M Manuela

    2015-06-01

    Analytical methods that apply coalescent theory to multilocus data have improved inferences of demographic parameters that are critical to understanding population divergence and speciation. In particular, at the early stages of speciation, it is important to implement models that accommodate conflicting gene trees, and benefit from the presence of shared polymorphisms. Here, we employ eleven nuclear loci and the mitochondrial control region to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of the pelagic seabird White-faced Storm-petrel (Pelagodroma marina) by sampling subspecies across its antitropical distribution. Groups are all highly differentiated: global mitochondrial ΦST = 0.89 (P < 0.01) and global nuclear ΦST varies between 0.22 and 0.83 (all P < 0.01). The complete lineage sorting of the mitochondrial locus between hemispheres is corroborated by approximately half of the nuclear genealogies, suggesting a long-term antitropical divergence in isolation. Coalescent-based estimates of demographic parameters suggest that hemispheric divergence of P. marina occurred approximately 840 000 ya (95% HPD 582 000-1 170 000), in the absence of gene flow, and divergence within the Southern Hemisphere occurred 190 000 ya (95% HPD 96 000-600 000), both probably associated with the profound palaeo-oceanographic changes of the Pleistocene. A fledgling sampled in St Helena (tropical South Atlantic) suggests recent colonization from the Northern Hemisphere. Despite the great potential for long-distance dispersal, P. marina antitropical groups have been evolving as independent, allopatric lineages, and divergence is probably maintained by philopatry coupled with asynchronous reproductive phenology and local adaptation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mixed chimerism and split tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Al-Adra, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing hematopoietic mixed chimerism can lead to donor-specific tolerance to transplanted organs and may eliminate the need for long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while also preventing chronic rejection. In this review, we discuss central and peripheral mechanisms of chimerism induced tolerance. However, even in the long-lasting presence of a donor organ or donor hematopoietic cells, some allogeneic tissues from the same donor can be rejected; a phenomenon known as split tolerance. With the current goal of creating mixed chimeras using clinically feasible amounts of donor bone marrow and with minimal conditioning, split tolerance may become more prevalent and its mechanisms need to be explored. Some predisposing factors that may increase the likelihood of split tolerance are immunogenicity of the graft, certain donor-recipient combinations, prior sensitization, location and type of graft and minimal conditioning chimerism induction protocols. Additionally, split tolerance may occur due to a differential susceptibility of various types of tissues to rejection. The mechanisms involved in a tissue’s differential susceptibility to rejection include the presence of polymorphic tissue-specific antigens and variable sensitivity to indirect pathway effector mechanisms. Finally, we review the clinical attempts at allograft tolerance through the induction of chimerism; studies that are revealing the complex relationship between chimerism and tolerance. This relationship often displays split tolerance, and further research into its mechanisms is warranted. PMID:22509425

  18. Tolerance Signatures in Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Kenneth A.; Turka, Laurence A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The intent of this review is to describe biomarkers that predict or identify individuals who exhibit tolerance to a transplanted organ. The identification of tolerance biomarkers would spare some individuals the toxicity of immunosuppressive agents, enhance the safety of studies to induce tolerance, and provide insights into mechanisms of tolerance that may aid in designing new regimens. Recent findings Studies of tolerant kidney transplant recipients have revealed an association with B cells. More recent studies have suggested that these B cells may be less mature than from those in nontolerant recipients, and specially suited to suppress alloimmune responses. Biomarkers in tolerant liver transplant patients appear to be distinct from those associated renal tolerance. Most reports have identified an association with NK and/or γδ T cells rather than B cells. Recent data indicate biomarkers associated with iron homeostasis within the transplanted liver more accurately predict the tolerant state than do biomarkers expressed in the blood, suggesting that the renal allograft itself, which is infrequently sampled, would be informative. Summary Given the encouraging progress in identifying tolerance biomarkers, it will be important to validate these markers in larger studies of transplant recipients undergoing prospective minimization or withdrawal of immunosuppression. PMID:26107969

  19. Tolerance assays: measuring the unknown.

    PubMed

    Newell, Kenneth A; Larsen, Christian P

    2006-06-15

    Distinguishing transplant recipients who will benefit from a reduction in, or even the withdrawal of, immunosuppression from those who require intensive, lifelong immunosuppression will be dependent on developing strategies for immune monitoring. Currently, no assays have been shown to accurately predict the development or presence of donor-specific tolerance in humans after transplantation. In this overview we describe and discuss those assays that we believe may be useful for identifying tolerant transplant recipients. Validation of "tolerance" assays will be critical for the safe development of tolerance regimens in humans.

  20. Fault-tolerant processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A fault-tolerant, fiber optic interconnect, or backplane, which serves as a via for data transfer between modules. Fault tolerance algorithms are embedded in the backplane by dividing the backplane into a read bus and a write bus and placing a redundancy management unit (RMU) between the read bus and the write bus so that all data transmitted by the write bus is subjected to the fault tolerance algorithms before the data is passed for distribution to the read bus. The RMU provides both backplane control and fault tolerance.

  1. Physical fault tolerance of nanoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Szkopek, Thomas; Roychowdhury, Vwani P; Antoniadis, Dimitri A; Damoulakis, John N

    2011-04-29

    The error rate in complementary transistor circuits is suppressed exponentially in electron number, arising from an intrinsic physical implementation of fault-tolerant error correction. Contrariwise, explicit assembly of gates into the most efficient known fault-tolerant architecture is characterized by a subexponential suppression of error rate with electron number, and incurs significant overhead in wiring and complexity. We conclude that it is more efficient to prevent logical errors with physical fault tolerance than to correct logical errors with fault-tolerant architecture.

  2. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  3. Fault Tolerant Cache Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, H.-Yu.; Tasneem, Sarah

    Most of modern microprocessors employ on—chip cache memories to meet the memory bandwidth demand. These caches are now occupying a greater real es tate of chip area. Also, continuous down scaling of transistors increases the possi bility of defects in the cache area which already starts to occupies more than 50% of chip area. For this reason, various techniques have been proposed to tolerate defects in cache blocks. These techniques can be classified into three different cat egories, namely, cache line disabling, replacement with spare block, and decoder reconfiguration without spare blocks. This chapter examines each of those fault tol erant techniques with a fixed typical size and organization of L1 cache, through extended simulation using SPEC2000 benchmark on individual techniques. The de sign and characteristics of each technique are summarized with a view to evaluate the scheme. We then present our simulation results and comparative study of the three different methods.

  4. [Radiation Tolerant Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Research work in the providing radiation tolerant electronics to NASA and the commercial sector is reported herein. There are four major sections to this report: (1) Special purpose VLSI technology section discusses the status of the VLSI projects as well as the new background technologies that have been developed; (2) Lossless data compression results provide the background and direction of new data compression pursued under this grant; (3) Commercial technology transfer presents an itemization of the commercial technology transfer; and (4) Delivery of VLSI to the Government is a solution and progress report that shows how the Government and Government contractors are gaining access to the technology that has been developed by the MRC.

  5. [Autoantibodies, tolerance and autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Oppezzo, Pablo; Dighiero, Guillaume

    2003-07-01

    In 1900, the group from Metchnikoff suggested the concept of autoimmunization by demonstrating the presence of autoantibodies in normal conditions; which was opposed to the concept of horror autotoxicus raised by Ehrlich. Landsteiner's description of the transfusion compatibility rules and 50 year-later work from Burnett's and Medawar's groups lead to the clonal deletion theory as a general explanation of tolerance and autoimmunity. However, more recent work succeeded demonstrating that autoreactive B cells constitute a substantial part of the B-cell repertoire and that this autoreactive repertoire secretes the so-called natural autoantibodies (NAA) characterized by their broad reactivity mainly directed against very well conserved public epitopes. They fulfill the definition of an autoantibody since they are self-reactive, but they are not self-specific. As yet, NAA directed against determinants of polymorphism have not been reported. The presence of this repertoire in normal conditions challenges the clonal deletion theory as a unique explanation for self-tolerance. However, if we take into account that this autoreactive B-cell repertoire is not self-specific, this contradiction may not be a real one opposition. Indeed, the Lansteiner's rule that a subject belonging to group A will never produce anti-A antibodies and will always produce natural antibodies against the B-cell group, could never be challenged. Clonal deletion is probably accounting for this phenomenum. However, the serum of healthy adult individuals frequently exhibits low titers of anti-I antibodies, which is a precursor molecule of AB0 antigen system. The mechanism accounting for deletion of B cells directed against critical determinants like antigens A and B in the red blood cell system and allowing the production of autoantibodies against I remain elusive.

  6. Pathways to Tolerance: Student Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Dorothy, Ed.; Stanhope, Victoria, Ed.

    Ideas for schools to support tolerance and celebrate student diversity are presented in this volume of reprinted articles. Titles include: (1) "One of Us, One of Them: Lessons in Diversity for a School Psychologist" (M. M. Chittooran); (2) "The Tolerance-in-Action Campaign" (H. M. Knoff); (3) "Immigrant Parents and the…

  7. Tolerance Issue in Kazakh Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubakirova, Saltanat S.; Ismagambetova, Zukhra N.; Karabayeva, Aliya G.; Rysbekova, Shamshiya S.; Mirzabekova, Alma Sh.

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors reveal the basic cultural mechanisms that influence the formation of the tolerance strategy in Kazakh and Kazakhstan society, show its basic directions, as well as its importance for the modern Kazakhstan society and the formation of intercultural communication with foreign countries. Tolerance is a necessary element of…

  8. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE PAGES

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; ...

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore » and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  9. Reproductive toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil in the polychaetes Arenicola marina (L.) and Nereis virens (Sars).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Pook, Chris; Galloway, Tamara

    2008-10-20

    Accidental pollution incidents are common in the marine environment and are often caused by oil-related activities. Here the potential of such an incident to disrupt reproduction in two polychaete species is investigated, using an environmentally relevant preparation of weathered Forties crude oil, i.e. the water accommodated fraction (WAF). Oocytes were collected and exposed to three concentrations of WAF for 1h prior to the addition of sperm, so that fertilization took place under exposure conditions. Fertilization success was significantly reduced in both species by an exposure to WAF concentrations equivalent to 0.38 mgL(-1) PAHs, to just 26.8% in Arenicola marina compared to 76% in Nereis virens. The effects of WAF exposure on fertilization were greatly enhanced at lower sperm concentrations in N. virens, with a complete lack of fertilization reactions observed at sperm concentrations of 10(3)sperm per mL. We therefore suggest a mechanism of toxicity related to sperm swimming behaviour, resulting in reduced sperm:egg collision rates. WAF was found to reduce post-fertilization development rates and have teratogenic effects on early embryonic stages in both species, which exhibited abnormal cleavage patterns and high levels of fluctuating asymmetry. These results illustrate how the presence of crude oil in its soluble form in seawater at the time of a spawning event for either A. marina or N. virens could impact on fertilization success with implications for the fertilization ecology of these free spawning marine invertebrates.

  10. Use of InSAR-derived Ground Displacements to Characterize Coastal Instability: the Ciro' Marina case (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagli, N.; Catani, F.; Farina, P.; Ferretti, A.

    2006-12-01

    Here we present the results of a geological investigation carried out following a sudden ground settlement occurred along a 2 km long linear discontinuity on July 28th 2004 in the Ciro' Marina village (Southern Italy). The destructive movement which caused severe damage to the built-up area, was initially ascribed by the civil protection authorities to different possible phenomena, including land subsidence induced by fluid extraction (water and/or gas), a large landslide, partially submarine and an aseismic creep along a tectonic structure. An InSAR analysis aimed at identifying the spatial distribution of the movements connected to the 2004 event and their temporal evolution, i.e. the presence of precursory movements before the event and residual displacement after the failure, was carried out through the Permanent Scatterers technique. All the available SAR images acquired by ERS1/ERS2 and Radarsat satellites were processed. Such an analysis detected the presence since 1992 of slow movements (2-3 mm/y) located along a narrow sector of the village, between the 2004 discontinuity and the shoreline. Temporal series of displacements recorded a sudden acceleration of those movements between the two SAR acquisitions covering the event, reporting average displacements of 7- 10 mm in 24 days, not preceded by any precursory sign. Furthermore, after the failure PS measured residual displacements with velocity values higher than the pre-event ones. The availability of both ascending and descending SAR datasets allowed, through the combination of the two l.o.s. geometries, the retrieval of the vertical and horizontal components of the displacement vectors over the whole unstable area. Vertical movements were identified along the linear discontinuity, whilst moving towards the coastline vectors with a strong horizontal component were retrieved. Then, an inversion of the superficial displacement vectors obtained from the combination of ascending and descending PS was used to

  11. Tolerance and chimerism.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Hans-Jochem; Guenther, Wolfgang; Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Hoetzl, Florian; Simoes, Belinda; Falk, Christine; Schleuning, Michael; Ledderose, Georg

    2003-05-15

    Stem-cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical family members carries a high risk of rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) if donor and recipient differ by more than one HLA antigen. The authors have developed treatment protocols from studies in dog leukocyte antigen-haploidentical dogs that prevent rejection and modify GVHD to the extent that patients with aggressive hematologic neoplasia can be treated with success. Principal improvements have been achieved in the use of cyclophosphamide and total-body irradiation for conditioning and T-cell depletion for prevention of GVHD. More recently, the combination of marrow and CD6-depleted mobilized donor blood cells (MDBC) has been introduced for HLA-haploidentical transplantation on the basis that CD6-depleted MDBC contain immunoregulatory cells besides stem cells and natural killer cells. Clinical results are reported on 36 patients with high-risk hematologic neoplasia. The results encourage the use of HLA-haploidentical stem-cell transplantation at an earlier stage of the disease. This method could also be of use for tolerance induction in organ transplantation.

  12. Tolerances to thermal extremes in aerospace activities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-01-01

    Tolerance for all hot environments cannot be defined by a single criterion. At least three types of tolerance are discussed which might occur in aerospace activities. The tolerance categories have been designated (1) pain limited, (2) heat storage li...

  13. Immune Tolerance in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Goverman, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Multiple sclerosis is believed to be mediated by T cells specific for myelin antigens that circulate harmlessly in the periphery of healthy individuals until they are erroneously by an environmental stimulus. Upon activation, the T cells enter the central nervous system and orchestrate an immune response against myelin. To understand the initial steps in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, it is important to identify the mechanisms that maintain T-cell tolerance to myelin antigens and to understand how some myelin-specific T cells escape tolerance and what conditions lead to their activation. Central tolerance strongly shapes the peripheral repertoire of myelin-specific T cells, as most myelin-specific T cells are eliminated by clonal deletion in the thymus. Self-reactive T cells that escape central tolerance are generally capable only of low-avidity interactions with antigen-presenting cells. Despite the low avidity of these interactions, peripheral tolerance mechanisms are required to prevent spontaneous autoimmunity. Multiple peripheral tolerance mechanisms for myelin-specific T cells have been indentified, the most important of which appears to be regulatory T cells. While most studies have focused on CD4+ myelin-specific T cells, interesting differences in tolerance mechanisms and the conditions that abrogate these mechanisms have recently been described for CD8+ myelin-specific T cells. PMID:21488900

  14. 40 CFR 180.144 - Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.144 Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined...

  15. 40 CFR 180.144 - Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.144 Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined...

  16. Damage tolerance assessment handbook. Volume 2 : airframe damage tolerance evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-02-01

    The handbook is presented in two volumes. Volume I introduces the damage tolerance concept with an historical perspective followed by the fundamentals of fracture mechanics and fatigue crack propagation. Various fracture criteria and crack growth rul...

  17. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  18. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  19. Pavlovian conditioning and ethanol tolerance.

    PubMed

    Siegel, S

    1987-01-01

    Results of considerable amount of research indicate that Pavlovian conditional pharmacological responses, resulting from repeated pairings of ethanol-associated environmental cues with the systemic effects of ethanol, importantly contribute to ethanol tolerance.

  20. Behavioral Tolerance to Anticholinergic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-20

    Medicine , 47, 137-141. 7. Kurtz, P.J. (1977) Behavioral and biochemical effects of the carbamate insecticide, mobam. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior...tolerance to marihuana in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1, 73-76. 43 40. Olson, J. and Carder, B. (1974) Behavioral tolerance to... marihuana as a function of amount of prior training. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 2, 243-247. 41. Sidman, M. (1960) Tactics of Scientific

  1. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2006-10-17

    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  2. Women’s G Tolerance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    for the groups matched by age (70 pairs), weight sickness, uncomfortable feelings of distension in arms (26 pairs), and act~vity status (84 pairs...mass-spring-damper) s ,stem Straining G tolerance, being dpendent on skeletal having a resonant frequency above about I Hz. As muscular strength and...of the women’s G tolerance stud\\ scclic variations in muscular strength and endurance. was below 0.1 Hz (11), the production of any significant

  3. Methylarcula marina gen. nov., sp. nov. and Methylarcula terricola sp. nov.: novel aerobic, moderately halophilic, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria from coastal saline environments.

    PubMed

    Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Y A; Tourova, T P

    2000-09-01

    A new genus, Methylarcula, with two new species, Methylarcula marina and Methylarcula terricola, are proposed for strains h1T and h37T of moderately halophilic facultatively methylotrophic bacteria isolated from the coastal saline habitats. These methylobacteria are aerobic, Gram-negative, asporogenous, non-motile, colourless rods that multiply by binary fission. Their cellular fatty acids profiles consist primarily of straight-chain unsaturated (C18:1; 70-80%), saturated (C18:0; 14-16%) and cyclopropane (C19:0; 5-6%) acids. The major ubiquinone is Q-10. The dominant phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Both strains could use methylamine, some sugars and organic acids as carbon and energy sources. They grew well under optimal conditions (29-35 degrees C, pH 7.5-8.5, 0.5-1.0 M NaCl) and accumulated intracellularly poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and the compatible solute ectoine. The ectoine pool was found to increase upon increasing the external NaCl concentration and accounted for 18% of the dry cellular weight. Both strains oxidized methylamine by the N-methylglutamate (N-MG) pathway enzymes (gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase/lyase and N-MG synthetase/lyase) to formaldehyde and assimilated it via the icl- serine pathway. The DNA G+C content was 60-4 mol% for Methylarcula marina h1T and 57.1 mol% for Methylarcula terricola h37T. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains hl and h37 was 25-30%, although they had a low level of DNA relatedness (5-7%) with the type strains of the serine pathway methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylobacterium, Aminobacter, Methylorhabdus and Methylopila. A comparative 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed the two species of Methylarcula into a separate branch of the alpha-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria. The type strains of the new species are Methylarcula marina h1T (= VKM B-2159T) and Methylarcula terricola h37T (= VKM B-2160T).

  4. The data storage grid: the next generation of fault-tolerant storage for backup and disaster recovery of clinical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Nelson E.; Liu, Brent; Zhou, Zheng; Documet, Jorge; Huang, H. K.

    2005-04-01

    Grid Computing represents the latest and most exciting technology to evolve from the familiar realm of parallel, peer-to-peer and client-server models that can address the problem of fault-tolerant storage for backup and recovery of clinical images. We have researched and developed a novel Data Grid testbed involving several federated PAC systems based on grid architecture. By integrating a grid computing architecture to the DICOM environment, a failed PACS archive can recover its image data from others in the federation in a timely and seamless fashion. The design reflects the five-layer architecture of grid computing: Fabric, Resource, Connectivity, Collective, and Application Layers. The testbed Data Grid architecture representing three federated PAC systems, the Fault-Tolerant PACS archive server at the Image Processing and Informatics Laboratory, Marina del Rey, the clinical PACS at Saint John's Health Center, Santa Monica, and the clinical PACS at the Healthcare Consultation Center II, USC Health Science Campus, will be presented. The successful demonstration of the Data Grid in the testbed will provide an understanding of the Data Grid concept in clinical image data backup as well as establishment of benchmarks for performance from future grid technology improvements and serve as a road map for expanded research into large enterprise and federation level data grids to guarantee 99.999 % up time.

  5. Temporal pattern in biometrics and nutrient stoichiometry of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica and its adaptation to air exposure in a temperate marine lagoon (China): Implications for restoration and management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wang, Feng; Liu, Bingjian; Liu, Xujia; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    In coastal areas of China, the seagrass Zostera japonica has drastically decreased in the past decades. Swan Lake is an exception, where we found extensive areas of Z. japonica beds. The growth of Z. japonica in the lagoon exhibited strong seasonal variation. The maximum shoot density of 9880±2786 shoots m(-2) occurred in August. The maximum specific growth rate (SGR) of 4.99±1.99%⋅d(-1) was recorded in June 2012. SGR might be a good parameter for assessing the growth status of Z. japonica population. N and P contents in the rhizome were significantly lower than those in the leaf and leaf sheath. Lower C/P ratios suggested P enrichment of the seagrass. The occurrence of Z. japonica in Swan Lake was featured by adapting to the intertidal harsh environments. The transplantation method using sectioned rhizomes would be a potential way for restoration of degraded Z. japonica beds. The establishment of the Rongcheng Swan National Nature Reserve in China has contributed to the survival and expansion of Z. japonica in Swan Lake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test; Diabetic - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose ... the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  7. Application of Focused Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for the Quantification of Persistent Organic Pollutions in Liver Tissue of Giant Toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Espinosa-Reyes, G; Cilia-López, V G; González-Mille, D J; Rodríguez-Aguilar, M; Díaz de León-Martínez, L; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2017-02-01

    A simple and rapid focused ultrasound extraction method was developed for the determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in liver tissue obtained of giant toad (Rhinella marina) using a gas chromatography coupled to a mass detector with electron impact ionization. The performed method for POPs, was validated in fortified matrix, showing linearity from the LOQ up to 100 ng/mL; LODs and LOQs for each compound were between 1.7 and 4.8 and 3.5-7.5 ng/mL, respectively. Recovery rates were among 79%-116% for POPs determined. Finally, the method was applied in liver samples of giant toads found in a malarial area in Mexico. The sensitivity of the proposed method was good enough to ensure reliable determination of target analytes at concentration levels commonly found in this kind of samples.

  8. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    PubMed

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids are oxygenated at the n-7 carbon by the lipoxygenase domain of a fusion protein in the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Benlian; Boeglin, William E.; Brash, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOX) are found in most organisms that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids, usually existing as individual genes although occasionally encoded as a fusion protein with a catalase-related hemoprotein. Such a fusion protein occurs in the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina and herein we report the novel catalytic activity of its LOX domain. The full-length protein and the C-terminal LOX domain were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the catalytic activities characterized by UV, HPLC, GC-MS, and CD. All omega-3 polyunsaturates were oxygenated by the LOX domain at the n-7 position and with R stereospecificity: α-linolenic and the most abundant fatty acid in A. marina, stearidonic acid (C18.4ω3), are converted to the corresponding 12R-hydroperoxides, eicosapentaenoic acid to its 14R-hydroperoxide, and docosahexaenoic acid to its 16R-hydroperoxide. Omega-6 polyunsaturates were oxygenated at the n-10 position, forming 9R-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid and 11R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid from arachidonic acid. The metabolic transformation of stearidonic acid by the full-length fusion protein entails its 12R oxygenation with subsequent conversion by the catalase-related domain to a novel allene epoxide, a likely precursor of cyclopentenone fatty acids or other signaling molecules (Gao et al, J. Biol. Chem. 284:22087-98, 2009). Although omega-3 fatty acids and lipoxygenases are of widespread occurrence, this appears to be the first description of a LOX-catalyzed oxygenation that specifically utilizes the terminal pentadiene of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19786119

  10. Influence of Sedimentary and Seagrass Microbial Communities on Shallow-Water Benthic Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    grass, Thalassia testudinum) and in Monterey Bay (eel grass, Zostera marina). Assess how the microbial community affects the flux of photons to and...optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Zostera marina”. The manuscript will be submitted to the...crystals in Thalassia from LSI. We have pursued this serendipitous discovery, and at the Estuarine Research Federation meeting this fall, we will

  11. Tolerance - One Transplant for Life

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Tatsuo; Leventhal, Joseph; Madsen, Joren C.; Strober, Samuel; Turka, Laurence A.; Wood, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    A recent TTS workshop was convened to address the question: “What do we need to have in place to make tolerance induction protocols a “standard of care” for organ transplant recipients over the next decade?” In a productive two day meeting there was wide-ranging discussion on a broad series of topics resulting in five consensus recommendations: (1) Establish a registry of results for patients enrolled in tolerance trials; (2) Establish standardized protocols for sample collection and storage; (3) Establish standardized biomarkers and assays; (4) Include children aged 12 and older in protocols that have been validated in adults; (5) a task force to engage third party payers in discussions of how to fund tolerance trials. Future planned workshops will focus on progress in implementing these recommendations and identifying other steps that the community needs to take. PMID:24926829

  12. B cells in operational tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chesneau, M; Danger, R; Soulillou, J-P; Brouard, S

    2018-05-01

    Transplantation is currently the therapy of choice for endstage organ failure even though it requires long-term immunosuppresive therapy, with its numerous side effects, for acceptance of the transplanted organ. In rare cases however, patients develop operational tolerance, that is, graft survival without immunosuppression. Studies conducted on these patients reveal genetic, phenotypic, and functional signatures. They provide a better understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in operational tolerance and define biomarkers that could be used to adapt immunosuppressive treatment to the individual, safely reduce immunosuppression doses, and ideally and safely guide immunosuppression withdrawal. This review summarizes studies that suggest a role for B cells as biomarkers of operational tolerance and discusses the use of B cells as a predictive tool for immunologic risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Intelligent fault-tolerant controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chien Y.

    1987-01-01

    A system with fault tolerant controls is one that can detect, isolate, and estimate failures and perform necessary control reconfiguration based on this new information. Artificial intelligence (AI) is concerned with semantic processing, and it has evolved to include the topics of expert systems and machine learning. This research represents an attempt to apply AI to fault tolerant controls, hence, the name intelligent fault tolerant control (IFTC). A generic solution to the problem is sought, providing a system based on logic in addition to analytical tools, and offering machine learning capabilities. The advantages are that redundant system specific algorithms are no longer needed, that reasonableness is used to quickly choose the correct control strategy, and that the system can adapt to new situations by learning about its effects on system dynamics.

  14. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  15. Civic Tolerance among Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gordon; Shepherd, Gary

    2014-01-01

    As important as cognitive outcomes are in assessing the educational merits of honors programs, the authors ask whether honors programs affect the values and social attitudes of their students differently than other students: in particular, whether honors students are more or less tolerant than other students and, if so, in what ways and why. There…

  16. Stereotypes, Tolerance, and the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Christine J.

    This paper suggests that because higher education is instrumental in increasing awareness and sensitivity toward minority images and can influence levels of tolerance that students display and convey to public actors; therefore, many universities offer classes that challenge students to look beyond stereotypes and to appreciate the diversity of…

  17. Tolerance of snakes to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to increased gravitational force acting in the head-to-tail direction(+Gz) was studied in diverse species of snakes hypothesized to show adaptive variation of response. Tolerance to increased gravity was measured red as the maximum graded acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased and was shown to vary according to gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. Multiple regression analysis showed that gravitational habitat, but not body length, had a significant effect on Gz tolerance. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing G force and approached zero near +1 Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2 Gz. Tolerant (arboreal) species were able to withstand hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 Gz for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or loss of body movement and tongue flicking. Data suggest that the relatively tight skin characteristic of tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit and is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  18. Assessing Your Board's Risk Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, trustees of many endowed nonprofit institutions realized that their portfolio was riskier than they thought and their own ability to tolerate loss wasn't as strong as they imagined. What can board and investment committee members do to improve their ability to assess their--and their institution's--capacity for…

  19. Toleration, Multiculturalism and Mistaken Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Doubts have been expressed about the virtue of toleration, especially in view of what some have seen as its complicity with a morality of anything goes. More rigorous arguments have been provided by Peter Gardner and Harvey Siegel against the relativism evident in certain versions of multiculturalism and in the new religious studies. This article…

  20. Developing Political Tolerance. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.

    Political tolerance is the willingness to extend basic rights and civil liberties to persons and groups whose viewpoints differ from one's own. It is a central tenet of a liberal democracy. The individual rights and freedoms that U.S. citizens value encourage a wide array of ideas and beliefs, some of which may offend segments of the population.…

  1. Biocatalysts with enhanced inhibitor tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Shihui; Linger, Jeffrey; Franden, Mary Ann; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed herein are biocatalysts for the production of biofuels, including microorganisms that contain genetic modifications conferring tolerance to growth and fermentation inhibitors found in many cellulosic feedstocks. Methods of converting cellulose-containing materials to fuels and chemicals, as well as methods of fermenting sugars to fuels and chemicals, using these biocatalysts are also disclosed.

  2. Vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    If registered for use on vegetable soybean, pyroxasulfone would fill an important gap in weed management systems in the crop. In order to determine the potential crop injury risk of pyroxasulfone on vegetable soybean, the objective of this work was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasu...

  3. Stepping Back from Zero Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne-Dianis, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Schools' use of zero tolerance policies has been increasing since the 1980s as part of a societal movement to crack down on drug abuse and violence among youth. But far from making schools safer, this harsh, inflexible approach to discipline has been eroding the culture of schools and creating devastating consequences for children, writes…

  4. Statistical Tolerance and Clearance Analysis for Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Yi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Tolerance is inevitable because manufacturing exactly equal parts is known to be impossible. Furthermore, the specification of tolerances is an integral part of product design since tolerances directly affect the assemblability, functionality, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness of a product. In this paper, we present statistical tolerance and clearance analysis for the assembly. Our proposed work is expected to make the following contributions: (i) to help the designers to evaluate products for assemblability, (ii) to provide a new perspective to tolerance problems, and (iii) to provide a tolerance analysis tool which can be incorporated into a CAD or solid modeling system.

  5. Modelling reveals endogenous osmotic adaptation of storage tissue water potential as an important driver determining different stem diameter variation patterns in the mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa.

    PubMed

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Guyot, Adrien; Hubeau, Michiel; De Swaef, Tom; Lockington, David A; Steppe, Kathy

    2014-09-01

    Stem diameter variations are mainly determined by the radial water transport between xylem and storage tissues. This radial transport results from the water potential difference between these tissues, which is influenced by both hydraulic and carbon related processes. Measurements have shown that when subjected to the same environmental conditions, the co-occurring mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa unexpectedly show a totally different pattern in daily stem diameter variation. Using in situ measurements of stem diameter variation, stem water potential and sap flow, a mechanistic flow and storage model based on the cohesion-tension theory was applied to assess the differences in osmotic storage water potential between Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa. Both species, subjected to the same environmental conditions, showed a resembling daily pattern in simulated osmotic storage water potential. However, the osmotic storage water potential of R. stylosa started to decrease slightly after that of A. marina in the morning and increased again slightly later in the evening. This small shift in osmotic storage water potential likely underlaid the marked differences in daily stem diameter variation pattern between the two species. The results show that in addition to environmental dynamics, endogenous changes in the osmotic storage water potential must be taken into account in order to accurately predict stem diameter variations, and hence growth.

  6. Human-induced hydrological changes and sinkholes in the gypsum karst of Lesina Marina area (Foggia Province, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelibus, M. D.; Gutierrez, F.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    the piezometric level and the associated bidirectional changes of the groundwater flow in the vicinity of the canal play a relevant role in the internal erosion processes. The low cohesion of the sandy cover determines to a great extent the high speed at which suffosion processes and the generation-enlargement of sinkholes are taking place. Subsidence activity has affected the canal since its construction. To our knowledge, the first account of a sinkhole occurrence in the adjacent area corresponds to an official report dating back to 1990. The great majority of the sinkholes are located within the canal and on two relatively narrow bands situated on its flanks. The sinkholes tend to form clusters and alignments with a prevalent N145E orientation. The Lesina Marina residential area, whose construction in the western side of the canal started around 1980, is currently suffering from subsidence damage, including the occurrence of collapse sinkholes in streets, destruction of pathways and cracking of walls. Boreholes and geophysical surveys performed in the area reveal the presence of abundant cavities up to 9 m in height, cave fills and collapse breccias in the strongly karstified bedrock. Most of the depressions can be classified as cover suffosion and collapse sinkholes generated by the downward migration of the loose sandy cover through voids in the bedrock. The lack of basal support caused by piping may lead to the gradual settlement of the cover and/or its collapse through the development of failure planes. These sinkholes are typically less than 1 m across and 2-3 m deep at the initial stages. However, they typically grow very rapidly by mass wasting processes acting on their edges until they reach the repose angle of the detrital mantle. Consequently, clusters of small sinkholes tend to evolve into a smaller number of large depressions up to 20 m meters across resulting from the coalescence of several dolines. Some sinkholes are related to the breakdown of

  7. 77 FR 12731 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of thiamethoxam in or on multiple commodities which are identified and discussed later in this document. Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).

  8. Drought and submergence tolerance in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Hewei; Zhou, Yufan; Oksenberg, Nir

    The invention provides methods of genetically modified plants to increase tolerance to drought and/or submergence. The invention additionally provides plants having increased drought and/or submergence tolerance engineered using such methods.

  9. Urbanism, Migration, and Tolerance: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Urbanism's impact on the personality may be stronger than previously thought. Finds that urban residence has a strong positive effect on tolerance. Migration also promotes tolerance, regardless of the size of the destination community. (DM)

  10. Physiological determinants of human acute hypoxia tolerance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    AbstractIntroduction. We investigated possible physiological determinants of variability in hypoxia tolerance in subjects given a 5-minute normobaric exposure to 25,000 ft equivalent. Physiological tolerance to hypoxia was defined as the magnitude of...

  11. 77 FR 60311 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... dietary exposure of cattle. The milk tolerance is not affected, because aspirated grain fractions are not a significant diary cow feed item. V. Conclusion Therefore, tolerances are established for residues...

  12. 47 CFR 74.661 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pursuant to an application filed before March 17, 2005, for tolerance values exceeding those specified... 16, 2003, authorized via certification or verification before March 17, 2005, for tolerance values... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.661 Section 74.661...

  13. 76 FR 5704 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... subgroups. This regulation also deletes a time- limited tolerance on bean, succulent seed without pod (lima bean and cowpea), as the tolerance expired on December 31, 2007. Interregional Research Project Number... deletes the time-limited tolerance for bean, succulent seed without pod (lima bean and cowpea) at 0.1 ppm...

  14. Physical Fitness to Enhance Aircrew G Tolerance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    tolerance enhancement, G-induced loss of 06 10 consciousness, Physical conditioning, Physical fitness, Weight 0604 training, Weight lifting, Anaerobics ...such as weight lifting, directed toward increasing strength and anaerobic capacity will increase C-duration tolerance. This tolerance increase is...equipment to be used by aviators to increase (and maintain this increase) their strength and anaerobic capacity is described. Aerobics conditioning with

  15. 78 FR 60709 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... sunflower subgroup 20B at 1.0 ppm, and to amend the tolerance for herb and spice, group 19, except coriander, leaves at 4.5 ppm to spice subgroup 19B at 4.5 ppm. Upon approval of the proposed tolerances listed under... established tolerance for indirect or inadvertent residues in or on herb and spice, group 19, except coriander...

  16. Toleration and Recognition: What Should We Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Generally we think it good to tolerate and to accord recognition. Yet both are complex phenomena and our teaching must acknowledge and cope with that complexity. We tolerate only what we object to, so our message to students cannot be simply, "promote the good and prevent the bad". Much advocacy of toleration is not what it pretends to be. Nor is…

  17. Fault tolerant software modules for SIFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M.; Hecht, H.

    1982-01-01

    The implementation of software fault tolerance is investigated for critical modules of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) operating system to support the computational and reliability requirements of advanced fly by wire transport aircraft. Fault tolerant designs generated for the error reported and global executive are examined. A description of the alternate routines, implementation requirements, and software validation are included.

  18. 7 CFR 51.3744 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Tolerances § 51.3744 Tolerances. In order to... following tolerances, by count, are provided as specified: (a) U.S. No. 1. 10 percent for melons in any lot... not more than 1 percent for melons affected by decay. (b) U.S. Commercial. 20 percent for melons in...

  19. 7 CFR 51.3744 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Tolerances § 51.3744 Tolerances. In order to... following tolerances, by count, are provided as specified: (a) U.S. No. 1. 10 percent for melons in any lot... not more than 1 percent for melons affected by decay. (b) U.S. Commercial. 20 percent for melons in...

  20. Zero Tolerance: Advantages and Disadvantages. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    What are the positives and negatives of zero tolerance? What should be considered when examining a school's program? Although there are no definitive definitions of zero tolerance, two commonly used ones are as follows: "Zero tolerance means that a school will automatically and severely punish a student for a variety of infractions" (American Bar…

  1. 78 FR 18511 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Revised PHI and Tolerance for Pepper and Eggplant (Crop Subgroup 8-10B).'' B. Toxicological Points of... Pepper and Eggplant (Crop Subgroup 8-10B),'' available in the docket EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0860, at http://www... Tolerance for Tea; and Revised PHI and Tolerance for Pepper and Eggplant (Crop Subgroup 8-10B),'' available...

  2. Unique preservative tolerance in Tyromyces palustris

    Treesearch

    Frederick Green; Rachel A. Arango; Carol A. Clausen

    2005-01-01

    Fungal tolerance to wood preservatives has been critically important for many years. The tolerance of type cultures to common wood preservatives is, in fact, noted in the AWPA Standards [1]. Gloeophyllum trabeum Mad-617, for example, is particularly tolerant to phenolic and arsenic compounds. One important group of decay fungi that has been studied extensively are...

  3. Tolerance to insect defoliation: biocenotic aspects

    Treesearch

    Andrey A. Pleshanov; Victor I. Voronin; Elena S. Khlimankova; Valentina I. Epova

    1991-01-01

    Woody plant resistance to insect damage is of great importance in forest protection, and tree tolerance is an important element of this resistance. The compensating mechanisms responsible for tolerance are nonspecific as a rule and develop after damage has been caused by phytophagous animals or other unfavorable effects. Beyond that, plant tolerance depends on duration...

  4. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerances. 180.5 Section 180.5... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw...

  5. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerances. 180.5 Section 180.5... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw...

  6. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerances. 180.5 Section 180.5... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw...

  7. Statistical computation of tolerance limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Based on a new theory, two computer codes were developed specifically to calculate the exact statistical tolerance limits for normal distributions within unknown means and variances for the one-sided and two-sided cases for the tolerance factor, k. The quantity k is defined equivalently in terms of the noncentral t-distribution by the probability equation. Two of the four mathematical methods employ the theory developed for the numerical simulation. Several algorithms for numerically integrating and iteratively root-solving the working equations are written to augment the program simulation. The program codes generate some tables of k's associated with the varying values of the proportion and sample size for each given probability to show accuracy obtained for small sample sizes.

  8. Human tolerance to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Medical studies of astronauts and cosmonauts before, during, and after space missions have identified several effects of weightlessness and other factors that influence the ability of humans to tolerate space flight. Weightlessness effects include space motion sickness, cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in immune system function, loss of red blood cells, loss of bone mass, and muscle atrophy. Extravehicular activity (EVA) increases the likelihood that decompression sickness may occur. Radiation also gives reason for concern about health of crewmembers, and psychological factors are important on long-term flights. Countermeasures that have been used include sensory preadaptation, prebreathing and use of various air mixtures for EVA, loading with water and electrolytes, exercise, use of pharmacological agents and special diets, and psychological support. It appears that humans can tolerate and recover satisfactorily from at least one year of space flight, but a number of conditions must be further ameliorated before long-duration missions can be considered routine.

  9. A damage-tolerant glass.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, Marios D; Launey, Maximilien E; Garrett, Glenn; Schramm, Joseph P; Hofmann, Douglas C; Johnson, William L; Ritchie, Robert O

    2011-02-01

    Owing to a lack of microstructure, glassy materials are inherently strong but brittle, and often demonstrate extreme sensitivity to flaws. Accordingly, their macroscopic failure is often not initiated by plastic yielding, and almost always terminated by brittle fracture. Unlike conventional brittle glasses, metallic glasses are generally capable of limited plastic yielding by shear-band sliding in the presence of a flaw, and thus exhibit toughness-strength relationships that lie between those of brittle ceramics and marginally tough metals. Here, a bulk glassy palladium alloy is introduced, demonstrating an unusual capacity for shielding an opening crack accommodated by an extensive shear-band sliding process, which promotes a fracture toughness comparable to those of the toughest materials known. This result demonstrates that the combination of toughness and strength (that is, damage tolerance) accessible to amorphous materials extends beyond the benchmark ranges established by the toughest and strongest materials known, thereby pushing the envelope of damage tolerance accessible to a structural metal.

  10. Molecular biology of freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kenneth B; Storey, Janet M

    2013-07-01

    Winter survival for many kinds of animals involves freeze tolerance, the ability to endure the conversion of about 65% of total body water into extracellular ice and the consequences that freezing imposes including interruption of vital processes (e.g., heartbeat and breathing), cell shrinkage, elevated osmolality, anoxia/ischemia, and potential physical damage from ice. Freeze-tolerant animals include various terrestrially hibernating amphibians and reptiles, many species of insects, and numerous other invertebrates inhabiting both terrestrial and intertidal environments. Well-known strategies of freezing survival include accumulation of low molecular mass carbohydrate cryoprotectants (e.g., glycerol), use of ice nucleating agents/proteins for controlled triggering of ice growth and of antifreeze proteins that inhibit ice recrystallization, and good tolerance of anoxia and dehydration. The present article focuses on more recent advances in our knowledge of the genes and proteins that support freeze tolerance and the metabolic regulatory mechanisms involved. Important roles have been identified for aquaporins and transmembrane channels that move cryoprotectants, heat shock proteins and other chaperones, antioxidant defenses, and metabolic rate depression. Genome and proteome screening has revealed many new potential targets that respond to freezing, in particular implicating cytoskeleton remodeling as a necessary facet of low temperature and/or cell volume adaptation. Key regulatory mechanisms include reversible phosphorylation control of metabolic enzymes and microRNA control of gene transcript expression. These help to remodel metabolism to preserve core functions while suppressing energy expensive metabolic activities such as the cell cycle. All of these advances are providing a much more complete picture of life in the frozen state. © 2013 American Physiological Society.

  11. Modelling Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Jason Dean; Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is a three-year project to perform research on two accident tolerant concepts. The final outcome of the ATF HIP will be an in-depth report to the DOE Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) giving a recommendation on whether eithermore » of the two concepts should be included in their lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The two ATF concepts under investigation in the HIP are uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory), a comprehensive multiscale approach to modeling is being used that includes atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. Model development and fuel performance analysis are critical since a full suite of experimental studies will not be complete before AFC must prioritize concepts for focused development. In this paper, we present simulations of the two proposed accident tolerance fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ Dakota software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). We also outline the multiscale modelling approach being employed. Considerable additional work is required prior to preparing the recommendation report for the

  12. Fault Tolerance for VLSI Multicomputers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    that consists of hundreds or thousands of VLSI computation nodes interconnected by dedicated links. Some important applications of high-end computers...technology, and intended applications . A proposed fault tolerance scheme combines hardware that performs error detection and system-level protocols for...order to recover from the error and resume correct operation, a valid system state must be restored. A low-overhead, application -transparent error

  13. Tolerance assignment in optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngworth, Richard Neil

    2002-09-01

    Tolerance assignment is necessary in any engineering endeavor because fabricated systems---due to the stochastic nature of manufacturing and assembly processes---necessarily deviate from the nominal design. This thesis addresses the problem of optical tolerancing. The work can logically be split into three different components that all play an essential role. The first part addresses the modeling of manufacturing errors in contemporary fabrication and assembly methods. The second component is derived from the design aspect---the development of a cost-based tolerancing procedure. The third part addresses the modeling of image quality in an efficient manner that is conducive to the tolerance assignment process. The purpose of the first component, modeling manufacturing errors, is twofold---to determine the most critical tolerancing parameters and to understand better the effects of fabrication errors. Specifically, mid-spatial-frequency errors, typically introduced in sub-aperture grinding and polishing fabrication processes, are modeled. The implication is that improving process control and understanding better the effects of the errors makes the task of tolerance assignment more manageable. Conventional tolerancing methods do not directly incorporate cost. Consequently, tolerancing approaches tend to focus more on image quality. The goal of the second part of the thesis is to develop cost-based tolerancing procedures that facilitate optimum system fabrication by generating the loosest acceptable tolerances. This work has the potential to impact a wide range of optical designs. The third element, efficient modeling of image quality, is directly related to the cost-based optical tolerancing method. Cost-based tolerancing requires efficient and accurate modeling of the effects of errors on the performance of optical systems. Thus it is important to be able to compute the gradient and the Hessian, with respect to the parameters that need to be toleranced, of the figure

  14. Tolerability of prophylactic Lariam regimens.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, E; Schuster, B; Sanchez, J; Novakowski, W; Johnson, R; Redmond, D; Hanson, R; Dausel, L

    1993-09-01

    Three hundred and fifty-nine US Marines participated in a randomized double-blind clinical trial to assess tolerance of two prophylactic mefloquine regimens [250 mg salt weekly (n = 157) or 250 mg daily for 3 days followed by 250 mg weekly (n = 46)] compared with 300 mg weekly chloroquine (n = 156) over a 12-week period. The study participants were seen daily for four days, then weekly for 11 weeks. On each visit, the subject answered two computerized questionnaires (a review of body systems and an evaluation of mood states), participated in a physician interview, and was administered medications under supervision. A random sample of each group was assigned to either pharmacokinetic sampling or two wear a wrist watch size computerized sleep monitor (actigraph). The frequencies of intercurrent illness and other concomitant medications were tabulated. End study mefloquine plasma levels were obtained on all study participants. The results obtained showed no compromise in function due to dizziness or incoordination in the mefloquine groups. Overall, both weekly mefloquine and loading dose mefloquine were well tolerated. Sleep disturbance and increased dream activity were detected in the mefloquine groups. Depressive feelings were noted in two to three times more individuals in the mefloquine groups than in the chloroquine group early in the course of the study, and resolved in the majority of subjects as tolerance developed. Steady state mefloquine plasma levels were attained rapidly with the loading dose regimen in four days versus seven weeks with weekly mefloquine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Tolerance of Snakes to Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to +Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration was studied in six species of snakes hypothesized to show varied adaptive cardiovascular responses to gravity. Blood flow in the proximal carotid artery was measured in 15 snakes before, during and following stepwise increments of +0.25Gz force produced on a 2.4 m diameter centrifuge. During centrifugation each snake was confined to a straight position within an individually- fitted acrylic tube with the head facing the center of rotation. We measured the centrifugal force at the tail of the snake in order to quantify the maximum intensity of force gradient promoting antero-posterior pooling of blood. Tolerance to increased gravity was quantified as the acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased. This parameter varied according to the gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing gravity and approached zero near +1Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2Gz. Surprisingly, tolerant (arboreal) species withstood hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 G. for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or apparent loss of consciousness. Data suggest that relatively tight skin of the tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit which is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  16. Fault Tolerant Frequent Pattern Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Shohdy, Sameh; Vishnu, Abhinav; Agrawal, Gagan

    FP-Growth algorithm is a Frequent Pattern Mining (FPM) algorithm that has been extensively used to study correlations and patterns in large scale datasets. While several researchers have designed distributed memory FP-Growth algorithms, it is pivotal to consider fault tolerant FP-Growth, which can address the increasing fault rates in large scale systems. In this work, we propose a novel parallel, algorithm-level fault-tolerant FP-Growth algorithm. We leverage algorithmic properties and MPI advanced features to guarantee an O(1) space complexity, achieved by using the dataset memory space itself for checkpointing. We also propose a recovery algorithm that can use in-memory and disk-based checkpointing,more » though in many cases the recovery can be completed without any disk access, and incurring no memory overhead for checkpointing. We evaluate our FT algorithm on a large scale InfiniBand cluster with several large datasets using up to 2K cores. Our evaluation demonstrates excellent efficiency for checkpointing and recovery in comparison to the disk-based approach. We have also observed 20x average speed-up in comparison to Spark, establishing that a well designed algorithm can easily outperform a solution based on a general fault-tolerant programming model.« less

  17. Software Fault Tolerance: A Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2000-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce error-free software, software fault tolerance is and will continue to be an important consideration in software systems. The root cause of software design errors is the complexity of the systems. Compounding the problems in building correct software is the difficulty in assessing the correctness of software for highly complex systems. After a brief overview of the software development processes, we note how hard-to-detect design faults are likely to be introduced during development and how software faults tend to be state-dependent and activated by particular input sequences. Although component reliability is an important quality measure for system level analysis, software reliability is hard to characterize and the use of post-verification reliability estimates remains a controversial issue. For some applications software safety is more important than reliability, and fault tolerance techniques used in those applications are aimed at preventing catastrophes. Single version software fault tolerance techniques discussed include system structuring and closure, atomic actions, inline fault detection, exception handling, and others. Multiversion techniques are based on the assumption that software built differently should fail differently and thus, if one of the redundant versions fails, it is expected that at least one of the other versions will provide an acceptable output. Recovery blocks, N-version programming, and other multiversion techniques are reviewed.

  18. Radiation tolerance in water bears.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, D. D.; Sakashita, T.; Katagiri, C.; Watanabe, M.; Nakahara, Y.; Okuda, T.; Hamada, N.; Wada, S.; Funayama, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    Tardigrades water bears are tiny invertebrates forming a phylum and inhabit various environments on the earth Terrestrial tardigrades enter a form called as anhydrobiosis when the surrounding water disappears Anhyydrobiosis is defined as an ametabolic dry state and followed by recovering their activity when rehydrated Anhydrobiotic tardigrades show incredible tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions such as temperatures -273 r C to 151 r C vacuum high pressure 600 MPa and chemicals that include alcohols and methyl bromide In these views there have been some discussions about their potential for surviving outer space In the present study we demonstrated the survival limit not merely against gamma-rays but against heavy ions in the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum in order to evaluate the effects of radiations on them The animals were exposure to 500 to 7000 Gy of gamma-rays or 500 to 8000 Gy of heavy ions 4 He in their hydrated or anhydrobiotic state The results showed that both of hydrated and anhydrobiotic animals have high radio-tolerance median lethal dose LD50 48 h of gamma-rays or heavy ions in M tardigradum was more than 4000 Gy indicating that this species is categorized into the most radio-tolerant animals We suggest that tardigrades will be suitable model animals for extremophilic multicellular organisms and may provide a survival strategy in extraterrestrial environments

  19. 40 CFR 180.231 - Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.231 Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  20. 40 CFR 180.496 - Thiazopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.496 Thiazopyr; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  1. 40 CFR 180.602 - Spiroxamine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.602 Spiroxamine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  2. 40 CFR 180.407 - Thiodicarb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.407 Thiodicarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  3. 40 CFR 180.410 - Triadimefon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.410 Triadimefon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  4. 40 CFR 180.604 - Mepanipyrim; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...) Import tolerances. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of mepanipyrim, 4-methyl-N-phenyl...

  5. 40 CFR 180.231 - Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.231 Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  6. 40 CFR 180.596 - Fosthiazate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.596 Fosthiazate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  7. 40 CFR 180.496 - Thiazopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.496 Thiazopyr; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  8. 40 CFR 180.274 - Propanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.274 Propanil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  9. 40 CFR 180.604 - Mepanipyrim; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...) Import tolerances. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of mepanipyrim, 4-methyl-N-phenyl...

  10. Long-term effects of mechanical harvesting of lugworms Arenicola marina on the zoobenthic community of a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beukema, J. J.

    More than half of the annual catch of about 30 million lugworms Arenicola marina from the Dutch Wadden Sea originates from digging machines which make 40-cm deep guilles in a few restricted tidal-flat areas (Texel, Balgzand) in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea. Four successive years (1978-1982) of frequent disturbance by a lugworm dredge of one of the 15 sampling stations involved in a long-term study of the dynamics of the macrozoobenthos on Balgzand allowed a study of long-term effects of mechanical lugworm digging. Within an area of about 1 km 2, a near-doubling of the annual lugworm mortality rate resulted in a gradual and substantial decline of the local lugworm stock from more than twice the overall Balgzand mean at the start of the 4-year digging period to a value close to this mean at the end of the period (when the dredge moved to a richer area). Simultaneously, total zoobenthic biomass declined even more by the almost complete extinction of the population of larger gaper clams Mya arenaria that initially comprised half of the total biomass. Of the other, mostly short-lived, species only Heteromastus filiformis showed a clear reduction during the dredging period. Recovery of the biomass of the benthos took several years, particularly by the slow re-establishment of a Mya population with a normal size and age structure.

  11. Vitamin A values of wild-caught Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and marine toads (Rhinella marina) in whole body, liver, and serum.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fleming, Greg; Terrell, Scott; Smith, Dustin; Ridgley, Frank; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-12-01

    Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species. To develop a range of "normal" vitamin A concentrations for captive amphibians, baseline vitamin A concentrations must be established in wild amphibian species. In this study, two species, Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis; n = 59) and marine toads (Rhinella marina; n = 20) were collected from the wild as part of an invasive species control program at Zoo Miami, Miami, Florida. Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum (82.8 ppb), liver (248.3 IU/g), and whole body (5474.7 IU/kg) samples compared with marine toads (60.1 ppb; 105.3 IU/g; 940.7 IU/kg, respectively), but differences were not significant (P = 0.22). What can be considered "normal" values of vitamin A concentrations across different amphibian species requires further investigation. Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations.

  12. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  13. Tolerable soil erosion in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheijen, Frank; Jones, Bob; Rickson, Jane; Smith, Celina

    2010-05-01

    Soil loss by erosion has been identified as an important threat to soils in Europe* and is recognised as a contributing process to soil degradation and associated deterioration, or loss, of soil functioning. From a policy perspective, it is imperative to establish well-defined baseline values to evaluate soil erosion monitoring data against. For this purpose, accurate baseline values - i.e. tolerable soil loss - need to be differentiated at appropriate scales for monitoring and, ideally, should take soil functions and even changing environmental conditions into account. The concept of tolerable soil erosion has been interpreted in the scientific literature in two ways: i) maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of soil quantity, and ii) maintaining biomass production, at a location. The first interpretation ignores soil quality by focusing only on soil quantity. The second approach ignores many soil functions by focusing only on the biomass (particularly crop) production function of soil. Considering recognised soil functions, tolerable soil erosion may be defined as 'any mean annual cumulative (all erosion types combined) soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur'. Assumptions and problems of this definition will be discussed. Soil functions can generally be judged not to deteriorate as long as soil erosion does not exceed soil formation. At present, this assumption remains largely untested, but applying the precautionary principle appears to be a reasonable starting point. Considering soil formation rates by both weathering and dust deposition, it is estimated that for the majority of soil forming factors in most European situations, soil formation rates probably range from ca. 0.3 - 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1. Although the current agreement on these values seems relatively strong, how the variation within the range is spatially distributed across Europe and how this may be affected by climate, land use and land management

  14. The failure-tolerant leader.

    PubMed

    Farson, Richard; Keyes, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    "The fastest way to succeed," IBM's Thomas Watson, Sr., once said, "is to double your failure rate." In recent years, more and more executives have embraced Watson's point of view, coming to understand what innovators have always known: Failure is a prerequisite to invention. But while companies may grasp the value of making mistakes at the level of corporate practices, they have a harder time accepting the idea at the personal level. People are afraid to fail, and corporate culture reinforces that fear. In this article, psychologist and former Harvard Business School professor Richard Farson and coauthor Ralph Keyes discuss how companies can reduce the fear of miscues. What's crucial is the presence of failure-tolerant leaders--executives who, through their words and actions, help employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Such leaders don't just accept productive failure, they promote it. Drawing from their research in business, politics, sports, and science, the authors identify common practices among failure-tolerant leaders. These leaders break down the social and bureaucratic barriers that separate them from their followers. They engage at a personal level with the people they lead. They avoid giving either praise or criticism, preferring to take a nonjudgmental, analytical posture as they interact with staff. They openly admit their own mistakes rather than trying to cover them up or shifting the blame. And they try to root out the destructive competitiveness built into most organizations. Above all else, failure-tolerant leaders push people to see beyond traditional definitions of success and failure. They know that as long as a person views failure as the opposite of success, rather than its complement, he or she will never be able to take the risks necessary for innovation.

  15. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Transect Length (m) Dominant Plant Species Average Wave Reduction (% per m) Wayne (1976) 20 Spartina alterniflora 3.6 20 Thalassia testudinum 2.1...sp., Avicennia marina 0.74 Bradley and Houser (2009) 39 Thalassia testudinum 0.77 Lövstedt and Larson (2010) over first 5-14 m of vegetation...Laminaria hyperborea Fonseca and Cahalan (1992) harvested Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, Thalassia testudinum, Zostera marina Parametric

  16. Noise tolerant spatiotemporal chaos computing.

    PubMed

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Lindner, John F; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L

    2014-12-01

    We introduce and design a noise tolerant chaos computing system based on a coupled map lattice (CML) and the noise reduction capabilities inherent in coupled dynamical systems. The resulting spatiotemporal chaos computing system is more robust to noise than a single map chaos computing system. In this CML based approach to computing, under the coupled dynamics, the local noise from different nodes of the lattice diffuses across the lattice, and it attenuates each other's effects, resulting in a system with less noise content and a more robust chaos computing architecture.

  17. SUMC fault tolerant computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of the trade studies are presented. These trades cover: establishing the basic configuration, establishing the CPU/memory configuration, establishing an approach to crosstrapping interfaces, defining the requirements of the redundancy management unit (RMU), establishing a spare plane switching strategy for the fault-tolerant memory (FTM), and identifying the most cost effective way of extending the memory addressing capability beyond the 64 K-bytes (K=1024) of SUMC-II B. The results of the design are compiled in Contract End Item (CEI) Specification for the NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer II (NSSC-II), IBM 7934507. The implementation of the FTM and memory address expansion.

  18. Noise tolerant spatiotemporal chaos computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Ditto, William L.

    We introduce and design a noise tolerant chaos computing system based on a coupled map lattice (CML) and the noise reduction capabilities inherent in coupled dynamical systems. The resulting spatiotemporal chaos computing system is more robust to noise than a single map chaos computing system. In this CML based approach to computing, under the coupled dynamics, the local noise from different nodes of the lattice diffuses across the lattice, and it attenuates each other's effects, resulting in a system with less noise content and a more robust chaos computing architecture.

  19. The peer effect on pain tolerance.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Solveig; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Engø-Monsen, Kenth; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Stubhaug, Audun; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert

    2018-05-19

    Twin studies have found that approximately half of the variance in pain tolerance can be explained by genetic factors, while shared family environment has a negligible effect. Hence, a large proportion of the variance in pain tolerance is explained by the (non-shared) unique environment. The social environment beyond the family is a potential candidate for explaining some of the variance in pain tolerance. Numerous individual traits have previously shown to be associated with friendship ties. In this study, we investigate whether pain tolerance is associated with friendship ties. We study the friendship effect on pain tolerance by considering data from the Tromsø Study: Fit Futures I, which contains pain tolerance measurements and social network information for adolescents attending first year of upper secondary school in the Tromsø area in Northern Norway. Pain tolerance was measured with the cold-pressor test (primary outcome), contact heat and pressure algometry. We analyse the data by using statistical methods from social network analysis. Specifically, we compute pairwise correlations in pain tolerance among friends. We also fit network autocorrelation models to the data, where the pain tolerance of an individual is explained by (among other factors) the average pain tolerance of the individual's friends. We find a significant and positive relationship between the pain tolerance of an individual and the pain tolerance of their friends. The estimated effect is that for every 1 s increase in friends' average cold-pressor tolerance time, the expected cold-pressor pain tolerance of the individual increases by 0.21 s (p-value: 0.0049, sample size n=997). This estimated effect is controlled for sex. The friendship effect remains significant when controlling for potential confounders such as lifestyle factors and test sequence among the students. Further investigating the role of sex on this friendship effect, we only find a significant peer effect of male friends

  20. Athletes, astronauts and orthostatic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M H

    1986-01-01

    Specific alterations in autonomic functions induced by endurance training may lead to a reduced ability to withstand orthostatic stress. This possibility has caused some authorities to suggest that, because of potentially greater pooling of blood in the lower extremities during gravitational loading, endurance-trained athletes may make poor astronauts. Although results from spaceflight studies have provided little evidence to support this suggestion, data from water-immersion studies indicate that endurance-trained athletes do become more orthostatically intolerant following a few hours of simulated weightlessness. Unfortunately, other evidence supporting the hypothesis that endurance training reduces orthostatic tolerance has not received adequate publication in the open scientific literature. On the other hand, a number of studies which have been openly reported clearly refute this hypothesis. Nevertheless, the established physiological differences between endurance athletes and non-athletes are themselves sufficient to suggest that the hypothesis could be tenable. Consequently, it has to be concluded that the presently available information is both qualitatively and quantitatively inadequate to permit any definite statement regarding a possible relationship between aerobic power (VO2max) and orthostatic tolerance.

  1. Biomechanical Tolerance of Calcaneal Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Gennarelli, Thomas A.; Seipel, Robert; Marks, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Biomechanical studies have been conducted in the past to understand the mechanisms of injury to the foot-ankle complex. However, statistically based tolerance criteria for calcaneal complex injuries are lacking. Consequently, this research was designed to derive a probability distribution that represents human calcaneal tolerance under impact loading such as those encountered in vehicular collisions. Information for deriving the distribution was obtained by experiments on unembalmed human cadaver lower extremities. Briefly, the protocol included the following. The knee joint was disarticulated such that the entire lower extremity distal to the knee joint remained intact. The proximal tibia was fixed in polymethylmethacrylate. The specimens were aligned and impact loading was applied using mini-sled pendulum equipment. The pendulum impactor dynamically loaded the plantar aspect of the foot once. Following the test, specimens were palpated and radiographs in multiple planes were obtained. Injuries were classified into no fracture, and extra-and intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus. There were 14 cases of no injury and 12 cases of calcaneal fracture. The fracture forces (mean: 7802 N) were significantly different (p<0.01) from the forces in the no injury (mean: 4144 N) group. The probability of calcaneal fracture determined using logistic regression indicated that a force of 6.2 kN corresponds to 50 percent probability of calcaneal fracture. The derived probability distribution is useful in the design of dummies and vehicular surfaces.

  2. A Log-Scaling Fault Tolerant Agreement Algorithm for a Fault Tolerant MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Hursey, Joshua J; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Vallee, Geoffroy R

    The lack of fault tolerance is becoming a limiting factor for application scalability in HPC systems. The MPI does not provide standardized fault tolerance interfaces and semantics. The MPI Forum's Fault Tolerance Working Group is proposing a collective fault tolerant agreement algorithm for the next MPI standard. Such algorithms play a central role in many fault tolerant applications. This paper combines a log-scaling two-phase commit agreement algorithm with a reduction operation to provide the necessary functionality for the new collective without any additional messages. Error handling mechanisms are described that preserve the fault tolerance properties while maintaining overall scalability.

  3. Macrofauna on flood delta shoals in the Wadden Sea with an underground association between the lugworm Arenicola marina and the amphipod Urothoe poseidonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackschewitz, D.; Reise, K.

    1998-06-01

    Living conditions for macrofauna on flood delta shoals are determined by surf, strong currents and sediment mobility. Thus, a unique assemblage of invertebrate species colonize these far off-shore, low intertidal flats. We here describe the macrobenthic fauna of emerging shoals in the Wadden Sea between the islands of Römö and Sylt. Besides ubiquitous macroinvertebrates of the intertidal zone and species which attain their main distribution in the subtidal zone, the flood delta shoals are characterized by organisms adapted to live in these highly unstable sediments, like the polychaetes Spio martinensis, Streptosyllis websteri, Magelona mirabilis, Psammodrilus balanoglossoides, the pericarid crustaceans Cumopsis goodsiri, Tanaissus lilljeborgi, Bathyporeia sarsi and a few others. Average abundance (1440 m-2 of ind >1 mm) and biomass (12.9 g AFDW m-2) were low compared to other intertidal habitats in the Wadden Sea. Biomass was dominated by largesized individuals of the lugworm Arenicola marina. The U-shaped burrows of these polychaetes were inhabited by high numbers of Urothoe poseidonis. Maximum densities of these amphipods occurred in the deepest parts of the burrows. Sampling at approximately montly intervals revealed no apparent seasonality of U. poseidonis abundance. Together with small Capitella capitata, these amphipods constitute a deep-dwelling component of the macrofauna associated with lugworms, which is separated from all other macrofauna living at the sediment surface. As a response to rising sea level and increasing tidal ranges, we expect the unstable sandy shoals, inhabited by numerous Spio martinensis and Urothoe poseidonis, to expand within the Wadden Sea at the cost of stable sandy flats with abundant macrofauna.

  4. Population structure, density and food sources of Terebralia palustris (Potamididae: Gastropoda) in a low intertidal Avicennia marina mangrove stand (Inhaca Island, Mozambique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Bouillon, Steven; Mangion, Perrine; Macia, Adriano; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Population structure and distribution of Terebralia palustris were compared with the environmental parameters within microhabitats in a monospecific stand of Avicennia marina in southern Mozambique. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of T. palustris and potential food sources (leaves, pneumatophore epiphytes, and surface sediments) were examined to establish the feeding preferences of T. palustris. Stable isotope signatures of individuals of different size classes and from different microhabitats were compared with local food sources. Samples of surface sediments 2.5-10 m apart showed some variation (-21.2‰ to -23.0‰) in δ13C, probably due to different contributions from seagrasses, microalgae and mangrove leaves, while δ15N values varied between 8.7‰ and 15.8‰, indicating that there is a very high variability within a small-scale microcosm. Stable isotope signatures differed significantly between the T. palustris size classes and between individuals of the same size class, collected in different microhabitats. Results also suggested that smaller individuals feed on sediment, selecting mainly benthic microalgae, while larger individuals feed on sediment, epiphytes and mangrove leaves. Correlations were found between environmental parameters and gastropod population structure and distribution vs. the feeding preferences of individuals of different size classes and in different microhabitats. While organic content and the abundance of leaves were parameters that correlated best with the total density of gastropods (>85%), the abundance of pneumatophores and leaves, as well as grain size, correlated better with the gastropod size distribution (>65%). Young individuals (height < 3 cm) occur predominantly in microhabitats characterized by a low density of leaf litter and pneumatophores, reduced organic matter and larger grain size, these being characteristic of lower intertidal open areas that favour benthic microalgal growth. With increasing shell

  5. Evidence for an Ionic Intermediate in the Transformation of Fatty Acid Hydroperoxide by a Catalase-related Allene Oxide Synthase from the Cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Benlian; Boeglin, William E.; Zheng, Yuxiang; Schneider, Claus; Brash, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Allene oxides are reactive epoxides biosynthesized from fatty acid hydroperoxides by specialized cytochrome P450s or by catalase-related hemoproteins. Here we cloned, expressed, and characterized a gene encoding a lipoxygenase-catalase/peroxidase fusion protein from Acaryochloris marina. We identified novel allene oxide synthase (AOS) activity and a by-product that provides evidence of the reaction mechanism. The fatty acids 18.4ω3 and 18.3ω3 are oxygenated to the 12R-hydroperoxide by the lipoxygenase domain and converted to the corresponding 12R,13-epoxy allene oxide by the catalase-related domain. Linoleic acid is oxygenated to its 9R-hydroperoxide and then, surprisingly, converted ∼70% to an epoxyalcohol identified spectroscopically and by chemical synthesis as 9R,10S-epoxy-13S-hydroxyoctadeca-11E-enoic acid and only ∼30% to the 9R,10-epoxy allene oxide. Experiments using oxygen-18-labeled 9R-hydroperoxide substrate and enzyme incubations conducted in H218O indicated that ∼72% of the oxygen in the epoxyalcohol 13S-hydroxyl arises from water, a finding that points to an ionic intermediate (epoxy allylic carbocation) during catalysis. AOS and epoxyalcohol synthase activities are mechanistically related, with a reacting intermediate undergoing a net hydrogen abstraction or hydroxylation, respectively. The existence of epoxy allylic carbocations in fatty acid transformations is widely implicated although for AOS reactions, without direct experimental support. Our findings place together in strong association the reactions of allene oxide synthesis and an ionic reaction intermediate in the AOS-catalyzed transformation. PMID:19531485

  6. Urinary corticosterone responses to capture and toe-clipping in the cane toad (Rhinella marina) indicate that toe-clipping is a stressor for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Kindermann, Christina; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2011-11-01

    Toe-clipping, the removal of one or more toes, is a common method used to individually mark free-living animals. Whilst this method is widely used in studies of amphibians, the appropriateness of the method, and its potential detrimental effects have been the subject of debate. Here, we provide for the first time, evidence that toe-clipping is a stressor in a wild amphibian. We measured urinary corticosterone responses of male cane toads (Rhinella marina) to capture and handling only, and to toe-clipping under field conditions. Urinary testosterone concentrations and white blood cell proportions were also measured. Urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations increased 6h after capture and handling only and remained high for 24h; corticosterone returned to baseline levels after 48 h and remained low at 72 h post capture and handling. Corticosterone concentrations in toads subjected to toe-clipping increased at 6h to significantly higher concentrations than after capture and handling only, then decreased more slowly than after capture and handling, and were still elevated (approximately double basal level) 72 h after toe-clipping. Testosterone did not change significantly after capture and handling only, whereas after toe-clipping testosterone decreased at 6h and remained low at 72 h. There were weak short-term effects of toe-clipping compared with capture and handling only on white blood cell proportions. We have clearly shown that toe-clipping is a distinctly stronger stressor than capture and handling alone. This indicates that there is an ethical cost of toe-clipping, and this should be considered when planning studies of amphibians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The crystal structure of the C45S mutant of annelid Arenicola marina peroxiredoxin 6 supports its assignment to the mechanistically typical 2-Cys subfamily without any formation of toroid-shaped decamers

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Aude; Loumaye, Eléonore; Clippe, André; Rees, Jean-François; Knoops, Bernard; Declercq, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) define a superfamily of thiol-dependent peroxidases able to reduce hydrogen peroxide, alkyl hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite. Besides their cytoprotective antioxidant function, PRDXs have been implicated in redox signaling and chaperone activity, the latter depending on the formation of decameric high-molecular-weight structures. PRDXs have been mechanistically divided into three major subfamilies, namely typical 2-Cys, atypical 2-Cys, and 1-Cys PRDXs, based on the number and position of cysteines involved in the catalysis. We report the structure of the C45S mutant of annelid worm Arenicola marina PRDX6 in three different crystal forms determined at 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 Å resolution. Although A. marina PRDX6 was cloned during the search of annelid homologs of mammalian 1-Cys PRDX6s, the crystal structures support its assignment to the mechanistically typical 2-Cys PRDX subfamily. The protein is composed of two distinct domains: a C-terminal domain and an N-terminal domain exhibiting a thioredoxin fold. The subunits are associated in dimers compatible with the formation of intersubunit disulfide bonds between the peroxidatic and the resolving cysteine residues in the wild-type enzyme. The packing of two crystal forms is very similar, with pairs of dimers associated as tetramers. The toroid-shaped decamers formed by dimer association and observed in most typical 2-Cys PRDXs is not present. Thus, A. marina PRDX6 presents structural features of typical 2-Cys PRDXs without any formation of toroid-shaped decamers, suggesting that it should function more like a cytoprotective antioxidant enzyme or a modulator of peroxide-dependent cell signaling rather than a molecular chaperone. PMID:18359859

  8. Fault tolerant data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustin, W. M.; Smither, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    Described in detail are: (1) results obtained in modifying the onboard data management system software to a multiprocessor fault tolerant system; (2) a functional description of the prototype buffer I/O units; (3) description of modification to the ACADC and stimuli generating unit of the DTS; and (4) summaries and conclusions on techniques implemented in the rack and prototype buffers. Also documented is the work done in investigating techniques of high speed (5 Mbps) digital data transmission in the data bus environment. The application considered is a multiport data bus operating with the following constraints: no preferred stations; random bus access by all stations; all stations equally likely to source or sink data; no limit to the number of stations along the bus; no branching of the bus; and no restriction on station placement along the bus.

  9. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, D.K.; Miller, T.A.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schwartzkopf, L.A.; Sanders, S.C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  10. [HLA-G: fetomaternal tolerance].

    PubMed

    Carosella, E D

    2000-08-01

    HLA-G is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecule selectively expressed on cytotrophoblasts. We have demonstrated ex vivo (from voluntary pregnancy interruption samples) the protector role of the HLA-G molecule present on the surface of cytotrophoblast cells versus the lysis carried out by the decidual uterine NK cells. This occurs under semi-allogenic conditions (maternal uterine NK cells and their trophoblast counterparts), as well as in allogenic conditions (maternal uterine NK cells and trophoblast cells from different mothers), thus defining the absence of maternal rejection at the moment of the implantation of the fertilized egg during pregnancy. Moreover, the expression of HLA-G on the cytotrophoblasts permits migration in maternal circulation and infiltration of maternal tissue (particularly in the skin), thereby probably creating a general state of tolerance. In the context of heart transplantation, in preliminary studies, we show that the presence of HLA-G in cardiac biopsy tissue prelevated from grafted patients significantly reduces acute rejects and shows an absence of chronic rejects. In the tumour context, the expression of HLA-G protein at the surface of primitive melanoma and metastatic cells confers protection from NK and CTL lytic activity. This suggests that HLA-G expression may impede the elimination of malignant cells by anti-tumour immune effector cells, constituting a newly described mechanism by which tumour cells may evade immunosurveillance. From there on E.D. Carosella introduced the breakthrough concept of 'HLA a tolerance molecule' in the heart of histocompatibility antigens, which had been described up till then as antigenes of defence and rejection, and the dramatic role of HLA-G in immunotolerance.

  11. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  12. Fault tolerance issues in nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagocci, S. M.

    The astonishing success story of microelectronics cannot go on indefinitely. In fact, once devices reach the few-atom scale (nanoelectronics), transient quantum effects are expected to impair their behaviour. Fault tolerant techniques will then be required. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the problem of transient errors in nanoelectronic devices. Transient error rates for a selection of nanoelectronic gates, based upon quantum cellular automata and single electron devices, in which the electrostatic interaction between electrons is used to create Boolean circuits, are estimated. On the bases of such results, various fault tolerant solutions are proposed, for both logic and memory nanochips. As for logic chips, traditional techniques are found to be unsuitable. A new technique, in which the voting approach of triple modular redundancy (TMR) is extended by cascading TMR units composed of nanogate clusters, is proposed and generalised to other voting approaches. For memory chips, an error correcting code approach is found to be suitable. Various codes are considered and a lookup table approach is proposed for encoding and decoding. We are then able to give estimations for the redundancy level to be provided on nanochips, so as to make their mean time between failures acceptable. It is found that, for logic chips, space redundancies up to a few tens are required, if mean times between failures have to be of the order of a few years. Space redundancy can also be traded for time redundancy. As for memory chips, mean times between failures of the order of a few years are found to imply both space and time redundancies of the order of ten.

  13. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  14. Disentangling Human Tolerance and Resistance Against HIV

    PubMed Central

    Regoes, Roland R.; McLaren, Paul J.; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Calmy, Alexandra; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Hoffmann, Matthias; Rauch, Andri; Telenti, Amalio; Fellay, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In ecology, “disease tolerance” is defined as an evolutionary strategy of hosts against pathogens, characterized by reduced or absent pathogenesis despite high pathogen load. To our knowledge, tolerance has to date not been quantified and disentangled from host resistance to disease in any clinically relevant human infection. Using data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if there is variation in tolerance to HIV in humans and if this variation is associated with polymorphisms in the human genome. In particular, we tested for associations between tolerance and alleles of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes, the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the age at which individuals were infected, and their sex. We found that HLA-B alleles associated with better HIV control do not confer tolerance. The slower disease progression associated with these alleles can be fully attributed to the extent of viral load reduction in carriers. However, we observed that tolerance significantly varies across HLA-B genotypes with a relative standard deviation of 34%. Furthermore, we found that HLA-B homozygotes are less tolerant than heterozygotes. Lastly, tolerance was observed to decrease with age, resulting in a 1.7-fold difference in disease progression between 20 and 60-y-old individuals with the same viral load. Thus, disease tolerance is a feature of infection with HIV, and the identification of the mechanisms involved may pave the way to a better understanding of pathogenesis. PMID:25226169

  15. 75 FR 26662 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... due to systemic toxicity and not a result of frank neurotoxicity. No signs of neurotoxicity were... chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD), is available to enforce the tolerance expression for...) enforcement method is also available to enforce the tolerance expression for wine grapes, which includes...

  16. Teaching Tolerance: Notes from the Front Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Carol; Hawkins, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    The Southern Poverty Law Center's (Alabama) Teaching Tolerance Project provides free products and services to teachers and schools working to promote racial tolerance. Other programs combatting racism include the Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Facing History and Ourselves, the Sidewalk Theatre of New York, the Fratney School (Wisconsin), and…

  17. Drought tolerance of sugar maple ecotypes

    Treesearch

    Richard J. Hauer; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1995-01-01

    Sugar maple declines periodically occur in rural and urban areas. These declines usually follow periods of below-average precipitation leading to the speculation that moisture deficiency is a primary cause of the decline. Sugar maple ecotypes with greater tolerance to drought should have greater longevity and vitality as a result of this tolerance. Sugar maple and...

  18. Political Socialization, Tolerance, and Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Key concepts in political socialization, tolerance, groups, rights and responsibilities can be used to understand the way in which young people struggle with sexual identity issues. Educators may promote greater tolerance for homosexuality among heterosexuals by situating sexual identity issues within a broader discussion of democratic principles.…

  19. 78 FR 66649 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... regulation establishes tolerances for residues of spirotetramat in or on corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with... tolerance for residues of the insecticide spirotetramat in or on corn, sweet kernel plus cob with husks..., calculated as the stoichiometric equivalent of spirotetramat, in or on corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with...

  20. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.