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Sample records for zotino tall tower

  1. Long-term measurements (2010-2014) of carbonaceous aerosol and carbon monoxide at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Eugene F.; Mironova, Svetlana; Mironov, Gregory; Vlasenko, Sergey; Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Walter, David; Carbone, Samara; Artaxo, Paulo; Heimann, Martin; Lavric, Jost; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2017-12-01

    We present long-term (5-year) measurements of particulate matter with an upper diameter limit of ˜ 10 µm (PM10), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosol filter samples collected at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory in the middle-taiga subzone (Siberia). The data are complemented with carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. Air mass back trajectory analysis and satellite image analysis were used to characterise potential source regions and the transport pathway of haze plumes. Polluted and background periods were selected using a non-parametric statistical approach and analysed separately. In addition, near-pristine air masses were selected based on their EC concentrations being below the detection limit of our thermal-optical instrument. Over the entire sampling campaign, 75 and 48 % of air masses in winter and in summer, respectively, and 42 % in spring and fall are classified as polluted. The observed background concentrations of CO and EC showed a sine-like behaviour with a period of 365 ± 4 days, mostly due to different degrees of dilution and the removal of polluted air masses arriving at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) from remote sources. Our analysis of the near-pristine conditions shows that the longest periods with clean air masses were observed in summer, with a frequency of 17 %, while in wintertime only 1 % can be classified as a clean. Against a background of low concentrations of CO, EC, and OC in the near-pristine summertime, it was possible to identify pollution plumes that most likely came from crude-oil production sites located in the oil-rich regions of Western Siberia. Overall, our analysis indicates that most of the time the Siberian region is impacted by atmospheric pollution arising from biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions. A relatively clean atmosphere can be observed mainly in summer, when polluted species are removed by precipitation and the aerosol burden returns to

  2. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J.-D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; Weigand, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-03-01

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ∼34% in the accumulation vs. ∼47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5-99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ∼70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ∼35% RH for submicron particles vs. ∼50% RH for supermicron particles. This ∼15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5-99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ∼0.15 for

  3. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J.-D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; Weigand, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in central Siberia (61° N, 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical compositions of aerosol particles were analyzed by x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38 % of particulate matter (PM) in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water-soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8 % of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34 % in the accumulation mode vs. ~ 47 % in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5-99.4 % RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same relative humidity (RH), starting at ~ 70 %, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35 % RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50 % RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15 % RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5-99.4 % RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv,ws value related to the water-soluble (ws

  4. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    SciT

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water solublemore » fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κ v, was calculated. The κ v, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the

  5. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    DOE PAGES

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; ...

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water solublemore » fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κ v, was calculated. The κ v, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the

  6. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications

    SciT

    Dykes, Katherine L; Damiani, Rick R; Roberts, Joseph O

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hubmore » heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.« less

  7. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications: Preprint

    SciT

    Dykes, Katherine L; Damiani, Rick R; Roberts, Joseph O

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hubmore » heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.« less

  8. How many flux towers are enough? How tall is a tower tall enough? How elaborate a scaling is scaling enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Sühring, M.; Metzger, S.; Desai, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Most eddy covariance (EC) flux towers suffer from footprint bias. This footprint not only varies rapidly in time, but is smaller than the resolution of most earth system models, leading to a systemic scale mismatch in model-data comparison. Previous studies have suggested this problem can be mitigated (1) with multiple towers, (2) by building a taller tower with a large flux footprint, and (3) by applying advanced scaling methods. Here we ask: (1) How many flux towers are needed to sufficiently sample the flux mean and variation across an Earth system model domain? (2) How tall is tall enough for a single tower to represent the Earth system model domain? (3) Can we reduce the requirements derived from the first two questions with advanced scaling methods? We test these questions with output from large eddy simulations (LES) and application of the environmental response function (ERF) upscaling method. PALM LES (Maronga et al. 2015) was set up over a domain of 12 km x 16 km x 1.8 km at 7 m spatial resolution and produced 5 hours of output at a time step of 0.3 s. The surface Bowen ratio alternated between 0.2 and 1 among a series of 3 km wide stripe-like surface patches, with horizontal wind perpendicular to the surface heterogeneity. A total of 384 virtual towers were arranged on a regular grid across the LES domain, recording EC observations at 18 vertical levels. We use increasing height of a virtual flux tower and increasing numbers of virtual flux towers in the domain to compute energy fluxes. Initial results show a large (>25) number of towers is needed sufficiently sample the mean domain energy flux. When the ERF upscaling method was applied to the virtual towers in the LES environment, we were able to map fluxes over the domain to within 20% precision with a significantly smaller number of towers. This was achieved by relating sub-hourly turbulent fluxes to meteorological forcings and surface properties. These results demonstrate how advanced scaling

  9. Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges for Tall Wind Turbine and Tower Technologies

    SciT

    Lantz, Eric; Roberts, Owen; Dykes, Katherine

    This presentation summarizes recent analysis focused on characterizing the opportunity for Tall Wind technologies generally and for tall tower technologies specifically. It seeks to illuminate and explain the concept of Tall Wind, its impact on the wind industry to date, and the potential value of Tall Wind in the future. It also explores the conditions and locations under which the impacts of Tall Wind offer the most significant potential to increase wind technology performance. In addition, it seeks to examine the status of tall tower technology as a key sub-component of Tall Wind, focusing on the potential for continued innovationmore » in tubular steel wind turbine towers and the status and potential for a select set of alternative tall tower technologies.« less

  10. Analysis of Wind Characteristics at United States Tall Tower Measurement Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.

    2008-12-01

    A major initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure that 20% of the country's electricity is produced by wind energy by the year 2030. An understanding of the boundary layer characteristics, especially at elevated heights greater than 80 meters (m) above the surface is a key factor for wind turbine design, wind plant layout, and identifying potential markets for advanced wind technology. The wind resource group at the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory is analyzing wind data collected at tall (80+ m) towers across the United States. The towers established by both public and private initiative, measure wind characteristics at multiple levels above the surface, with the highest measurement levels generally between 80 and 110 m. A few locations have measurements above 200 m. Measurements of wind characteristics over a wide range of heights are useful to: (1) characterize the local and regional wind climate; (2) validate wind resource estimates derived from numerical models; and (3) directly assess and analyze specific wind resource characteristics such as wind speed shear over the turbine blade swept area. The majority of the available public tall tower measurement sites are located between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. The towers are not evenly distributed among the states. The states with the largest number of towers include Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas. These states have five or six towers collecting data. Other states with multiple tower locations include Texas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and Ohio. The primary consideration when analyzing the data from the tall towers is identifying tower flow effects that not only can produce slightly misleading average wind speeds, but also significantly misleading wind speed shear values. In addition, the periods-of-record of most tall tower data are only one to two years in length. The short data collection time frame does not significantly affect the diurnal wind speed pattern though it does

  11. Recent Results From the NOAA/ESRL GMD Tall Tower Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Tans, P. P.; Peters, W.; Hirsch, A.; Sweeney, C.; Petron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zhao, C.; Masarie, K.; Wofsy, S. C.; Matross, D. M.; Mahadevan, P.; Longo, M.; Gerbig, C.; Lin, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    We will present a summary of new results from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory`s Tall Tower greenhouse gas monitoring network. The tower network is operated by the Global Monitoring Division, which also maintains the global Cooperative Air Sampling network and a network of aircraft profiling sites over North America. Tall tower CO2 mixing ratio measurements are sensitive to upwind fluxes over scales of hundreds of kilometers, and the primary objective of the tower network is to obtain regionally representative carbon flux estimates for the North American continent. Mixing ratios of CO2 and CO are measured semi-continuously at the towers, and the KWKT-TV tower site near Moody, TX has recently also been equipped with sensors to measure radon and O3. Daily flask samples are collected at the KWKT tower and analyzed for CO2, CO, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, stable isotopes of CO2 and CH4, COS, and a variety of halocarbon and hydrocarbon species. Daily flask sampling will be implemented at all tower sites within the next few years. We have used the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model to investigate upwind influences on the tower observations. CO measurements provide an indicator of polluted air masses, and we will present a summary of the frequency and origin of pollution events observed at the towers. We will present an analysis of the primary factors contributing to observed CO2 variability along with average seasonal and diurnal cycles of CO2 at the tower sites. Tower measurements are being used to evaluate atmospheric transport models in the context of the Transcom Continuous experiment and are an important constraint for CO2 data assimilation systems that produce regional to global carbon flux estimates with up to weekly resolution.

  12. KCMP Minnesota Tall Tower Nitrous Oxide Inverse Modeling Dataset 2010-2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Griffis, Timothy J. [University of Minnesota; Baker, John; Millet, Dylan; Chen, Zichong; Wood, Jeff; Erickson, Matt; Lee, Xuhui

    2017-01-01

    This dataset contains nitrous oxide mixing ratios and supporting information measured at a tall tower (KCMP, 244 m) site near St. Paul, Minnesot, USA. The data include nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide mixing ratios measured at the 100 m level. Turbulence and wind data were measured using a sonic anemometer at the 185 m level. Also included in this dataset are estimates of the "background" nitrous oxide mixing ratios and monthly concentration source footprints derived from WRF-STILT modeling.

  13. Measurement of NOx fluxes from a tall tower in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Freya; Dunmore, Rachel; Lewis, Alastair; Vaughan, Adam; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Wild, Oliver; Zhang, Qiang; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Lee, James; Fu, Pingqing

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen Oxides (NOx, the sum of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) are significant anthropogenic pollutants emitted from most combustion processes. NOx is a precursor species to the formation of O3 and secondary aerosols and, in high concentrations, NO2 can have adverse effects on human health through action as a respiratory irritant. For these reasons, there has been increased focus on improving NOx emissions inventories, typically developed using 'bottom-up' estimates of emissions from their sources, which are used to predict current and future air quality and to guide abatement strategy. Recent studies have shown a discrepancy between NOx inventories and measured NOx emissions for UK cities, highlighting the limitations of bottom-up emissions inventories and the importance of accurate measurement data to improve the estimates. Similarly, inventories in China are associated with large uncertainties and are rapidly changing with time in response to economic development and new environmental regulation. Here, we present data collected as part of the Air Pollutants in Beijing (AIRPOLL-Beijing) campaign from an urban site located at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP, CAS) (39˚ 58'28"N, 116˚ 22'16"E) in central Beijing. NOx concentrations were measured using a state-of-the-art chemiluminescence instrument, sampling from an inlet at 100 metres on a meteorological tower. Measurements at 5 Hz coupled with wind vector data measured by a sonic anemometer located at the same height as the inlet allowed NOx emission fluxes to be calculated using the eddy covariance method. Measurements were made during the period 11/11/2016 - 10/12/2016 and compared to existing emission estimates from The Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) inventory. It is anticipated that this work will be used to evaluate the accuracy of emissions inventories for Beijing, to develop improved emissions estimates and thus provide

  14. Long-term measurements of aerosol and carbon monoxide at the ZOTTO tall tower to characterize polluted and pristine air in the Siberian taiga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, X.; Winderlich, J.; Mayer, J.-C.; Panov, A. V.; Heimann, M.; Birmili, W.; Heintzenberg, J.; Cheng, Y.; Andreae, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Siberia is one of few continental regions in the Northern Hemisphere where the atmosphere may sometimes approach pristine background conditions. We present the time series of aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements between September 2006 and December 2011 at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E). We investigate the seasonal, weekly and diurnal variations of aerosol properties (including absorption and scattering coefficients and derived parameters, such as equivalent black carbon (BCe), Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, and backscattering ratio) and the CO mixing ratios. Criteria were established to distinguish polluted from near-pristine air masses, providing quantitative characteristics for each type. Depending on the season, 23-36% of the sampling time at ZOTTO was found to be representative of a clean atmosphere. The summer pristine data indicate that primary biogenic and secondary organic aerosol formation are quite strong particle sources in the Siberian taiga. The summer seasons 2007-2008 were dominated by an Aitken mode around 80 nm size, whereas the summer 2009 with prevailing easterly winds produced particles in the accumulation mode around 200 nm size. We found these differences to be mainly related to air temperature, through its effect on the production rates of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) precursor gases. In winter, the particle size distribution peaked at 160 nm, and the footprint of clean background air was characteristic for aged particles from anthropogenic sources at great distances from ZOTTO and diluted biofuel burning emissions from domestic heating. The wintertime polluted air originates mainly from large cities south and southwest of the site; these particles have a dominant mode around 100 nm, and the ΔBCe / ΔCO ratio of 7-11 ng m-3 ppb-1 suggests dominant contributions from coal and biofuel burning for heating. During summer, anthropogenic emissions are the dominant

  15. Long-term measurements of aerosols and carbon monoxide at the ZOTTO tall tower to characterize polluted and pristine air in the Siberian Taiga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, X.; Winderlich, J.; Mayer, J.-C.; Panov, A. V.; Heimann, M.; Birmili, W.; Heintzenberg, J.; Cheng, Y.; Andreae, M. O.

    2013-07-01

    Siberia is one of few background regions in the Northern Hemisphere where the atmosphere may sometimes approach pristine conditions. We present the time series of aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements between September~2006 and December 2010 at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 90° E). We investigate the seasonal, weekly and diurnal variations of aerosol properties (including absorption and scattering coefficients and derived parameters, like equivalent black carbon (BCe), Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, and backscattering ratio) and the CO mixing ratios. Criteria were established to distinguish polluted and near-pristine air masses and characterize them separately. Depending on the season, 15-47% of the sampling time at ZOTTO was representative of a clean atmosphere. The summer pristine data indicates that primary biogenic and/or secondary organic aerosol formation are quite strong particle sources in the Siberian Taiga. The summer seasons 2007-2008 are dominated by an Aitken mode of 80 nm size, whereas the summer 2009 with prevailing easterly winds produced aerosols in the accumulation mode around 200 nm size. We found these differences mainly related to air temperature, in parallel with production rates of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC). In winter, the footprint and aerosol size distribution (with a peak at 160 nm) of the clean background air are characteristic for aged aerosols from anthropogenic sources at great distances from ZOTTO and diluted biofuel burning emissions from heating. The wintertime polluted air originates from the large cities to the south and southwest of the site; these aerosols have a dominant mode around 100 nm, and the Δ BCe/Δ CO ratio of 7-11 ng m-3 ppb-1 suggests dominant contributions from coal and biofuel burning for heating. During summer, anthropogenic emissions are the dominant contributor to the pollution aerosols at ZOTTO, while only 12% of the polluted

  16. Constraints on Nitrous Oxide emissions within the US Corn Belt using tall tower observations and an Eulerian Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Griffis, T. J.; Lee, X.; Fu, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Andrews, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions requires a sound understanding of N2O production processes and a robust estimate of N2O budgets. It is critical to understand how emissions vary spatially and temporally, and how they are likely to change given future climate and land management decisions. To address these challenges we have coupled two models including WRF-Chem version 3.8.1 and CLM-GBC-CROP version 4.5 to simulate retrospective and future N2O emissions for the US Corn Belt. Using 7 years (2010-2016) of N2O mixing ratio data from 6 tall tower sites within the US Midwest, we ran the coupled model at a spatial resolution of 0.125o× 0.125o and tested and optimized the simulation of N2O emissions at hourly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales. Our preliminary results indicate:1) The simulated tall tower mixing ratios for 6 tall towers were all significantly higher than the observations in the growing seasons, indicating a high bias of N2O emissions when using the default N2O production mechanisms in CLM. 2) Following the optimization of N2O production in CLM, the simulated tall tower mixing ratios were strongly correlated with the KCMP and WBI towers, and had moderate correlation with the BAO tower. Overall, the absolute biases in mixing ratios were relatively small. Our next step is to examine 7 years of simulations to assess the spatiotemporal variations of direct and indirect emissions within the US Corn Belt to help identify potential N2O hotspots and hot moments.

  17. Landscape-level terrestrial methane flux observed from a very tall tower

    Desai, Ankur R.; Xu, Ke; Tian, Hanqin; Weishampel, Peter; Thom, Jonthan; Baumann, Daniel D.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Cook, Bruce D.; King, Jennifer Y.; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Simulating the magnitude and variability of terrestrial methane sources and sinks poses a challenge to ecosystem models because the biophysical and biogeochemical processes that lead to methane emissions from terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are, by their nature, episodic and spatially disjunct. As a consequence, model predictions of regional methane emissions based on field campaigns from short eddy covariance towers or static chambers have large uncertainties, because measurements focused on a particular known source of methane emission will be biased compared to regional estimates with regards to magnitude, spatial scale, or frequency of these emissions. Given the relatively large importance of predicting future terrestrial methane fluxes for constraining future atmospheric methane growth rates, a clear need exists to reduce spatiotemporal uncertainties. In 2010, an Ameriflux tower (US-PFa) near Park Falls, WI, USA, was instrumented with closed-path methane flux measurements at 122 m above ground in a mixed wetland–upland landscape representative of the Great Lakes region. Two years of flux observations revealed an average annual methane (CH4) efflux of 785 ± 75 mg CCH4 m−2 yr−1, compared to a mean CO2 sink of −80 g CCO2 m−2 yr−1, a ratio of 1% in magnitude on a mole basis. Interannual variability in methane flux was 30% of the mean flux and driven by suppression of methane emissions during dry conditions in late summer 2012. Though relatively small, the magnitude of the methane source from the very tall tower measurements was mostly within the range previously measured using static chambers at nearby wetlands, but larger than a simple scaling of those fluxes to the tower footprint. Seasonal patterns in methane fluxes were similar to those simulated in the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), but magnitude depends on model parameterization and input data, especially regarding wetland extent. The model was unable to simulate short

  18. Greenhouse gas measurements from a UK network of tall towers: technical description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Kieran M.; Grant, Aoife; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Manning, Alistair J.; Stavert, Ann R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Salameh, Peter K.; Harth, Christina M.; Simmonds, Peter G.; Sturges, William T.; Oram, David E.; Derwent, Richard G.

    2018-03-01

    A network of three tall tower measurement stations was set up in 2012 across the United Kingdom to expand measurements made at the long-term background northern hemispheric site, Mace Head, Ireland. Reliable and precise in situ greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis systems were developed and deployed at three sites in the UK with automated instrumentation measuring a suite of GHGs. The UK Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change (UK DECC) network uses tall (165-230 m) open-lattice telecommunications towers, which provide a convenient platform for boundary layer trace gas sampling. In this paper we describe the automated measurement system and first results from the UK DECC network for CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO and H2. CO2 and CH4 are measured at all of the UK DECC sites by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) with multiple inlet heights at two of the three tall tower sites to assess for boundary layer stratification. The short-term precisions (1σ on 1 min means) of CRDS measurements at background mole fractions for January 2012 to September 2015 is < 0.05 µmol mol-1 for CO2 and < 0.3 nmol mol-1 for CH4. Repeatability of standard injections (1σ) is < 0.03 µmol mol-1 for CO2 and < 0.3 nmol mol-1 for CH4 for the same time period. N2O and SF6 are measured at three of the sites, and CO and H2 measurements are made at two of the sites, from a single inlet height using gas chromatography (GC) with an electron capture detector (ECD), flame ionisation detector (FID) or reduction gas analyser (RGA). Repeatability of individual injections (1σ) on GC and RGA instruments between January 2012 and September 2015 for CH4, N2O, SF6, CO and H2 measurements were < 2.8 nmol mol-1, < 0.4 nmol mol-1, < 0.07 pmol mol-1, < 2 nmol mol-1 and < 3 nmol mol-1, respectively. Instrumentation in the network is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of instrumental parameters such as flow, pressures, and sampling temperatures. Automated alerts are generated and emailed to site

  19. Investigation of a long time series of CO2 from a tall tower using WRF-SPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew; Moncrieff, John B.

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric observations from tall towers are an important source of information about CO2 exchange at the regional scale. Here, we have used a forward running model, WRF-SPA, to generate a time series of CO2 at a tall tower for comparison with observations from Scotland over multiple years (2006-2008). We use this comparison to infer strength and distribution of sources and sinks of carbon and ecosystem process information at the seasonal scale. The specific aim of this research is to combine a high resolution (6 km) forward running meteorological model (WRF) with a modified version of a mechanistic ecosystem model (SPA). SPA provides surface fluxes calculated from coupled energy, hydrological and carbon cycles. This closely coupled representation of the biosphere provides realistic surface exchanges to drive mixing within the planetary boundary layer. The combined model is used to investigate the sources and sinks of CO2 and to explore which land surfaces contribute to a time series of hourly observations of atmospheric CO2 at a tall tower, Angus, Scotland. In addition to comparing the modelled CO2 time series to observations, modelled ecosystem specific (i.e. forest, cropland, grassland) CO2 tracers (e.g., assimilation and respiration) have been compared to the modelled land surface assimilation to investigate how representative tall tower observations are of land surface processes. WRF-SPA modelled CO2 time series compares well to observations (R2 = 0.67, rmse = 3.4 ppm, bias = 0.58 ppm). Through comparison of model-observation residuals, we have found evidence that non-cropped components of agricultural land (e.g., hedgerows and forest patches) likely contribute a significant and observable impact on regional carbon balance.

  20. Removing traffic emissions from CO2 time series measured at a tall tower using mobile measurements and transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Andres; Rella, Chris W.; Göckede, Mathias; Hanson, Chad; Yang, Zhenlin; Law, Beverly E.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with high precision and accuracy have become increasingly important for climate change research, in particular to inform terrestrial biosphere models. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning have long been recognized to contribute a significant portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here, we present an approach to remove the traffic related carbon dioxide emissions from mole fractions measured at a tall tower by using the corresponding carbon monoxide measurements in combination with footprint analyses and transport modeling. This technique improves the suitability of the CO2 data to be used in inverse modeling approaches of atmosphere-biosphere exchange that do not account for non-biotic portions of CO2. In our study region in Oregon, road traffic emissions are the biggest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. A three-day mobile campaign covering 1700 km of roads in northwestern Oregon was performed during summer of 2012 using a laser-based Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer. The mobile measurements incorporated different roads including main highways, urban streets, and back-roads, largely within the typical footprint of a tall CO/CO2 observation tower in Oregon's Willamette Valley. For the first time, traffic related CO:CO2 emission ratios were measured directly at the sources during an on-road campaign under a variety of different driving conditions. An average emission ratio of 7.43 (±1.80) ppb CO per ppm CO2 was obtained for the study region and applied to separate the traffic related portion of CO2 from the mole fraction time series. The road traffic related portion of the CO2 mole fractions measured at the tower site reached maximum values ranging from 9.8 to 12 ppm, depending on the height above the surface, during summer 2012.

  1. Tall tower landscape scale N2O flux measurements in a Danish agricultural and urban, coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Lequy, Émeline; Loubet, Benjamin; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2015-04-01

    Both technical and natural processes emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. The abundant use of nitrogen (N) as fertiliser increases the concentration of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and in the biosphere, i.e. in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Surplus Nr is distributed across linkages to other spheres until most of it is emitted to the atmosphere as NO, N2O or N2. A complete estimate of the effects from human activities on N2O emissions must therefore include all emissions, the direct emissions and the indirect emissions that happen in interlinked spheres. For this it is necessary to assess the fluxes at least at the landscape scale. The episodic nature and the large spatial variability make it difficult to estimate the direct and indirect emissions in a landscape. Modelling requires not only to include the highly variable microbial processes in the ecosystems that produce N2O but as well the accurate simulation of lateral Nr fluxes and their effects on N2O fluxes in places remote from the primary Nr sources. In this context tall tower N2O flux measurements are particularly useful as they integrate over larger areas and can be run, continuously without disturbing the fluxes. On the other hand these measurements can be difficult to interpret due to difficulties to measure the small concentration fluctuations in the atmosphere at small flux rates and to accurately attribute the measured flux at the tower to the area that generates the flux, i.e. the source area. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has established eddy covariance N2O flux measurements on a 125 m tall tower at its Risø Campus as part of the EU research infrastructure project the 'Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System' (InGOS). The eddy covariance system consisted of a N2O/CO quantum cascade laser, Los Gatos, Mountain View, CA, USA and a 3D sonic anemometer (USA-1), Metek, Elmshorn, Germany. The Risø peninsula lies at the

  2. How tall can gelatin towers be? An introduction to elasticity and buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taberlet, Nicolas; Ferrand, Jérémy; Camus, Élise; Lachaud, Léa; Plihon, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    The stability of elastic towers is studied through simple hands-on experiments. Using gelatin-based stackable bricks, one can investigate the maximum height a simple structure can reach before collapsing. We show through experiments and by using the classical linear elastic theory that the main limitation to the height of such towers is the buckling of the elastic structures under their own weight. Moreover, the design and architecture of the towers can be optimized to greatly improve their resistance to self-buckling. To this aim, the maximum height of hollow and tapered towers is investigated. The experimental and theoretical developments presented in this paper can help students grasp the fundamental concepts in elasticity and mechanical stability.

  3. The New Leadership Construct: What Happens When a Flat Organization Builds a Tall Tower?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisel, Steven I.; Fearon, David S.

    1999-01-01

    A tower-building exercise originally intended to illustrate how to direct subordinates was redesigned to reflect contemporary organizational structures. It helps participants examine the issue of who really leads in nonhierarchical, self-managed teams. (JOW)

  4. Quantifying the local influence at a tall tower site in nocturnal conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng; ...

    2015-10-17

    The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO 2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO 2 monitoring network) was estimated in this paper with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released onmore » two contrasting nights—slightly stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO 2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. Finally, the contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.« less

  5. Quantifying the local influence at a tall tower site in nocturnal conditions

    SciT

    Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng

    The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO 2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO 2 monitoring network) was estimated with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released on two contrasting nights—slightlymore » stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO 2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. The contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.« less

  6. Quantifying the local influence at a tall tower site in nocturnal conditions

    SciT

    Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng

    The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO 2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO 2 monitoring network) was estimated in this paper with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released onmore » two contrasting nights—slightly stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO 2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. Finally, the contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.« less

  7. First results of tall tower based nitrous oxide flux monitoring over an agricultural region in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haszpra, László; Hidy, Dóra; Taligás, Tímea; Barcza, Zoltán

    2018-03-01

    Nitrous oxide is one of the atmospheric greenhouse gases whose amount is significantly influenced by human activity. Its major anthropogenic sources are the agricultural soils but the emission is known only with large uncertainty yet. The paper presents a tall tower based measuring system installed in Hungary, which is designed for the long-term monitoring of nitrous oxide emission of a regionally typical composition of agricultural fields by means of eddy covariance technique. Due to the careful calibration of the gas analyzer applied the measuring system is also suitable for the recording of the atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide on the globally compatible scale (WMO X2006A). The paper reports the results of the first two years of the monitoring program, which is the first of its kind in Central Europe. For the period of July 2015-June 2017 the concentration measurements indicate an increasing trend of 0.91 nmol mol-1 year-1 with an average concentration of 330.64 nmol mol-1. During the two years of the project, the monitoring system recorded a total of 441 ± 195 mg N2O-N m-2 nitrous oxide emission with late spring/early summer maximum. The measurements also revealed the episodic nature of the emission typically triggered by major precipitation events.

  8. Measurement of NOx and CO Fluxes from a Tall Tower in Beijing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, F. A.; Drysdale, W. S.; Hamilton, J.; Lee, J. D.; Vaughan, A. R.; Wild, O.; Mullinger, N.; Nemitz, E.; Metzger, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    China's air quality problems are well publicised; in 2010, 1.2 million premature deaths were attributed to outdoor air pollution in China. One of the major air quality issues is high concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). China is the largest NOx emitter, contributing an estimated 18 % to global NOx emissions. Beijing itself is reported to have NO2 concentrations 42 % higher than the annual national standard. Given the high levels of pollution, increased focus has been placed on improving emissions estimates which are typically developed using a `bottom-up' approach where emissions are predicted from their sources. Emission inventories in China have large uncertainties and are rapidly changing with time in response to economic development, environmental regulation and new technologies. In fact, China is the largest contributor to the uncertainty in the source and the magnitude of air pollutants in air quality models. Recent studies have shown a discrepancy between NOx inventories and measured NOx emissions for UK cities, highlighting the limitations of bottom-up emissions inventories and the importance of accurate measurement data to improve the estimates. 5 Hz measurements of NOx and CO concentration were made as part of the Air Pollutants in Beijing (AIRPOLL-Beijing) project during two field campaigns in Nov-Dec 2016 and May-June 2017. Sampling took place from an inlet co-located with a sonic anemometer at 102 m on a meteorological tower in central Beijing. Analysis of the covariance between vertical wind speed and concentration enabled the calculation of emission flux, with an estimated footprint of between 2 - 5 km from the tower (which typically included some major ring roads and expressways). Fluxes were quantified using the continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) method, which enabled one minute resolved fluxes to be calculated. These data were compared to existing emissions estimates from the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). It is

  9. Influence of advection on measurements of the net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 from a very tall tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C.; Davis, K. J.; Bakwin, P. S.; Berger, B. W.; Marr, L. C.

    2000-04-01

    In most studies of the net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 (NEE) using tower-based eddy covariance (EC) systems it has been assumed that advection is negligible. In this study we use a scalar conservation budget method to estimate the contribution of advection to NEE measurements from a very tall tower in northern Wisconsin. We examine data for June-August 1997. Measured NEE0, calculated as the sum of the EC flux plus the rate of change of storage below the EC measurement level, is expected to be constant with measurement height, and we take the differences between levels as a measure of advection. We find that the average difference in total advection ΔFCadtot between 30 and 122 m is as large as 6 μmol m-2s-1 during the morning transition from stable to convective conditions and the average difference ΔFCadtot between 122 and 396 m is as large as 4 μmol m-2s-1 during daytime. For the month of July, advection between 30 and 122 m is 27% of the diurnally integrated NEE0 at 122 m, and advection between 122 and 396 m accounts for 5% of the NEE0 observed at 396 m. The observed differences of advection often have significant correlation with the vertical integral of wind speed within the same layer. This indicates that the horizontal advection contribution to NEE could be significant. Direct observations of the vertical gradient in CO2 show that ΔFCadtot cannot be explained by vertical advection alone. It is hypothesized that differing flux footprints and pooling of CO2 in the heterogeneous landscape causes the advection contribution. The magnitudes of the total advection component FCadtot of NEE at the 30 m level are roughly estimated by a linear extrapolation. A peak in FCadtot at 30 m of ˜ 3 μmol m-2 s-1 during the morning transition is predicted for all three months. The July integrated FCadtot is estimated to be 10% of the diurnally integrated NEE0 at 30 m.

  10. Strong regional atmospheric 14C signature of respired CO 2 observed from a tall tower over the midwestern United States

    SciT

    LaFranchi, B. W.; McFarlane, K. J.; Miller, J. B.

    Radiocarbon in CO 2 ( 14CO 2) measurements can aid in discriminating between fast (<1 year) and slower (>5–10 years) cycling of C between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere due to the 14C disequilibrium between atmospheric and terrestrial C. However, 14CO 2 in the atmosphere is typically much more strongly impacted by fossil fuel emissions of CO 2, and, thus, observations often provide little additional constraints on respiratory flux estimates at regional scales. Here we describe a data set of 14CO 2 observations from a tall tower in northern Wisconsin (USA) where fossil fuel influence is far enough removedmore » that during the summer months, the biospheric component of the 14CO 2 budget dominates. We find that the terrestrial biosphere is responsible for a significant contribution to 14CO 2 that is 2–3 times higher than predicted by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach terrestrial ecosystem model for observations made in 2010. This likely includes a substantial contribution from the North American boreal ecoregion, but transported biospheric emissions from outside the model domain cannot be ruled out. The 14CO 2 enhancement also appears somewhat decreased in observations made over subsequent years, suggesting that 2010 may be anomalous. Furthermore, with these caveats acknowledged, we discuss the implications of the observation/model comparison in terms of possible systematic biases in the model versus short-term anomalies in the observations. Going forward, this isotopic signal could be exploited as an important indicator to better constrain both the long-term carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and the short-term impact of disturbance-based loss of carbon to the atmosphere.« less

  11. Strong regional atmospheric 14C signature of respired CO 2 observed from a tall tower over the midwestern United States

    DOE PAGES

    LaFranchi, B. W.; McFarlane, K. J.; Miller, J. B.; ...

    2016-08-31

    Radiocarbon in CO 2 ( 14CO 2) measurements can aid in discriminating between fast (<1 year) and slower (>5–10 years) cycling of C between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere due to the 14C disequilibrium between atmospheric and terrestrial C. However, 14CO 2 in the atmosphere is typically much more strongly impacted by fossil fuel emissions of CO 2, and, thus, observations often provide little additional constraints on respiratory flux estimates at regional scales. Here we describe a data set of 14CO 2 observations from a tall tower in northern Wisconsin (USA) where fossil fuel influence is far enough removedmore » that during the summer months, the biospheric component of the 14CO 2 budget dominates. We find that the terrestrial biosphere is responsible for a significant contribution to 14CO 2 that is 2–3 times higher than predicted by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach terrestrial ecosystem model for observations made in 2010. This likely includes a substantial contribution from the North American boreal ecoregion, but transported biospheric emissions from outside the model domain cannot be ruled out. The 14CO 2 enhancement also appears somewhat decreased in observations made over subsequent years, suggesting that 2010 may be anomalous. Furthermore, with these caveats acknowledged, we discuss the implications of the observation/model comparison in terms of possible systematic biases in the model versus short-term anomalies in the observations. Going forward, this isotopic signal could be exploited as an important indicator to better constrain both the long-term carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and the short-term impact of disturbance-based loss of carbon to the atmosphere.« less

  12. Strong regional atmospheric 14C signature of respired CO2 observed from a tall tower over the midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFranchi, B. W.; McFarlane, K. J.; Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S. J.; Phillips, C. L.; Andrews, A. E.; Tans, P. P.; Chen, H.; Liu, Z.; Turnbull, J. C.; Xu, X.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2016-08-01

    Radiocarbon in CO2 (14CO2) measurements can aid in discriminating between fast (<1 year) and slower (>5-10 years) cycling of C between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere due to the 14C disequilibrium between atmospheric and terrestrial C. However, 14CO2 in the atmosphere is typically much more strongly impacted by fossil fuel emissions of CO2, and, thus, observations often provide little additional constraints on respiratory flux estimates at regional scales. Here we describe a data set of 14CO2 observations from a tall tower in northern Wisconsin (USA) where fossil fuel influence is far enough removed that during the summer months, the biospheric component of the 14CO2 budget dominates. We find that the terrestrial biosphere is responsible for a significant contribution to 14CO2 that is 2-3 times higher than predicted by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach terrestrial ecosystem model for observations made in 2010. This likely includes a substantial contribution from the North American boreal ecoregion, but transported biospheric emissions from outside the model domain cannot be ruled out. The 14CO2 enhancement also appears somewhat decreased in observations made over subsequent years, suggesting that 2010 may be anomalous. With these caveats acknowledged, we discuss the implications of the observation/model comparison in terms of possible systematic biases in the model versus short-term anomalies in the observations. Going forward, this isotopic signal could be exploited as an important indicator to better constrain both the long-term carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and the short-term impact of disturbance-based loss of carbon to the atmosphere.

  13. The effect of a tall tower on flow and dispersion through a model urban neighborhood: part 2. Pollutant dispersion.

    PubMed

    Brixey, Laurie A; Heist, David K; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Bowker, George E; Perry, Steven G; Wiener, Russell W

    2009-12-01

    This article is the second in a two-paper series presenting results from wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of flow and dispersion in an idealized model urban neighborhood. Pollutant dispersion results are presented and discussed for a model neighborhood that was characterized by regular city blocks of three-story row houses with a single 12-story tower located at the downwind edge of one of these blocks. The tower had three significant effects on pollutant dispersion in the surrounding street canyons: drawing the plume laterally towards the tower, greatly enhancing the vertical dispersion of the plume in the wake of the tower, and significantly decreasing the residence time of pollutants in the wake of the tower. In the wind tunnel, tracer gas released in the avenue lee of the tower, but several blocks away laterally, was pulled towards the tower and lifted in the wake of the tower. The same lateral movement of the pollutant was seen in the next avenue, which was approximately 2.5 tower heights downwind of the tower. The tower also served to ventilate the street canyon directly in its wake more rapidly than the surrounding areas. This was evidenced by CFD simulations of concentration decay where the residence time of pollutants lee of the 12-story tower was found to be less than half the residence time behind a neighboring three-story building. This same phenomenon of rapid vertical dispersion lee of a tower among an array of smaller buildings was also demonstrated in a separate set of wind tunnel experiments using an array of cubical blocks. A similar decrease in the residence time was observed when the height of one block was increased.

  14. Removing Traffic Emissions from CO2 Time Series Measured at a Tall Tower Using on-Road Measurements and WRF-Stilt Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Rella, C.; Goeckede, M.; Hanson, C. V.; Yang, Z.; Law, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with high precision and accuracy have become increasingly important for climate change research, in particular to inform terrestrial biosphere models. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning have long been recognized to contribute a significant portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here, we present an approach to remove the traffic related carbon dioxide emissions from mole fractions measured at a tall tower by using the corresponding carbon monoxide measurements in combination with footprint analyses and transport modeling. This technique improves the suitability of the CO2 data to be used in inverse modeling approaches of atmosphere-biosphere exchange that do not account for non-biotic portions of CO2. In our study region in Oregon, road traffic emissions are the biggest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. A three-day mobile campaign covering 1700 km of roads in northwestern Oregon was performed during summer of 2012 using a laser-based Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer. The mobile measurements incorporated different roads including main highways, urban streets, and back-roads, largely within the typical footprint of a tall CO2 observation tower in Oregon's Willamette Valley. For the first time, traffic related CO:CO2 emission ratios were measured directly at the sources during an on-road campaign under a variety of different driving conditions. An average emission ratio of 7.43 (±1.80) ppb CO per ppm CO2 was obtained for the study region and applied to separate the traffic related portion of CO2 from the mole fraction time series. The road traffic related portion of the CO2 mole fractions measured at the tower site reached maximum values from 9.8 to 12 ppm, depending on the height above the surface, during summer 2012.

  15. Multiple Flux Footprints, Flux Divergences and Boundary Layer Mixing Ratios: Studies of Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Using the WLEF Tall Tower.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Bakwin, P. S.; Yi, C.; Cook, B. D.; Wang, W.; Denning, A. S.; Teclaw, R.; Isebrands, J. G.

    2001-05-01

    Long-term, tower-based measurements using the eddy-covariance method have revealed a wealth of detail about the temporal dynamics of netecosystem-atmosphere exchange (NEE) of CO2. The data also provide a measure of the annual net CO2 exchange. The area represented by these flux measurements, however, is limited, and doubts remain about possible systematic errors that may bias the annual net exchange measurements. Flux and mixing ratio measurements conducted at the WLEF tall tower as part of the Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) allow for unique assessment of the uncertainties in NEE of CO2. The synergy between flux and mixing ratio observations shows the potential for comparing inverse and eddy-covariance methods of estimating NEE of CO2. Such comparisons may strengthen confidence in both results and begin to bridge the huge gap in spatial scales (at least 3 orders of magnitude) between continental or hemispheric scale inverse studies and kilometer-scale eddy covariance flux measurements. Data from WLEF and Willow Creek, another ChEAS tower, are used to estimate random and systematic errors in NEE of CO2. Random uncertainty in seasonal exchange rates and the annual integrated NEE, including both turbulent sampling errors and variability in enviromental conditions, is small. Systematic errors are identified by examining changes in flux as a function of atmospheric stability and wind direction, and by comparing the multiple level flux measurements on the WLEF tower. Nighttime drainage is modest but evident. Systematic horizontal advection occurs during the morning turbulence transition. The potential total systematic error appears to be larger than random uncertainty, but still modest. The total systematic error, however, is difficult to assess. It appears that the WLEF region ecosystems were a small net sink of CO2 in 1997. It is clear that the summer uptake rate at WLEF is much smaller than that at most deciduous forest sites, including the nearby

  16. Monoterpene chemical speciation in a tropical rainforest:variation with season, height, and time of dayat the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Yáñez-Serrano, Ana; Nölscher, Anke Christine; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Gomes Alves, Eliane; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Bonn, Boris; Wolff, Stefan; Sa, Marta; Yamasoe, Marcia; Williams, Jonathan; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Speciated monoterpene measurements in rainforest air are scarce, but they are essential for understanding the contribution of these compounds to the overall reactivity of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions towards the main atmospheric oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH), ozone (O3) and nitrate radicals (NO3). In this study, we present the chemical speciation of gas-phase monoterpenes measured in the tropical rainforest at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, Amazonas, Brazil). Samples of VOCs were collected by two automated sampling systems positioned on a tower at 12 and 24 m height and analysed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The samples were collected in October 2015, representing the dry season, and compared with previous wet and dry season studies at the site. In addition, vertical profile measurements (at 12 and 24 m) of total monoterpene mixing ratios were made using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. The results showed a distinctly different chemical speciation between day and night. For instance, α-pinene was more abundant during the day, whereas limonene was more abundant at night. Reactivity calculations showed that higher abundance does not generally imply higher reactivity. Furthermore, inter- and intra-annual results demonstrate similar chemodiversity during the dry seasons analysed. Simulations with a canopy exchange modelling system show simulated monoterpene mixing ratios that compare relatively well with the observed mixing ratios but also indicate the necessity of more experiments to enhance our understanding of in-canopy sinks of these compounds.

  17. Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar, Doppler radar and tall tower measurements of atmospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981. Data from these unique remote sensing instruments, coupled with data from conventional in-situ facilities, i.e., 500-m meteorological tower, rawinsonde, and surface based sensors, were analyzed to enhance understanding of wind, waves and turbulence. The purposes of the study were to: (1) compare winds mapped by ground-based dual Doppler radars, airborne Doppler lidar, and anemometers on a tower; (2) compare measured atmospheric boundary layer flow with flows predicted by theoretical models; (3) investigate the kinematic structure of air mass boundaries that precede the development of severe storms; and (4) study the kinematic structure of thunderstorm phenomena (downdrafts, gust fronts, etc.) that produce wind shear and turbulence hazardous to aircraft operations. The report consists of three parts: Part 1, Intercomparison of Wind Data from Airborne Lidar, Ground-Based Radars and Instrumented 444 m Tower; Part 2, The Structure of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer as Revealed by Lidar and Doppler Radars; and Part 3, Doppler Lidar Observations in Thunderstorm Environments.

  18. Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT): Overview of a wintertime air chemistry field study in the front range urban corridor of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Steven S.; Thornton, Joel A.; Keene, William C.; Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Sive, Barkley C.; Dubé, William P.; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Young, Cora J.; Riedel, Theran P.; Roberts, James M.; VandenBoer, Trevor C.; Bahreini, Roya; Öztürk, Fatma; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Kim, Saewung; Hübler, Gerhard; Wolfe, Daniel E.

    2013-07-01

    The Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT) field experiment took place during late winter, 2011, at a site 33 km north of Denver, Colorado. The study included fixed-height measurements of aerosols, soluble trace gases, and volatile organic compounds near surface level, as well as vertically resolved measurements of nitrogen oxides, aerosol composition, soluble gas-phase acids, and halogen species from 3 to 270 m above ground level. There were 1928 individual profiles during the three-week campaign to characterize trace gas and aerosol distributions in the lower levels of the boundary layer. Nitrate and ammonium dominated the ionic composition of aerosols and originated primarily from local or regional sources. Sulfate and organic matter were also significant and were associated primarily with longer-range transport to the region. Aerosol chloride was associated primarily with supermicron size fractions and was always present in excess of gas-phase chlorine compounds. The nighttime radical reservoirs, nitryl chloride, ClNO2, and nitrous acid, HONO, were both consistently present in nighttime urban air. Nitryl chloride was especially pronounced in plumes from large point sources sampled aloft at night. Nitrous acid was typically most concentrated near the ground surface and was the dominant contributor (80%) to diurnally averaged primary OH radical production in near-surface air. Large observed mixing ratios of light alkanes, both in near-surface air and aloft, were attributable to local emissions from oil and gas activities.

  19. An Adjoint-Based Analysis of the Sampling Footprints of Tall Tower, Aircraft and Potential Future Lidar Observations of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Arlyn; Kawa, Randy; Zhu, Zhengxin; Burris, John; Abshire, Jim

    2004-01-01

    A detailed mechanistic understanding of the sources and sinks of CO2 will be required to reliably predict future CO2 levels and climate. A commonly used technique for deriving information about CO2 exchange with surface reservoirs is to solve an 'inverse problem', where CO2 observations are used with an atmospheric transport model to find the optimal distribution of sources and sinks. Synthesis inversion methods are powerful tools for addressing this question, but the results are disturbingly sensitive to the details of the calculation. Studies done using different atmospheric transport models and combinations of surface station data have produced substantially different distributions of surface fluxes. Adjoint methods are now being developed that will more effectively incorporate diverse datasets in estimates of surface fluxes of CO2. In an adjoint framework, it will be possible to combine CO2 concentration data from longterm surface and aircraft monitoring stations with data from intensive field campaigns and with proposed future satellite observations. We have recently developed an adjoint for the GSFC 3-D Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model (PCTM). Here, we will present results from a PCTM Adjoint study comparing the sampling footprints of tall tower, aircraft and potential future lidar observations of CO2. The vertical resolution and extent of the profiles and the observation frequency will be considered for several sites in North America.

  20. Estimation of the fossil fuel component in atmospheric CO2 based on radiocarbon measurements at the Beromünster tall tower, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Szidat, Sönke; Brunner, Dominik; Satar, Ece; Schanda, Rüdiger; Nyfeler, Peter; Battaglia, Michael; Steinbacher, Martin; Hammer, Samuel; Leuenberger, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) is the major contributor of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere, and accurate quantification is essential to better understand the carbon cycle. Since October 2012, we have been continuously measuring the mixing ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and H2O at five different heights at the Beromünster tall tower, Switzerland. Air samples for radiocarbon (Δ14CO2) analysis have also been collected from the highest sampling inlet (212.5 m) of the tower on a biweekly basis. A correction was applied for 14CO2 emissions from nearby nuclear power plants (NPPs), which have been simulated with the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART-COSMO. The 14CO2 emissions from NPPs offset the depletion in 14C by fossil fuel emissions, resulting in an underestimation of the fossil fuel component in atmospheric CO2 by about 16 %. An average observed ratio (RCO) of 13.4 ± 1.3 mmol mol-1 was calculated from the enhancements in CO mixing ratios relative to the clean-air reference site Jungfraujoch (ΔCO) and the radiocarbon-based fossil fuel CO2 mole fractions. The wintertime RCO estimate of 12.5 ± 3.3 is about 30 % higher than the wintertime ratio between in situ measured CO and CO2 enhancements at Beromünster over the Jungfraujoch background (8.7 mmol mol-1) corrected for non-fossil contributions due to strong biospheric contribution despite the strong correlation between ΔCO and ΔCO2 in winter. By combining the ratio derived using the radiocarbon measurements and the in situ measured CO mixing ratios, a high-resolution time series of CO2ff was calculated exhibiting a clear seasonality driven by seasonal variability in emissions and vertical mixing. By subtracting the fossil fuel component and the large-scale background, we have determined the regional biospheric CO2 component that is characterized by seasonal variations ranging between -15 and +30 ppm. A pronounced diurnal variation was observed during summer modulated by biospheric exchange and vertical mixing, while no

  1. Scaling of water vapor in the meso-gamma (2-20km) and lower meso-beta (20-50km) scales from tall tower time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressel, K. G.; Collins, W.; Desai, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Deficiencies in the parameterization of boundary layer clouds in global climate models (GCMs) remains one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in climate change predictions. Many GCM cloud parameterizations, which seek to include some representation of subgrid-scale cloud variability, do so by making assumptions regarding the subgrid-scale spatial probability density function (PDF) of total water content. Properly specifying the form and parameters of the total water PDF is an essential step in the formulation of PDF based cloud parameterizations. In the cloud free boundary layer, the PDF of total water mixing ratio is equivalent to the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio. Understanding the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio in the cloud free atmosphere is a necessary step towards understanding the PDF of water vapor in the cloudy atmosphere. A primary challenge in empirically constraining the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio is a distinct lack of a spatially distributed observational dataset at or near cloud scale. However, at meso-beta (20-50km) and larger scales, there is a wealth of information on the spatial distribution of water vapor contained in the physically retrieved water vapor profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder onboard NASA`s Aqua satellite. The scaling (scale-invariance) of the observed water vapor field has been suggested as means of using observations at satellite observed (meso-beta) scales to derive information about cloud scale PDFs. However, doing so requires the derivation of a robust climatology of water vapor scaling from in-situ observations across the meso- gamma (2-20km) and meso-beta scales. In this work, we present the results of the scaling of high frequency (10Hz) time series of water vapor mixing ratio as observed from the 447m WLEF tower located near Park Falls, Wisconsin. Observations from a tall tower offer an ideal set of observations with which to investigate scaling at meso-gamma and meso-beta scales requiring only the

  2. The influence of resolution of meteorology, biogeochemical models and fossil fuel emissions on forward and inverse modelling of CO2 exchange over Europe using the network of tall towers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, A.; Verheggen, B.; Pieterse, G.; Haszpra, L.

    2007-12-01

    Tall towers allow us to observe the integrated influence of carbon exchange processes from large areas on the concentrations of CO2. The signal received shows a large variability at diurnal and synoptic timescales. The question remains how high resolutions and how accurate transport models need to be, in order to discriminate the relevant source terms from the atmospheric signal. We will examine the influence of the resolution of (ECMWF) meteorological fields, antropogenic and biogenic fluxes when going from resolutions of 2° to 0.2° lat-lon, using a simple Lagrangian 2D transport model. Model results will be compared to other Eulerian model results and observations at the CHIOTTO/CarboEurope tall tower network in Europe. Biogenic fluxes taken into account are from the FACEM model (Pieterse et al, 2006). Results show that the relative influence of the different CO2 exchange processes is very different at each tower and that higher model resolution clearly pays off in better model performance.

  3. Tall-tower observations of pollution from near-field sources in central Texas during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kort, E.; Hirsch, A.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Michalak, A. M.; Petron, G.; Frost, G. J.; Gurney, K. R.; Stohl, A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Angevine, W. M.; White, A. B.; Oltmans, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Tans, P. P.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory has been measuring CO2, CO and basic meteorology from a television transmitter tower outside of Waco, TX since 2001. Sample intakes are located at 30, 122 and 457 meters above ground level. From July through November 2006, O3 measurements were added at 9 and 457 magl to support the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2006). There are several large point sources and metropolitan areas in the vicinity of the tower with distinct chemical signatures. Here, we evaluate the extent to which the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model reproduces pollution events that were observed at the tower during summer and fall 2006. For this study, STILT is driven by customized output from the WRF model v2.2, which was run with a 2km nested grid surrounding the tower embedded in a 10km nest that covers most of the southern and eastern US and a 40km nest that includes all of North America. Inaccurate representation of atmospheric transport is a major source of error in inverse estimates of fluxes of CO2 and other gases, and we selected this period for in depth analysis in part because a dense network of radar profilers was deployed for TexAQS 2006. The radar profilers report wind and boundary layer height, which can be used to evaluate the fidelity of the simulated transport. STILT is a particle dispersion model that can be run either forward or backward in time, which allows us to compare the agreement between forward runs from individual pollution sources and backward runs from the tower. We will also quantitatively compare the STILT-WRF results with similar output from the FLEXPART particle dispersion model driven by high-resolution ECMWF meteorological fields. We will use several different emissions inventories to evaluate model-to-model differences and differences between modeled and observed pollution influences.

  4. Sources of methane and nitrous oxide in California's Central Valley estimated through direct airborne flux and positive matrix factorization source apportionment of groundbased and regional tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Abhinav

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are two major greenhouse gases that contribute significantly to the increase in anthropogenic radiative-forcing causing perturbations to the earth's climate system. In a watershed moment in the state's history of environmental leadership and commitment, California, in 2006, opted for sharp reductions in their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adopted a long-term approach to address climate change that includes regulation of emissions from individual emitters and source categories. There are large CH4 and N2O emissions sources in the state, predominantly in the agricultural and waste management sector. While these two gases account for < 10% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions of the state, large uncertainties exist in their `bottom-up' accounting in the state GHG inventory. Additionally, an increasing number of `top-down' studies based on ambient observations point towards underestimation of their emissions in the inventory. Three intensive field observation campaigns that were spatially and temporally diverse took place between 2010 and 2013 in the Central Valley of California where the largest known sources of CH4 and N2O (e.g. agricultural systems and dairies) and potentially significant CH4 sources (e.g. oil and gas extraction) are located. The CalNex (California Nexus - Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field campaign during summer 2010 (May 15 - June 30) took place in the urban core of Bakersfield in the southern San Joaquin Valley, a city whose economy is built around agriculture and the oil and gas industry. During summer of 2011, airborne measurements were performed over a large spatial domain, all across and around the Central Valley as part of the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects) study. Next, a one-year continuous field campaign (WGC 2012-13, June 2012 - August 2013) was conducted at the Walnut Grove tall tower near the Sacramento

  5. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    SciT

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  6. Phase Partitioning of Soluble Trace Gases with Size-Resolved Aerosols during the Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A.; Keene, W. C.; Pszenny, A.; Sander, R.; Maben, J. R.; Warrick-Wriston, C.; Bearekman, R.

    2011-12-01

    During February and March 2011, size-resolved and bulk aerosol were sampled at 22 m above the surface over nominal 12-hour (daytime and nighttime) intervals from the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower (40.05 N, 105.01 W, 1584-m elevation). Samples were analyzed for major organic and inorganic ionic constituents by high performance ion chromatography (IC). Soluble trace gases (HCl, HNO3, NH3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH) were sampled in parallel over 2-hour intervals with tandem mist chambers and analyzed on site by IC. NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- were the major ionic components of aerosols (median values of 57.7, 34.5, and 7.3 nmol m-3 at STP, respectively, N = 45) with 86%, 82%, and 82%, respectively, associated with sub-μm size fractions. Cl- and Na+ were present at significant concentrations (median values of 6.8 and 6.6 nmol m-3, respectively) but were associated primarily with super-μm size fractions (75% and 78%, respectively). Median values (and ranges) for HCl, HNO3, and NH3 were 21 (<20-1257), 120 (<45-1638), and 5259 (<1432-48,583) pptv, respectively. Liquid water contents of size-resolved aerosols and activity coefficients for major ionic constituents were calculated with the Extended Aerosol Inorganic Model II and IV (E-AIM) based on the measured aerosol composition, RH, temperature, and pressure. Size-resolved aerosol pHs were inferred from the measured phase partitioning of HCl, HNO3, and NH3. Major controls of phase partitioning and associated chemical dynamics will be presented.

  7. Coupling Stable Water Isotopes in Vapor and Precipitation to Raindrop Size Distributions at a Mid-latitude Tall-tower Site to Evaluate the Role of Rain Evaporation in Boundary Layer Moisture Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, A.; Noone, D.

    2016-12-01

    The continental boundary layer moisture balance plays an important role in regulating water and energy exchange between the surface and the atmosphere, yet the mechanisms associated with moistening and drying are both poorly observed and modeled. Stable water isotope ratio measurements can provide insights into air mass origins, convection dynamics and mechanisms dominating atmosphere-land surface water fluxes. Profiles can be exploited to improve estimates of boundary layer moistening associated with evaporation of falling precipitation and contributions from surface evapotranspiration. We present two years of in situ tower-based measurements of isotope ratios of water vapor and precipitation (δD and δ18O) and raindrop size distributions from the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall-tower site in Erie, Colorado. Isotope vapor measurements were made at 1 Hz with a full cycle from the surface to 300 meters recorded every 80 minutes. At the surface and 300m, water samples were collected during precipitation events and raindrop sizes were measured continuously using Parsivel instruments. We use this unique suite of measurements and, in particular, exploit the differences between the surface and 300m observations to constrain the surface layer hydrological mass balance during and after rain events, and evaluate parameterization choices for rain evaporation and moisture recycling in current isotope-enabled climate models. Aggregate raindrop size measurements showed shifts from populations of smaller raindrops at 300m to larger raindrops at the surface, contrary to what is expected for rain evaporation. Convective storms resulted in more uniform signatures between the surface and 300m, as well as longer isotope equilibration and adjustment time scales, whereas low Dexcess signatures (<9 to negative) during stratiform drizzle events were indicative of a greater degree of rain evaporation. Our observational results suggest that water vapor-rain equilibration is

  8. Observations of molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratio and stable isotopic composition at the Cabauw tall tower; very depleted source signature suggests microbial H2 production in Dutch pasture soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, Anneke; Popa, Elena; Vermeulen, Alex; van den Bulk, Pim; Jongejan, Piet; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, Dave; Nisbet, Euan; Röckmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), though not toxic or a greenhouse gas itself, may influence air quality and climate indirectly by affecting the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. So as increased use of hydrogen fuel is expected, a better understanding of the global, regional and local atmospheric H2 cycles is needed. Studying the stable isotopic composition of H2 (δD(H2)) is a promising way to achieve this. Since the start of this century, the isotope effects in H2 source and sink processes have been estimated, δD(H2) has been incorporated into chemical transport models, and larger sets of environmental observations of δD(H2) have appeared. The latter, however, were mostly obtained from samples collected in remote regions of the atmosphere, which is not sufficient to fully characterize the H2 cycle or to assess the possible environmental effects of H2 leakage in urbanized regions. To address this gap, flask samples were collected at the Cabauw tall tower at the CESAR site in the Netherlands. The air was sampled from inlets at 20, 60, 120, and 200 meter altitude for the analysis of H2 mixing ratio (χ(H2)) and δD(H2). More than 250 samples were collected and analysed over a period of four years. The H2 mixing ratios in the samples show frequent excursions to high values above the background. Previously published continuous χ(H2) observations at Cabauw and other (sub)urban sites showed a similar pattern. With the isotope observations, we can now see that these high χ(H2) excursions are accompanied by very low δD(H2) values; probably at least partly a result of anthropogenic emissions of deuterium(D)-depleted H2. However, with a simple "Keeling plot" analysis, we obtained an apparent source signature (-515 ± 26 ‰) that was much below the range of published values for H2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. Since the result of the fit depended markedly on the quality selection of the samples that were included, we applied a bootstrap method to this fit to

  9. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  10. Tall Buildings Initiative

    Design Task 7 - Guidelines on Modeling and Acceptance Values Task 8 - Input Ground Motions for Tall - Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines for Tall Buildings Task 12 - Quantification of seismic performance published Report No. 2017/06 titled: "Guidelines for Performance-Based Seismic Design of Tall Buildings

  11. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1996-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  12. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1995-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  13. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  14. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  15. Towering Infernos

    2005-11-09

    This majestic false-color image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the "mountains" where stars are born. Dubbed "Mountains of Creation" by Spitzer scientists, these towering pillars of cool gas and dust are illuminated at their tips with light from warm embryonic stars. The new infrared picture is reminiscent of Hubble's iconic visible-light image of the Eagle Nebula, which also features a star-forming region, or nebula, that is being sculpted into pillars by radiation and winds from hot, massive stars. The pillars in the Spitzer image are part of a region called W5, in the Cassiopeia constellation 7,000 light-years away and 50 light-years across. They are more than 10 times in the size of those in the Eagle Nebula (shown to scale here). The Spitzer's view differs from Hubble's because infrared light penetrates dust, whereas visible light is blocked by it. In the Spitzer image, hundreds of forming stars (white/yellow) can seen for the first time inside the central pillar, and dozens inside the tall pillar to the left. Scientists believe these star clusters were triggered into existence by radiation and winds from an "initiator" star more than 10 times the mass of our Sun. This star is not pictured, but the finger-like pillars "point" toward its location above the image frame. The Spitzer picture also reveals stars (blue) a bit older than the ones in the pillar tips in the evacuated areas between the clouds. Scientists believe these stars were born around the same time as the massive initiator star not pictured. A third group of young stars occupies the bright area below the central pillar. It is not known whether these stars formed in a related or separate event. Some of the blue dots are foreground stars that are not members of this nebula. The red color in the Spitzer image represents organic molecules known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These building blocks of life are often found in star-forming clouds of gas and dust. Like small dust grains

  16. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

    SciT

    Motoyama, H.; Janischewskyj, W.; Hussein, A.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.

  17. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  18. VIEW OF BUILDING 215A, THE WATER TOWER, LOOKING WEST, SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 215A, THE WATER TOWER, LOOKING WEST, SOUTHWEST. CONSTRUCTION ON BUILDING 215A BEGAN IN 1952. THE WATER TOWER IS 155 FEET TALL AND IS THE TALLEST STRUCTURE AT THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT - Rocky Flats Plant, Water Tower, Northwest quadrant of Plant near west terminus of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Evaluation of dynamic response for monopole and hybrid wind mill tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hemal J.; Desai, Atul K.

    2017-07-01

    The wind mill towers are constructed using monopoles or lattice type tower. As the height of tower increases it gives more power but it becomes uneconomical, so in the present research work innovative wind mill tower such as combination of monopole and lattice tower is analyzed using FEM software. When the tall structures are constructed on soft soil it becomes dynamically sensitive so 3 types of soil such as hard, medium and soft soil is also modeled and the innovative tower is studied for different operating frequencies of wind turbine. From study it is concluded that the innovative tower will reduce resonance condition considering soil structure interaction.

  20. American Hyperbole: The Tall Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavonetti, Linda M.; Combs, Christine M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the historic derivation and the format and characteristics of traditional tall tales, and modern adaptations of these stories. Describes a selection of tall tales for modern young adult readers; notes titles and authors of original tall tales and those with female heroes. Discusses the enduring appeal of traditional and modern tall…

  1. Tower counts

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  2. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers.

    PubMed

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta , cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  3. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  4. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    PubMed Central

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Tovey, Craig

    2017-01-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers. PMID:28791170

  5. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  9. Twisters, Tall Tales, & Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2006-01-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and…

  10. Genetic analysis of tall stature.

    PubMed

    Kant, S G; Wit, J M; Breuning, M H

    2005-01-01

    Tall stature is less often experienced as an important problem than short stature. However, a correct diagnosis may be of eminent importance, especially when interventions are planned, or to know the natural history. Overgrowth can be caused by endocrine disorders and skeletal dysplasias, but also by several genetic syndromes. Despite a systematic diagnostic approach, there will be patients with tall stature who do not fit a known diagnosis. In this group of patients possibilities of genetic analysis do exist, but are not common practice. The FMR1 gene should be analyzed in patients with tall stature and mental retardation, and in these patients the NSD1 gene can be considered whenever some features of Sotos syndrome do exist. In tall patients without mental retardation and some features of Sotos or Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome it may still be useful to look for mutations in the NSD1 gene, but also for changes in the 11p15 region. The various possibilities are discussed and placed in a flowchart. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs....1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap of the pine tree. It is obtained commercially from the waste liquors of pinewood pulp mills and consists mainly of tall oil resin...

  12. 3D Concrete Printing Concept Could Solve Tall-Wind Dilemma

    Cotrell, Jason; Jenne, Scott; Butterfield, Sandy

    2018-06-12

    When building a wind turbine, you want to make it as tall as possible to capture stronger, faster winds aloft. But taller tower bases become too large to be transported over the road—a constraint that has kept average U.S. wind turbine heights at 80 meters for the last 10 years. A Lab-Corps project undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found a potential solution: automated concrete manufacturing.

  13. 3D Concrete Printing Concept Could Solve Tall-Wind Dilemma

    SciT

    Cotrell, Jason; Jenne, Scott; Butterfield, Sandy

    When building a wind turbine, you want to make it as tall as possible to capture stronger, faster winds aloft. But taller tower bases become too large to be transported over the road—a constraint that has kept average U.S. wind turbine heights at 80 meters for the last 10 years. A Lab-Corps project undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found a potential solution: automated concrete manufacturing.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of the Maximum Stress at the Joints of the Transmission Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itam, Zarina; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Bamashmos, Khaled H.

    2016-03-01

    Transmission towers are tall structures, usually a steel lattice tower, used to support an overhead power line. Usually, transmission towers are analyzed as frame-truss systems and the members are assumed to be pin-connected without explicitly considering the effects of joints on the tower behavior. In this research, an engineering example of joint will be analyzed with the consideration of the joint detailing to investigate how it will affect the tower analysis. A static analysis using STAAD Pro was conducted to indicate the joint with the maximum stress. This joint will then be explicitly analyzed in ANSYS using the Finite Element Method. Three approaches were used in the software which are the simple plate model, bonded contact with no bolts, and beam element bolts. Results from the joint analysis show that stress values increased with joint details consideration. This proves that joints and connections play an important role in the distribution of stress within the transmission tower.

  15. Microwave Tower Deflection Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, Bruce E.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes an instrument which is capable of monitoring both the twist and lateral motion of a microwave tower. The Microwave Tower Deflection Monitor (MTDM) gives designers the capability of evaluating towers, both for troubleshooting purposes and comparison with design theory. The MTDM has been designed to operate on a broad range of tower structures in a variety of weather conditions. The instrument measures tower motion by monitoring the position of two retroreflectors mounted on the top of the tower. The two retroreflectors are located by scanning a laser beam in a raster pattern in the vicinity of the reflector. When a retroreflector is struck its position is read by a microprocessor and stored on a magnetic tape. Position resolution of better than .5 cm at 200 ft. has been observed in actual tests.

  16. Megacities and tall buildings: symbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Daniel; Ursini, Shawn; Wood, Antony

    2018-03-01

    Anyone concerned with the development of human civilization in the 21st Century will likely have heard the term «megacity». It is - as it should be - increasingly prevalent in both mainstream and academic discussions of the great trends of our time: urbanization, rising technological and physical connectivity, increasingly polarized extremes of wealth and poverty, environmental degradation, and climate change. It is a subject as large and far-reaching as its name implies. This paper sets the scene on how megacities and the built environment are growing together, and examines the implications for those who plan, design, develop and operate tall buildings and urban infrastructure.

  17. [Tall stature: some classical syndromes].

    PubMed

    Gusbin, N; Verloes, A; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the findings of XYY syndrome in the setting of encountering an individual with this particular condition in the endocrinology clinic. XYY syndrome is a relatively frequent if unfamiliar condition, which is characterized by taller than average height. The extra Y chromosome may play a role in determining the height of these individuals. From this case, a differential diagnosis of tall stature is outlined, in addition to a description of the principal syndromes associated with gigantism. These primarily include Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome, androgen resistance and growth hormone excess. These various entities are described from the point of view of their symptomatology, biology, pathophysiology and therapeutic characteristics.

  18. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF TOWER OFFICE SHOWING CONTROL TOWER DESK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF TOWER OFFICE SHOWING CONTROL TOWER DESK, FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  20. Confusion at the Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Loretta F.

    2014-01-01

    This study will explore the omission of the Tower of Babel narrative from middle and secondary school world history, world studies, and world geography textbooks and will consider what might be learned from inclusion of the story in the curriculum. A total of 17 textbooks are analyzed. The Tower of Babel narrative is examined within the context of…

  1. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  2. Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

    Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council Home News Archives Members Mailing Address LATBSDC c/o John A. Martin & Associates 950 South Grand Ave 4th Floor Los Angeles, CA 90015, USA Phone (213) 483-6490 Fax (213) 483-3084 Welcome Welcome to the Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design

  3. Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

  4. Preliminary Design, Feasibility and Cost Evaluation of 1- to 15-Kilometer Height Steel Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanker, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    Design and construction of tall towers is an on-going research program of NASA. The agency has already done preliminary review in this area and has determined that multi-kilometer height towers are technically and economically feasible. The proposed towers will provide high altitude launch platforms reaching above eighty percent of Earth's atmosphere and provide tremendous gains in the potential energy as well as substantial reduction in aerodynamic drag. NASA has also determined that a 15-KM tower will have many useful applications in: (i)Meteorology,(ii)Oceanography, (iii)Astronomy, (iv)High Altitude Launch, (v)Physics Drop Tower, (vi) Biosphere Research, (vii) Nanotechnology, (viii) Energy/Power, (ix)Broadband Wireless Technology, (x)Space Transportation and (xi)Space Tourism.

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN,EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-21 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. Drop Tower Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  8. To be or not to be "TALL"?

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi

    2012-08-01

    Constitutional tall stature can be anticipated from neonatal length (1) and measurement at age 4 and 8 years (2). Mainly of genetic origin (3) it has been shown that tall children and parents have high normal or higher than normal serum hGH and/or IGF-I levels. (4-6). Also in a healthy adult population a significant (p<0.005) association between height and serum IGF-I has been reported (7). These within normal variations in "healthy" individuals should be distinguished from "gigantism" due to excessive GHR-H or hGH secretion (8, 9) and other pathological conditions leading to tall stature (3).

  9. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  10. The nominal cooling tower

    SciT

    Burger, R.

    1995-12-31

    The heat Rejection Industry defines a nominal cooling tower as circulating three gallons of water per minute (GPM) per ton of refrigeration from entering the tower at 95{degrees}F. Hot Water temperature (HWT) Leaving at 85{degrees}F Cold Water Temperature (CWT) at a Design Wet Bulb of 70{degrees}F (WBT). Manufacturers then provide a selection chart based on various wet bulb temperatures and HWTs. The wet bulb fluctuates and varies through out the world since it is the combination ambient temperature, relative humidity, and/or dew point. Different HWT and CWT requirements are usually charted as they change, so that the user can selectmore » the nominal cooling tower model recommended by the manufacturer. Ask any HVAC operator, refinery manager, power generating station operator what happens when the Wet Bulb reaches or exceeds the design WBT of the area. He probably will tell you, {open_quotes}My cooling tower works quite well, but in the summer time, I usually have trouble with it.{close_quotes} This occurs because he is operating a nominal cooling tower.« less

  11. A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes

    Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger; George G. Burba; Kenneth J. Davis; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Gabriel G. Katul; J. William Munger; Daniel M. Ricciuto; Paul C. Stoy; Andrew E. Suyker; Shashi B. Verma; Steven C. Wofsy; Steven C. Wofsy

    2006-01-01

    Measured surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy (sensible heat, H, and latent heat, LE) and CO2 (FCO2) represent the ``true?? flux plus or minus potential random and systematic measurement errors. Here, we use data from seven sites in the AmeriFlux network, including five forested sites (two of which include ``tall tower?? instrumentation), one grassland site, and one...

  12. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  13. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  14. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, RIGHT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING AERIAL WIRE DESIGN WITH VERTICAL 'TOP HAT' WIRES IN CENTER. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  15. THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a water tank on the second floor that gravity fed water to the Kineth house and farm buildings. The one-story addition to the west of the tower provided workshop space. The hog shed is seen on the left of the image and the concrete foundation of the upright silo is in the foreground on the right. - Kineth Farm, Tower House, 19162 State Route 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  16. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  17. Evaporation Tower With Prill Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Tower more efficient than conventional evaporation equipment. Liquids such as milk and fruit juice concentrated by passing them through tiny nozzle to form droplets, then allowing droplets to fall through evacuated tower with cooled walls.

  18. Cell Towers and Songbirds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle; Mesa, Jennifer; Milton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how our common addiction to cell phones was used to launch a discussion about their use, impacts on the environment, and connections to issues of civic concern. By encouraging middle school science students to adopt the perspectives of special-interest groups debating communication tower restrictions designed to protect…

  19. The Ivory Tower Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chantler, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The corollary of the concept of the "ivory tower", as reflected in the writings of Plato and Newman amongst others, was, paradoxically, the vital importance of the university for wider society. Nevertheless from the mid-twentieth century, the esteem in which a "liberal" university education was held was diminished by rising…

  20. Ivory Basements and Ivory Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    The metaphors of the ivory tower and ivory basement are used in this chapter to reflect how many women understand and experience the academy. The ivory tower signifies a place that is protected, a place of privilege and authority and a place removed from the outside world (and consequently the rigours of the market place). The ivory tower, by…

  1. Inheritance of ozone resistance in tall fescue

    SciT

    Johnston, W.J.; Haaland, R.L.; Dickens, R.

    Ozone is considered the most important air pollutant affecting vegetation. With progressive urbanization, ozone levels have steadily escalated. Reports suggest that ozone tolerance is a highly heritable characteristic and that the selection of resistant plants and breeding for ozone resistance should be possible. This study was undertaken to gain information on the inheritance of ozone resistance in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).Progenies from a diallel among six tall fescue genotypes of diverse origin were evaluated for ozone resistance in a fumigation-chamber. Sixteen-day-old seedlings were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone for 3 hours and scored for injury after 3 days. Generalmore » combining ability (GCA) and reciprocal effects were both highly significant; however, GCA constituted a major portion of the genotypic variation. Specific combining ability was not significant. The predominance of additive genetic variance observed indicates that breeding for ozone resistance in this tall fescue population should be possible.« less

  2. Water potential gradient in a tall sequoiadendron.

    PubMed

    Tobiessen, P

    1971-09-01

    With an elevator installed in a 90-meter tall Sequoiadendron to collect the samples, xylem pressure potential measurements were made approximately every 15 meters along 60 meters of the tree's height. The measured gradient was about -0.8 bar per 10 meters of height, i.e., less than the hydrostatic gradient. Correction of the xylem pressure potential data by calibration against a thermocouple psychrometer confirmed this result. Similar gradients are described in the literature in tall conifers at times of low transpiration, although a different sampling technique was used. If the data in the present study and those supporting it are typical, they imply a re-evaluation of either the use of the pressure chamber to estimate water potential or the present theories describing water transport in tall trees.

  3. Water Potential Gradient in a Tall Sequoiadendron

    PubMed Central

    Tobiessen, Peter; Rundel, Philip W.; Stecker, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    With an elevator installed in a 90-meter tall Sequoiadendron to collect the samples, xylem pressure potential measurements were made approximately every 15 meters along 60 meters of the tree's height. The measured gradient was about −0.8 bar per 10 meters of height, i.e., less than the hydrostatic gradient. Correction of the xylem pressure potential data by calibration against a thermocouple psychrometer confirmed this result. Similar gradients are described in the literature in tall conifers at times of low transpiration, although a different sampling technique was used. If the data in the present study and those supporting it are typical, they imply a re-evaluation of either the use of the pressure chamber to estimate water potential or the present theories describing water transport in tall trees. PMID:16657786

  4. Investigation and management of tall stature.

    PubMed

    Davies, Justin H; Cheetham, Tim

    2014-08-01

    Referral for an assessment of tall stature is much less common than for short stature. Although the commonest cause is an underlying familial tendency to tallness, there are important disorders that should be considered at the initial assessment. Distinguishing these conditions from normal variations of growth is the key objective when managing the child and family. In some children, further targeted investigations will be needed and in rare instances intervention to limit final height may be appropriate. This article discusses a structured approach to the assessment and management of a child with tall stature. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Solar tower enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huiqiang; Xu, Yan; Acosta-Iborra, Alberto; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are located in desert areas where the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) value is very high. Since water resource is scarcely available, mechanical draft cooing technology is commonly used, with power consumption of mechanical fans being approximately 2% of the total power generated. Today, there is only one solar power plant (Khi Solar One in South Africa) uses a condenser installed in a Natural Draft Cooling (NDC) tower that avoids the windage loss of water occurring in wet cooling towers. Although, Khi Solar One is a cavity receiver power tower, the receivers can be hung onto the NDC tower. This paper looks at a novel integration of a NDC tower into an external molten salt receiver of a solar power plant, which is one of a largest commercial molten salt tower in China, with 100MWe power capacity. In this configuration study, the NDC tower surrounds the concrete tower of the receiver concentrically. In this way, the receiver concrete tower is the central support of the NDC tower, which consists of cable networks that are fixed to the concrete tower and suspended at a certain height over the floor. The cable networks support the shell of the NDC tower. To perform a preliminary analysis of the behavior of this novel configuration, two cases of numerical simulation in three dimensional (3D) models have been solved using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, ANSYS Fluent 6.3. The results show that the integration of the NDC tower into an external central receiver tower is feasible. Additionally, the total heat transfer rate is not reduced but slightly increases when the molten salt receiver is in operation because of the additional natural draft induced by the high temperature of the receiver.

  6. Hexcrete Tower for Harvesting Wind Energy at Taller Hub Heights - Budget Period 2

    SciT

    Sritharan, Sri

    Interest in designing taller towers for wind energy production in the United States (U.S.) has been steadily growing. In May 2015, it was revealed that taller towers will make wind energy production a reality in all 50 states, including some states that have nearly zero renewables in their energy portfolio. Facilitating wind energy production feasibility in all 50 states will no doubt contribute to increasing the electricity produced by wind from 4.5% in 2013 to a targeted scenario of 35% by 2050 in the Wind Vision report. This project focuses on the Hexcrete tower concept developed for tall towers usingmore » High Strength Concrete (HSC) and/or Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC). Among other benefits, the Hexcrete concept overcomes transportation and logistical challenges, thus facilitating construction of towers with hub heights of 100-m (328-ft) and higher. The goal of this project is to facilitate widespread deployment of Hexcrete towers for harvesting wind energy at 120 to 140-m (394 to 459-ft) hub heights and reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of wind energy production in the U.S. The technical scope of the project includes detailed design and optimization of at least three wind turbine towers using the Hexcrete concept together with experimental validation and LCOE analyses and development of a commercialization plan.« less

  7. Tower Illuminance Model

    SciT

    Ho, Clifford K.; Sims, Cianan

    TIM is a real-time interactive concentrating solar field simulation. TIM models a concentrating tower (receiver), heliostat field, and potential reflected glare based on user-specified parameters such as field capacity, tower height and location. TIM provides a navigable 3D interface, allowing the user to “fly” around the field to determine the potential glare hazard from off-target heliostats. Various heliostat aiming strategies are available for specifying how heliostats behave when in standby mode. Strategies include annulus, point-per-group, up-aiming and single-point-focus. Additionally, TIM includes an avian path feature for approximating the irradiance and feather temperature of a bird flying through the field airspace.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife detection and observation technologies at a solar power tower facility

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Cryan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Michael J.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife. PMID:27462989

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Robert H; Valdez, Ernest W; Preston, Todd M; Wellik, Michael J; Cryan, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux") in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world's largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  11. Does turgor limit growth in tall trees?

    D.R. Woodruff; B.J. Bond; F.C. Meinzer

    2004-01-01

    The gravitational component of water potential contributes a standing 0.01 MPa m1 to the xylem tension gradient in plants. In tall trees, this contribution can significantly reduce the water potential near the tree tops. The turgor of cells in buds and leaves is expected to decrease in direct proportion with leaf water potential along a height gradient unless osmotic...

  12. Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir

    Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner

    1980-01-01

    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....

  13. Ergovaline recovery from digested tall fescue seedheads

    Seed heads typically contain high concentrations of ergot alkaloids, which makes them a highly toxic source of ergot alkaloids. Unfortunately, cattle selectively graze tall fescue seedheads. Seedheads were collected from pastures grazed by Angus-cross steers from early-May until mid-June. Pasture...

  14. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat

    Publications CTBUH Journal Awards Books Technical Guides Research Reports Other Books IJHRB Research Journal TBUH Chinese Journal Virtual Research Journal Conference Publications Posters Awards Global Awards Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat About CTBUH Organization & People Membership

  15. Eiffel Tower Plume

    2015-08-19

    This still image from an animation from NASA GSFC Solar Dynamics Observatory shows a single plume of plasma, many times taller than the diameter of Earth, spewing streams of particles for over two days Aug. 17-19, 2015 before breaking apart. At times, its shape resembled the Eiffel Tower. Other lesser plumes and streams of particles can be seen dancing above the solar surface as well. The action was observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19875

  16. In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röckmann, Thomas; Eyer, Simon; van der Veen, Carina; Popa, Maria E.; Tuzson, Béla; Monteil, Guillaume; Houweling, Sander; Harris, Eliza; Brunner, Dominik; Fischer, Hubertus; Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brand, Willi A.; Necki, Jaroslav M.; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    High-precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS)-based technique for in situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of (+0.25 ± 0.04) ‰ for δ13C and (-4.3 ± 0.4) ‰ for δD. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high-precision and high-temporal-resolution dataset not only reveals the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for the entire European domain.

  17. In-situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röckmann, Thomas; Eyer, Simon; van der Veen, Carina; E Popa, Maria; Tuzson, Béla; Monteil, Guillaume; Houweling, Sander; Harris, Eliza; Brunner, Dominik; Fischer, Hubertus; Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brand, Willi A.; Necki, Jaroslav M.; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    High precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) based technique for in-situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in-situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of +0.05 ± 0.03 ‰ for δ13C-CH4 and -3.6 ± 0.4 ‰ for δD-CH4. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high precision and temporal resolution dataset does not only reveal the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site, but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget, when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for the entire European domain.

  18. Landscape-level terrestrial methane flux observed from a very tall tower

    Ankur R. Desai; Ke Xu; Hanqin Tian; Peter Weishampel; Jonathan Thom; Dan Baumann; Arlyn E. Andrews; Druce D. Cook; Jennifer Y. King; Randall Kolka

    2015-01-01

    Simulating the magnitude and variability of terrestrial methane sources and sinks poses a challenge to ecosystem models because the biophysical and biogeochemical processes that lead to methane emissions from terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are, by their nature, episodic and spatially disjunct. As a consequence, model predictions of regional methane emissions...

  19. Verifying the UK agricultural N2O emission inventory with tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnell, E. J.; Meneguz, E.; Skiba, U. M.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Cardenas, L. M.; Arnold, T.; Manning, A.; Dragosits, U.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a key greenhouse gas (GHG), with a global warming potential 300 times greater than that of CO2. N2O is emitted from a variety of sources, predominantly from agriculture. Annual UK emission estimates are reported, to comply with government commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UK N2O inventory follows internationally agreed protocols and emission estimates are derived by applying emission factors to estimates of (anthropogenic) emission sources. This approach is useful for comparing anthropogenic emissions from different countries, but does not capture regional differences and inter-annual variability associated with environmental factors (such as climate and soils) and agricultural management. In recent years, the UK inventory approach has been refined to include regional information into its emissions estimates, in an attempt to reduce uncertainty. This study attempts to assess the difference between current published inventory methodology (default IPCC methodology) and an alternative approach, which incorporates the latest thinking, using data from recent work. For 2013, emission estimates made using the alternative approach were 30 % lower than those made using default IPCC methodology, due to the use of lower emission factors suggested by recent projects (Defra projects: AC0116, AC0213 and MinNO). The 2013 emissions estimates were disaggregated on a monthly basis using agricultural management (e.g. sowing dates), climate data and soil properties. The temporally disaggregated emission maps were used as input to the Met Office atmospheric dispersion model NAME, for comparison with measured N2O concentrations, at three observation stations (Tacolneston, E. England; Ridge Hill, W. England; Mace Head, W. Ireland) in the UK DECC network (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change). The Mace Head site, situated on the west coast of Ireland, was used to establish baseline concentrations. The trends in the modelled data were found to correspond with the observational data trends, with concentration peaks coinciding with periods of land spreading of manures and fertiliser application. The model run using the default IPCC methodology was found to correspond with the observed data more closely than the alternative approach.

  20. Verifying the UK N_{2}O emission inventory with tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnell, Ed; Meneguz, Elena; Skiba, Ute; Misselbrook, Tom; Cardenas, Laura; Arnold, Tim; Manning, Alistair; Dragosits, Ulli

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a key greenhouse gas (GHG), with a global warming potential ˜300 times greater than that of CO2. N2O is emitted from a variety of sources, predominantly from agriculture. Annual UK emission estimates are reported, to comply with government commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UK N2O inventory follows internationally agreed protocols and emission estimates are derived by applying emission factors to estimates of (anthropogenic) emission sources. This approach is useful for comparing anthropogenic emissions from different countries, but does not capture regional differences and inter-annual variability associated with environmental factors (such as climate and soils) and agricultural management. In recent years, the UK inventory approach has been refined to include regional information into its emissions estimates (e.g. agricultural management data), in an attempt to reduce uncertainty. This study attempts to assess the difference between current published inventory methodology (default IPCC methodology) and a revised approach, which incorporates the latest thinking, using data from recent work. For 2013, emission estimates made using the revised approach were 30 % lower than those made using default IPCC methodology, due to the use of lower emission factors suggested by recent projects (www.ghgplatform.org.uk, Defra projects: AC0116, AC0213 and MinNO). The 2013 emissions estimates were disaggregated on a monthly basis using agricultural management (e.g. sowing dates), climate data and soil properties. The temporally disaggregated emission maps were used as input to the Met Office atmospheric dispersion model NAME, for comparison with measured N2O concentrations, at three observation stations (Tacolneston, E England; Ridge Hill, W England; Mace Head, W Ireland) in the UK DECC network (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change). The Mace Head site, situated on the west coast of Ireland, was used to establish baseline concentrations. The trends in the modelled data were found to fit with the observational data trends, with concentration peaks coinciding with periods of fertiliser application and land spreading of manures. The model run using the 'experimental' approach was found to give a closer agreement with the observed data.

  1. Representativeness analysis of CO_{2} profiles near a tall tower and from commercial airliner programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huilin; Katrynski, Krzysztof; Nedelec, Philippe; Machida, Toshinobu; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Sawa, Yousuke; Gerbig, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Aircraft profiles for atmospheric trace gases have been collected using both rental aircraft and from commercial airliners. High-accuracy regular in situ CO2 measurements aboard rental aircraft over northeast Poland have been upgraded since August 2008. During each flight, two profiles are taken with a spatial separation of 20 kilometers. Until now, 74 profiles with continuous CO2 have been collected. Meanwhile, aircraft profiles for carbon monoxide (CO) have been made aboard commercial airliners within MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone, water vapor, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides by AIrbus in-service airCraft) and for CO2 within CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases byAIrLiner) respectively. Starting from 2011, IAGOS-ERI (Integration of routine Aircraft measurements into a Global Observing System - European Research Infrastructure) will provide continuous CO2, CH4 and H2O measurements using instruments deployed aboard commercial airliners, with many profiles during take-off and landing over airports distributed all over the globe. These profiles contain not only vertical gradients but also regionally representative information. It is of importance to investigate how these profiles could be used for applications such as satellite validation and inverse modeling to retrieve surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of greenhouse gases at regional to continental scales. Especially profiles from commercial airliners near major cities, which are potentially influenced by local fossil fuel emissions, need to be assessed with respect to their regional representativeness. We analyzed CO profiles over Frankfurt airport from the MOZAIC and CO2 profiles from CONTRAIL using STILT (the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model) combined with a high resolution CO emission map in central Europe. Combining STILT footprints (maps of sensitivities to upstream surface fluxes) with high resolution emission inventories allows to attribute the contribution fossil fuel emissions to local vs. regional sources. In contrast, we analyzed CO2 profiles over northeast Poland in a similar way, where fossil fuel emissions are insignificant. The representativeness analysis provides information on under which circumstances such profiles can be used for potential applications, i.e. satellite validation and inverse modeling. The analysis suggests that a combined measurement of CO2 and CO significantly improves the usability of the regular profiles, where CO serves as the emission tracer.

  2. Evaluating the UK's carbon budget using a dense network of tall-tower observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, E.; Rigby, M. L.; Manning, A.; Lunt, M. F.; Ganesan, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Stavert, A.; Stanley, K. M.; Williams, M. D.; Smallman, T. L.; Comyn-Platt, E.; Levy, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The UK has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050. Evaluating the UK's GHG emissions, and in particular those of carbon dioxide, is imperative to the UK's ability to track progress towards these goals. Making top-down estimates of regional carbon dioxide emissions is challenging due to the rapid temporal variability in the biogenic flux, and the co-location of anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a hierarchical Bayesian inverse modelling framework, which is able to estimate a yearly total (anthropogenic and biogenic) carbon dioxide budget for the UK. Using observations from a high-density GHG monitoring network, combined with high temporal resolution prior information and a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model (NAME, developed by the UK Met Office), we derive a net positive flux for the UK of 0.39 Pg/yr in 2014. We will compare the outcome of inversions that used prior information from two different biosphere models, CARDAMOM and JULES. This comparison helps to understand more about the biogenic processes contributing to the UK's carbon dioxide budget, limitations with different modelling approaches and the sensitivity of the inversion framework to the choice of prior. A better understanding of how the biogenic flux changes throughout the year can, in turn, help to improve the UK's anthropogenic carbon dioxide inventory by identifying times in the year when the anthropogenic signal may be possible to detect.

  3. An experimental investigation of wind flow over tall towers in staggered form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Proma; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    In this research work an experiment is conducted to see the effect of wind loading on square, pentagonal and Hexagonal shape cylinders in staggered form. The experiment is done in an open circuit wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 4.23×104 based on the face width of the cylinder across the flow direction. The flow velocity has been kept uniform throughout the experiment at 14.3 m/s. The test has been conducted for single cylinders first and then in staggered form. Angle of attack is chosen at a definite interval. The static pressure at different locations of the cylinder is measured by inclined multi-manometer. From the surface static pressure readings pressure coefficients are calculated first, then drag and lift coefficients are calculated using numerical Integration Method. These results will surely help engineers to design buildings with such shapes more efficiently. All the results are expressed in non-dimensional form, so they can be applied for prototype buildings and determine the wind loading at any wind speed on structures of similar external shapes.

  4. 2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, south sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  5. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    SciT

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions atmore » midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.« less

  6. Archaeoastronomy: the Newport Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penhallow, William

    1997-07-01

    The Newport Tower is a masonry structure of fieldstone about 28 feet high and 22 feet in diameter located near the top of a hill overlooking the harbor in Newport, Rhode Island. In essence it is a cylinder with Romanesque arches resting on eight pillars. The cylinder has three major openings as well as four smaller ones. On the inside there are eight indentations for beams on a first floor and four for a second,. In addition there are seven niches and a fireplace on the inside. A careful photogrammetric survey of the tower done by the Technical University of Denmark for the Danish National Museum provided data for the calculation of declinations, azimuths and altitudes associated with possible pairs of features. Numerous alignments involving the Sun and Moon indicate an emphasis on determining the location of the nodes of the Moon's orbit. Accurate determination of true north by observing Polaris at upper culmination is evident. Possible observations of Sirius are indicated. These results provide strong evidence that astronomy was involved in the design and use of this intriguing structure first mentioned in Governor Arnold's will in 1677. Further study is clearly warranted. This paper was published in the New England Antiquities Research Association Journal, p. 44, 1994

  7. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  8. Element accumulation in tall fescue and alfalfa

    SciT

    Stucky, D.J.; Newman, T.S.

    This study was initiated to examine the effect of three application rates of dried anaerobically digested sludge on two different soil media on the establishment, yield, duration, and element accumulation in tall fescue and alfalfa. In a greenhouse study, acid strip-mine spoil and agricultural soil were used to compare plant growth in sewage-amended and untreated media. Sludge was applied at 0, 314, and 627 metric tons/hectare to the agricultural soil control and the strip mine spoil. Plant yields were significantly higher for strip-mine spoil amended with 627 metric tons/ha and for agricultural soil amended with 314 and 627 metric tons/ha.more » Concentrations of Mn, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Cu were measured in plants and soils. Concentrations of Mn, Zn, Ni, and Cd in tall fescue and alfalfa grown in strip-mine spoils were higher at higher sludge application rates. Sludge application rate did not affect Cu uptake. Concentrations of Mn, Zn, Ni, and Cd in tall fescue were highest during the 180 toese is the fluctuation in nutrient salt concentrations:agreement of experimental and calculated data is obtton beam.« less

  9. Eiffel Tower Plume

    2015-08-31

    A single plume of plasma, many times taller than the diameter of Earth, rose up from the Sun, twisted and spun around, all the while spewing streams of particles for over two days (Aug. 17-19, 2015) before breaking apart. At times, its shape resembled the Eiffel Tower. Other lesser plumes and streams of particles can be seen dancing above the solar surface as well. The action was observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Credit: NASA/Goddard/SDO NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. LDSD on the Launch Tower

    2015-06-05

    NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) hangs from a launch tower at U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii. The saucer-shaped vehicle will test two devices for landing heavy payloads on Mars: an inflatable donut-shaped device and a supersonic parachute. The launch tower helps link the vehicle to a balloon; once the balloon floats up, the vehicle is released from the tower and the balloon carries it to high altitudes. The vehicle's rocket takes it to even higher altitudes, to the top of the stratosphere, where the supersonic test begins. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19343

  11. SO 2 concentrations near tall stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, Robert A.

    A study was conducted to investigate plume dispersion during convective (stability class A) conditions. The purpose of the study was to determine if high concentrations occur near sources (1.2-1.8 km) with tall stacks and to identify the plume behavior during these episodes. The study was conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Paradise Steam Plant. The highest concentrations were measured near the source during wind shear capping conditions, which normally correspond to stability class B or C conditions. The measured data are compared with results obtained using a convective boundary layer model and a steady-state Gaussian model.

  12. PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan motors in place. Fan's propeller blades (not in view) rotate within lower portion of vents. Inlet pipe is a left of view. Contractor's construction buildings in view to right. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: June 30, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3781 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. You're a What?: Tower Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilorio, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the role and functions of a tower technician. A tower technician climbs up the face of telecommunications towers to remove, install, test, maintain, and repair a variety of equipment--from antennas to light bulbs. Tower technicians also build shelters and radiofrequency shields for electronic equipment, lay…

  14. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  15. The Design of Akhmat Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, Sara; Stochetti, Alejandro; Cerone, Marc

    2018-03-01

    Akhmat Tower is a 435m supertall building designed by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture. It is currently under construction in the city of Grozny, in the Chechen Republic, in the North Caucasus region of Russia. The design of the tower was done during a collaborative process by a multi-disciplinary architectural and engineering team, based primarily in the United States and Russia. During this process, the designers considered many factors including, most primarily, the cultural and historical context, the structural requirements given the high seismicity of the region, and the client's programmatic needs. The resulting crystalline-shaped tower is both an aesthetic statement and a performative architectural solution which will be a new landmark for Chechnya. "The Design of Akhmat Tower" describes in detail the design process including structural considerations, exterior wall design, building program, interior design, the tuned mass damper, and the use of building information modeling.

  16. Mucinous breast carcinoma with tall columnar cells.

    PubMed

    Tsoukalas, N; Kiakou, M; Tolia, M; Kostakis, I D; Galanopoulos, M; Nakos, G; Tryfonopoulos, D; Kyrgias, G; Koumakis, G

    2018-05-01

    Mucinous carcinoma of the breast represents 1%-4% of all breast cancers. The World Health Organization classification divides this type of tumour into three different subtypes: mucinous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma with tall columnar cells (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and columnar cell mucinous carcinoma) and signet ring cell carcinoma. A 74-year-old woman presented a tumour with inflammatory features in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast, 7 cm in diameter. The core biopsy showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no specific type. The tumour-node-metastasis clinical staging was T4cN3M0 (Stage IIIC). She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, underwent left mastectomy with radical axillary resection and subsequently received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed two solid tumors in the tail of Spence, which corresponded to adenocarcinoma with high columnar cells. The patient died 16 months after the diagnosis, suffering from pulmonary metastases and anterior chest wall infiltration. A review of the literature revealed only 21 reports of mucinous carcinoma of the breast with tall columnar cells, including our case. This is only the third time that the specific histological type of columnar cell mucinous carcinoma has been reported in the literature.

  17. Seismic Analysis of Intake Towers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Experiment Station (WES) under the sponsorship of the Directorate of Civil Works of the Office, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army. The work was funded under...the structural capacity of the intake S,-tower are contained in Engineer Technical Letter (ETL) 1110-2-265 " Civil Systems Incorporated, "Dynamic...Berkeley, Calif. " ___ 1975. "Earthquake Resistant Design of Intake-Outlet Towers," Journal of the Structural Division_ American Society of Civil

  18. The Physics of Shot Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: "How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height…

  19. Seismic risk assessment of Trani's Cathedral bell tower in Apulia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaferio, Mariella; Foti, Dora

    2017-09-01

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of slender historical buildings; these structures, in fact, may manifest a high risk with respect to seismic actions as usually they have been designed to resist to gravitational loads only, and are characterized by a high flexibility. To evaluate this behavior, the bell tower of the Trani's Cathedral is investigated. The tower is 57 m tall and is characterized by an unusual building typology, i.e., the walls are composed of a concrete core coupled with external masonry stones. The dynamic parameters and the mechanical properties of the tower have been evaluated on the basis of an extensive experimental campaign that made use of ambient vibration tests and ground penetrating radar tests. Such data have been utilized to calibrate a numerical model of the examined tower. A linear static analysis, a dynamic analysis and a nonlinear static analysis have been carried out on such model to evaluate the displacement capacity of the tower and the seismic risk assessment in accordance with the Italian guidelines.

  20. SWECS tower dynamics analysis methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, A. D.; Sexton, J. H.; Butterfield, C. P.; Thresher, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Several different tower dynamics analysis methods and computer codes were used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both guyed and freestanding wind turbine towers. These analysis methods are described and the results for two types of towers, a guyed tower and a freestanding tower, are shown. The advantages and disadvantages in the use of and the accuracy of each method are also described.

  1. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  2. Feeding soyhulls on toxic tall fescue is option for stockers

    Poor weight gain and thriftiness of wean beef calves on toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue has resulted in most the 15 million hectares of tall fescue in the USA to be utilized for cow-calf and not stocker production. An article was written that discusses results of a grazing experiment with toxi...

  3. Registration and Release of Syn1RR tall fescue

    The Agricultural Research Service of the United States DepaRRment of Agriculture announces the release of the new tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] cultivar Syn1RR. Syn1RR is a rust tolerant tall fescue cultivar that exhibits...

  4. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  5. Larger than Life: Reading and Writing Tall Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    The genre of tall tales is characterized by fictional, often intentionally ridiculous, stories that provide a reason for or origin of a natural phenomenon. Tall tales are often based on characters who are unusually adept or powerful; they are particularly appealing to children who are cognitively capable of understanding the tongue-in-cheek humor…

  6. Tall girls: the social shaping of a medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce M; Howell, Joel D

    2006-10-01

    During the latter half of the 20th century, estrogen therapy was administered to prevent otherwise healthy girls with tall stature from becoming tall adults by inhibiting further linear growth. We explore how decisions to treat tall girls with estrogen were influenced by both scientific knowledge and sociologic norms. Estrogen therapy represented the logical application of scientific knowledge regarding the role of estrogen for closure of the growth plates, but it also reflected prevailing societal and political beliefs about what it meant to be a tall girl. We discuss the rise and fall in popularity of this therapy and suggest that insight into the present-day treatment of short stature can be gained by comparing the use of estrogen therapy for tall girls with the use of growth hormone therapy for short boys. We suggest that this case study illustrates how scientific knowledge is always created and applied within a particular social context.

  7. Mitigating shear lag in tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Himanshu; Goliya, Ravindra K.

    2015-09-01

    As the height of building increases, effect of shear lag also becomes considerable in the design of high-rise buildings. In this paper, shear lag effect in tall buildings of heights, i.e., 120, 96, 72, 48 and 36 stories of which aspect ratio ranges from 3 to 10 is studied. Tube-in-tube structural system with façade bracing is used for designing the building of height 120 story. It is found that bracing system considerably reduces the shear lag effect and hence increases the building stiffness to withstand lateral loads. Different geometric patterns of bracing system are considered. The best effective geometric configuration of bracing system is concluded in this study. Lateral force, as wind load is applied on the buildings as it is the most dominating lateral force for such heights. Wind load is set as per Indian standard code of practice IS 875 Part-3. For analysis purpose SAP 2000 software program is used.

  8. Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father

  9. The development of the architectural form of a tower derived from a traditional and philosophical symbol, realized by solutions of high-class technologies. The case of the Bitexco Financial Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Khai, Tran

    2018-03-01

    The Bitexco Financial Tower, majestically standing tall in the heart of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, rejects the box-shaped, abstract forms of modernism, incorporating an innovative idea of contemporary architecture. Based on the inspiration from the Bitexco Group, a renowned architect designedthe tower that became an iconic landmark of the city in the form of a lotus bud, one of the most iconic symbols of Vietnamese culture since ancient times. High class structural system solution designed by top international professional teams enable the building to rise high with its graceful, statuesque design of the lotus flower shape. CNNGo recently ranked the Bitexco Financial Tower fifth in their listing of the world's 20 most-iconic skyscrapers.

  10. Survey of power tower technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Dasgupta, S.

    1980-05-01

    The history of the power tower programs is reviewed, and attention is given to the current state of heliostat, receiver, and storage design. Economic considerations are discussed, as are simulation studies and implications. Also dealt with are alternate applications for the power tower and some financing and energy aspects of solar electric conversion. It is noted that with a national commitment to solar energy, the power tower concept could generate 40 GW of electricity and double this amount in process heat by the year 2000. Calculations show an energy amplification factor of 20 for solar energy plants; that is, the ratio of the electric energy produced over the lifetime of a power plant to the thermal energy required to produce the plant.

  11. Insect Feeding Deterrents in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue †

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. C.; Dahlman, D. L.; Siegel, M. R.; Bush, L. P.; Latch, G. C. M.; Potter, D. A.; Varney, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of an endophytic fungus, Acremonium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) deterred aphid feeding by Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum. Both species of aphid were unable to survive when confined to endophyte-infected tall fescue plants. Feeding deterrents and toxic factors to R. padi and Oncopeltus fasciatus, large milkweed bug, were primarily associated with a methanol extract obtained when endophyte-infected tall fescue seed was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were determined to be 30 to 100 times greater in the methanol extract than in the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. PMID:16346751

  12. Tower-supported solar-energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple-collector tower system supports three receiver/concentrators that absorb solar energy reflected from surrounding field of heliostats. System overcomes disadvantages of tower-supported collectors. Booms can be lowered during heavy winds to protect arms and collectors.

  13. Reusable Material for Drop Tower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    R3 Buna-N Rubber ............................................................................................... 32 B-3. R5 EPDM Rubber ...Butyl Rubber . Figure B-2. R3 Buna-N Rubber . Figure B-3. R5 EPDM Rubber . Figure B-4. R6 Gel Rubber . UNCLASSIFIED 33...11 Current Drop Tower Material & Setup .......................................................... 11 Bowling Ball Rubber Material Sample Test

  14. Tall trends: quantifying the skyscraper phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabel, Jason

    2018-03-01

    The world continues to witness an explosion of growth in the number of 200-plus-meter skyscrapers, with three straight years of record-breaking completions (from 2014 to 2016) and a 441 percent increase on the total number of such towers in the 21st century, from 265 in 2000 to 1,168 at the end of 2016. Fueled largely by strong economic performance, much of this activity is centered in Asia and the Middle East, upending longstanding geopolitical trends. China in particular has dominated worldwide skyscraper construction, accounting for two-thirds of all completions in the last calendar year (2016). Further, the traditional role of the skyscraper has diversified, with residential and mixed-use buildings accounting for a greater share of 200-plus-meter buildings. This paper explores these interconnected trends in detail and analyzes both the causes and impacts of an evolving skyscraper industry.

  15. Propagation of seismic waves in tall buildings

    Safak, E.

    1998-01-01

    A discrete-time wave propagation formulation of the seismic response of tall buildings is introduced. The building is modeled as a layered medium, similar to a layered soil medium, and is subjected to vertically propagating seismic shear waves. Soil layers and the bedrock under the foundation are incorporated in the formulation as additional layers. Seismic response is expressed in terms of the wave travel times between the layers, and the wave reflection and transmission coefficients at the layer interfaces. The equations account for the frequency-dependent filtering effects of the foundation and floor masses. The calculation of seismic response is reduced to a pair of simple finite-difference equations for each layer, which can be solved recursively starting from the bedrock. Compared to the commonly used vibration formulation, the wave propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplified calculations, better representation of damping, ability to account for the effects of the soil layers under the foundation, and better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples presented show the versatility of the method. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and narrow window openings with 10-foot scale near center, looking south. - Bower Building, 409-413 East Weber Avenue, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  17. Tall shrub layer biomass in conifer plantations in northeastern Minnesota.

    Lewis F. Ohmann

    1982-01-01

    Provides estimates of biomass (pounds/acre) for tall shrub species in 53 conifer plantations in northeastern Minnesota. The estimates are analyzed by plantation age and silvicultural practices used to establish and release the plantations.

  18. Tall fescue ergot alkaloids are vasoactive in equine vasculature

    Mares grazing endophyte-infected (Epichloë coenophiala) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) typically exhibit reproductive dysfunction rather than problems associated with peripheral vasoconstriction as a primary sign of the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Research using Doppler ultrasonography demonstrate...

  19. What treatment for a child with tall stature?

    PubMed

    Edouard, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Tall stature is statistically defined as a height standard deviation score (SDS) above 2 for a given age, sex and population group. The most common cause of tall stature is constitutional (often familial) tall stature. However, underlying endocrine or genetic disorders must be considered as some of them may require specific treatment or management. In constitutional tall stature, healthy children are referred to discuss treatment aiming at reducing adult height. The indications of treatment are rare and usually discussed in girls with extremely tall stature (height SDS>4, corresponding to 185cm in girls). The treatment options for tall children are limited and concerns have been raised about their long-term safety. Indeed, recent studies have suggested that high-dose estrogens in adolescent girls may be associated with an increased risk of infertility, as well as increased risk of cancer. Surgical epiphysiodesis has also been reported to reduce adult height but this invasive procedure in healthy children can be questionable and further data on its safety profile are required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. The shape of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Joseph

    2002-02-01

    The distinctive shape of the Eiffel Tower is based on simple physics and is designed so that the maximum torque created by the wind is balanced by the torque due to the Tower's weight. We use this idea to generate an equation for the shape of the Tower. The solution depends only on the width of the base and the maximum wind pressure. We parametrize the wind pressure and reproduce the shape of the Tower. We also discuss some of the Tower's interesting history and characteristics.

  1. Growth and development of spring towers at Shiqiang, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the world, high artesian pressures in hydrothermal areas have led to the growth of tall spring towers that have their vents at their summits. The factors that control their development and formative precipitates are poorly understood because these springs, irrespective of location, are mostly inactive. Spring towers found at Shiqiang (Yunnan Province, China), which are up to 4 m high and 3 m in diameter, are formed largely of calcite and aragonite crystal bushes, euhedral calcite crystals and coated grains with alternating Fe-poor and Fe-rich zones, calcite rafts, and cements formed of various combinations of calcite, aragonite, strontianite, Mg-Si reticulate, needle fiber calcite, calcified and non-calcified microbes, diatoms, and insects. Collectively, the limestones that form the towers can be divided into (1) Group A that are friable, porous and form the cores of the towers and have δ18OSMOW values of + 15.7 to + 19.7‰ (average 17.8‰) and δ13CPDB values of + 5.1 to + 6.9‰ (average 5.9‰), and (2) Group B that are hard and well lithified and found largely around the vents and the tower sides, and have δ18OSMOW values of + 13.0 to + 22.0‰ (average 17.6‰) and δ13CPDB values of + 1.4 to + 3.6‰ (average 2.6‰). The precipitates and the isotopic values indicate that these were thermogene springs. Growth of the Shiqiang spring towers involved (1) Phase IA when precipitation of calcite and aragonite bushes formed the core of the tower and Phase IB when calcite, commonly Fe-rich, was precipitated locally, (2) Phase II that involved the precipitation of white cements, formed of calcite, aragonite, strontianite, and Mg-Si reticulate coatings in cavities amid the Phase I precipitates, and (3) Phase III, which formed probably after spring activity ceased, when needle-fiber calcite was precipitated and the mounds were invaded by microbes (some now calcified), diatoms, and insects. At various times during this complex history, pore waters mediated

  2. Maintenance of carbohydrate transport in tall trees.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica A; Beecher, Sierra D; Clerx, Laura; Gersony, Jessica T; Knoblauch, Jan; Losada, Juan M; Jensen, Kaare H; Knoblauch, Michael; Holbrook, N Michele

    2017-12-01

    Trees present a critical challenge to long-distance transport because as a tree grows in height and the transport pathway increases in length, the hydraulic resistance of the vascular tissue should increase. This has led many to question whether trees can rely on a passive transport mechanism to move carbohydrates from their leaves to their roots. Although species that actively load sugars into their phloem, such as vines and herbs, can increase the driving force for transport as they elongate, it is possible that many trees cannot generate high turgor pressures because they do not use transporters to load sugar into the phloem. Here, we examine how trees can maintain efficient carbohydrate transport as they grow taller by analysing sieve tube anatomy, including sieve plate geometry, using recently developed preparation and imaging techniques, and by measuring the turgor pressures in the leaves of a tall tree in situ. Across nine deciduous species, we find that hydraulic resistance in the phloem scales inversely with plant height because of a shift in sieve element structure along the length of individual trees. This scaling relationship seems robust across multiple species despite large differences in plate anatomy. The importance of this scaling becomes clear when phloem transport is modelled using turgor pressures measured in the leaves of a mature red oak tree. These pressures are of sufficient magnitude to drive phloem transport only in concert with structural changes in the phloem that reduce transport resistance. As a result, the key to the long-standing mystery of how trees maintain phloem transport as they increase in size lies in the structure of the phloem and its ability to change hydraulic properties with plant height.

  3. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papasin, Richard; Gawdiak, Yuri; Maluf, David A.; Leidich, Christopher; Tran, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    Remote Tower Sensor Systems (RTSS) are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration). RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to realtime airport conditions and aircraft status.

  4. Ozone Treatment For Cooling Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwelder, Rick; Baldwin, Leroy V.; Feeney, Ellen S.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents results of study of cooling tower in which water treated with ozone instead of usual chemical agents. Bacteria and scale reduced without pollution and at low cost. Operating and maintenance costs with treatment about 30 percent of those of treatment by other chemicals. Corrosion rates no greater than with other chemicals. Advantage of ozone, even though poisonous, quickly detected by smell in very low concentrations.

  5. Update on the Purdue University 2-second Drop Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collicott, Steven

    an update on progress for the micro-gravity community. The most noticeable current activity is testing of the air-bag decelerator. The tower is one that will use a free-falling experiment inside of a drag shield to avoid most aerodynamic drag. The airbag is designed from experiences of others yet the small, triangular room in which the tower terminates imposes challenges. The airbag is approximately 1.5m diameter and 1.5m tall. Initial testing led to a desire to increase vent area, and just this week the bag has returned from the shop that was modifying it. On-board computer, battery packs, lighting, and cameras have been acquired. Thanks to Lockheed Martin, one camera is 500 frames per second with 1.3 million 12-bit gray scale pixels per frame. The Spincraft company donated steel hemisphere-cylinders to serve as the nose of the drag shield. Wind tunnel and CFD modeling of the drag shield has been performed by Purdue undergraduate aerospace students. Currently the drag shield structure and experiment package structure are being design and analyzed. The experiment volume is approximately a cylinder 0.45m diameter and 0.6m tall. Tower operation is intended to commence in fall 2010 with inert package drops at full mass and full height. Developing the operations procedures, especially operational safety, are the goals of this work. First science is then expected in the winter. References 1. Y. Chen, "A Study of Capillary Flow in a Vane-wall Gap in Zero Gravity," Ph.D. thesis, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University. August 2003. 2. Y. Chen and S. H. Collicott, "Investigation of the Symmetric Wetting of a Vane-Wall Gap in Propellant Tanks," AIAA Journal, 42, No. 2, pp. 305-314, February 2004. 3. Y. Chen, and S. H. Collicott, "Experimental Study on the Capillary Flow in a Vane-Wall Gap Geometry," AIAA Journal, 43, No. 11, pp. 2395-2403, November, 2005. 4. Y. Chen and S. H. Collicott, "Study of Wetting in an Asymmetrical Vane-Wall Gap in Propellant Tanks

  6. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciT

    Garrett, Alfred; Parker, Matthew J.; Villa-Aleman, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of themore » six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.« less

  7. 'Towers in the Tempest' Computer Animation Submission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirah, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The following describes a computer animation that has been submitted to the ACM/SIGGRAPH 2008 computer graphics conference: 'Towers in the Tempest' clearly communicates recent scientific research into how hurricanes intensify. This intensification can be caused by a phenomenon called a 'hot tower.' For the first time, research meteorologists have run complex atmospheric simulations at a very fine temporal resolution of 3 minutes. Combining this simulation data with satellite observations enables detailed study of 'hot towers.' The science of 'hot towers' is described using: satellite observation data, conceptual illustrations, and a volumetric atmospheric simulation data. The movie starts by showing a 'hot tower' observed by NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft's three dimensional precipitation radar data of Hurricane Bonnie. Next, the dynamics of a hurricane and the formation of 'hot towers' are briefly explained using conceptual illustrations. Finally, volumetric cloud, wind, and vorticity data from a supercomputer simulation of Hurricane Bonnie are shown using volume techniques such as ray marching.

  8. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  9. 1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, south southeast and east northeast sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  10. 2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, north northwest and west southwest sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  11. Synergistic antileukemic therapies in NOTCH1-induced T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Qin, Yue; Herranz, Daniel; Bansal, Mukesh; Girardi, Tiziana; Paietta, Elisabeth; Tallman, Martin S.; Rowe, Jacob M.; Califano, Andrea; Ferrando, Adolfo A.

    2017-01-01

    The Notch1 gene is a major oncogenic driver and therapeutic target in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, inhibition of NOTCH signaling with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) has shown limited antileukemic activity in clinical trials. Here we performed an expression-based virtual screening to identify highly active antileukemic drugs that synergize with NOTCH1 inhibition in T-ALL. Among these, withaferin A demonstrated the strongest cytotoxic and GSI-synergistic antileukemic effects in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, network perturbation analyses showed eIF2A-phosphorylation–mediated inhibition of protein translation as a critical mediator of the antileukemic effects of withaferin A and its interaction with NOTCH1 inhibition. Overall, these results support a role for anti-NOTCH1 therapies and protein translation inhibitor combinations in the treatment of T-ALL. PMID:28174276

  12. Therapeutic targeting of NOTCH1 signaling in T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Palomero, Teresa; Ferrando, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    The recent identification of activating mutations in NOTCH1 in the majority of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) has brought major interest towards targeting the NOTCH signaling pathway in this disease. Small molecule γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) which block a critical proteolytic step required for NOTCH1 activation can effectively block the activity of NOTCH1 mutant alleles. However, the clinical development of GSIs has been hampered by their low cytotoxicity against human T-ALL and the development of significant gastrointestinal toxicity derived from inhibition of NOTCH signaling in the gut. Improved understanding of the oncogenic mechanisms of NOTCH1 and the effects of NOTCH inhibition in leukemic cells and the intestinal epithelium are required for the design of effective anti-NOTCH1 therapies in T-ALL. PMID:19778842

  13. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  14. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. CUORE: The Three Towers Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodsell, Alison; Sparks, Laura

    2008-10-01

    CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) will be part of the next generation of detectors used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ). Located in Assergi, Italy at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), CUORE will be a large cryogenic bolometer composed of 988 tellurium dioxide (TeO2) detectors with a total mass of 750 kg, and will search for 0νββ in ^130Te. The intermediate upgrade, CUORE-0, first involves the disassembly of Cuoricino, CUORE's smaller counterpart in operation since 2003, and the readying of the Three Towers test, a diagnostic detector configuration. As the experiment will monitor the extremely rare event of 0νββ, all factors contributing to background need to be minimized to effectively increase the sensitivity. We assisted the LNGS researchers over the summer of 2008 by supporting R&D work with the Three Towers test to reduce the radioactive background of the experiment. Activities involved decontaminating the copper frame of radon daughters, and chemically etching and lapping the TeO2 crystals with nitric acid and silicon dioxide, respectively, to remove surface contaminants which contribute to background counts. This work was supported in part by NSF grant PHY- 0653284 and the California State Faculty Support Grant.

  16. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    DOEpatents

    Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  17. DETAIL OF VALVE TOWER SHOWING SLUICE GATE ON EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF VALVE TOWER SHOWING SLUICE GATE ON EAST SIDE OF TOWER. VIEW FACING WEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  19. Executive Summary : Tower Cab System Integration Analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-08-01

    This report summarizes the principal results of the study of the integration into the tower cab of the systems being developed under the Major Systems Development Program (MSDP). The impact of these systems on the tower cab is analyzed from several p...

  20. Tower-Related Major System Development Programs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-03-01

    This report is devoted to the present and near future states of the tower cab environment, addresses those MSDP systems which may have an impact on the current tower cab environment, systems and/or operations. The systems included are: Discrete Addre...

  1. Characterization of Current Tower Cab Environments

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-11-01

    This report describes the general tower cab environment in terms of: (a) the evolution of the tower cab, current cab classification and staffing levels, and the basic flow of ATC data relevant to cab operations, (b) a breakdown of functions performed...

  2. Energy conservation strategies, the ignored cooling towers

    SciT

    Burger, R.

    1997-06-01

    Because of their apparent lack of sophistication, cooling towers are usually considered orphans of the facilities operation. Historically, cooling towers have been neglected in refrigeration air conditioning systems, electric power generating stations, manufacturing plants, and chemical process plants. Operators are aware of the importance of their sophisticated equipment but, they take the apparently simple cooling towers and cold water returning for granted, Since the box looks sturdy and the fans are rotating, the operators think all is well and ignore the quality of water coming off the tower. A cooling tower is purchased for Design Conditions of performance which aremore » specified. Design Conditions relate to the volume of circulating water (GPM), hot water temperature (HWT), cold water temperature (CWT) discharge, and wet bulb temperature (WBT). The WBT consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity. After the tower is on line and the CWT becomes inadequate, many engineers look to solutions other than the obvious. All cooling towers are purchased to function at 100% of capability in accordance with Design Condition. In the real world of on-stream utilization, the level of operation is lower. It can be deficient as much as 30% due to a variety of reasons which are not necessarily due to the failure of the performance of the tower.« less

  3. Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation

    In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

  4. Tall shrub dynamics in northern Minnesota aspen and conifer forests.

    James C. Galogh; David F. Grigal

    1988-01-01

    Tall shrub dynamics were examined in upland stands in northern Minnesota. Mortality rates of shrub stems did not differ among the stands. Shrub stem regeneration did differ among the stands and was related to overstory characteristics, soil moisture, and soil nutrients. Stem density was regulated by annual regeneration.

  5. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  6. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME, METAL ROOF, AND CONCRETE WALKWAY AND STEP TO OPEN SIDE-ENTRY DOOR AT PHOTO ENTER. ORIGINAL DECORATIVE WOOD SHIPLAP SIDING ON UPPER END GABLE HAS BEEN COVERED WITH ASPHALT SHINGLES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  7. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  8. Modeling Manpower and Equipment Productivity in Tall Building Construction Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudumbai Krishnaswamy, Parthasarathy; Rajiah, Murugasan; Vasan, Ramya

    2017-12-01

    Tall building construction projects involve two critical resources of manpower and equipment. Their usage, however, widely varies due to several factors affecting their productivity. Currently, no systematic study for estimating and increasing their productivity is available. What is prevalent is the use of empirical data, experience of similar projects and assumptions. As tall building projects are here to stay and increase, to meet the emerging demands in ever shrinking urban spaces, it is imperative to explore ways and means of scientific productivity models for basic construction activities: concrete, reinforcement, formwork, block work and plastering for the input of specific resources in a mixed environment of manpower and equipment usage. Data pertaining to 72 tall building projects in India were collected and analyzed. Then, suitable productivity estimation models were developed using multiple linear regression analysis and validated using independent field data. It is hoped that the models developed in the study will be useful for quantity surveyors, cost engineers and project managers to estimate productivity of resources in tall building projects.

  9. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because...

  10. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum] induce a toxicosis in cattle that is a common problem in the southeastern USA. While these toxins are heavily concentrated within the seedheads, there is a lack of information on the degree th...

  11. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by livestock producers. While these toxins are often concentrated within the seedheads, there has...

  12. 1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL STRUCTURE IS THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING, AND THE TWO-STORY BRICK BUILDING WAS THE HEAT TREATING AND FORGING OFFICE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  14. Salt in the Air during the Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, A.; Keene, W. C.; Sander, R.; Bearekman, R.; Deegan, B.; Maben, J. R.; Warrick-Wriston, C.; Young, A.

    2011-12-01

    Bulk and size-segregated aerosol samples were collected 22 m AGL at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (40°N, 105°W, 1563 m ASL) from 18 February to 13 March 2011. Total concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Br and I in bulk samples were determined by neutron activation analysis. Ionic composition of all size-segregated and a subset of bulk samples was determined by ion chromatography of aqueous extracts. Mg, Al, V and Mn mass concentrations were highly correlated and present in ratios similar to those in Denver area surface soils. Na and Cl were less well correlated with these soil elements but, after correction for soil contributions, highly correlated with each other. Linear regression of non-soil Cl vs. non-soil Na yielded a slope of 1.69 ± 0.09 (95% C.I.; n = 173), a value between the mass ratios of sea salt (1.80) and halite (1.54). The median Na and Cl concentrations (6.8 and 6.6 nmol m-3 STP, respectively) were factors of 25 to 35 less than those typically measured in the marine boundary layer. Br and I were somewhat correlated and appeared to represent a third aerosol component. The average bulk Cl-:total Cl ratio was 0.99 ± 0.03 (n = 44) suggesting that essentially all aerosol chlorine was water-soluble. Na+ and Cl- mass distributions were bimodal with most of the masses (medians 75% and 78%, respectively, n = 45) in supermicrometer particles. Possible origins of the "salt" component will be discussed based on consideration of 5-day HYSPLIT back trajectories and other information on sampled air mass characteristics.

  15. An experimental study on the effect of wind load around tall towers of square and hexagonal shapes in staggered form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Proma; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Ali, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In this research work an experiment is conducted to observe the effect of wind load around square and hexagonal shaped cylinders in staggered form. The experiment is performed in an open circuit wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 4.23×104 based on the face width of the cylinder across the flow direction. The flow velocity has been kept uniform at 14.3 m/s throughout the experiment. The test is conducted for single cylinders first and then in staggered form. The cylinders are rotated to create different angles of attack and the angles are chosen at a definite interval. The static pressure readings are taken at different locations of the cylinder by inclined multi-manometers. From the surface static pressure readings pressure coefficients, drag coefficients and lift coefficients are calculated using numerical integration method. These results will surely help engineers to design buildings more stable against wind load. All the results are expressed in non-dimensional form, so that they can be applied for prototype structures.

  16. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  18. VALVE TOWER FROM HIGH GROUND NEAR APPROACH BRIDGE. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VALVE TOWER FROM HIGH GROUND NEAR APPROACH BRIDGE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 3. West elevation of Signal Tower. Delaware, Lackawanna & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West elevation of Signal Tower. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  20. 2. Signal Tower, looking east. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Signal Tower, looking east. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  1. Timing and rate of Chaparral treatment affects tall fescue seedhead development and pasture plant densities

    The herbicide Chaparral™ has been shown to suppress seedhead development in tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum) pastures and reduce the symptoms of tall fescue toxicosis in cattle. However, little is known about the logistics of herbicide treatment on tall fescue pastures. The objective of thi...

  2. 77 FR 19534 - Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA AGENCY... regulations on the Savannah River in Savannah, Georgia during the Savannah Tall Ships Challenge. The Savannah Tall Ships Challenge will take place from Thursday, May 3, 2012 through Monday, May 7, 2012...

  3. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  4. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  5. 77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY... Tall Ships Festival 2012. DATES: This rule is effective from July 6, 2012 until July 10, 2012... ``Special Local Regulations: Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI'' in the Federal...

  6. 77 FR 16974 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY... Island, for the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012. This action is necessary to provide for the safety..., during the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival on July 6-9, 2012. These temporary special local regulations...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

  9. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  10. Kinetic Space Towers and Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    The paper discusses a new revolutionary method for access to outer space. A cable stands up vertically and pulls up its payload to space with a maximum force determined by its strength. From the ground the cable is allowed to rise up to the required altitude. After this, one can climb to an altitude by this cable or deliver to altitude a required load. The paper shows this is possible and does not infringe on the law of gravity. The article contains the theory of the method and the computations for four projects for towers that are 4, 75, 225 and 160,000 km in height. The first three projects use conventional artificial fiber widely produced by current industry, while the fourth project uses nanotubes made in scientific laboratories. The paper also shows in a fifth project how this idea can be used to launch a load at high altitude.

  11. Airborne LIDAR point cloud tower inclination judgment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liang, Chen; zhengjun, Liu; jianguo, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Inclined transmission line towers for the safe operation of the line caused a great threat, how to effectively, quickly and accurately perform inclined judgment tower of power supply company safety and security of supply has played a key role. In recent years, with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a laser scanner, GPS, inertial navigation is one of the high-precision 3D Remote Sensing System in the electricity sector more and more. By airborne radar scan point cloud to visually show the whole picture of the three-dimensional spatial information of the power line corridors, such as the line facilities and equipment, terrain and trees. Currently, LIDAR point cloud research in the field has not yet formed an algorithm to determine tower inclination, the paper through the existing power line corridor on the tower base extraction, through their own tower shape characteristic analysis, a vertical stratification the method of combining convex hull algorithm for point cloud tower scarce two cases using two different methods for the tower was Inclined to judge, and the results with high reliability.

  12. Blasting response of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlyck, Lachlan; Hayes, Kieran; Caetano, Ryan; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    A finite element model of the Eiffel Tower was constructed using Strand7 software. The model replicates the existing tower, with dimensions justified through the use of original design drawings. A static and dynamic analysis was conducted to determine the actions of the tower under permanent, imposed and wind loadings, as well as under blast pressure loads and earthquake loads due to an explosion. It was observed that the tower utilises the full axial capacity of individual members by acting as a `truss of trusses'. As such, permanent and imposed loads are efficiently transferred to the primary columns through compression, while wind loads induce tensile forces in the windward legs and compressive forces in the leeward. Under blast loading, the tower experienced both ground vibrations and blast pressures. Ground vibrations induced a negligibly small earthquake loading into the structure which was ignored in subsequent analyses. The blast pressure was significant, and a dynamic analysis of this revealed that further research is required into the damping qualities of the structure due to soil and mechanical properties. In the worst case scenario, the blast was assumed to completely destroy several members in the adjacent leg. Despite this weakened condition, it was observed that the tower would still be able to sustain static loads, at least for enough time for occupant evacuation. Further, an optimised design revealed the structure was structurally sound under a 46% reduction of the metal tower's mass.

  13. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menicovich, David

    material and energy consumption profiles of tall building. To date, the increasing use of light-weight and high-strength materials in tall buildings, with greater flexibility and reduced damping, has increased susceptibility to dynamic wind load effects that limit the gains afforded by incorporating these new materials. Wind, particularly fluctuating wind and its interaction with buildings induces two main responses; alongwind - in the direction of the flow and crosswind - perpendicular to the flow. The main risk associated with this vulnerability is resonant oscillations induced by von-Karman-like vortex shedding at or near the natural frequency of the structure caused by flow separation. Dynamic wind loading effects often increase with a power of wind speed greater than 3, thus increasingly, tall buildings pay a significant price in material to increase the natural frequency and/or the damping to overcome this response. In particular, crosswind response often governs serviceability (human habitability) design criteria of slender buildings. Currently, reducing crosswind response relies on a Solid-based Aerodynamic Modification (SAM), either by changing structural or geometric characteristics such as the tower shape or through the addition of damping systems. While this approach has merit it has two major drawbacks: firstly, the loss of valuable rentable areas and high construction costs due to increased structural requirements for mass and stiffness, further contributing towards the high consumption of non-renewable resources by the commercial building sector. For example, in order to insure human comfort within an acceptable range of crosswind response induced accelerations at the top of a building, an aerodynamically efficient plan shape comes at the expense of floor area. To compensate for the loss of valuable area compensatory stories are required, resulting in an increase in wind loads and construction costs. Secondly, a limited, if at all, ability to adaptively

  14. Geology of Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming

    Robinson, Charles Sherwood

    1956-01-01

    Devils Tower is a steep-sided mass of igneous rock that rises above the surrounding hills and the valley of the Belle Fourche River in Crook County, Wyo. It is composed of a crystalline rock, classified as phonolite porphyry, that when fresh is gray but which weathers to green or brown. Vertical joints divide the rock mass into polygonal columns that extend from just above the base to the top of the Tower. The hills in the vicinity and at the base of the Tower are composed of red, yellow, green, or gray sedimentary rocks that consist of sandstone, shale, or gypsum. These rocks, in aggregate about 400 feet thick, include, from oldest to youngest, the upper part of the Spearfish formation, of Triassic age, the Gypsum Spring formation, of Middle Jurassic age, and the Sundance formation, of Late Jurassic age. The Sundance formation consists of the Stockade Beaver shale member, the Hulett sandstone member, the Lak member, and the Redwater shale member. The formations have been only slightly deformed by faulting and folding. Within 2,000 to 3.000 feet of the Tower, the strata for the most part dip at 3 deg - 5 deg towards the Tower. Beyond this distance, they dip at 2 deg - 5 deg from the Tower. The Tower is believed to have been formed by the intrusion of magma into the sedimentary rocks, and the shape of the igneous mass formed by the cooled magma is believed to have been essentially the same as the Tower today. Devils Tower owes its impressiveness to its resistance to erosion as compared with the surrounding sedimentary rocks, and to the contrast of the somber color of the igneous column to the brightly colored bands of sedimentary rocks.

  15. Normal modes of oscillation of the Asinelli and Garisenda towers in Bologna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, A.; Azzara, R. M.; Cavaliere, A.; Zaccarelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Asinelli and Garisenda medieval towers represent the best-know city landmark in Bologna. Asinelli is also known to physics historians for early experiments on free fall of bodies for the first measurements of g (Giovanni Battista Riccioli, ca. 1650) and proof of Earth rotation (Giovanni Battista Guglielmini, 1791). The Two Towers (as they are commonly known) are essentially tall, square cross-section hollow masonry cuboids. Taller Asinelli, built between 1109 and 1119, is 97 m high, with an overhang of 2.2 m, while more seriously leaning Garisenda has an overhang of 3.2 m with a heigth of 48 m. During the summer of 2012 -- in the aftermath of two M≈6 earthquakes occurred in the proximity of the city -- the permanent engineering monitoring system of the towers has been temporarily supplemented by 6 seismometric stations installed at different levels inside the masonry buildings, to study their dynamical response to induced vibrations. We have thus been able to observe and measure the oscillation of the two towers excited by ambient noise, mostly due to city traffic. The two towers show similar behaviour, more clear in taller Asinelli. The first three flexural normal modes of oscillation, and the first torsional mode, can easily be detected. Their frequencies are split because of the asymmetry due to leaning of the tower. This asymmetry produces slightly different frequencies of oscillation in two orthogonal directions, quite consistent with preliminary dynamical modeling. Horizontal particle-motion polarization plots clearly show the cyclic energy transfer between these two degrees of freedom of the system. Oscillations of taller Asinelli influence its close sister, such that the Asinelli spectral signature can also be easily recognized in the motion recorded at the base of Garisenda, overimposed over Garisenda own free oscillations. Horizontal component polarization analysis done simultaneously at the two ground-level stations often point to a nearby common

  16. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, Clayton J.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  17. 5. View of south tower, facing northnortheast from south bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of south tower, facing north-northeast from south bank of the Columbia River. Center tower and north tower in background, lower right. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  18. A comment on towers for windmills. [structural and economic criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budgen, H. P.

    1973-01-01

    Design considerations for windmill tower structures include the effects of normal wind forces on the rotor and on the tower. Circular tabular or masonry towers present a relatively simple aerodynamic solution. Economic factors establish the tubular tower as superior for small and medium sized windmills. Concrete and standard concrete block designs are cheaper than refabricated steel structures that have to be freighted.

  19. 17. VIEW OF THE TOP OF THE TOWER SHOWING BASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF THE TOP OF THE TOWER SHOWING BASE OF TOWER MAST AND WOOD DECKING ON SIGNAL TOWER ROOF. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  1. Ozone inhibits corrosion in cooling towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, K. R.; Howe, R. D.; Humphrey, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available corona discharge ozone generator, fitted onto industrial cooling tower, significantly reduces formation of scales (calcium carbonate) and corrosion. System also controls growth of algae and other microorganisms. Modification lowers cost and improves life of cooling system.

  2. LaGuardia air traffic control tower.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate FAA and its LaGuardia Airport employees past, : present, and future this booklet outlines the airports history and accomplishments and includes copies of some of the photographs in the : air traffic control towers history g...

  3. Short and tall stature: a new paradigm emerges

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Jeffrey; Sävendahl, Lars; De Luca, Francesco; Dauber, Andrew; Phillip, Moshe; Wit, Jan M.; Nilsson, Ola

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the growth hormone (GH) – insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis was thought to be the central system regulating childhood growth and therefore responsible for short stature and tall stature. However, recent findings have revealed that the GH-IGF-I axis is just one of many regulatory systems that control chondrogenesis in the growth plate, the biological process that drives height gain. Consequently, normal growth in children depends not only on GH and IGF-I but on multiple hormones, paracrine factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and intracellular proteins that regulate growth plate chondrocytes. Mutations in genes encoding many of these local proteins cause short stature or tall stature. Similarly genome-wide association studies have revealed that the normal variation in height appears to be due largely to genes outside the GH-IGF-I axis that affect growth at the growth plate through a wide variety of mechanisms. These findings point to a new conceptual framework for understanding short and tall stature, which is centered not on two particular hormones but rather on the growth plate, the structure responsible for height gain. PMID:26437621

  4. Globalisation Reflected onto Architecture: Tall Buildings of Ankara-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanju Gültekin, Ahmet

    2017-10-01

    Policy switching, radical socioeconomic changes, integration and globalisation were started in 1980s. New urban space developments have been accelerated in 1990s and provided urban space identity policies in 2000s. Luxurious shopping malls, hotels, and ultra-posh residences within the city and gated communities on city peripheries have been formed. Thus, the urban geography, urban silhouette and urban identity are being converted through tall buildings that signify the created prestige, status, and power in competition with the global capital. By the globalisation foresight the cities which have gotten ahead of the nation-state was seen. The buildings that converted into a symbolic (iconic) global product leads to an advantage in the race for attracting global investments and tourism, on behalf of the cities/urban districts. This process, which was initiated haphazardly in Turkey in the 1980s, has been on-going throughout the 1990s and especially in 2000s by means of the re-structuring of the government on a neo-liberal basis. The process is concurrently observable through the tall buildings and/or building blocks which match with urban regeneration projects, urban zoning plan revisions and fragmented zoning plans. In this study, the new global world order is evaluated by their status and architectural properties of selected tall and iconic/ultra-modern buildings in Ankara.

  5. How do towers measure anything?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzjarrald, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    Limitations to achieving plausible long-term observational values for heat, water vapor and CO2 fluxes at the individual sites in the tower flux networks are discussed. a) Operational difficulties mean that few sites that operate over years obtain data more than 70-80% of the time. To satisfy modelers, "gap-filling" techniques-models in themselves are called upon to provide seamless data sets. b) The observational energy balance regularly does not close by up to 20% of available energy, net radiation minus the ground heat. Most studies report that the sum of sensible and latent heat flux does not account for the observed available energy. c) CO2 eddy fluxes are sometimes judged to be "ecologically incorrect" if comparisons with rival measurement techniques lead to implausible amounts of uptake. There is perceived to be "missing flux" problem, one that might result from averaging in the definition of the eddy flux ensemble mean. They might as well reflect loss of scalars horizontally in subcanopy flows, especially at night. Some of the increasingly elaborate theoretical corrections being proposed to rectify these problems will be critiqued, from the point of view of the humble field observer. Many of these corrections rely on there being accurate estimates of the mean vertical velocity, for example, a notoriously difficult measurement to make. Selected examples from recent work at ASRC will serve to illustrate major points.

  6. Typological diversity of tall buildings and complexes in relation to their functional structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generalov, Viktor P.; Generalova, Elena M.; Kalinkina, Nadezhda A.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper focuses on peculiarities of tall buildings and complexes, their typology and its formation in relation to their functional structure. The research is based on the analysis of tall buildings and complexes and identifies the following main functional elements of their formation: residential, administrative (office), hotel elements. The paper also considers the following services as «disseminated» in the space-planning structure: shops, medicine, entertainment, kids and sports facilities, etc., their location in the structure of the total bulk of the building and their impact on typological diversity. Research results include suggestions to add such concepts as «single-function tall buildings» and «mixed-use tall buildings and complexes» into the classification of tall buildings. In addition, if a single-function building or complex performs serving functions, it is proposed to add such concepts as «a residential tall building (complex) with provision of services», «an administrative (public) tall building (complex) with provision of services» into the classification of tall buildings. For mixed-use buildings and complexes the following terms are suggested: «a mixed-use tall building with provision of services», «a mixed-use tall complex with provision of services».

  7. Tower Based Load Measurements for Individual Pitch Control and Tower Damping of Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. A.; Hugues-Salas, O.; Savini, B.; Keogh, W.

    2016-09-01

    The cost of IPC has hindered adoption outside of Europe despite significant loading advantages for large wind turbines. In this work we presented a method for applying individual pitch control (including for higher-harmonics) using tower-top strain gauge feedback instead of blade-root strain gauge feedback. Tower-top strain gauges offer hardware savings of approximately 50% in addition to the possibility of easier access for maintenance and installation and requiring a less specialised skill-set than that required for applying strain gauges to composite blade roots. A further advantage is the possibility of using the same tower-top sensor array for tower damping control. This method is made possible by including a second order IPC loop in addition to the tower damping loop to reduce the typically dominating 3P content in tower-top load measurements. High-fidelity Bladed simulations show that the resulting turbine spectral characteristics from tower-top feedback IPC and from the combination of tower-top IPC and damping loops largely match those of blade-root feedback IPC and nacelle- velocity feedback damping. Lifetime weighted fatigue analysis shows that the methods allows load reductions within 2.5% of traditional methods.

  8. Adaptation of amoebae to cooling tower biocides.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, S; Berk, S G

    1994-05-01

    Adaptation of amoebae to four cooling tower Biocides, which included a thiocarbamate compound, tributyltin neodecanoate mixed with quaternary ammonium compounds (TBT/QAC), another QAC alone, and an isothiazolin derivative, was studied. Previously we found that amoebae isolated from waters of cooling towers were more resistant to cooling tower biocides than amoebae from other habitats. Acanthamoeba hatchetti and Cochliopodium bilimbosum, obtained from American Type Culture Collection and used in the previous studies, were tested to determine whether they could adapt to cooling tower Biocides. A. hatchetti was preexposed to subinhibitory concentrations of the four Biocides for 72h, after which they were tested for their resistance to the same and other biocides. C. bilimbosum was exposed to only two biocides, as exposure to the other two was lethal after 72 h. Preexposure to the subinhibitory concentrations of the Biocides increased the resistance of the amoebae, as indicated by a significant increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (up to 30-fold). In addition, cross-resistance was also observed, i.e., exposure to one biocide caused resistance to other biocides. These results show that amoebae can adapt to biocides in a short time. The phenomenon of cross-resistance indicates that regularly alternating biocides, as is done to control microbial growth in cooling towers, may not be effective in keeping amoeba populations in check. On the contrary, exposure to one biocide may boost the amoebae's resistance to a second biocide before the second biocide is used in the cooling tower. Since amoebae may harbor Legionella, or alone cause human diseases, these results may be important in designing effective strategies for controlling pathogens in cooling towers.

  9. Summary of tower designs for large horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, G. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Towers for large horizontal axis wind turbines, machines with a rotor axis height above 30 meters and rated at more than 500 kW, have varied in configuration, materials of construction, type of construction, height, and stiffness. For example, the U.S. large HAWTs have utilized steel truss type towers and free-standing steel cylindrical towers. In Europe, the trend has been to use only free-standing and guyed cylindrical towers, but both steel and reinforced concrete have been used as materials of construction. These variations in materials of construction and type of construction reflect different engineering approaches to the design of cost effective towers for large HAWTs. Tower designs are the NASA/DOE Mod-5B presently being fabricated. Design goals and requirements that influence tower configuration, height and materials are discussed. In particular, experiences with United States large wind turbine towers are elucidated. Finally, current trends in tower designs for large HAWTs are highlighted.

  10. The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100

  11. Mycobacteria in Finnish cooling tower waters.

    PubMed

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Paulin, Lars; Kusnetsov, Jaana

    2014-04-01

    Evaporative cooling towers are water systems used in, e.g., industry and telecommunication to remove excess heat by evaporation of water. Temperatures of cooling waters are usually optimal for mesophilic microbial growth and cooling towers may liberate massive amounts of bacterial aerosols. Outbreaks of legionellosis associated with cooling towers have been known since the 1980's, but occurrences of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in cooling waters are mostly unknown. We examined the occurrence of mycobacteria, which are common bacteria in different water systems and may cause pulmonary and other soft tissue infections, in cooling waters containing different numbers of legionellae. Mycobacteria were isolated from all twelve cooling systems and from 92% of the 24 samples studied. Their numbers in the positive samples varied from 10 to 7.3 × 10(4) cfu/L. The isolated species included M. chelonae/abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. intracellulare, M. lentiflavum, M. avium/nebraskense/scrofulaceum and many non-pathogenic species. The numbers of mycobacteria correlated negatively with the numbers of legionellae and the concentration of copper. The results show that cooling towers are suitable environments for potentially pathogenic mycobacteria. Further transmission of mycobacteria from the towers to the environment needs examination. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tower Mesonetwork Climatology and Interactive Display Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron and Spaceflight Meteorology Group use data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria, and issue and verify forecasts for ground operations. Systematic biases in these parameters could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification. Also, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. To address these concerns, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identified the geographical variation and significant tower biases. The mesoclimate is largely driven by the complex land-water interfaces across KSC/CCAFS. Towers with close proximity to water typically had much warmer nocturnal temperatures and higher wind speeds throughout the year. The strongest nocturnal wind speeds occurred from October to March whereas the strongest mean daytime wind speeds occurred from February to May. These results of this project can be viewed by forecasters through an interactive graphical user interface developed by the AMU. The web-based interface includes graphical and map displays of mean, standard deviation, bias, and data availability for any combination of towers, variables, months, hours, and wind directions.

  13. Electrocardiographical case. A tale of tall T's. Hyperkalaemia.

    PubMed

    Chew, H C; Lim, S H

    2005-08-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented at the emergency department (ED) with a history of increasing lethargy and drowsiness. The electrocardiogram (ECG) showed tall peaked T waves with broadening of the QRS interval, suggestive of hyperkalaemia. This patient had an elevated serum potassium level due to diabetic ketoacidosis. She was treated with intravenous calcium chloride and insulin with 50% dextrose. The ECG changes associated with hyperkalaemia are discussed, with illustrations from a second 48-year-old male patient with renal failure who presented with malaise, lethargy and generalised weakness.

  14. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  15. The new Drop Tower catapult system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high

  16. Effect of ozone on diverse tall fescue germplasm

    SciT

    Johnston, W.J.; Dickens, R.; Haaland, R.L.

    Six tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) genotypes of diverse origin (Algeria, Australia, France, Netherlands, Morocco, and a Kentucky 31 type) were evaluated for O/sub 3/ tolerance under controlled environmental conditions. In two tests on clonal parent material, (1) O/sub 3/ constant 0.3 ppm and exposure varied 0-12 hr and (2) O/sub 3/ concentration varied 0-0.5 ppm and exposure varied 1-3 hr, the Australian and Kentucky 31 selections were superior to all others in O/sub 3/ tolerance. Sixteen-day old polycross progeny of the six selections were exposed to 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 0, 3, or 6 hr. Progeny of themore » Australian and Kentucky 31 selections were superior to some, but not all other selections. Increased duration of exposure increased damage only slightly. It would appear that O/sub 3/ tolerance is a heritable characteristic that can be easily detected and selected for in tall fescue.« less

  17. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    DOE PAGES

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; ...

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstratemore » the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.« less

  18. 4. View of center tower at Clover Island, facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of center tower at Clover Island, facing northeast. Pasco-Kennewick automobile bridge in background, lower right. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  19. 3. View of north tower, facing north across the main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north tower, facing north across the main channel of the Columbus River from Clover Island. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  20. 6. View of south tower, facing south from Clover Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of south tower, facing south from Clover Island, across boat moorage channel. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  1. 1. View of north tower, facing northwest from dike on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of north tower, facing northwest from dike on north bank of the Columbia River. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  2. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower with World Trade Tower parapet in foreground. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  4. View of the southwest guard tower, cell blocks seven and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the southwest guard tower, cell blocks seven and eight, administration building west tower, and Fairmount Avenue, looking from the administration building facing west - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 28. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, OBSERVATION TOWER, VIEW FROM THE TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, OBSERVATION TOWER, VIEW FROM THE TOP OF TOWER TO SOUTH. NOTE FOREST AND AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES. VIEW S. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  6. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  7. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north northeast, southwest and southeast sides of house, northwest and southwest sides of tower - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  8. 2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast side of tower, northeast and northwest sides of keeper's house - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  9. 4. Keeper's house and light tower, view south southeast, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Keeper's house and light tower, view south southeast, west side of house, north and west sides of tower - Rockland Breakwater Light Station, At end of granite breakwater extending south from Jameson Point, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  10. OVERVIEW OF VALVE TOWER FROM EASTERN SIDE OF BASIN SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF VALVE TOWER FROM EASTERN SIDE OF BASIN SHOWING BRIDGE SUPPORTS ON HILLTOP. VIEW FACING WEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. OVERVIEW OF VALVE TOWER FROM NORTHERN SIDE OF BASIN. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF VALVE TOWER FROM NORTHERN SIDE OF BASIN. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS BUILDING #626 AND PORTION OF QUADRANGLE - Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio Depot, Water-Watch Tower, Grayson Street & New Braunfels Avenue, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  13. 15. VIEW OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST TO EAST FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (FLOOR BELOW CRANE CONTROL) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  14. 14. WEST ELEVATION OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WEST ELEVATION OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST TO EAST FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (FLOOR BELOW THE CRANE CONTROL) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  15. Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the central guard tower, facing southeast (note view also includes cell block ten (left) and cell block nine (right)) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  17. TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) AND 24. NOTE “LAZY JACK” TEMPERATURE COMPENSATOR IN FOREGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  18. View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing thirty-acre irrigated field - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Weather Tower, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  19. 29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN AND NEW PALM HOUSE (DEMOLISHED), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  20. Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel compass ring in the tower. View facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Oblique view of the mine observation tower and transformer buildings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the mine observation tower and transformer buildings, with the tower building behind. View facing south-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 12. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE FACING NORTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 6. Detail of windows in north wall of Signal Tower. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of windows in north wall of Signal Tower. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  5. 14. CLOSEUP VIEW OF WINDOW IN SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WINDOW IN SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 1. Perspective of Mattes Street Signal Tower looking southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective of Mattes Street Signal Tower looking southwest. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  7. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF TOWER ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF TOWER ND SIGNAL BRIDGE No. 6 AND DWARF SIGNAL IN FOREGROUND - South Station Tower No. 1 & Interlocking System, Dewey Square, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 9. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE AT TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE AT TOP OF ELEVATOR FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 7. Detail of first floor doorway to Signal Tower. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of first floor doorway to Signal Tower. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  10. 10. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT TOP OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT TOP OF TOWER FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northwest, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northwest, south and east sides of keeper's house, southwest and southeast sides of light tower - Curtis Island Light Station, Curtis Island, at entrance to Camden Harbor, Camden, Knox County, ME

  12. 2. Detail of tower foundation with lightning transfer wire, southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Detail of tower foundation with lightning transfer wire, southeast corner - Cold Mountain Fire Lookout Station, Lookout Tower, Krassel District, Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, Dixie, Idaho County, ID

  13. Wind interference effect on an octagonal plan shaped tall building due to square plan shaped tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Rony; Dalui, Sujit Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The variation of pressure at the faces of the octagonal plan shaped tall building due to interference of three square plan shaped tall building of same height is analysed by computational fluid dynamics module, namely ANSYS CFX for 0° wind incidence angle only. All the buildings are closely spaced (distance between two buildings varies from 0.4 h to 2 h, where h is the height of the building). Different cases depending upon the various positions of the square plan shaped buildings are analysed and compared with the octagonal plan shaped building in isolated condition. The comparison is presented in the form of interference factors (IF) and IF contours. Abnormal pressure distribution is observed in some cases. Shielding and channelling effect on the octagonal plan shaped building due to the presence of the interfering buildings are also noted. In the interfering condition the pressure distribution at the faces of the octagonal plan shaped building is not predictable. As the distance between the principal octagonal plan shaped building and the third square plan shaped interfering building increases the behaviour of faces becomes more systematic. The coefficient of pressure (C p) for each face of the octagonal plan shaped building in each interfering case can be easily found if we multiply the IF with the C p in the isolated case.

  14. Troubleshooting crude vacuum tower overhead ejector systems

    SciT

    Lines, J.R.; Frens, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Routinely surveying tower overhead vacuum systems can improve performance and product quality. These vacuum systems normally provide reliable and consistent operation. However, process conditions, supplied utilities, corrosion, erosion and fouling all have an impact on ejector system performance. Refinery vacuum distillation towers use ejector systems to maintain tower top pressure and remove overhead gases. However, as with virtually all refinery equipment, performance may be affected by a number of variables. These variables may act independently or concurrently. It is important to understand basic operating principles of vacuum systems and how performance is affected by: utilities, corrosion and erosion, fouling, andmore » process conditions. Reputable vacuum-system suppliers have service engineers that will come to a refinery to survey the system and troubleshoot performance or offer suggestions for improvement. A skilled vacuum-system engineer may be needed to diagnose and remedy system problems. The affect of these variables on performance is discussed. A case history is described of a vacuum system on a crude tower in a South American refinery.« less

  15. Drop tower with no aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Cooling air accelerated to match velocity of falling object eliminates drag. 3 meter drop tower with suction fan and specific geometry causes air to accelerate downward at 1 g. Although cooling of molten material released from top is slow because surrounding air moves with it, drop remains nearly spherical.

  16. Legionella confirmation in cooling tower water

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Maha; Shaheed, Raja A.; Al-Ali, Haidar H.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah S.; Al-Hamaqi, Ghadeer M.; Maan, Hawraa S.; Al-Mahfoodh, Zainab A.; Al-Seba, Hussain Z.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of Legionella spp in cooling tower water. Legionella proliferation in cooling tower water has serious public health implications as it can be transmitted to humans via aerosols and cause Legionnaires’ disease. Methods: Samples of cooling tower water were collected from King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) (Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 2015/2016). The water samples were analyzed by a standard Legionella culture method, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing. In addition, the bacterial community composition was evaluated. Results: All samples were negative by conventional Legionella culture. In contrast, all water samples yielded positive results by real-time PCR (105 to 106 GU/L). The results of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing showed high similarity and reproducibility among the water samples. The majority of sequences were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria, and Legionella was the predominant genus. The hydrogen-oxidizing gram-negative bacterium Hydrogenophaga was present at high abundance, indicating high metabolic activity. Sphingopyxis, which is known for its resistance to antimicrobials and as a pioneer in biofilm formation, was also detected. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that monitoring of Legionella in cooling tower water would be enhanced by use of both conventional culturing and molecular methods. PMID:29436561

  17. Balsa Tower Walls Brave "Big Buster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2008-01-01

    Like many technology teachers, the author, a technology education teacher at Arthur Hill High School in Saginaw, Michigan, tries to stretch his budget by "milking" each student activity for maximum benefit. In the technology department, they use balsa wood towers to teach the basics of structural engineering. To get the most from their materials,…

  18. Project Mercury Escape Tower Rockets Tests

    1960-04-21

    A Mercury capsule is mounted inside the Altitude Wind Tunnel for a test of its escape tower rockets at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. In October 1959 NASA’s Space Task Group allocated several Project Mercury assignments to Lewis. The Altitude Wind Tunnel was quickly modified so that its 51-foot diameter western leg could be used as a test chamber. The final round of tests in the Altitude Wind Tunnel sought to determine if the smoke plume from the capsule’s escape tower rockets would shroud or compromise the spacecraft. The escape tower, a 10-foot steel rig with three small rockets, was attached to the nose of the Mercury capsule. It could be used to jettison the astronaut and capsule to safety in the event of a launch vehicle malfunction on the pad or at any point prior to separation from the booster. Once actuated, the escape rockets would fire, and the capsule would be ejected away from the booster. After the capsule reached its apex of about 2,500 feet, the tower, heatshield, retropackage, and antenna would be ejected and a drogue parachute would be released. Flight tests of the escape system were performed at Wallops Island as part of the series of Little Joe launches. Although the escape rockets fired prematurely on Little Joe’s first attempt in August 1959, the January 1960 follow-up was successful.

  19. 76 FR 490 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... of energy generation. Wind energy, converted into electrical energy by wind turbines, is widely... turbine or wind farm, companies erect METs. These towers are used to gather wind data necessary for site... if the targeted area represents a potential location for the installation of wind turbines...

  20. The Legacy of the Texas Tower Sniper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the incident that happened at the University of Texas to the tragedy that took place at Virginia Tech. On August 1, 1966, Charles Joseph Whitman ascended the University of Texas Tower, in Austin, and in 96 minutes fired 150 high-powered rounds of ammunition down upon an unsuspecting university family. The…

  1. 76 FR 36983 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... of METs in remote and rural areas that also have low-level flight operations. METs are used by wind energy companies to determine feasible sites for wind turbines. Some of these towers are less than 200... database of METs, and making the guidance for marking mandatory. The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA...

  2. The Tower and Glass Marbles Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Richard T.; Hailey, David; Rothenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Catseye Marble company tests the strength of its marbles by dropping them from various levels of their office tower, to find the highest floor from which a marble will not break. We find the smallest number of drops required and from which floor each drop should be made. We also find out how these answers change if a restriction is placed on…

  3. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  4. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  5. LDSD Test Vehicle Attached to Launch Tower

    2015-06-09

    NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator test vehicle attached to launch tower just prior to take off. LDSD completed its second flight test when the saucer-shaped craft splashed down safely Monday, June 8, 2015, in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of the Hawaiian island of Kauai. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19683

  6. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  7. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  8. 8. VIEW OF THE EAST BASE CONNECTION OF ANTENNA TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE EAST BASE CONNECTION OF ANTENNA TOWER S-111 FACING NORTHEAST. BUILDING 1 AND ANTENNA TOWER S-110 IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Lualualei Radio Transmitter, Edison & Tower Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light Tower, view northeast, southwest side of Cape Elizabeth Tower - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  10. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures With Different Proportions Stockpiled

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (1318 plus/minus 13.2 lb) were allocated randomly to one of eight 24-acre tall fescue pastures on 18 ...

  11. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (599 ± 6.0 kg) were allocated randomly to one of eight 10-ha tall fescue pastures (subdivided into six 1.6-h...

  12. Tall fescue management: Pasture and cattle responses to endophyte and fertilization

    Yearling heifers grazing tall fescue pastures had greatest performance in winter and spring on endophyte-free and novel endophyte associations, because of high forage quality and lack of ergot alkaloids produced by a common “wild” tall fescue-endophyte association. Pasture and cattle responses were...

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions Differ in Two Contrasting Tall Fescue Systems

    The value of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for C sequestration in addition to forage production and soil conservation is of current interest. However, studies relating to the impacts of endophyte infected (E+) and endophyte free (E-) tall fescue on soil organic matter fractions are few....

  14. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  15. Nutrient source and tillage impacts on tall fescue production and soil properties

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grass provides a major forage base for many livestock production systems in the southeastern United States. Forage production with manure helps recycle nutrients with less environmental impacts. This two year study examined tall fescue forage production and ...

  16. Host suitability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) cultivars to Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. graminicola.

    Considering the importance of the perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) having as forage potential and its resistance to many pests, including some phytoparasitic nematodes, the host reaction of three tall fescue cultivars (cvs. Bulldogs 51, Georgia 5 and Jesup AR542 ) were evaluated for...

  17. Host status of endophyte-infected and noninfected tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp.

    Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) ...

  18. 78 FR 38580 - Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... regulatory act for the celebration specific to Bay City, MI, the Coast Guard recently published a separate... various events throughout the Great Lakes this summer, to include the Tall Ships Celebration Bay City...

  19. Steer consumption and ergovaline recovery from in vitro digested residues of tall fescue seedheads

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by cattle producers. These toxins are concentrated within seedheads of tall fescue tillers, which...

  20. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature

    Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

  1. USDA - Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG 8, Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Of the ergopeptine alkaloids produced by the endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) of tall fescue, ergovaline has been reported as the most abundant in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea). As a result much focus has been placed on ergovaline and its impact on grazing animal health (i...

  2. From the Lab Bench: Should you plant a non-toxic endophyte tall fescue?

    A column was written to discuss planting novel endophyte tall fescue for alleviating fescue toxicosis. Endophyte-free tall fescue cultivars can be grazed as a non-toxic alternative, but it maust be understood that it is the endophyte, through production of alkaloids other than ergot alkaloids, that...

  3. From the Lab Bench: Season Changes in Ergot Alkaloid Concentrations of Toxic Tall Fescue

    A column was written to discuss seasonal trends in ergot alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte that infects most plants of tall fescue. Tall fescue is the predominant grass utilized for forage in the U.S. transition zone between the temperature northeast and subtropical southeast; however, erg...

  4. ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA-645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ON LEFT. AT LEFT OF VIEW, HIGH-BAY BUILDING IS ETR. ONE STORY ATTACHMENT IS ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING. STACK AT RIGHT IS ETR STACK; MTR STACK IS TOWARD LEFT. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3799. Jack L. Anderson, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly.

  6. Review on Seismic Rehabilitation of a 56-Story RC Tall Building having Shear Wall System Based on A Nonlinear Dynamic Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epackachi, S.; Esmaili, O.; Mirghaderi, S. R.; Taheri, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    Tehran tower is a 56 story reinforced concrete tall building consisting of three wings with identical plan dimensions each approximately 48 meters by 22 meters. The three wings are at 120 degree from each other and have no expansions/seismic Joints. This paper contains the consideration of the retrofitting of the Tehran tower based on the findings of an exhaustive investigation of the nonlinear performance evaluation efforts. It has tried to show the procedure followed, methodologies utilized, and the results obtained for life-safety and collapse-prevention evaluation of the building. More over the weak zones of the structure due to analysis results are introduced and appropriate retrofit technique for satisfaction related life-safety and collapse-prevention criteria is presented. Actually in this project to improve the local behavior of coupling panels which are located regularly in main walls and definitely have been recognized as the most vulnerable structural elements, making use of steel plates which are connected to concrete members by chemical anchors has been used as the best retrofitting method for this case. Therefore in the final section of this paper it has been tried to explain the professional practical method utilized to perform the mentioned retrofitting project.

  7. Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Körner, Christian

    2016-04-15

    Forest trees compete for light and soil resources, but photoassimilates, once produced in the foliage, are not considered to be exchanged between individuals. Applying stable carbon isotope labeling at the canopy scale, we show that carbon assimilated by 40-meter-tall spruce is traded over to neighboring beech, larch, and pine via overlapping root spheres. Isotope mixing signals indicate that the interspecific, bidirectional transfer, assisted by common ectomycorrhiza networks, accounted for 40% of the fine root carbon (about 280 kilograms per hectare per year tree-to-tree transfer). Although competition for resources is commonly considered as the dominant tree-to-tree interaction in forests, trees may interact in more complex ways, including substantial carbon exchange. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. The watering of tall trees--embolization and recovery.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Henri

    2015-03-21

    We can propound a thermo-mechanical understanding of the ascent of sap to the top of tall trees thanks to a comparison between experiments associated with the cohesion-tension theory and the disjoining pressure concept for liquid thin-films. When a segment of xylem is tight-filled with crude sap, the liquid pressure can be negative although the pressure in embolized vessels remains positive. Examples are given that illustrate how embolized vessels can be refilled and why the ascent of sap is possible even in the tallest trees avoiding the problem due to cavitation. However, the maximum height of trees is limited by the stability domain of liquid thin-films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing stem bending increases the height growth of tall pines.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shawn X; Lieffers, Victor J; Reid, Douglas E B; Rudnicki, Mark; Silins, Uldis; Jin, Ming

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that upper limits to height growth in trees are the result of the increasing bending moment of trees as they grow in height. The increasing bending moment of tall trees demands increased radial growth at the expense of height growth to maintain mechanical stability. In this study, the bending moment of large lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) was reduced by tethering trees at 10 m height to counter the wind load. Average bending moment of tethered trees was reduced to 38% of control trees. Six years of tethering resulted in a 40% increase in height growth relative to the period before tethering. By contrast, control trees showed decreased height growth in the period after tethering treatment. Average radial growth along the bole, relative to height growth, was reduced in tethered trees. This strongly suggests that mechanical constraints play a crucial role in limiting the height growth of tall trees. Analysis of bending moment and basal area increment at both 10 m and 1.3 m showed that the amount of wood added to the stem was closely related to the bending moment produced at these heights, in both control and tethered trees. The tethering treatment also resulted in an increase in the proportion of latewood at the tethering height, relative to 1.3 m height. For untethered control trees, the ratio of bending stresses at 10 m versus 1.3 m height was close to 1 in both 1998 and 2003, suggesting a uniform stress distribution along the outer surface of the bole.

  10. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  11. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  12. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  13. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciT

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  14. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions...

  15. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...

  20. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  1. Solar physics at the Einstein Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Heibel, C.; Rendtel, J.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, Juergen H.; Diercke, A.; González Manrique, S. J.; Hofmann, A.; Kuckein, C.; Önel, H.; Senthamizh Pavai, V.; Staude, J.; Verman, M.

    2016-11-01

    The solar observatory Einstein Tower ({Einsteinturm}) at the Telegrafenberg in Potsdam is both a landmark of modern architecture and an important place for solar physics. Originally built for high-resolution spectroscopy and measuring the gravitational redshift, research shifted over the years to understanding the active Sun and its magnetic field. Nowadays, telescope and spectrographs are used for research and development, i.e., testing instruments and in particular polarization optics for advanced instrumentation deployed at major European and international astronomical and solar telescopes. In addition, the Einstein Tower is used for educating and training of the next generation astrophysicists as well as for education and public outreach activities directed at the general public. This article comments on the observatory's unique architecture and the challenges of maintaining and conserving the building. It describes in detail the characteristics of telescope, spectrographs, and imagers; it portrays some of the research and development activities.

  2. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOEpatents

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  3. Elementary Kaluza-Klein towers revisited

    SciT

    Grard, Fernand; Nuyts, Jean

    2006-12-15

    Considering that the momentum squared in the extra dimensions is the physically relevant quantity for the generation of the Kaluza-Klein mass states, we have reanalyzed mathematically the procedure for five dimensional scalar fields within the Arkhani-Ahmed, Dimopoulos and Dvali scenario. We find new sets of physically allowed boundary conditions. Beside the usual results, they lead to new towers with non regular mass spacing, to lonely mass states and to tachyons.

  4. Nonlinear behaviors of FRP-wrapped tall trees subjected to high wind loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Yi, Z. Z.; Choi, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the mechanical stability of historical tall trees wrapped with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates using finite element (FE) analysis. High wind loads are considered as external loading conditions as they are one of the major threats on the structural stability of tall old trees. There have been several traditional practices to enhance the stability of tall trees exposed to high windstorms such as tree supporters and anchorages. They, however, have been sometimes causing negative effects with their misuses as the application guidelines for those methods were not adequately studied or documented. Furthermore, the oldest known trees in the country should be protected from the damage of external surface as well as ruin of the landscape. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural effects of FRP wraps applied to tall trees subjected to high wind loads. The anisotropic material properties of wood and FRP laminates were considered in the analysis in addition to geometrically nonlinear behaviors. This study revealed that FRP wrapping for tall trees could effectively reduce the deflections and maximum stresses of trees, which results in the enhanced stability of tall trees. The optimum geometry and thicknesses of FRP wraps proposed in this study would provide fundemental guidelines for designing and constructing the application of innovative FRP wraps on tall trees, which are structurally unstable or should be preserved nationally and historically.

  5. Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Ali; Alfredsen, Gry; Eikenes, Morten; Terziev, Nasko

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the effect of two boric acid concentrations (1% and 2%) and four derivates of tall oil with varying chemical composition were tested separately and in combination. The tall oil derivates were chosen in a way that they consist of different amounts of free fatty, resin acids and neutral compounds. Decay tests using two brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana) were performed on both unleached and leached test samples. Boric acid showed a low weight loss in test samples when exposed to fungal decay before leaching, but no effect after leaching. The tall oil derivates gave better efficacy against decay fungi compared to control, but are not within the range of the efficacy needed for a wood preservative. Double impregnation with boric acid and tall oil derivates gave synergistic effects for several of the double treatments both in unleached and leached samples. In the unleached samples the double treatment gave a better efficacy against decay fungi than tall oil alone. In leached samples a better efficacy against brown rot fungi were achieved than in samples with boron alone and a nearly similar or better efficacy than for tall oil alone. Boric acid at 2% concentration combined with the tall oil derivate consisting of 90% free resin acids (TO-III) showed the best performance against the two decay fungi with a weight loss less than 3% after a modified pure culture test.

  6. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  7. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  8. Scalar Fluxes Near a Tall Building in an Aligned Array of Rectangular Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuka, Vladimír; Xie, Zheng-Tong; Castro, Ian P.; Hayden, Paul; Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.

    2018-04-01

    Scalar dispersion from ground-level sources in arrays of buildings is investigated using wind-tunnel measurements and large-eddy simulation (LES). An array of uniform-height buildings of equal dimensions and an array with an additional single tall building (wind tunnel) or a periodically repeated tall building (LES) are considered. The buildings in the array are aligned and form long streets. The sensitivity of the dispersion pattern to small changes in wind direction is demonstrated. Vertical scalar fluxes are decomposed into the advective and turbulent parts and the influences of wind direction and of the presence of the tall building on the scalar flux components are evaluated. In the uniform-height array turbulent scalar fluxes are dominant, whereas the tall building produces an increase of the magnitude of advective scalar fluxes that yields the largest component. The presence of the tall building causes either an increase or a decrease to the total vertical scalar flux depending on the position of the source with respect to the tall building. The results of the simulations can be used to develop parametrizations for street-canyon dispersion models and enhance their capabilities in areas with tall buildings.

  9. European dry cooling tower operating experience

    SciT

    DeSteese, J.G.; Simhan, K.

    1976-03-01

    Interviews were held with representatives of major plants and equipment manufacturers to obtain current information on operating experience with dry cooling towers in Europe. The report documents the objectives, background, and organizational details of the study, and presents an itemized account of contacts made to obtain information. Plant selection was based on a merit index involving thermal capacity and length of service. A questionnaire was used to organize operational data, when available, into nine major categories of experience. Information was also solicited concerning the use of codes and standards to ensure the achievement of cooling tower performance. Several plant operatorsmore » provided finned-tube samples for metallographic analysis. Additionally, information on both operating experience and developing technology was supplied by European technical societies and research establishments. Information obtained from these contacts provides an updated and representative sample of European experience with dry cooling towers, which supplements some of the detailed reviews already available in the literature. In addition, the study presents categorized operating experience with installations which have not been reviewed so extensively, but nevertheless, have significant operational histories when ranked by the merit index. The contacts and interviews reported in the survey occurred between late March and October 1975. The study was motivated by the expressed interest of U.S. utility industry representatives who expect European experience to provide a basis of confidence that dry cooling is a reliable technology, applicable when necessary, to U.S. operating requirements.« less

  10. Aspects of cooling tower biocides and protozoa

    SciT

    Berk, S.G.; Ashburn, R.J.; Ting, R.S.

    1998-12-31

    Previous work has shown that certain cooling tower amoebae and ciliated protozoa are resistant to several cooling tower biocides, even at the manufacturer`s recommended dosages. For the present study, an Acunthumoeba species was isolated from a cooling tower in Australia. Suspensions of the trophozoites (feeding stages) were exposed to isothiazolones. Cysts were tested separately. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) for trophozoites was between 31-62 ppm of the biocide product, which is slightly less than the MLC for an amoebae species from the United States; and cyst forms were twofold more resistant than those of the US species, with a MLCmore » of 62,500 ppm. A ciliate and an amoeba species were also exposed to bromochlorodimethylhydantoin. The MLC for the ciliate species was 1 ppm of the biocide product, and the MLC was 30--40 ppm for the amoeba trophozoites. Since amoebae can expel vesicles containing live Legionella, experiments were conducted to determine whether exposure of Acunthamoebu polyphugu to biocides influenced release of such potentially infectious particles. Vesicle release was not inhibited by any of the three biocides: quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), isothiazolones, and a thiocarbamate compound. These results suggest that amoebae from various sources are resistant to recommended levels of biocides, and the amoebae may continue to release potentially infectious vesicles in the presence of biocides.« less

  11. Flow-driven Assembly of Microcapsule Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Large populations of the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, are able to aggregate over a surface and collectively form a long, vertical stalk. Inspired by this biological behavior, we develop a synthetic mechanism for assembling tower-like structures using microcapsules as the building blocks. We accomplish this in simulations by generating a fluid flow field that draws microcapsules together along a surface and lifts them up at a central point. We considered a fluid flow generated by the local release of a chemical species from a patch on the surface. The concentration gradient of the diffusing chemical species causes radial diffusioosmotic flow along the solid surface toward the patch. Adhesive interactions keep the microcapsules attached to the surface as they are drawn together above the patch. To build a tower-like structure, some of the microcapsules must detach from the surface but remain attached to the rest of the cluster. The upward directed fluid flow above the patch then draws out the cluster into a tower shape. The final morphology of the aggregate structure depends on the flow field, the adhesive capsule-capsule and capsule-surface interaction strengths, and the sedimentation force on the capsules. Tuning these factors changes the structures that are produced.

  12. Legionella spp. in Puerto Rico cooling towers

    SciT

    Negron-Alvira, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-10-01

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, P.R., were assayed for various Legionella spp. and serogroups by using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured for each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species; its density reached 10{sup 5} cells per ml, which is within themore » range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (acridine orange direct count) were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems and that, without continuous biocide treatment, they may reach densities that present a health risk.« less

  13. Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers

    SciT

    Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic tomore » humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.« less

  14. Coconut genome size determined by flow cytometry: Tall versus Dwarf types.

    PubMed

    Freitas Neto, M; Pereira, T N S; Geronimo, I G C; Azevedo, A O N; Ramos, S R R; Pereira, M G

    2016-02-11

    Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are tropical palm trees that are classified into Tall and Dwarf types based on height, and both types are diploid (2n = 2x = 32 chromosomes). The reproduction mode is autogamous for Dwarf types and allogamous for Tall types. One hypothesis for the origin of the Dwarf coconut suggests that it is a Tall variant that resulted from either mutation or inbreeding, and differences in genome size between the two types would support this hypothesis. In this study, we estimated the genome sizes of 14 coconut accessions (eight Tall and six Dwarf types) using flow cytometry. Nuclei were extracted from leaf discs and stained with propidium iodide, and Pisum sativum (2C = 9.07 pg DNA) was used as an internal standard. Histograms with good resolution and low coefficients of variation (2.5 to 3.2%) were obtained. The 2C DNA content ranged from 5.72 to 5.48 pg for Tall accessions and from 5.58 to 5.52 pg for Dwarf accessions. The mean genome sizes for Tall and Dwarf specimens were 5.59 and 5.55 pg, respectively. Among all accessions, Rennel Island Tall had the highest mean DNA content (5.72 pg), whereas West African Tall had the lowest (5.48 pg). The mean coconut genome size (2C = 5.57 pg, corresponding to 2723.73 Mbp/haploid set) was classified as small. Only small differences in genome size existed among the coconut accessions, suggesting that the Dwarf type did not evolve from the Tall type.

  15. Web-FACE: a new canopy free-air CO2 enrichment system for tall trees in mature forests.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Steeve; Körner, Christian

    2002-09-01

    The long-term responses of forests to atmospheric CO2 enrichment have been difficult to determine experimentally given the large scale and complex structure of their canopy. We have developed a CO2 exposure system that uses the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) approach but was designed for tall canopy trees. The system consists of a CO2-release system installed within the crown of adult trees using a 45-m tower crane, a CO2 monitoring system and an automated regulation system. Pure CO2 gas is released from a network of small tubes woven into the forest canopy (web-FACE), and CO2 is emitted from small laser-punched holes. The set point CO2 concentration ([CO2]) of 500 µmol mol(-1) is controlled by a pulse-width modulation routine that adjusts the rate of CO2 injection as a function of measured [CO2] in the canopy. CO2 consumption for the enrichment of 14 tall canopy trees was about 2 tons per day over the whole growing season. The seasonal daytime mean CO2 concentration was 520 µmol mol(-1). One-minute averages of CO2 measurements conducted at canopy height in the center of the CO2-enriched zone were within ±20% and ±10% of the target concentration for 76% and 47% of the exposure time, respectively. Despite the size of the canopy and the windy site conditions, performance values correspond to about 75% of that reported for conventional forest FACE with the added advantage of a much simpler and less intrusive infrastructure. Stable carbon isotope signals captured by 80 Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) seedlings distributed within the canopy of treated and control tree districts showed a clearly delineated area, with some nearby individuals having been exposed to a gradient of [CO2], which is seen as added value. Time-integrated values of [CO2] derived from the C isotope composition of C. dactylon leaves indicated a mean (±SD) concentration of 513±63 µmol mol(-1) in the web-FACE canopy area. In view of the size of the forest and the rough natural canopy

  16. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  17. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 7. ATCT (Airport Traffic Control Towers) Tower Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-21

    kift rIn FAA AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL OPERATIONS CONCEPTS V olum e V iI:.................... ATCT Tower Controllers AmELECTE JUL 2 11989 21 April 1989 A...01 022.3013209-87-B 11 a FAA AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL OPERATIONS CONCEPTS VOLUME VII: ATCT TOWER CONTROLLERS CDRL Bl 12, VOL. VII CONTRACT DTF-AO1-85-Y...INCORPORATED 7150 Campus Drive, Suite 100 Colorado Springs, CO 80920 (719) 590-5100 DOT/FAA/AP-87-0i (VOL#7) 21 April 1989 FAA AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL OPERATIONS

  18. Tall Amazonian forests are less sensitive to precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, Francesco; Konings, Alexandra G.; Kennedy, Daniel; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Uriarte, Maria; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    Climate change is altering the dynamics, structure and function of the Amazon, a biome deeply connected to the Earth's carbon cycle. Climate factors that control the spatial and temporal variations in forest photosynthesis have been well studied, but the influence of forest height and age on this controlling effect has rarely been considered. Here, we present remote sensing observations of solar-induced fluorescence (a proxy for photosynthesis), precipitation, vapour-pressure deficit and canopy height, together with estimates of forest age and aboveground biomass. We show that photosynthesis in tall Amazonian forests, that is, forests above 30 m, is three times less sensitive to precipitation variability than in shorter (less than 20 m) forests. Taller Amazonian forests are also found to be older, have more biomass and deeper rooting systems1, which enable them to access deeper soil moisture and make them more resilient to drought. We suggest that forest height and age are an important control of photosynthesis in response to interannual precipitation fluctuations. Although older and taller trees show less sensitivity to precipitation variations, they are more susceptible to fluctuations in vapour-pressure deficit. Our findings illuminate the response of Amazonian forests to water stress, droughts and climate change.

  19. Nutrition and In Vitro Digestibility of Tall Fescue for White-Tailed Deer, May Through November

    G.E. Probasco; A.J. Bjugstad

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of the nutritive quality and digestibility of ferilized and unfertilized tall fescue in spring, summer, and fall. The grass may be most valuable as food in early spring and late fall, and on unfertilized sites.

  20. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  1. Tall fescue management in the Piedmont: Sequestration of soil organic and total nitrogen

    High quality soil-surface characteristics are important for developing environmentally sustainable agroecosystems. We evaluated the factorial combination of fertilization regime (inorganic and broiler litter) and tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.]-endophyte association (free, nove...

  2. Alkaloids May Not be Responsible for Endophyte Associated Reductions in Tall Fescue Decomposition Rates

    1. Fungal endophyte - grass symbioses can have dramatic ecological effects, altering individual plant physiology, plant and animal community structure and function, and ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. 2. Within the tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) - funga...

  3. A Simple Tall Fescue Seed Extraction and Partial Purification of Ergovaline

    There are several substances present in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Lolium arundinaceum /Neotyphodium coenophialum) that have biological activity. These include the pyrrolizidine and ergot alkaloids plus peramine. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids have significant mammalian to...

  4. Statistical and Spectral Analysis of Wind Characteristics Relevant to Wind Energy Assessment Using Tower Measurements in Complex Terrain

    DOE PAGES

    Belu, Radian; Koracin, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate spatial and temporal characteristics of the wind speed and direction in complex terrain that are relevant to wind energy assessment and development, as well as to wind energy system operation, management, and grid integration. Wind data from five tall meteorological towers located in Western Nevada, USA, operated from August 2003 to March 2008, used in the analysis. The multiannual average wind speeds did not show significant increased trend with increasing elevation, while the turbulence intensity slowly decreased with an increase were the average wind speed. The wind speed and direction weremore » modeled using the Weibull and the von Mises distribution functions. The correlations show a strong coherence between the wind speed and direction with slowly decreasing amplitude of the multiday periodicity with increasing lag periods. The spectral analysis shows significant annual periodicity with similar characteristics at all locations. The relatively high correlations between the towers and small range of the computed turbulence intensity indicate that wind variability is dominated by the regional synoptic processes. Knowledge and information about daily, seasonal, and annual wind periodicities are very important for wind energy resource assessment, wind power plant operation, management, and grid integration.« less

  5. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jr., John E.

    1985-01-01

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  6. 37. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER. THIS VIEW SHOWS TWO MAJOR CHANGES TO THE STATIC TEST TOWER: THE ADDITION OF THE NASA LOGO TO THE FACADE AND THE ADDITION OF THE UPPER STAGES TO THE JUPITER MISSILE IN THE WEST POSITION ON THE TOWER TO REPRESENT THE JUNO II CONFIGURATION. 1961, PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN, FRED ORDWAY COLLECTION, U. S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, AL. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. Revealing the Genomic Landscape of Pediatric T-ALL | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) comprises 15-20% of childhood ALL and has historically been associated with inferior outcome to B-cell  ALL (B-ALL). Recent studies have used genome-wide sequencing approaches to identify new subtypes and targets of mutation in B-ALL, but comprehensive sequencing studies of large cohorts of T-ALL have not been performed.

  8. Design automation of load-bearing arched structures of roofs of tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The article considers aspects of the possible use of arched roofs in the construction of skyscrapers. Tall buildings experience large load from various environmental factors. Skyscrapers are subject to various and complex types of deformation of its structural elements. The paper discusses issues related to the aerodynamics of various structural elements of tall buildings. The technique of solving systems of equations state method of Simpson. The article describes the optimization of geometric parameters of bearing elements of the arched roofs of skyscrapers.

  9. 93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF DOG EAR AND TRUSS (BRACKET) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-07-01

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative "dry" cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

  11. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3 - 100 km Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Theory and computations are provided for building inflatable space towers up to one hundred kilometers in height. These towers can be used for tourism, scientific observation of space, observation of the Earth's surface, weather and upper atmosphere, and for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. The towers can be built using present technology. The towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the Earth's surface. The transport system for a tower consists of a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the Earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanisms in case of damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in other publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  12. Convective Cloud Towers and Precipitation Initiation, Frequency and Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vant-hull, B.; Mahani, S. E.; Autones, F.; Rabin, R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    : Geosynchronous satellite retrieval of precipitation is desirable because it would provide continuous observation throughout most of the globe in regions where radar data is not available. In the current work the distribution of precipitation rates is examined as a function of cloud tower area and cloud top temperature. A thunderstorm tracking algorithm developed at Meteo-France is used to track cumulus towers that are matched up with radar data at 5 minute 1 km resolution. It is found that roughly half of the precipitation occurs in the cloud mass that surrounds the towers, and when a tower is first detected the precipitation is already in progress 50% of the time. The average density of precipitation per area is greater as the towers become smaller and colder, yet the averaged shape of the precipitation intensity distribution is remarkably constant in all convective situations with cloud tops warmer than 220 K. This suggests that on average all convective precipitation events look the same, unaffected by the higher frequency of occurrence per area inside the convective towers. Only once the cloud tops are colder than 220 K does the precipitation intensity distribution become weighted towards higher instantaneous intensities. Radar precipitation shown in shades of green to blue, lightning in orange; black diamonds are coldest points in each tower. Ratio of number of pixels of given precipitation inside versus outside the convective towers, for various average cloud top temperatures. A flat plot indicates the distribution of rainfall inside and outside the towers has the same shape.

  13. Feasibility Study on High Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohberger, Dirk; Jaus, Joachim; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Schramek, Philipp; Bett, Andreas W.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis on the concept of high concentrating PV power towers. A feasibility study is conducted in order to evaluate the future potential of this technology. Objective of the analysis is to provide an improved basis for establishing research and development priorities for the PV power tower concept. Performance assessments and cost calculations for a 1 MW prototype PV tower power are derived. Based on the assumption of a highly homogeneously illuminated receiver, levelized costs of electricity of 0.29 €/kWh have been calculated for a prototype PV tower power.

  14. Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation

    SciT

    Leeper, Stephen A.

    1981-07-01

    A survey of wet cooling tower literature was performed to develop a simplified method of cooling tower design and simulation for use in power plant cycle optimization. The theory of heat exchange in wet cooling towers is briefly summarized. The Merkel equation (the fundamental equation of heat transfer in wet cooling towers) is presented and discussed. The cooling tower fill constant (Ka) is defined and values derived. A rule-of-thumb method for the optimized design of cooling towers is presented. The rule-of-thumb design method provides information useful in power plant cycle optimization, including tower dimensions, water consumption rate, exit air temperature,more » power requirements and construction cost. In addition, a method for simulation of cooling tower performance at various operating conditions is presented. This information is also useful in power plant cycle evaluation. Using the information presented, it will be possible to incorporate wet cooling tower design and simulation into a procedure to evaluate and optimize power plant cycles.« less

  15. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  16. Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. 8. STATIC TEST TOWER NORTHWEST ELEVATION FROM THE POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. STATIC TEST TOWER - NORTHWEST ELEVATION FROM THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Prolyl-isomerase Pin1 controls Notch3 protein expression and regulates T-ALL progression.

    PubMed

    Franciosa, G; Diluvio, G; Gaudio, F Del; Giuli, M V; Palermo, R; Grazioli, P; Campese, A F; Talora, C; Bellavia, D; D'Amati, G; Besharat, Z M; Nicoletti, C; Siebel, C W; Choy, L; Rustighi, A; Sal, G Del; Screpanti, I; Checquolo, S

    2016-09-08

    Deregulated Notch signaling is associated with T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) development and progression. Increasing evidence reveals that Notch pathway has an important role in the invasion ability of tumor cells, including leukemia, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unclear. Here, we show that Notch3 is a novel target protein of the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, which is able to regulate Notch3 protein processing and to stabilize the cleaved product, leading to the increased expression of the intracellular domain (N3IC), finally enhancing Notch3-dependent invasiveness properties. We demonstrate that the combined inhibition of Notch3 and Pin1 in the Notch3-overexpressing human leukemic TALL-1 cells reduces their high invasive potential, by decreasing the expression of the matrix metalloprotease MMP9. Consistently, Pin1 depletion in a mouse model of Notch3-induced T-ALL, by reducing N3IC expression and signaling, impairs the expansion/invasiveness of CD4(+)CD8(+) DP cells in peripheral lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. Notably, in in silico gene expression analysis of human T-ALL samples we observed a significant correlation between Pin1 and Notch3 expression levels, which may further suggest a key role of the newly identified Notch3-Pin1 axis in T-ALL aggressiveness and progression. Thus, combined suppression of Pin1 and Notch3 proteins may be exploited as an additional target therapy for T-ALL.

  19. Prolyl-isomerase Pin1 controls Notch3 protein expression and regulates T-ALL progression

    PubMed Central

    Franciosa, G; Diluvio, G; Gaudio, F Del; Giuli, M V; Palermo, R; Grazioli, P; Campese, A F; Talora, C; Bellavia, D; D'Amati, G; Besharat, Z M; Nicoletti, C; Siebel, C W; Choy, L; Rustighi, A; Sal, G Del; Screpanti, I; Checquolo, S

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling is associated with T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) development and progression. Increasing evidence reveals that Notch pathway has an important role in the invasion ability of tumor cells, including leukemia, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unclear. Here, we show that Notch3 is a novel target protein of the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, which is able to regulate Notch3 protein processing and to stabilize the cleaved product, leading to the increased expression of the intracellular domain (N3IC), finally enhancing Notch3-dependent invasiveness properties. We demonstrate that the combined inhibition of Notch3 and Pin1 in the Notch3-overexpressing human leukemic TALL-1 cells reduces their high invasive potential, by decreasing the expression of the matrix metalloprotease MMP9. Consistently, Pin1 depletion in a mouse model of Notch3-induced T-ALL, by reducing N3IC expression and signaling, impairs the expansion/invasiveness of CD4+CD8+ DP cells in peripheral lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. Notably, in in silico gene expression analysis of human T-ALL samples we observed a significant correlation between Pin1 and Notch3 expression levels, which may further suggest a key role of the newly identified Notch3-Pin1 axis in T-ALL aggressiveness and progression. Thus, combined suppression of Pin1 and Notch3 proteins may be exploited as an additional target therapy for T-ALL. PMID:26876201

  20. Severe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune disease in TALL-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sanjay D.; Sarosi, Ildiko; Xia, Xing-Zhong; McCabe, Susan; Miner, Kent; Solovyev, Irina; Hawkins, Nessa; Kelley, Michael; Chang, David; Van, Gwyneth; Ross, Larry; Delaney, John; Wang, Ling; Lacey, David; Boyle, William J.; Hsu, Hailing

    2000-01-01

    TALL-1/Blys/BAFF is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Here, we describe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune lupus-like changes in transgenic mice expressing TALL-1 under the control of a β-actin promoter. The TALL-1 transgenic mice showed severe enlargement of spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches because of an increased number of B220+ cells. The transgenic mice also had hypergammaglobulinemia contributed by elevations of serum IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE. In addition, a phenotype similar to autoimmune lupus-like disease was also seen in TALL-1 transgenic mice, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and immune complex deposits in the kidney. Prolonged survival and hyperactivity of transgenic B cells may contribute to the autoimmune lupus-like phenotype in these animals. Our studies further confirm TALL-1 as a stimulator of B cells that affect Ig production. Thus, TALL-1 may be a primary mediator in B cell-associated autoimmune diseases. PMID:10716715

  1. Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on three tall fescue cultivars

    SciT

    Flagler, R.B.; Youngner, V.B.

    Although many reports have been published concerning differential susceptibility of various crops and/or cultivars to air pollutants, most have used foliar injury instead of the marketable yield as the factor that determined susceptibility for the crop. In an examination of screening in terms of marketable yield, three cultivars of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), 'Alta,' 'Fawn,' and 'Kentucky 31,' were exposed to 0-0.40 ppm O/sub 3/ or 0-0.50 ppm SO/sub 2/ 6 h/d, once a week, for 7 and 9 weeks, respectively. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Statistical analysis was by standard analysis of variancemore » and regression techniques. Three variables were analyzed: top dry weight (yield), tiller number, and weight per tiller. Ozone had a significant effect on all three variables. Significant linear decreases in yield and weight per tiller occurred with increasing O/sub 3/ concentrations. Linear regressions of these variables on O/sub 3/ concentration produced significantly different regression coefficients. The coefficient for Kentucky 31 was significantly greater than Alta or Fawn, which did not differ from each other. This indicated that Kentucky 31 was more susceptible to O/sub 3/ than either of the other cultivars. Percent reductions in dry weight for the three cultivars at highest O/sub 3/ level were 35, 44, and 53%, respectively, for Fawn, Alta, and Kentucky 31. For weight per tiller, Kentucky 31 had a higher percent reduction than the other cultivars (59 vs. 46 and 44%). Tiller number was generally increased by O/sub 3/, but this variable was not useful for determining differential susceptibility to the pollutant. Sulfur dioxide treatments produced no significant effects on any of the variables analyzed.« less

  2. Biophysical constraints on leaf expansion in a tall conifer.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Frederick C; Bond, Barbara J; Karanian, Jennifer A

    2008-02-01

    The physiological mechanisms responsible for reduced extension growth as trees increase in height remain elusive. We evaluated biophysical constraints on leaf expansion in old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Needle elongation rates, plastic and elastic extensibility, bulk leaf water (Psi(L)) and osmotic (Psi(pi)) potential, bulk tissue yield threshold and final needle length were characterized along a height gradient in crowns of > 50-m-tall trees during the period between bud break and full expansion (May to June). Although needle length decreased with increasing height, there was no height-related trend in leaf plastic extensibility, which was highest immediately after bud break (2.9%) and declined rapidly to a stable minimum value (0.3%) over a 3-week period during which leaf expansion was completed. There was a significant positive linear relationship between needle elongation rates and plastic extensibility. Yield thresholds were consistently lower at the upper and middle crown sampling heights. The mean yield threshold across all sampling heights was 0.12 +/- 0.03 MPa on June 8, rising to 0.34 +/- 0.03 MPa on June 15 and 0.45 +/- 0.05 MPa on June 24. Bulk leaf Psi(pi) decreased linearly with increasing height at a rate of 0.004 MPa m(-1) during the period of most rapid needle elongation, but the vertical osmotic gradient was not sufficient to fully compensate for the 0.015 MPa m(-1) vertical gradient in Psi(L), implying that bulk leaf turgor declined at a rate of about 0.011 MPa m(-1) increase in height. Although height-dependent reductions in turgor appeared to constrain leaf expansion, it is possible that the impact of reduced turgor was mitigated by delayed phenological development with increasing height, which resulted in an increase with height in the temperature during leaf expansion.

  3. Development of Meteorological Towers Using Advanced Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshurafa, Sami A.

    The research program involved both numerical and experimental work. The numerical analysis was conducted to simulate the static and dynamic behaviour of the 81 m meteorological FRP guyed tower under wind and ice loading. The FRP tower consisted of 16 segments each made of 3 cells connected together to form an equilateral triangle having equal sides of 450 mm. The segments were interconnected using internal sleeves. Various non-linear finite element models were developed to study a number of design parameters for the 81 m FRP tower such as, different laminates containing a variety of stacking sequences of laminate orientations with various thicknesses, different cable diameters, and appropriate guy cable spacing levels. The effect of pre-stressing the guy cables up to 10 % of their breaking strength was investigated. The effect of fibre volume fraction on the design of the FRP tower was also examined. Furthermore, an 8.6 m FRP tower segment was designed using the finite element analysis and subject to the same loading conditions experienced by the bottom section of the 81 m FRP tower. A modal analysis was carried out for both the 8.6 m FRP tower segment with and without a mass on the top as well as for the 81 m FRP guyed tower to evaluate the vibration performance of these towers. The experimental work involved extensive material testing to define the material properties for use in the analysis of the 81 m FRP tower. It also involved the design and fabrication of a special collapsible mandrel for fabricating the FRP cells for the 8.6 m tower segment. The 8.6 m tower was tested horizontally under static lateral loading to 80 % of its estimated failure load using a "whiffle tree" arrangement, in order to simulate a uniformly distributed wind loading. Later, the same FRP tower was erected in a vertical position and was tested with and without a mass on top under dynamic loading to obtain the natural frequencies. Lastly, a comparative study was conducted between two 81

  4. Landsat imagery evidences great recent land cover changes induced by wild fires in central Siberia*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antamoshkina, O. A.; Trofimova, N. V.; Antamoshkin, O. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article discusses the methods of satellite image classification to determine general types of forest ecosystems, as well as the long-term monitoring of ecosystems changes using satellite imagery of medium spatial resolution and the daily data of space monitoring of active fires. The area of interest of this work is 100 km footprint of the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), located near the Zotino settlement, Krasnoyarsk region. The study area is located in the middle taiga subzone of Western Siberia, are presented by the left and right banks of the Yenisei river. For Landsat satellite imagery supervised classification by the maximum likelihood method was made using ground-based studies over the last fifteen years. The results are the identification of the 10 aggregated classes of land surface and composition of the study area thematic map. Operational satellite monitoring and analysis of spatial information about ecosystem in the 100-kilometer footprint of the ZOTTO tall tower allows to monitor the dynamics of forest disturbance by fire and logging over a long time period and to estimate changes in forest ecosystems of the study area. Data on the number and area of fires detected in the study region for the 2000-2014 received in the work. Calculations show that active fires have burned more than a quarter of the footprint area over the study period. Fires have a significant impact on the redistribution of classes of land surface. Area of all types of vegetation ecosystems declined dramatically under the influence of fires, whereas industrial logging does not impact seriously on it. The results obtained in our work indicate the highest occurrence of fires for lichen forest types within study region, probably due to their high natural fire danger, which is consistent with other studies. The least damage the fire caused to the wetland ecosystem due to high content of moisture and the presence of a large number of fire breaks in the form of open water.

  5. Systematic derivation of an Australian standard for Tall Man lettering to distinguish similar drug names.

    PubMed

    Emmerton, Lynne; Rizk, Mariam F S; Bedford, Graham; Lalor, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Confusion between similar drug names can cause harmful medication errors. Similar drug names can be visually differentiated using a typographical technique known as Tall Man lettering. While international conventions exist to derive Tall Man representation for drug names, there has been no national standard developed in Australia. This paper describes the derivation of a risk-based, standardized approach for use of Tall Man lettering in Australia, and known as National Tall Man Lettering. A three-stage approach was applied. An Australian list of similar drug names was systematically compiled from the literature and clinical error reports. Secondly, drug name pairs were prioritized using a risk matrix based on the likelihood of name confusion (a four-component score) vs. consensus ratings of the potential severity of the confusion by 31 expert reviewers. The mid-type Tall Man convention was then applied to derive the typography for the highest priority drug pair names. Of 250 pairs of confusable Australian drug names, comprising 341 discrete names, 35 pairs were identified by the matrix as an 'extreme' risk if confused. The mid-type Tall Man convention was successfully applied to the majority of the prioritized drugs; some adaption of the convention was required. This systematic process for identification of confusable drug names and associated risk, followed by application of a convention for Tall Man lettering, has produced a standard now endorsed for use in clinical settings in Australia. Periodic updating is recommended to accommodate new drug names and error reports. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents are made of redwood. Camera facing southwest toward north side of Cooling Tower. Siding is corrugated asbestos concrete. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: June 6, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3463 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Main photoautotrophic components of biofilms in natural draft cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Tomáš; Čapek, Petr; Böhmová, Petra

    2016-05-01

    While photoautotrophic organisms are an important component of biofilms that live in certain regions of natural draft cooling towers, little is known about these communities. We therefore examined 18 towers at nine sites to identify the general patterns of community assembly in three distinct tower parts, and we examined how community structures differ depending on geography. We also compared the newly acquired data with previously published data. The bottom sections of draft cooling towers are mainly settled by large filamentous algae, primarily Cladophora glomerata. The central portions of towers host a small amount of planktic algae biomass originating in the cooling water. The upper fourths of towers are colonized by biofilms primarily dominated by cyanobacteria, e.g., members of the genera Gloeocapsa and Scytonema. A total of 41 taxa of phototrophic microorganisms were identified. Species composition of the upper fourth of all towers was significantly affected by cardinal position. There was different species composition at positions facing north compared to positions facing south. West- and east-facing positions were transitory and highly similar to each other in terms of species composition. Biofilms contribute to the degradation of paint coatings inside towers.

  8. PBF Cooling Tower contextual view. Camera facing southwest. West wing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower contextual view. Camera facing southwest. West wing and north facade (rear) of Reactor Building (PER-620) is at left; Cooling Tower to right. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: November 2, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-4913 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 84. INDIAN HOUSE TOWER, FROM THE EAST. ALSO SHOWS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. INDIAN HOUSE TOWER, FROM THE EAST. ALSO SHOWS THE BALCONY AND ARCADE OF THE WEST WING. THE TOWER WAS ADDED IN 1916. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-10. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  10. 10. INDIAN HOUSE TOWER, FROM, THE EAST. ALSO SHOWS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INDIAN HOUSE TOWER, FROM, THE EAST. ALSO SHOWS THE BALCONY AND ARCADE OF THE WEST WING. THE TOWER WAS ADDED IN 1916. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  11. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study. Instructor's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power output. The efficiency…

  12. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, south and east sides of keeper's house, south side of tower and oil house - Owl's Head Light Station, Off State Highway 73 just east of Rockland on Owl's Head Bay, Owls Head, Knox County, ME

  13. 2. Light tower and oil house, view west, southeast and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and oil house, view west, southeast and northeast sides of tower and south side of oil house - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  14. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Systems Integration Analysis for Future Tower Cab Configurations/Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-06-01

    This report presents the results of the analysis of various aspects of the integration of future ATC systems into the tower cab. The impact on the tower cab environment is analyzed from several points of view: how the systems information and displays...

  16. 32. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER WHILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER WHILE A JUPITER MISSILE IS BEING POSITIONED ONTO THE TEST TOWER. DATE AND PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN, MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors...Composing Joan Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    This essay interview with Joan Tower is a meditation on the importance of composing, understood as a process larger than the making of new sound combinations or musical scores, suggesting that the compositional act is self-educative and self-forming. Tower's musical life, one of teaching and learning, one of composing and self-composing, is an…

  18. 16. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower; note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower; note condition of slates on tower skirt roof, missing section of gutter at left side of skirt roof, missing window panes; note also knee braces carried on masonry ancons; view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  19. 78 FR 17183 - Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card... request: (1) An extension from the Office of Management and Budget; and (2) to merge the currently approved information collection 0596- 0222, ``Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card'' with 0596-0226, ``Forest...

  20. 47 CFR 5.109 - Antenna and tower requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna and tower requirements. 5.109 Section 5... BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.109 Antenna and tower requirements. (a) Applicants with fixed stations that use antennas that exceed 6 meters in height above the ground level or...

  1. 47 CFR 5.109 - Antenna and tower requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna and tower requirements. 5.109 Section 5... BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.109 Antenna and tower requirements. (a) Applicants with fixed stations that use antennas that exceed 6 meters in height above the ground level or...

  2. 47 CFR 5.109 - Antenna and tower requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna and tower requirements. 5.109 Section 5... BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.109 Antenna and tower requirements. (a) Applicants with fixed stations that use antennas that exceed 6 meters in height above the ground level or...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1329 - Process contact cooling towers provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DDD, shall maintain an ethylene glycol concentration in the process contact cooling tower at or below... to the process contact cooling tower. (1) To determine the ethylene glycol concentration, owners or... procedures specified in 40 CFR 60.564(j)(1)(i). An average ethylene glycol concentration by weight shall be...

  4. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Problem Statement: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power…

  5. OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP RAVINE,LOOKING SOUTH FROM BREAK OVER TOWER LOCATION. A SINGLE ORE BUCKET HANGS FROM THE CABLE AT CENTER. DEATH VALLEY'S FLOOR IS IN THE DISTANCE (TOP). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. PBF Cooling Tower. Camera facing southwest. Round piers will support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. Camera facing southwest. Round piers will support Tower's wood "fill" or "packing." Black-topped stack in far distance is at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Photographer: John Capek. Date: October 16, 1968. INEEL negative no. 68-4097 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Within compound, from Guard Tower (Building 5762), looking southwest, Technical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, from Guard Tower (Building 5762), looking southwest, Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) to left, Microwave Tower (associated with Building 5769) and Civil Engineering Storage Building (Building 5766) to left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  8. 16. TYPICAL VIEW OF PEARL HARBOR FROM SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. TYPICAL VIEW OF PEARL HARBOR FROM SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE, LOOKING OUT AT MAIN CHANNEL ENTRANCE, WITH FORD ISLAND ON THE RIGHT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 2. Fog signal house and light tower, view west southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Fog signal house and light tower, view west southwest, southeast and northeast sides of signal house, east and north sides of tower - Libby Island Light Station, At southern tip of Libby Island at entrance to Machias Bay, Machiasport, Washington County, ME

  10. 1. Light tower and fog signal house, view south southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light tower and fog signal house, view south southeast, east and north sides of tower, northeast and northwest sides of signal house - Libby Island Light Station, At southern tip of Libby Island at entrance to Machias Bay, Machiasport, Washington County, ME

  11. 15. TYPICAL VIEW OF PEARL HARBOR FROM SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. TYPICAL VIEW OF PEARL HARBOR FROM SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE, LOOKING OUT TOWARD ARIZONA MEMORIAL AND FORD ISLAND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 1. Oil house, keeper's house, Southern Light Tower and Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil house, keeper's house, Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view northwest, south and east sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  13. 7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view north northeast, west and south sides of keeper's house and tower, southwest and southeast sides of fog signal house - West Quoddy Head Light Station, At eastern tip of West Quaddy Head, Lubec, Washington County, ME

  14. 2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west and north sides of barn, northwest side of light tower, and west northwest and north northeast sides of keeper's house - Curtis Island Light Station, Curtis Island, at entrance to Camden Harbor, Camden, Knox County, ME

  15. 1. Keeper's house, small boathouse, and light tower, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, small boathouse, and light tower, view east, west and south sides of keeper's house, west side of boathouse and tower - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  16. 36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER No. 1 AND TWO GAS COOLING TOWER SERVICE WATER PUMPS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Enumeration of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water systems.

    PubMed

    Türetgen, Irfan; Sungur, Esra Ilhan; Cotuk, Aysin

    2005-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is known to colonise and frequently grow in cooling tower waters. Disease is acquired by inhaling aerosol contaminated by legionellae. Determination of the count of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower waters may, therefore, be useful for risk assessment. In our survey, 103 water samples from 50 cooling towers were examined over a five-year period to indicate the seasonal distribution and the ecology of L. pneumophila, as regards temperature and pH. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was found in 44% of the isolated strains, which is primarily responsible for the majority of Legionnaires' disease. The large majority of examined towers had levels of L. pneumophila in the high-risk category. These cooling towers have been linked to many outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease.

  18. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over two decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. An organizing framework is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme, because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface-atmosphere fluxes. Complementary NDVI and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. We conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to improve our understanding of environmental constraints and

  19. Analysis of wind-resistant and stability for cable tower in cable-stayed bridge with four towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yangjun; Li, Can

    2017-06-01

    Wind speed time history simulation methods have been introduced first, especially the harmonic synthesis method introduced in detail. Second, taking Chishi bridge for example, choosing the particular sections, and combined with the design wind speed, three-component coefficient simulate analysis between -4°and 4°has been carry out with the Fluent software. The results show that drag coefficient reaches maximum when the attack Angle is 1°. According to measured wind speed samples,time history curves of wind speed at bridge deck and tower roof have been obtained,and wind-resistant time history analysis for No.5 tower has been carry out. Their results show that the dynamic coefficients are different with different calculation standard, especially transverse bending moment, pulsating crosswind load does not show a dynamic amplification effect.Under pulsating wind loads at bridge deck or tower roof, the maximum displacement at the top of the tower and the maximum stress at the bottom of the tower are within the allowable range. The transverse stiffness of tower is greater than that of the longitudinal stiffness, therefore wind-resistant analysis should give priority to the longitudinal direction. Dynamic coefficients are different with different standard, the maximum dynamic coefficient should be used for the pseudo-static analysis.Finally, the static stability of tower is analyzed with different load combinations, and the galloping stabilities of cable tower is proved.

  20. A study of the Civic Tower in Ravenna as an example of medieval towers' preservation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Stefania; Maino, Giuseppe; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela; Volpe, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Structuralstabilityis a major item when considering very high masonry buildings made of stones, bricks, etc., that can start sudden structural failures and collapses, often without any obvious signs of warning. A famous example is the collapse of the belfry of the Basilica of San Marco in Venice --the implementation of it began in the ninth century-- which took place in July 1902 a few days after the appearanceof a fissure. This paper discusses the scientific investigation performed on the Torre Civica (Civic Tower) in Ravenna (North-East Italy), in order to characterize its constituent materials, namely bricks and mortar. All this information and relevant data merge in a multimedia database which will help to design appropriate conservation and restoration works, mainly concerning the reconstruction of the apical part of the tower, that was foreshortened ten years ago for safety reasons, starting from the original materials catalogued and preserved up to the present day.

  1. PORFIDO on the NEMO Phase 2 tower

    SciT

    Ciaffoni, Orlando; Cordelli, Marco; Habel, Roberto

    We have designed and built an underwater measurement system, PORFIDO (Physical Oceanography by RFID Outreach) to gather oceanographic data from the Optical Modules of a neutrino telescope with a minimum of disturbance to the main installation. PORFIDO is composed of a sensor glued to the outside of an Optical Module, in contact with seawater, and of a reader placed inside the sphere, facing the sensor. Data are transmitted to the reader through the glass by RFID and to shore in real time for periods of years. The sensor gathers power from the radio frequency, thus eliminating the need for batteriesmore » or connectors through the glass. We have deployed four PORFIDO probes measuring temperatures with the NEMO-KM3Net-Italy Phase 2 tower in april 2013. The four probes are operative and are transmitting temperature data from 3500 m depth.« less

  2. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  3. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  4. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  5. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  6. Wood-derived olefins by steam cracking of hydrodeoxygenated tall oils.

    PubMed

    Pyl, Steven P; Dijkmans, Thomas; Antonykutty, Jinto M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Harlin, Ali; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2012-12-01

    Tall oil fractions obtained from Norwegian spruce pulping were hydrodeoxygenated (HDO) at pilot scale using a commercial NiMo hydrotreating catalyst. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) showed that HDO of both tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) and distilled tall oil (DTO) produced highly paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids. The hydrotreated fractions also contained fatty acid methyl esters and norabietane and norabietatriene isomers. Steam cracking of HDO-TOFA in a pilot plant revealed that high light olefin yields can be obtained, with 35.4 wt.% of ethene and 18.2 wt.% of propene at a coil outlet pressure (COP) of 1.7 bara, a dilution of 0.45 kg(steam)/kg(HDO-TOFA) and a coil outlet temperature (COT) of 820 °C. A pilot plant coking experiment indicated that cracking of HDO-TOFA at a COT of 850 °C results in limited fouling in the reactor. Co-cracking of HDO tall oil fractions with a typical fossil-based naphtha showed improved selectivity to desired light olefins, further demonstrating the potential of large scale olefin production from hydrotreated tall oil fractions in conventional crackers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Viability of Acremonium coenophialum in tall fescue seed after ionizing radiation treatments

    SciT

    Bagegni, A.M.; Sleper, D.A.; Kerr, H.D.

    Planting tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) seed free of the endophyte Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams allows establishment of swards free of the fungus. Eradication of the fungal endophyte from infected tall fescue seeds containing 130 g kg{sup {minus}1} moisture using ionizing radiation was investigated. Three sources of radiation were used: gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source), neutron particles ({sup 252}Cf source), and a thermal neutron beam. The percent germination of tall fescue seeds among gamma doses did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from the control treatment and did not show a significant negative response (R{sub 2} = 0.41) tomore » increasing levels of gamma radiation. At 250 Gy of gamma radiation, percent germination after 14 d was still > 90%. Percent seed germination of tall fescue and high levels of radiation were negatively correlated for both sources of neutrons. Gamma radiation was shown to reduce (P < 0.01) the percent of the viable endophyte to {approx} 10% of control. The {sup 252}Cf and thermal neutrons reduced the percent of tall fescue infected by the endophyte to {approx} 30% without deleterious effects on seed germination.« less

  8. Chromatin looping defines expression of TAL1, its flanking genes, and regulation in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Kurukuti, Sreenivasulu; Saffrey, Peter; Vukovic, Milica; Michie, Alison M; Strogantsev, Ruslan; West, Adam G; Vetrie, David

    2013-12-19

    TAL1 is an important regulator of hematopoiesis and its expression is tightly controlled despite complexities in its genomic organization. It is frequently misregulated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), often due to deletions between TAL1 and the neighboring STIL gene. To better understand the events that lead to TAL1 expression in hematopoiesis and in T-ALL, we studied looping interactions at the TAL1 locus. In TAL1-expressing erythroid cells, the locus adopts a looping "hub" which brings into close physical proximity all known TAL1 cis-regulatory elements including CTCF-bound insulators. Loss of GATA1 results in disassembly of the hub and loss of CTCF/RAD21 from one of its insulators. Genes flanking TAL1 are partly dependent on hub integrity for their transcriptional regulation. We identified looping patterns unique to TAL1-expressing T-ALL cells, and, intriguingly, loops occurring between the TAL1 and STIL genes at the common TAL1/STIL breakpoints found in T-ALL. These findings redefine how TAL1 and neighboring genes communicate within the nucleus, and indicate that looping facilitates both normal and aberrant TAL1 expression and may predispose to structural rearrangements in T-ALL. We also propose that GATA1-dependent looping mechanisms may facilitate the conservation of TAL1 regulation despite cis-regulatory remodeling during vertebrate evolution.

  9. Responses of a tall building in Los Angeles, California as inferred from local and distant earthquakes

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hasan Ulusoy,; Nori Nakata,

    2016-01-01

    Increasing inventory of tall buildings in the United States and elsewhere may be subjected to motions generated by near and far seismic sources that cause long-period effects. Multiple sets of records that exhibited such effects were retrieved from tall buildings in Tokyo and Osaka ~ 350 km and 770 km from the epicenter of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In California, very few tall buildings have been instrumented. An instrumented 52-story building in downtown Los Angeles recorded seven local and distant earthquakes. Spectral and system identification methods exhibit significant low frequencies of interest (~0.17 Hz, 0.56 Hz and 1.05 Hz). These frequencies compare well with those computed by transfer functions; however, small variations are observed between the significant low frequencies for each of the seven earthquakes. The torsional and translational frequencies are very close and are coupled. Beating effect is observed in at least two of the seven earthquake data.

  10. Flammulina velutipes treatment of non-sterile tall wheat grass for enhancing biodegradability and methane production.

    PubMed

    Kasprzycka, Agnieszka; Lalak-Kańczugowska, Justyna; Tys, Jerzy

    2018-05-09

    In this study fungal pretreatment of non-sterile tall wheat grass via the white rot fungi Flammulina velutipes was studied and the effect on biodegradability of lignocellulosic biomass and methane production, was evaluated. Degradation of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and dry matter in non-sterile tall wheat grass during 28 days of fungal pretreatment using different inoculum ratio (0%-50%) and moisture content (MC) (45% MC, 65% MC, and 75% MC) were assessed via comparison to untreated biomass. Pretreatment with F. velutipes was most effective at 65% MC and 40% inoculum ratio, resulting in 22% lignin removal. The corresponding methane yields were 181.3 Ndm 3 ·kg VS -1 , which were 280% higher than for the untreated tall wheat grass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stimulatory effect of cooling tower biocides on amoebae.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, S; Berk, S G

    1993-10-01

    Two species of amoebae were isolated from the cooling tower of an air-conditioning system and examined for effects of exposure to four cooling tower biocides, a thiocarbamate compound, tributyltin neodecanoate mixed with quaternary ammonium compounds, another quaternary ammonium compound alone, and an isothiazolin derivative. The amoebae isolated were Acanthamoeba hatchetti and a Cochliopodium species. Two other amoeba cultures, an A. hatchetti culture and Cochliopodium bilimbosum, were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and were also tested. The cooling tower isolates were more resistant to most of the biocides than the ATCC isolates were. The isothiazolin derivative was the least inhibitory to all four amoeba isolates, and tributyltin neodecanoate mixed with quaternary ammonium compounds was the most inhibitory to three of the four isolates. After exposure to lower concentrations of the biocides, including for one strain the manufacturer's recommended concentration of one biocide, the cooling tower amoeba populations increased significantly compared with unexposed controls, whereas the ATCC isolates were not stimulated at any of the concentrations tested. In some cases, concentrations which stimulated cooling tower amoebae inhibited the growth of the ATCC isolates. These results suggest that cooling tower amoebae may adapt to biocides, underscoring the need to use freshly isolated cooling tower organisms rather than organisms from culture collections for testing the efficacy of such biocides. The stimulatory effect of biocides on amoeba populations is an alarming observation, since these organisms may be reservoirs for legionellae. Biocides used to control microbial growth may actually enhance populations of host organisms for pathogenic bacteria.

  12. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    SciT

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-07-08

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understandingmore » the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.« less

  13. Drivers of tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the Dempster Highway, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Emily A.; Lantz, Trevor C.

    2016-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of climate warming and more frequent disturbances. Disturbances can have particularly large effects on high-latitude ecosystems when ecosystem structure and function is controlled by strong feedbacks between soil conditions, vegetation, and ground thermal regime. In this study we investigated the impact of road construction and maintenance on vegetation structure and biomass along the Dempster Highway where it crosses the Peel Plateau in the Northwest Territories. To explore drivers of tall shrub proliferation and to quantify shrub proliferation in this region of continuous permafrost, greyscale air photos (1975) and Quickbird satellite imagery (2008) were used to map landcover change within two 0.6 km2 belts next to the road and two 0.6 km2 belts 500 m away from the road. Maps showing areas where: 1) tall shrubs expanded, and 2) dwarf shrub tundra resisted invasion were then used to select field sites where a suite of biophysical variables were measured. Rapid tall shrub proliferation and greater biomass adjacent to the road indicate that disturbance can facilitate vegetation change in tundra environments. Our field data also suggests that increased shrub proliferation adjacent to the road was caused by greater soil moisture. Tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the road occurred at lower elevation sites characterized by wetter soils with thicker organic layers. Areas that resisted tall shrub encroachment were located at higher elevations and had drier soils with thin organic layers. Our observations also support previous work illustrating that tall shrub expansion next to the highway promotes strong positive feedbacks to ongoing shrub growth and proliferation.

  14. Molecular discrimination of tall fescue morphotypes in association with Festuca relatives

    PubMed Central

    Chekhovskiy, Konstantin

    2018-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important cool-season perennial grass species used as forage and turf, and in conservation plantings. There are three morphotypes in hexaploid tall fescue: Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous. This study was conducted to develop morphotype-specific molecular markers to distinguish Continental and Mediterranean tall fescues, and establish their relationships with other species of the Festuca genus for genomic inference. Chloroplast sequence variation and simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism were explored in 12 genotypes of three tall fescue morphotypes and four Festuca species. Hypervariable chloroplast regions were retrieved by using 33 specifically designed primers followed by sequencing the PCR products. SSR polymorphism was studied using 144 tall fescue SSR primers. Four chloroplast (NFTCHL17, NFTCHL43, NFTCHL45 and NFTCHL48) and three SSR (nffa090, nffa204 and nffa338) markers were identified which can distinctly differentiate Continental and Mediterranean morphotypes. A primer pair, NFTCHL45, amplified a 47 bp deletion between the two morphotypes is being routinely used in the Noble Research Institute’s core facility for morphotype discrimination. Both chloroplast sequence variation and SSR diversity showed a close association between Rhizomatous and Continental morphotypes, while the Mediterranean morphotype was in a distant clade. F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens, the P and G1G2 genome donors, respectively, were grouped with the Continental clade, and F. mairei (M1M2 genome) grouped with the Mediterranean clade in chloroplast sequence variation, while both F. pratensis and F. mairei formed independent clade in SSR analysis. Age estimation based on chloroplast sequence variation indicated that the Continental and Mediterranean clades might have been colonized independently during 0.65 ± 0.06 and 0.96 ± 0.1 million years ago (Mya) respectively. The findings of the study will

  15. Comparison of Nitrogen Fixation Activity in Tall and Short Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh Soils 1

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Roger B.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina alterniflora and short S. alterniflora marsh soils was investigated. Zero-order kinetics and first-order kinetics of acetylene reduction were used to describe the activity of the N2 fixers in marsh soil slurries. It was found that the Vmax values were approximately 10 times greater for the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina than in the short Spartina marsh when raffinose was used as the energy source. In addition, the (Ks + Sn) values were approximately 4 to 15 times lower for the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina than in short Spartina marsh. First-order kinetics of nitrogen fixation for several substrates indicate that the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina marsh were two to seven times more active than those in the short Spartina marsh. Ammonium chloride (25 μg/ml) did not inhibit nitrogen fixation in the tall Spartina marsh, but there was a 50% inhibition in nitrogen fixation in the short Spartina marsh. On the other hand, sodium nitrate inhibited nitrogen fixation almost 100% at 25 μg/ml in both soil environments. Amino nitrogen (25 to 100 μg/ml) had little or no effect on nitrogen fixation. The results indicate that the N2 fixers in the tall Spartina marsh were physiologically more responsive to nutrient addition than those in the short Spartina marsh. This difference in the two populations may be related to the difference in daily tidal influence in the respective areas and thus provide another explanation for the enhanced S. alterniflora production in the creek bank soil system. PMID:16345213

  16. United Kingdom Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change Network: greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance measurements from a UK network of tall towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Kieran; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Grant, Aoife; Manning, Alistair; Simmonds, Peter; Oram, Dave; Sturges, Bill; Derwent, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Real-time, high-frequency measurement networks are essential for investigating the emissions of gases linked with climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion. These networks can be used to verify greenhouse gas (GHG) and ozone depleting substances (ODS) emission inventories for the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols. Providing accurate and reliable country- and region-specific emissions to the atmosphere are critical for reporting to the UN agencies. The United Kingdom Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change (UK DECC) Network, operating since 2012, is distinguished by its capability to measure at high-frequency, the influence of all of the important species in the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols from the UK, Ireland and Continental Europe. Data obtained from the UK DECC network are also fed into the European Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS). This presentation will give an overview of the UK DECC Network, detailing the analytical techniques used to determine the suite of GHGs and ODSs, as well as the calibration strategy used within the network. Interannual results of key GHGs from the network will also be presented.

  17. PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest into north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest into north side of Tower. Five horizontal layers of splash bars constitute fill decks, which will break up falling water into droplets, promoting evaporative cooling. Louvered faces, through which air enters tower, are on east and west sides. Louvers have been installed. Support framework for one of two venturi-shaped fan stacks (or "vents") is in center top. Orifices in hot basins (not in view) will distribute water over fill. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: May 15, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3032 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Visual Features Involving Motion Seen from Airport Control Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Liston, Dorion

    2010-01-01

    Visual motion cues are used by tower controllers to support both visual and anticipated separation. Some of these cues are tabulated as part of the overall set of visual features used in towers to separate aircraft. An initial analyses of one motion cue, landing deceleration, is provided as a basis for evaluating how controllers detect and use it for spacing aircraft on or near the surface. Understanding cues like it will help determine if they can be safely used in a remote/virtual tower in which their presentation may be visually degraded.

  19. Probabilistic safety assessment of the design of a tall buildings under the extreme load

    SciT

    Králik, Juraj, E-mail: juraj.kralik@stuba.sk

    2016-06-08

    The paper describes some experiences from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the safety of the tall building structure. There are presented the methods and requirements of Eurocode EN 1990, standard ISO 2394 and JCSS. The uncertainties of the model and resistance of the structures are considered using the simulation methods. The MONTE CARLO, LHS and RSM probabilistic methods are compared with the deterministic results. On the example of the probability analysis of the safety of the tall buildings is demonstrated the effectiveness of the probability design of structures using Finite Element Methods.

  20. Probabilistic safety assessment of the design of a tall buildings under the extreme load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes some experiences from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the safety of the tall building structure. There are presented the methods and requirements of Eurocode EN 1990, standard ISO 2394 and JCSS. The uncertainties of the model and resistance of the structures are considered using the simulation methods. The MONTE CARLO, LHS and RSM probabilistic methods are compared with the deterministic results. On the example of the probability analysis of the safety of the tall buildings is demonstrated the effectiveness of the probability design of structures using Finite Element Methods.

  1. Browse evaluation of tall shrubs based on direct measurement of a management objective

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Monaco, Thomas A.; Vernon, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The monitoring of Geyer willow was based on the following management objective: Browsing will prevent fewer than 50 percent of Geyer willow shrubs from growing taller than 3 m . Three questions were addressed: (1) Is browsing a potential factor? (2) If so, can young plants grow taller than 3 meters? (3) If not, is browsing the dominant factor? All shrubs were intensely browsed. With a post-browsing growth rate of 5.0 cm per yr, no shrub could grow 3 m tall. Analyses of stem growth rate excluded dominant roles for climate and plant vigor. Browsing and stem age were the dominant factors that limited growth to 3 m tall.

  2. Integrating bermudagrass into tall fescue-based pasture systems for stocker cattle.

    PubMed

    Kallenbach, R L; Crawford, R J; Massie, M D; Kerley, M S; Bailey, N J

    2012-01-01

    The daily BW gain of stocker steers grazing tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.]-based pastures typically declines during summer. To avoid these declines, in part to mitigate the effects of tall fescue toxicosis, it is commonly advised to move cattle to warm-season forage during this period. A 3-yr (2006, 2007, and 2008) grazing study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing 25% of the area of a tall fescue/clover (81% endophyte-infected) pasture system with "Ozark" bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] overseeded with clover (Trifolium spp.) to provide summer grazing for stocker steers (TF+BERM). The TF+BERM treatment was compared with a grazing system in which tall fescue/clover (TF) pastures were the only type of forage available for grazing. Our objective was to determine if replacement of 25% of the land area in a fescue system with bermudagrass would increase annual beef production compared with a system based solely on tall fescue. The study was conducted at the Southwest Research and Education Center of the University of Missouri near Mt. Vernon. Each treatment was rotationally stocked with 5 steers (248 ± 19.3 kg) on 1.7 ha. Fertilizer applications were applied at rates recommended for each respective forage species. Total forage production, BW gain per hectare, and season-long ADG of steers was greater (P < 0.06) for TF+BERM than for TF in 2006, but none of these measures differed (P > 0.19) in 2007 or 2008. In vitro true digestibility of pastures was greater (P = 0.01) for TF (84.4%, SEM = 0.64%) compared with TF+BERM (80.6%, SEM = 0.79%), even in summer. The decreased in vitro true digestibility of the bermudagrass pastures likely negated any benefit that animals in TF+BERM had in avoiding the ergot-like alkaloids associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue. Renovating 25% of the pasture system to bermudagrass provided some benefit to the system in years when summertime

  3. Liquid-based cytology improves preoperative diagnostic accuracy of the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hak; Jung, Chan Kwon; Bae, Ja Seong; Jung, So Lyung; Choi, Yeong Jin; Kang, Chang Suk

    2014-01-01

    The tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common among the aggressive variants of the disease. We aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of TCV, and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in TCV detection compared with conventional smear in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA). A total of 266 consecutive patients (220 women and 46 men) with PTC were enrolled. We analyzed tumor characteristics according to histologic growth patterns as classic, classic PTC with tall cell features, and TCV. The cytomorphologic features of these subtypes were investigated according to the preparation methods of conventional smear and LBC. TCV and classic PTC with tall cell features comprised 4.9% and 6.0% of all tumors, respectively, and were significantly associated with older age at presentation, larger tumor size, high frequency of extrathyroid extension, and BRAF mutation in comparison with classic PTC. However, there was no statistically significant difference in clinicopathologic features between TCV and classic PTC with tall cell features. Tall cells were more easily detected by LBC than by conventional smear. The percentage of tall cells identified using LBC was well correlated with three histologic subtypes. Our results demonstrate that TCV is more common than previously recognized in Korea and any PTC containing tall cells may have identical biological behavior regardless of the precise proportions of tall cells. It is possible to make a preoperative diagnosis of TCV using LBC. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nitrogen rate and application timing affect the yield and risk associated with stockpiling tall fescue for winter grazing

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide economical winter feed for grazing livestock in the mid-Atlantic of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N rate and application timing on the yield of stockpiled tall fescue. Four N rates ranging from 0 to 120 lb N/acre wer...

  5. Effects of grazing stockpilied endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on growth and physiological indices of dairy heifers

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] S. J. Darbyshire) is a cool-season grass grown on over 20 million acres of pasture land and hayfields in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. A grazing trial was conducted to determine the effects of stockpiled tall fescue on the physiological and...

  6. Nutritive value and nutrient uptake of summer-active and summer-dormant tall fescue under different broiler litter rates

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] responds to broiler litter fertilization; however, data concerning the summer dormancy trait are not available. This 3-yr study (2006-2008) determined the nutrient value of broiler litter compared with commercial fertilizer (CF) in tall fescue pro...

  7. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  8. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear...

  9. EVIDENCE OF ENHANCED VERTICAL DISPERSION IN THE WAKES OF TALL BUILDINGS IN WIND TUNNEL SIMULATIONS OF LOWER MANHATTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observations of flow and dispersion in urban areas with tall buildings have revealed a phenomenon whereby contaminants can be transported vertically up the lee sides of tall buildings due to the vertical flow in the wake of the building. This phenomenon, which contributes to w...

  10. Constriction of bovine vasculature by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...

  11. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  12. 78 FR 11146 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-981] Utility Scale Wind Towers...''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on utility scale wind towers (``wind towers... investigation of wind towers from the PRC.\\1\\ On February 8, 2013, the ITC notified the Department of its...

  13. Evaluation of Tower Shadowing on Anemometer Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciT

    Bruggeman, David Alan

    2016-06-14

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of tower shadowing from the meteorology towers at LANL during 2014. This study is in response to the Department of Energy Meteorological Coordinating Council visit in 2015 that recommended an evaluation of any biases in the wind data introduced by the tower and boom alignment at all meteorology towers.

  14. 4. VIEW RECONSTRUCTED TOWER, LOOKING NNE. Philadelphia & Reading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW RECONSTRUCTED TOWER, LOOKING NNE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  15. 3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  16. Hopfield networks for solving Tower of Hanoi problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G. B.; Güzeliş, Cüneyt

    2001-08-01

    In this paper, Hopfield neural networks have been considered in solving the Tower of Hanoi test which is used in the determining of deficit of planning capability of the human prefrontal cortex. The main difference between this paper and the ones in the literature which use neural networks is that the Tower of Hanoi problem has been formulated here as a special shortest-path problem. In the literature, some Hopfield networks are developed for solving the shortest path problem which is a combinatorial optimization problem having a diverse field of application. The approach given in this paper gives the possibility of solving the Tower of Hanoi problem using these Hopfield networks. Also, the paper proposes new Hopfield network models for the shortest path and hence the Tower of Hanoi problems and compares them to the available ones in terms of the memory and time (number of steps) needed in the simulations.

  17. 7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 10. SAND TOWER ON LEFT, FUEL STATION IN CENTER, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SAND TOWER ON LEFT, FUEL STATION IN CENTER, AND LOCOMOTIVES AND CABOOSES IN TRAIN YARD, FACING EAST - Monongahela Railway Company Shops, Water Street & Seventeenth Street, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  19. 10. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, SAMPLING BUILDING, FOUNDATION, WATER TOWER, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, SAMPLING BUILDING, FOUNDATION, WATER TOWER, AND SKINNER SALT ROASTERS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  20. An outbreak of Legionella pneumonia originating from a cooling tower.

    PubMed

    Isozumi, Rie; Ito, Yutaka; Ito, Isao; Osawa, Makoto; Hirai, Toyohiro; Takakura, Syunji; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Mishima, Michiaki

    2005-01-01

    We report 2 cases of Legionella pneumonia in individuals who were exposed to aerosols during maintenance of a cooling tower at a waste processing plant. This report documents the first known occupation-related outbreak of Legionella pneumonia in Japan.

  1. Use of cooling tower blow down in ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, N; Singh, V; Panno, B; Wilcoxon, M

    2010-01-01

    Reducing water consumption in bioethanol production conserves an increasingly scarce natural resource, lowers production costs, and minimizes effluent management issues. The suitability of cooling tower blow down water for reuse in fermentation was investigated as a means to lower water consumption. Extensive chemical characterization of the blow down water revealed low concentrations of toxic elements and total dissolved solids. Fermentation carried out with cooling tower blow down water resulted in similar levels of ethanol and residual glucose as a control study using deionized water. The study noted good tolerance by yeast to the specific scale and corrosion inhibitors found in the cooling tower blow down water. This research indicates that, under appropriate conditions, reuse of blow down water from cooling towers in fermentation is feasible.

  2. 7. Tower Building interior. First view of plant behind offices ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Tower Building interior. First view of plant behind offices Equipment and double iron steps to 2nd floor. Beer parties were also held here. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  3. Dog Bridge, general view looking from the south (note tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dog Bridge, general view looking from the south (note tower to east) - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. 6. OVERALL VIEW OF THE FRONT AND THE TOWER, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OVERALL VIEW OF THE FRONT AND THE TOWER, LOOKING WEST FROM THE ACTIVE PIER OF BAY SHIP AND YACHT COMPANY. COAST GUARD CUTTER SHERMAN AT RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  5. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  6. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  7. 23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 227.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 11. INDIAN HOUSE TOWER, FROM THE WEST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INDIAN HOUSE TOWER, FROM THE WEST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE ROOF OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  9. 40 CFR 63.1329 - Process contact cooling towers provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... viscosity multiple end finisher process that utilizes a process contact cooling tower shall comply with... high viscosity multiple end finisher process and who is subject or becomes subject to 40 CFR part 60...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1329 - Process contact cooling towers provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... viscosity multiple end finisher process that utilizes a process contact cooling tower shall comply with... high viscosity multiple end finisher process, and who is subject or becomes subject to 40 CFR part 60...

  11. 72. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON COOLING TOWERS (3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON COOLING TOWERS (3 SHOWN) AND MOTOR GENERATOR ON RIGHT - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  12. 29. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, OBSERVATION TOWER, IRON BENCH AND DIRECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, OBSERVATION TOWER, IRON BENCH AND DIRECTION FINDER, VIEW ACROSS AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE TOWARDS THE "HIGHWATER MARK." VIEW NE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  13. 9. Mispillion Lighthouse, Tower Lantern Floor Hatch Mispillion Lighthouse, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Mispillion Lighthouse, Tower Lantern Floor Hatch - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Sierra SunTower | Concentrating Solar

    Turbine Capacity: Net: 5.0 MW Gross: 5.0 MW Status: Currently Non-Operational Start Year: 2009 Do you have more information, corrections, or comments? Background Technology: Power tower Status: Currently Non

  15. 26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT AS TEMPORARY TRUSS REINFORCEMENT (NOTE STEEL STRUCTURES ATOP TIMBER BRACING) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 6. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BASE OF LIGHT TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BASE OF LIGHT TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Monomoy Point Light Station, Approximately 3500 feet Northeast Powder Hole Pond, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 4. Light tower and keeper's house ,view west, southeast and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower and keeper's house ,view west, southeast and northeast sides - Baker Island Light, Lightkeeper's House, Just east of Cranberry Isles, at entrance to Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  18. 6. Light tower, detail of stairs leading from first landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower, detail of stairs leading from first landing to cupola, looking east - Baker Island Light, Lightkeeper's House, Just east of Cranberry Isles, at entrance to Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  19. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northeast, northwest and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northeast, northwest and southwest sides - Baker Island Light, Lightkeeper's House, Just east of Cranberry Isles, at entrance to Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  20. 5. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, northwest and southwest sides - Baker Island Light, Lightkeeper's House, Just east of Cranberry Isles, at entrance to Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  1. 5. Keeper's house and light tower, view south southwest, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Keeper's house and light tower, view south southwest, east and north sides - Rockland Breakwater Light Station, At end of granite breakwater extending south from Jameson Point, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  2. 1. View from Old State House tower, 150 Benefit Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from Old State House tower, 150 Benefit Street, looking southwest towards downtown Providence. - Downtown Providence, Roughley bounded by Woonasquatucket River, Providence River, Interstate Highway 195, & Interstate Highway 95, Providence, Providence County, RI

  3. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, west and south sides - Bass Harbor Head Light Station, At southwest tip of Mount Desert Island off State Route 102, Bass Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  4. 1. Keeper's house, oil house, light tower and storage building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, oil house, light tower and storage building, view northeast, south or southwest sides - Petit Manan Light Station, 2.5 miles south of Petit Manan Point, Milbridge, Washington County, ME

  5. System of tolerances for a solar-tower power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparisi, R. R.; Tepliakov, D. I.

    The principles underlying the establishment of a system of tolerances for a solar-tower station are presented. Attention is given to static and dynamic tolerances and deviations for a single heliostat, and geometrical tolerances for a field of heliostats.

  6. 23. DETAIL VIEW IN COAL TOWER No. 1 (WEST) OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DETAIL VIEW IN COAL TOWER No. 1 (WEST) OF THE MECHANISM THAT OPERATES THE COAL BUCKETS, FACING NORTH - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  7. 24. DETAIL VIEW IN COAL TOWER No. 1 OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW IN COAL TOWER No. 1 OF THE LEVERS THAT MANIPULATE THE COAL BUCKETS, LOOKING OVER THE BOOM - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  8. 14. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING ROOF. VENTILATION AND COOLING TOWERS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING ROOF. VENTILATION AND COOLING TOWERS. LOOKING EAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  9. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  10. Physiological responses in air traffic control personnel : Houston Intercontinental Tower.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-12-01

    Biochemical and physiological indices of stress showed that the level of stress of 16 air traffic controllers at the Houston Intercontinental Airport Tower was indistinguishable from that of control populations. While the level of stress was lower th...

  11. 39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (WEST) (NOTE: COAL CARS No. 9 & 5 IN BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  12. IET. Weather instrumentation tower, located south of control building. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Weather instrumentation tower, located south of control building. Camera facing west. Date: August 17, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-2414 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 8. INTERIOR OF TOLL PLAZA OBSERVATION TOWER, LOOKING NORTH. ARTELUAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF TOLL PLAZA OBSERVATION TOWER, LOOKING NORTH. ARTELUAR COOK, ACTING SUPERVISOR, IS AT THE HELM. - Chicago Skyway Toll Bridge, Toll Plaza & Service Building, 8801 South Anthony Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD ON FRONT WALL - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 40. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS LINKING SWITCH LEVERS AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING DETAIL OF SWITCH LEVERS - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  1. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  3. 42. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER - ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. 2. Sheet 36, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/79. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  4. 4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE STRUCTURE TRASH RACKS BELOW. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  5. 3. WEST SIDE, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, ALSO SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST SIDE, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, ALSO SHOWING INTAKE STRUCTURE BELOW AT LEFT. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  6. 41. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER - ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. 1. Sheet 35, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/74. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  7. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, CONTROL TOWER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, LOOKING TO NORTHEAST. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  8. 24. Perspective view of central tower from roof of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Perspective view of central tower from roof of main block, looking northeast, with HABS team - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Main Building, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  9. 6. SAWTOOTH WINDOW RANKS ABOVE ASSEMBLY LINES, WATER TOWER, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SAWTOOTH WINDOW RANKS ABOVE ASSEMBLY LINES, WATER TOWER, AND SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE STRUCTURE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 6. West approach, view of concrete counterweight, steel towers and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West approach, view of concrete counterweight, steel towers and wind bracing, looking east - Colonel Alexander Scammell Memorial Bridge, Spanning Bellamy River at U.S. Route 4, Dover, Strafford County, NH

  11. 1. Wells and Lake Sts. crossing. Tower 18 upper left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Wells and Lake Sts. crossing. Tower 18 upper left. Wells Street Station Randolf bottom center. - Union Elevated Railroad, Union Loop, Wells, Van Buren, Lake Streets & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. Ends of the mine observation tower and transformer buildings, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ends of the mine observation tower and transformer buildings, showing the separation between them. View facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Oblique of mine observation tower building showing entry door and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique of mine observation tower building showing entry door and transformer building behind on right. View facing north-northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Parametric study of closed wet cooling tower thermal performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, S. M.; Hayder, M. J.

    2017-08-01

    The present study involves experimental and theoretical analysis to evaluate the thermal performance of modified Closed Wet Cooling Tower (CWCT). The experimental study includes: design, manufacture and testing prototype of a modified counter flow forced draft CWCT. The modification based on addition packing to the conventional CWCT. A series of experiments was carried out at different operational parameters. In view of energy analysis, the thermal performance parameters of the tower are: cooling range, tower approach, cooling capacity, thermal efficiency, heat and mass transfer coefficients. The theoretical study included develops Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to predicting various thermal performance parameters of the tower. Utilizing experimental data for training and testing, the models simulated by multi-layer back propagation algorithm for varying all operational parameters stated in experimental test.

  15. 20. UNCOVERED TEST CELL AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. UNCOVERED TEST CELL AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER ON THE WEST SIDE WHERE F-1 ENGINE WAS TESTED. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE WATER TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE WATER TOWER AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT ALONG THE EAST SIDE OF THE COMPOUND. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. View of south tower looking north. Note inspection team suspended ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south tower looking north. Note inspection team suspended by basket from crane examining underside of deck at top of picture. - Sidney Lanier Bridge, Spanning Brunswick River, Brunswick, Glynn County, GA

  18. Detail view of Spanish tower on south facade of #157 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Spanish tower on south facade of #157 - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF BASE OF CAST IRON TOWER SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BASE OF CAST IRON TOWER SHOWING THE FABRICATING MARK OF STARBUCK IRON WORKS, TROY, NY - Bidwell Bar Suspension Bridge & Stone Toll House, Near Lake Oroville (moved from fork of Feather River), Oroville, Butte County, CA

  20. 13. TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW OF STEEL TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW OF STEEL TRUSS STRUCTURE AND OVERHEAD CRANE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL