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Sample records for zp123 reduces infarct

  1. Neutrophil stunning by metoprolol reduces infarct size

    PubMed Central

    García-Prieto, Jaime; Villena-Gutiérrez, Rocío; Gómez, Mónica; Bernardo, Esther; Pun-García, Andrés; García-Lunar, Inés; Crainiciuc, Georgiana; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Sreeramkumar, Vinatha; Bourio-Martínez, Rafael; García-Ruiz, José M; del Valle, Alfonso Serrano; Sanz-Rosa, David; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Hidalgo, Andrés; Fuster, Valentín; Ibanez, Borja

    2017-01-01

    The β1-adrenergic-receptor (ADRB1) antagonist metoprolol reduces infarct size in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. The prevailing view has been that metoprolol acts mainly on cardiomyocytes. Here, we demonstrate that metoprolol reduces reperfusion injury by targeting the haematopoietic compartment. Metoprolol inhibits neutrophil migration in an ADRB1-dependent manner. Metoprolol acts during early phases of neutrophil recruitment by impairing structural and functional rearrangements needed for productive engagement of circulating platelets, resulting in erratic intravascular dynamics and blunted inflammation. Depletion of neutrophils, ablation of Adrb1 in haematopoietic cells, or blockade of PSGL-1, the receptor involved in neutrophil–platelet interactions, fully abrogated metoprolol's infarct-limiting effects. The association between neutrophil count and microvascular obstruction is abolished in metoprolol-treated AMI patients. Metoprolol inhibits neutrophil–platelet interactions in AMI patients by targeting neutrophils. Identification of the relevant role of ADRB1 in haematopoietic cells during acute injury and the protective role upon its modulation offers potential for developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:28416795

  2. Reducing myocardial infarct size: challenges and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Yellon, Derek M; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Despite prompt reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), the mortality and morbidity of patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remain significant with 9% death and 10% heart failure at 1 year. In these patients, one important neglected therapeutic target is ‘myocardial reperfusion injury’, a term given to the cardiomyocyte death and microvascular dysfunction which occurs on reperfusing ischaemic myocardium. A number of cardioprotective therapies (both mechanical and pharmacological), which are known to target myocardial reperfusion injury, have been shown to reduce myocardial infarct (MI) size in small proof-of-concept clinical studies—however, being able to demonstrate improved clinical outcomes has been elusive. In this article, we review the challenges facing clinical cardioprotection research, and highlight future therapies for reducing MI size and preventing heart failure in patients presenting with STEMI at risk of myocardial reperfusion injury. PMID:26674987

  3. (-) Epicatechin prevents alterations in lysosomal glycohydrolases, cathepsins and reduces myocardial infarct size in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Prince, Ponnian Stanely Mainzen

    2013-04-15

    The preventive effects of (-) epicatechin on oxidative stress, cardiac mitochondrial damage, altered membrane bound adenosine triphosphatases and minerals were reported previously in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model. Leakage of lysosomal glycohydrolases and cathepsins play an important role in the pathology of myocardial infarction. This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of (-) epicatechin on alterations in lysosomal glycohydrolases, cathepsins and myocardial infarct size in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with (-) epicatechin (20mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 21 days. After the pretreatment period, isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) was injected subcutaneously into the rats at an interval of 24h for two days to induce myocardial infarction. The levels of serum cardiac troponin-I and the activities of serum and heart lysosomal enzymes (β-glucuronidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, β-galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly (P<0.05) and the activities of β-glucuronidase and cathepsin-D in the heart lysosomal fractions were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study revealed the potent antioxidant action of (-) epicatechin. Pretreatment with (-) epicatechin daily for a period of 21 days prevented the leakage of cardiac marker, lysosomal glycohydrolases, cathepsins, and reduced infarct size, thereby protecting the lysosomal membranes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats, by virtue of its membrane stabilizing property. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of VEGF Signaling Reduces Diabetes-Exacerbated Brain Swelling, but Not Infarct Size, in Large Cerebral Infarction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhee; Yang, Jiwon; Park, Keun Woo; Cho, Sunghee

    2017-12-30

    In light of repeated translational failures with preclinical neuroprotection-based strategies, this preclinical study reevaluates brain swelling as an important pathological event in diabetic stroke and investigates underlying mechanism of the comorbidity-enhanced brain edema formation. Type 2 (mild), type 1 (moderate), and mixed type 1/2 (severe) diabetic mice were subjected to transient focal ischemia. Infarct volume, brain swelling, and IgG extravasation were assessed at 3 days post-stroke. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, endothelial-specific molecule-1 (Esm1), and the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) was determined in the ischemic brain. Additionally, SU5416, a VEGFR2 inhibitor, was treated in the type 1/2 diabetic mice, and stroke outcomes were determined. All diabetic groups displayed bigger infarct volume and brain swelling compared to nondiabetic mice, and the increased swelling was disproportionately larger relative to infarct enlargement. Diabetic conditions significantly increased VEGF-A, Esm1, and VEGFR2 expressions in the ischemic brain compared to nondiabetic mice. Notably, in diabetic mice, VEGFR2 mRNA levels were positively correlated with brain swelling, but not with infarct volume. Treatment with SU5416 in diabetic mice significantly reduced brain swelling. The study shows that brain swelling is a predominant pathological event in diabetic stroke and that an underlying event for diabetes-enhanced brain swelling includes the activation of VEGF signaling. This study suggests consideration of stroke therapies aiming at primarily reducing brain swelling for subjects with diabetes.

  5. Reduced creatine kinase release with statin use at the time of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Kevin A; Kopecky, Stephen L; Williams, Brent A; Murphy, Joseph G; Scott Wright, R

    2004-09-01

    Statin pre-treatment has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size in animal models. We evaluated peak creatine kinase levels in humans based on concomitant or very early statin initiation following myocardial infarction. We identified 66 consecutive patients who received a statin within 24 h of admission to our coronary care unit for myocardial infarction. Each statin patient was matched with three patients who had not received statin therapy (n=198). Statin patients were subgrouped into those receiving statin therapy at the time of infarction (n=44) and those initiated on statin therapy within 24 h of infarction (n=22). Peak total creatine kinase concentrations were compared between groups. A linear regression model was developed to test for differences in peak creatine kinase after adjusting for differences between groups. Patients receiving statin therapy within 24 h of admission had significantly smaller median peak creatine kinase concentrations compared to those not receiving a statin (416 IU/l [258, 992] vs. 699 IU/l [339, 1728]; p=0.020). Subgroup analysis revealed that the lower peak creatine kinase concentrations within the statin group were a result of lower creatine kinase concentrations in those patients on a statin at the time of myocardial infarction (399 IU/l [255, 869] vs. 678 IU/l [276, 1870]; p<0.05). This difference retained statistical significance after adjustment for differences between groups. Statin therapy at the time of myocardial infarction is associated with lower peak creatine kinase concentrations. This suggests that statins may exhibit protective effects in the setting of myocardial ischemia and/or infarction in humans.

  6. Bovine Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Reduces Inflammation After Induction of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiechter, Danielle; Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; van Middelaar, Ben; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique; Seinen, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been increasing evidence suggesting that lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin may be an important activator of the innate immune system after acute myocardial infarction. Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase reduces inflammation in several endotoxin mediated diseases by dephosphorylation of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase on reducing inflammation after acute myocardial infarction. Methods Just before permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery to induce acute myocardial infarction in Balb/c mice, bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP) was administrated intravenously. After 4 hours, mice were sacrificed and the inflammatory response was assessed. Acute myocardial infarction induced the production of different cytokines, which were measured in blood. Results Treatment with bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase resulted in a significant reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and the chymase mouse mast cell protease-1. No difference in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed between the control group and the bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase treated group. Conclusion In a mouse model of permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, bIAP diminishes the pro-inflammatory responses but does not have an effect on the anti-inflammatory response in the acute phase after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:28357012

  7. Bovine Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Reduces Inflammation After Induction of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fiechter, Danielle; Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; van Middelaar, Ben; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique; Seinen, Willem

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing evidence suggesting that lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin may be an important activator of the innate immune system after acute myocardial infarction. Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase reduces inflammation in several endotoxin mediated diseases by dephosphorylation of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase on reducing inflammation after acute myocardial infarction. Just before permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery to induce acute myocardial infarction in Balb/c mice, bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP) was administrated intravenously. After 4 hours, mice were sacrificed and the inflammatory response was assessed. Acute myocardial infarction induced the production of different cytokines, which were measured in blood. Treatment with bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase resulted in a significant reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and the chymase mouse mast cell protease-1. No difference in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed between the control group and the bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase treated group. In a mouse model of permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, bIAP diminishes the pro-inflammatory responses but does not have an effect on the anti-inflammatory response in the acute phase after acute myocardial infarction.

  8. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  9. Focal epidural cooling reduces the infarction volume of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in swine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihua; Cheng, Huilin; Shi, Jixin; Chen, Jun

    2007-02-01

    The protective effect against ischemic stroke by systemic hypothermia is limited by the cooling rate and it has severe complications. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of SBH induced by epidural cooling on infarction volume in a swine model of PMCAO. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in 12 domestic swine assigned to groups A and B. In group A, the cranial and rectal temperatures were maintained at normal range (37 degrees C-39 degrees C) for 6 hours after PMCAO. In group B, cranial temperature was reduced to moderate (deep brain, <30 degrees C) and deep (brain surface, <20 degrees C) temperature and maintained at that level for 5 hours after 1 hour after PMCAO, by the epidural cooling method. All animals were euthanized 6 hours after MCAO; their brains were sectioned and stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and their infarct volumes were calculated. The moderate and deep brain temperature (at deep brain and brain surface) can be induced by rapid epidural cooling, whereas the rectal temperature was maintained within normal range. The infarction volume after PMCAO was significantly reduced by epidural cooling compared with controls (13.73% +/- 1.82% vs 5.62% +/- 2.57%, P < .05). The present study has demonstrated, with histologic confirmation, that epidural cooling may be a useful strategy for reducing infarct volume after the onset of ischemia.

  10. Cyclosporine A at reperfusion fails to reduce infarct size in the in vivo rat heart.

    PubMed

    De Paulis, Damien; Chiari, Pascal; Teixeira, Geoffrey; Couture-Lepetit, Elisabeth; Abrial, Maryline; Argaud, Laurent; Gharib, Abdallah; Ovize, Michel

    2013-09-01

    We examined the effects on infarct size and mitochondrial function of ischemic (Isch), cyclosporine A (CsA) and isoflurane (Iso) preconditioning and postconditioning in the in vivo rat model. Anesthetized open-chest rats underwent 30 min of ischemia followed by either 120 min (protocol 1: infarct size assessment) or 15 min of reperfusion (protocol 2: assessment of mitochondrial function). All treatments administered before the 30-min ischemia (Pre-Isch, Pre-CsA, Pre-Iso) significantly reduced infarct as compared to control. In contrast, only Post-Iso significantly reduced infarct size, while Post-Isch and Post-CsA had no significant protective effect. As for the postconditioning-like interventions, the mitochondrial calcium retention capacity significantly increased only in the Post-Iso group (+58 % vs control) after succinate activation. Only Post-Iso increased state 3 (+177 and +62 %, for G/M and succinate, respectively) when compared to control. Also, Post-Iso reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production (-46 % vs control) after complex I activation. This study suggests that isoflurane, but not cyclosporine A, can prevent lethal reperfusion injury in this in vivo rat model. This might be related to the need for a combined effect on cyclophilin D and complex I during the first minutes of reperfusion.

  11. Reduced infarct size in neuroglobin-null mice after experimental stroke in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroglobin is considered to be a novel important pharmacological target in combating stroke and neurodegenerative disorders, although the mechanism by which this protection is accomplished remains an enigma. We hypothesized that if neuroglobin is directly involved in neuroprotection, then permanent cerebral ischemia would lead to larger infarct volumes in neuroglobin-null mice than in wild-type mice. Methods Using neuroglobin-null mice, we estimated the infarct volume 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using Cavalieri’s Principle, and compared the infarct volume in neuroglobin-null and wild-type mice. Neuroglobin antibody staining was used to examine neuroglobin expression in the infarct area of wild-type mice. Results Infarct volumes 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were significantly smaller in neuroglobin-null mice than in wild-types (p < 0.01). Neuroglobin immunostaining of the penumbra area revealed no visible up-regulation of neuroglobin protein in ischemic wild-type mice when compared to uninjured wild-type mice. In uninjured wild-type mice, neuroglobin protein was seen throughout cortical layer II and sparsely in layer V. In contrast, no neuroglobin-immunoreactive neurons were observed in the aforementioned layers of the ischemia injured cortical area, or in the surrounding penumbra of ischemic wild-type mice. This suggests no selective sparing of neuroglobin expressing neurons in ischemia. Conclusions Neuroglobin-deficiency resulted in reduced tissue infarction, suggesting that, at least at endogenous expression levels, neuroglobin in itself is non-protective against ischemic injury. PMID:22901501

  12. Ablation of the sphenopalatine ganglion does not attenuate the infarct reducing effect of vagus nerve stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ay, Ilknur; Ay, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve reduces infarct size by approximately 50% after cerebral ischemia in rats. The mechanism of ischemic protection by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is not known. In this study, we investigated whether the infarct reducing effect of VNS was mediated by activation of the parasympathetic vasodilator fibers that originate from the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) and innervate the anterior cerebral circulation. We examined the effects of electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve in two groups of rats: one with and one without SPG ablation. Electrical stimulation was initiated 30 min after induction of ischemia, and lasted for 1h. Measurement of infarct size 24h later revealed that the volume of ischemic damage was smaller in those animals that received VNS treatment (41.32 ± 2.07% vs. 24.19 ± 2.62% of the contralateral hemispheric volume, n=6 in both; p<0.05). SPG ablation did not abolish this effect; the reduction in infarct volume following VNS was 58% in SPG-damaged animals, 41% in SPG-intact animals (p>0.05). In both SPG-intact and SPG-damaged animals VNS treatment resulted in better motor outcome (p<0.05 vs. corresponding controls for both). Our findings show that VNS can protect the brain against acute ischemic injury, and that this effect is not mediated by SPG projections. PMID:23273773

  13. Correlation between Decreased Parasympathetic Activity and Reduced Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Patients with Lacunar Infarct.

    PubMed

    Intharakham, Kannakorn; Suwanprasert, Kesorn; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat

    2017-01-01

    Reduced cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was found in patients with recent lacunar infarct. However, its mechanisms were controversial. The breath holding maneuver as a vasodilatory stimulus is clinically useful for an estimation of cerebrovasomotor reactivity in well co-operative patients. Patients with lacunar infarct have no higher cortical dysfunction and remain well co-operation. The breath holding maneuver is feasible and safe to perform in patients with lacunar infarct. Autonomic nervous system regulates systemic vascular activity. Regulation of autonomic function to cerebrovascular reactivity has been reported in the literature. We examined the correlation between autonomic functions with frequency and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) and cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with lacunar infarct by application of breath holding maneuver. Fifteen patients with lacunar infarct (8 women, age 65.6 ± 13.61) and 16 healthy controls (11 women, age 27.33 ± 3.85) were continuously monitored at baseline before maneuver (basal phase), during CVR induction (experimental phase) with breath holding maneuver and after maneuver (recovery phase), for arterial blood pressure (ABP), electrocardiography (EKG), mean cerebral blood flow velocity (mCBFV) of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) by transcranial doppler (TCD). The short term-one minute HRV was analyzed from EKG signals for low frequency (LF)/ high frequency (HF) ratio, nonlinear of standard deviation 1 (SD1), standard deviation 2 (SD2), cardiac Sample Entropy (SampEn) and Shannon Entropy. Significant increasing in mCBFV, LF/HF ratio, SD2/SD1, Shannon Entropy and inversely decreasing SampEn during breath holding maneuver compared with baseline were found in both groups (p<0.05). The trend of cerebrovascular reactivity is similar in both groups. However, there were differences of mCBFV, systolic blood pressure (SysBP) in the whole phases (basal, experiment and recovery) between patients and controls (p<0.05). Less

  14. Connexin43 Gene Transfer Reduces Ventricular Tachycardia Susceptibility After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Greener, Ian D.; Sasano, Tetsuo; Wan, Xiaoping; Igarashi, Tomonori; Strom, Maria; Rosenbaum, David S.; Donahue, J. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the links between connexin43 (Cx43) expression, myocardial conduction velocity, and ventricular tachycardia in a model of healed myocardial infarction. Background Post-infarction ventricular arrhythmias frequently cause sudden death. Impaired myocardial conduction has previously been linked to ventricular arrhythmias. Altered connexin expression is a potential source of conduction slowing identified in healed scar border tissues. The functional effect of increasing border-zone Cx43 has not been previously evaluated. Methods Twenty-five Yorkshire pigs underwent anterior infarction by transient left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by weekly testing for arrhythmia inducibility. Twenty animals with reproducibly inducible sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were randomized 2:1:1 to receive AdCx43, Adβgal, or no gene transfer. One week later, animals underwent follow-up electrophysiologic study and tissue assessment for several functional and molecular measures. Results Animals receiving AdCx43 had less electrogram fractionation and faster conduction velocity in the anterior-septal border zone. Only 40% of AdCx43 animals remained inducible for ventricular tachycardia, while 100% of controls were inducible after gene transfer. AdCx43 animals had 2-fold higher Cx43 protein levels in the anterior-septal infarct border, with similar percents of phosphorylated and intercalated disk-localized Cx43 compared with controls. Conclusions These data mechanistically link Cx43 expression to slow conduction and arrhythmia susceptibility in the healed scar border zone. Targeted manipulation of Cx43 levels improved conduction velocity and reduced ventricular tachycardia susceptibility. Cx43 gene transfer represents a novel treatment strategy for post-infarction arrhythmias. PMID:22883636

  15. Early Use of N-acetylcysteine With Nitrate Therapy in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Reduces Myocardial Infarct Size (the NACIAM Trial [N-acetylcysteine in Acute Myocardial Infarction]).

    PubMed

    Pasupathy, Sivabaskari; Tavella, Rosanna; Grover, Suchi; Raman, Betty; Procter, Nathan E K; Du, Yang Timothy; Mahadavan, Gnanadevan; Stafford, Irene; Heresztyn, Tamila; Holmes, Andrew; Zeitz, Christopher; Arstall, Margaret; Selvanayagam, Joseph; Horowitz, John D; Beltrame, John F

    2017-09-05

    Contemporary ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction management involves primary percutaneous coronary intervention, with ongoing studies focusing on infarct size reduction using ancillary therapies. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant with reactive oxygen species scavenging properties that also potentiates the effects of nitroglycerin and thus represents a potentially beneficial ancillary therapy in primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The NACIAM trial (N-acetylcysteine in Acute Myocardial Infarction) examined the effects of NAC on infarct size in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study evaluated the effects of intravenous high-dose NAC (29 g over 2 days) with background low-dose nitroglycerin (7.2 mg over 2 days) on early cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-assessed infarct size. Secondary end points included cardiac magnetic resonance-determined myocardial salvage and creatine kinase kinetics. Of 112 randomized patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, 75 (37 in NAC group, 38 in placebo group) underwent early cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Median duration of ischemia pretreatment was 2.4 hours. With background nitroglycerin infusion administered to all patients, those randomized to NAC exhibited an absolute 5.5% reduction in cardiac magnetic resonance-assessed infarct size relative to placebo (median, 11.0%; [interquartile range 4.1, 16.3] versus 16.5%; [interquartile range 10.7, 24.2]; P =0.02). Myocardial salvage was approximately doubled in the NAC group (60%; interquartile range, 37-79) compared with placebo (27%; interquartile range, 14-42; P <0.01) and median creatine kinase areas under the curve were 22 000 and 38 000 IU·h in the NAC and placebo groups, respectively ( P =0.08). High-dose intravenous NAC administered with low-dose intravenous nitroglycerin is associated with reduced

  16. Aquaporin-1 Deficiency Protects Against Myocardial Infarction by Reducing Both Edema and Apoptosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihua; Weng, Zhiyong; Yao, Chenjuan; Song, Yuanlin; Ma, Tonghui

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have determined that AQP1 plays an important role in edema formation and resolution in various tissues via water transport across the cell membrane. The aim of this research was to determine both if and how AQP1 is associated with cardiac ischemic injury, particularly the development of edema following myocardial infarction (MI). AQP1+/+ and AQP1−/− mice were used to create the MI model. Under physiological conditions, AQP1−/− mice develop normally; however, in the setting of MI, they exhibit cardioprotective properties, as shown by reduced cardiac infarct size determined via NBT staining, improved cardiac function determined via left ventricular catheter measurements, decreased AQP1-dependent myocardial edema determined via water content assays, and decreased apoptosis determined via TUNEL analysis. Cardiac ischemia caused by hypoxia secondary to AQP1 deficiency stabilized the expression of HIF-1α in endothelial cells and subsequently decreased microvascular permeability, resulting in the development of edema. The AQP1-dependent myocardial edema and apoptosis contributed to the development of MI. AQP1 deficiency protected cardiac function from ischemic injury following MI. Furthermore, AQP1 deficiency reduced microvascular permeability via the stabilization of HIF-1α levels in endothelial cells and decreased cellular apoptosis following MI. PMID:26348407

  17. Mozart, but not the Beatles, reduces systolic blood pressure in patients with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gruhlke, Luiza Carolina; Patrício, Marcelo Coelho; Moreira, Daniel Medeiros

    2015-12-01

    Music reduces systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) in various clinical situations, but it is unclear whether these changes occur in post-infarction patients. The aim is to evaluate the effects of music on patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated patients with MI and we measured SBP, DBP, HR and double product (DP) two times before the intervention and one time every fifteen minutes with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. We divided the patients into 3 groups: a group listening to music by Mozart; another listening to a Beatles collection and a third one listening to the radio news. Outcomes were the change in mean SBP, DBP, HR and DP with intervention. We enrolled 60 patients (20 in each group). SBP was significantly reduced in the Mozart group (variation of –7.2 ± 8.5 mmHg) compared to the Beatles group (–1.3 ± 6.2 mmHg) (P = 0.021) and the radio news group (0.6 ± 8.7 mmHg) (P = 0.003). DP was significantly reduced in the Mozart group compared with the News group (–668.5 ± 773.2 vs 31.6 ± 722.1 mmHg) (P = 0.006). There were no differences in DBP and HR. Patients with MI who listened Mozart had a reduction in SBP and DP compared to those who listened to the Beatles or the news.

  18. Reduced admissions for acute myocardial infarction associated with a public smoking ban: matched controlled study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was implemented in Monroe County compared with Delaware County, Indiana without such a ban. Poisson analysis was conducted for 44 months of hospital admissions. A significant drop occurred in the number of admissions among nonsmoking patients in Monroe County after the ban whereas a nonsignificant decrease in the number of admissions occurred in Delaware County. The changes in the number of smoking-patient admissions before and after the ban were not significant.

  19. The selective NLRP3-inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function in a pig model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    van Hout, Gerardus P J; Bosch, Lena; Ellenbroek, Guilielmus H J M; de Haan, Judith J; van Solinge, Wouter W; Cooper, Matthew A; Arslan, Fatih; de Jager, Saskia C A; Robertson, Avril A B; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Hoefer, Imo E

    2017-03-14

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an intense inflammatory response that is associated with infarct expansion and is detrimental for cardiac function. Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 are key players in this response and are controlled by the NLRP3-inflammasome. In the current study, we therefore hypothesized that selective inhibition of the NLRP3-inflammasome reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function in a porcine MI model. Thirty female landrace pigs were subjected to 75 min transluminal balloon occlusion and treated with the NLRP3-inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 (6 or 3 mg/kg) or placebo for 7 days in a randomized, blinded fashion. After 7 days, 3D-echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac function and Evans blue/TTC double staining was executed to assess the area at risk (AAR) and infarct size (IS). The IS/AAR was lower in the 6 mg/kg group (64.6 ± 8.8%, P = 0.004) and 3 mg/kg group (69.7 ± 7.2%, P = 0.038) compared with the control group (77.5 ± 6.3%). MCC950 treatment markedly preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in treated animals (6 mg/kg 47 ± 8%, P = 0.001; 3 mg/kg 45 ± 7%, P = 0.031; control 37 ± 6%). Myocardial neutrophil influx was attenuated in treated compared with non-treated animals (6 mg/kg 132 ± 72 neutrophils/mm2, P = 0.035; 3 mg/kg 207 ± 210 neutrophils/mm2, P = 0.5; control 266 ± 158 neutrophils/mm2). Myocardial IL-1β levels were dose-dependently reduced in treated animals. NLRP3-inflammasome inhibition reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function in a randomized, blinded translational large animal MI model. Hence, NLRP3-inflammasome inhibition may have therapeutic potential in acute MI patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Reduced Collagen Deposition in Infarcted Myocardium Facilitates Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Engraftment and Angiomyogenesis for Improvement of Left Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Bo; Huang, Wei; Xu, Meifeng; Millard, Ronald W.; Gao, Mei Hua; Hammond, H. Kirk; Menick, Donald R.; Ashraf, Muhammad; Wang, Yigang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of scar tissue composition on engraftment of progenitor cells into infarcted myocardium. Background Scar tissue formation after myocardial infarction creates a barrier that severely compromises tissue regeneration, limiting potential functional recovery. Methods In vitro: A tricell patch (Tri-P) was created from peritoneum seeded and cultured with induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The expression of fibrosis-related molecules from mouse embryonic fibroblasts and infarcted heart was measured by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In vivo: A Tri-P was affixed over the entire infarcted area 7 days after myocardial infarction in mice overexpressing adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6). Engraftment efficiency of progenitor cells in hearts of AC6 mice was compared with that of control wild-type (WT) mice using a combination of in vivo bioluminescence imaging, post-mortem ex vivo tissue analysis, and the number of green fluorescent protein–positive cells. Echocardiography of left ventricular (LV) function was performed weekly. Hearts were harvested for analysis 4 weeks after Tri-P application. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts were stimulated with forskolin before an anoxia/reoxygenation protocol. Fibrosis-related molecules were analyzed. Results In AC6 mice, infarcted hearts treated with Tri-P showed significantly higher bioluminescence imaging intensity and numbers of green fluorescent protein–positive cells than in WT mice. LV function improved progressively in AC6 mice from weeks 2 to 4 and was associated with reduced LV fibrosis. Conclusions Application of a Tri-P in AC6 mice resulted in significantly higher induced pluripotent stem cell engraftment accompanied by angiomyogenesis in the infarcted area and improvement in LV function. PMID:22051336

  1. Ebselen reduces autophagic activation and cell death in the ipsilateral thalamus following focal cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiliang; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Li; Xing, Shihui; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Yusheng; Li, Chuo; Pei, Zhong; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2015-07-23

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both oxidative stress and autophagy play important roles in secondary neuronal degeneration in the ipsilateral thalamus after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). This study aimed to investigate whether oxidative stress is associated with autophagy activation within the ipsilateral thalamus after distal MCAO. Sixty stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats were subjected to distal MCAO or sham operation, and were killed at 14 days after MCAO. Mn-SOD, LC3-II, Beclin-1 and p62 expression were evaluated by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Secondary damage in the thalamus was assessed with Nissl staining and immunostaining. The association of oxidative stress with autophagy activation was investigated by the antioxidant, ebselen. We found that treatment with ebselen at 24h after MCAO significantly reduced the expression of Mn-SOD in the ipsilateral thalamus at 14 days following focal cerebral infarction. In parallel, it prevented the elevation of LC3-II and Beclin-1, and the reduction of p62. Furthermore, ebselen attenuated the neuronal loss and gliosis in the ipsilateral thalamus. These results suggested that ebselen reduced oxidative stress, autophagy activation and secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus following MCAO. There are associations between oxidative stress, autophagy activation and secondary damage in the thalamus after MCAO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment with the C5a receptor antagonist ADC-1004 reduces myocardial infarction in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, stimulated by the activated complement factor C5a, have been implicated in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. ADC-1004 is a competitive C5a receptor antagonist that has been shown to inhibit complement related neutrophil activation. ADC-1004 shields the neutrophils from C5a activation before they enter the reperfused area, which could be a mechanistic advantage compared to previous C5a directed reperfusion therapies. We investigated if treatment with ADC-1004, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce infarct size and microvascular obstruction in a large animal myocardial infarct model. Methods In anesthetized pigs (42-53 kg), a percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 minutes, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Twenty minutes after balloon inflation the pigs were randomized to an intravenous bolus administration of ADC-1004 (175 mg, n = 8) or saline (9 mg/ml, n = 8). Area at risk (AAR) was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. Infarct size and microvascular obstruction were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. The observers were blinded to the treatment at randomization and analysis. Results ADC-1004 treatment reduced infarct size by 21% (ADC-1004: 58.3 ± 3.4 vs control: 74.1 ± 2.9%AAR, p = 0.007). Microvascular obstruction was similar between the groups (ADC-1004: 2.2 ± 1.2 vs control: 5.3 ± 2.5%AAR, p = 0.23). The mean plasma concentration of ADC-1004 was 83 ± 8 nM at sacrifice. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood-gas data. Conclusions ADC-1004 treatment reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and represents a novel treatment strategy of myocardial infarct with potential clinical applicability. PMID:20875134

  3. Treatment with the C5a receptor antagonist ADC-1004 reduces myocardial infarction in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    van der Pals, Jesper; Koul, Sasha; Andersson, Patrik; Götberg, Matthias; Ubachs, Joey F A; Kanski, Mikael; Arheden, Håkan; Olivecrona, Göran K; Larsson, Bengt; Erlinge, David

    2010-09-27

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, stimulated by the activated complement factor C5a, have been implicated in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. ADC-1004 is a competitive C5a receptor antagonist that has been shown to inhibit complement related neutrophil activation. ADC-1004 shields the neutrophils from C5a activation before they enter the reperfused area, which could be a mechanistic advantage compared to previous C5a directed reperfusion therapies. We investigated if treatment with ADC-1004, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce infarct size and microvascular obstruction in a large animal myocardial infarct model. In anesthetized pigs (42-53 kg), a percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 minutes, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Twenty minutes after balloon inflation the pigs were randomized to an intravenous bolus administration of ADC-1004 (175 mg, n = 8) or saline (9 mg/ml, n = 8). Area at risk (AAR) was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. Infarct size and microvascular obstruction were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. The observers were blinded to the treatment at randomization and analysis. ADC-1004 treatment reduced infarct size by 21% (ADC-1004: 58.3 ± 3.4 vs control: 74.1 ± 2.9%AAR, p = 0.007). Microvascular obstruction was similar between the groups (ADC-1004: 2.2 ± 1.2 vs control: 5.3 ± 2.5%AAR, p = 0.23). The mean plasma concentration of ADC-1004 was 83 ± 8 nM at sacrifice. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood-gas data. ADC-1004 treatment reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and represents a novel treatment strategy of myocardial infarct with potential clinical applicability.

  4. Delayed treatment with hypothermia protects against the no-reflow phenomenon despite failure to reduce infarct size.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sharon L; Herring, Michael J; Kloner, Robert A

    2013-01-04

    Many studies have shown that when hypothermia is started after coronary artery reperfusion (CAR), it is ineffective at reducing necrosis. However, some suggest that hypothermia may preferentially reduce no-reflow. Our aim was to test the effects of hypothermia on no-reflow when initiated close to reperfusion and 30 minutes after reperfusion, times not associated with a protective effect on myocardial infarct size. Rabbits received 30 minutes coronary artery occlusion/3 hours CAR. In protocol 1, hearts were treated for 1 hour with topical hypothermia (myocardial temperature ≈32°C) initiated at 5 minutes before or 5 minutes after CAR, and the results were compared with a normothermic group. In protocol 2, hypothermia was delayed until 30 minutes after CAR and control hearts remained normothermic. In protocol 1, risk zones were similar and infarct size was not significantly reduced by hypothermia initiated close to CAR. However, the no-reflow defect was significantly reduced by 43% (5 minutes before CAR) and 38% (5 minutes after CAR) in hypothermic compared with normothermic hearts (P=0.004, ANOVA, P=ns between the 2 treated groups). In protocol 2, risk zones and infarct sizes were similar, but delayed hypothermia significantly reduced no-reflow in hypothermic hearts by 30% (55±6% of the necrotic region in hypothermia group versus 79±6% with normothermia, P=0.008). These studies suggest that treatment with hypothermia reduces no-reflow even when initiated too late to reduce infarct size and that the microvasculature is especially receptive to the protective properties of hypothermia and confirm that microvascular damage is in large part a form of true reperfusion injury.

  5. Free radical scavenger, edaravone, reduces the lesion size of lacunar infarction in human brain ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although free radicals have been reported to play a role in the expansion of ischemic brain lesions, the effect of free radical scavengers is still under debate. In this study, the temporal profile of ischemic stroke lesion sizes was assessed for more than one year to evaluate the effect of edaravone which might reduce ischemic damage. Methods We sequentially enrolled acute ischemic stroke patients, who admitted between April 2003 and March 2004, into the edaravone(-) group (n = 83) and, who admitted between April 2004 and March 2005, into the edaravone(+) group (n = 93). Because, edaravone has been used as the standard treatment after April 2004 in our hospital. To assess the temporal profile of the stroke lesion size, the ratio of the area [T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (T2WI)/iffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI)] were calculated. Observations on T2WI were continued beyond one year, and observational times were classified into subacute (1-2 months after the onset), early chronic (3-6 month), late chronic (7-12 months) and old (≥13 months) stages. Neurological deficits were assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale upon admission and at discharge and by the modified Rankin Scale at 1 year following stroke onset. Results Stroke lesion size was significantly attenuated in the edaravone(+) group compared with the edaravone(-) group in the period of early and late chronic observational stages. However, this reduction in lesion size was significant within a year and only for the small-vessel occlusion stroke patients treated with edaravone. Moreover, patients with small-vessel occlusion strokes that were treated with edaravone showed significant neurological improvement during their hospital stay, although there were no significant differences in outcome one year after the stroke. Conclusion Edaravone treatment reduced the volume of the infarct and improved neurological deficits during the subacute period, especially

  6. Coffee reduces the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Oliver I; Allgar, Victoria; Wong, Kenneth Y-K

    2016-11-01

    Habitual coffee consumption is protective against coronary heart disease in women; however, it is not clear whether such cardioprotection is conferred on those who have already experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to investigate whether coffee consumption affected mortality after AMI. We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies that examined the relationship between coffee intake and mortality after an AMI. Using a defined-search strategy, electronic databases (MEDLINE and Embase) were searched for papers published between 1946 and 2015. Two eligible studies investigating post-AMI mortality risk against coffee consumption were identified and assessed using set criteria. Combined, these studies recruited a total of 3271 patients and 604 died. The hazard ratios for the following experimental groups were defined: light coffee drinkers (1-2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers, heavy coffee drinkers (>2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers. A statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between coffee drinking and mortality; all three groups showed a significant reduction in risk ratio. Light coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.94, P=0.008]; heavy coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.45-0.65, P<0.00001); and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58-0.83, P<0.0001). Drinking coffee habitually following AMI was associated with a reduced risk of mortality.

  7. Effectiveness of a myocardial infarction protocol in reducing door-to-ballon time.

    PubMed

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Brito, Mariana; Kalil, Felipe; Sabino, Michael; Garcia, Guilherme; Ferreira, Felipe; Matos, Iracy; Jacobs, Peter; Ronzoni, Liliana; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2013-07-01

    An adequate door-to-balloon time (<120 minutes) is the necessary condition for the efficacy of primary angioplasty in infarction to translate into effectiveness. To describe the effectiveness of a quality of care protocol in reducing the door-to-balloon time. Between May 2010 and August 2012, all individuals undergoing primary angioplasty in our hospital were analyzed. The door time was electronically recorded at the moment the patient took a number to be evaluated in the emergency room, which occurred prior to filling the check-in forms and to the triage. The balloon time was defined as the beginning of artery opening (introduction of the first device). The first 5 months of monitoring corresponded to the period of pre-implementation of the protocol. The protocol comprised the definition of a flowchart of actions from patient arrival at the hospital, the team's awareness raising in relation to the prioritization of time, and provision of a periodic feedback on the results and possible inadequacies. A total of 50 individuals were assessed. They were divided into five groups of 10 sequential patients (one group pre- and four groups post-protocol). The door-to-balloon time regarding the 10 cases recorded before protocol implementation was 200 ± 77 minutes. After protocol implementation, there was a progressive reduction of the door-to-balloon time to 142±78 minutes in the first 10 patients, then to 150±50 minutes, 131±37 minutes and, finally, 116±29 minutes in the three sequential groups of 10 patients, respectively. Linear regression between sequential patients and the door-to-balloon time (r = - 0.41) showed a regression coefficient of - 1.74 minutes. The protocol implementation proved effective in the reduction of the door-to-balloon time.

  8. L-NAME reduces infarction, neurological deficit and blood-brain barrier disruption following cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Ding-Zhou, Li; Marchand-Verrecchia, Catherine; Croci, Nicole; Plotkine, Michel; Margaill, Isabelle

    2002-12-20

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of post-ischemic cerebral infarction has been extensively examined, but fewer studies have investigated its role in other outcomes. In the present study, we first determined the temporal evolution of infarct volume, NO production, neurological deficit and blood-brain barrier disruption in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. We then examined the effect of the nonselective NO-synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME). L-NAME given at 3 mg/kg 3 h after ischemia reduced by 20% the infarct volume and abolished the increase in brain NO production evaluated by its metabolites (nitrites/nitrates) 48 h after ischemia. L-NAME with this protocol also reduced the neurological deficit evaluated by the grip test and decreased by 65% the extravasation of Evans blue, an index of blood-brain barrier breakdown. These protective activities of L-NAME suggest that NO has multiple deleterious effects in cerebral ischemia.

  9. Laser system refinements to reduce variability in infarct size in the rat photothrombotic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Paterson, Phyllis G.; Bradley, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rat photothrombotic stroke model can induce brain infarcts with reasonable biological variability. Nevertheless, we observed unexplained high inter-individual variability despite using a rigorous protocol. Of the three major determinants of infarct volume, photosensitive dye concentration and illumination period were strictly controlled, whereas undetected fluctuation in laser power output was suspected to account for the variability. New method The frequently utilized Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) lasers emitting 532 nm (green) light can exhibit fluctuations in output power due to temperature and input power alterations. The polarization properties of the Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals commonly used in these lasers are another potential source of fluctuation, since one means of controlling output power uses a polarizer with a variable transmission axis. Thus, the properties of DPSS lasers and the relationship between power output and infarct size were explored. Results DPSS laser beam intensity showed considerable variation. Either a polarizer or a variable neutral density filter allowed adjustment of a polarized laser beam to the desired intensity. When the beam was unpolarized, the experimenter was restricted to using a variable neutral density filter. Comparison with existing method(s) Our refined approach includes continuous monitoring of DPSS laser intensity via beam sampling using a pellicle beamsplitter and photodiode sensor. This guarantees the desired beam intensity at the targeted brain area during stroke induction, with the intensity controlled either through a polarizer or variable neutral density filter. Conclusions Continuous monitoring and control of laser beam intensity is critical for ensuring consistent infarct size. PMID:25840363

  10. Defibrotide reduces infarct size in a rabbit model of experimental myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Thiemermann, C.; Thomas, G. R.; Vane, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    1. Defibrotide, a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide obtained from bovine lungs, has significant anti-thrombotic, pro-fibrinolytic and prostacyclin-stimulating properties. 2. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defibrotide on infarct size and regional myocardial blood flow in a rabbit model of myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. 3. Defibrotide (32 mg kg-1 bolus + 32 mg kg-1 h-1, i.v.) either with or without co-administration of indomethacin (5 mg kg-1 x 2, i.v.) was administered 5 min after occlusion of the left anterior-lateral coronary artery and continued during the 60 min occlusion and subsequent 3 h reperfusion periods. 4. Defibrotide significantly attenuated the ischaemia-induced ST-segment elevation and abolished the reperfusion-related changes (R-wave reduction and Q-wave development) in the electrocardiogram. In addition, defibrotide significantly improved myocardial blood flow in normal and in ischaemic, but not in infarcted sections of the heart. The improvement in blood flow in normal perfused myocardium, but not in the ischaemic area was prevented by indomethacin. 5. Although the area at risk was similar in all animal groups studied, defibrotide treatment resulted in a 51% reduction of infarct size. Indomethacin treatment abolished the reduction of infarct size seen with defibrotide alone. 6. The data demonstrate a considerable cardioprotective effect of defibrotide in the reperfused ischaemic rabbit myocardium. This effect may be related, at least in part, to a stimulation of endogenous prostaglandin formation. Other possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:2758223

  11. Two classes of anti-platelet drugs reduce anatomical infarct size in monkey hearts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi-Ming; Liu, Yanping; Cui, Lin; Yang, Xiulan; Liu, Yongge; Tandon, Narendra; Kambayashi, Junichi; Downey, James M; Cohen, Michael V

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies in rabbits have demonstrated that platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists are cardioprotective, and that the mechanism is surprisingly not related to blockade of platelet aggregation but rather to triggering of the same signal transduction pathway seen in pre- and postconditioning. We wanted to determine whether this same cardioprotection could be documented in a primate model and whether the protection was limited to P2Y12 receptor antagonists or was a class effect. Thirty-one macaque monkeys underwent 90-min LAD occlusion/4-h reperfusion. The platelet P2Y12 receptor blocker cangrelor started just prior to reperfusion significantly decreased infarction by an amount equivalent to that seen with ischemic postconditioning (p < 0.001). For any size of risk zone, infarct size in treated hearts was significantly smaller than that in control hearts. OM2, an investigational murine antibody against the primate collagen receptor glycoprotein (GP) VI, produced similar protection (p < 0.01) suggesting a class effect. Both cangrelor and OM2 were quite effective at blocking platelet aggregation (94 % and 97 %, respectively). Thus in a primate model in which infarct size could be determined directly platelet anti-aggregatory agents are cardioprotective. The important implication of these investigations is that patients with acute myocardial infarction who are treated with platelet anti-aggregatory agents prior to revascularization may already be in a postconditioned state. This hypothesis may explain why in recent clinical trials postconditioning-mimetic interventions which were so protective in animal models had at best only a modest effect.

  12. Non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: impaired myocardial energy metabolism in regions with reduced 99mTc-MIBI accumulation.

    PubMed

    Moka, D; Baer, F M; Theissen, P; Schneider, C A; Dietlein, M; Erdmann, E; Schicha, H

    2001-05-01

    Reduced regional technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) accumulation in patients with chronic non-Q-wave infarction (NQWI) but without significant coronary artery stenosis indicates non-transmural damage of the myocardial wall. The aim of this study was to characterise cardiac energy metabolism after NQWI using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and to compare the biochemical remodelling with changes in regional 99mTc-MIBI uptake and with morphological and functional parameters assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifteen patients with a history of NQWI, exclusion of significant coronary artery stenosis (<50% diameter stenosis) and hypokinesia of the anterior wall (group A) were examined with 31P-MRS to study the effects of NQWI on myocardial energy metabolism. Spectroscopic measurements were performed in the infarct-related myocardial region. Corresponding gradient-echo MR images and myocardial 99mTc-MIBI single-photon emission tomography images were acquired for exact localisation of the infarct region. All examinations were performed at rest under anti-ischaemic medication. Data were compared with those of patients in whom coronary artery disease had been excluded by angiography (group B, n=10). All patients of group A displayed anterior wall hypokinesia in the infarcted area on both ventriculography and MRI, with a reduced myocardial accumulation of 99mTc-MIBI (66.3%+/-11.8% vs 95.6%+/-2.2% in group B). The mean wall thickness during the complete cardiac cycle (9.5+/-1.8 mm vs 13.1+/-1.1 mm in group B, P<0.001), the systolic wall thickening (2.6+/-1.4 mm vs 5.8+/-1.5 mm in group B, P<0.01) and the phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate ratio (1.12+/-0.22 vs 1.74+/-0.23 in group B, P<0.01) in the hypokinetic area were all significantly reduced. It is concluded that persisting hypokinetic myocardium after NQWI combined with reduced myocellular uptake of 99mTc-MIBI displays a reduced PCr/ATP ratio. Our results indicate

  13. High-intensity training reduces intermittent hypoxia-induced ER stress and myocardial infarct size.

    PubMed

    Bourdier, Guillaume; Flore, Patrice; Sanchez, Hervé; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Belaidi, Elise; Arnaud, Claire

    2016-01-15

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) is described as the major detrimental factor leading to cardiovascular morbimortality in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. OSA patients exhibit increased infarct size after a myocardial event, and previous animal studies have shown that chronic IH could be the main mechanism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. High-intensity training (HIT) exerts beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Thus, we hypothesized that HIT could prevent IH-induced ER stress and the increase in infarct size. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 21 days of IH (21-5% fraction of inspired O2, 60-s cycle, 8 h/day) or normoxia. After 1 wk of IH alone, rats were submitted daily to both IH and HIT (2 × 24 min, 15-30m/min). Rat hearts were either rapidly frozen to evaluate ER stress by Western blot analysis or submitted to an ischemia-reperfusion protocol ex vivo (30 min of global ischemia/120 min of reperfusion). IH induced cardiac proapoptotic ER stress, characterized by increased expression of glucose-regulated protein kinase 78, phosphorylated protein kinase-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 4, and C/EBP homologous protein. IH-induced myocardial apoptosis was confirmed by increased expression of cleaved caspase-3. These IH-associated proapoptotic alterations were associated with a significant increase in infarct size (35.4 ± 3.2% vs. 22.7 ± 1.7% of ventricles in IH + sedenary and normoxia + sedentary groups, respectively, P < 0.05). HIT prevented both the IH-induced proapoptotic ER stress and increased myocardial infarct size (28.8 ± 3.9% and 21.0 ± 5.1% in IH + HIT and normoxia + HIT groups, respectively, P = 0.28). In conclusion, these findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damages in OSA patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Mutual information and phase dependencies: measures of reduced nonlinear cardiorespiratory interactions after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dirk; Leder, Uwe; Hoyer, Heike; Pompe, Bernd; Sommer, Michael; Zwiener, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is related to several mechanisms of the complex autonomic functioning such as respiratory heart rate modulation and phase dependencies between heart beat cycles and breathing cycles. The underlying processes are basically nonlinear. In order to understand and quantitatively assess those physiological interactions an adequate coupling analysis is necessary. We hypothesized that nonlinear measures of HRV and cardiorespiratory interdependencies are superior to the standard HRV measures in classifying patients after acute myocardial infarction. We introduced mutual information measures which provide access to nonlinear interdependencies as counterpart to the classically linear correlation analysis. The nonlinear statistical autodependencies of HRV were quantified by auto mutual information, the respiratory heart rate modulation by cardiorespiratory cross mutual information, respectively. The phase interdependencies between heart beat cycles and breathing cycles were assessed basing on the histograms of the frequency ratios of the instantaneous heart beat and respiratory cycles. Furthermore, the relative duration of phase synchronized intervals was acquired. We investigated 39 patients after acute myocardial infarction versus 24 controls. The discrimination of these groups was improved by cardiorespiratory cross mutual information measures and phase interdependencies measures in comparison to the linear standard HRV measures. This result was statistically confirmed by means of logistic regression models of particular variable subsets and their receiver operating characteristics.

  15. Financial impact of reducing door-to-balloon time in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a single hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Khot, Umesh N; Johnson-Wood, Michele L; Geddes, Jason B; Ramsey, Curtis; Khot, Monica B; Taillon, Heather; Todd, Randall; Shaikh, Saeed R; Berg, William J

    2009-07-26

    The impact of reducing door-to-balloon time on hospital revenues, costs, and net income is unknown. We prospectively determined the impact on hospital finances of (1) emergency department physician activation of the catheterization lab and (2) immediate transfer of the patient to an immediately available catheterization lab by an in-house transfer team consisting of an emergency department nurse, a critical care unit nurse, and a chest pain unit nurse. We collected financial data for 52 consecutive ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing emergency percutaneous intervention from October 1, 2004-August 31, 2005 and compared this group to 80 consecutive ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients from September 1, 2005-June 26, 2006 after protocol implementation. Per hospital admission, insurance payments (hospital revenue) decreased ($35,043 +/- $36,670 vs. $25,329 +/- $16,185, P = 0.039) along with total hospital costs ($28,082 +/- $31,453 vs. $18,195 +/- $9,242, P = 0.009). Hospital net income per admission was unchanged ($6962 vs. $7134, P = 0.95) as the drop in hospital revenue equaled the drop in costs. For every $1000 reduction in total hospital costs, insurance payments (hospital revenue) dropped $1077 for private payers and $1199 for Medicare/Medicaid. A decrease in hospital charges ($70,430 +/- $74,033 vs. $53,514 +/- $23,378, P = 0.059), diagnosis related group relative weight (3.7479 +/- 2.6731 vs. 2.9729 +/- 0.8545, P = 0.017) and outlier payments with hospital revenue>$100,000 (7.7% vs. 0%, P = 0.022) all contributed to decreasing ST-elevation myocardial infarction hospitalization revenue. One-year post-discharge financial follow-up revealed similar results: Insurance payments: $49,959 +/- $53,741 vs. $35,937 +/- $23,125, P = 0.044; Total hospital costs: $39,974 +/- $37,434 vs. $26,778 +/- $15,561, P = 0.007; Net Income: $9984 vs. $9159, P = 0.855. All of the financial benefits of reducing door-to-balloon time in ST-elevation myocardial

  16. Twelve-month clinical outcomes of acute non-ST versus ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with reduced preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ju Yeol; Kang, Tae Soo; Rha, Seung-Woon; Choi, Byoung Geol; Park, Sang Ho; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-04-27

    Reduced preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is known to be associated with increased mortality. However, clinical implications of reduced preprocedural TIMI flow in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) have not been fully elucidated as yet. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical influence of reduced preprocedural TIMI flows between patients with STEMI and NSTEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). From the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry, a total of 7336 AMI patients with angiographically confirmed reduced preprocedural TIMI flow (TIMI 0/1) during PCI were selected and divided into STEMI (n=4852) and NSTEMI (n=2484) groups. The 12-month composite of total death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, and repeated PCI was compared between the two groups. After adjustment of baseline confounders by propensity score stratification, the NSTEMI group had lower incidences of major adverse cardiac events than the STEMI group (7.15 vs. 11.19%; hazard ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.84; P=0.001) at 12 months, which was largely attributable to the lower incidences of total deaths (2.43 vs. 3.99%; P=0.04) and repeated PCI (3.81 vs. 6.41%; P=0.01). Among AMI patients with TIMI 0/1, patients with NSTEMI had better outcomes compared with those of patients with STEMI on the basis of the incidences of 12-month outcomes. This could be attributable to lower total death and repeated revascularization in patients with NSTEMI.

  17. Proteinuria and Reduced Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Independently Predict Risk for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Findings from a Population-Based Study in Keelung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Lei, Meng-Huan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Tseng, Chuen-Den

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent roles of proteinuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the development of acute myocardial infarction in a northern Taiwanese population. We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study in Keelung, the northernmost county of Taiwan. A total of 63,129 subjects (63% women) ≥ 20 years of age who had no history of coronary heart disease were recruited and followed-up. Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to assess the association between proteinuria and estimated GFR and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. There were 305 new cases of acute myocardial infarction (114 women and 191 men) documented during a four-year follow-up period. After adjustment of potential confounding covariates, heavier proteinuria (dipstick urinalysis reading 3+) and estimated GFR of less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) independently predicted increased risk of developing acute myocardial infarction. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of heavier proteinuria for occurrence of acute myocardial infarction was 1.85 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.17-2.91, p < 0.01] (vs. the reference group: negative dipstick proteinuria). The aHR of estimated GFR of 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2) for occurrence of acute myocardial infarction was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.31-4.38, p < 0.01) (vs. the reference group: estimated GFR ≥ 90 ml/ min/1.73 m(2)), and that of estimated GFR of 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was 5.26 (95% CI, 2.26-12.26, p < 0.01). We demonstrated that both heavier proteinuria and lower estimated GFR are significant independent predictors of developing future acute myocardial infarction in a northern Taiwanese population. Acute myocardial infarction; Estimated glomerular filtration rate; Proteinuria.

  18. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 attenuates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after myocardial infarction by reducing cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    von Lueder, Thomas G; Wang, Bing H; Kompa, Andrew R; Huang, Li; Webb, Randy; Jordaan, Pierre; Atar, Dan; Krum, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi), beyond blocking angiotensin II signaling, augment natriuretic peptides by inhibiting their breakdown by neprilysin. The myocardial effects of ARNi have been little studied until recently. We hypothesized that LCZ696 attenuates left ventricular (LV) remodeling after experimental myocardial infarction (MI), and that this may be contributed to by inhibition of hypertrophy and fibrosis in cardiac cells. One week after MI, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to treatment for 4 weeks with LCZ696 (68 mg/kg body weight perorally; MI-ARNi, n=11) or vehicle (MI-vehicle, n=6). Five weeks after MI, MI-ARNi versus MI-vehicle demonstrated lower LV end-diastolic diameter (by echocardiography; 9.7±0.2 versus 10.5±0.3 mm), higher LV ejection fraction (60±2 versus 47±5%), diastolic wall strain (0.23±0.02 versus 0.13±0.02), and circular strain (-9.8±0.5 versus -7.3±0.5%; all P<0.05). LV pressure-volume loops confirmed improved LV function. Despite similar infarct size, MI-ARNi versus MI-vehicle had lower cardiac weights (P<0.01) and markedly reduced fibrosis in peri-infarct and remote myocardium. Angiotensin II-stimulated incorporation of 3[H]leucine in cardiac myocytes and 3[H]proline in cardiac fibroblast was used to evaluate hypertrophy and fibrosis, respectively. The neprilysin inhibitor component of LCZ696, LBQ657, inhibited hypertrophy but not fibrosis. The angiotensin receptor blocker component of LCZ696, valsartan inhibited both hypertrophy and fibrosis. Dual valsartan+LBQ augmented the inhibitory effects of valsartan and the highest doses completely abrogated angiotensin II-mediated effects. LCZ696 attenuated cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after MI. This may be contributed to by superior inhibition of LCZ696 on cardiac fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy than either stand-alone neprilysin inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Surgical dissection of the internal carotid artery under flow control by proximal vessel clamping reduces embolic infarcts during carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ishii, Akira; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Yamagata, Sen; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of flow control of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by the clamping of the common carotid artery, external carotid artery, and superior thyroid artery during surgical ICA dissection to reduce ischemic complications after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sixty-seven patients (59 men; age, 70.5 ± 6.2 years) who underwent CEA by the same surgeon were retrospectively studied. Both conventional CEA (n = 29) and flow-control CEA (n = 38) were performed with the patient under general anesthesia and with the use of somatosensory-evoked potential and near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring as a guide for selective shunting. The number of new postoperative infarcts was assessed with preoperative and postoperative diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained within 3 days of surgery. In addition to surgical technique, the effects of the following factors on new infarcts also were examined: age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and application of shunting. New postoperative DWI lesions were observed in 7 of 67 patients (10.4%), and none of them was symptomatic. With respect to operative technique, the incidence rate of DWI spots was significantly lower in the flow-control group (2.6%) than in the conventional group (20.7%), odds ratio: 0.069; 95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.779; P = 0.031). On multiple logistic regression analysis, age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and the use of internal shunting did not have significant effects on new postoperative DWI lesions, whereas technique did have an effect. The proximal flow-control technique for CEA helps avoid embolic complications during surgical ICA dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Administration of a CO-releasing molecule at the time of reperfusion reduces infarct size in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yiru; Stein, Adam B.; Wu, Wen-Jian; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoping; Li, Qian-Hong; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Motterlini, Roberto; Bolli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Although carbon monoxide (CO) has traditionally been viewed as a toxic gas, increasing evidence suggests that it plays an important homeostatic and cytoprotective role. Its therapeutic use, however, is limited by the side effects associated with CO inhalation. Recently, transition metal carbonyls have been shown to be a safe and effective means of transporting and releasing CO groups in vivo. The goal of the present study was to test whether a water-soluble CO-releasing molecule, tricarbonylchloro (glycinato) ruthenium (II) (CORM-3), reduces infarct size in vivo when given in a clinically relevant manner, i.e., at the time of reperfusion. Mice were subjected to a 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 24 h of reperfusion and were given either CORM-3 (3.54 mg/kg as a 60-min intravenous infusion starting 5 min before reperfusion) or equivalent doses of inactive CORM-3, which does not release CO. CORM-3 had no effect on arterial blood pressure or heart rate. The region at risk did not differ in control and treated mice (44.5 ± 3.5% vs. 36.5 ± 1.6% of the left ventricle, respectively). However, infarct size was significantly smaller in treated mice [25.8 ± 4.9% of the region at risk (n = 13) vs. 47.7 ± 3.8% (n = 14), P < 0.05]. CORM-3 did not increase carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood. These results suggest that a novel class of drugs, CO-releasing molecules, can be useful to limit myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. PMID:14704226

  1. Brief pressure overload of the left ventricle reduces myocardial infarct size via activation of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chia-Yu; Lai, Chang-Chi; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Hsiung

    2015-09-01

    We have previously reported that brief pressure overload of the left ventricle reduced myocardial infarct (MI) size. However, the role of protein kinase C (PKC) remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated whether pressure overload reduces MI size by activating PKC. MI was induced by a 40-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and a 3-hour reperfusion in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. MI size was determined using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Brief pressure overload was achieved by two 10-minute partial snarings of the ascending aorta, raising the systolic left ventricular pressure 50% above the baseline value. Ischemic preconditioning was elicited by two 10-minute coronary artery occlusions and 10-minute reperfusions. Dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle) or calphostin C (0.1 mg/kg, a specific inhibitor of PKC) was administered intravenously as pretreatment. The MI size, expressed as the percentage of the area at risk, was significantly reduced in the pressure overload group and the ischemic preconditioning group (19.0 ± 2.9% and 18.7 ± 3.0% vs. 26.1 ± 2.6% in the control group, where p < 0.001). Pretreatment with calphostin C significantly limited the protection by pressure overload and ischemic preconditioning (25.2 ± 2.4% and 25.0 ± 2.3%, where p < 0.001). Calphostin C itself did not significantly affect MI size (25.5 ± 2.4%). Additionally, the hemodynamics, area at risk, and mortality were not significantly different. Brief pressure overload of the left ventricle reduced MI size. Since calphostin C significantly limited the decrease of MI size, our results suggested that brief pressure overload reduces MI size via activation of PKC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Reduced Serum Level of Interleukin-10 is Associated with Cerebral Infarction: A Case-Control and Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yifei; Yang, Haiqing; Diao, Zengyan; Li, Yi; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-05-01

    IL-10 expression limits inflammation and restricts the size of CNS damage from stroke. In this study, we examined the correlation between cerebral infarction (CI) and serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) using a combination of case-control study and meta-analysis of published data, with an aim of understanding the relevance of serum IL-10 levels to CI development. This study enrolled a total of 169 CI patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University between May 2011 and November 2014. During the same period, a group of 145 individuals were recruited at the same hospital as healthy controls after thorough physical examination. Serum IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SPSS 19.0 (IBM, 2010, Chicago, IL, USA) and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software were used for data analysis. Serum levels of IL-10 (pg/mL) were significantly lower in CI patients when compared to healthy controls (15.36 ± 3.21 vs. 21.64 ± 5.17, t = 13.12, P < 0.001). In addition, patients with large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), and lacunar infarct (LAC) displayed drastically reduced serum levels of IL-10 (pg/mL) compared to healthy controls (LAAS 14.77 ± 5.21, CEI 15.25 ± 5.10, LAC 16.58 ± 4.92, all P < 0.001). Interestingly, no significant differences were observed in the serum IL-10 levels when pair-wise comparisons were made between these three clinical subtypes of CI (all P > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that, with the exception of triglyceride (TG) and uric acid (UA) levels (both P > 0.05), the other seven parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), creatinine (Cr), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), strongly correlated with CI development (all P < 0.05). Meta-analysis of pooled data from nine case-control studies revealed an inverse correlation between

  3. Sacubitril and valsartan fixed combination to reduce heart failure events in post-acute myocardial infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Zaid Iskandar, M; Lang, C C

    2017-10-01

    Heart failure is a term used to define a constellation of symptoms and signs that are commonly attributed to the inability of the heart to produce a cardiac output that meets the demands of the body. It remains a deadly disease, affecting between 1-2% of the population, and is more common in the elderly, with around 6-10% of patients over 65 suffering from the condition. Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ-696) is a combined neprilysin inhibitor and angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker approved in recent years for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. In an area where there have been limited pharmacological advances in the last 10 years, this drug was a game changer and a much welcomed addition to contemporary heart failure therapy. It is currently being studied in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and for the reduction of heart failure events post-acute myocardial infarction. Results from the ongoing PARADISE-MI study are awaited by the global cardiology community with great interest. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  4. Thioredoxin 1 Enhances Neovascularization and Reduces Ventricular Remodeling During Chronic Myocardial Infarction: A Study Using Thioredoxin 1 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adluri, Ram Sudheer; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Zhan, Lijun; Akita, Yuzo; Samuel, Samson Mathews; Otani, Hajime; Ho, Ye-Shih; Maulik, Gautam; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in disruption of neovascularization by alterations in thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) expression and its interaction with other proteins after myocardial infarction (MI). We previously showed that Trx1 has angiogenic properties, but the possible therapeutic significance of overexpressing Trx1 in chronic MI has not been elucidated. Therefore, we explored the angiogenic and cardioprotective potential of Trx1 in an in vivo MI model using transgenic mice overexpressing Trx1. Wild type (W) and Trx1 transgenic (Trx1Tg/+) mice were randomized into W Sham (WS), Trx1Tg/+ Sham (TS), WMI and TMI. MI was induced by permanent occlusion of LAD coronary artery. Hearts from mice overexpressing Trx1 exhibited reduced fibrosis and oxidative stress, and attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis along with increased vessel formation compared to WMI. We found significant inhibition of Trx1 regulating proteins, TXNIP and AKAP 12, and increased p-Akt, p-eNOS and p-GSK-3β, HIF-1α, β-catenin, VEGF, Bcl-2 and survivin expression in TMI compared to WMI. Echocardiography performed 30 days after MI revealed significant improvement in myocardial functions in TMI compared to WMI. Our study identifies a potential role for Trx1 overexpression and its association with its regulatory proteins TXNIP, AKAP12 and subsequent activation of Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin/HIF-1α-mediated VEGF and eNOS expression in inducing angiogenesis and reduced ventricular remodeling. Hence, Trx1 and other proteins identified in our study may prove to be potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. PMID:21074540

  5. Hawthorn extract reduces infarct volume and improves neurological score by reducing oxidative stress in rat brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Elango, Chinnasamy; Jayachandaran, Kasevan Sawaminathan; Niranjali Devaraj, S

    2009-12-01

    In our present investigation the neuroprotective effect of alcoholic extract of Hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) was evaluated against middle cerebral artery occlusion induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract by oral gavage for 15 days. The middle cerebral artery was then occluded for 75 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The pretreated rats showed significantly improved neurological behavior with reduced brain infarct when compared to vehicle control rats. The glutathione level in brain was found to be significantly (p<0.05) low in vehicle control rats after 24 h of reperfusion when compared to sham operated animals. However, in Hawthorn extract pretreated rats the levels were found to be close to that of sham. Malondialdehyde levels in brain of sham and pretreated group were found to be significantly lower than the non-treated vehicle group (p<0.05). The nitric oxide levels in brain were measured and found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in vehicle than in sham or extract treated rats. Our results suggest that Hawthorn extract which is a well known prophylactic for cardiac conditions may very well protect the brain against ischemia-reperfusion. The reduced brain damage and improved neurological behavior after 24 h of reperfusion in Hawthorn extract pretreated group may be attributed to its antioxidant property which restores glutathione levels, circumvents the increase in lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels thereby reducing peroxynitrite formation and free radical induced brain damage.

  6. NECA and bradykinin at reperfusion reduce infarction in rabbit hearts by signaling through PI3K, ERK, and NO.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi-Ming; Krieg, Thomas; Cui, Lin; Downey, James M; Cohen, Michael V

    2004-03-01

    The adenosine A1/A2 adenosine agonist 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine (NECA) and bradykinin both limit infarction when administered at reperfusion in rabbits. This study compares the signal transduction pathways responsible for their anti-infarct effect. Receptor agonists were administered to isolated rabbit hearts starting 25 min after the onset of a 30-min period of ischemia and continued into the 2-h reperfusion period. Infarct size was measured. Both NECA and bradykinin decreased infarction from 31.5 +/- 2.4% of the risk zone in untreated hearts to 11.8 +/- 2.0% and 15.4 +/- 2.4%, respectively (P<0.05). Protection from both agents was blocked by PD98059, wortmannin, and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), thus demonstrating dependence on activation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and stimulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Both wortmannin and PD98059 prevented phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in NECA-treated hearts, whereas only wortmannin and not PD98059 blocked Akt phosphorylation. These data suggest Akt is upstream of ERK 1/2. In addition, 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine blocked NECA's protection indicating that A2 adenosine receptors trigger NECA's anti-infarct effect. Of note, both bradykinin and acetylcholine (ACh) administered before ischemia to trigger preconditioning's cardioprotection use PI3K and NOS in their signaling pathway. Curiously, however, ACh, unlike bradykinin, was not protective when administered at reperfusion. Hence, both NECA and bradykinin administered at reperfusion protect through a common signaling pathway that includes PI3K, NO, and ERK.

  7. The Kringle-2 domain of tissue plasminogen activator significantly reduces mortality and brain infarction in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Bi, Feng; Xiao, Chunlan; Liu, Jianxia; Wang, Zhixia; Liu, Jian-Ning; Zhang, Jing

    2010-08-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) showed brain-protective activity within the first 15 min after cerebral ischemia in rats. To understand its molecular mechanism, TPA derivates were intracerebroventricularly administered at 15 min before, and 15, 90, 120 min after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. The reduction in mortality and cerebral infarction at 24 h was seen only with TPA administered at 15 min after MCAO. The down-regulation of endogenous TPA by the intracerebroventricular injection of TPA was found to be responsible for the protective effect on the integrity of blood-brain barrier after MCAO, as well as for the reduction in mortality and cerebral infarction. Moreover, for the first time we have found that the Kringle-2 domain is essential for the brain-protective activity of TPA.

  8. Remote Ischemic Perconditioning to Reduce Reperfusion Injury During Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Shelley L; Iansavichene, Alla; Cheskes, Sheldon

    2017-05-17

    Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a noninvasive therapeutic strategy that uses brief cycles of blood pressure cuff inflation and deflation to protect the myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion injury. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the impact of RIC on myocardial salvage index, infarct size, and major adverse cardiovascular events when initiated before catheterization. Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were conducted and reference lists were hand searched. Randomized controlled trials comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with and without RIC for patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction were included. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts, assessed quality of the studies, and extracted data. Data were pooled using random-effects models and reported as mean differences and relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Eleven articles (9 randomized controlled trials) were included with a total of 1220 patients (RIC+PCI=643, PCI=577). Studies with no events were excluded from meta-analysis. The myocardial salvage index was higher in the RIC+PCI group compared with the PCI group (mean difference: 0.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.14). Infarct size was reduced in the RIC+PCI group compared with the PCI group (mean difference: -2.46; 95% confidence interval, -4.66 to -0.26). Major adverse cardiovascular events were lower in the RIC+PCI group (9.5%) compared with the PCI group (17.0%; relative risk: 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.82). RIC appears to be a promising adjunctive treatment to PCI for the prevention of reperfusion injury in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction; however, additional high-quality research is required before a change in practice can be considered. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Electromechanical feedback with reduced cellular connectivity alters electrical activity in an infarct injured left ventricle: a finite element model study

    PubMed Central

    Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.; Sundnes, Joakim S.

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) significantly alters the structure and function of the heart. As abnormal strain may drive heart failure and the generation of arrhythmias, we used computational methods to simulate a left ventricle with an MI over the course of a heartbeat to investigate strains and their potential implications to electrophysiology. We created a fully coupled finite element model of myocardial electromechanics consisting of a cellular physiological model, a bidomain electrical diffusion solver, and a nonlinear mechanics solver. A geometric mesh built from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of an ovine left ventricle suffering from a surgically induced anteroapical infarct was used in the model, cycled through the cardiac loop of inflation, isovolumic contraction, ejection, and isovolumic relaxation. Stretch-activated currents were added as a mechanism of mechanoelectric feedback. Elevated fiber and cross fiber strains were observed in the area immediately adjacent to the aneurysm throughout the cardiac cycle, with a more dramatic increase in cross fiber strain than fiber strain. Stretch-activated channels decreased action potential (AP) dispersion in the remote myocardium while increasing it in the border zone. Decreases in electrical connectivity dramatically increased the changes in AP dispersion. The role of cross fiber strain in MI-injured hearts should be investigated more closely, since results indicate that these are more highly elevated than fiber strain in the border of the infarct. Decreases in connectivity may play an important role in the development of altered electrophysiology in the high-stretch regions of the heart. PMID:22058157

  10. ST-Elevation myocardial infarction network: systematization in 205 cases reduced clinical events in the public health care system.

    PubMed

    Caluza, Ana Christina Vellozo; Barbosa, Adriano H; Gonçalves, Iran; Oliveira, Carlos Alexandre L de; Matos, Lívia Nascimento de; Zeefried, Claus; Moreno, Antonio Célio C; Tarkieltaub, Elcio; Alves, Cláudia Maria R; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

    2012-11-01

    The major cause of death in the city of São Paulo (SP) is cardiac events. At its periphery, in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction is estimated to range between 15% and 20% due to difficulties inherent in large metropoles. To describe in-hospital mortality in ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) of patients admitted via ambulance or peripheral hospitals, which are part of a structured training network (STEMI Network). Health care teams of four emergency services (Ermelino Matarazzo, Campo Limpo, Tatuapé and Saboya) of the periphery of the city of São Paulo and advanced ambulances of the Emergency Mobile Health Care Service (abbreviation in Portuguese, SAMU) were trained to use tenecteplase or to refer for primary angioplasty. A central office for electrocardiogram reading was used. After thrombolysis, the patient was sent to a tertiary reference hospital to undergo cardiac catheterization immediately (in case of failed thrombolysis) or in 6 to 24 hours, if the patient was stable. Quantitative and qualitative variables were assessed by use of uni- and multivariate analysis. From January 2010 to June 2011, 205 consecutive patients used the STEMI Network, and the findings were as follows: 87 anterior wall infarctions; 11 left bundle-branch blocks; 14 complete atrioventricular blocks; and 14 resuscitations after initial cardiorespiratory arrest. In-hospital mortality was 6.8% (14 patients), most of which due to cardiogenic shock, one hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident, and one bleeding. The organization in the public health care system of a network for the treatment of STEMI, involving diagnosis, reperfusion, immediate transfer, and tertiary reference hospital, resulted in immediate improvement of STEMI outcomes.

  11. Treatment of experimental stroke with IL-10-producing B-cells reduces infarct size and peripheral and CNS inflammation in wild-type B-cell-sufficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Bodhankar, Sheetal; Chen, Yingxin; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Murphy, Stephanie J.; Offner, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Clinical stroke induces inflammatory processes leading to cerebral and splenic injury and profound peripheral immunosuppression. IL-10 expression is elevated during major CNS diseases and limits inflammation in the brain. Recent evidence demonstrated that absence of B-cells led to larger infarct volumes and CNS damage after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) that could be prevented by transfer of IL-10+ B-cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if the beneficial immunoregulatory effects on MCAO of the IL-10+ B-cell subpopulation also extends to B-cell-sufficient mice that would better represent stroke subjects. CNS inflammation and infarct volumes were evaluated in male C57BL/6J (WT) mice that received either RPMI or IL-10+ B-cells and underwent 60 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 96 hours of reperfusion. Transfer of IL-10+ B-cells markedly reduced infarct volume in WT recipient mice when given 24 hours prior to or 4 hours after MCAO. B-cell protected MCAO mice had increased regulatory subpopulations in the periphery, reduced numbers of activated, inflammatory T-cells, decreased infiltration of T-cells and a less inflammatory milieu in the ischemic hemispheres of the IL-10+ B-cell-treated group. Moreover, transfer of IL-10+ B-cells 24 hours before MCAO led to a significant preservation of regulatory immune subsets in the IL-10+ B-cell protected group presumably indicating their role in immunomodulatory mechanisms, post-stroke. Our studies are the first to demonstrate a major immunoregulatory role for IL-10+ regulatory B-cells in preventing and treating MCAO in WT mice and also implicating their potential role in attenuating complications due to post-stroke immunosuppression. PMID:24374817

  12. From the Cover: Lifelong Exposure of C57bl/6n Male Mice to Bisphenol A or Bisphenol S Reduces Recovery From a Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kasneci, Amanda; Lee, Jun Seong; Yun, Tae Jin; Shang, Jijun; Lampen, Shaun; Gomolin, Tamar; Cheong, Cheolho C; Chalifour, Lorraine E

    2017-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) leaches from plastics to contaminate foodstuffs. Analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), are now used increasingly in manufacturing. Greater BPA exposure has been correlated with exacerbation of cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction (MI). To test the hypothesis that bisphenol exposure impairs cardiac healing, we exposed C57bl/6n mice to water containing 25ng/ml BPA or BPS from conception and surgically induced an MI in adult male progeny. Increased early death and cardiac dilation, and reduced cardiac function were found post-MI in BPA- and BPS-exposed mice. Flow cytometry revealed increased monocyte and macrophage infiltration that correlated with increased chemokine C-C motif ligand-2 expression in the infarct. In vitro BPA and BPS addition increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP) protein and secreted activity in RAW264.7 macrophage cells suggesting that invivo increases in MMP2 and MMP9 in exposed infarcts were myeloid-derived. Bone marrow-derived monocytes isolated from exposed mice had greater expression of pro-inflammatory polarization markers when chemokine stimulated indicating an enhanced susceptibility to develop a pro-inflammatory monocyte population. Chronic BPA exposure of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) deficient mice did not worsen early death, cardiac structure/function, or expression of myeloid markers after an MI. In contrast, BPS exposure of ERβ-deficient mice resulted in greater death and expression of myeloid markers. We conclude that lifelong exposure to BPA or BPS augmented the monocyte/macrophage inflammatory response and adverse remodeling from an MI thereby reducing the ability to survive and successfully recover, and that the adverse effect of BPA, but not BPS, is downstream of ERβ signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. FFR-guided multivessel stenting reduces urgent revascularization compared with infarct-related artery only stenting in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankur; Bajaj, Navkaranbir S; Arora, Pankaj; Arora, Garima; Qamar, Arman; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown fractional flow reserve-guided (FFR) multivessel stenting to be superior to infarct-related artery (IRA) only stenting in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease. This effect was mainly driven by a reduction in overall repeat revascularization. However, the ability to assess the effect of this strategy on urgent revascularization or reinfarction was underpowered in individual trials. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science for RCTs of FFR-guided multivessel stenting versus IRA-only stenting in STEMI with multivessel disease. The outcomes of interest were death, reinfarction, urgent, and non-urgent repeat revascularization. Risk ratios (RR) were pooled using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model. After review of 786 citations, 2 RCTs were included. The pooled results demonstrated a significant reduction in the composite of death, reinfarction, or revascularization in the FFR-guided multivessel stenting group versus IRA-only stenting group (RR [95%, Confidence Interval]: 0.49 [0.33-0.72], p<0.001). This risk reduction was driven mainly by a reduction in repeat revascularization, both urgent (0.41 [0.24-0.71], p=0.002) and non-urgent revascularization (0.31 [0.19-0.50], p<0.001). Pooled RR for reinfarction was lower in the FFR-guided strategy, but was not statistically significant (0.71[0.39-1.31], p=0.28). This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that a strategy of FFR-guided multivessel stenting in STEMI patients reduces not only overall repeat revascularization but also urgent revascularization. The effect on reinfarction needs to be evaluated in larger trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum Chloride and Sodium Interplay in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Analysis From the High-Risk Myocardial Infarction Database Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João Pedro; Girerd, Nicolas; Duarte, Kevin; Coiro, Stefano; McMurray, John J V; Dargie, Henry J; Pitt, Bertram; Dickstein, Kenneth; Testani, Jeffrey M; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Serum chloride levels were recently found to be independently associated with mortality in heart failure (HF). We investigated the relationship between serum chloride and clinical outcomes in 7195 subjects with acute myocardial infarction complicated by reduced left ventricular function and HF. The studied outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalization for HF. Both chloride and sodium had a nonlinear association with the studied outcomes (P<0.05 for linearity). Patients in the lowest chloride tertile (chloride ≤100) were older, had more comorbidities, and had lower sodium levels (P<0.05 for all). Serum chloride showed a significant interaction with sodium with regard to all studied outcomes (P for interaction <0.05 for all). The lowest chloride tertile (≤100 mmol/L) was associated with increased mortality rates in the context of lower sodium (≤138 mmol/L; adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for all-cause mortality=1.42 (1.14-1.77); P=0.002), whereas in the context of higher sodium levels (>141 mmol/L), the association with mortality was lost. Spline-transformed chloride and its interaction with sodium did not add significant prognostic information on top of other well-established prognostic variables (P>0.05 for all outcomes). In post-myocardial infarction with systolic dysfunction and HF, low serum chloride was associated with mortality (but not hospitalization for HF) in the setting of lower sodium. Overall, chloride and its interaction with sodium did not add clinically relevant prognostic information on top of other well-established prognostic variables. Taken together, these data support an integrated and critical consideration of chloride and sodium interplay. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Impact of Doctor Car with Mobile Cloud ECG in reducing door-to- balloon time of Japanese ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ichiro; Fujita, Hideo; Yanagisawa, Tomoyoshi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Hattori, Jun; Asakuma, Sadataka; Yamaya, Tatsuhiro; Inagaki, Taito; Kataoka, Yuichi; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Ako, Junya; Asari, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Early reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the current standard therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). To achieve better prognoses for these patients, reducing the door-to-balloon time is essential. As we reported previously, the Kitasato University Hospital Doctor Car (DC), an ambulance with a physician on board, is equipped with a novel mobile cloud 12-lead ECG system. Between September 2011 and August 2013, there were 260 emergency dispatches of our Doctor Car, of which 55 were for suspected acute myocardial infarction with chest pain and cold sweat. Among these 55 calls, 32 patients received emergent PCI due to STEMI (DC Group). We compared their data with those of 76 STEMI patients who were transported directly to our hospital by ambulance around the same period (Non-DC Group). There were no differences in patient age, gender, underlying diseases, or Killip classification between the two groups. The door-to-balloon time in the DC group was 56.1 ± 13.7 minutes and 74.0 ± 14.1 minutes in the Non-DC Group (P < 0.0001). Maximum levels of CPK were 2899 ± 308 and 2876 ± 269 IU/L (P = 0.703), and those of CK-MB were 292 ± 360 and 295 ± 284 ng/mL (P = 0.423), respectively, in the 2 groups. The Doctor Car system with the Mobile Cloud ECG was useful for reducing the door-to-balloon time.

  16. Remote ischemic preconditioning fails to reduce infarct size in the Zucker fatty rat model of type-2 diabetes: role of defective humoral communication.

    PubMed

    Wider, Joseph; Undyala, Vishnu V R; Whittaker, Peter; Woods, James; Chen, Xuequn; Przyklenk, Karin

    2018-03-09

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), the phenomenon whereby brief ischemic episodes in distant tissues or organs render the heart resistant to infarction, has been exhaustively demonstrated in preclinical models. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that exosomes play a requisite role in conveying the cardioprotective signal from remote tissue to the myocardium. However, in cohorts displaying clinically common comorbidities-in particular, type-2 diabetes-the infarct-sparing effect of RIPC may be confounded for as-yet unknown reasons. To investigate this issue, we used an integrated in vivo and in vitro approach to establish whether: (1) the efficacy of RIPC is maintained in the Zucker fatty rat model of type-2 diabetes, (2) the humoral transfer of cardioprotective triggers initiated by RIPC are transported via exosomes, and (3) diabetes is associated with alterations in exosome-mediated communication. We report that a standard RIPC stimulus (four 5-min episodes of hindlimb ischemia) reduced infarct size in normoglycemic Zucker lean rats, but failed to confer protection in diabetic Zucker fatty animals. Moreover, we provide novel evidence, via transfer of serum and serum fractions obtained following RIPC and applied to HL-1 cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation, that diabetes was accompanied by impaired humoral communication of cardioprotective signals. Specifically, our data revealed that serum and exosome-rich serum fractions collected from normoglycemic rats attenuated hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced HL-1 cell death, while, in contrast, exosome-rich samples from Zucker fatty rats did not evoke protection in the HL-1 cell model. Finally, and unexpectedly, we found that exosome-depleted serum from Zucker fatty rats was cytotoxic and exacerbated hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte death.

  17. Treatment with Uric Acid Reduces Infarct and Improves Neurologic Function in Female Mice After Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Dhanesha, Nirav; Vázquez-Rosa, Edwin; Cintrón-Pérez, Coral J; Thedens, Daniel; Kort, Alexa J; Chuong, Vicky; Rivera-Dompenciel, Adriana M; Chauhan, Anil K; Leira, Enrique C; Pieper, Andrew A

    2018-05-01

    Exogenous administration of uric acid, a naturally occurring antioxidant that scavenges reactive oxygen species in vasculature, has shown protective efficacy in both rodent models of stroke and human stroke patients in Spain as an adjuvant treatment to mechanical thrombectomy. Before clinical trials can be initiated in the United States, however, confirmation of efficacy in alternative preclinical models is required in accordance with stroke therapy academic industry roundtable-RIGOR criteria. To date, preclinical efficacy has only been established in the acute setting in male rodents. To address this need, we subjected 7- to 9-week old ovariectomized female mice to filament-induced right middle cerebral artery ischemia and reperfusion, an established preclinical model of mechanical thrombectomy. Fidelity of the procedure was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. A separate lab randomly assigned animals to vehicle versus uric acid infusion, which was initiated immediately after 45 minutes of reperfusion. Poststroke analysis of infarction size and neurologic function were conducted by investigators blind to treatment group, with a 7-day primary endpoint and a 3-day intermediary analysis at 1and. Infarct size and neurologic function at 7 days poststroke were significantly improved in uric acid-treated animals, relative to vehicle. Efficacy of uric acid in preclinical models of stroke is now expanded to include female mice analyzed at a later time point than has been investigated previously. These results support stroke therapy academic industry roundtable-RIGOR driven determination of the suitability of acute administration of uric acid as an adjuvant to mechanical thrombectomy in clinical trials for patients with stroke. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Preemptive heme oxygenase-1 gene delivery reveals reduced mortality and preservation of left ventricular function 1 yr after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Simpson, Jeremy A; Brunt, Keith R; Ward, Christopher A; Hall, Sean R R; Kinobe, Robert T; Barrette, Valerie; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Pachori, Alok S; Dzau, Victor J; Ogunyankin, Kofo O; Melo, Luis G

    2007-07-01

    We reported previously that predelivery of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene to the heart by adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV-2) markedly reduces ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. However, the effect of preemptive HO-1 gene delivery on long-term survival and prevention of postinfarction heart failure has not been determined. We assessed the effect of HO-1 gene delivery on long-term survival, myocardial function, and left ventricular (LV) remodeling 1 yr after myocardial infarction (MI) using echocardiographic imaging, pressure-volume (PV) analysis, and histomorphometric approaches. Two groups of Lewis rats were injected with 2 x 10(11) particles of AAV-LacZ (control) or AAV-human HO-1 (hHO-1) in the anterior-posterior apical region of the LV wall. Six weeks after gene transfer, animals were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion. Echocardiographic measurements and PV analysis of LV function were obtained at 2 wk and 12 mo after I/R. One year after acute MI, mortality was markedly reduced in the HO-1-treated animals compared with the LacZ-treated animals. PV analysis demonstrated significantly enhanced LV developed pressure, elevated maximal dP/dt, and lower end-diastolic volume in the HO-1 animals compared with the LacZ animals. Echocardiography showed a larger apical anterior-to-posterior wall ratio in HO-1 animals compared with LacZ animals. Morphometric analysis revealed extensive myocardial scarring and fibrosis in the infarcted LV area of LacZ animals, which was reduced by 62% in HO-1 animals. These results suggest that preemptive HO-1 gene delivery may be useful as a therapeutic strategy to reduce post-MI LV remodeling and heart failure.

  19. Crataegus special extract WS 1442 improves cardiac function and reduces infarct size in a rat model of prolonged coronary ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Veveris, Maris; Koch, Egon; Chatterjee, Shyam S

    2004-02-27

    In Germany, hydroalcoholic extracts from hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) leaves with flowers are approved drugs for the treatment of mild forms of heart insufficiency. Besides cardiotonic effects these herbal remedies have been shown to possess cardioprotective properties. We now evaluated if treatment of rats with the Crataegus special extract WS 1442 also improves cardiac function and prevents myocardial infarction during prolonged ischemia and reperfusion lasting for 240 and 15 min, respectively. Oral administration of WS 1442 (10 or 100 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) for 7 days before ligation of the left coronary artery dose-dependently suppressed the decrease of the pressure rate product. WS 1442 treatment also attenuated the elevation of the ST-segment in the ECG, diminished the incidence of ventricular fibrillations (control: 67%; 10 mg x kg(-1): 64%; 100 mg x kg(-1): 27%) and reduced the mortality rate (control: 47%; 10 mg.kg(-1): 27%; 100 mg x kg(-1): 9%). Furthermore, the area of myocardial infarction within the ischemic zone was significantly smaller in treated rats (10 mg x kg(-1): 64.3 +/- 5.1%; 100 mg x kg(-1): 42.8 +/- 4.1%) when compared with controls (78.4 +/- 2.6%). It is suggested that these pharmacological effects are accounted for by the combined antioxidative, leukocyte elastase inhibiting and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis enhancing properties of WS 1442.

  20. JM-20 Treatment After MCAO Reduced Astrocyte Reactivity and Neuronal Death on Peri-infarct Regions of the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Jeney; Pires, Elisa Nicoloso Simões; Meneghetti, André; Hansel, Gisele; Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Ochoa-Rodríguez, Estael; Verdecia-Reyes, Yamila; Delgado-Hernández, René; Salbego, Christianne; Souza, Diogo O

    2018-05-03

    Stroke is frequently associated with severe neurological decline and mortality, and its incidence is expected to increase due to aging population. The only available pharmacological treatment for cerebral ischemia is thrombolysis, with narrow therapeutic windows. Efforts aimed to identify new therapeutics are crucial. In this study, we look into plausible molecular and cellular targets for JM-20, a new hybrid molecule, against ischemic stroke in vivo. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) following 23 h of reperfusion. Animals treated with 8 mg/kg JM-20 (p.o., 1 h after reperfusion) showed minimal neurological impairment and lower GABA and IL-1β levels in CSF when compared to damaged rats that received vehicle. Immunocontent of pro-survival, phosphorylated Akt protein decreased in the cortex after 24 h as result of the ischemic insult, accompanied by decreased number of NeuN + cells in the peri-infarct cortex, cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus (DG) areas. Widespread reactive astrogliosis in both cortex and hippocampus (CA1, CA3, and DG areas) was observed 24 h post-ischemia. JM-20 prevented the activated Akt reduction, neuronal death, and astrocytes reactivity throughout the brain. Overall, the results reinforce the pharmacological potential of JM-20 as neuroprotective agent and provide important evidences about its molecular and cellular targets in this model of cerebral ischemia.

  1. Growth Factor-Induced Mobilization of Cardiac Progenitor Cells Reduces the Risk of Arrhythmias, in a Rat Model of Chronic Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Graiani, Gallia; Rossi, Stefano; Agnetti, Aldo; Stillitano, Francesca; Lagrasta, Costanza; Baruffi, Silvana; Berni, Roberta; Frati, Caterina; Vassalle, Mario; Squarcia, Umberto; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Macchi, Emilio; Stilli, Donatella; Quaini, Federico; Musso, Ezio

    2011-01-01

    Heart repair by stem cell treatment may involve life-threatening arrhythmias. Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) appear best suited for reconstituting lost myocardium without posing arrhythmic risks, being commissioned towards cardiac phenotype. In this study we tested the hypothesis that mobilization of CPCs through locally delivered Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 to heal chronic myocardial infarction (MI), lowers the proneness to arrhythmias. We used 133 adult male Wistar rats either with one-month old MI and treated with growth factors (GFs, n = 60) or vehicle (V, n = 55), or sham operated (n = 18). In selected groups of animals, prior to and two weeks after GF/V delivery, we evaluated stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias by telemetry-ECG, cardiac mechanics by echocardiography, and ventricular excitability, conduction velocity and refractoriness by epicardial multiple-lead recording. Invasive hemodynamic measurements were performed before sacrifice and eventually the hearts were subjected to anatomical, morphometric, immunohistochemical, and molecular biology analyses. When compared with untreated MI, GFs decreased stress-induced arrhythmias and concurrently prolonged the effective refractory period (ERP) without affecting neither the duration of ventricular repolarization, as suggested by measurements of QTc interval and mRNA levels for K-channel α-subunits Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, nor the dispersion of refractoriness. Further, markers of cardiomyocyte reactive hypertrophy, including mRNA levels for K-channel α-subunit Kv1.4 and β-subunit KChIP2, interstitial fibrosis and negative structural remodeling were significantly reduced in peri-infarcted/remote ventricular myocardium. Finally, analyses of BrdU incorporation and distribution of connexin43 and N-cadherin indicated that cytokines generated new vessels and electromechanically-connected myocytes and abolished the correlation of infarct size with deterioration of mechanical

  2. Using a Cloud Computing System to Reduce Door-to-Balloon Time in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Transferred for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Kung; Chen, Fu-Cheng; Chen, Yung-Lung; Wang, Hui-Ting; Lee, Chien-Ho; Chung, Wen-Jung; Lin, Cheng-Jui; Hsueh, Shu-Kai; Hung, Shin-Chiang; Wu, Kuan-Han; Liu, Chu-Feng; Kung, Chia-Te; Cheng, Cheng-I

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact on clinical outcomes using a cloud computing system to reduce percutaneous coronary intervention hospital door-to-balloon (DTB) time for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 369 patients before and after implementation of the transfer protocol were enrolled. Of these patients, 262 were transferred through protocol while the other 107 patients were transferred through the traditional referral process. There were no significant differences in DTB time, pain to door of STEMI receiving center arrival time, and pain to balloon time between the two groups. Pain to electrocardiography time in patients with Killip I/II and catheterization laboratory to balloon time in patients with Killip III/IV were significantly reduced in transferred through protocol group compared to in traditional referral process group (both p < 0.05). There were also no remarkable differences in the complication rate and 30-day mortality between two groups. The multivariate analysis revealed that the independent predictors of 30-day mortality were elderly patients, advanced Killip score, and higher level of troponin-I. This study showed that patients transferred through our present protocol could reduce pain to electrocardiography and catheterization laboratory to balloon time in Killip I/II and III/IV patients separately. However, this study showed that using a cloud computing system in our present protocol did not reduce DTB time.

  3. Relaxin reduces susceptibility to post-infarct atrial fibrillation in mice due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Beiert, Thomas; Tiyerili, Vedat; Knappe, Vincent; Effelsberg, Verena; Linhart, Markus; Stöckigt, Florian; Klein, Sabine; Schierwagen, Robert; Trebicka, Jonel; Nickenig, Georg; Schrickel, Jan W; Andrié, René P

    2017-08-26

    Relaxin-2 (RLX) is a peptide hormone that exerts beneficial anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in diverse models of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RLX treatment on the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial infarction (MI). Mice with cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall were treated for two weeks with either RLX (75 μg/kg/d) or vehicle (sodium acetate) delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. RLX treatment significantly attenuated the increase in AF-inducibility following cryoinfarction and reduced the mean duration of AF episodes. Furthermore, epicardial mapping of both atria revealed an increase in conduction velocity. In addition to an attenuation of atrial hypertrophy, chronic application of RLX reduced atrial fibrosis, which was linked to a significant reduction in atrial mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor. Transcript levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β were reduced in RLX treated mice, but macrophage infiltration into atrial myocardium was similar in the vehicle and RLX treated groups. Treatment with RLX in mice after MI reduces susceptibility to AF due to anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Because to these favorable actions, RLX may become a new therapeutic option in the treatment of AF, even when complicating MI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using a Cloud Computing System to Reduce Door-to-Balloon Time in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Transferred for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chi-Kung; Wang, Hui-Ting; Lee, Chien-Ho; Chung, Wen-Jung; Lin, Cheng-Jui; Hsueh, Shu-Kai; Hung, Shin-Chiang; Wu, Kuan-Han; Liu, Chu-Feng; Kung, Chia-Te

    2017-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the impact on clinical outcomes using a cloud computing system to reduce percutaneous coronary intervention hospital door-to-balloon (DTB) time for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods A total of 369 patients before and after implementation of the transfer protocol were enrolled. Of these patients, 262 were transferred through protocol while the other 107 patients were transferred through the traditional referral process. Results There were no significant differences in DTB time, pain to door of STEMI receiving center arrival time, and pain to balloon time between the two groups. Pain to electrocardiography time in patients with Killip I/II and catheterization laboratory to balloon time in patients with Killip III/IV were significantly reduced in transferred through protocol group compared to in traditional referral process group (both p < 0.05). There were also no remarkable differences in the complication rate and 30-day mortality between two groups. The multivariate analysis revealed that the independent predictors of 30-day mortality were elderly patients, advanced Killip score, and higher level of troponin-I. Conclusions This study showed that patients transferred through our present protocol could reduce pain to electrocardiography and catheterization laboratory to balloon time in Killip I/II and III/IV patients separately. However, this study showed that using a cloud computing system in our present protocol did not reduce DTB time. PMID:28900621

  5. [Splenic infarction].

    PubMed

    Cuquerella, J; Ferrer, L; Rivera, P; Tuset, J A; Medina, E; Pamós, S; Ariete, V; Tomé, A; García, V

    1996-06-01

    A 53-year-old male suffered splenic infarction etiologically related to atrial fibrillation and non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The main clinical manifestations were a one-month history of epigastric and left upper quadrant pain, with tenderness to palpation in the later zone. Laboratory tests revealed a slight leucocytosis (14.700) with left shift and a marked increase in LDH concentration (945 IU). Abdominal CAT and arteriography established the diagnosis, Echography proved normal. Patient evolution was satisfactory with conservative medical treatment. We conclude that splenic infarction should be considered in all cases of acute or chronic pain in the left hypochondrium. The diagnosis is established by CAT, arteriography and hepatosplenic gammagraphy. Medical management is initially advocated, surgery being reserved for those cases involving complications or in which diagnosis is not clear. Emphasis is placed on the main etiological, clinical, diagnostic and management characteristics of splenic infarction.

  6. Regional "Call 911" Emergency Department Protocol to Reduce Interfacility Transfer Delay for Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Bosson, Nichole; Baruch, Terrence; French, William J; Fang, Andrea; Kaji, Amy H; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Rock, Alisa; Shavelle, David; Thomas, Joseph L; Niemann, James T

    2017-12-23

    We evaluated the first-medical-contact-to-balloon (FMC2B) time after implementation of a "Call 911" protocol for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) interfacility transfers in a regional system. This is a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with STEMI requiring interfacility transfer from a STEMI referring hospital, to one of 35 percutaneous coronary intervention-capable STEMI receiving centers (SRCs). The Call 911 protocol allows the referring physician to activate 911 to transport a patient with STEMI to the nearest SRC for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients with interfacility transfers were identified over a 4-year period (2011-2014) from a registry to which SRCs report treatment and outcomes for all patients with STEMI transported via 911. The primary outcomes were median FMC2B time and the proportion of patients achieving the 120-minute goal. FMC2B for primary 911 transports were calculated to serve as a system reference. There were 2471 patients with STEMI transferred to SRCs by 911 transport during the study period, of whom 1942 (79%) had emergent coronary angiography and 1410 (73%) received percutaneous coronary intervention. The median age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR] 52-71) and 73% were men. The median FMC2B time was 111 minutes (IQR 88-153) with 56% of patients meeting the 120-minute goal. The median STEMI referring hospital door-in-door-out time was 53 minutes (IQR 37-89), emergency medical services transport time was 9 minutes (IQR 7-12), and SRC door-to-balloon time was 44 minutes (IQR 32-60). For primary 911 patients (N=4827), the median FMC2B time was 81 minutes (IQR 67-97). Using a Call 911 protocol in this regional cardiac care system, patients with STEMI requiring interfacility transfers had a median FMC2B time of 111 minutes, with 56% meeting the 120-minute goal. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) engineered mesenchymal stem cell therapy increased pro-angiogenic factors, reduced fibrosis and improved heart function in the infarcted rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sumanth C; Selvaraju, Vaithinathan; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Goldman, Joshua W; Husain, Aaftab; Alexander Palesty, J; Sanchez, Juan A; McFadden, David W; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2015-12-15

    Engraftment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged as a powerful candidate for mediating myocardial repair. In this study, we genetically modified MSCs with an adenovector encoding thioredoxin-1 (Ad.Trx1). Trx1 has been described as a growth regulator, a transcription factor regulator, a cofactor, and a powerful antioxidant. We explored whether engineered MSCs, when transplanted, are capable of improving cardiac function and angiogenesis in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Rat MSCs were cultured and divided into MSC, MSC+Ad.LacZ, and MSC+Ad.Trx1 groups. The cells were assayed for proliferation, and differentiation potential. In addition, rats were divided into control-sham (CS), control-MI (CMI), MSC+Ad.LacZ-MI (MLZMI), and MSC+Ad.Trx1-MI (MTrxMI) groups. MI was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation, and MSCs preconditioned with either Ad.LacZ or Ad.Trx1 were immediately administered to four sites in the peri-infarct zone. The MSC+Ad.Trx1 cells increased the proliferation capacity and maintained pluripotency, allowing them to divide into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells. Western blot analysis, 4 days after treatment showed increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). Also capillary density along with myocardial function as examined by echocardiography was found to be increased. Fibrosis was reduced in the MTrxMI group compared to MLZMI and CMI. Visualization of Connexin-43 by immunohistochemistry confirmed increased intercellular connections in the MTrxMI rats compared to MLZMI. Engineering MSCs to express Trx1 may prove to be a strategic therapeutic modality in the treatment of cardiac failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Very Mild Hypothermia (35°C) Postischemia Reduces Infarct Volume and Blood/Brain Barrier Breakdown Following tPA Treatment in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Cechmanek, Brian K; Tuor, Ursula I; Rushforth, David; Barber, Philip A

    2015-12-01

    Reperfusion therapies for stroke diminish in effectiveness and safety as time to treatment increases. Hypothermia neuroprotection for stroke is established, but its clinical translation has been hampered by uncertainties regarding optimal temperature and complications associated with moderate hypothermia. Also, hypothermia targeting temperatures of 32-33°C is associated with clinical and logistical problems related to induction and adverse side effects. We hypothesized that ischemic damage and tPA-exacerbated blood/brain barrier (BBB) breakdown produced following 30 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion and either 1 hour of saline or tPA infusion would be reduced by treatment with very mild cooling of 1.5°C for 48 hours followed by 24 hours of gradual rewarming. Infarct volume was reduced by 29.6% (p<0.001) and 41.9% (p<0.001) in hypothermic-tPA (Hypo_tPA)-treated and hypothermic-saline (Hypo_Sal)-treated animals compared to normothermic-tPA (Norm_tPA) and saline (Norm_Sal)-treated animals, respectively. Hypothermia also reduced IgG extravasation in tPA-treated, but not saline-treated groups compared to their normothermic controls (p<0.001). The ipsilateral-contralateral changes in optical density for IgG extravasation were 18.4% greater in the Norm_tPA than Norm_Sal (p<0.001) group. The ipsilateral-contralateral changes in optical density for IgG extravasation were reduced by 17.8% (p<0.001) in the Hypo_tPA compared to Norm_tPA group. No significant mean difference in IgG extravasation was seen between Hypo_tPA and Hypo_Sal groups (p>0.05). Very modest hypothermia to reduce the BBB breakdown could improve the availability and safety of reperfusion treatments for stroke.

  9. Role of omega-3 ethyl ester concentrate in reducing sudden cardiac death following myocardial infarction and in management of hypertriglyceridemia: An Indian consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, J.J.; Kasliwal, R.R.; Dutta, A.L.; Sawhney, J.P.S.; Iyengar, S.S.; Dani, S.; Desai, N.; Sathyamurthy, I.; Rao, D.; Menon, A.; Dasbiswas, A.; Wander, G.S.; Chadha, M.; Hiremath, M.S.; Roy, D.G.; Gupta, V.; Shivakadaksham, N.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most lethal manifestation of heart disease. In an Indian study the SCDs contribute about 10% of the total mortality and SCD post ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) constitutes for about half of total deaths. Objective Given the limitations of existing therapy there is a need for an effective, easy to use, broadly applicable and affordable intervention to prevent SCD post MI. Leading cardiologists from all over India came together to discuss the potential role of n-3 acid ethyl esters (90%) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 460 mg & docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 380 mg in the management of post MI patients and those with hypertriglyceridemia. Recommendations Highly purified & concentrated omega-3 ethyl esters (90%) of EPA (460 mg) & DHA (380 mg) has clinically proven benefits in improving post MI outcomes (significant 15% risk reduction for all-cause mortality, 20% risk reduction for CVD and 45% risk reduction in SCD in GISSI-Prevenzione trial) and in reducing hypertriglyceridemia, and hence, represent an interesting option adding to the treatment armamentarium in the secondary prevention after MI based on its anti-arrhythmogenic effects and also in reducing hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:23102390

  10. Transfusion of Plasma Collected at Late Phase after Preconditioning Reduces Myocardial Infarct Size Induced by Ischemia-reperfusion in Rats In vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Zheng, Zhi-Nan; Cheung, Chi-Wai; Zuo, Zhi-Yi; Jin, San-Qing

    2017-02-05

    Plasma transfusion is a common clinical practice. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) protects organs against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Whether preconditioned plasma (PP), collected at late phase after RIPC, could protect organs against IR injury in vivo is unknown. This study explored whether transfusion of PP could reduce myocardial infarct size (IS) after IR in rat in vivo. Eighty Lewis rats were randomized to eight groups (n = 10 for each group). Two groups of plasma donor rats donated plasma at 48 h after transient limb ischemia (PP) or control protocol (nonpreconditioned plasma [NPP]). Six groups of recipient rats received normal saline (NS; NS-IR 1, and NS-IR 24 groups), NPP (NPP-IR 1 and NPP-IR 24 groups), or PP (PP-IR 1 and PP-IR 24 groups) at one or 24 h before myocardial IR. Myocardial IR consisted of 30-min left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion and 180-min reperfusion. The area at risk (AAR) and infarct area were determined by double-staining with Evans blue and triphenyltetrazolium chloride. IS was calculated by infarct area divided by AAR. This was a 3 × 2 factorial design study, and factorial analysis was used to evaluate the data. If an interaction between the fluid and transfusion time existed, one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was used to analyze the single effects of fluid type when the transfusion time was fixed. IS in the NPP-IR 1 and PP-IR 1 groups was smaller than in the NS-IR 1 group (F = 6.838, P = 0.005; NPP-IR 1: 57 ± 8% vs. NS-IR1: 68 ± 6%, t = 2.843, P = 0.020; PP-IR 1: 56 ± 8% vs. NS-IR 1: 68 ± 6%, t = 3.102, P = 0.009), but no significant difference was detected between the NPP-IR 1 and PP-IR 1 groups (57 ± 8% vs. 56 ± 8%, t = 0.069, P = 1.000). IS in the NPP-IR 24 and PP-IR 24 groups was smaller than in the NS-IR 24 group (F = 24.796, P< 0.001; NPP-IR 24: 56% ± 7% vs. NS-IR 24: 68 ± 7%, t = 3.102, P = 0.026; PP-IR 24: 40 ± 9% vs. NS-IR 24: 68 ± 7

  11. [Salubrinal improves cardiac function in rats with heart failure post myocardial infarction through reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Qi, S Y; Ru, L S; Ding, C; Wang, H J; Li, A Y; Xu, B Y; Zhang, G H; Wang, D M

    2016-06-24

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in ischemia-mediated cell death. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of salubrinal (Sal), a selective eIF2a dephosphorylation inhibitor, on heart failure rats and related mechanisms. Heart failure was induced by coronary artery ligation (MI) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. To ensure comparable MI sizes post coronary artery ligation on various groups, echocardiography examination was performed before and 30 minutes after ligation in MI groups. Then rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: Sham group (n=12), MI group (n=10), MI plus vehicle injections group (DMSO group, n=12) and MI plus Sal injection group (Sal group, n=12). Sal (1 mg/kg) or DMSO was injected via the tail vein daily for the first 3 days (starting at 30 minutes after ligation of the left coronary artery), followed by subcutaneous injections twice per week for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and cell apoptosis assessed by flow cytometric analysis after 8 weeks. Protein and mRNA levels of ER stress markers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR respectively. Eight weeks later, LVEF was significantly higher, while LVESD and LVEDD values were significantly lower in Sal group compared to MI and DMSO groups (all P<0.05); LV/BW ratio was significantly higher in MI group than in Sham group ((2.30±0.40) mg/g vs.(1.78±0.31) mg/g, P<0.05), which was significantly reduced in Sal group ((1.88±0.25) mg/g), but not in DMSO group((2.25±0.36) mg/g, P<0.05 vs. MI). In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that Sal treatment significantly reduced apoptosis but not necrosis in post MI. Immunohistochemistry and real time PCR analysis showed that the myocardial protein and mRNA expression of ER stress markers were significantly lower in Sal group than in MI group, myocardial caspase-12 expression was significantly upregulated in MI group and significantly reduced by Sal treatment. Our

  12. The effectiveness of antioxidant vitamins C and E in reducing myocardial infarct size in patients subjected to percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PREVEC Trial): study protocol for a pilot randomized double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Oxidative stress has been involved in the ischemia-reperfusion injury in AMI. It has been suggested that reperfusion accounts for up to 50% of the final size of a myocardial infarct, a part of the damage likely to be prevented.Therefore, we propose that antioxidant reinforcement through vitamins C and E supplementation should protect against the ischemia-reperfusion damage, thus decreasing infarct size. The PREVEC Trial (Prevention of reperfusion damage associated with percutaneous coronary angioplasty following acute myocardial infarction) seeks to evaluate whether antioxidant vitamins C and E reduce infarct size in patients subjected to percutaneous coronary angioplasty after AMI. Methods/Design This is a randomized, 1:1, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study takes place at two centers in Chile: University of Chile Clinical Hospital and San Borja Arriarán Clinical Hospital. The subjects will be 134 adults with acute myocardial infarction with indication for percutaneous coronary angioplasty. This intervention is being performed as a pilot study, involving high-dose vitamin C infusion plus oral administration of vitamin E (Vitamin-treatment group) or placebo (Control group) during the angioplasty procedure. Afterward, the Vitamin-treatment group receives oral doses of vitamins C and E, and the Control group receives placebo for 84 days after coronary angioplasty. Primary outcome is infarct size, assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), measured 6 and 84 days after coronary angioplasty. Secondary outcomes are ejection fraction, measured 6 and 84 days after coronary angioplasty with CMR, and biomarkers for oxidative stress, antioxidant status, heart damage, and inflammation, which will be measured at baseline, at the onset of reperfusion, 6 to 8 hours after revascularization, and at hospital discharge. Discussion The ischemia-reperfusion event

  13. Patent foramen ovale closure with GORE HELEX or CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder vs. antiplatelet therapy for reduction of recurrent stroke or new brain infarct in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke: Design of the randomized Gore REDUCE Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Kasner, Scott E; Thomassen, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars; Rhodes, John F; Larsen, Coby C; Jacobson, Joth

    2017-12-01

    Rationale The utility of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for secondary prevention in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke is uncertain despite multiple randomized trials completed to date. Aims The Gore REDUCE Clinical Study (REDUCE) aims to establish superiority of patent foramen ovale closure in conjunction with antiplatelet therapy over antiplatelet therapy alone in reducing the risk of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct in patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke. Methods and design This controlled, open-label trial randomized 664 subjects with cryptogenic stroke at 63 multinational sites in a 2:1 ratio to either antiplatelet therapy plus patent foramen ovale closure (with GORE® HELEX® Septal Occluder or GORE® CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder) or antiplatelet therapy alone. Subjects will be prospectively followed for up to five years. Neuroimaging is required for all subjects at baseline and at two years or study exit. Study outcomes The two co-primary endpoints for the study are freedom from recurrent clinical ischemic stroke through at least 24 months post-randomization and incidence of new brain infarct (defined as clinical ischemic stroke or silent brain infarct) through 24 months. The primary analyses are an unadjusted log-rank test and a binomial test of subject-based proportions, respectively, both on the intent-to-treat population, with adjustment for testing multiplicity. Discussion The REDUCE trial aims to target a patient population with truly cryptogenic strokes. Medical therapy is limited to antiplatelet agents in both arms thereby reducing confounding. The trial should determine whether patent foramen ovale closure with the Gore septal occluders is safe and more effective than medical therapy alone for the prevention of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct; the neuroimaging data will provide an opportunity to further support the proof of concept. The main results are anticipated in 2017

  14. [Application of diffusion tensor imaging in judging infarction time of acute ischemic cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenyu; Chen, Fei; Yao, Lizheng; Dong, Congsong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Haicun; Zhang, Zhiping; Yang, Naizhong; Zhang, Mingsheng; Dai, Yinggui

    2015-08-18

    To evaluate the clinical application value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in judging infarction time phase of acute ischemic cerebral infarction. To retrospective analysis DTI images of 52 patients with unilateral acute ischemic cerebral infarction (hyper-acute, acute and sub-acute) from the Affiliated Yancheng Hospital of Southeast University Medical College, which diagnosed by clinic and magnetic resonance imaging. Set the regions of interest (ROIs) of infarction lesions, brain tissue close to infarction lesions and corresponding contra (contralateral normal brain tissue) on DTI parameters mapping of fractional anisotropy (FA), volume ratio anisotropy (VRA), average diffusion coefficient (DCavg) and exponential attenuation (Exat), record the parameters values of ROIs and calculate the relative parameters value of infarction lesion to contra. Meanwhile, reconstruct the DTT images based on the seed points (infarction lesion and contra). The study compared each parameter value of infarction lesions, brain tissue close to infarction lesions and corresponding contra, also analysed the differences of relative parameters values in different infarction time phases. The DTT images of acute ischemic cerebral infarction in each time phase could show the manifestation of fasciculi damaged. The DCavg value of cerebral infarction lesions was lower and the Exat value was higher than contra in each infarction time phase (P<0.05). The FA and VRA value of cerebral infarction lesions were reduced than contra only in acute and sub-acute infarction (P<0.05). The FA, VRA and Exat value of brain tissue close to infarction lesions were increased and DCavg value was decreased than contra in hyper-acute infarction (P<0.05). There were no statistic differences of FA, VRA, DCavg and Exat value of brain tissue close to infarction lesions in acute and sub-acute infarction. The relative FA and VRA value of infarction lesion to contra gradually

  15. [Stress and myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Csef, H; Hefner, J

    2005-03-31

    Most people throughout the world die from the consequences of cardiovascular disease. Stress and psychosocial burdens have, in the past, been underestimated with regard to the importance of their impact on the development and course of such diseases. In the INTERHEART study, psychosocial burdens occupy third place among the risk factors for developing acute myocardial infarction. The relevance of these factors is underscored by more recent studies, also with regard to the prognosis in already manifest CAH. The causes of mental stresses may be intrapsychic problems (e.g. depression). The roots may, however, also be found in the private sphere or at the workplace. On the basis of specific history-taking, relevant risk constellations can be identified for a comparatively low expenditure of time. Specific therapeutic approaches aimed at reducing and coping with stress may, in future, help prevent diseases of the heart and lower the risk of contracting a myocardial infarction.

  16. An Intervention to Reduce the Time Interval Between Hospital Entry and Emergency Coronary Angiography in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Karkabi, Basheer; Jaffe, Ronen; Halon, David A; Merdler, Amnon; Khader, Nader; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Goldstein, Jacob; Zafrir, Barak; Zissman, Keren; Ben-Dov, Nissan; Gabrielly, Michael; Fuks, Alex; Shiran, Avinoam; Adawi, Salim; Hellman, Yaron; Shahla, Johny; Halabi, Salim; Flugelman, Moshe Y; Cohen, Shai; Bergman, Irina; Kassem, Sameer; Shapira, Chen

    2017-09-01

    Outcomes of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are strongly correlated to the time interval from hospital entry to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Current guidelines recommend a door to balloon time of < 90 minutes. To reduce the time from hospital admission to PPCI and to increase the proportion of patients treated within 90 minutes. In March 2013 the authors launched a seven-component intervention program:  Direct patient evacuation by out-of-hospital emergency medical services to the coronary intensive care unit or catheterization laboratory Education program for the emergency department staff Dissemination of information regarding the urgency of the PPCI decision Activation of the catheterization team by a single phone call Reimbursement for transportation costs to on-call staff who use their own cars Improvement in the quality of medical records Investigation of failed cases and feedback. During the 14 months prior to the intervention, initiation of catheterization occurred within 90 minutes of hospital arrival in 88/133 patients(65%); during the 18 months following the start of the intervention, the rate was 181/200 (90%) (P < 0.01). The respective mean/median times to treatment were 126/67 minutes and 52/47 minutes (P < 0.01). Intervention also resulted in shortening of the time interval from hospital entry to PPCI on nights and weekends. Following implementation of a comprehensive intervention, the time from hospital admission to PPCI of STEMI patients shortened significantly, as did the proportion of patients treated within 90 minutes of hospital arrival.

  17. The active metabolite of prasugrel, R-138727, improves cerebral blood flow and reduces cerebral infarction and neurologic deficits in a non-human primate model of acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sugidachi, Atsuhiro; Mizuno, Makoto; Ohno, Kousaku; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Tomizawa, Atsuyuki

    2016-10-05

    Previously, we showed preventive effects of prasugrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, in a non-human primate model of thrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); however, it remains unclear if P2Y12 inhibition after MCAO reduces cerebral injury and dysfunction. Here we investigated the effects of R-138727, the major active metabolite of prasugrel, on ex vivo platelet aggregation at 5min, 15min, 60min, and 24h after administration to non-human primates (n=3). A single intravenous dose of R-138727 (0.03-0.3mg/kg) resulted in significant and sustained dose-related effects on platelets for up to 24h. R-138727 was administered 1h after MCAO induction, and its effects on thrombosis, cerebral infarction, and neurological deficits were determined (n=8-10). R-138727 (0.3mg/kg) significantly increased total patency rate of the MCA (P=0.0211). Although there was no effect on the patency rate before R-138727 dosing (P=0.3975), it increased 1h after dosing (P=0.0114). R-138727 significantly reduced total ischaemic infarction volumes (P=0.0147), including those of basal ganglia (P=0.0028), white matter (P=0.0393), and haemorrhagic infarction (P=0.0235). Additionally, treatment with R-138727 reduced overall neurological deficits (P=0.0019), including the subcategories of consciousness (P=0.0042), sensory system (P=0.0045), motor system (P=0.0079) and musculoskeletal coordination (P=0.0082). These findings support the possible utility of P2Y12 inhibition during early-onset MCAO to limit the progression and degree of cerebral ischaemia and infarction and also associated neurological deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Does menopausal hormone therapy reduce myocardial infarction risk if initiated early after menopause? A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Carrasquilla, Germán D; Berglund, Anita; Gigante, Bruna; Landgren, Britt-Marie; de Faire, Ulf; Hallqvist, Johan; Leander, Karin

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to assess whether the timing of menopausal hormone therapy initiation in relation to onset of menopause and hormone therapy duration is associated with myocardial infarction risk. This study was based on the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a population-based case-control study including 347 postmenopausal women who had experienced a nonfatal myocardial infarction and 499 female control individuals matched for age and residential area. Odds ratios (with 95% CIs) for myocardial infarction were calculated using logistic regression. Early initiation of hormone therapy (within 10 y of onset of menopause or before age 60 y), compared with never use, was associated with an odds ratio of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.58-1.30) after adjustments for lifestyle factors, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. For late initiation of hormone therapy, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.53-1.76). For hormone therapy duration of 5 years or more, compared with never use, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.35-1.18). For hormone therapy duration of less than 5 years, the odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.63-1.48). Neither the timing of hormone therapy initiation nor the duration of therapy is significantly associated with myocardial infarction risk.

  19. Left ventricular unloading with intra-aortic counter pulsation prior to reperfusion reduces myocardial release of endothelin-1 and decreases infarction size in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    LeDoux, John F; Tamareille, Sophie; Felli, Patty R; Amirian, James; Smalling, Richard W

    2008-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that unloading the left ventricle with intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation just prior to reperfusion provides infarct salvage compared with left ventricular (LV) unloading postreperfusion or reperfusion alone. Previous reports demonstrated infarct salvage with complete LV unloading with an LVAD prior to reperfusion; however, partial LV unloading using intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs) has not been evaluated. Twenty-eight Yorkshire pigs were subjected to 1 hr of left anterior descending artery occlusion and 4 hr of reperfusion. An IABP was inserted and activated just prior to reperfusion (IABP-Pre), or 15 min after reperfusion (IABP-Post), or not at all (control). At baseline, the hemodynamic data were similar in the three groups. Myocardial infarct size expressed a percentage of zone at risk in control animals was 44.9% +/- 4.8%, IAPB-Pre group 20.9% +/- 5.1% (P < 0.05 compared to control), and IABP-Post group 33.2 +/- 6.1% (P = 0.16 vs. control group). There was a correlation between transcardiac endothelin-1 release at 15 min postreperfusion and infarct size (r = 0.59). LV unloading with an IABP prior to reperfusion reduces the extent of myocardial necrosis in hearts subjected to 1 hr of left anterior descending artery occlusion and 4 hr of reperfusion compared with either reperfusion alone or LV unloading after reperfusion. Inhibition of myocardial ET-1 release by LV unloading may be a significant mechanism of myocardial protection. These data suggest that in high-risk STEMI patients, IABP unloading prior to reperfusion might be more beneficial than IABP placement postreperfusion. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Percutaneous coronary intervention with off-site cardiac surgery backup for acute myocardial infarction as a strategy to reduce door-to-balloon time.

    PubMed

    Peels, Hans O; de Swart, Hans; Ploeg, Tjeerd V D; Hautvast, Raymond W; Cornel, Jan H; Arnold, Alf E; Wharton, Thomas P; Umans, Victor A

    2007-11-01

    We investigated whether primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients admitted with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction could be performed more rapidly and with comparable outcomes in a community hospital versus a tertiary center with cardiac surgery. We started the first PCI with an off-site surgery program in The Netherlands in 2002 and report the results of 439 consecutive patients. In the safety phase, 199 patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to treatment at our off-site center versus a more distant cardiac surgery center. In the confirmation phase, 240 consecutive patients were treated in the off-site hospital. Safety and efficacy end points were the rate of an angiographically successful PCI procedure (diameter stenosis <50% and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow) in the absence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days. The randomization phase showed a 37-minute decrease in door-to-balloon time (p <0.001) with comparable procedural and clinical successes (91% Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow in the 2 groups). In the confirmation phase, the 30-day rate without major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events was 95%. None of the 439 patients in the study required emergency surgery for failed primary PCI. In conclusion, time to treatment with primary PCI can be significantly shortened when treating patients in a community hospital setting with off-site cardiac surgery backup compared with transport for PCI to a referral center with on-site surgery. PCI at hospitals with off-site cardiac surgery backup can be considered a needed strategy to improve access to primary PCI for a larger segment of the population and can be delivered with a very favorable safety profile.

  1. Emergency department physician activation of the catheterization laboratory and immediate transfer to an immediately available catheterization laboratory reduce door-to-balloon time in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Khot, Umesh N; Johnson, Michele L; Ramsey, Curtis; Khot, Monica B; Todd, Randall; Shaikh, Saeed R; Berg, William J

    2007-07-03

    Consensus guidelines and hospital quality-of-care programs recommend that ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients achieve a door-to-balloon time of < or = 90 minutes. However, there are limited prospective data on specific measures to significantly reduce door-to-balloon time. We prospectively determined the impact on median door-to-balloon time of a protocol mandating (1) emergency department physician activation of the catheterization laboratory and (2) immediate transfer of the patient to an immediately available catheterization laboratory by an in-house transfer team consisting of an emergency department nurse, a critical care unit nurse, and a chest pain unit nurse. We collected door-to-balloon time for 60 consecutive ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing emergency percutaneous intervention within 24 hours of presentation from October 1, 2004, through August 31, 2005, and compared this group with 86 consecutive ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients from September 1, 2005, through June 26, 2006, after protocol implementation. Median door-to-balloon time decreased overall (113.5 versus 75.5 minutes; P<0.0001), during regular hours (83.5 versus 64.5 minutes; P=0.005), during off-hours (123.5 versus 77.5 minutes; P<0.0001), and with transfer from an outside affiliated emergency department (147 versus 85 minutes; P=0.0006). Treatment within 90 minutes increased from 28% to 71% (P<0.0001). Mean infarct size decreased (peak creatinine kinase, 2623+/-3329 versus 1517+/-1556 IU/L; P=0.0089), as did hospital length of stay (5+/-7 versus 3+/-2 days; P=0.0097) and total hospital costs per admission ($26,826+/-29,497 versus $18,280+/-8943; P=0.0125). Emergency department physician activation of the catheterization laboratory and immediate transfer of the patient to an immediately available catheterization laboratory reduce door-to-balloon time, leading to a reduction in myocardial infarct size, hospital length of stay, and total hospital costs.

  2. Protection against cerebral infarction by Withaferin A involves inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and reduced intimal hyperplasia via inhibition of VSMC migration and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Zhi; Guo, Yu-Dong; Li, Hao-Mei; Wang, Rui-Zheng; Guo, Shou-Gang; Du, Yi-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is a major public health concern with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cerebral ischemia and infarction are commonly associated with stroke. Currently used medications, though effective, are also associated with adverse effects. Development of effective neuroprotective agents with fewer side effects would be of clinical value. We evaluated the effects of Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone derived from the plant Withania somnifera, on experimentally induced cerebral infarction. The ability of WA to inhibit neuroapoptosis and modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and PI3K/Akt signaling was assessed. Separate groups of Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to cerebral occlusion and reperfused for 24h. WA treatment (25, 50 or 100mg/kg bodyweight) significantly reduced the infarct area in a carotid ligation model; WA reduced intimal hyperplasia and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cell counts. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly suppressed PI3K/Akt signaling following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. WA supplementation was found to downregulate apoptotic pathway proteins. WA suppressed PTEN and enhanced p-Akt and GSK-3β levels and elevated mTORc1, cyclinD1 and NF-κB p65 expression, suggesting activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In vitro studies with PDGF-stimulated A7r5 cells revealed that WA exposure severely downregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 and inhibited migration of A7r5 cells. Additionally, WA reduced the proliferation of A7r5 cells significantly. WA exerted neuroprotective effects by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, modulating the expression of MMPs, and inhibiting the migration of VSMCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Can prostatic arterial embolisation (PAE) reduce the volume of the peripheral zone? MRI evaluation of zonal anatomy and infarction after PAE.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Amouyal, Grégory; Correas, Jean-Michel; Pereira, Héléna; Pellerin, Olivier; Del Giudice, Costantino; Déan, Carole; Thiounn, Nicolas; Sapoval, Marc

    2016-10-01

    To assess the impact of prostatic arterial embolisation (PAE) on various prostate gland anatomical zones. We retrospectively reviewed paired MRI scans obtained before and after PAE for 25 patients and evaluated changes in volumes of the median lobe (ML), central gland (CG), peripheral zone (PZ) and whole prostate gland (WPV) following PAE. We used manual segmentation to calculate volume on axial view T2-weighted images for ML, CG and WPV. We calculated PZ volume by subtracting CG volume from WPV. Enhanced phase on dynamic contrasted-enhanced MRI was used to evaluate the infarction areas after PAE. Clinical results of International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function questionnaires and the urodynamic study were evaluated before and after PAE. Significant reductions in volume were observed after PAE for ML (26.2 % decrease), CG (18.8 %), PZ (16.4 %) and WPV (19.1 %; p < 0.001 for all these volumes). Patients with clinical failure had smaller volume reductions for WPV, ML and CG (all p < 0.05). Patients with significant CG infarction after PAE displayed larger WPV, ML and CG volume reductions (all p < 0.01). PAE can significantly decrease WPV, ML, CG and PZ volumes, and poor clinical outcomes are associated with smaller volume reductions. • The MRI segmentation method provides detailed comparisons of prostate volume change. • Prostatic arterial embolisation (PAE) decreased central gland and peripheral zone volumes. • Prostates with infarction after PAE showed larger decreases in volume. • A larger decrease in prostate volume is associated with clinical success.

  4. Improved speed and stability of ST-segment recovery with reduced-dose tenecteplase and eptifibatide compared with full-dose tenecteplase for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Roe, Matthew T; Green, Cynthia L; Giugliano, Robert P; Gibson, C Michael; Baran, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Palmeri, Sebastian T; Crater, Suzanne; Trollinger, Kathleen; Hannan, Karen; Harrington, Robert A; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2004-02-18

    This sub-study of the Integrilin and Tenecteplase in Acute Myocardial Infarction (INTEGRITI) trial evaluated of the impact of combination reperfusion therapy with reduced-dose tenecteplase plus eptifibatide on continuous ST-segment recovery and angiographic results. Combination therapy with reduced-dose fibrinolytics and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction improves biomarkers of reperfusion success but has not reduced mortality when compared with full-dose fibrinolytics. We evaluated 140 patients enrolled in the INTEGRITI trial with 24-h continuous 12-lead ST-segment monitoring and angiography at 60 min. The dose-combination regimen of 50% of standard-dose tenecteplase (0.27 microg/kg) plus high-dose eptifibatide (2 boluses of 180 microg/kg separated by 10 min, 2.0 microg/kg/min infusion) was compared with full-dose tenecteplase (0.53 microg/kg). The dose-confirmation regimen of reduced-dose tenecteplase plus high-dose eptifibatide was associated with a faster median time to stable ST-segment recovery (55 vs. 98 min, p = 0.06), improved stable ST-segment recovery by 2 h (89.6% vs. 67.7%, p = 0.02), and less recurrent ischemia (34.0% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.05) when compared with full-dose tenecteplase. Continuously updated ST-segment recovery analyses demonstrated a modest trend toward greater ST-segment recovery at 30 min (57.7% vs. 40.6%, p = 0.13) and 60 min (82.7% vs. 65.6%, p = 0.08) with this regimen. These findings correlated with improved angiographic results at 60 min. Combination therapy with reduced-dose tenecteplase and eptifibatide leads to faster, more stable ST-segment recovery and improved angiographic flow patterns, compared with full-dose tenecteplase. These findings question the relationship between biomarkers of reperfusion success and clinical outcomes.

  5. Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in whole blood of Italian patients with a recent myocardial infarction: the AGE-IM study.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Franca; Novo, Giuseppina; Perna, Giampiero; Perrone Filardi, Pasquale; Pirelli, Salvatore; Ceroti, Marco; Querci, Andrea; Poli, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between whole blood fatty acids and myocardial infarction (MI) risk has not been analyzed in detail, especially in Mediterranean countries. The AGE-IM (Acidi Grassi Essenziali e Infarto Miocardico) study was planned to examine the relationships between MI, whole blood fatty acids and the diet in an Italian cohort. 119 Patients with a recent MI and 103 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The whole blood fatty acid composition was determined; information on anthropometrics, biochemical parameters and blood pressure values were also obtained. Diet composition was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire from 86 cases and 72 controls. Total PUFA, omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA (as percentage of whole blood fatty acids) were significantly lower in MI patients than in matched controls, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were higher in cases. MI infarction risk significantly and steadily decreased with increasing levels of total PUFA (OR: 0.14) and of total omega-6 and omega-3 (OR: 0.15 and 0.37, respectively). No correlation was identified between dietary fats and MI risk or between whole blood fatty acid levels and dietary nutrients and fats. Percentage levels of total PUFA, total omega-3 PUFA and total omega-6 PUFA are lower in MI patients than in matched control subjects in the AGE-IM cohort. These data support a favorable association not only of whole blood percentage levels of total omega-3, but also of total omega-6, with cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels Are Associated with Reduced Heart Rate Variability in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lorgis, Luc; Moreau, Daniel; Mock, Laurent; Daumas, Bernadette; Potard, Daniel; Touzery, Claude; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Aim We investigated the relationships between the autonomic nervous system, as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and levels of N-terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results The mean of standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN), the percentage of RR intervals with >50 ms variation (pNN50), square root of mean squared differences of successive RR intervals (rMSSD), and frequency domain parameters (total power (TP), high frequency and low frequency power ratio (LF/HF)) were assessed by 24 h Holter ECG monitoring. 1018 consecutive patients admitted <24 h for an acute MI were included. Plasma Nt-proBNP (Elecsys, Roche) was measured from blood samples taken on admission. The median (IQR) Nt-proBNP level was 681(159–2432) pmol/L. Patients with the highest quartile of Nt-proBNP were older, with higher rate of risk factors and lower ejection fraction. The highest Nt-proBNP quartile group had the lowest SDNN, LF/HF and total power but similar pNN50 and rMSSD levels. Nt-proBNP levels correlated negatively with SDNN (r = −0.19, p<0.001), LF/HF (r = −0.37, p<0.001), and LF (r = −0.29, p<0.001) but not HF (r = −0.043, p = 0.172). Multiple regression analysis showed that plasma propeptide levels remained predictive of LF/HF (B(SE) = −0.065(0.015), p<0.001)), even after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions In conclusion, our population-based study highlights the importance of Nt-proBNP levels to predict decreased HRV after acute MI. PMID:23071500

  7. Telephone-based mindfulness training to reduce stress in women with myocardial infarction: Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spruill, Tanya M; Reynolds, Harmony R; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Shallcross, Amanda J; Visvanathan, Pallavi D; Park, Chorong; Kalinowski, Jolaade; Zhong, Hua; Berger, Jeffrey S; Hochman, Judith S; Fishman, Glenn I; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2018-04-21

    Elevated stress is associated with adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes and accounts in part for the poorer recovery experienced by women compared with men after myocardial infarction (MI). Psychosocial interventions improve outcomes overall but are less effective for women than for men with MI, suggesting the need for different approaches. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an evidence-based intervention that targets key psychosocial vulnerabilities in women including rumination (i.e., repetitive negative thinking) and low social support. This article describes the rationale and design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test the effects of telephone-delivered MBCT (MBCT-T) in women with MI. We plan to randomize 144 women reporting elevated perceived stress at least two months after MI to MBCT-T or enhanced usual care (EUC), which each involve eight weekly telephone sessions. Perceived stress and a set of patient-centered health outcomes and potential mediators will be assessed before and after the 8-week telephone programs and at 6-month follow-up. We will test the hypothesis that MBCT-T will be associated with greater 6-month improvements in perceived stress (primary outcome), disease-specific health status, quality of life, depression and anxiety symptoms, and actigraphy-based sleep quality (secondary outcomes) compared with EUC. Changes in mindfulness, rumination and perceived social support will be evaluated as potential mediators in exploratory analyses. If found to be effective, this innovative, scalable intervention may be a promising secondary prevention strategy for women with MI experiencing elevated perceived stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Data feedback reduces door-to-balloon time in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeng-Feng; Hsu, Shun-Yi; Wu, Semon; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Chang, Heng-Chia; Liu, Chih-Jen; Huang, Hsuan-Li; Ho, Yao-Tsan; Weng, Shu-Li; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend a goal of door-to-balloon (D2B) time < 90 min for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aim to prospectively determine the effect of data feedback on D2B time and its seven individual components in primary PCI. From December 7, 2007, to June 2, 2009, 116 consecutive patients with STEMI who received PCI within 12 h of symptom onset were enrolled, including 56 patients before and 60 patients after the implementation of data feedback on July 28, 2008. The proportion of patients treated within 90 min increased from 26.8 to 55.0% (p = 0.002). On multivariable analyses, data feedback (OR 5.3, p = 0.003), known coronary artery disease (OR 5.6, p = 0.043), regular hours presentation (OR 3.3, p = 0.048), and arrival by transfer (OR 14.0, p = 0.003) were independent predictors of a D2B time less than 90 min. Median D2B time decreased from 112 min before data feedback to 87 min after data feedback (p < 0.001). The most significant decrease occurred in median door-to-ECG (11 vs. 3 min, p < 0.001), consult-to-cardiologist (5 vs. 3 min, p < 0.001), and puncture-to-balloon (21 vs. 17 min, p = 0.004) time. Data feedback to the emergency department and catheterization laboratory staff decreases D2B time in primary PCI. This simple approach may be the best first step to decrease D2B time in hospitals that are still striving to achieve the goal of D2B time < 90 min.

  9. The administration of a loading dose of aspirin to patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction while receiving chronic aspirin treatment reduces thromboxane A2-dependent platelet reactivity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Teresa; Madrid, Isabel; Moscardo, Antonio; Latorre, Ana M; Bonastre, Juan; Ruano, Miguel; Valles, Juana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The optimal dose of aspirin for patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) while receiving chronic aspirin therapy has not been clearly established. We evaluated whether continued treatment with 100 mg of aspirin or a loading dose (200-500 mg) influences thromboxane A2 (TX) suppression or platelet reactivity. Sixty-four consecutive patients with AMI and 98 healthy subjects (82 aspirin-free and 16 receiving 100 mg daily for a week) were evaluated. Treatment was at the discretion of the attending physician. Collagen (1 µg/ml)-induced TX synthesis, (14)C-serotonin-release, platelet aggregation, and the PFA-100 assay were evaluated. The platelet TX synthesis of patients receiving a loading dose of aspirin was sixfold lower than that of patients receiving 100 mg of aspirin (p<0.005). This was associated with marked reductions in (14)C-serotonin-release and arachidonic-acid-induced aggregation and an increase in the PFA-100 closure time (p<0.01). Categorization of patients according to their TX synthesis (<95% or ≥ 95% inhibition vs. healthy aspirin-free subjects) revealed that 8% of the patients treated with loading doses had a poor response (<95% inhibition) vs. 53% of those treated with 100 mg (p<0.001). Patients with lower TX inhibition had higher serum NT-Pro-BNP (p<0.005), a marker of poor left ventricular systolic function. Administration of a loading dose of aspirin to patients with AMI during existing chronic aspirin treatment induced greater reductions in platelet TX synthesis and TX-dependent platelet reactivity than the continued treatment alone.

  10. Reduced carriership of 4G allele of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism in very young survivors of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rallidis, Loukianos S; Gialeraki, Argyri; Merkouri, Efrosyni; Liakos, George; Dagres, Nikolaos; Sionis, Dimitrios; Travlou, Anthi; Lekakis, John; Kremastinos, Dimitrios T

    2010-05-01

    There are limited and controversial data regarding the impact of 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene in the pathogenesis of premature myocardial infarction (MI). We explored whether 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene is associated with the development of MI

  11. Reduced risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in homozygous carriers of the chromosome 9p21 rs1333049 C risk allele in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention era: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masahiko; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Nakatani, Daisaku; Suna, Shinichiro; Usami, Masaya; Matsumoto, Sen; Ozaki, Kouichi; Nishino, Masami; Sato, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nanto, Shinsuke; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Hori, Masatsugu; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chromosome 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a susceptibility variant for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the primary prevention setting. However, it is controversial whether this SNP is also associated with recurrent myocardial infarction (ReMI) in the secondary prevention setting. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of chromosome 9p21 SNP on ReMI in patients receiving secondary prevention programmes after AMI. Design A prospective observational study. Setting Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study (OACIS) in Japan. Participants 2022 patients from the OACIS database. Interventions Genotyping of the 9p21 rs1333049 variant. Primary outcome measures ReMI event after survival discharge for 1 year. Results A total of 43 ReMI occurred during the 1 year follow-up period. Although the rs1333049 C allele had an increased susceptibility to their first AMI in an additive model when compared with 1373 healthy controls (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.33, p=2.3*10−4), patients with the CC genotype had a lower incidence of ReMI at 1 year after discharge of AMI (log-rank p=0.005). The adjusted HR of the CC genotype as compared with the CG/GG genotypes was 0.20 (0.06 to 0.65, p=0.007). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the association between the rs1333049 CC genotype and a lower incidence of 1 year ReMI was common to all subgroups. Conclusions Homozygous carriers of the rs1333049 C allele on chromosome 9p21 showed a reduced risk of 1 year ReMI in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention era, although the C allele had conferred susceptibility to their first AMI. PMID:25232560

  12. Optimizing image registration and infarct definition in stroke research.

    PubMed

    Harston, George W J; Minks, David; Sheerin, Fintan; Payne, Stephen J; Chappell, Michael; Jezzard, Peter; Jenkinson, Mark; Kennedy, James

    2017-03-01

    Accurate representation of final infarct volume is essential for assessing the efficacy of stroke interventions in imaging-based studies. This study defines the impact of image registration methods used at different timepoints following stroke, and the implications for infarct definition in stroke research. Patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke were imaged serially using magnetic resonance imaging. Infarct volume was defined manually using four metrics: 24-h b1000 imaging; 1-week and 1-month T2-weighted FLAIR; and automatically using predefined thresholds of ADC at 24 h. Infarct overlap statistics and volumes were compared across timepoints following both rigid body and nonlinear image registration to the presenting MRI. The effect of nonlinear registration on a hypothetical trial sample size was calculated. Thirty-seven patients were included. Nonlinear registration improved infarct overlap statistics and consistency of total infarct volumes across timepoints, and reduced infarct volumes by 4.0 mL (13.1%) and 7.1 mL (18.2%) at 24 h and 1 week, respectively, compared to rigid body registration. Infarct volume at 24 h, defined using a predetermined ADC threshold, was less sensitive to infarction than b1000 imaging. 1-week T2-weighted FLAIR imaging was the most accurate representation of final infarct volume. Nonlinear registration reduced hypothetical trial sample size, independent of infarct volume, by an average of 13%. Nonlinear image registration may offer the opportunity of improving the accuracy of infarct definition in serial imaging studies compared to rigid body registration, helping to overcome the challenges of anatomical distortions at subacute timepoints, and reducing sample size for imaging-based clinical trials.

  13. Experimental myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Joison, Julio; Gilmour, David P.; Molokhia, Farouk A.; Pegg, C. A. S.; Hood, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The hemodynamic effects of tachycardia induced by atrial pacing were investigated in left ventricular failure of acute and healing experimental myocardial infarction in 20 intact, conscious dogs. Myocardial infarction was produced by gradual inflation of a balloon cuff device implanted around the left anterior descending coronary artery 10-15 days prior to the study. 1 hr after acute myocardial infarction, atrial pacing at a rate of 180 beats/min decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 19 to 8 mm Hg and left atrial pressure from 17 to 12 mm Hg, without change in cardiac output. In the healing phase of myocardial infarction 1 wk later, atrial pacing decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 17 to 9 mm Hg and increased the cardiac output by 37%. This was accompanied by evidence of peripheral vasodilation. In two dogs with healing anterior wall myocardial infarction, left ventricular failure was enhanced by partial occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery. Both the dogs developed pulmonary edema. Pacing improved left ventricular performance and relieved pulmonary edema in both animals. In six animals propranolol was given after acute infarction, and left ventricular function deteriorated further. However the pacing-induced augmentation of cardiac function was unaltered and, hence, is not mediated by sympathetics. The results show that the spontaneous heart rate in left ventricular failure of experimental canine myocardial infarction may be less than optimal and that maximal cardiac function may be achieved at higher heart rates. Images PMID:4395910

  14. [Bilateral caudate head infarcts].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, N; Yamamoto, Y; Akiguchi, I; Oiwa, K; Nakajima, K

    1997-11-01

    We reported a 67-year-old woman with bilateral caudate head infarcts. She developed sudden mutism followed by abulia. She was admitted to our hospital 2 months after ictus for further examination. She showed prominent abulia and was inactive, slow and apathetic. Spontaneous activity and speech, immediate response to queries, spontaneous word recall and attention and persistence to complex programs were disturbed. Apparent motor disturbance, gait disturbance, motor aphasia, apraxia and remote memory disturbance were not identified. She seemed to be depressed but not sad. Brain CT and MRI revealed bilateral caudate head hemorrhagic infarcts including bilateral anterior internal capsules, in which the left lesion was more extensive than right one and involved the part of the left putamen. These infarct locations were thought to be supplied by the area around the medial striate artery including Heubner's arteries and the A1 perforator. Digital subtraction angiography showed asymptomatic right internal carotid artery occlusion. She bad had hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation and also had a left atrium with a large diameter. The infarcts were thought to be caused by cardioembolic occlusion to the distal portion of the left internal carotid artery. Although some variations of vasculature at the anterior communicating artery might contribute to bilateral medial striate artery infarcts, we could not demonstrate such abnormalities by angiography. Bilateral caudate head infarcts involving the anterior internal capsule may cause prominent abulia. The patient did not improve by drug and rehabilitation therapy and died suddenly a year after discharge.

  15. Model-dependent effects of the gap junction conduction-enhancing antiarrhythmic peptide rotigaptide (ZP123) on experimental atrial fibrillation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Shiroshita-Takeshita, Akiko; Sakabe, Masao; Haugan, Ketil; Hennan, James K; Nattel, Stanley

    2007-01-23

    Abnormal intercellular communication caused by connexin dysfunction may be involved in atrial fibrillation (AF). The present study assessed the effect of the gap junctional conduction-enhancing peptide rotigaptide on AF maintenance in substrates that result from congestive heart failure induced by 2-week ventricular tachypacing (240 bpm), atrial tachypacing (ATP; 400 bpm for 3 to 6 weeks), and isolated atrial myocardial ischemia. Electrophysiological study and epicardial mapping were performed before and after rotigaptide administration in dogs with ATP and congestive heart failure, as well as in similarly instrumented sham dogs that were not tachypaced. For atrial myocardial ischemia, dogs administered rotigaptide before myocardial ischemia were compared with no-drug myocardial ischemia controls. ATP significantly shortened the atrial effective refractory period (P=0.003) and increased AF duration (P=0.008), with AF lasting >3 hours in all 6-week ATP animals. Rotigaptide increased conduction velocity in ATP dogs slightly but significantly (P=0.04) and did not affect the effective refractory period, AF duration, or atrial vulnerability. In dogs with congestive heart failure, rotigaptide also slightly increased conduction velocity (P=0.046) but failed to prevent AF promotion. Rotigaptide had no statistically significant effects in sham dogs. Myocardial ischemia alone increased AF duration and impaired conduction (based on conduction velocity across the ischemic border and indices of conduction heterogeneity). Rotigaptide prevented myocardial ischemia-induced conduction slowing and AF duration increases. Rotigaptide improves conduction in various AF models but suppresses AF only for the acute ischemia substrate. These results define the atrial antiarrhythmic profile of a mechanistically novel antiarrhythmic drug and suggest that gap junction dysfunction may be more important in ischemic AF than in ATP remodeling or congestive heart failure substrates.

  16. Second window of protection against infarction in conscious rabbits: real or artifactual.

    PubMed

    Miki, T; Swafford, A N; Cohen, M V; Downey, J M

    1999-04-01

    To date, most studies of the second window of protection against infarction (SWOP) have evaluated infarct size by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) soon after reperfusion. However, early TTC staining has been found to be an unreliable indicator of the ultimate infarct size following some interventions. Therefore, we tested whether SWOP could induce a sustained limitation of infarct size. Instrumented, conscious rabbits underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion. Infarct size was determined by either TTC staining after 3 h of reperfusion or conventional histology after 72 h of reperfusion. In the TTC study, 43.5+/-3.1% of the risk zone infarcted in the control group. Four cycles of 5 min ischemia/10 min reperfusion 24 h prior to 30 min ischemia significantly reduced infarct size measured by TTC to 32.5+/-2.3% (P<0.05 v control). In the histological study 57.8+/-3.6% of the risk zone infarcted in the control group. However, ischemic preconditioning 24 h prior to the 30 min ischemia did not protect the heart (59.3+/-4.4% infarction). Thus the infarct-limiting effect of SWOP evaluated with early TTC staining could not be demonstrated when infarction was assessed by histology after 3 days of reperfusion. These data suggest that SWOP may not have a sustained anti-infarct effect, but rather may simply delay the progression to infarction. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Cholinergic stimulation with pyridostigmine improves autonomic function in infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    de La Fuente, Raquel N; Rodrigues, Bruno; Moraes-Silva, Ivana C; Souza, Leandro E; Sirvente, Raquel; Mostarda, Cristiano; De Angelis, Kátia; Soares, Pedro P; Lacchini, Silvia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2013-09-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of short-term pyridostigmine bromide (0.14 mg/mL) treatment started early after myocardial infarction (MI) on left ventricular (LV) and autonomic functions in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, pyridostigmine, infarcted and infarcted + pyridostigmine-treated groups. Pyridostigmine was administered in the drinking water, starting immediately after MI or sham operation, for 11 days. Left ventricular function was evaluated indirectly by echocardiography and directly by LV catheterization. Cardiovascular autonomic control was evaluated by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate variability (HRV) and pharmacological blockade. All evaluations started after 7 days pyridostigmine treatment and were finalized after 11 days treatment. Pyridostigmine prevented the impairment of +dP/dT and reduced the MI area in infarcted + pyridostigmine compared with infarcted rats (7 ± 3% vs 17 ± 4%, respectively). Mean blood pressure was restored in infarcted + pyridostigmine compared with infarcted rats (103 ± 3 vs 94 ± 3 mmHg, respectively). In addition, compared with the infarcted group, pyridostigmine improved BRS, as evaluated by tachycardic (1.6 ± 0.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.2 b.p.m./mmHg, respectively) and bradycardic (-0.42 ± 0.01 vs -1.9 ± 0.1 b.p.m./mmHg) responses, and reduced the low frequency/high frequency ratio of HRV (0.81 ± 0.11 vs 0.24 ± 0.14, respectively). These improvements are probably associated with increased vagal tone and reduced sympathetic tone in infarcted + pyridostigmine compared with infarcted rats. In conclusion, the data suggest that short-term pyridostigmine treatment started early after MI can improve BRS, HRV and parasympathetic and sympathetic tone in experimental rats. These data may have potential clinical implications because autonomic markers have prognostic significance after MI. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Effect of supersaturated oxygen delivery on infarct size after percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregg W; Martin, Jack L; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Margheri, Massimo; Bramucci, Ezio; Blankenship, James C; Metzger, D Christopher; Gibbons, Raymond J; Lindsay, Barbara S; Weiner, Bonnie H; Lansky, Alexandra J; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Fahy, Martin; Boscardin, W John

    2009-10-01

    Myocardial salvage is often suboptimal after percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Posthoc subgroup analysis from a previous trial (AMIHOT I) suggested that intracoronary delivery of supersaturated oxygen (SSO(2)) may reduce infarct size in patients with large ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated early. A prospective, multicenter trial was performed in which 301 patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention within 6 hours of symptom onset were randomized to a 90-minute intracoronary SSO(2) infusion in the left anterior descending artery infarct territory (n=222) or control (n=79). The primary efficacy measure was infarct size in the intention-to-treat population (powered for superiority), and the primary safety measure was composite major adverse cardiovascular events at 30 days in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations (powered for noninferiority), with Bayesian hierarchical modeling used to allow partial pooling of evidence from AMIHOT I. Among 281 randomized patients with tc-99m-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography data in AMIHOT II, median (interquartile range) infarct size was 26.5% (8.5%, 44%) with control compared with 20% (6%, 37%) after SSO(2). The pooled adjusted infarct size was 25% (7%, 42%) with control compared with 18.5% (3.5%, 34.5%) after SSO(2) (P(Wilcoxon)=0.02; Bayesian posterior probability of superiority, 96.9%). The Bayesian pooled 30-day mean (+/-SE) rates of major adverse cardiovascular events were 5.0+/-1.4% for control and 5.9+/-1.4% for SSO(2) by intention-to-treat, and 5.1+/-1.5% for control and 4.7+/-1.5% for SSO(2) by per-protocol analysis (posterior probability of noninferiority, 99.5% and 99.9%, respectively). Among patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention within 6 hours of symptom onset, infusion of SSO(2) into

  19. Differential MR Delayed Enhancement Patterns of Chronic Myocardial Infarction between Extracellular and Intravascular Contrast Media

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Lin, Hung Yu; Liu, Hongyu; Freed, Darren; Arora, Rakesh C.; Tian, Ganghong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Because the distribution volume and mechanism of extracellular and intravascular MR contrast media differ considerably, the enhancement pattern of chronic myocardial infarction with extracellular or intravascular media might also be different. This study aims to investigate the differences in MR enhancement patterns of chronic myocardial infarction between extracellular and intravascular contrast media. Materials and Methods Twenty pigs with myocardial infarction underwent cine MRI, first pass perfusion MRI and delayed enhancement MRI with extracellular or intravascular media at four weeks after coronary occlusion. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was determined with microsphere measurement. The infarction histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome method. Results Cine MRI revealed the reduced wall thickening in chronic infarction compared with normal myocardium. Moreover, significant wall thinning in chronic infarction was observed in cine MRI. Peak first-pass signal intensity didn’t significantly differ between chronic infarction and normal myocardium no matter what kinds of contrast media. At the following delayed enhancement phase, extracellular media-enhanced signal intensity was significantly higher in chronic infarction than in normal myocardium. Conversely, intravascular media-enhanced signal intensity was almost equivalent among chronic infarction and normal myocardium. At four weeks after infarction, MBF in chronic infarction approached to that in normal myocardium. Large thick-walled vessels were detected at peri-infarction zones. The cardiomyocytes were replaced by scar tissue consisting of dilated blood vessels and discrete fibers of collagen. Conclusions Chronic infarction was characterized by the significantly reduced wall thickening and the definite wall thinning. First-pass myocardial perfusion defect was not detected in chronic infarction with two media due to the significantly

  20. Anisotropic Reinforcement of Acute Anteroapical Infarcts Improves Pump Function

    PubMed Central

    Fomovsky, Gregory M.; Clark, Samantha A.; Parker, Katherine M.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Holmes, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Background We hypothesize that a therapy that improves LV pump function early after infarction should decrease the need for compensation through sympathetic activation and dilation, thereby reducing the risk of developing heart failure. The mechanical properties of healing myocardial infarcts are an important determinant of left ventricular (LV) function, yet improving function by altering infarct properties has proven unexpectedly difficult. Using a computational model, we recently predicted that stiffening a large anterior infarct anisotropically (in only one direction) would improve LV function, while isotropic stiffening, the focus of previous studies and therapies, would not. The goal of this study was to test the novel strategy of anisotropic infarct reinforcement. Methods and Results We tested the effects of anisotropic infarct reinforcement in 10 open-chest dogs with large anteroapical infarcts that depressed LV pump function. We measured regional mechanics, LV volumes, and cardiac output at a range of preloads at Baseline, 45 minutes after coronary ligation (Ischemia), and 30 minutes later, following surgical reinforcement in the longitudinal direction (Anisotropic). Ischemia shifted the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) and cardiac output curves rightward, decreasing cardiac output at matched end-diastolic pressure (EDP) by 44%. Anisotropic reinforcement significantly improved systolic function without impairing diastolic function, recovering half the deficit in overall LV function. Conclusions We conclude that anisotropic reinforcement is a promising new approach to improving LV function following a large myocardial infarction. PMID:22665716

  1. Dermal Filler Injection: A Novel Approach for Limiting Infarct Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Liam P.; Matsuzaki, Kanji; Noma, Mio; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Eperjesi, Thomas J.; Plappert, Theodore J.; St. John-Sutton, Martin G.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Early infarct expansion after coronary occlusion compromises contractile function in perfused myocardial regions and promotes adverse long-term left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We hypothesized that injection of a tissue-expanding dermal filler material into a myocardial infarction (MI) would attenuate infarct expansion and limit LV remodeling. Methods Fifteen sheep were subjected to an anteroapical MI involving approximately 20% of the LV followed by the injection of 1.3 mL of a calcium hydroxyapatite–based dermal filler into the infarct. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography was performed at baseline, 30 minutes after MI, and 15 minutes after injection to assess infarct expansion. Sixteen additional sheep were subjected to the same infarction and followed echocardiographically and hemodynamically for 4 weeks after MI to assess chronic remodeling. Eight animals had injection with dermal filler as described above immediately after MI, and 8 animals were injected with an equal amount of saline solution. Results All animals exhibited infarct expansion soon after coronary occlusion. The regional ejection fraction of the apex became negative after infarction, consistent with systolic dyskinesia. Injection of the dermal filler converted the apical wall motion from dyskinetic to akinetic and resulted immediately in significant decreases in global, regional, and segmental LV volumes. Chronically, relative to saline control, dermal filler injection significantly reduced LV end-systolic volume (62.2 ± 3.6 mL versus 44.5 ± 3.9 mL; p < 0.05) and improved global ejection fraction (0.295 ± 0.016 versus 0.373 ± 0.017; p < 0.05) at 4 weeks after infarction. Conclusions Injection of an acellular dermal filler into an MI immediately after coronary occlusion reduces early infarct expansion and limits chronic LV remodeling. PMID:19101288

  2. Effects of myocardial infarction on the distribution and transport of nutrients and oxygen in porcine myocardium.

    PubMed

    Davis, Bryce H; Morimoto, Yoshihisa; Sample, Chris; Olbrich, Kevin; Leddy, Holly A; Guilak, Farshid; Taylor, Doris A

    2012-10-01

    One of the primary limitations of cell therapy for myocardial infarction is the low survival of transplanted cells, with a loss of up to 80% of cells within 3 days of delivery. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of nutrients and oxygen in infarcted myocardium and to quantify how macromolecular transport properties might affect cell survival. Transmural myocardial infarction was created by controlled cryoablation in pigs. At 30 days post-infarction, oxygen and metabolite levels were measured in the peripheral skeletal muscle, normal myocardium, the infarct border zone, and the infarct interior. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein or FITC-labeled dextran (0.3-70 kD) were measured in these tissues using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The vascular density was measured via endogenous alkaline phosphatase staining. To examine the influence of these infarct conditions on cells therapeutically used in vivo, skeletal myoblast survival and differentiation were studied in vitro under the oxygen and glucose concentrations measured in the infarct tissue. Glucose and oxygen concentrations, along with vascular density were significantly reduced in infarct when compared to the uninjured myocardium and infarct border zone, although the degree of decrease differed. The diffusivity of molecules smaller than 40 kD was significantly higher in infarct center and border zone as compared to uninjured heart. Skeletal myoblast differentiation and survival were decreased stepwise from control to hypoxia, starvation, and ischemia conditions. Although oxygen, glucose, and vascular density were significantly reduced in infarcted myocardium, the rate of macromolecular diffusion was significantly increased, suggesting that diffusive transport may not be inhibited in infarct tissue, and thus the supply of nutrients to transplanted cells may be possible. in vitro studies mimicking infarct conditions suggest that increasing nutrients available to

  3. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. EPO-cyclosporine combination therapy reduced brain infarct area in rat after acute ischemic stroke: role of innate immune-inflammatory response, micro-RNAs and MAPK family signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Chun-Man; Yeh, Kuo-Ho; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chai, Han-Tan; Chen, Yung-Lung; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chen, Chih-Hung; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that erythropoietin (EPO) and cyclosporine (CsA) could effectively reduce brain infarct area (BIA) in rat after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) through regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, MAPK family signaling and microRNA (miR-223/miR-30a/miR-383). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were equally divided into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (AIS), group 3 [AIS+EPO (5,000 IU/kg at 0.5/24/48 h, subcutaneous)] and group 4 [AIS+CsA (20.0 mg/kg at 0.5/24/48 h, intra-peritoneal)]. By 72 h, histopathology showed that BIA was largest in group 2 and smallest in group 1, and significantly larger in group 4 than group 3 (all P<0.0001). The three microRNAs expressed were higher in group 2 than in the other three groups (all P<0.04); between these three latter groups there were no significant differences. The protein expressions of MAPK family [phosphorylated (p)-ERK1/2, p-p38/p-JNK], inflammatory (iNOS/MMP-9/TNF-α/NF-κB/IL-12/MIP-1α/CD14/CD68/Ly6g), apoptotic (caspase-3/PARP/mitochondrial-Bax), oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein) and mitochondrial-damaged (cytosolic cytochrome-C) biomarkers exhibited an identical pattern to BIA findings (all P<0.0001). The cellular expressions of brain edema (AQP4+), inflammation (CD11+/glial-fibrillary-acid protein+), and cellular damage (TUNEL assay/positive Periodic acid-Schiff stain) biomarkers exhibited an identical pattern, whereas the cellular-integrity markers (neuN+/MAP2+/doublecorin+) exhibited an opposite pattern to BIA (all P value <0.001). EPO-CsA therapy markedly reduced BIA mainly by suppressing the innate immune response to inflammation, oxidative stress, microRNAs (miR-223/miR-30a/miR-383) and MAPK family signaling.

  5. Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Hawes, Armani M.; Smith, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    Background The main strategy for alleviating heart disease has been to target individuals and encourage them to change their health behaviors. Though important, emphasis on individuals has diverted focus and responsibility away from neighborhood characteristics, which also strongly influence people’s behaviors. Although a growing body of research has repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between neighborhood characteristics and cardiovascular health, it has typically focused on negative neighborhood characteristics. Only a few studies have examined the potential health enhancing effects of positive neighborhood characteristics, such as perceived neighborhood social cohesion. Methods Using multiple logistic regression models, we tested whether higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with lower incidence of myocardial infarction. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study—a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50—were used to analyze 5,276 participants with no history of heart disease. Respondents were tracked for four years and analyses adjusted for relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, biological, and psychosocial factors. Results In a model that adjusted for age, gender, race, marital status, education, and total wealth, each standard deviation increase in perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a 22% reduced odds of myocardial infarction (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.63–0.94. The association between perceived neighborhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction remained even after adjusting for behavioral, biological, and psychosocial covariates. Conclusions Higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective effect against myocardial infarction. PMID:25135074

  6. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    MedlinePlus

    Intestinal necrosis; Ischemic bowel - small intestine; Dead bowel - small intestine; Dead gut - small intestine; Infarcted bowel - small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine

  7. Beneficial role of tamoxifen in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rayabarapu, Nihar; Patel, Bhoomika M

    2014-10-01

    ER-α and ER-β agonist 17β-estradiol is reported to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tamoxifen in myocardial infarction. For this, tamoxifen was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1-14 days, and isoproterenol (ISO) (100 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)) was administered subcutaneously on the 13th and 14th days of the study in order to induce myocardial infarction, after which, various biochemical, cardiac, and morphometric parameters were evaluated. ISO produced significant dyslipidemia, hypertension, bradycardia, oxidative stress, and an increase in serum cardiac markers. Treatment with tamoxifen significantly controlled dyslipidemia, hypertension, bradycardia, oxidative stress, and reduced serum cardiac markers. The ISO control rats exhibited significant increases in the infarct size of the left ventricle (LV), LV cavity area, cardiac and LV hypertrophic indices, LV-wall thickness, cardiomyocyte diameter, and area. Treatment with tamoxifen significantly reduced infarction as well as hypertrophic and morphometric parameters. ISO also produced significant increases in the LV collagen level, decreases in Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity, and a reduction in the rate of pressure development and decay, which were prevented by tamoxifen treatment. The protective effect of tamoxifen on myocardial infarct was further confirmed by histopathological examination. Our data thus suggest that tamoxifen exerts beneficial effects in ISO-induced myocardial infarction.

  8. Infarct characterization using CT

    PubMed Central

    Toia, Patrizia; Maffei, Erica; Cademartiri, Filippo; Lagalla, Roberto; Midiri, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The incidence is not expected to diminish, despite better prevention, diagnosis and treatment, because of the ageing population in industrialized countries and unhealthy lifestyles in developing countries. Nowadays it is highly requested an imaging tool able to evaluate MI and viability. Technology improvements determined an expansion of clinical indications from coronary plaque evaluation to functional applications (perfusion, ischemia and viability after MI) integrating additional phases and information in the mainstream examination. Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) and cardiac MR (CMR) employ different contrast media, but may characterize MI with overlapping imaging findings due to the similar kinetics and tissue distribution of gadolinium and iodinated contrast media. CCT may detect first-pass perfusion defects, dynamic perfusion after pharmacological stress, and delayed enhancement (DE) of non-viable territories. PMID:28540212

  9. The late open infarct-related artery hypothesis: evidence-based medicine or not?

    PubMed

    Brueck, Martin; Bandorski, Dirk; Kramer, Wilfried; Vogt, Paul R; Heidt, Martin C

    2007-11-01

    Randomized clinical trials have clearly shown that early reperfusion of coronary arteries is the established treatment of myocardial infarction preserving left ventricular function and reducing mortality. However, late patency of the infarct-related artery is an independent predictor of survival leading to the late open-artery hypothesis. This concept implies restoration of antegrade blood flow of the infarct-related artery in patients with myocardial infarction to improve survival by mechanisms less time-dependent or even time-independent. Possible explanations for this benefit include improved left ventricular function and electrical stability by perfusion of hibernating myocardium, accelerated infarct healing and limitation of ventricular remodeling. This review focuses on the evidence of late recanalization of occluded infarct-related arteries in patients with coronary artery disease.

  10. Perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Hawes, Armani M; Smith, Jacqui

    2014-11-01

    The main strategy for alleviating heart disease has been to target individuals and encourage them to change their health behaviours. Although important, emphasis on individuals has diverted focus and responsibility away from neighbourhood characteristics, which also strongly influence people's behaviours. Although a growing body of research has repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between neighbourhood characteristics and cardiovascular health, it has typically focused on negative neighbourhood characteristics. Only a few studies have examined the potential health enhancing effects of positive neighbourhood characteristics, such as perceived neighbourhood social cohesion. Using multiple logistic regression models, we tested whether higher perceived neighbourhood social cohesion was associated with lower incidence of myocardial infarction. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study--a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50--were used to analyse 5276 participants with no history of heart disease. Respondents were tracked for 4 years and analyses adjusted for relevant sociodemographic, behavioural, biological and psychosocial factors. In a model that adjusted for age, gender, race, marital status, education and total wealth, each SD increase in perceived neighbourhood social cohesion was associated with a 22% reduced odds of myocardial infarction (OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.94. The association between perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction remained even after adjusting for behavioural, biological and psychosocial covariates. Higher perceived neighbourhood social cohesion may have a protective effect against myocardial infarction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Effects of endovascular cooling on infarct size in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A patient-level pooled analysis from randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Dae, Michael; O'Neill, William; Grines, Cindy; Dixon, Simon; Erlinge, David; Noc, Marko; Holzer, Michael; Dee, Anne

    2018-06-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between temperature at reperfusion and infarct size. Hypothermia consistently reduces infarct size when administered prior to reperfusion in animal studies, however, clinical results have been inconsistent. We performed a patient-level pooled analysis from six randomized control trials of endovascular cooling during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 629 patients in which infarct size was assessed within 1 month after randomization by either single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMR). In anterior infarct patients, after controlling for variability between studies, mean infarct size in controls was 21.3 (95%CI 17.4-25.3) and in patients with hypothermia <35°C it was 14.8 (95%CI 10.1-19.6), which was a statistically significant absolute reduction of 6.5%, or a 30% relative reduction in infarct size (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in infarct size in anterior ≥35°C, or inferior infarct patients. There was no difference in the incidence of death, ventricular arrhythmias, or re-infarction due to stent thrombosis between hypothermia and control patients. The present study, drawn from a patient-level pooled analysis of six randomized trials of endovascular cooling during primary PCI in STEMI, showed a significant reduction in infarct size in patients with anterior STEMI who were cooled to <35°C at the time of reperfusion. The results support the need for trials in patients with anterior STEMI using more powerful cooling devices to optimize the delivery of hypothermia prior to reperfusion. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Interventional Cardiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acute renal infarction from a cardiac thrombus.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Nicola J; Abadi, Sobhi; Azzam, Zaher S

    2007-11-01

    A 53-year-old man presented to hospital 2 hours after the abrupt onset of left upper abdominal pain. He was treated with analgesics and discharged after 4 hours of observation, but presented to another hospital 2 hours later with severe left abdominal pain. His past medical history included ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy due to recurrent myocardial infarction. Physical examination, electrocardiography, laboratory investigations, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and transesophageal echocardiography. Renal artery thromboembolism resulting from dilated cardiomyopathy, severely reduced cardiac function and an intracardiac thrombus. Anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin followed by enoxaparin and warfarin.

  13. Anticoagulation therapy is harmful to large-sized cerebellar infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, She-Qing; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-Long; Xia, Yu-Ye; Liu, Ai-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Anticoagulants are commonly used to treat ischemic stroke. Its impact on cerebellar infarction has not been fully understood. In the clinical study, we reviewed a consecutive series of patients with large-sized cerebellar infarction (diameter > 3 cm, n = 30) treated with or without anticoagulation. In animal study, cerebellar infarction operation was performed in 12 Cynomolgus monkeys. Then the animals were administrated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or vehicle for 14 days. Six patients died during the following treatment. All the subjects that died received anticoagulation therapy, while nobody in the survival group received such a therapy. Compared with sham-operated animals, all monkeys with cerebellar infarction have obvious neurological deficits. The number and size of the Purkinje cells in the cerebellar area were also reduced. Two animals in the LMWH group (33%) died, while all animals in the vehicle control group survived. Compared with the vehicle group, the neurological score in the LMWH group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The water content in the cerebella was also significantly higher (P < 0.05). Edema, hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred in the cerebella as well as brainstem of all the LMWH treated animals. These results indicated the harmful effects of anticoagulation therapy on large-sized cerebellar infarction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Zinc translocation accelerates infarction after mild transient focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-M; Zipfel, G J; Park, K H; He, Y Y; Hsu, C Y; Choi, D W

    2002-01-01

    Excess release of chelatable zinc (Zn(2+)) from central synaptic vesicles may contribute to the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia, but a role in neurodegeneration after focal ischemia has not been defined. Adult male Long-Evans rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min followed by reperfusion developed delayed cerebral infarction reaching completion 3 days after the insult. One day after the insult, many degenerating cerebral neurons exhibited increased intracellular Zn(2+), and some labeled with the antibody against activated caspase-3. I.c.v. administration of the Zn(2+) chelator, EDTA saturated with equimolar Ca(2+) (CaEDTA), 15 min prior to ischemia attenuated subsequent Zn(2+) translocation into cortical neurons, and reduced infarct volume measured 3 days after ischemia. Although the protective effect of CaEDTA at this endpoint was substantial (about 70% infarct reduction), it was lost when insult severity was increased (from 30 to 60 min MCAO), or when infarct volume was measured at a much later time point (14 days instead of 3 days after ischemia). These data suggest that toxic Zn(2+) translocation, from presynaptic terminals to post-synaptic cell bodies, may accelerate the development of cerebral infarction following mild transient focal ischemia.

  15. COMMUNICATION: Electrophysiological response dynamics during focal cortical infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiganos, Terry C., Jr.; Jensen, Winnie; Rousche, Patrick J.

    2006-12-01

    While the intracellular processes of hypoxia-induced necrosis and the intercellular mechanisms of post-ischemic neurotoxicity associated with stroke are well documented, the dynamic electrophysiological (EP) response of neurons within the core or periinfarct zone remains unclear. The present study validates a method for continuous measurement of the local EP responses during focal cortical infarction induced via photothrombosis. Single microwire electrodes were acutely implanted into the primary auditory cortex of eight rats. Multi-unit neural activity, evoked via a continuous 2 Hz click stimulus, was recorded before, during and after infarction to assess neuronal function in response to local, permanent ischemia. During sham infarction, the average stimulus-evoked peak firing rate over 20 min remained stable at 495.5 ± 14.5 spikes s-1, indicating temporal stability of neural function under normal conditions. Stimulus-evoked peak firing was reliably reduced to background levels (firing frequency in the absence of stimulus) following initiation of photothrombosis over a period of 439 ± 92 s. The post-infarction firing patterns exhibited unique temporal degradation of the peak firing rate, suggesting a variable response to ischemic challenge. Despite the inherent complexity of cerebral ischemia secondary to microvascular occlusion, complete loss of EP function consistently occurred 300-600 s after photothrombosis. The results suggest that microwire recording during photothrombosis provides a simple and highly efficacious strategy for assessing the electrophysiological dynamics of cortical infarction.

  16. [Acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation: Code I].

    PubMed

    Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto; Ramírez-Árias, Erick; Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Arriaga-Dávila, José de Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Code infarction is a timely strategy for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with elevation of the ST segment. This strategy has shown an increase in survival and quality of life of patients suffering from this event around the world. The processes of management and disposition aimed at the reduction of time for effective and timely reperfusion are undoubtedly a continuous challenge. In the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) the mortality due to AMI has been reduced more than 50%, which is a historical situation that deserves much attention. Nonetheless, the continuous improvement and a wider coverage of this strategy in our country are the key factors that will outline a change in the natural history of the leading cause of death in Mexico. This review focuses on current strategies for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  17. Sgarbossa criteria and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Alang, Neha; Bathina, Jaya; Kranis, Mark; Angelis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle branch block is difficult. present a case of acute myocardial infarction with LBBB diagnosed and treated using the Sgarbossa criteria.

  18. Targeting regenerative exosomes to myocardial infarction using cardiac homing peptide

    PubMed Central

    Vandergriff, Adam; Huang, Ke; Shen, Deliang; Hu, Shiqi; Hensley, Michael Taylor; Caranasos, Thomas G.; Qian, Li; Cheng, Ke

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Cardiac stem cell-derived exosomes have been demonstrated to promote cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction in preclinical studies. Recent studies have used intramyocardial injection in order to concentrate exosomes in the infarct. Though effective in a research setting, this method is not clinically appealing due to its invasive nature. We propose the use of a targeting peptide, cardiac homing peptide (CHP), to target intravenously-infused exosomes to the infarcted heart. Methods: Exosomes were conjugated with CHP through a DOPE-NHS linker. Ex vivo targeting was analyzed by incubating organ sections with the CHP exosomes and analyzing with fluorescence microscopy. In vitro assays were performed on neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and H9C2 cells. For the animal study, we utilized an ischemia/reperfusion rat model. Animals were treated with either saline, scramble peptide exosomes, or CHP exosomes 24 h after surgery. Echocardiography was performed 4 h after surgery and 21 d after surgery. At 21 d, animals were sacrificed, and organs were collected for analysis. Results: By conjugating the exosomes with CHP, we demonstrate increased retention of the exosomes within heart sections ex vivo and in vitro with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. In vitro studies showed improved viability, reduced apoptosis and increased exosome uptake when using CHP-XOs. Using an animal model of ischemia/reperfusion injury, we measured the heart function, infarct size, cellular proliferation, and angiogenesis, with improved outcomes with the CHP exosomes. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a novel method for increasing delivery of for treatment of myocardial infarction. By targeting exosomes to the infarcted heart, there was a significant improvement in outcomes with reduced fibrosis and scar size, and increased cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. PMID:29556361

  19. Solar activity and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Szczeklik, E; Mergentaler, J; Kotlarek-Haus, S; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M; Kucharczyk, J; Janus, W

    1983-01-01

    The correlation between the incidence of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, the solar activity and geomagnetism in the period 1969-1976 was studied, basing on Wrocław hospitals material registered according to WHO standards; sudden death was assumed when a person died within 24 hours after the onset of the disease. The highest number of infarctions and sudden deaths was detected for 1975, which coincided with the lowest solar activity, and the lowest one for the years 1969-1970 coinciding with the highest solar activity. Such an inverse, statistically significant correlation was not found to exist between the studied biological phenomena and geomagnetism.

  20. Randomized trial of preventive angioplasty in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wald, David S; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J; Chase, Alexander J; Edwards, Richard J; Hughes, Liam O; Berry, Colin; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2013-09-19

    In acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat the artery responsible for the infarct (infarct, or culprit, artery) improves prognosis. The value of PCI in noninfarct coronary arteries with major stenoses (preventive PCI) is unknown. From 2008 through 2013, at five centers in the United Kingdom, we enrolled 465 patients with acute STEMI (including 3 patients with left bundle-branch block) who were undergoing infarct-artery PCI and randomly assigned them to either preventive PCI (234 patients) or no preventive PCI (231 patients). Subsequent PCI for angina was recommended only for refractory angina with objective evidence of ischemia. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiac causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or refractory angina. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. By January 2013, the results were considered conclusive by the data and safety monitoring committee, which recommended that the trial be stopped early. During a mean follow-up of 23 months, the primary outcome occurred in 21 patients assigned to preventive PCI and in 53 patients assigned to no preventive PCI (infarct-artery-only PCI), which translated into rates of 9 events per 100 patients and 23 per 100, respectively (hazard ratio in the preventive-PCI group, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21 to 0.58; P<0.001). Hazard ratios for the three components of the primary outcome were 0.34 (95% CI, 0.11 to 1.08) for death from cardiac causes, 0.32 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.75) for nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.69) for refractory angina. In patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease undergoing infarct-artery PCI, preventive PCI in noninfarct coronary arteries with major stenoses significantly reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, as compared with PCI limited to the infarct artery. (Funded by Barts and the London Charity; PRAMI Current Controlled Trials

  1. Cardiac hypertrophy limits infarct expansion after myocardial infarction in mice.

    PubMed

    Iismaa, Siiri E; Li, Ming; Kesteven, Scott; Wu, Jianxin; Chan, Andrea Y; Holman, Sara R; Calvert, John W; Haq, Ahtesham Ul; Nicks, Amy M; Naqvi, Nawazish; Husain, Ahsan; Feneley, Michael P; Graham, Robert M

    2018-04-17

    We have previously demonstrated that adult transgenic C57BL/6J mice with CM-restricted overexpression of the dominant negative W v mutant protein (dn-c-kit-Tg) respond to pressure overload with robust cardiomyocyte (CM) cell cycle entry. Here, we tested if outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) due to coronary artery ligation are improved in this transgenic model. Compared to non-transgenic littermates (NTLs), adult male dn-c-kit-Tg mice displayed CM hypertrophy and concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in the absence of an increase in workload. Stroke volume and cardiac output were preserved and LV wall stress was markedly lower than that in NTLs, leading to a more energy-efficient heart. In response to MI, infarct size in adult (16-week old) dn-c-kit-Tg hearts was similar to that of NTL after 24 h but was half that in NTL hearts 12 weeks post-MI. Cumulative CM cell cycle entry was only modestly increased in dn-c-kit-Tg hearts. However, dn-c-kit-Tg mice were more resistant to infarct expansion, adverse LV remodelling and contractile dysfunction, and suffered no early death from LV rupture, relative to NTL mice. Thus, pre-existing cardiac hypertrophy lowers wall stress in dn-c-kit-Tg hearts, limits infarct expansion and prevents death from myocardial rupture.

  2. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on focal cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Fujii, K; Weno, B L; Baumbach, G L; Heistad, D D

    1992-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether treatment of hypertension reduces cerebral infarction after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs). Three-month-old SHRSPs received untreated drinking water or drinking water containing cilazapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, or hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide. After 3 months of treatment, the left middle cerebral artery was occluded and neurological deficit was evaluated. Infarct volume was measured 3 days after occlusion using computer imaging techniques from brain slices. Cilazapril and hydralazine with hydrochlorothiazide were equally effective in reducing systolic blood pressure in SHRSPs. One day after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, neurological deficit was decreased by both cilazapril and hydralazine with hydrochlorothiazide compared with untreated SHRSPs, and the deficit 3 days after occlusion was decreased significantly only by cilazapril. Infarct volume was 178 +/- 7 mm3 (mean +/- SEM) in untreated SHRSPs, and it was significantly reduced to 117 +/- 15 mm3 by hydralazine with hydrochlorothiazide and to 101 +/- 17 mm3 by cilazapril. Infarct volume in Wistar-Kyoto rats was 27 +/- 16 mm3. Thus, reduction in arterial pressure by hydralazine with hydrochlorothiazide or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor is protective against focal cerebral ischemia in SHRSPs.

  3. Remote ischaemic postconditioning protects the heart during acute myocardial infarction in pigs.

    PubMed

    Andreka, Gyorgy; Vertesaljai, Marton; Szantho, Gergely; Font, Gusztav; Piroth, Zsolt; Fontos, Geza; Juhasz, Eszter D; Szekely, Laszlo; Szelid, Zsolt; Turner, Mark S; Ashrafian, Houman; Frenneaux, Michael P; Andreka, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Ischaemic preconditioning results in a reduction in ischaemic-reperfusion injury to the heart. This beneficial effect is seen both with direct local preconditioning of the myocardium and with remote preconditioning of easily accessible distant non-vital limb tissue. Ischaemic postconditioning with a comparable sequence of brief periods of local ischaemia, when applied immediately after the ischaemic insult, confers benefits similar to preconditioning. To test the hypothesis that limb ischaemia induces remote postconditioning and hence reduces experimental myocardial infarct size in a validated swine model of acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction was induced in 24 pigs with 90 min balloon inflations of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Remote ischaemic postconditioning was induced in 12 of the pigs by four 5 min cycles of blood pressure cuff inflation applied to the lower limb immediately after the balloon deflation. Infarct size was assessed by measuring 72 h creatinine kinase release, MRI scan and immunohistochemical analysis. Area under the curve of creatinine kinase release was significantly reduced in the postconditioning group compared with the control group with a 26% reduction in the infarct size (p<0.05). This was confirmed by MRI scanning and immunohistochemical analysis that revealed a 22% (p<0.05) and a 47.52% (p<0.01) relative reduction in the infarct size, respectively. Remote ischaemic postconditioning is a simple technique to reduce infarct size without the hazards and logistics of multiple coronary artery balloon inflations. This type of conditioning promises clear clinical potential.

  4. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  5. Oxygen therapy for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Juan B; Burls, Amanda; Emparanza, José I; Bayliss, Susan E; Quinn, Tom

    2016-12-19

    Oxygen (O 2 ) is widely used in people with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Previous systematic reviews concluded that there was insufficient evidence to know whether oxygen reduced, increased or had no effect on heart ischaemia or infarct size. Our first Cochrane review in 2010 also concluded there was insufficient evidence to know whether oxygen should be used. Since 2010, the lack of evidence to support this widely used intervention has attracted considerable attention, prompting further trials of oxygen therapy in myocardial infarction patients. It is thus important to update this Cochrane review. To assess the effects of routine use of inhaled oxygen for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We searched the following bibliographic databases on 6 June 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters). LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) was last searched in September 2016. We also contacted experts to identify eligible studies. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials in people with suspected or proven AMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI) within 24 hours after onset, in which the intervention was inhaled oxygen (at normal pressure) compared to air, regardless of co-therapies provided to participants in both arms of the trial. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of identified studies to see if they met the inclusion criteria and independently undertook the data extraction. We assessed the quality of studies and the risk of bias according to guidance in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The primary outcome was death. The measure of effect used was the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the GRADE approach to evaluate the quality of the evidence and the GRADE profiler (GRADEpro

  6. Prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction injuries.

    PubMed

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (P<0.001). At the ischemia, honey (1%) significantly reduced (P<0.05) the number and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Honey (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (P<0.05). During reperfusion, honey produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects.

  7. Smoking ban in public areas is associated with a reduced incidence of hospital admissions due to ST-elevation myocardial infarctions in non-smokers. Results from the Bremen STEMI Registry.

    PubMed

    Schmucker, J; Wienbergen, H; Seide, S; Fiehn, E; Fach, A; Würmann-Busch, B; Gohlke, H; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R

    2014-09-01

    Laws banning tobacco smoking from public areas have been passed in several countries, including the region of Bremen, Germany at the end of 2007. The present study analyses the incidence of hospital admissions due to ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) before and after such a smoking ban was implemented, focusing on differences between smokers and non-smokers. In this respect, data of the Bremen STEMI Registry (BSR) give a complete epidemiological overview of a region in northwest Germany with approximately 800,000 inhabitants since all STEMIs are admitted to one central heart centre. Between January 2006 and December 2010, data from the BSR was analysed focusing on date of admission, age, gender, and prior nicotine consumption. A total of 3545 patients with STEMI were admitted in the Bremen Heart Centre during this time period. Comparing 2006-2007 vs. 2008-2010, hence before and after the smoking ban, a 16% decrease of the number of STEMIs was observed: from a mean of 65 STEMI/month in 2006-2007 to 55/month in 2008-2010 (p < 0.01). The group of smokers showed a constant number of STEMIs: 25/month in 2006-2007 to 26/month in 2008-2010 (+4%, p = 0.8). However, in non-smokers, a significant reduction of STEMIs over time was found: 39/month in 2006-2007 to 29/month in 2008-2010 (-26%, p < 0.01). The decline of STEMIs in non-smokers was consistently observed in all age groups and both sexes. Adjusting for potentially confounding factors like hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus did not explain the observed decline. In the BSR, a significant decline of hospital admissions due to STEMIs in non-smokers was observed after the smoking ban in public areas came into force. No reduction of STEMI-related admissions was found in smokers. These results may be explained by the protection of non-smokers from passive smoking and the absence of such an effect in smokers by the dominant effect of active smoking. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and

  8. Dysfunctional nitric oxide signalling increases risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Jeanette; Stark, Klaus; Esslinger, Ulrike B; Rumpf, Philipp Moritz; Koesling, Doris; de Wit, Cor; Kaiser, Frank J; Braunholz, Diana; Medack, Anja; Fischer, Marcus; Zimmermann, Martina E; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Graf, Elisabeth; Eck, Sebastian; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Nahrstaedt, Janja; Willenborg, Christina; Bruse, Petra; Brænne, Ingrid; Nöthen, Markus M; Hofmann, Per; Braund, Peter S; Mergia, Evanthia; Reinhard, Wibke; Burgdorf, Christof; Schreiber, Stefan; Balmforth, Anthony J; Hall, Alistair S; Bertram, Lars; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Li, Shu-Chen; März, Winfried; Reilly, Muredach; Kathiresan, Sekar; McPherson, Ruth; Walter, Ulrich; Ott, Jurg; Samani, Nilesh J; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schunkert, Heribert

    2013-12-19

    Myocardial infarction, a leading cause of death in the Western world, usually occurs when the fibrous cap overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures. The resulting exposure of blood to the atherosclerotic material then triggers thrombus formation, which occludes the artery. The importance of genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is best documented by the predictive value of a positive family history. Next-generation sequencing in families with several affected individuals has revolutionized mutation identification. Here we report the segregation of two private, heterozygous mutations in two functionally related genes, GUCY1A3 (p.Leu163Phefs*24) and CCT7 (p.Ser525Leu), in an extended myocardial infarction family. GUCY1A3 encodes the α1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase (α1-sGC), and CCT7 encodes CCTη, a member of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex, which, among other functions, stabilizes soluble guanylyl cyclase. After stimulation with nitric oxide, soluble guanylyl cyclase generates cGMP, which induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation. We demonstrate in vitro that mutations in both GUCY1A3 and CCT7 severely reduce α1-sGC as well as β1-sGC protein content, and impair soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, platelets from digenic mutation carriers contained less soluble guanylyl cyclase protein and consequently displayed reduced nitric-oxide-induced cGMP formation. Mice deficient in α1-sGC protein displayed accelerated thrombus formation in the microcirculation after local trauma. Starting with a severely affected family, we have identified a link between impaired soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-dependent nitric oxide signalling and myocardial infarction risk, possibly through accelerated thrombus formation. Reversing this defect may provide a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction.

  9. Purpose in Life and Cerebral Infarcts in Community Dwelling Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Boyle, Patricia A.; Wilson, Robert S.; Levine, Steven R.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Purpose in life, the sense that life has meaning and direction, is associated with reduced risks of adverse health outcomes. However, it remains unknown whether purpose in life protects against the risk of cerebral infarcts among community-dwelling older persons. We tested the hypothesis that greater purpose in life is associated with lower risk of cerebral infarcts. Methods Participants came from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Each participant completed a standard measure of purpose in life. Uniform neuropathologic examination identified macroscopic infarcts and microinfarcts, blinded to clinical information. Association of purpose in life with cerebral infarcts was examined in ordinal logistic regression models using a semiquantitative outcome. Results 453 participants were included in the analyses. The mean score on the measure of purpose was 3.5 (Standard Deviation=0.47, range=2.1-5.0). Macroscopic infarcts were found in 154 (34.0 %) persons, and microinfarcts were found in 128 (28.3%) persons. Greater purpose in life was associated with a lower odds of having one or more macroscopic infarcts (Odds Ratio=0.535, 95% Confidence Interval=0.346-0.826, p=.005), but we did not find association with microinfarcts (Odds Ratio=0.780, 95% Confidence Interval=0.495-1.229, p=.283). These results persisted after adjusting for vascular risk factors of body mass index, history of smoking, diabetes, and blood pressure, as well as measures of negative affect, physical activity, and clinical stroke. The association with macroscopic infarcts was driven by lacunar infarcts, and was independent of cerebral atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis. Conclusions Purpose in life may affect risk for cerebral infarcts, specifically macroscopic lacunar infarcts. PMID:25791714

  10. Treatment of acute coronary syndrome: part 2: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Trost, Jeffrey C; Lange, Richard A

    2012-06-01

    Familiarize clinicians with recent information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. PubMed search and review of relevant medical literature. Definition, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction are reviewed. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction benefit from prompt reperfusion therapy. Adjunctive antianginal, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, beta blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and statin agents minimize ongoing cardiac ischemia, prevent thrombus propagation, and reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events.

  11. Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rudradev; Gupta, Naveen K; Wander, Gurpreet S

    2011-12-01

    Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has to be made early in the emergency triage since maximal mortality occurs within first hour and the benefits of all interventions are greater once these are instituted early. Diagnosis is easy and based on simple principals of good history, physical examination, early and complete 12 lead electrocardiogram and use of echocardiography which should be available in the emergency triage area. Subsequently biomarkers are also available for documentation and risk stratification. The other causes of acute severe chest pain should be kept in mind and ruled out. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging for diagnosis of AMI is limited. The diagnosis also involves an estimation of the size of infarct, duration since onset of the process, any acute complications of AMI and the likely vessel involved since these have significant therapeutic implications.

  12. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Naess, Halvor; Romi, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction. Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Multivariate analyses were performed with location of stroke (cord or brain), neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome (both Barthel Index [BI] 1 week after symptom onset and discharge home or to other institution) as dependent variables. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with spinal cord infarction were younger, more often female, and less afflicted by hypertension and cardiac disease than patients with cerebral infarction. Functional score (BI) was lower among patients with spinal cord infarctions 1 week after onset of symptoms (P < 0.001). Odds ratio for being discharged home was 5.5 for patients with spinal cord infarction compared to cerebral infarction after adjusting for BI scored 1 week after onset (P = 0.019). Patients with spinal cord infarction have a risk factor profile that differs significantly from that of patients with cerebral infarction, although there are some parallels to cerebral infarction caused by atherosclerosis. Patients with spinal cord infarction were more likely to be discharged home when adjusting for early functional level on multivariate analysis.

  13. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Naess, Halvor; Romi, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Background: To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction. Methods: Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Multivariate analyses were performed with location of stroke (cord or brain), neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome (both Barthel Index [BI] 1 week after symptom onset and discharge home or to other institution) as dependent variables. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that patients with spinal cord infarction were younger, more often female, and less afflicted by hypertension and cardiac disease than patients with cerebral infarction. Functional score (BI) was lower among patients with spinal cord infarctions 1 week after onset of symptoms (P < 0.001). Odds ratio for being discharged home was 5.5 for patients with spinal cord infarction compared to cerebral infarction after adjusting for BI scored 1 week after onset (P = 0.019). Conclusion: Patients with spinal cord infarction have a risk factor profile that differs significantly from that of patients with cerebral infarction, although there are some parallels to cerebral infarction caused by atherosclerosis. Patients with spinal cord infarction were more likely to be discharged home when adjusting for early functional level on multivariate analysis. PMID:21915166

  14. Exercise following myocardial infarction. Current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Leon, A S

    2000-05-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation services are comprehensive long term programmes designed to limit the physiological and psychological effects of cardiovascular disease (CVD), control cardiac symptoms and reduce the risk of subsequent CVD events by stabilising or partially reversing the underlying atherosclerosis process through risk factor modification. Exercise training is the cornerstone of such programmes. Ideally, exercise conditioning or training for the stable cardiac patient should include a combination of cardiorespiratory endurance (aerobic) training, arm exercises and muscular conditioning resistance (strength) training. Flexibility exercises should also be performed, usually as part of the warm-up and cool-down routines preceding and following endurance and strength training. This review discusses the potential physiological, psychological and health benefits of regular exercise and provides guidelines for exercise training for the rehabilitation of post-myocardial infarction patients following hospitalisation.

  15. Coronary Intervention for Persistent Occlusion after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hochman, Judith S.; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Buller, Christopher E.; Dzavik, Vladimir; Reynolds, Harmony R.; Abramsky, Staci J.; Forman, Sandra; Ruzyllo, Witold; Maggioni, Aldo P.; White, Harvey; Sadowski, Zygmunt; Carvalho, Antonio C.; Rankin, Jamie M.; Renkin, Jean P.; Steg, P. Gabriel; Mascette, Alice M.; Sopko, George; Pfisterer, Matthias E.; Leor, Jonathan; Fridrich, Viliam; Mark, Daniel B.; Knatterud, Genell L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is unclear whether stable, high-risk patients with persistent total occlusion of the infarct-related coronary artery identified after the currently accepted period for myocardial salvage has passed should undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in addition to receiving optimal medical therapy to reduce the risk of subsequent events. METHODS We conducted a randomized study involving 2166 stable patients who had total occlusion of the infarct-related artery 3 to 28 days after myocardial infarction and who met a high-risk criterion (an ejection fraction of <50% or proximal occlusion). Of these patients, 1082 were assigned to routine PCI and stenting with optimal medical therapy, and 1084 were assigned to optimal medical therapy alone. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial reinfarction, or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure. RESULTS The 4-year cumulative primary event rate was 17.2% in the PCI group and 15.6% in the medical therapy group (hazard ratio for death, reinfarction, or heart failure in the PCI group as compared with the medical therapy group, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.45; P = 0.20). Rates of myocardial reinfarction (fatal and nonfatal) were 7.0% and 5.3% in the two groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.00; P = 0.13). Rates of nonfatal reinfarction were 6.9% and 5.0%, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.96 to 2.16; P = 0.08); only six reinfarctions (0.6%) were related to assigned PCI procedures. Rates of NYHA class IV heart failure (4.4% vs. 4.5%) and death (9.1% vs. 9.4%) were similar. There was no interaction between treatment effect and any subgroup variable (age, sex, race or ethnic group, infarct-related artery, ejection fraction, diabetes, Killip class, and the time from myocardial infarction to randomization). CONCLUSIONS PCI did not reduce the occurrence of death, reinfarction, or heart failure, and there was a trend toward excess

  16. Relation of coronary flow pattern to myocardial blush grade in patients with first acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, R; Haager, P; Lepper, W; Franke, A; Hanrath, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Analysis of myocardial blush grade (MBG) and coronary flow velocity pattern has been used to obtain direct or indirect information about microvascular damage and reperfusion injury after percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography for acute myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the relation between coronary blood flow velocity pattern and MBG immediately after angioplasty plus stenting for acute myocardial infarction. Design: The coronary blood flow velocity pattern in the infarct related artery was determined immediately after angioplasty in 35 patients with their first acute myocardial infarct using a Doppler guide wire. Measurements were related to MBG as a direct index of microvascular function in the infarct zone. Results: Coronary flow velocity patterns were different between patients with absent myocardial blush (n = 14), reduced blush (n = 7), or normal blush (n = 14). The following variables (mean (SD)) differed significantly between the three groups: systolic peak flow velocity (cm/s): absent blush 10.9 (4.2), reduced blush 14.2 (6.4), normal blush 19.2 (11.2); p = 0.036; diastolic deceleration rate (ms): absent blush 103 (58), reduced blush 80 (65), normal blush 50 (19); p = 0.025; and diastolic–systolic velocity ratio: absent blush 4.06 (2.18), reduced blush 2.02 (0.55), normal blush 1.88 (1.03); p = 0.002. In a multivariate analysis MBG was the only variable with a significant impact on the diastolic deceleration rate (p = 0.034,) while age, infarct location, time to revascularisation, infarct vessel diameter, and maximum creatine kinase had no significant impact. Conclusions: The coronary flow velocity pattern in the infarct related epicardial artery is primarily determined by the microvascular function of the dependent myocardium, as reflected by MBG. PMID:12975402

  17. Prostate-specific antigen and acute myocardial infarction: a possible new intriguing scenario.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2009-05-29

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been identified as a member of the human kallikrein family of serine proteases and it is an established marker for detection of prostate cancer. Apparently spurious result has been reported in a work about mean serum PSA concentration during acute myocardial infarction with mean serum PSA concentration significantly lower on day 2 than either day 1 or day 3 and it has been reported that these preliminary results could reflect several factors, such as antiinfarctual treatment, reduced physical activity or an acute-phase response. Elevation of prostate-specific antigen has also been reported during acute myocardial infarction in three patients and in another one also after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and without histological diagnosis of prostate cancer. In our report we present three cases of diminution of serum PSA concentration during acute myocardial infarction. Our report extends the evaluation of PSA during acute myocardial infarction. It seems that when elevation of prostate-specific antigen occurs during acute myocardial infarction, coronary lesions are frequent and often more severe than when diminution of prostate-specific antigen occurs during acute myocardial infarction. It opens a possible new intriguing scenario of the role of the prostate-specific antigen in acute myocardial infarction.

  18. The chemokine decoy receptor D6 prevents excessive inflammation and adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cochain, Clément; Auvynet, Constance; Poupel, Lucie; Vilar, José; Dumeau, Edouard; Richart, Adèle; Récalde, Alice; Zouggari, Yasmine; Yin, Kiave Yune Ho Wang; Bruneval, Patrick; Renault, Gilles; Marchiol, Carmen; Bonnin, Philippe; Lévy, Bernard; Bonecchi, Raffaella; Locati, Massimo; Combadière, Christophe; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-09-01

    Leukocyte infiltration in ischemic areas is a hallmark of myocardial infarction, and overwhelming infiltration of innate immune cells has been shown to promote adverse remodeling and cardiac rupture. Recruitment of inflammatory cells in the ischemic heart depends highly on the family of CC-chemokines and their receptors. Here, we hypothesized that the chemokine decoy receptor D6, which specifically binds and scavenges inflammatory CC-chemokines, might limit inflammation and adverse cardiac remodeling after infarction. D6 was expressed in human and murine infarcted myocardium. In a murine model of myocardial infarction, D6 deficiency led to increased chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 levels in the ischemic heart. D6-deficient (D6(-/-)) infarcts displayed increased infiltration of pathogenic neutrophils and Ly6Chi monocytes, associated with strong matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities in the ischemic heart. D6(-/-) mice were cardiac rupture prone after myocardial infarction, and functional analysis revealed that D6(-/-) hearts had features of adverse remodeling with left ventricle dilation and reduced ejection fraction. Bone marrow chimera experiments showed that leukocyte-borne D6 had no role in this setting, and that leukocyte-specific chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 deficiency rescued the adverse phenotype observed in D6(-/-) mice. We show for the first time that the chemokine decoy receptor D6 limits CC-chemokine-dependent pathogenic inflammation and is required for adequate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction.

  19. Adenosine as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial: the Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy of ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, K W; Puma, J A; Barbagelata, N A; DiCarli, M F; Leesar, M A; Browne, K F; Eisenberg, P R; Bolli, R; Casas, A C; Molina-Viamonte, V; Orlandi, C; Blevins, R; Gibbons, R J; Califf, R M; Granger, C B

    1999-11-15

    The Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy of ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial was designed to test the hypothesis that adenosine as an adjunct to thrombolysis would reduce myocardial infarct size. Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown to reduce mortality, but reperfusion itself also may have deleterious effects. The AMISTAD trial was a prospective, open-label trial of thrombolysis with randomization to adenosine or placebo in 236 patients within 6 h of infarction onset. The primary end point was infarct size as determined by Tc-99 m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 6+/-1 days after enrollment based on multivariable regression modeling to adjust for covariates. Secondary end points were myocardial salvage index and a composite of in-hospital clinical outcomes (death, reinfarction, shock, congestive heart failure or stroke). In all, 236 patients were enrolled. Final infarct size was assessed in 197 (83%) patients. There was a 33% relative reduction in infarct size (p = 0.03) with adenosine. There was a 67% relative reduction in infarct size in patients with anterior infarction (15% in the adenosine group vs. 45.5% in the placebo group) but no reduction in patients with infarcts located elsewhere (11.5% for both groups). Patients randomized to adenosine tended to reach the composite clinical end point more often than those assigned to placebo (22% vs. 16%; odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 2.89). Many agents thought to attenuate reperfusion injury have been unsuccessful in clinical investigation. In this study, adenosine resulted in a significant reduction in infarct size. These data support the need for a large clinical outcome trial.

  20. Cocaine, a risk factor for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Galasko, G I

    1997-06-01

    Cocaine usage goes back thousands of years, to the times of the Incas. Over the past 20 years, its use has increased dramatically, especially in America, and adverse cardiovascular reactions to the drug have begun to be reported. The first report of myocardial infarction temporally related to the recreational use of cocaine appeared in 1982. Since then, myocardial infarction has become recognized as the drug's most common cardiovascular consequence, with over 250 cases now documented in the literature. This review discusses the history of cocaine use, its pharmacology, the possible pathological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of myocardial ischaemia and infarction, and current ideas on the management of cocaine-induced myocardial infarction.

  1. Neural mechanisms and delayed gastric emptying of liquid induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de

    2015-02-01

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1 mA/10 s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  2. Intestinal microbiota determine severity of myocardial infarction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Vy; Su, Jidong; Koprowski, Stacy; Hsu, Anna; Tweddell, James S.; Rafiee, Parvaneh; Gross, Garrett J.; Salzman, Nita H.; Baker, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Signals from the intestinal microbiota are important for normal host physiology; alteration of the microbiota (dysbiosis) is associated with multiple disease states. We determined the effect of antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbiosis on circulating cytokine levels and severity of ischemia/reperfusion injury in the heart. Treatment of Dahl S rats with a minimally absorbed antibiotic vancomycin, in the drinking water, decreased circulating leptin levels by 38%, resulted in smaller myocardial infarcts (27% reduction), and improved recovery of postischemic mechanical function (35%) as compared with untreated controls. Vancomycin altered the abundance of intestinal bacteria and fungi, measured by 16S and 18S ribosomal DNA quantity. Pretreatment with leptin (0.12 μg/kg i.v.) 24 h before ischemia/reperfusion abolished cardioprotection produced by vancomycin treatment. Dahl S rats fed the commercially available probiotic product Goodbelly, which contains the leptin-suppressing bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, also resulted in decreased circulating leptin levels by 41%, smaller myocardial infarcts (29% reduction), and greater recovery of postischemic mechanical function (23%). Pretreatment with leptin (0.12 μg/kg i.v.) abolished cardioprotection produced by Goodbelly. This proof-of-concept study is the first to identify a mechanistic link between changes in intestinal microbiota and myocardial infarction and demonstrates that a probiotic supplement can reduce myocardial infarct size.—Lam, V., Su, J., Koprowski, S., Hsu, A., Tweddell, J. S., Rafiee, P., Gross, G. J., Salzman, N. H., Baker, J. E. Intestinal microbiota determine severity of myocardial infarction in rats. PMID:22247331

  3. Targeting inflammatory pathways in myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Christia, Panagiota; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2013-01-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), activating complement and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)/Interleukin (IL)-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory reaction. Infiltrating leukocytes clear the infarct from dead cells, while activating reparative pathways that lead to formation of a scar. As the infarct heals the ventricle remodels; the geometric, functional and molecular alterations associated with post-infarction remodeling are driven by the inflammatory cascade and are involved in the development of heart failure. Because unrestrained inflammation in the infarcted heart induces matrix degradation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, timely suppression of the post-infarction inflammatory reaction may be crucial to protect the myocardium from dilative remodeling and progressive dysfunction. Inhibition and resolution of post-infarction inflammation involves mobilization of inhibitory mononuclear cell subsets and requires activation of endogenous STOP signals. Our manuscript discusses the basic cellular and molecular events involved in initiation, activation and resolution of the post-infarction inflammatory response, focusing on identification of therapeutic targets. The failure of anti-integrin approaches in patients with myocardial infarction and a growing body of experimental evidence suggest that inflammation may not increase ischemic cardiomyocyte death, but accentuates matrix degradation causing dilative remodeling. Given the pathophysiologic complexity of post-infarction remodeling, personalized biomarker-based approaches are needed to target patient subpopulations with dysregulated inflammatory and reparative responses. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory signals (such as IL-1 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1) may be effective in patients with defective resolution of post-infarction inflammation who exhibit progressive dilative remodeling. In contrast, patients with predominant

  4. Limitation of myocardial infarct size and preservation of left ventricular function by early administration of APSAC in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bassand, J P; Machecourt, J; Cassagnes, J; Lusson, J R; Borel, E; Schiele, F

    1989-07-05

    In cases of acute myocardial infarction (MI), it has been shown that preserving left ventricular function and limiting infarct size with early reperfusion of the occluded artery by means of a thrombolytic agent could eventually result in a reduced mortality rate. The aim of the APSIM study (anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex [APSAC] dans l'infarctus du Myocarde) was to demonstrate that early administration of APSAC in patients with recent acute MI could limit the infarct size and preserve left ventricular systolic function. In all, 231 patients with a first acute MI were randomly allocated to either APSAC (30 U over 5 minutes) or to conventional heparin therapy (5,000 IU in bolus injection) within 5 hours of the onset of symptoms. Of these patients, 112 received APSAC and 119 received heparin within a mean period of 188 +/- 62 minutes after the onset of symptoms. The patency rate of the infarct-related artery was 77% in the APSAC group and 36% in the heparin group (p less than 0.001). Left ventricular ejection fraction determined from contrast angiography was significantly higher in the APSAC than in the heparin group. This was true for the entire population (0.53 +/- 0.13 vs 0.47 +/- 0.13, p = 0.002) as well as for the subgroups of anterior and inferior wall infarctions (0.47 +/- 0.13 vs 0.4 +/- 0.16, p = 0.004 and 0.56 +/- 0.11 vs 0.51 +/- 0.09, p = 0.02). At 3 weeks, the difference remained significant for patients with anterior MI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Coffee component 3-caffeoylquinic acid increases antioxidant capacity but not polyphenol content in experimental cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Crespo, Silvia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M; Cavia-Saiz, Monica; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-05-01

    Although coffee has antioxidant capacity, it is not known which of its bioactive compounds is responsible for it, nor has it been analyzed in experimental cerebral infarction. We studied the effect one of its compounds, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), at doses of 4, 25 and 100 μg on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma polyphenol content, measuring the differences before and after inducing a cerebral infarction in an experimental rat model. We compared them with 3-caffeoylquinic-free controls. The increase in total antioxidant capacity was only higher than in controls in 3-CQA treated animals with the highest dose. This increase in antioxidant capacity was not due to an increase in polyphenols. No differences between the experimental and control group were found regarding polyphenol content and cerebral infarction volume. In conclusion, this increase in antioxidant capacity in the group that received the highest dose of 3-CQA was not able to reduce experimental cerebral infarction.

  6. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  7. The post-pulmonary infarction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sklaroff, H J

    1979-12-01

    Following pulmonary infarction, three patients developed the classical signs and symptoms of the Dressler syndrome associated with persistent left pleural effusion. Each responded dramatically to corticosteroid therapy. While the pathogenesis of this "Post-Pulmonary Infarction syndrome," like the Dressler syndrome, is unclear, the response to corticosteroid therapy is both dramatic and diagnostic and may spare the patient prolonged discomfort and unnecessary diagnostic procedures.

  8. Acute myocardial infarction with changing axis deviation.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2011-07-01

    Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. Left anterior hemiblock development during acute inferior myocardial infarction can be an indicator of left anterior descending coronary artery lesions, multivessel coronary artery disease, and impaired left ventricular systolic function. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 62-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Action of acetylstrophanthidin on experimental myocardial infarction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, G. T.; Pope, S. E.; Harrison, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental animal model with acute myocardial infarction of a size insufficient to produce profound heart failure or shock was used to study the effects of acute infarction on digitalis tolerance and the hemodynamic changes produced by moderate and large doses of acetylstrophanthidin. With acute myocardial infarction, digitalis toxic arrhythmias could be precipitated with significantly lower doses of digitalis than in animals without myocardial infarction. There was no precise correlation between the size of infarction and the toxic dose of glycoside. Coronary artery ligation produced a stable but relatively depressed circulatory state, as evidenced by lowered cardiac output and stroke volume and elevated systemic vascular resistance and left atrial mean pressure. When digitalis was infused, the following significant changes were observed at nontoxic doses: (1) elevation of aortic and left ventricular pressures; (2) further decline in cardiac output; and (3) decreased left atrial mean pressure.

  10. Targeting survival pathways to create infarct-spanning bridges of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Weaver, Matthew S; Dennis, James E; Whalen, Elizabeth; Laflamme, Michael A; Allen, Margaret D

    2014-12-01

    Generating myocyte grafts that bridge across infarcts could maximize their functional impact and best utilize small numbers of stem cells. To date, however, graft survival within acute infarcts has not been feasible. To enhance intrainfarct graft viability, human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) were pretreated before implantation with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), a pharmacologic inducer of cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1. After preculturing with CoPP (vs phosphate-buffered saline), hESC-CMs were injected intramyocardially into acutely infarcted rat hearts, using directed injections to span the infarct. A further group received CoPP-pretreated hESC-CMs plus 4 weekly doses of systemic CoPP to prolong exposure to cytoprotectants. Two control groups with infarcts received vehicle-only intramyocardial injections or weekly systemic CoPP without cell therapy. Postinfarct ventricular function was gauged by echocardiography and graft size quantified at 8 weeks by histomorphometry. CoPP-preconditioned hESC-CMs formed stable grafts deep within infarcted myocardium, while grafts without CoPP exposure survived mainly at the infarct periphery. Fractional shortening was improved at 4 and 8 weeks in all hearts receiving cell therapies (P < .01 vs vehicle-only injections). CoPP treatment of both graft hESC-CMs and recipient animals resulted in the largest grafts, highest fractional shortening, preserved wall thickness, and reduced infarct dimensions. Cellular therapy delivered acutely after infarction significantly improved postinfarct ventricular function at 1 and 2 months. CoPP pretreatment of cells resulted in stable hESC-CM grafts within infarcted myocardium. This design enables construction of directionally oriented, infarct-spanning bands of new cardiomyocytes that might further improve functional restoration as engrafted myocytes proliferate and mature. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Cardiac Myocyte-specific Knock-out of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) Decreases Oxidized Fatty Acids during Ischemia/Reperfusion and Reduces Infarct Size *

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Ho; Mancuso, David J.; Sims, Harold F.; Liu, Xinping; Nguyen, Annie L.; Yang, Kui; Guan, Shaoping; Dilthey, Beverly Gibson; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Weinheimer, Carla J.; Kovacs, Attila; Abendschein, Dana; Gross, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is a mitochondrial enzyme that produces lipid second messengers that facilitate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and contribute to the production of oxidized fatty acids in myocardium. To specifically identify the roles of iPLA2γ in cardiac myocytes, we generated cardiac myocyte-specific iPLA2γ knock-out (CMiPLA2γKO) mice by removing the exon encoding the active site serine (Ser-477). Hearts of CMiPLA2γKO mice exhibited normal hemodynamic function, glycerophospholipid molecular species composition, and normal rates of mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. In contrast, CMiPLA2γKO mice demonstrated attenuated Ca2+-induced mPTP opening that could be rapidly restored by the addition of palmitate and substantially reduced production of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Furthermore, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in CMiPLA2γKO mice (30 min of ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion in vivo) dramatically decreased oxidized fatty acid production in the ischemic border zones. Moreover, CMiPLA2γKO mice subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion in vivo developed substantially less cardiac necrosis in the area-at-risk in comparison with their WT littermates. Furthermore, we found that membrane depolarization in murine heart mitochondria was sensitized to Ca2+ by the presence of oxidized PUFAs. Because mitochondrial membrane depolarization and calcium are known to activate iPLA2γ, these results are consistent with salvage of myocardium after I/R by iPLA2γ loss of function through decreasing mPTP opening, diminishing production of proinflammatory oxidized fatty acids, and attenuating the deleterious effects of abrupt increases in calcium ion on membrane potential during reperfusion. PMID:27453526

  12. Myocardial Infarction. Pathological Relevance and Relationship with Coronary Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Leone, Aurelio

    2017-01-01

    Three types of necrosis characterize MI: coagulation necrosis, typically due to a coronarogenic mechanism, coagulative myocytolysis with formation of contract bands as an effect of sympathetic nervous system and adrenergic stimulation, and colliquative myocytolysis, characterized by myocardial fiber lysis, which is a close result of hydrolytic enzyme activity deriving from the material reaching the infarct area. Although a multifactorial etiology may be identified, nevertheless coronary alterations, which are a consequence of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complications with a reduced blood flow supply to the myocardium, are the benchmark of MI. Evidence indicates a close relationship between the MI and some coronary risk factors, associated with this pathologic pattern with a different, but high rate. Precipitating events to cause acute myocardial pathology need, however, to develop an acute myocardial infarction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    PubMed

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Leemburg, Susan; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp, Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of protein synthesis inhibition within this region after experimental stroke. Long-Evans rats were trained to perform a skilled-reaching task (SRT) until they reached plateau performance. A photothrombotic stroke was induced in the forelimb representation of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw. The SRT was re-trained after stroke while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (ANI) or saline were injected into the peri-infarct cortex through implanted cannulas. ANI injections reduced protein synthesis within the peri-infarct cortex by 69% and significantly impaired recovery of reaching performance through re-training. Improvement of motor performance within a single training session remained intact, while improvement between training sessions was impaired. ANI injections did not affect infarct size. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition within the peri-infarct cortex impairs recovery of motor deficits after ischemic stroke by interfering with consolidation of motor memory between training sessions but not short-term improvements within one session.

  14. MCSF expression is induced in healing myocardial infarcts and may regulate monocyte and endothelial cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G; Mendoza, Leonardo H; Ren, Guofeng; Akrivakis, Spyridon; Jackson, Peggy L; Michael, Lloyd H; Smith, C Wayne; Entman, Mark L

    2003-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is associated with the rapid induction of mononuclear cell chemoattractants that promote monocyte infiltration into the injured area. Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and macrophage proliferation allow a long survival of monocytic cells, critical for effective healing of the infarct. In a canine infarction-reperfusion model, newly recruited myeloid leukocytes were markedly augmented during early reperfusion (5-72 h). By 7 days, the number of newly recruited myeloid cells was reduced, and the majority of the inflammatory cells remaining in the infarct were mature macrophages. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) is known to facilitate monocyte survival, monocyte-to-macrophage conversion, and macrophage proliferation. We demonstrated marked induction of MCSF mRNA in ischemic segments persisting for at least 5 days after reperfusion. MCSF expression was predominantly localized to mature macrophages infiltrating the infarcted myocardium; the expression of the MCSF receptor, c-Fms, a protein with tyrosine kinase activity, was found in these macrophages but was also observed in a subset of microvessels within the infarct. Many infarct macrophages expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of proliferative activity. In vitro MCSF induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 synthesis in canine venous endothelial cells. MCSF-induced endothelial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 upregulation was inhibited by herbimycin A, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and by LY-294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase inhibitor. We suggest that upregulation of MCSF in the infarcted myocardium may have an active role in healing not only through its effects on cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage, but also by regulating endothelial cell chemokine expression.

  15. [Intracoronary, human autologous stem cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration following myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Strauer, B E; Brehm, M; Zeus, T; Gattermann, N; Hernandez, A; Sorg, R V; Kögler, G; Wernet, P

    2001-08-24

    The regenerative potential of human autologous adult stem cells on myocardial regeneration and neovascularisation after myocardial infarction may contribute to healing of the infarction area. But no clinical application has previously been reported. We here describe for the first time the results of this method applied in a patient who had sustained an acute myocardial infarction. 14 hours after the onset of left precordial pain a 46-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for interventional diagnosis and treatment. Coronary angiography demonstrated occlusion of the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery with transmural infarction. This was treated by percutaneous transluminal catheter angioplasty and stent placement. Mononuclear bone marrow cells of the patient were prepared and 6 days after infaction 1,2 infinity 107 cells were transplanted at low pressure via a percutaneous transluminal catheter placed in the infarct-related artery. Before and 10 weeks after this procedure left ventricular function, infarct size, ventricular geometry and myocardial perfusion were measured by (201)thallium SPECT both at rest and on exercise, together with bull's-eye analysis, dobutamine stress echocardiography, right heart catheterisation and radionuclide ventriculography. At 10 weeks after the stem cell transplantation the transmural infarct area had been reduced from 24.6 % to 15.7 % of left ventricular circumference, while ejection fraction, cardiac index and stroke volume had increased by 20-30 %. On exercise the end diastolic volume had decreased by 30 % and there was a comparable fall in left ventricular filling pressure (mean pulmonary capillary pressure). These results for the first time demonstrate that selective intracoronary transplantation of human autologous adult stem cells is possible under clinical conditions and that it can lead to regeneration of the myocardial scar after transmural infarction. The therapeutic effects may be ascribed to stem

  16. Remote ischaemic postconditioning protects the heart during acute myocardial infarction in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Andreka, Gyorgy; Vertesaljai, Marton; Szantho, Gergely; Font, Gusztav; Piroth, Zsolt; Fontos, Geza; Juhasz, Eszter D; Szekely, Laszlo; Szelid, Zsolt; Turner, Mark S; Ashrafian, Houman; Frenneaux, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Background Ischaemic preconditioning results in a reduction in ischaemic‐reperfusion injury to the heart. This beneficial effect is seen both with direct local preconditioning of the myocardium and with remote preconditioning of easily accessible distant non‐vital limb tissue. Ischaemic postconditioning with a comparable sequence of brief periods of local ischaemia, when applied immediately after the ischaemic insult, confers benefits similar to preconditioning. Objective To test the hypothesis that limb ischaemia induces remote postconditioning and hence reduces experimental myocardial infarct size in a validated swine model of acute myocardial infarction. Methods Acute myocardial infarction was induced in 24 pigs with 90 min balloon inflations of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Remote ischaemic postconditioning was induced in 12 of the pigs by four 5 min cycles of blood pressure cuff inflation applied to the lower limb immediately after the balloon deflation. Infarct size was assessed by measuring 72 h creatinine kinase release, MRI scan and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Area under the curve of creatinine kinase release was significantly reduced in the postconditioning group compared with the control group with a 26% reduction in the infarct size (p<0.05). This was confirmed by MRI scanning and immunohistochemical analysis that revealed a 22% (p<0.05) and a 47.52% (p<0.01) relative reduction in the infarct size, respectively. Conclusion Remote ischaemic postconditioning is a simple technique to reduce infarct size without the hazards and logistics of multiple coronary artery balloon inflations. This type of conditioning promises clear clinical potential. PMID:17449499

  17. Changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-07-09

    Changing axis deviation has been reported during acute myocardial infarction also associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 70-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation between cardiac remodelling, function, and myocardial contractility in rat hearts 5 weeks after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, H; Qi, X; Rouleau, J L

    1998-01-01

    Early after infarction, ventricular dysfunction occurs as a result of loss of myocardial tissue. Although papillary muscle studies suggest that reduced myocardial contractility contributes to this ventricular dysfunction, in vivo studies indicate that at rest, cardiac output is normal or near normal, suggesting that contractility of the remaining viable myocardium of the ventricular wall is preserved. However, this has never been verified. To explore this further, 100 rats with various-sized myocardial infarctions had ventricular function assessed by Langendorff preparation or by isolated papillary muscle studies 5 weeks after infarction. Morphologic studies were also done. Rats with large infarctions (54%) had marked ventricular dilatation (dilatation index from 0.23 to 0.75, p < 0.01) and papillary muscle dysfunction (total tension from 6.7 to 3.2 g/mm2, p < 0.01) but only moderate left ventricular dysfunction (maximum developed tension from 206 to 151 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa), p < 0.01), a decrease less than one would expect with an infarct size of 54%. The contractility of the remaining viable myocardium of the ventricle was also moderately depressed (peak systolic midwall stress 91 to 60 mmHg, p < 0.01). Rats with moderate infarctions (32%) had less marked but still moderate ventricular dilatation (dilatation index 0.37, p < 0.001) and moderate papillary muscle dysfunction (total tension 4.2 g/mm2, p < 0.01). However, their decrease in ventricular function was only mild (maximum developed pressure 178 mmHg, p < 0.01) and less than one would expect with an infarct size of 32%. The remaining viable myocardium of the ventricular wall appeared to have normal contractility (peak systolic midwall stress = 86 mmHg, ns). We conclude that in this postinfarction model, in large myocardial infarctions, a loss of contractility of the remaining viable myocardium of the ventricular wall occurs as early as 5 weeks after infarction and that papillary muscle studies slightly

  19. Hippo pathway deficiency reverses systolic heart failure after infarction.

    PubMed

    Leach, John P; Heallen, Todd; Zhang, Min; Rahmani, Mahdis; Morikawa, Yuka; Hill, Matthew C; Segura, Ana; Willerson, James T; Martin, James F

    2017-10-12

    Mammalian organs vary widely in regenerative capacity. Poorly regenerative organs, such as the heart are particularly vulnerable to organ failure. Once established, heart failure commonly results in mortality. The Hippo pathway, a kinase cascade that prevents adult cardiomyocyte proliferation and regeneration, is upregulated in human heart failure. Here we show that deletion of the Hippo pathway component Salvador (Salv) in mouse hearts with established ischaemic heart failure after myocardial infarction induces a reparative genetic program with increased scar border vascularity, reduced fibrosis, and recovery of pumping function compared with controls. Using translating ribosomal affinity purification, we isolate cardiomyocyte-specific translating messenger RNA. Hippo-deficient cardiomyocytes have increased expression of proliferative genes and stress response genes, such as the mitochondrial quality control gene, Park2. Genetic studies indicate that Park2 is essential for heart repair, suggesting a requirement for mitochondrial quality control in regenerating myocardium. Gene therapy with a virus encoding Salv short hairpin RNA improves heart function when delivered at the time of infarct or after ischaemic heart failure following myocardial infarction was established. Our findings indicate that the failing heart has a previously unrecognized reparative capacity involving more than cardiomyocyte renewal.

  20. Gender differences in myocardial infarction: health professionals' point of view.

    PubMed

    Foà, Chiara; Artioli, Giovanna

    2016-05-26

    Backgroud and aims: Aim of this study is contributing to an analysis of healthcare professionals' perceptions of gender differences in myocardial infarction. For this purpose, the study examines bio-clinical and psychosocial aspects of myocardial infarction in men and women, thanks to 8 focus groups attended by healthcare professionals working at Milan Hospital (Niguarda Ca' Granda), Parma University Hospital, Catania Hospital (Ospedale Cannizzaro) and Ancona INRCA (Scientific Institute recognized in the area of Geriatrics and Gerontology). A qualitative analysis of the narratives have been aggregated in 5 code families: "pathophysiological peculiarities", "psycho-relational peculiarities", "therapeutic problems", "protection and risk factors", and "no difference" between men and women, in particular as far as diagnostic-therapeutic treatment is concerned. Pathophysiological peculiarities concern the acknowledgement of typically female characteristics which can affect clinical pathways, such as comorbidity and different symptoms. Psycho-relational peculiarities show women's attitudes toward symptoms underestimation and a high pain endurance. Therapeutic problems are connected to female physio-pathological peculiarities, which reduce treatment effectiveness. Protection and risk factors indicate peculiar protective conditions or potentially dangerous situations in female population, such as distress and greater responsibilities. The study confirms the "male model" of heart disease and a gap in evaluating and dealing with female infarction. The study takes into account differences in narratives.

  1. DESIGN OF THE SILENT CEREBRAL INFARCT TRANSFUSION (SIT) TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Casella, James F.; King, Allison A.; Barton, Bruce; White, Desiree A.; Noetzel, Michael J.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Terrill, Cindy; Hirtz, Deborah; McKinstry, Robert C.; Strouse, John J.; Howard, Thomas H.; Coates, Thomas D.; Minniti, Caterina P; Campbell, Andrew D.; Vendt, Bruce A.; Lehmann, Harold; DeBaun, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Silent cerebral infarct (SCI) is the most common cause of serious neurological disease in sickle cell anemia (SCA), affecting approximately 22% of children. The goal of this trial is to determine whether blood transfusion therapy will reduce further neurological morbidity in children with SCI, and if so, the magnitude of this benefit. Procedure The Silent Cerebral Infarct Transfusion (SIT) Trial includes 29 clinical sites and 3 subsites, a Clinical Coordinating Center, and a Statistical and Data Coordinating Center, to test the following hypothesis: prophylactic blood transfusion therapy in children with SCI will result in at least an 86% reduction in the rate of subsequent overt strokes or new or progressive cerebral infarcts as defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. The intervention is blood transfusion versus observation. Two hundred and four participants (102 in each treatment assignment) will ensure 85% power to detect the effect necessary to recommend transfusion therapy (86% reduction), after accounting for 10% drop out and 19% crossover rates. MRI examination of the brain is done at screening, immediately before randomization and study exit. Each randomly assigned participant receives a cognitive test battery at study entry, 12–18 months later, and study exit and an annual neurological examination. Blood is obtained from all screened participants for a biologic repository containing serum and a renewable source of DNA. Conclusion The SIT Trial could lead to a change in standard care practices for children affected with SCA and SCI, with a consequent reduction in neurological morbidity. PMID:20201689

  2. Role of adenosine as adjunctive therapy in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Forman, Mervyn B; Stone, Gregg W; Jackson, Edwin K

    2006-01-01

    Although early reperfusion and maintained patency is the mainstay therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction, experimental studies demonstrate that reperfusion per se induces deleterious effects on viable ischemic cells. Thus "myocardial reperfusion injury" may compromise the full potential of reperfusion therapy and may account for unfavorable outcomes in high-risk patients. Although the mechanisms of reperfusion injury are complex and multifactorial, neutrophil-mediated microvascular injury resulting in a progressive decrease in blood flow ("no-reflow" phenomenon) likely plays an important role. Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside found in large quantities in myocardial and endothelial cells. It activates four well-characterized receptors producing various physiological effects that attenuate many of the proposed mechanisms of reperfusion injury. The cardio-protective effects of adenosine are supported by its role as a mediator of pre- and post-conditioning. In experimental models, administration of adenosine in the peri-reperfusion period results in a marked reduction in infarct size and improvement in ventricular function. The cardioprotective effects in the canine model have a narrow time window with the drug losing its effect following three hours of ischemia. Several small clinical studies have demonstrated that administration of adenosine with reperfusion therapy reduces infarct size and improves ventricular function. In the larger AMISTAD and AMISTAD II trials a 3-h infusion of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion resulted in a striking reduction in infarct size (55-65%). Post hoc analysis of AMISTAD II showed that this was associated with significantly improved early and late mortality in patients treated within 3.17 h of symptoms. An intravenous infusion of adenosine for 3 h should be considered as adjunctive therapy in high risk-patients undergoing reperfusion therapy.

  3. Endocannabinoids as mediators in the heart: a potential target for therapy of remodelling after myocardial infarction?

    PubMed Central

    Hiley, C Robin; Ford, William R

    2003-01-01

    Endocannabinoid production by platelets and macrophages is increased in circulatory shock. This may be protective of the cardiovascular system as blockade of CB1 cannabinoid receptors exacerbates endothelial dysfunction in haemorrhagic and endotoxin shock and reduces survival. Now evidence suggests that blockade of CB1 receptors starting 24 h after myocardial infarction in rats has a deleterious effect on cardiac performance, while use of a nonselective cannabinoid receptor agonist prevents hypotension and reduces endothelial dysfunction, although left ventricular end diastolic pressure is elevated. Cannabinoids and endocannabinoid systems may therefore present useful targets for therapy following myocardial infarction. PMID:12711614

  4. Baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaguo; Xu, Yongfu; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin belongs to glucuronic acid glycosides and after hydrolysisbaicalein and glucuronic acid come into being. It has such effects as clearing heat and removing toxicity, anti-inflammation, choleresis, bringing high blood pressure down, diuresis, anti-allergic reaction and so on. In this study, we investigated whether baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and its mechanism. Rat model of acute myocardial infarction was induced by isoproterenol. Casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and infarct size measurement were used to measure the protective effect of baicalin on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction. iNOS protein expression in rat was analyzed using western blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3 activation levels were explored using commercial ELISA kits. In the acute myocardial infarction experiment, baicalin effectively ameliorates the level of CK, CK-MB, LDH and cTnT, reduced infarct size in acute myocardial infarction rat model. Meanwhile, treatment with baicalin effectively decreased the iNOS protein expression, inflammatory factors and oxidative stresses in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. However, baicalin emerged that anti-apoptosis activity and suppressed the activation of caspase-3 in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The data suggest that the protective effect of baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat. PMID:26617721

  5. Normobaric hyperoxia retards the evolution of ischemic brain tissue toward infarction in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji; Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Zhouyuan; Wang, Ting; Li, Weiping; Ren, Lijie; Huang, Shaonong; Liu, Wenlan

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen therapy has been long considered a logical therapy for ischemic stroke. Our previous studies showed that normobaric hyperoxia (normobaric hyperoxia (NBO), 95% O2 with 5% CO2) treatment during ischemia reduced ischemic neuronal death and cerebromicrovascular injury in animal stroke models. In this study, we studied the effects of NBO on the evolution of ischemic brain tissue to infarction in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given NBO (95% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) during 90-min filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO), followed by 3 or 22.5 h of reperfusion. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to evaluate the longitudinal evolution of tissue infarction. Results: In normoxic rats, MCA-supplied cortical and striatal tissue was infarcted after 90-min MCAO with 22.5 h of reperfusion. NBO-treated rats showed a 61.4% reduction in infarct size and tissue infarction mainly occurred in the ischemic striatum. When infarction was assessed at an earlier time point, i.e. at 3 h of reperfusion, normoxic rats showed significantly smaller but mature infarction (no TTC staining, white color), with the infarction mainly occurring in the striatum. Unexpectedly, NBO-treated rats only showed immature lesion (partially stained by TTC, light white color) in the ischemic striatum, indicating that NBO treatment also retarded the process of neuronal death in the ischemic core. Of note, NBO-preserved striatal tissue underwent infarction after prolonged reperfusion. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that NBO treatment given during cerebral ischemia retards the evolution of ischemic brain tissue toward infarction and NBO-preserved cortical tissue survives better than NBO-preserved striatal tissue during the phase of reperfusion.

  6. Propionyl-L-carnitine limits chronic ventricular dilation after myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, R; Di Paola, E D; Schiavone, A; English, E; Benatti, P; Capasso, J M; Anversa, P; Bianchi, G

    1993-04-01

    To determine whether propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) administration ameliorates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction, we performed coronary occlusion in rats and examined the long-term effects of the drug 19-24 wk after surgery. In view of the well-established role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the reduction of ventricular dilation after infarction, the therapeutic impact of oral PLC (60 mg/kg) was compared with that of enalapril (1 mg/kg). Infarct size measured planimetrically was found to be comparable in untreated, PLC-treated, and enalapril-treated rats, averaging 40-46% of the left ventricular free wall. Heart weight was increased 14, 16, and 11% with no treatment, with PLC, and with enalapril, respectively. The relationship between left ventricular filling pressure and chamber volume demonstrated that PLC and enalapril significantly prevented the expansion in cavitary size after infarction. These protective influences were observed throughout the range of filling pressures measured, from 0 to 30 mmHg. At a uniform reference point of filling pressure of 4 mmHg, untreated infarcted hearts showed an expansion in ventricular volume of 2.17-fold (P < 0.0001). Corresponding increases in this parameter after PLC and enalapril were 36 and 43%, respectively, both not statistically significant. Moreover, PLC was capable of reducing the alterations in myocardial compliance associated with myocardial infarction. In conclusion, PLC reduces the magnitude of decompensated eccentric hypertrophy produced by myocardial infarction in a manner similar to that found with ACE inhibition.

  7. Cerebral infarction in association with Ecstasy abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, S.; Connolly, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    A previously fit 35 year old man presented with a right hemiparesis and dysphasia 36 hours after abuse of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Computerized axial tomography scan demonstrated an extensive acute left cerebral infarction and carotid digital subtraction angiogram, 2 days after admission, revealed left middle cerebral artery occlusion. There were no other known risk factors and all other investigations were negative. The patient made a partial recovery. We propose an association between Ecstasy abuse and cerebral infarction. PMID:7904748

  8. Cerebral infarction in association with Ecstasy abuse.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, S; Connolly, M J

    1993-11-01

    A previously fit 35 year old man presented with a right hemiparesis and dysphasia 36 hours after abuse of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Computerized axial tomography scan demonstrated an extensive acute left cerebral infarction and carotid digital subtraction angiogram, 2 days after admission, revealed left middle cerebral artery occlusion. There were no other known risk factors and all other investigations were negative. The patient made a partial recovery. We propose an association between Ecstasy abuse and cerebral infarction.

  9. Myocardial infarction in Swedish subway drivers.

    PubMed

    Bigert, Carolina; Klerdal, Kristina; Hammar, Niklas; Gustavsson, Per

    2007-08-01

    Particulate matter in urban air is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction in the general population. Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system of Stockholm, as well as in several other large cities. This situation has caused concern for negative health effects among subway staff. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an increased incidence of myocardial infarction among subway drivers. Data from a population-based case-control study of men aged 40-69 in Stockholm County in 1976-1996 were used. The study included all first events of myocardial infarction in registers of hospital discharges and deaths. The controls were selected randomly from the general population. National censuses were used for information on occupation. Altogether, 22 311 cases and 131 496 controls were included. Among these, 54 cases and 250 controls had worked as subway drivers. The relative risk of myocardial infarction among subway drivers was not increased. It was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.68-1.25] when the subway drivers were compared with other manual workers and 1.06 (95% CI 0.78-1.43) when the subway drivers were compared with all other gainfully employed men. Subgroup analyses indicated no influence on the risk of myocardial infarction from the duration of employment, latency time, or time since employment stopped. Subway drivers in Stockholm do not have a higher incidence of myocardial infarction than other employed persons.

  10. Infarct size in primary angioplasty without on-site cardiac surgical backup versus transferal to a tertiary center: a single photon emission computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Knaapen, Paul; de Mulder, Maarten; van der Zant, Friso M; Peels, Hans O; Twisk, Jos W R; van Rossum, Albert C; Cornel, Jan H; Umans, Victor A W M

    2009-02-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in large community hospitals without cardiac surgery back-up facilities (off-site) reduces door-to-balloon time compared with emergency transferal to tertiary interventional centers (on-site). The present study was performed to explore whether off-site PCI for acute myocardial infarction results in reduced infarct size. One hundred twenty-eight patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to undergo primary PCI at the off-site center (n = 68) or to transferal to an on-site center (n = 60). Three days after PCI, (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT was performed to estimate infarct size. Off-site PCI significantly reduced door-to-balloon time compared with on-site PCI (94 +/- 54 versus 125 +/- 59 min, respectively, p < 0.01), although symptoms-to-treatment time was only insignificantly reduced (257 +/- 211 versus 286 +/- 146 min, respectively, p = 0.39). Infarct size was comparable between treatment centers (16 +/- 15 versus 14 +/- 12%, respectively p = 0.35). Multivariate analysis revealed that TIMI 0/1 flow grade at initial coronary angiography (OR 3.125, 95% CI 1.17-8.33, p = 0.023), anterior wall localization of the myocardial infarction (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.38-8.55, p < 0.01), and development of pathological Q-waves (OR 5.07, 95% CI 2.10-12.25, p < 0.01) were independent predictors of an infarct size > 12%. Off-site PCI reduces door-to-balloon time compared with transferal to a remote on-site interventional center but does not reduce infarct size. Instead, pre-PCI TIMI 0/1 flow, anterior wall infarct localization, and development of Q-waves are more important predictors of infarct size.

  11. Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction by Biomarkers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-08

    Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI); Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS); ST Elevation (STEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury; Non-ST Elevation (NSTEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Angina, Unstable

  12. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, attenuates cerebral infarction and hemorrhagic infarction in rats with hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Koichi; Tsubokawa, Tamiji; Johshita, Hiroo; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Thrombolysis due to acute ischemic stroke is associated with the risk of hemorrhagic infarction, especially after reperfusion. Recent experimental studies suggest that the main mechanism contributing to hemorrhagic infarction is oxidative stress caused by disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, decreases oxidative stress, thereby preventing hemorrhagic infarction during ischemia and reperfusion. In this study, we investigated the effects of edaravone on hemorrhagic infarction in a rat model of hemorrhagic transformation. We used a previously established hemorrhagic transformation model of rats with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of glucose to all rats (n  =  20). The rats with hyperglycemia showed a high incidence of hemorrhagic infarction. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1.5 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours was performed in edaravone-treated rats (n  =  10) and control rats (n  =  10). Upon completion of reperfusion, both groups were evaluated for infarct size and hemorrhage volume and the results obtained were compared. Edaravone significantly decreased infarct volume, with the average infarct volume in the edaravone-treated rats (227.6 mm(3)) being significantly lower than that in the control rats (264.0 mm(3)). Edaravone treatment also decreased the postischemic hemorrhage volumes (53.4 mm(3) in edaravone-treated rats vs 176.4 mm(3) in controls). In addition, the ratio of hemorrhage volume to infarct volume was lower in the edaravone-treated rats (23.5%) than in the untreated rats (63.2%). Edaravone attenuates cerebral infarction and hemorrhagic infarction in rats with hyperglycemia.

  13. [Genetic factors in myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Hara, Masahiko; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    One of the main mechanisms of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is plaque rupture or erosion followed by intraluminal thrombus formation and occlusion of the coronary arteries. Thus far, many underlying conditions or environmental factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking or obesity, as well as a family history of coronary artery diseases have been identified as risks for the onset of AMI. These risks suggest that AMI occurs due to interactions between underlying conditions and multiple genetic susceptibilities. For this reason, many target gene-disease association studies have been performed with the recent introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have further revealed new genetic susceptibilities for AMI. GWAS is a way to examine many common genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait in a case-control fashion, and typically focuses on associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and traits. SNP on chromosome 9p21 is one of the robust susceptibility variants for AMI which has been identified by many GWAS. In this review, we overview the methodology of GWAS, introduce genetic variants identified by GWAS as those with susceptibility for AMI, and describe the foresight of using GWAS to investigate genetic susceptibility to AMI.

  14. Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Amelia; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Advances in pharmacological treatment and effective early myocardial revascularization have –in recent years- led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it has been suggested that compared to younger subjects, elderly AMI patients are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment, including myocardial revascularization therapy. Several reasons have been postulated to explain this trend, including uncertainty regarding the true benefits of the interventions commonly used in this setting as well as increased risk mainly associated with comorbidities. The diagnosis, management, and post-hospitalization care of elderly patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome pose many difficulties at present. A complex interplay of variables such as comorbidities, functional and socioeconomic status, side effects associated with multiple drug administration, and individual biologic variability, all contribute to creating a complex clinical scenario. In this complex setting, clinicians are often required to extrapolate evidence-based results obtained in cardiovascular trials from which older patients are often, implicitly or explicitly, excluded. This article reviews current recommendations regarding management of AMI in the elderly. PMID:22396870

  15. Myocardial infarction in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Carro, Amelia; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Advances in pharmacological treatment and effective early myocardial revascularization have -in recent years- led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it has been suggested that compared to younger subjects, elderly AMI patients are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment, including myocardial revascularization therapy. Several reasons have been postulated to explain this trend, including uncertainty regarding the true benefits of the interventions commonly used in this setting as well as increased risk mainly associated with comorbidities. The diagnosis, management, and post-hospitalization care of elderly patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome pose many difficulties at present. A complex interplay of variables such as comorbidities, functional and socioeconomic status, side effects associated with multiple drug administration, and individual biologic variability, all contribute to creating a complex clinical scenario. In this complex setting, clinicians are often required to extrapolate evidence-based results obtained in cardiovascular trials from which older patients are often, implicitly or explicitly, excluded. This article reviews current recommendations regarding management of AMI in the elderly.

  16. Adipose tissue in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Su, Leon; Siegel, John E; Fishbein, Michael C

    2004-01-01

    The histologic evolution of myocardial infarction (MI) has been studied in some detail. However, there is little mention of the presence of adipose tissue in healed MI(HMI). Ninety-one hearts explanted during 1997-2001 were examined to determine the extent of adipose tissue within HMI. The medical records, surgical pathology reports, and all histologic sections of the explanted heart, from patients undergoing heart transplantation for ischemic heart disease, were reviewed. Adipose tissue within the areas of HMI was quantified. The location of the HMI, the age and gender of the patient, age of HMI, and whether the patient was treated with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) were noted. Of the 91 hearts examined, 168 HMIs were identified; 141 (84%) contained some mature fat within the HMI. Adipose tissue increased with increasing age, in males, and in those patients who had CABG surgery. The amount of adipose tissue was not related to the location or age of the HMI. Adipose tissue is a prevalent histological finding in HMIs. The pathogenesis of adipose tissue is unknown, but may be influenced by current medical therapy for ischemic heart disease, thus explaining why adipose tissue in HMIs was not reported until 1997. The presence of fat supports the speculation that a regenerative cell, or multipotent stem cell, exists within the heart, and under the influence of microenvironmental or therapeutic factors can differentiate into fat, other mesenchymal tissues, and potentially even myocardium.

  17. Remodelling of action potential and intracellular calcium cycling dynamics during subacute myocardial infarction promotes ventricular arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chung-Chuan; Zhou, Shengmei; Hayashi, Hideki; Nihei, Motoki; Liu, Yen-Bin; Wen, Ming-Shien; Yeh, San-Jou; Fishbein, Michael C; Weiss, James N; Lin, Shien-Fong; Wu, Delon; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesize that remodelling of action potential and intracellular calcium (Cai) dynamics in the peri-infarct zone contributes to ventricular arrhythmogenesis in the postmyocardial infarction setting. To test this hypothesis, we performed simultaneous optical mapping of Cai and membrane potential (Vm) in the left ventricle in 15 rabbit hearts with myocardial infarction for 1 week. Ventricular premature beats frequently originated from the peri-infarct zone, and 37% showed elevation of Cai prior to Vm depolarization, suggesting reverse excitation–contraction coupling as their aetiology. During electrically induced ventricular fibrillation, the highest dominant frequency was in the peri-infarct zone in 61 of 70 episodes. The site of highest dominant frequency had steeper action potential duration restitution and was more susceptible to pacing-induced Cai alternans than sites remote from infarct. Wavebreaks during ventricular fibrillation tended to occur at sites of persistently elevated Cai. Infusion of propranolol flattened action potential duration restitution, reduced wavebreaks and converted ventricular fibrillation to ventricular tachycardia. We conclude that in the subacute phase of myocardial infarction, the peri-infarct zone exhibits regions with steep action potential duration restitution slope and unstable Cai dynamics. These changes may promote ventricular extrasystoles and increase the incidence of wavebreaks during ventricular fibrillation. Whereas increased tissue heterogeneity after subacute myocardial infarction creates a highly arrhythmogenic substrate, dynamic action potential and Cai cycling remodelling also contribute to the initiation and maintenance of ventricular fibrillation in this setting. PMID:17272354

  18. Cavitation of deep lacunar infarcts in patients with first-ever lacunar stroke: a 2-year follow-up study with MR.

    PubMed

    Loos, Caroline M J; Staals, Julie; Wardlaw, Joanna M; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J

    2012-08-01

    Studies in patients with lacunar stroke often assess the number of lacunes. However, data on how many symptomatic lacunar infarcts cavitate into a lacune are limited. We assessed the evolution of symptomatic lacunar infarcts over 2-year follow-up. In 82 patients with first-ever lacunar stroke with a lacunar infarct in the deep brain regions (excluding the centrum semiovale), we performed a brain MR at presentation and 2 years later. We classified cavitation of lacunar infarcts at baseline and on follow-up MR as absent, incomplete, or complete. We recorded time to imaging, infarct size, and vascular risk factors. On baseline MR, 38 (46%) index infarcts showed complete or incomplete cavitation. Median time to imaging was 8 (0-73) days in noncavitated and 63 (1-184) days in cavitated lesions (P<0.05). On follow-up imaging, 94% of the lacunar infarcts were completely or incompletely cavitated, most had reduced in diameter, and 5 (6%) had disappeared. Vascular risk factors were not associated with cavitation. Cavitation and lesion shrinkage were seen in almost all symptomatic lacunar infarcts in the deep brain regions over 2-year follow-up. Counting lacunes in these specific regions at a random moment might slightly, however not substantially, underestimate the burden of deep lacunar infarction.

  19. Effects of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on photochemically induced cerebral infarction in a rat hemiplegic model.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Harada, Katsuhiro; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kamikawa, Yurie

    2013-01-01

    Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that protects the adjacent cortex during cerebral infarction. We created a hemiparetic model of cerebral thrombosis from a photochemically induced infarction with the photosensitive dye, rose bengal, in rats. We examined the effects of edaravone on recovery in the model. A total of 36 adult Wistar rats were used. The right sensorimotor area was irradiated with green light with a wavelength of 533 nm (10 mm diameter), and the rose bengal was injected intravenously to create an infarction. The edaravone group was injected intraperitoneally with edaravone (3 mg/kg), and the control group was injected with saline. The recovery process of the hemiplegia was evaluated with the 7-step scale of Fenny. The infarcted areas were measured after fixation. The recovery of the paralysis in the edaravone-treated group was significantly earlier than that in the untreated group. Seven days later, both groups were mostly recovered and had scores of 7, and the infarction region was significantly smaller in the edaravone-treated group. Edaravone reduced the infarction area and promoted the functional recovery of hemiparesis from cerebral thrombosis in a rat model. These findings suggest that edaravone treatment would be effective in clinical patients recovering from cerebral infarction.

  20. Effects of Edaravone, a Free Radical Scavenger, on Photochemically Induced Cerebral Infarction in a Rat Hemiplegic Model

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Katsuhiro; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kamikawa, Yurie

    2013-01-01

    Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that protects the adjacent cortex during cerebral infarction. We created a hemiparetic model of cerebral thrombosis from a photochemically induced infarction with the photosensitive dye, rose bengal, in rats. We examined the effects of edaravone on recovery in the model. A total of 36 adult Wistar rats were used. The right sensorimotor area was irradiated with green light with a wavelength of 533 nm (10 mm diameter), and the rose bengal was injected intravenously to create an infarction. The edaravone group was injected intraperitoneally with edaravone (3 mg/kg), and the control group was injected with saline. The recovery process of the hemiplegia was evaluated with the 7-step scale of Fenny. The infarcted areas were measured after fixation. The recovery of the paralysis in the edaravone-treated group was significantly earlier than that in the untreated group. Seven days later, both groups were mostly recovered and had scores of 7, and the infarction region was significantly smaller in the edaravone-treated group. Edaravone reduced the infarction area and promoted the functional recovery of hemiparesis from cerebral thrombosis in a rat model. These findings suggest that edaravone treatment would be effective in clinical patients recovering from cerebral infarction. PMID:23853531

  1. Decision making processes in people with symptoms of acute myocardial infarction: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Pattenden, Jill; Watt, Ian; Lewin, Robert J P; Stanford, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify the themes that influence decision making processes used by patients with symptoms of acute myocardial infarction. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting Two district hospitals in North Yorkshire. Participants 22 patients admitted to hospital with confirmed second, third, or fourth acute myocardial infarction. Main outcome measure Patients' perceptions of their experience between the onset of symptoms and the decision to seek medical help. Results Six main themes that influence the decision making process were identified: appraisal of symptoms, perceived risk, previous experience, psychological and emotional factors, use of the NHS, and context of the event. Conclusions Knowledge of symptoms may not be enough to promote prompt action in the event of an acute myocardial infarction. Cognitive and emotional processes, individual beliefs and values, and the influence of the context of the event should also be considered in individual interventions designed to reduce delay in the event of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction. What is already known on this topicIndividual sociodemographic and clinical characteristics affect the time to seeking medical care in patients with symptoms of acute myocardial infarctionAppraisal of symptoms is difficult; people with classic and severe symptoms are more likely to take prompt actionWhat this study addsThe decision to seek medical help in patients who have had one or more previous myocardial infarctions is a complex processSimply providing patients with information on symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, and what to do in the event of these symptoms, may not be sufficient to promote prompt action PMID:11976241

  2. Heat and risk of myocardial infarction: hourly level case-crossover analysis of MINAP database

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Ben; Hajat, Shakoor; Haines, Andy; Wilkinson, Paul; Smeeth, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantify the association between exposure to higher temperatures and the risk of myocardial infarction at an hourly temporal resolution. Design Case-crossover study. Setting England and Wales Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) database. Participants 24 861 hospital admissions for myocardial infarction occurring in 11 conurbations during the warmest months (June to August) of the years 2003-09. Main outcome measure Odds ratio of myocardial infarction for a 1°C increase in temperature. Results Strong evidence was found for an effect of heat acting 1-6 hours after exposure to temperatures above an estimated threshold of 20°C (95% confidence interval 16°C to 25°C). For each 1°C increase in temperature above this threshold, the risk of myocardial infarction increased by 1.9% (0.5% to 3.3%, P=0.009). Later reductions in risk seemed to offset early increases in risk: the cumulative effect of a 1°C rise in temperature above the threshold was 0.2% (−2.1% to 2.5%) by the end of the third day after exposure. Conclusions Higher ambient temperatures above a threshold of 20°C seem to be associated with a transiently increased risk of myocardial infarction 1-6 hours after exposure. Reductions in risk at longer lags are consistent with heat triggering myocardial infarctions early in highly vulnerable people who would otherwise have had a myocardial infarction some time later (“short term displacement”). Policies aimed at reducing the health effects of hot weather should include consideration of effects operating at sub-daily timescales. PMID:23243290

  3. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor for the Early Prediction of Infarct Size

    PubMed Central

    Chan, William; White, David A.; Wang, Xin‐Yu; Bai, Ru‐Feng; Liu, Yang; Yu, Hai‐Yi; Zhang, You‐Yi; Fan, Fenling; Schneider, Hans G.; Duffy, Stephen J.; Taylor, Andrew J.; Du, Xiao‐Jun; Gao, Wei; Gao, Xiao‐Ming; Dart, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and knowledge of infarct size is critical for the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated whether early elevated plasma level of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is useful for these purposes in patients with ST‐elevation MI (STEMI). Methods and Results We first studied MIF level in plasma and the myocardium in mice and determined infarct size. MI for 15 or 60 minutes resulted in 2.5‐fold increase over control values in plasma MIF levels while MIF content in the ischemic myocardium reduced by 50% and plasma MIF levels correlated with myocardium‐at‐risk and infarct size at both time‐points (P<0.01). In patients with STEMI, we obtained admission plasma samples and measured MIF, conventional troponins (TnI, TnT), high sensitive TnI (hsTnI), creatine kinase (CK), CK‐MB, and myoglobin. Infarct size was assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Patients with chronic stable angina and healthy volunteers were studied as controls. Of 374 STEMI patients, 68% had elevated admission MIF levels above the highest value in healthy controls (>41.6 ng/mL), a proportion similar to hsTnI (75%) and TnI (50%), but greater than other biomarkers studied (20% to 31%, all P<0.05 versus MIF). Only admission MIF levels correlated with CMR‐derived infarct size, ventricular volumes and ejection fraction (n=42, r=0.46 to 0.77, all P<0.01) at 3 day and 3 months post‐MI. Conclusion Plasma MIF levels are elevated in a high proportion of STEMI patients at the first obtainable sample and these levels are predictive of final infarct size and the extent of cardiac remodeling. PMID:24096574

  4. Tanshinone inhibits neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammatory response in cerebral infarction rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Chao; Sun, Qiangsan

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of tanshinone (TSN) IIA in cerebral infarction. The cerebral infarction rat model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After pretreatment with TSN, cerebral infarct volume, cerebral edema, and neurological deficits score were evaluated, as well as cell apoptosis in hippocampus and cortex of the brain was examined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). In addition, rat primary neuronal cells were isolated and cultured in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. After pretreatment with TSN, cell viability and apoptosis were observed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The expressions of Bax and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Compared with untreated cerebral infarction rat, TSN treatment significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume, cerebral edema, and neurological deficits score (P < 0.05). Cell apoptosis as well as the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP in hippocampus and cortex of cerebral infarction rat were inhibited after pretreatment with TSN (P < 0.05). Furthermore, TSN remarkably increased cell viability and inhibited cell apoptosis ratio (P < 0.05) in OGD-induced rat neuronal cells. Besides, TSN significantly downregulated the expression of Bax and upregulated Bcl-2 (P < 0.05). TSN IIA has a preventive effect on cerebral infarction by inhibiting neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28402151

  5. Tanshinone inhibits neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammatory response in cerebral infarction rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Chao; Sun, Qiangsan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of tanshinone (TSN) IIA in cerebral infarction. The cerebral infarction rat model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After pretreatment with TSN, cerebral infarct volume, cerebral edema, and neurological deficits score were evaluated, as well as cell apoptosis in hippocampus and cortex of the brain was examined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). In addition, rat primary neuronal cells were isolated and cultured in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. After pretreatment with TSN, cell viability and apoptosis were observed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The expressions of Bax and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Compared with untreated cerebral infarction rat, TSN treatment significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume, cerebral edema, and neurological deficits score ( P < 0.05). Cell apoptosis as well as the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP in hippocampus and cortex of cerebral infarction rat were inhibited after pretreatment with TSN ( P < 0.05). Furthermore, TSN remarkably increased cell viability and inhibited cell apoptosis ratio ( P < 0.05) in OGD-induced rat neuronal cells. Besides, TSN significantly downregulated the expression of Bax and upregulated Bcl-2 ( P < 0.05). TSN IIA has a preventive effect on cerebral infarction by inhibiting neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Dysphagia in a patient with bilateral medial medullary infarcts.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Vimal K; Kalita, Jayanti; Misra, Usha K

    2009-09-01

    Bilateral medial medullary infarct is a rare stroke syndrome and only a handful of cases have been described. Dysphagia as a manifestation of medullary infarcts is well recognized but often associated with lateral medullary infarct. Bilateral medial medullary infarcts are commonly associated with severe dysphagia in addition to a number of other signs and symptoms. We describe a patient who had bilateral medial medullary infarct with severe dysphagia in addition to quadriplegia and respiratory difficulty, and analyze infarct topography with respect to dysphagia, risk factors, vascular territories involved, and prognosis in view of previously reported cases.

  7. Monocyte-directed RNAi targeting CCR2 improves infarct healing in atherosclerosis-prone mice

    PubMed Central

    Majmudar, Maulik D.; Keliher, Edmund J.; Heidt, Timo; Leuschner, Florian; Truelove, Jessica; Sena, Brena F.; Gorbatov, Rostic; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Dutta, Partha; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Courties, Gabriel; Sebas, Matt; Borodovsky, Anna; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Nolte, Marc W.; Dickneite, Gerhard; Chen, John W.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Swirski, Filip K.; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Exaggerated and prolonged inflammation after myocardial infarction (MI) accelerates left ventricular remodeling. Inflammatory pathways may present a therapeutic target to prevent post-MI heart failure. However, the appropriate magnitude and timing of interventions are largely unknown, in part because noninvasive monitoring tools are lacking. We here employed nanoparticle-facilitated silencing of CCR2, the chemokine receptor that governs inflammatory Ly-6Chigh monocyte subset traffic, to reduce infarct inflammation in apoE−/− mice after MI. We used dual target PET/MRI of transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity to monitor how monocyte subset-targeted RNAi altered infarct inflammation and healing. Methods and Results Flow cytometry, gene expression analysis and histology revealed reduced monocyte numbers and enhanced resolution of inflammation in infarcted hearts of apoE−/− mice that were treated with nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA. To follow extracellular matrix crosslinking non-invasively, we developed a fluorine-18 labeled PET agent (18F-FXIII). Recruitment of MPO-rich inflammatory leukocytes was imaged using a molecular MRI sensor of MPO activity (MPO-Gd). PET/MRI detected anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous nanoparticle-facilitated siRNA therapy (75% decrease of MPO-Gd signal, p<0.05) while 18F-FXIII PET reflected unimpeded matrix crosslinking in the infarct. Silencing of CCR2 during the first week after MI improved ejection fraction on day 21 after MI from 29 to 35% (p<0.05). Conclusion CCR2 targeted RNAi reduced recruitment of Ly-6Chigh monocytes, attenuated infarct inflammation and curbed post-MI left ventricular remodeling. PMID:23616627

  8. Angiogenesis in the Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Cochain, Clement; Channon, Keith M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Proangiogenic therapy appeared a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), as de novo formation of microvessels, has the potential to salvage ischemic myocardium at early stages after MI, and is also essential to prevent the transition to heart failure through the control of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and contractility. Recent Advances: Exciting preclinical studies evaluating proangiogenic therapies for MI have prompted the initiation of numerous clinical trials based on protein or gene transfer delivery of growth factors and administration of stem/progenitor cells, mainly from bone marrow origin. Nonetheless, these clinical trials showed mixed results in patients with acute MI. Critical Issues: Even though methodological caveats, such as way of delivery for angiogenic growth factors (e.g., protein vs. gene transfer) and stem/progenitor cells or isolation/culture procedure for regenerative cells might partially explain the failure of such trials, it appears that delivery of a single growth factor or cell type does not support angiogenesis sufficiently to promote cardiac repair. Future Directions: Optimization of proangiogenic therapies might include stimulation of both angiogenesis and vessel maturation and/or the use of additional sources of stem/progenitor cells, such as cardiac progenitor cells. Experimental unraveling of the mechanisms of angiogenesis, vessel maturation, and endothelial cell/cardiomyocyte cross talk in the ischemic heart, analysis of emerging pathways, as well as a better understanding of how cardiovascular risk factors impact endogenous and therapeutically stimulated angiogenesis, would undoubtedly pave the way for the development of novel and hopefully efficient angiogenesis targeting therapeutics for the treatment of acute MI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1100–1113. PMID:22870932

  9. Percutaneous Intervention in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Culprit-only or Complete Revascularization?

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Ana Paula Susin; de Quadros, Alexandre Schaan; Vieira, José Luiz da Costa; Portal, Vera Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The best approach of multivessel coronary artery disease in the context of acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation and primary percutaneous coronary intervention is one of the main reasons for controversy in cardiology. Although the main global guidelines do not recommend routine complete revascularization in these patients, recent randomized clinical trials have demonstrated benefit of this approach in reducing cardiovascular outcomes. For this reason, an adequate review of this evidence is essential in order to establish scientifically based strategy and achieve better outcomes for these patients who present with acute myocardial infarction. This review aims to present objectively the most recent evidence available on this topic. PMID:29185617

  10. DESTINY-S: attitudes of physicians toward disability and treatment in malignant MCA infarction.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Hermann; Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Hemphill, J Claude; Heuschmann, Peter U; Jüttler, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) reduces mortality and improves outcome after malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction but leaves a high number of survivors severely disabled. Attitudes among physicians toward the degree of disability that is considered acceptable and the impact of aphasia may play a major role in treatment decisions. DESTINY-S is a multicenter, international, cross-sectional survey among 1,860 physicians potentially involved in the treatment of malignant MCA infarction. Questions concerned the grade of disability, the hemisphere of the stroke, and the preferred treatment for malignant MCA infarction. mRS scores of 3 or better were considered acceptable by the majority of respondents (79.3%). Only few considered a mRS score of 5 still acceptable (5.8%). A mRS score of 4 was considered acceptable by 38.0%. Involved hemisphere (dominant vs. non-dominant) was considered a major clinical symptom influencing treatment decisions in 47.7% of respondents, also reflected by significantly different rates for DHC as preferred treatment in dominant versus non-dominant hemispheric infarction (46.9 vs. 72.9%). Significant differences in acceptable disability and treatment decisions were found among geographic regions, medical specialties, and respondents with different work experiences. Little consensus exists among physicians regarding acceptable outcome and therapeutic management after malignant MCA infarction, and physician's recommendations do not correlate with available evidence. We advocate for a decision-making process that balances scientific evidence, patient preference, and clinical expertise.

  11. Thrombus aspiration in acute myocardial infarction: concepts, clinical trials, and current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Vandermolen, Sebastian; Marciniak, Maciej; Byrne, Jonathan; De Silva, Kalpa

    2016-05-01

    The pathogenesis that underlies acute myocardial infarction is complex and multifactorial. One of the most important components, however, is the role of thrombus formation following atherosclerotic plaque rupture, leading to sudden coronary occlusion and subsequent ischemia and infarction. Thrombus aspiration provides the opportunity of intracoronary clot extraction with the aim to improve coronary and myocardial perfusion, by reducing the risk of no-reflow secondary to distal embolization of thrombus. The utility of thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention has been assessed in an increasing number of observational and randomized studies. This article reviews the contemporary data and provides insights into the validity of thrombus aspiration in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Prediction of infarction volume and infarction growth rate in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Saadat; Akhtar, Naveed; Alboudi, Ayman; Kamran, Kainat; Ahmad, Arsalan; Inshasi, Jihad; Salam, Abdul; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Qidwai, Uvais

    2017-08-08

    The prediction of infarction volume after stroke onset depends on the shape of the growth dynamics of the infarction. To understand growth patterns that predict lesion volume changes, we studied currently available models described in literature and compared the models with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System [ANFIS], a method previously unused in the prediction of infarction growth and infarction volume (IV). We included 67 patients with malignant middle cerebral artery [MMCA] stroke who underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy. All patients had at least three cranial CT scans prior to the surgery. The rate of growth and volume of infarction measured on the third CT was predicted with ANFIS without statistically significant difference compared to the ground truth [P = 0.489]. This was not possible with linear, logarithmic or exponential methods. ANFIS was able to predict infarction volume [IV3] over a wide range of volume [163.7-600 cm 3 ] and time [22-110 hours]. The cross correlation [CRR] indicated similarity between the ANFIS-predicted IV3 and original data of 82% for ANFIS, followed by logarithmic 70%, exponential 63% and linear 48% respectively. Our study shows that ANFIS is superior to previously defined methods in the prediction of infarction growth rate (IGR) with reasonable accuracy, over wide time and volume range.

  13. Alcohol and the risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Flesch, M; Rosenkranz, S; Erdmann, E; Böhm, M

    2001-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly demonstrated a beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the incidence of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and overall mortality. The latter increases with excessive alcohol consumption. Although most epidemiological studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of alcohol consumption independent from the specific kind of alcoholic beverage, there is increasing evidence that wine and in particular red wine might contain pharmacological substances, which prevent atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction independent from the wine ethanol. Pathophysiological mechanisms mediating these beneficial effects include effects of wine phenols and tannins on LDL-cholesterol oxidation status, thrombocyte aggregation, endothelial function and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Identification and characterization of the pharmacologically active substances might provide the stage for the development of new substances to be used in the prevention of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction.

  14. Pneumococcal vaccination and risk of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, François; Garant, Marie-Pierre; Carvalho, Jean-Christophe; Lanthier, Luc; Smieja, Marek; Pilon, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background Based on promising results from laboratory studies, we hypothesized that pneumococcal vaccination would protect patients from myocardial infarction. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study that included patients considered to be at risk of myocardial infarction. We used health databases to obtain hospital diagnoses and vaccination status. We compared patients who had been admitted for treatment of myocardial infarction with patients admitted to a surgical department in the same hospital for a reason other than myocardial infarction between 1997 and 2003. Results We found a total of 43 209 patients who were at risk; of these, we matched 999 cases and 3996 controls according to age, sex and year of hospital admission. Cases were less likely than controls to have been vaccinated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–0.70). This putative protective role of the vaccine was not observed for patients who had received the vaccine up to 1 year before myocardial infarction (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.54–1.33). In contrast, if vaccination had occurred 2 years or more before the hospital admission, the association was stronger (adjusted OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.20–0.46). Interpretation Pneumococcal vaccination was associated with a decrease of more than 50% in the rate myocardial infarction 2 years after exposure. If confirmed, this association should generate interest in exploring the putative mechanisms and may offer another reason to promote pneumococcal vaccination. PMID:18838452

  15. Abrupt opium discontinuation has no significant triggering effect on acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Masoomi, Mohammad; Zare, Jahangir; Nasri, Hamidreza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2011-04-01

    A deleterious effect of withdrawal symptoms due to abrupt discontinuation of opium on the cardiovascular system is one of the recent interesting topics in the cardiovascular field. The current study hypothesized that the withdrawal syndrome due to discontinuing opium might be an important trigger for the appearance of acute myocardial infarction. Eighty-one opium-addicted individuals who were candidates for cardiovascular clinical evaluation and consecutively hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) ward of Shafa Hospital in Kerman between January and July 2009 were included in the study and categorized in the case group, including patients experiencing withdrawal symptoms within 6-12 h after the reduced or discontinued use of opium according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-revised IV version (DSM-IV-R) criteria for opium dependence and withdrawal, and the control group, without opium withdrawal symptoms. The appearance of acute myocardial infarction was compared between the two groups using multivariable regression models. Acute myocardial infarction occurred in 50.0% of those with withdrawal symptoms and in 45.1% of patients without evidence of opium withdrawal (P = 0.669). Multivariable analysis showed that opium withdrawal symptoms were not a trigger for acute myocardial infarction adjusting for demographic characteristics, marital status, education level and common coronary artery disease risk profiles [odds ratio (OR) = 0.920, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.350-2.419, P = 0.866]. Also, daily dose of opium before reducing or discontinuing use did not predict the appearance of myocardial infarction in the presence of confounder variables (OR = 0.975, 95% CI = 0.832-1.143, P = 0.755). Withdrawal syndrome due to abrupt discontinuation of opium does not have a triggering role for appearance of acute myocardial infarction.

  16. Splenic release of platelets contributes to increased circulating platelet size and inflammation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Ming; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Li-Ping; Su, Yidan; Tsai, Alan; Xu, Qi; Zhang, Ming; Lambert, Gavin W; Kiriazis, Helen; Gao, Wei; Dart, Anthony M; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is characterized by a rapid increase in circulating platelet size but the mechanism for this is unclear. Large platelets are hyperactive and associated with adverse clinical outcomes. We determined mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet-monocyte conjugation (PMC) using blood samples from patients, and blood and the spleen from mice with AMI. We further measured changes in platelet size, PMC, cardiac and splenic contents of platelets and leucocyte infiltration into the mouse heart. In AMI patients, circulating MPV and PMC increased at 1-3 h post-MI and MPV returned to reference levels within 24 h after admission. In mice with MI, increases in platelet size and PMC became evident within 12 h and were sustained up to 72 h. Splenic platelets are bigger than circulating platelets in normal or infarct mice. At 24 h post-MI, splenic platelet storage was halved whereas cardiac platelets increased by 4-fold. Splenectomy attenuated all changes observed in the blood, reduced leucocyte and platelet accumulation in the infarct myocardium, limited infarct size and alleviated cardiac dilatation and dysfunction. AMI-induced elevated circulating levels of adenosine diphosphate and catecholamines in both human and the mouse, which may trigger splenic platelet release. Pharmacological inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme, β1-adrenergic receptor or platelet P2Y12 receptor reduced platelet abundance in the murine infarct myocardium albeit having diverse effects on platelet size and PMC. In conclusion, AMI evokes release of splenic platelets, which contributes to the increase in platelet size and PMC and facilitates myocardial accumulation of platelets and leucocytes, thereby promoting post-infarct inflammation. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. The striatocapsular infarction and its aftermaths

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Osama S M; Zangana, Hero M; Ameen, Nawa A

    2010-01-01

    Ischaemic stroke syndromes in the vascular territory of middle cerebral artery may have atypical presentation and radiographic findings because of the variable anatomy of that artery. Therefore, misdiagnosis of these syndromes as neoplastic or infectious processes is not uncommon. This case describes a 69-year-old comatose woman who was referred to us as having ‘a brain tumour with massive surrounding oedema.’ Further work-up revealed that she had a large left-sided lenticular nuclear infarction with some extension into the surrounding areas—the striatocapsular infarction. PMID:22778185

  18. Focal hepatic infarction with bile lake formation

    SciT

    Peterson, I.M.; Neumann, C.H.

    Venous thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives is a well recognized phenomenon. Arterial thrombosis, while less common, is also a known risk, as evidenced by the increased incidence of cerebral vascular accidents and myocardial ischemia or infarction. The liver is relatively protected from the usual consequences of arterial thrombosis because of its dual blood supply. The authors present an unusual case of a young woman with a history of oral contraceptive and cigarette use who developed hepatic artery thrombosis and had focal liver lesions on computed tomography (CT) due to hepatic infarction and bile lake formation despite an intact portal venousmore » system.« less

  19. Fibromuscular Dysplasia Presenting with Bilateral Renal Infarction

    SciT

    Doody, O., E-mail: orla_doody@hotmail.co; Adam, W. R.; Foley, P. T.

    2009-03-15

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report a rare case of bilateral segmental renal infarction secondary to FMD in a young male patient. His initial presentation with loin pain and pyrexia resulted in a delay in the definitive diagnosis of FMD. He was successfully treated with bilateral balloon angioplasty. The delayed diagnosis in this patient until the condition had progressed to bilateral renal infarcts highlights the need for prompt investigation and diagnosis of suspected cases of FMD.

  20. Femoral medullary infarction secondary to canine total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sebestyen, P; Marcellin-Little, D J; DeYoung, B A

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of femoral intramedullary infarction after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to determine whether any specific femoral morphology predisposes to bone infarction. Retrospective clinical study. All dogs from our hospital population undergoing THA between 1984 and 1997 with radiographic follow-up available at 1 year or more postoperatively. A case control study was conducted within the THA group to determine risk factors predisposing to femoral infarction after THA. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed. Data were collected on clinical parameters, femoral morphology, prosthesis, and bone changes. Radiographic diagnosis was confirmed using histopathology in 11 femora. Radiographs of 50 age-matched control dogs weighing more than 20 kg with coxofemoral degenerative joint disease were randomly chosen to determine the prevalence of bone infarction in nonoperated dogs. Ninety-one dogs with 110 THA were included in the study. Fifteen of the 110 femora with THA had radiographic evidence of infarction (14%). Infarction was not present in any femora in the control group. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infarction between dogs that received cemented or uncemented prostheses. Clinical signs were not reported in any patient that developed femoral infarction. Young age (P = .03) and a distance between the greater trochanter and nutrient foramen greater than 79 mm (P = .008) predisposed dogs to femoral infarction. Over time, three infarcts decreased in size radiographically, five remained unchanged, and three expanded. An osteosarcoma developed at the site of a bone infarct in one dog. Femoral intramedullary infarction occurred in 15 of 110 THA. Young age at the time of THA and a greater distance between the greater trochanter and the nutrient foramen predisposed to infarction. Intramedullary infarction occurs after canine THA. These bone infarcts do not appear to cause clinical signs; however, they may present a diagnostic

  1. Splenic Infarction: An Under-recognized Complication of Infectious Mononucleosis?

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; George, Ann; Arnaout, Sami; Wang, Jennifer P; Abraham, George M

    2018-03-01

    Splenic infarction is a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis. We describe 3 cases of splenic infarction attributed to infectious mononucleosis that we encountered within a 2-month period. We underscore the awareness of this potential complication of infectious mononucleosis and discuss the differential diagnosis of splenic infarction, including infectious etiologies. While symptomatic management is usually sufficient for infectious mononucleosis-associated splenic infarction, close monitoring for other complications, including splenic rupture, is mandated.

  2. Splenic Infarction: An Under-recognized Complication of Infectious Mononucleosis?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; George, Ann; Arnaout, Sami; Wang, Jennifer P; Abraham, George M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Splenic infarction is a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis. We describe 3 cases of splenic infarction attributed to infectious mononucleosis that we encountered within a 2-month period. We underscore the awareness of this potential complication of infectious mononucleosis and discuss the differential diagnosis of splenic infarction, including infectious etiologies. While symptomatic management is usually sufficient for infectious mononucleosis-associated splenic infarction, close monitoring for other complications, including splenic rupture, is mandated. PMID:29577060

  3. Skull infarction in a patient with malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Nagle, C E; Morayati, S J; LeDuc, M A

    1987-09-01

    The authors describe a case of a skull infarction initially suspected to be an isolated, remote metastasis in a patient diagnosed with soft tissue malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Osseous malignant fibrous histiocytoma has been reported to occur within a bone infarction but the presence of a benign bone infarction remote from a soft tissue malignant fibrous histiocytoma has not been reported previously. Bone infarctions and malignant fibrous histiocytomas are briefly reviewed.

  4. Myofilament dysfunction contributes to impaired myocardial contraction in the infarct border zone

    PubMed Central

    Shimkunas, Rafael; Makwana, Om; Spaulding, Kimberly; Bazargan, Mona; Khazalpour, Michael; Takaba, Kiyoaki; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Lovett, David H.; Simpson, Paul C.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    After myocardial infarction, a poorly contracting nonischemic border zone forms adjacent to the infarct. The cause of border zone dysfunction is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the myofilament mechanisms involved in postinfarction border zone dysfunction. Two weeks after anteroapical infarction of sheep hearts, we studied in vitro isometric and isotonic contractions of demembranated myocardium from the infarct border zone and a zone remote from the infarct. Maximal force development (Fmax) of the border zone myocardium was reduced by 31 ± 2% versus the remote zone myocardium (n = 6/group, P < 0.0001). Decreased border zone Fmax was not due to a reduced content of contractile material, as assessed histologically, and from myosin content. Furthermore, decreased border zone Fmax did not involve altered cross-bridge kinetics, as assessed by muscle shortening velocity and force development kinetics. Decreased border zone Fmax was associated with decreased cross-bridge formation, as assessed from muscle stiffness in the absence of ATP where cross-bridge formation should be maximized (rigor stiffness was reduced 34 ± 6%, n = 5, P = 0.011 vs. the remote zone). Furthermore, the border zone myocardium had significantly reduced phosphorylation of myosin essential light chain (ELC; 41 ± 10%, n = 4, P < 0.05). However, for animals treated with doxycycline, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, rigor stiffness and ELC phosphorylation were not reduced in the border zone myocardium, suggesting that doxycycline had a protective effect. In conclusion, myofilament dysfunction contributes to postinfarction border zone dysfunction, myofilament dysfunction involves impaired cross-bridge formation and decreased ELC phosphorylation, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition may be beneficial for limiting postinfarct border zone dysfunction. PMID:25128171

  5. Gene manipulated peritoneal cell patch repairs infarcted myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Millard, Ronald W.; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Tiemin; Fan, Guo-Chang; Ashraf, Atif; Xu, Meifeng; Ashraf, Muhammad; Wang, Yigang

    2010-01-01

    A gene manipulated cell patch using a homologous peritoneum substrate was developed and applied after myocardial infarction to repair scarred myocardium. We genetically engineered male rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) using adenoviral transduction to over-express CXCR4/green fluorescent protein (GFP) (MSCCXCR4) or MSCNull or siRNA targeting CXCR4 (MSCsiRNA). Gene expression was studied by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cells were cultured on excised peritoneum for 9 days. Two weeks after left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation in female hearts, the peritoneum patch was applied over the scarred myocardium, cell side down. Efficacy of engraftment was determined by presence of GFP positive cells. One month after cell implantation, echocardiography was performed and hearts were harvested for histological analysis. Left ventricle (LV) fibrosis, LV anterior wall thickness (AWT) and blood vessel density at the margins of the graft were measured. There was significant up-regulation of the chemokines in the MSCCXCR4 group cultured under normoxic conditions when compared to the MSCNull group and a further increase was observed after exposure to hypoxia. One month after cell transplantation with the peritoneum patch, substantial numbers of GFP-positive cells were observed in and around the infarcted myocardium in MSCCXCR4 group. LV AWT, LV fibrosis and LV function were significantly improved in the MSCCXCR4 group as compared to these same variables in the MSCNull control. These salutary effects were absent in MSCsiRNA group. The gene manipulated MSC-seeded peritoneum patch promotes tissue nutrition (angiogenesis), reduces myocardial remodeling, and enhances heart function after myocardial infarction. PMID:19913551

  6. Right ventricular myocardial infarction: presentation and acute outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Anand; Gnanavelu, G; Subramaniam, T; Dorairajan, Smrita; Chockalingam, V

    2005-01-01

    Acute inferior wall myocardial infarction can be complicated by right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI), and the excess mortality cannot be fully explained by mechanical reasons. The authors try to systematically assess the incidence, clinical presentation and early outcomes of right ventricular infarction in a tertiary-care setup. Their study was a prospective observational series of consecutive patients with RVMI. All patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction (n=135) were enlisted. RVMI was diagnosed by > or = 1 mm ST elevation in lead V(4R) in a right-sided electrocardiogram. Right ventricular (RV) infarction occurred in 37% (n=50) of patients with acute inferior infarctions. Patients with isolated inferior infarction served as controls (n=85). Echocardiography was performed within 24 hours of admission. From both groups, 66% qualified for thrombolysis. The incidence of hypotension-bradycardia and heart blocks requiring pacing support was much higher in right ventricular infarction (n=21) than in inferior infarction (n=13). Clinically manifest RV dysfunction (raised jugular venous pulse [JVP], hypotension, tricuspid regurgitation) and right ventricular dilation detected by echocardiography were seen in only 13 patients. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher (n=8, 16%) in right ventricular infarction group than in inferior infarction group (n=3, 3.5%). Right ventricular infarction was seen in a third of inferior myocardial infarctions (IMIs), but hemodynamically evident right ventricular dysfunction occurred in only a tenth of acute IMIs. Nevertheless, the acute in-hospital mortality rate of patients with right ventricular infarction was much higher than in those with inferior infarction owing to arrhythmic and mechanical complications.

  7. Incidence of myocardial infarction and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, Henning

    1982-08-01

    Extreme values of temperature and/or humidity in the temperate climate of Hamburg are not able to explain the influence of weather on day-to-day fluctuations of morbidity. Short term changes in weather are described by two objective classifications as deviation from the meteorological past: 1. the temperature-humidity-environment, derived from values of temperature and water vapour pressure at 07.00 h, 2. changes in the cyclonality, derived from the difference of 500 and 850 mbar vorticity values. Their suitability for human biometeorology is illustrated with a material of 1262 subjects who suffered from acute myocardial infarction. For these investigated cases it was known whether angina pectoris was already manifest before the infarction or not. The daily weather conditions have a significant effect on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction according to angina pectoris. Compared to subjects with angina pectoris those without angina pectoris show an increased susceptibility to infarction during changes in weather conditions to warmer/more humid and also during all strong changes in the cyclonality whereby the temperature-humidity-environment seems to leave only the role of an indicator too. Persons with a preceeding angina pectoris are more sensitive agains rapid changes in weather conditions.

  8. Rehabilitation of Patients Following Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, James A.; Emery, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines three behavioral strategies in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) for formal treatment for physical and psychosocial sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI): exercise therapy, Type A modification, and nonspecific psychological therapies. Concludes CR improves the quality of life among post-MI patients, but does not prolong life or significantly…

  9. [Myocardial infarction after conduction electrical weapon shock].

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, H; Bouzouita, K; Selmi, K; Chelli, M; Mokaddem, A; Ben Ameur, Y; Boujnah, M R

    2013-04-01

    Controversy persists over the safety of conducted electrical weapons, which are increasingly used by law enforcement agencies around the world. We report a case of 33-year-old man who had an acute inferior myocardial infarction after he was shot in the chest with an electrical weapon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical decompression for space-occupying cerebral infarction (the Hemicraniectomy After Middle Cerebral Artery infarction with Life-threatening Edema Trial [HAMLET]): a multicentre, open, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Amelink, G Johan; van Gijn, Jan; van der Worp, H Bart

    2009-04-01

    Patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarctions have a poor prognosis, with case fatality rates of up to 80%. In a pooled analysis of randomised trials, surgical decompression within 48 h of stroke onset reduced case fatality and improved functional outcome; however, the effect of surgery after longer intervals is unknown. The aim of HAMLET was to assess the effect of decompressive surgery within 4 days of the onset of symptoms in patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction. Patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction were randomly assigned within 4 days of stroke onset to surgical decompression or best medical treatment. The primary outcome measure was the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at 1 year, which was dichotomised between good (0-3) and poor (4-6) outcome. Other outcome measures were the dichotomy of mRS score between 4 and 5, case fatality, quality of life, and symptoms of depression. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN94237756. Between November, 2002, and October, 2007, 64 patients were included; 32 were randomly assigned to surgical decompression and 32 to best medical treatment. Surgical decompression had no effect on the primary outcome measure (absolute risk reduction [ARR] 0%, 95% CI -21 to 21) but did reduce case fatality (ARR 38%, 15 to 60). In a meta-analysis of patients in DECIMAL (DEcompressive Craniectomy In MALignant middle cerebral artery infarction), DESTINY (DEcompressive Surgery for the Treatment of malignant INfarction of the middle cerebral arterY), and HAMLET who were randomised within 48 h of stroke onset, surgical decompression reduced poor outcome (ARR 16%, -0.1 to 33) and case fatality (ARR 50%, 34 to 66). Surgical decompression reduces case fatality and poor outcome in patients with space-occupying infarctions who are treated within 48 h of stroke onset. There is no evidence that this operation improves functional outcome when it is delayed for up to 96 h after stroke onset

  11. Green tea consumption, abdominal obesity as related factors of lacunar infarction in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Ko, S-G; Go, H; Sun, S; Lee, S; Park, W; Choi, Y; Song, Y; Hwang, G; Kim, G; Jeon, C; Park, J; Lee, K; Cha, M; Bang, O; Jung, H; Kim, N; Shin, Y-C

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate interaction of green tea consumption and abdominal obesity as related factors for lacunar infarction in Korean women. A hospital-based, incident case-control study. The Prevention and Managements of Stroke in Women study. Cases (n=233) of first incident lacunar infarction were enrolled and matched by age to stroke-free hospital controls (n=204). The data were collected through face-to-face interviews by well trained research assistants to assess demographic, medical, lifestyle, marital status, religions status, green tea consumptions, family history of stroke, smoking status, alcohol consumption, meat and vegetable intake frequency, and past history of hypertension. Biochemical analysis, fasting blood specimens for lipid, glucose, and cholesterol level were acquired. Compared with the non green tea consumer and obese women group, only the green tea consumption and non obese women group had a protective effect of lacunar infarction when adjusted for age, and age plus diet factors (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.09, 0.59; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.56 respectively), but lost their significance after adjustment for age, diet factors, vascular risk factors and full model included atherogenic index factors (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.01; OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.12, 1.89 respectively). The interaction of green tea consumption and non obesity have reduced risk of lacunar infarction, but not after adjustment for age, diet factors, vascular risk factors and atherogenic index. Also individually green tea consumption and abdominal obesity have failed to find an independent relationship with lacunar infarction after adjustment by all risk factors. Green tea consumption and green tea consumption with non obese group seemed to have a protective effect for lacunar infarction. In the results of our study, these results still remain controversial, and then we need further and larger study to get at the root of real causal effect of both relationships.

  12. MIQuant – Semi-Automation of Infarct Size Assessment in Models of Cardiac Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Tiago; de Pina, Maria de Fátima; Guedes, Joana G.; Freire, Ana; Quelhas, Pedro; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua

    2011-01-01

    Background The cardiac regenerative potential of newly developed therapies is traditionally evaluated in rodent models of surgically induced myocardial ischemia. A generally accepted key parameter for determining the success of the applied therapy is the infarct size. Although regarded as a gold standard method for infarct size estimation in heart ischemia, histological planimetry is time-consuming and highly variable amongst studies. The purpose of this work is to contribute towards the standardization and simplification of infarct size assessment by providing free access to a novel semi-automated software tool. The acronym MIQuant was attributed to this application. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were subject to permanent coronary artery ligation and the size of chronic infarcts was estimated by area and midline-length methods using manual planimetry and with MIQuant. Repeatability and reproducibility of MIQuant scores were verified. The validation showed high correlation (r midline length = 0.981; r area = 0.970 ) and agreement (Bland-Altman analysis), free from bias for midline length and negligible bias of 1.21% to 3.72% for area quantification. Further analysis demonstrated that MIQuant reduced by 4.5-fold the time spent on the analysis and, importantly, MIQuant effectiveness is independent of user proficiency. The results indicate that MIQuant can be regarded as a better alternative to manual measurement. Conclusions We conclude that MIQuant is a reliable and an easy-to-use software for infarct size quantification. The widespread use of MIQuant will contribute towards the standardization of infarct size assessment across studies and, therefore, to the systematization of the evaluation of cardiac regenerative potential of emerging therapies. PMID:21980376

  13. Stress, social support, and stopping smoking after myocardial infarction in England.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, D C; Muir, K R; Packham, C J; Madeley, R J

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the effect on mortality of stopping smoking after myocardial infarction and the psychosocial factors that influence the decision to stop. DESIGN--Analysis of smokers in a large prospective study. Self completed questionnaires provided information on psychosocial factors. SETTING--Coronary care units at six English hospitals participating in a multicentre clinical trial. SUBJECTS--These comprised consenting myocardial infarction survivors who had been identified as smokers and who completed questionnaires within seven days of infarct at six hospitals participating in the Anglo-Scandinavian study of early thrombolysis. The 532 patients identified have been followed for over five and a half years. The main outcome measure was five year all cause mortality. MAIN RESULTS--Smokers who stopped within one month showed significantly reduced mortality compared with those who persisted, adjusting for other prognostic indicators (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.98). Overall, 74% stopped smoking. Being married, low life stress levels before infarct, and higher social class were associated with stopping smoking but the differentials were small. Of the clinical variables, a final diagnosis of definite myocardial infarction was associated with stopping smoking. All associations remained after multiple logistic regression. CONCLUSION--Smoking cessation can halve the smokers' odds of dying after myocardial infarction and psychosocial factors play a small but important role in the important decision to stop smoking. Health professionals should continue to stress the importance of stopping smoking to all patients as there is little evidence to support specific directing of advice to relatively "stress or "socially isolated" groups. PMID:8596092

  14. Washout of heme-containing proteins dramatically improves tetrazolium-based infarct staining.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Kelly R; Stiko, Ann; Buetow, Bernard; Lott, Fred; Guo, Ping; Virca, Duke; Toombs, Christopher F

    2007-01-01

    Methods to determine infarct size following ischemia-reperfusion injury include gross staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and perfusion of colored dyes to demarcate the non-ischemic zone. Infarcted tissue (INF) can typically appear a mottled tan to brownish color, making a border between INF and TTC-positive tissue difficult to discern. Previous work in our lab indicated that following TTC staining, prolonged washing of thick sections dramatically sharpened this boundary. Adult rats underwent 30 min ischemia via LAD ligation and reperfusion/recovery over 24 h. Hearts were then harvested, thick-sectioned, and stained with TTC. Stained sections were stored in PBS at 4 degrees C for up to 3 weeks. Histology on thin sections from infarcted hearts fixed directly after harvest revealed extensive hemorrhage within the INF. However, this hemorrhage is washed out when hearts are stored in PBS for 3 weeks. SDS-PAGE of PBS samples taken at 1, 2, and 3 weeks showed a low molecular weight band appearing over time. Peptide sequencing revealed the presence of several proteins including the heme-containing proteins (HCPs) hemoglobin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin. The loss of HCPs from thick sections to PBS corresponded with the blanching of the previously mottled INF within each section. HPLC analysis of these samples confirmed the loss of HCPs contributes to INF whitening. Further, analysis of infarct size values derived from heart slices with or without HCPs showed a significant decrease in measurement error when values were derived from slices without HCPs. These data suggest that HCPs in the heart tissue contribute to the non-uniform and discolored appearance of the INF, and that washout of these proteins produces an INF more easily distinguished from neighboring non-infarcted tissue. This method greatly reduces the error associated with infarct measurements and improves the analysis of the effects of drug treatments and other interventions designed to impact

  15. Reductions in Cigarette Smoking and Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality in Jefferson County, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Philip; Ramirez, Amelie G.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Fonseca, Vincent P.

    2010-01-01

    After litigation against the tobacco industry ended in a settlement, the Texas legislature funded pilot projects to reduce tobacco use in selected areas of the state. Subsequent telephone surveys showed that well-funded activities were successful in reducing population rates of self-reported cigarette smoking. We present evidence that the reduction in smoking promptly led to lower rates of death from acute myocardial infarctions. PMID:20966365

  16. Impact of exercise training associated to pyridostigmine treatment on autonomic function and inflammatory profile after myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Feriani, Daniele J; Souza, Gabriel I H; Carrozzi, Nicolle M; Mostarda, Cristiano; Dourado, Paulo M M; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; De Angelis, Kátia; Moreno, Heitor; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2017-01-15

    The effects of exercise training (ET) associated with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on inflammatory profile after myocardial infarction (MI), are unclear. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: control (C); sedentary+infarcted (I); sedentary+infarcted treated with PYR (IP); infarcted submitted to aerobic exercise training (IT); and infarcted submitted to treatment with PYR and aerobic exercise training (ITP). After 12weeks of ET (50-70% maximal running speed; 1h a day, 5days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14mg/mL on drink water), hemodynamic, autonomic and cytokines expression were performed. We observed that both aerobic ET, associated or not with PYR treatment in MI animals, were able to: reduced MI area, improved systolic and diastolic function, baroreflex sensitivity, cardiovascular autonomic modulation, and tonic activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Also, they led to a reduction of inflammatory profile measured at plasma, left ventricle and soleus skeletal muscle. However, additional effects were observed when ET and PYR were associated, such as an increase in vagal tonus and modulation, reduction of MI area, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as an increase of interleukin-10/TNF-α ratio on left ventricle. These data suggest that associating ET and PYR promotes some additional benefits on cardiovascular autonomic modulation and inflammatory profile in infarcted rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulatory T cells are recruited in the infarcted mouse myocardium and may modulate fibroblast phenotype and function

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Amit; Dobaczewski, Marcin; Rai, Vikrant; Haque, Zaffar; Chen, Wei; Li, Na

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in suppressing immune responses regulating behavior and gene expression in effector T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Tregs infiltrate the infarcted myocardium; however, their role the inflammatory and reparative response after myocardial infarction remains poorly understood. We used FoxP3EGFP reporter mice to study Treg trafficking in the infarcted heart and examined the effects of Treg depletion on postinfarction remodeling using an anti-CD25 antibody. Moreover, we investigated the in vitro effects of Tregs on cardiac fibroblast phenotype and function. Low numbers of Tregs infiltrated the infarcted myocardium after 24–72 h of reperfusion. Treg depletion had no significant effects on cardiac dysfunction and scar size after reperfused myocardial infarction but accelerated ventricular dilation and accentuated apical remodeling. Enhanced myocardial dilation in Treg-depleted animals was associated with increased expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 and accentuated macrophage infiltration. In vitro, Tregs modulated the cardiac fibroblast phenotype, reducing expression of α-smooth muscle actin, decreasing expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3, and attenuating contraction of fibroblast-populated collagen pads. Our findings suggest that endogenous Tregs have modest effects on the inflammatory and reparative response after myocardial infarction. However, the anti-inflammatory and matrix-preserving properties of Tregs may suggest a role for Treg-based cell therapy in the attenuation of adverse postinfarction remodeling. PMID:25128167

  18. Sibutramine-induced acute myocardial infarction in a young lady.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kin-Ming Anfernee; Ng, Hon Wah; Chan, Chi-Kin; Yip, Gabriel; Lau, Fei Lung

    2008-11-01

    Sibutramine is an amphetamine-like drug used for its weight reducing effect. Sibutramine-induced acute coronary syndrome has rarely been reported. We report a case of myocardial infarction associated with the use of sibutramine. A 37-year-old woman presented to an Emergency Department (ED) with intermittent retrosternal chest pain, nausea, and sweating for 3 days. She reported taking one sibutramine tablet each day for 3 days. Blood pressure was 128/89 mm Hg and pulse 66 beats/min. An electrocardiogram revealed ST elevation over the inferior leads and ST depression over leads AVR and V1, the other leads were normal. Serum troponin T was 0.65 microg/L, and sibutramine was identified in her urine. Echocardiography revealed mild hypokinesia over the inferior wall without evidence of acute aortic dissection. The ST segment changes resolved spontaneously within 24 h of cardiac care unit (CCU) admission, a coronary angiogram performed 1 week later was unremarkable, and echocardiography performed 4 weeks after the event showed normal resting regional wall motion. Seventeen medications containing sibutramine as an active ingredient were registered in Hong Kong in 2007. Sibutramine was introduced in the United States in 1997 and in Australia, United Kingdom, and Italy in 2001. Hypertension, tachycardia, dry mouth, and headache are the most commonly reported adverse reactions. Cardiovascular toxicities include tachycardia, palpitation, hypertension, and tachyarrhythmia. We postulate that the myocardial infarction was the result of coronary vasospasm associated with the therapeutic use of sibutramine-containing slimming pills.

  19. Numerical simulation model of hyperacute/acute stage white matter infarction.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Koji; Yamada, Kei; Oouchi, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2008-01-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the mechanisms of changes in diffusivity (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) in acute brain infarction, changes in diffusion anisotropy (fractional anisotropy [FA]) in white matter have not been examined. We hypothesized that membrane permeability as well as axonal swelling play important roles, and we therefore constructed a simulation model using random walk simulation to replicate the diffusion of water molecules. We implemented a numerical diffusion simulation model of normal and infarcted human brains using C++ language. We constructed this 2-pool model using simple tubes aligned in a single direction. Random walk simulation diffused water. Axon diameters and membrane permeability were then altered in step-wise fashion. To estimate the effects of axonal swelling, axon diameters were changed from 6 to 10 microm. Membrane permeability was altered from 0% to 40%. Finally, both elements were combined to explain increasing FA in the hyperacute stage of white matter infarction. The simulation demonstrated that simple water shift into the intracellular space reduces ADC and increases FA, but not to the extent expected from actual human cases (ADC approximately 50%; FA approximately +20%). Similarly, membrane permeability alone was insufficient to explain this phenomenon. However, a combination of both factors successfully replicated changes in diffusivity indices. Both axonal swelling and reduced membrane permeability appear important in explaining changes in ADC and FA based on eigenvalues in hyperacute-stage white matter infarction.

  20. The Effects of Inhalation Aromatherapy on Anxiety in Patients With Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Zahra; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Farrokhian, Alireza; Tagharrobi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is an important mental health problem in patients with cardiac disease. Anxiety reduces patients’ quality of life and increases the risk of different cardiac complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conduced on 68 patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in coronary care units of a large-scale teaching hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2013. By using the block randomization technique, patients were randomly assigned to experimental (33 patients receiving inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma twice a day for two subsequent days) and control (35 patients receiving routine care of study setting including no aromatherapy) groups. At the beginning of study and twenty minutes after each aromatherapy session, anxiety state of patients was assessed using the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. We used Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, independent-samples T-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to analyze the study data. Results: The study groups did not differ significantly regarding baseline anxiety mean and demographic characteristics. However, after the administration of aromatherapy, anxiety mean in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusions: Inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma can reduce anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Consequently, healthcare providers, particularly nurses, can use this strategy to improve postmyocardial infarction anxiety management. PMID:25389481

  1. Sepiapterin reduces postischemic injury in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Tiefenbacher, Christiane P; Lee, Ching-Hua; Kapitza, Jolanthe; Dietz, Volker; Niroomand, Feraydoon

    2003-10-01

    A reduced availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for NO-synthesis, is causally involved in the development of endothelial dysfunction associated with ischemia/reperfusion. We, therefore, investigated the effect of sepiapterin, a substrate for BH4 synthesis, on postischemic injury in myocardial infarction and myocardial stunning. In rats, myocardial stunning was induced by repetitive ischemia (5 x 10-min ligature of the left coronary artery, 5 x 20-min reperfusion) and myocardial infarction by 50-min ligature and 60-min reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined by H2-clearance, regional myocardial function by pulsed Doppler and infarct size by tetrazolium staining. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured as a marker of neutrophil extravasation. cGMP was determined in rat serum as an indicator of increased NO synthesis. In animals treated with sepiapterin, regional myocardial function was significantly improved in both myocardial stunning and infarction and infarct size was significantly reduced. MPO activity decreased with sepiapterin treatment in both models. The systemic level of cGMP was reduced both following myocardial stunning and myocardial infarction in the control group. Pretreatment with sepiapterin induced a significant increase of cGMP level at the end of the protocol in both models. Substitution of sepiapterin reduces postischemic injury both in myocardial stunning and infarction apparently by ameliorating the availability of NO, thereby attenuating the activation of neutrophils in ischemia/reperfusion.

  2. Methanolic seed extract of Vitis vinifera ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation and ATPase dysfunction in infarcted and non-infarcted heart of streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced male diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Nelli; Roslan, Josef; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-11-01

    We hypothesized that consumption of Vitis vinifera seed by diabetics could help to ameliorate myocardial damage. Therefore, in this study, we investigated effects of V. vinifera seed methanolic extract (VVSME) on parameters related to myocardial damage in diabetes with or without myocardial infarction (MI). Streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats received oral VVSME for 28days. MI was induced by intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol on last two days. Prior to sacrifice, blood was collected and fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile and insulin levels were measured. Levels of serum cardiac injury marker (troponin-I and CK-MB) were determined and histopathological changes in the heart were observed following harvesting. Levels of oxidative stress (LPO, SOD, CAT, GPx and RAGE), inflammation (NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and cardiac ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase) were determined in heart homogenates. LC-MS was used to identify constituents in the extracts. Consumption of VVSME by diabetic rats with or without MI improved the metabolic profiles while decreased the cardiac injury marker levels with lesser myocardial damage observed. Additionally, VVSME consumption reduced the levels of LPO, RAGE, TNF-α, Iκκβ, NF-κβ, IL-1β and IL-6 while increased the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the infarcted and non-infarcted heart of diabetic rats (p<0.05). LC-MS analysis revealed 17 major compounds in VVSME which might be responsible for the observed effects. Consumption of VVSME by diabetics helps to ameliorate damage to the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium by decreasing oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiac ATPases dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deletion of Apoptosis Inhibitor of Macrophage (AIM)/CD5L Attenuates the Inflammatory Response and Infarct Size in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Nishikido, Toshiyuki; Oyama, Jun-ichi; Shiraki, Aya; Komoda, Hiroshi; Node, Koichi

    2016-04-04

    An excessive inflammatory response after myocardial infarction (MI) increases myocardial injury. The toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 is activated by the recognition of endogenous ligands and is proinflammatory when there is myocardial tissue injury. The apoptosis inhibitor of the macrophage (AIM) is known to provoke an efflux of saturated free fatty acids (FFA) due to lipolysis, which causes inflammation via the TLR-4 pathway. Therefore, this study investigated the hypothesis that AIM causes a proinflammatory response after MI. The left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated to induce MI in both AIM-knockout (AIM(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. After 3 days, the inflammatory response from activation of the TLR-4/NFκB pathway was assessed, and infarct size was measured by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride. In addition, left ventricular remodeling was examined after 28 days. Although the area at risk was similar between AIM(-/-) and WT mice, the infarct size was significantly smaller in AIM(-/-) mice (P=0.02). The heart weight-to-body weight ratio and myocardial fibrosis were also decreased in the AIM(-/-) mice, and the 28-day survival rate was improved (P<0.01). With the reduction of plasma FFA in AIM(-/-) mice, myocardial IRAK4 and NFκB activity were decreased (all P<0.05). Moreover, there was a reduction in myeloperoxidase activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase as part of the inflammatory response (P<0.01, P=0.03, respectively). Furthermore, NFκB DNA-binding activation via TLR-4, neutrophil infiltration, and inflammatory mediators were decreased in AIM(-/-) mice. The deletion of AIM reduced the inflammatory response and infarct size and improved survival after myocardial infarction. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  4. [Reduction of in-hospital mortality and improved secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction. First results from the registry of secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction (SAMI)].

    PubMed

    Tebbe, U; Messer, C; Stammwitz, E; The, G S; Dietl, J; Bischoff, K-O; Schulten-Baumer, U; Tebbenjohanns, J; Gohlke, H; Bramlage, P

    2007-07-30

    In hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reduced due to the availability of better therapeutic strategies. But there is still a gap between mortality rates in randomised trials and daily clinical practice. Thus, it was aim of the present registry to document the course and outcome of patients with AMI and to improve patient care by implementing recent guidelines. In a nationwide registry study in hospitals in Germany with a cardiology unit or an internal medicine department data on consecutive patients were recorded for six to twelve months at admission, discharge and during a follow-up of one year. From 02/2003 until 10/2004 a total of 5,353 patients with acute myocardial infarction (65.7 % male, mean age of 67.6 +/- 17.7 years; 55.1 % of them with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included in the registry. Of the patients with STEMI, 76.6 % underwent acute intervention, 37.1 % had thrombolysis, 69.7 % percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). 40.0 % of those with non-Stemi (NSTEMI) had an acute intervention, 6.6 % thrombolysis, 73.5 % PTCA. Recommended secondary prevention consisted of ASS (93.2 %), beta-blockers (93.0 %), CSE-inhibitors (83.5 %), ACE-inhibitors (80.9 %) and clopidogrel (74.0 %). In-hospital mortality was 10.5 % (STEMI) and 7.4 % (NSTEMI). The 9 % mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction treated in the hospitals participating in the SAMI registry is low compared to that in similar collectives. The high number of patients who had thrombofibrinolysis and coronary interventions as well as the early initiation of drug therapy contributed to these results. Medical treatment in the prehospital phase of these patients remains still insufficient and to a substantial extent contributes to the mortality of acute myocardial infarction.

  5. Atrial natriuretic peptide administered just prior to reperfusion limits infarction in rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi-Ming; Philipp, Sebastian; Downey, James M; Cohen, Michael V

    2006-07-01

    We investigated whether atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) given just prior to reperfusion reduces infarction in rabbit hearts and whether protection is related to activation of protein kinase G (PKG). Isolated rabbit hearts were subjected to a 30-min period of regional ischemia; treated hearts received a 20-min infusion of ANP (0.1 microM) starting 5 min before 2 h of reperfusion. ANP infusion decreased infarction from 31.5+/-2.4% of the risk zone in untreated hearts to 12.5+/-2.0% (P<0.001). To explore mechanisms of protection ischemic hearts were treated simultaneously with ANP and isatin, a blocker of the natriuretic peptide receptor, shortly before reperfusion. ANP's protective effect was aborted (36.8+/-2.9% infarction). There is no acceptable blocker of protein kinase G that can be used in intact organs. However, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (10 microM), a cell-permeable cGMP analog that directly activates PKG, was infused from 5 min before to 15 min after reperfusion. The PKG activator mimicked ANP's protection with only 18.2+/-3.6% infarction (P<0.001). 5-Hydroxyde-canoate (5-HD), a putative mitochondrial KATP channel (mKATP) inhibitor, abrogated ANP's protection (34.4+/-2.6% infarction). Unexpectedly, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole- [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a blocker of soluble guanylyl cyclase also prevented ANP's infarct-sparing effect. It is unclear whether this observation implicated participation of soluble guanylyl cyclase in the mechanism or simply a lack of selectivity of ODQ. Finally the reperfusion injury salvage kinases (RISK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, were implicated in ANP's mechanism since either wortmannin or PD98059 infused at reperfusion prevented ANP's infarct-sparing effect. ANP administered just prior to reperfusion protects hearts against infarction, likely by activation of PKG, opening of mKATP, and stimulation of downstream kinases.

  6. CMR imaging of edema in myocardial infarction using cine balanced steady-state free precession.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Andreas; Beohar, Nirat; Arumana, Jain Mangalathu; Larose, Eric; Li, Debiao; Friedrich, Matthias G; Dharmakumar, Rohan

    2011-12-01

    microvascular obstruction (p < 0.05). Myocardial edema from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction can be detected using cine bSSFP imaging with image contrast similar to T2-STIR. This new imaging approach allows evaluation of cardiac function and edema simultaneously, thereby reducing patient scan time and increasing efficiency. Further work is necessary to optimize edema contrast in bSSFP images. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Membrane estrogen receptor alpha is an important modulator of bone marrow C-Kit+ cells mediated cardiac repair after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Su, Feng; Zhang, Wentian; Liu, Jianfang

    2015-01-01

    It has been validated that c-kit positive (c-kit+) cells in infarcted myocardium are from bone marrow (BM). Given the recent study that in the heart, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is involved in adaptive mechanisms by supporting cardiomyocytes survival via post-infarct cardiac c-kit+ cells, we tested a novel hypothesis that membrane ERα (mERа) supports survival of BM c-kit+ cells and enhance protective paracrine function for cardiac repair. Our data showed that myocardial infarction (MI) leads to an increase in c-kit+ first in bone marrow and then specifically within the infarcted myocardium. Also up-regulated mERа in post-infarct BM c-kit+ cells was found in day 3 post MI. In vitro co-culture system, mERа+ enhances the beneficial effects of BM c-kit+ cells by increasing their viability and reducing apoptosis. Post-infarct c-kit+ mERа+ cells population expresses predominant ERα and holds self-renewal as well as cardiac differentiation potentials after MI. In vivo, BM c-kit+ cells reduced infarct size, fibrosis and improved cardiac function. In conclusion, BM c-kit+ mERа+ exerted significantly cardiac protection after MI. A potential important implication of this study is that the manipulation of BM c-kit+ stem cells with ERа-dependent fashion may be helpful in recovering functional performance after cardiac tissue injury. PMID:26191121

  8. The role of infarct transmural extent in infarct extension: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Leong, Chin-Neng; Lim, Einly; Andriyana, Andri; Al Abed, Amr; Lovell, Nigel Hamilton; Hayward, Christopher; Hamilton-Craig, Christian; Dokos, Socrates

    2017-02-01

    Infarct extension, a process involving progressive extension of the infarct zone (IZ) into the normally perfused border zone (BZ), leads to continuous degradation of the myocardial function and adverse remodelling. Despite carrying a high risk of mortality, detailed understanding of the mechanisms leading to BZ hypoxia and infarct extension remains unexplored. In the present study, we developed a 3D truncated ellipsoidal left ventricular model incorporating realistic electromechanical properties and fibre orientation to examine the mechanical interaction among the remote, infarct and BZs in the presence of varying infarct transmural extent (TME). Localized highly abnormal systolic fibre stress was observed at the BZ, owing to the simultaneous presence of moderately increased stiffness and fibre strain at this region, caused by the mechanical tethering effect imposed by the overstretched IZ. Our simulations also demonstrated the greatest tethering effect and stress in BZ regions with fibre direction tangential to the BZ-remote zone boundary. This can be explained by the lower stiffness in the cross-fibre direction, which gave rise to a greater stretching of the IZ in this direction. The average fibre strain of the IZ, as well as the maximum stress in the sub-endocardial layer, increased steeply from 10% to 50% infarct TME, and slower thereafter. Based on our stress-strain loop analysis, we found impairment in the myocardial energy efficiency and elevated energy expenditure with increasing infarct TME, which we believe to place the BZ at further risk of hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. CXC chemokine KC fails to induce neutrophil infiltration and neoangiogenesis in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Oral, Hasan; Kanzler, Isabella; Tuchscheerer, Nancy; Curaj, Adelina; Simsekyilmaz, Sakine; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Radu, Eugen; Postea, Otilia; Weber, Christian; Schuh, Alexander; Liehn, Elisa A

    2013-07-01

    Chemokines and neutrophils, known as important players in the inflammatory cascade, also contribute to heart tissue recovery and scar formation after myocardial infarction (MI). The objective of this study was to determine the importance of ELR-containing CXC chemokine KC in neutrophil infiltration and neoangiogenesis, in a mouse model of chronic MI. MI was induced in mice divided in four groups: control (untreated), anti-KC "later" (anti-KC antibody injections started 4 days after MI and then delivered every 72 hours for 3 weeks, to inhibit angiogenesis), anti-KC "earlier" (anti-KC antibody injections 1 day before and 1 day after MI, to block neutrophil infiltration), anti-KC (anti-KC antibody injections 1 day before and 1 day after MI, and then every 72 hours for 3 weeks). The efficiency of the anti-KC treatment was determined by the measurement of KC serum concentration and immunofluorescence staining, in each of the four groups. Surprisingly, we did not find any difference in neutrophil infiltration in the infarcted area between untreated and treated animals. Moreover, the heart function, infarct size, and neoangiogenesis were not different between the four groups. As expected, a comparable anti-CXCR2 treatment of mice before and after MI was able to significantly reduce neutrophil infiltration into the infarcted area and angiogenesis, but also to reduce the infarction size after long or "later" treatment. The major finding of our study is that KC, a potent neutrophil chemoattractant and an established angiogenic factor, failed to interfere in the post-infarction inflammatory response, in wound healing and scar formation after MI. Therefore, these aspects need to be carefully taken into account when devising therapeutic strategies for myocardial infarction and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regional mechanics determine collagen fiber structure in healing myocardial infarcts.

    PubMed

    Fomovsky, Gregory M; Rouillard, Andrew D; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2012-05-01

    Following myocardial infarction, the mechanical properties of the healing infarct are an important determinant of heart function and the risk of progression to heart failure. In particular, mechanical anisotropy (having different mechanical properties in different directions) in the healing infarct can preserve pump function of the heart. Based on reports of different collagen structures and mechanical properties in various animal models, we hypothesized that differences in infarct size, shape, and/or location produce different patterns of mechanical stretch that guide evolving collagen fiber structure. We tested the effects of infarct shape and location using a combined experimental and computational approach. We studied mechanics and collagen fiber structure in cryoinfarcts in 53 Sprague-Dawley rats and found that regardless of shape or orientation, cryoinfarcts near the equator of the left ventricle stretched primarily in the circumferential direction and developed circumferentially aligned collagen, while infarcts at the apex stretched similarly in the circumferential and longitudinal directions and developed randomly oriented collagen. In a computational model of infarct healing, an effect of mechanical stretch on fibroblast and collagen alignment was required to reproduce the experimental results. We conclude that mechanical environment determines collagen fiber structure in healing myocardial infarcts. Our results suggest that emerging post-infarction therapies that alter regional mechanics will also alter infarct collagen structure, offering both potential risks and novel therapeutic opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional Mechanics Determine Collagen Fiber Structure in Healing Myocardial Infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Fomovsky, Gregory M.; Rouillard, Andrew D.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Following myocardial infarction, the mechanical properties of the healing infarct are an important determinant of heart function and the risk of progression to heart failure. In particular, mechanical anisotropy (having different mechanical properties in different directions) in the healing infarct can preserve pump function of the heart. Based on reports of different collagen structures and mechanical properties in various animal models, we hypothesized that differences in infarct size, shape, and/or location produce different patterns of mechanical stretch that guide evolving collagen fiber structure. We tested the effects of infarct shape and location using a combined experimental and computational approach. We studied mechanics and collagen fiber structure in cryoinfarcts in 53 Sprague-Dawley rats and found that regardless of shape or orientation, cryoinfarcts near the equator of the left ventricle stretched primarily in the circumferential direction and developed circumferentially aligned collagen, while infarcts at the apex stretched similarly in the circumferential and longitudinal direction and developed randomly oriented collagen. In a computational model of infarct healing, an effect of mechanical stretch on fibroblast and collagen alignment was required to reproduce the experimental results. We conclude that mechanical environment determines collagen fiber structure in healing myocardial infarcts. Our results suggest that emerging post-infarction therapies that alter regional mechanics will also alter infarct collagen structure, offering both potential risks and novel therapeutic opportunities. PMID:22418281

  12. Research of Sleep Disorders in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofang; Bi, Hongye; Zhang, Meiyun; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Xueying; Zu, Ruonan

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of sleep disorders (SD), characteristic of cerebral infarction patients with different parts affected. The research selected 101 patients with a first occurrence of acute cerebral infarction as the experimental group, and 86 patients without cerebral infarction as controls. Polysomnography, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and US National Stroke Scale were assessed. Compared with control group, the incidence of SD was higher in experimental group (P < .05), and the incidence of SD in women was more frequent in experimental group (P < .05). There was no significant difference in the types of SD patients with acute cerebral infarction. In addition, the sleep quality of cerebral infarction patients with different parts affected was different: the sleep quality of left hemisphere infarction patients was poor compared with the right one, and the sleep quality of anterior circulation patients was poor compared with posterior circulation patients. Patients with thalamus infarction had a longer sleep time and a shorter sleep latency and stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with non-thalamus infarction group. The prevalence of SD was relatively high in acute cerebral infarction patients, and the detailed classification of acute cerebral infarction may provide a more effective therapeutic method and therefore relieve patients' pain and supply a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Painless acute myocardial infarction on Mount Kilimanjaro

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa

    2016-01-01

    An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery. PMID:26989121

  14. Glycogen phosphorylase BB in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dobric, Milan; Ostojic, Miodrag; Giga, Vojislav; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Stepanovic, Jelena; Radovanovic, Nebojsa; Beleslin, Branko

    2015-01-01

    Early experimental and clinical reports on glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB) kinetics following myocardial ischemic injury suggested that it could be a useful diagnostic marker for early detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After more than two decades of investigation, there is now overwhelming body of evidence that do not support the use of GPBB measurement in diagnosis of acute AMI in patients presenting with acute chest pain. Currently, GPBB cannot be recommended as a diagnostic marker of AMI either as a stand-alone test or as an addition to (high-sensitive) troponin testing. It should be noted that these considerations apply to the early diagnosis of AMI, not to the prognostic stratification, which is also suggested but it warrants further investigation. The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence of GPBB measurement in early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Korsakoff syndrome following mammillothalamic tract infarction.

    PubMed

    Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Takeda, Norio; Inoue, Akira; Ibuchi, Yasuo; Kumagai, Takashi; Sugai, Tsutomu; Takeda, Ken-ichiro; Ueda, Kaoru

    2004-01-01

    There are limited case reports of structural lesions causing Korsakoff syndrome. This report describes acute Korsakoff syndrome following localized, bilateral infarction of the mammillothalamic tracts (MTTs). Axial T2-weighted imaging revealed the lesions at the lateral wall level of the third ventricle and diffusion-weighted imaging confirmed that the left lesion was new and the right old. Korsakoff syndrome persisted 6 months after the onset. This case suggests that bilateral MTT dysfunction can lead to Korsakoff syndrome.

  16. Supply-demand mismatch transients in susceptible peri-infarct hot zones explain the origin of spreading injury depolarizations

    PubMed Central

    von Bornstädt, Daniel; Houben, Thijs; Seidel, Jessica; Zheng, Yi; Dilekoz, Ergin; Qin, Tao; Sandow, Nora; Kura, Sreekanth; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Endres, Matthias; Boas, David A.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Lo, Eng H.; Dreier, Jens P.; Woitzik, Johannes; Sakadžić, Sava; Ayata, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) are seemingly spontaneous spreading depression-like waves that negatively impact tissue outcome in both experimental and human stroke. Factors triggering PIDs are unknown. Here, we show that somatosensory activation of peri-infarct cortex triggers PIDs when the activated cortex is within a critical range of ischemia. We show that the mechanism involves increased oxygen utilization within the activated cortex, worsening the supply-demand mismatch. We support the concept by clinical data showing that mismatch predisposes to PIDs in human stroke as well. Conversely, transient worsening of mismatch by episodic hypoxemia or hypotension also reproducibly triggers PIDs. Therefore, PIDs are triggered upon supply-demand mismatch transients in metastable peri-infarct hot zones due to increased demand or reduced supply. Based on the data, we propose that minimizing sensory stimulation and hypoxic or hypotensive transients in stroke and brain injury would reduce PID incidence and their adverse impact on outcome. PMID:25741731

  17. Effect of oral administration of Pheretima aspergillum (earthworm) in rats with cerebral infarction induced by middle-cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the curative effect of Pheretima aspergillum (earthworm, PA) on rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). The MCAo-induced cerebral infarction was established and its underlying mechanisms by counting the infarction areas and evaluating the rats' neurological status. Immunostaining was used to test the expression of NeuN, and glial fibrillary acidic (GFAP), S100B, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) proteins. Our results showed that oral administration of PA for two weeks to rats with MCAo successfully reduced cerebral infarction areas in the cortex and striatum, and also reduced scores of neurological deficit. The PA-treated MCAo rats showed greatly decreased neuronal death, glial proliferation, and S100B proteins in the penumbra area of the cortex and in the ischemic core area of the cortex, but BDNF did not changed. These results demonstrated novel and detailed cellular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of PA in MCAo rats.

  18. VEGF improves survival of mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts

    SciT

    Pons, Jennifer; Huang Yu; Arakawa-Hoyt, Janice

    2008-11-14

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising source for cell-based treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), but existing strategies are restricted by low cell survival and engraftment. We examined whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improve MSC viability in infracted hearts. We found long-term culture increased MSC-cellular stress: expressing more cell cycle inhibitors, p16{sup INK}, p21 and p19{sup ARF}. VEGF treatment reduced cellular stress, increased pro-survival factors, phosphorylated-Akt and Bcl-xL expression and cell proliferation. Co-injection of MSCs with VEGF to MI hearts increased cell engraftment and resulted in better improvement of cardiac function than that injected with MSCs ormore » VEGF alone. In conclusion, VEGF protects MSCs from culture-induce cellular stress and improves their viability in ischemic myocardium, which results in improvements of their therapeutic effect for the treatment of MI.« less

  19. Optimal Anticoagulant Therapy in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Interventions.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Estefania; Mehta, Sameer; Flores, Ana Isabel; Pena, Camilo; Cohen, Salomon; Kostela, Jennifer C; Rowen, Rebecca; Treto, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    Bivalirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor. It is a new recommendation for the treatment of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Bivalirudin combined with aspirin and P2Y 12 inhibitors has proved to be an effective and safe choice for the management of thrombus in coronary artery disease. The use of bivalirudin compared with the combination of heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors as anticoagulant therapy is associated with reduced severe bleeding and inpatient mortality, as well as diminished costs. There is only a slight increase of late stent thrombosis, which may be controlled with the use of thienopyridines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Splenic Infarction in Acute Infectious Mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Naviglio, Samuele; Abate, Maria Valentina; Chinello, Matteo; Ventura, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of a febrile patient with acute abdominal pain represents a frequent yet possibly challenging situation in the emergency department (ED). Splenic infarction is an uncommon complication of infectious mononucleosis, and may have a wide range of clinical presentations, from dramatic to more subtle. Its pathogenesis is still incompletely understood, yet it may be associated with the occurrence of transient prothrombotic factors. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who presented with fever, sore throat, left upper quadrant abdominal pain, and splenomegaly, with no history of recent trauma. Laboratory tests revealed a markedly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and positive lupus anticoagulant. Abdominal ultrasonography showed several hypoechoic areas in the spleen consistent with multiple infarctions. Magnetic resonance imaging eventually confirmed the diagnosis. He was admitted for observation and supportive treatment, and was discharged in good condition after 7 days. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Spontaneous splenic infarction should be considered in the differential list of patients presenting with left upper quadrant abdominal pain and features of infectious mononucleosis; the diagnosis, however, may not be straightforward, as clinical presentation may also be subtle, and abdominal ultrasonography, which is often used as a first-line imaging modality in pediatric EDs, has low sensitivity in this scenario and may easily miss it. Furthermore, although treatment is mainly supportive, close observation for possible complications is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Systemic inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lu; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Dart, Anthony M; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-01-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response. Inflammasomes also recognize danger signals and mediate sterile inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammatory response serves to repair the heart, but excessive inflammation leads to adverse left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. In addition to local inflammation, profound systemic inflammation response has been documented in patients with AMI, which includes elevation of circulating inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules, and activation of peripheral leukocytes and platelets. The excessive inflammatory response could be caused by a deregulated immune system. AMI is also associated with bone marrow activation and spleen monocytopoiesis, which sustains a continuous supply of monocytes at the site of inflammation. Accumulating evidence has shown that systemic inflammation aggravates atherosclerosis and markers for systemic inflammation are predictors of adverse clinical outcomes (such as death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and heart failure) in patients with AMI. PMID:26089856

  2. [Interventional therapy of acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Zahn, R; Zeymer, U

    2008-09-01

    Currently an acute myocardial infarction has to be differentiated into ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). However, there exists another definition of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), which is more important in clinical practice, for all recommendations from the guidelines of the cardiac societies concerning the invasive strategies rely on this one. Here one has to differentiate an ACS with ST-elevation (STE-ACS = STEMI) from an ACS without ST-elevation (NSTE-ACS). The last one is further divided into an NSTE-ACS with or without high risk. In patients with an NSTE-ACS with high risk an early invasive strategy is recommended within 72 h after the diagnosis. In patients with an NSTE-ACS without high risk a more conservative approach can be pursued. In STE-ACS patients primary angioplasty is the reperfusion therapy of choice, if it can be performed in a timely fashion within 2 h after diagnosis at an interventional centre with experienced interventionalists and short "door-to-balloon" times. In Germany this goal is achievable almost everywhere. Therefore it is currently the most important task to establish local networks to reach this goal.

  3. Multiple Thromboembolic Cerebral Infarctions from the Aorta in a Patient with Churg-Strauss Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Ischemic stroke is a rare complication of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and its pathogenesis has not been well clarified yet. We report a case of cerebral infarction in a patient with CSS due to embolism from a thrombus on the wall of the aorta. A 39-year-old man had multiple cerebral infarctions with symptoms of mild left hemiparesis and reduced vision. He was clinically diagnosed to have CSS based on remarkable eosinophilia, history of asthma, sinusitis, pulmonary infiltrates, and histologically proven extravascular eosinophilic infiltrates in the specimen of gastric mucosa. Cerebral angiography did not show any stenotic lesions in cerebral arteries. A thrombus was detected on the wall of the aorta by transesophageal echocardiography, which was considered as the source of embolism. The thrombus resolved on follow-up examination 3 months after the onset of the stroke. This is the first case report on cerebral infarction caused by aortogenic thromboembolism in a CSS patient. Other than cerebral vasculitis, embolism from cardiovascular system, including the wall of the aorta, is a possible cause of cerebral infarctions in a CSS patient. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy Triggered by Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Series Challenging the Mayo Clinic Definition.

    PubMed

    Christodoulidis, Georgios; Kundoor, Vishwa; Kaluski, Edo

    2017-08-28

    BACKGROUND Various physical and emotional factors have been previously described as triggers for stress induced cardiomyopathy. However, acute myocardial infarction as a trigger has never been reported. CASE REPORT We describe four patients who presented with an acute myocardial infarction, in whom the initial echocardiography revealed wall motion abnormalities extending beyond the coronary distribution of the infarct artery. Of the four patients identified, the mean age was 59 years; three patients were women and two patients had underlying psychiatric history. Electrocardiogram revealed ST elevation in the anterior leads in three patients; QTc was prolonged in all cases. All patients had ≤ moderately elevated troponin. Single culprit lesion was found uniformly in the proximal or mid left anterior descending artery. Initial echocardiography revealed severely reduced ejection fraction with relative sparing of the basal segments, whereas early repeat echocardiography revealed significant improvement in the left ventricular function in all patients. CONCLUSIONS This is the first case series demonstrating that acute myocardial infarction can trigger stress induced cardiomyopathy. Extensive reversible wall motion abnormalities, beyond the ones expected from angiography, accompanied by modest elevation in troponin and marked QTc prolongation, suggest superimposed stress induced cardiomyopathy.

  5. Improved hemodynamic parameters in middle cerebral artery infarction after decompressive craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Robson Luis; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Gattás, Gabriel S; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Menezes, Marcos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2014-05-01

    Decompressive craniectomy (DC) reduces mortality and improves functional outcome in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. However, little is known regarding the impact of DC on cerebral hemodynamics. Therefore, our goal was to study the hemodynamic changes that may occur in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction after DC and to assess their relationship with outcomes. Twenty-seven patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction who were treated with DC were studied. The perfusion CT hemodynamic parameters, mean transit time, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral blood volume were evaluated preoperatively and within the first 24 hours after DC. There was a global trend toward improved cerebral hemodynamics after DC. Preoperative and postoperative absolute mean transit times were associated with mortality at 6 months, and the ratio of post- and preoperative cerebral blood flow was significantly higher in patients with favorable outcomes than those with unfavorable outcomes. Patients who underwent surgery 48 hours after stroke, those with midline brain shift>10 mm, and those who were >55 years showed no significant improvement in any perfusion CT parameters. DC improves cerebral hemodynamics in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction, and the level of improvement is related to outcome. However, some patients did not seem to experience any additional hemodynamic benefit, suggesting that perfusion CT may play a role as a prognostic tool in patients undergoing DC after ischemic stroke.

  6. Segmentation of Hyperacute Cerebral Infarcts Based on Sparse Representation of Diffusion Weighted Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Jing, Shasha; Gao, Peiyi; Xue, Jing; Su, Lu; Li, Weiping; Ren, Lijie; Hu, Qingmao

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of infarcts at hyperacute stage is challenging as they exhibit substantial variability which may even be hard for experts to delineate manually. In this paper, a sparse representation based classification method is explored. For each patient, four volumetric data items including three volumes of diffusion weighted imaging and a computed asymmetry map are employed to extract patch features which are then fed to dictionary learning and classification based on sparse representation. Elastic net is adopted to replace the traditional L 0 -norm/ L 1 -norm constraints on sparse representation to stabilize sparse code. To decrease computation cost and to reduce false positives, regions-of-interest are determined to confine candidate infarct voxels. The proposed method has been validated on 98 consecutive patients recruited within 6 hours from onset. It is shown that the proposed method could handle well infarcts with intensity variability and ill-defined edges to yield significantly higher Dice coefficient (0.755 ± 0.118) than the other two methods and their enhanced versions by confining their segmentations within the regions-of-interest (average Dice coefficient less than 0.610). The proposed method could provide a potential tool to quantify infarcts from diffusion weighted imaging at hyperacute stage with accuracy and speed to assist the decision making especially for thrombolytic therapy.

  7. Spectral analysis of epicardial 60-lead electrograms in dogs with 4-week-old myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Y; Ikeda, K; Komatsu, T; Yamaki, M; Kubota, I

    2001-01-01

    There were few studies on the spectral analysis of multiple-lead epicardial electrograms in chronic myocardial infarction. Spectral analysis of multi-lead epicardial electrograms was performed in 6 sham-operated dogs (N group) and 8 dogs with 4-week-old myocardial infarction (MI group). Four weeks after the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery, fast Fourier transform was performed on 60-lead epicardial electrograms, and then inverse transform was performed on 5 frequency ranges from 0 to 250 Hz. From the QRS onset to QRS offset, the time integration of unsigned value of reconstructed waveform was calculated and displayed as AQRS maps. On 0-25 Hz AQRS map, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. In the frequency ranges of 25-250 Hz, MI group had significantly smaller AQRS values than N group solely in the infarct zone. It was shown that high frequency potentials (25-250 Hz) within QRS complex were reduced in the infarct zone.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of combined ultrasound and microbubbles in a rat model of middle cerebral artery infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatar, M.; Griebe, M.; Stroick, M.; Kern, R.; Hennerici, M.; Meairs, S.

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasound-mediated microbubble thrombolysis (UMT) was performed in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats to evaluate possible effects upon brain infarct volume, apoptosis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The results show that infarct volume was significantly reduced (p<0.04) in the microbubble + ultrasound (MB + US) group as compared to control animals. The levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations, as markers of tissue damage, were not significantly different. In trypan blue treated animals, no additional BBB disruption was observed for the UMT group. Likewise, there was no increase in apoptotic cell death outside the infarction area in animals treated with MB + US. The results demonstrate that UMT does not have a harmful effect upon ischemic stroke in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of the rat. The significant reduction in brain infarction following insonation with ultrasound and microbubbles suggests a novel neuroprotective effect in ischemic stroke.

  9. Acute triggers of myocardial infarction: A case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Ghiasmand, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Mohammad Taghi; Pourshaikhian, Majid; Kazemnejad Lili, Ehsan

    2017-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most preventable non-communicable diseases in human. Identifying triggers of myocardial infarction (MI) and prevention ways of exposure-induced complications can reduce morbidity and mortality in people at risk. The aim of this study was to identify the emotional, environmental, physical and chemical dimensions of acute triggers in patients with AMI. This case-crossover study was conducted on 269 patients with AMI, hospitalized at two remedial centers in Rasht in 2015. The study samples were selected by convenient sampling method. Data were collected using researcher-made questionnaire through interviews. Hazard and control periods for each trigger and its effects on the development of MI were studied. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical methods, Cochran test, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) model with logistics function default in SPSS version 21, and p  < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that quarrel ( P  = 0.008, OR = 2.01) and hearing the sudden news ( P  = 0.001, OR = 2.19) were the most common emotional triggers. Respiratory infections ( P  = 0.0001, OR = 6.78) and exposure to hot or cold weather ( P  = 0.005, OR = 2.19) were the most frequent environmental triggers. Doing heavy activities ( P  = 0.005, OR = 1.66) and sexual activities ( P  = 0.003, OR = 2.36) were among the most common physical triggers. High-fat foods consumption and overeating ( P  = 0.0001, OR = 3.79) were the most frequent chemical triggers of AMI. It seems that given the importance of the triggers in the incidence of AMI, planning is necessary to train vulnerable individuals to reduce exposure to triggers.

  10. Prognostic Value of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Risk Score in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction (from the EPHESUS Trial).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Batric; Girerd, Nicolas; Rossignol, Patrick; Agrinier, Nelly; Camenzind, Edoardo; Fay, Renaud; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez

    2016-11-15

    The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score remains a robust prediction tool for short-term and midterm outcome in the patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the validity of this risk score in patients with STEMI with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remains unclear. A total of 2,854 patients with STEMI with early coronary revascularization participating in the randomized EPHESUS (Epleronone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study) trial were analyzed. TIMI risk score was calculated at baseline, and its predictive value was evaluated using C-indexes from Cox models. The increase in reclassification of other variables in addition to TIMI score was assessed using the net reclassification index. TIMI risk score had a poor predictive accuracy for all-cause mortality (C-index values at 30 days and 1 year ≤0.67) and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI; C-index values ≤0.60). Among TIMI score items, diabetes/hypertension/angina, heart rate >100 beats/min, and systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg were inconsistently associated with survival, whereas none of the TIMI score items, aside from age, were significantly associated with MI recurrence. Using a constructed predictive model, lower LVEF, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and previous MI were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The predictive accuracy of this model, which included LVEF and eGFR, was fair for both 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality (C-index values ranging from 0.71 to 0.75). In conclusion, TIMI risk score demonstrates poor discrimination in predicting mortality or recurrent MI in patients with STEMI with reduced LVEF. LVEF and eGFR are major factors that should not be ignored by predictive risk scores in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diffuse corpus callosum infarction - Rare vascular entity with differing etiology.

    PubMed

    Mahale, Rohan; Mehta, Anish; Buddaraju, Kiran; John, Aju Abraham; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2016-01-15

    Infarctions of the corpus callosum are rare vascular events. It is relatively immune to vascular insult because of its rich vascular supply from anterior and posterior circulations of brain. Report of 3 patients with largely diffuse acute corpus callosum infarction. 3 patients with largely diffuse acute corpus callosum infarction were studied and each of these 3 patients had 3 different aetiologies. The 3 different aetiologies of largely diffuse acute corpus callosum infarction were cardioembolism, tuberculous arteritis and takayasu arteritis. Diffuse corpus callosum infarcts are rare events. This case series narrates the three different aetiologies of diffuse acute corpus callosum infarction which is a rare vascular event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ED presentations of acute renal infarction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Lo, Hong-Chang; Huang, Hsien-Hao; Kao, Wei-Fong; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Wang, Lee-Min; Huang, Chun-I; Lee, Chen-Hsen

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate initial clinical characteristics that can suggest an early diagnosis of patients with acute renal infarction presenting with flank and/or abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED). From January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2005, 20 adult patients with renal infarction diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography in the ED were enrolled. Medical records, including demographic data, risk factors for thromboembolism, initial clinical presentations, laboratory data, treatment programs and outcomes, were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Mean patient age was 60.3 years (range, 21-80). The estimated incidence of renal infarction was 0.004% (20 of 481,540) among the ED census. The median time of onset of symptoms before the ED visit was 31 hours (range, 1-285). Eighteen patients (90%) had a history of more than 1 risk factor for thromboembolic events. In clinical presentations, all the patients had either abdominal or flank pain and tenderness. Nineteen patients (95%) had an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level with a mean +/- SD of 812.1 +/- 569.4 U/L. Sixteen patients (80%) presented with the triad--persisting flank or abdominal pain/tenderness, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level, and proteinuria. Among all 20 patients, 10 patients (50%) were diagnosed as having renal infarction at the initial ED visit. No specific clinical characteristics could be identified to distinguish those patients diagnosed early and those with delayed diagnosis. All 20 patients received medical treatment with coumadin, which was given in combination with heparin treatment in 11, peripheral intravenous and/or local intra-arterial thrombolytics with urokinase in 5, and mitral valve replacement in 1. No patient died. Although 4 patients had a mildly elevated serum creatinine level (>1.5 mg/dL) during hospitalization, none of them needs dialysis after more than 1 year of follow-up. In this study, we delineated

  13. Isolated medial medullary infarction due to vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Wakita, M; Matsuoka, H; Hamada, R; Kasuya, J; Osame, M

    2003-12-01

    A 54-year-old man developed left hemiparesis and tactile and deep sensory disturbance following onset of rightside cervical pain. These symptoms resulted from an isolated infarct in the right medial area of the upper medulla oblongata and intracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Atherosclerotic disease of the VA is the most common cause of medial medullary infarction. In past reports of isolated medial medullary infarction, only a few cases involved VA dissection.

  14. [A case of infectious mononucleosis with splenic infarction].

    PubMed

    Kobe, Daisuke; Nakatani, Toshiya; Fujinaga, Yukihisa; Seki, Kenichiro; Saikawa, Soichiro; Sawada, Yasuhiko; Sato, Yoshiki; Nagamatsu, Shinsaku; Matsuo, Hideki; Kikuchi, Eiryo

    2013-08-01

    A 22-year-old man complaining of persisting high fever and right hypochondralgia was admitted to our hospital for infectious mononucleosis with splenic infarction detected by computed tomography. The splenic infarction deteriorated with a marked elevation of inflammatory parameters. This necessitated the commencement of methylprednisolone pulse therapy, resulting in prompt amelioration of inflammation and a reduction in cytokine levels. Including our case, only 9 cases of mononucleosis with splenic infarction have been reported to date; however, splenic infarction should be considered because it is a significant complication of infectious mononucleosis.

  15. Bilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) use.

    PubMed

    Kim, K-K; Kim, D G; Ku, Y H; Lee, Y J; Kim, W-C; Kim, O J; Kim, H S

    2008-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is one of the frequently prescribed drugs for men with erectile dysfunction. We describe a 52-year-old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction after sildenafil use. He ingested 100 mg of sildenafil and about 1 h later, he complained of chest discomfort, palpitation and dizziness followed by mental obtundation, global aphasia and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging documented acute bilateral hemispheric infarction, and cerebral angiography showed occluded bilateral MCA. Despite significant bilateral MCA stenosis and cerebral infarction, systemic hypotension persisted for a day. We presume that cerebral infarction was caused by cardioembolism with sildenafil use.

  16. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciT

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the protective effects of metformin in experimental myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hesen, Nienke A.; Riksen, Niels P.; Aalders, Bart; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; El Messaoudi, Saloua; Wever, Kimberley E.

    2017-01-01

    Metformin improves cardiovascular prognosis in patients with diabetes mellitus, compared to alternative glucose-lowering drugs, despite similar glycemic control. Direct cardiovascular protective properties have therefore been proposed, and studied in preclinical models of myocardial infarction. We now aim to critically assess the quality and outcome of these studies. We present a systematic review, quality assessment and meta-analysis of the effect of metformin in animal studies of experimental myocardial infarction. Through a comprehensive search in Pubmed and EMBASE, we identified 27 studies, 11 reporting on ex vivo experiments and 18 reporting on in vivo experiments. The primary endpoint infarct size as percentage of area at risk was significantly reduced by metformin in vivo (MD -18.11[-24.09,-12.14]) and ex vivo (MD -18.70[-25.39, -12.02]). Metformin improved the secondary endpoints left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end systolic diameter. A borderline significant effect on mortality was observed, and there was no overall effect on cardiac hypertrophy. Subgroup analyses could be performed for comorbidity and timing of treatment (infarct size and mortality) and species and duration of ischemia (LVEF), but none of these variables accounted for significant amounts of heterogeneity. Reporting of possible sources of bias was extremely poor, including randomization (reported in 63%), blinding (33%), and sample size calculation (0%). As a result, risk of bias (assessed using SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool) was unclear in the vast majority of studies. We conclude that metformin limits infarct-size and improves cardiac function in animal models of myocardial infarction, but our confidence in the evidence is lowered by the unclear risk of bias and residual unexplained heterogeneity. We recommend an adequately powered, high quality confirmatory animal study to precede a randomized controlled trial of acute administration of metformin in patients

  18. Association between polymorphisms in the β2-adrenergic receptor gene with myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in women

    PubMed Central

    Schürks, Markus; Kurth, Tobias; Ridker, Paul M; Buring, Julie E.; Zee, Robert Y. L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Results from studies investigating the association between polymorphisms in the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are controversial. Using haplotype-based analysis, we have previously shown a protective effect of the Gly16-Gln27-Ile164 haplotype on myocardial infarction in men. We sought to replicate these findings in women and further investigated, whether the gene variants exert differential effects on myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. We performed a prospective study among 25,224 women, participating in the Women's Health Study and free of CVD at study entry. We had information on polymorphisms Gly16Arg, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile in the ADRB2. Incident CVD was self-reported and confirmed after medical record review. We used proportional hazards models to investigate the association between genotypes and haplotypes with any myocardial infarction, any ischemic stroke, and CVD death. During a mean of 11.8 years of follow-up, 274 myocardial infarctions, 299 ischemic strokes, and 159 CVD deaths occurred. Among the whole cohort genotype- and haplotype-based analyses did not show an association for any of the gene variants with any of the CVD outcomes. When we focused on Caucasian women, the haplotype-based analysis, however, suggested an inverse association of the haplotype Gly16-Gln27-Thr164 with incident myocardial infarction (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 0.75; 95%CI 0.58−0.97; p=0.03). We did not find associations in the haplotype-based analyses with incident ischemic stroke or CVD death. Our results suggest that the haplotype Gly16-Gln27-Thr164 is associated with reduced risk of incident myocardial infarction but not ischemic stroke in Caucasian women and suggests differential pathophysiologies for myocardial infarction and stroke. PMID:19190821

  19. Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Aashish S

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs are recognized as integral to the comprehensive care of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), and as such are recommended as useful and effective (Class I) by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology in the treatment of patients with CHD. The term cardiac rehabilitation refers to coordinated, multifaceted interventions designed to optimize a cardiac patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning, in addition to stabilizing, slowing, or even reversing the progression of the underlying atherosclerotic processes, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. Cardiac rehabilitation, aims at returning the patient back to normal functioning in a safe and effective manner and to enhance the psychosocial and vocational state of the patient. The program involves education, exercise, risk factor modification and counselling. A meta-analysis based on a review of 48 randomized trials that compared outcomes of exercise-based rehabilitation with usual medical care, showed a reduction of 20% in total mortality and 26% in cardiac mortality rates, with exercise-based rehabilitation compared with usual medical care. Risk stratification helps identify patients who are at increased risk for exercise-related cardiovascular events and who may require more intensive cardiac monitoring in addition to the medical supervision provided for all cardiac rehabilitation program participants. During exercise, the patients' ECG is continuously monitored through telemetry, which serves to optimize the exercise prescription and enhance safety. The safety of cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs is well established, and the occurrence of major cardiovascular events during supervised exercise is extremely low. As hospital stays decrease, cardiac rehabilitation is assuming an increasingly important role in secondary prevention. In contrast with its growing importance internationally, there are very few

  20. [Pharmacological possibilities for the prevention of complications following myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Szekeres, L

    1986-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is mostly the result of ventricular fibrillation (VP) which is an electrical accident appearing on the basis of electrical instability of the myocardium. In addition to the chronic electrical instability predisposing to ventricular arrhythmias the trigger effect of a precipitating factor also seems necessary which may disrupt the normal sequence of cardiac contractions. In view of this hypothesis the following strategy of therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing SCD from AMI seems to be logical: Prophylactic measures to prevent pathological processes underlying chronic electrical instability of the heart i.e. elimination of identified risk factors of ischemic heart disease. Protection from SCD due to AMI: by using drugs which could, prevent further electrical destabilization as shifts in myocardial and plasma ionic balance, in pH, in pCO2, accumulation of potentially arrhythmogenic metabolites: Inhibit the trigger effect of sudden changes: in hemodynamics, in the autonomic nervous outflow and balance. The general supportive measures include therapeutic interventions which are not directly connected with appearance of lethal arrhythmias but may indirectly contribute to their development as pain, arterial Hb desaturation, deep vein thrombosis. Some of the measures listed above are capable of limiting the size of the developing infarct, a major determinant of the future conditions of life and prognosis of the patient. In the prehospital phase of AMI when two thirds of all coronary deaths occur general supportive measures and drug treatment of life threatening arrhythmias should be applied simultaneously. Sedatives and anxiolytics, furthermore analgetics are widely used. They are however often associated with bradycardia and sometimes with hypotension. This latter is dominant in patients with inferior infarction, showing a parasympathetic hyperactivity, when atropine treatment is needed

  1. A collagen α2(I) mutation impairs healing after experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Bonz, Andreas; Frantz, Stefan; Hu, Kai; Waller, Christiane; Roemer, Katrin; Wolf, Jürgen; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Bauersachs, Johann; Ertl, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Collagen breakdown and de novo synthesis are important processes during early wound healing after myocardial infarction (MI). We tested the hypothesis that collagen I, the main constituent of the extracellular matrix, affects wound healing after MI. The osteogenesis imperfecta mouse (OIM), lacking procollagen-α2(I) expression, represents a model of the type III form of the disease in humans. Homozygous (OIM/OIM), heterozygous (OIM/WT), and wild-type (WT/WT) mice were subjected to a permanent myocardial infarction protocol or sham surgery. Baseline functional and geometrical parameters determined by echocardiography did not differ between genotypes. After MI but not after sham surgery, OIM/OIM animals exhibited significantly increased mortality, due to early ventricular rupture between day 3 and 7. Echocardiography at day 1 demonstrated increased left ventricular dilation in OIM/OIM animals. Less collagen I mRNA within the infarct area was found in OIM/OIM animals. At 2 days after MI, MMP-9 expression in the infarct border zone was higher in OIM/OIM than in WT/WT animals. Increased granulocyte infiltration into the infarct border zone occurred in OIM/OIM animals. Neither granulocyte depletion nor MMP inhibition reduced mortality in OIM/OIM animals. In this murine model, deficiency of collagen I leads to a myocardial wound-healing defect. Both structural alterations within pre-existing collagen matrix and impaired collagen de novo expression contribute to a high rate of early myocardial rupture after MI. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transitory Activation of AMPK at Reperfusion Protects the Ischaemic-Reperfused Rat Myocardium Against Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Marta A.; Gonçalves, Lino M.; Providência, Luis A.; Davidson, Sean M.; Yellon, Derek M.; Mocanu, Mihaela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose AMPK plays a crucial role in the regulation of the energy metabolism of the heart. During ischaemia, AMPK activation is a known adaptative prosurvival mechanism that helps to maintain the energy levels of the myocardium. However, it still remains unclear if activation of AMPK during reperfusion is beneficial for the heart. Two known AMPK activators (metformin and AICAR) were used to verify the hypothesis that a transitory activation of AMPK at reperfusion may exert cardioprotection, as reflected in a reduction in myocardial infarct size. Methods Perfused rat hearts were subjected to 35 min ischaemia and 120 min reperfusion. Metformin (50 μM) or AICAR (0.5 mM) were added for 15 min at the onset of reperfusion alone or with Compound C (CC, 10 μM), an AMPK inhibitor. Infarct size and α-AMPK phosphorylation were measured. Results Metformin significantly reduced infarct size from 47.8±1.7% in control to 31.4±2.9%, an effect abolished by CC when the drugs were given concomitantly. Similarly, AICAR also induced a significant reduction in infarct size to 32.3±4.8%, an effect also abrogated by CC. However, metformin's protection was not abolished if CC was administered later in reperfusion. In addition, α-AMPK phosphorylation was significantly increased in the metformin treated group during the initial 30 min of reperfusion. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that, in our ex vivo model of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury, AMPK activation in early reperfusion is associated with a reduction in infarct size. PMID:20229055

  3. Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery in a porcine model. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Fuat; Martínez-Valverde, Tamara; Sánchez-Guerrero, Ángela; Campos, Mireia; Esteves, Marielle; Gandara, Dario; Torné, Ramon; Castro, Lidia; Dalmau, Antoni; Tibau, Joan; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Interspecies variability and poor clinical translation from rodent studies indicate that large gyrencephalic animal stroke models are urgently needed. We present a proof-of-principle study describing an alternative animal model of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the common pig and illustrate some of its potential applications. We report on metabolic patterns, ionic profile, brain partial pressure of oxygen (PtiO2), expression of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1), and the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4). A 5-hour ischemic infarct of the MCA territory was performed in 5 2.5-to-3-month-old female hybrid pigs (Large White x Landrace) using a frontotemporal approach. The core and penumbra areas were intraoperatively monitored to determine the metabolic and ionic profiles. To determine the infarct volume, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to determine SUR1 and TRPM4 expression. PtiO2 monitoring showed an abrupt reduction in values close to 0 mmHg after MCA occlusion in the core area. Hourly cerebral microdialysis showed that the infarcted tissue was characterized by reduced concentrations of glucose (0.03 mM) and pyruvate (0.003 mM) and increases in lactate levels (8.87mM), lactate-pyruvate ratio (4202), glycerol levels (588 μM), and potassium concentration (27.9 mmol/L). Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased expression of SUR1-TRPM4 channels. The aim of the present proof-of-principle study was to document the feasibility of a large animal model of malignant MCA infarction by performing transcranial occlusion of the MCA in the common pig, as an alternative to lisencephalic animals. This model may be useful for detailed studies of cerebral ischemia mechanisms and the development of neuroprotective strategies.

  4. Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery in a porcine model. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Valverde, Tamara; Sánchez-Guerrero, Ángela; Campos, Mireia; Esteves, Marielle; Gandara, Dario; Torné, Ramon; Castro, Lidia; Dalmau, Antoni; Tibau, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Interspecies variability and poor clinical translation from rodent studies indicate that large gyrencephalic animal stroke models are urgently needed. We present a proof-of-principle study describing an alternative animal model of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the common pig and illustrate some of its potential applications. We report on metabolic patterns, ionic profile, brain partial pressure of oxygen (PtiO2), expression of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1), and the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4). Methods A 5-hour ischemic infarct of the MCA territory was performed in 5 2.5-to-3-month-old female hybrid pigs (Large White x Landrace) using a frontotemporal approach. The core and penumbra areas were intraoperatively monitored to determine the metabolic and ionic profiles. To determine the infarct volume, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to determine SUR1 and TRPM4 expression. Results PtiO2 monitoring showed an abrupt reduction in values close to 0 mmHg after MCA occlusion in the core area. Hourly cerebral microdialysis showed that the infarcted tissue was characterized by reduced concentrations of glucose (0.03 mM) and pyruvate (0.003 mM) and increases in lactate levels (8.87mM), lactate-pyruvate ratio (4202), glycerol levels (588 μM), and potassium concentration (27.9 mmol/L). Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased expression of SUR1-TRPM4 channels. Conclusions The aim of the present proof-of-principle study was to document the feasibility of a large animal model of malignant MCA infarction by performing transcranial occlusion of the MCA in the common pig, as an alternative to lisencephalic animals. This model may be useful for detailed studies of cerebral ischemia mechanisms and the development of neuroprotective strategies. PMID:28235044

  5. Renal sympathetic denervation suppresses atrial fibrillation induced by acute atrial ischemia/infarction through inhibition of cardiac sympathetic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qina; Zhou, Xianhui; TuEr-Hong, ZuKe-la; Wang, Hongli; Yin, Tingting; Li, Yaodong; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Yanmei; Xing, Qiang; Zhang, Jianghua; Yang, Yining; Tang, Baopeng

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to explore the effects of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility and sympathetic activity induced by acute atrial ischemia/infarction. Acute ischemia/infarction was induced in 12 beagle dogs by ligating coronary arteries that supply the atria. Six dogs in the sham-RSD group did not undergo RSD, and six dogs without coronary artery ligation served as controls. AF induction rate, sympathetic discharge, catecholamine concentration and densities of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nerves were measured. Acute atrial ischemia/infarction resulted in a significant increase of AF induction rate, which was decreased by RSD compared to controls (P<0.05). The root-mean-square peak value, peak area and number of sympathetic discharges were significantly augmented by atrial ischemia relative to the baseline and control (P<0.05). The number of sympathetic discharges was significantly reduced in the RSD group, compared to the control and sham-RSD groups (P<0.05). Norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations in the atria, ventricle and kidney were elevated by atrial ischemia/infarction, but were reduced by RSD (P<0.05). Sympathetic hyperactivity was associated with pacing-induced AF after acute atrial ischemia/infarction. RSD has the potential to reduce the incidence of new-onset AF after acute atrial ischemia/infarction. The inhibition of cardiac sympathetic activity by RSD may be one of the major underlying mechanisms for the marked reduction of AF inducibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interventions for preventing silent cerebral infarcts in people with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Abboud, Miguel R

    2017-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. SCD can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Silent cerebral infarcts are the commonest neurological complication in children and probably adults with SCD. Silent cerebral infarcts also affect academic performance, increase cognitive deficits and may lower intelligence quotient. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions to reduce or prevent silent cerebral infarcts in people with SCD. Search methods We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 19 September 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register: 06 October 2016. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing interventions to prevent silent cerebral infarcts in people with SCD. There were no restrictions by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Main results We included five trials (660 children or adolescents) published between 1998 and 2016. Four of the five trials were terminated early. The vast majority of participants had the haemoglobin (Hb)SS form of SCD. One trial focused on preventing silent cerebral infarcts or stroke; three trials were for primary stroke prevention and one trial dealt with secondary stroke prevention. Three trials compared the use of regular long-term red blood cell transfusions to standard care. Two of these trials included children with no previous long-term transfusions: one in children with normal transcranial doppler (TCD) velocities; and one in children with abnormal TCD velocities. The third trial included children and adolescents on

  7. Spinal Cord Infarction in Clinical Neurology: A Review of Characteristics and Long-Term Prognosis in Comparison to Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Romi, Fredrik; Naess, Halvor

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord stroke is rare accounting for 0.3-1% of all strokes and is classified into upper (cervical) and lower (thoracolumbar) strokes. Patients present with severe deficits but later often show good functional improvement. On admission, younger age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and elevated blood glucose indicate more severe spinal cord strokes. Treatment of these risk factors is essential in the acute phase. Biphasic spinal cord strokes are seen in one-fifth of the patients. These present with acute or transient sensory spinal cord deficits often preceded by radiating pain between the shoulders, and should be considered and treated as imminent spinal cord strokes. Spinal cord infarction patients are younger and more often women compared to cerebral infarction patients. Traditional cerebrovascular risk factors are less relevant in spinal cord infarction. Spinal cord infarction patients are more likely to be discharged home and show better improvement after initial treatment compared to cerebral infarction patients. On long-term follow-up, spinal cord infarction patients have lower mortality and higher emotional well-being scores than cerebral infarction patients. Despite more chronic pain, the frequency of re-employment is higher among spinal cord infarction patients compared to cerebral infarction patients who are more often afflicted with cognitive function deficits. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Unenhanced MR Angiography of Uterine and Ovarian Arteries after Uterine Artery Embolization: Differences between Patients with Incomplete and Complete Fibroid Infarction

    SciT

    Mori, Kensaku, E-mail: moriken@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Saida, Tsukasa; Shibuya, Yoko

    Purpose: To compare the status of uterine and ovarian arteries after uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients with incomplete and complete fibroid infarction via unenhanced 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five consecutive women (mean age 43 years; range 26-52 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent UAE and MR imaging before and within 2 months after UAE. The patients were divided into incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups on the basis of the postprocedural gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings. Two independent observers reviewed unenhanced MR angiography before and after UAE to determine bilateral uterine and ovarian arterial flowmore » scores. The total arterial flow scores were calculated by summing the scores of the 4 arteries. All scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Fourteen and 21 patients were assigned to the incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups, respectively. The total arterial flow score in the incomplete fibroid infarction group was significantly greater than that in the complete fibroid infarction group (P = 0.019 and P = 0.038 for observers 1 and 2, respectively). In 3 patients, additional therapy was recommended for insufficient fibroid infarction. In 1 of the 3 patients, bilateral ovarian arteries were invisible before UAE but seemed enlarged after UAE. Conclusion: The total arterial flow from bilateral uterine and ovarian arteries in patients with incomplete fibroid infarction is less well reduced than in those with complete fibroid infarction. Postprocedural MR angiography provides useful information to estimate the cause of insufficient fibroid infarction in individual cases.« less

  9. Hemicraniectomy after middle cerebral artery infarction with life-threatening Edema trial (HAMLET). Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of decompressive surgery in space-occupying hemispheric infarction.

    PubMed

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Amelink, G Johan; Algra, Ale; van Gijn, Jan; Macleod, Malcolm R; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Worp, H Bart

    2006-09-11

    Patients with a hemispheric infarct and massive space-occupying brain oedema have a poor prognosis. Despite maximal conservative treatment, the case fatality rate may be as high as 80%, and most survivors are left severely disabled. Non-randomised studies suggest that decompressive surgery reduces mortality substantially and improves functional outcome of survivors. This study is designed to compare the efficacy of decompressive surgery to improve functional outcome with that of conservative treatment in patients with space-occupying supratentorial infarction The study design is that of a multi-centre, randomised clinical trial, which will include 112 patients aged between 18 and 60 years with a large hemispheric infarct with space-occupying oedema that leads to a decrease in consciousness. Patients will be randomised to receive either decompressive surgery in combination with medical treatment or best medical treatment alone. Randomisation will be stratified for the intended mode of conservative treatment (intensive care or stroke unit care). The primary outcome measure will be functional outcome, as determined by the score on the modified Rankin Scale, at one year.

  10. Poor school and cognitive functioning with silent cerebral infarcts and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Schatz, J; Brown, R T; Pascual, J M; Hsu, L; DeBaun, M R

    2001-04-24

    The authors evaluated education attainment and neuropsychological deficits in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and silent cerebral infarcts. Children with silent infarcts had twice the rate of school difficulties as children without infarcts. Eighty percent of silent infarct cases had clinically significant cognitive deficits, whereas 35% had deficits in academic skills. Children with silent cerebral infarcts show high rates of poor educational attainment, cognitive deficits, and frontal lobe injury. Poor school performance in SCD is one indicator of silent infarcts.

  11. Functionalized nanoparticles provide early cardioprotection after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Yao; Yang, Yu-Jen; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Alan C L; Liao, Wei-Yin; Cheng, Fong-Yu; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Lai, James J; Stayton, Patrick S; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2013-09-10

    Recent developments in nanotechnology have created considerable potential toward diagnosis and cancer therapy. In contrast, the use of nanotechnology in tissue repair or regeneration remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-complexed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (PLGA-IGF-1 NPs) increases IGF-1 retention, induces Akt phosphorylation, and provides early cardioprotection after acute myocardial infarction (MI). We synthesized 3 different sizes of PLGA particles (60 nm, 200 nm, and 1 μm) which were complexed with IGF-1 using electrostatic force to preserve the biological function of IGF-1. Afterward, we injected PLGA-IGF-1 NPs in the heart after MI directly. Compared with the other two larger particles, the 60 nm-sized PLGA-IGF-1 NPs carried more IGF-1 and induced more Akt phosphorylation in cultured cardiomyocytes. PLGA-IGF-1 NPs also prolonged Akt activation in cardiomyocytes up to 24h and prevented cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, PLGA-IGF-1 NP treatment significantly retained more IGF-1 in the myocardium than the IGF-1 alone treatment at 2, 6, 8, and 24 h. Akt phosphorylation was detected in cardiomyocytes 24h post-MI only in hearts receiving PLGA-IGF-1 NP treatment, but not in hearts receiving injection of PBS, IGF-1 or PLGA NPs. Importantly, a single intramyocardial injection of PLGA-IGF-1 NPs was sufficient to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis (P<0.001), reduce infarct size (P<0.05), and improve left ventricle ejection fraction (P<0.01) 21 days after experimental MI in mice. Our results not only demonstrate the potential of nanoparticle-based technology as a new approach to treating MI, but also have significant implications for translation of this technology into clinical therapy for ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bilateral medial medullary infarction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pongmoragot, Jitphapa; Parthasarathy, Sujatha; Selchen, Daniel; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2013-08-01

    Bilateral infarction of the medial medulla (MMI) is rare. Limited information is available on clinical characteristics, etiology, and prognosis. High-resolution neuroimaging has a major role in elucidating the underlying stroke mechanism. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the clinical presentations, stroke mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with bilateral MMI. We performed a systematic review of the literature from 1992-2011 that reported on clinical presentations, stroke mechanism, and/or outcomes in patients with magnetic resonance imaging-proven bilateral MMI. Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science Scholars Portal were searched without language restriction. Two reviewers independently assessed identified studies to determine eligibility, validity, and quality. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality; a secondary outcome was case fatality at 12 months. We identified 138 articles from Medline, EMBASE, and Scholars Portal including the MeSH terms "brainstem infarction," "medulla," and "bilateral." Twenty-nine articles met our inclusion criteria, including a total of 38 cases with bilateral MMI, and included in our study. These 38 patients had a mean age of 62.2 years and were predominately male (74.2%). The most common clinical presentations were motor weakness in 78.4%, dysarthria in 48.6%, and hypoglossal palsy in 40.5%. The most common vascular pathology was vertebral artery atherosclerosis, in 38.5%. The clinical outcome was poor (mortality, 23.8%; dependency, 61.9%). Bilateral medial medullary infarction is a rare stroke syndrome. Clinical presentations were mostly rostral medullary lesions. Large-artery atherosclerosis and branch disease were the most common stroke mechanisms. The clinical outcome was usually poor. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dengzhanhua preparations for acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenzhai; Liu, Weimin; Wu, Taixiang; Zhong, Dechao; Liu, Guanjian

    2008-10-08

    Dengzhanhua preparations are widely used in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate the efficacy of dengzhanhua preparations in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. To assess whether dengzhanhua preparations are effective and safe at improving outcomes in patients with acute cerebral infarction. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched October 2007), the Chinese Stroke Trials Register (last searched June 2006), the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field (last searched June 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2006), EMBASE (1980 to June 2006), AMED (the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, 1985 to June 2006), the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc, 1979 to June 2006), and Chinese Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI,1994 to October 2007). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials of dengzhanhua preparations regardless of duration, dosage and route of administration in patients with confirmed acute cerebral infarction. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality, and extracted the data. We included nine trials, all conducted in China, involving 723 participants. The method of randomisation and concealment was poorly described. The included trials compared dengzhanhua injection plus routine therapy with routine therapy alone. Patients were enrolled up to one week after the onset of stroke. No trials reported data on the pre-specified primary or secondary outcomes. In a post-hoc comparison of dengzhanhua injection plus routine therapy versus routine therapy alone, dengzhanhua injection showed a statistically significant benefit on the outcome 'marked neurologic improvement' (relative risk 1.53; 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 1.72). No serious adverse effects were

  14. Risk stratification following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep

    2007-07-01

    This article reviews the current risk assessment models available for patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI). These practical tools enhance the health care provider's ability to rapidly and accurately assess patient risk from the event or revascularization therapy, and are of paramount importance in managing patients presenting with MI. This article highlights the models used for ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) and provides an additional description of models used to assess risks after primary angioplasty (ie, angioplasty performed for STEMI).

  15. Imaging Stem Cells Implanted in Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rong; Acton, Paul D.; Ferrari, Victor A.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell–based cellular cardiomyoplasty represents a promising therapy for myocardial infarction. Noninvasive imaging techniques would allow the evaluation of survival, migration, and differentiation status of implanted stem cells in the same subject over time. This review describes methods for cell visualization using several corresponding noninvasive imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and bioluminescent imaging. Reporter-based cell visualization is compared with direct cell labeling for short- and long-term cell tracking. PMID:17112999

  16. The unexpected finding of a splenic infarction in a patient with infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Machado, Catarina; Melo Salgado, Joana; Monjardino, Leonor

    2015-11-25

    The authors present a case of a 24-year-old man with infectious mononucleosis (IM) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Among his symptoms, he reported abdominal pain in the upper left quadrant. An abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed an extensive splenic infarction. During the acute stage of this disease, the thrombophilic screening revealed reduced free protein S and elevated factor VIII, with normalisation on re-evaluation 6 weeks later. Splenic infarction is a very rare complication of IM due to EBV but should be considered in patients presenting abdominal pain. A hypercoagulability state should be investigated. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of a splenic infarction in a patient with IM due to EBV associated with a transient reduction of protein S and elevation of factor VIII. Thus, this work promotes the importance of including these factors in the thrombophilic screening conducted during the investigation of similar cases. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. The unexpected finding of a splenic infarction in a patient with infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Catarina; Melo Salgado, Joana; Monjardino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a case of a 24-year-old man with infectious mononucleosis (IM) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Among his symptoms, he reported abdominal pain in the upper left quadrant. An abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed an extensive splenic infarction. During the acute stage of this disease, the thrombophilic screening revealed reduced free protein S and elevated factor VIII, with normalisation on re-evaluation 6 weeks later. Splenic infarction is a very rare complication of IM due to EBV but should be considered in patients presenting abdominal pain. A hypercoagulability state should be investigated. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of a splenic infarction in a patient with IM due to EBV associated with a transient reduction of protein S and elevation of factor VIII. Thus, this work promotes the importance of including these factors in the thrombophilic screening conducted during the investigation of similar cases. PMID:26607191

  18. Refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with concomitant acute cerebral infarction in a child: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xingnan; Zou, Yingxue; Zhai, Jia; Liu, Jie; Huang, Bing

    2018-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children, is rarely complicated with acute cerebral infarction. We present a 7-year-old boy with severe M pneumoniae pneumonia who developed impaired consciousness, aphasia, and reduced limb muscle power 7 days postadmission. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with concomitant acute cerebral infarction. The patient recovered with aggressive antibiotic therapy, antiinflammation therapy with methylprednisolone, and gamma immunoglobulin and anticoagulation therapy with aspirin and low molecular weight heparin along with rehabilitation training. At 8 days postadmission, his consciousness was improved and at the 6-month follow-up visit, his muscle power of bilateral upper and lower limbs was normal except still poor right handgrip power. Stroke or cerebral infarction should be considered and promptly managed in rare cases of M pneumoniae pneumonia with neurologic manifestations.

  19. Therapeutic effect of a novel Wnt pathway inhibitor on cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dezhong; Fu, Wenbin; Li, Liangpeng; Xia, Xuewei; Liao, Qiao; Yue, Rongchuan; Chen, Hongmei; Chen, Xiongwen; An, Songzhu; Zeng, Chunyu; Wang, Wei Eric

    2017-12-15

    After myocardial infarction (MI), the heart is difficult to repair because of great loss of cardiomyoctyes and lack of cardiac regeneration. Novel drug candidates that aim at reducing pathological remodeling and stimulating cardiac regeneration are highly desirable. In the present study, we identified if and how a novel porcupine inhibitor CGX1321 influenced MI and cardiac regeneration. Permanent ligation of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was performed in mice to induce MI injury. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography, infarct size was examined by TTC staining. Fibrosis was evaluated with Masson's trichrome staining and vimentin staining. As a result, CGX1321 administration blocked the secretion of Wnt proteins, and inhibited both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. CGX1321 improved cardiac function, reduced myocardial infarct size, and fibrosis of post-MI hearts. CGX1321 significantly increased newly formed cardiomyocytes in infarct border zone of post-MI hearts, evidenced by the increased EdU + cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, CGX1321 increased Ki67 + and phosphohistone H3 (PH3 + ) cardiomyocytes in culture, indicating enhanced cardiomyocyte proliferation. The mRNA microarray showed that CGX1321 up-regulated cell cycle regulating genes such as Ccnb1 and Ccne1 CGX1321 did not alter YAP protein phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, porcupine inhibitor CGX1321 reduces MI injury by limiting fibrosis and promoting regeneration. It promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation by stimulating cell cycle regulating genes with a Hippo/YAP-independent pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Electrocardiographic infarct size assessment after thrombolysis: insights from the Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial.

    PubMed

    Barbagelata, Alejandro; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Califf, Robert M; Garg, Jyotsna; Birnbaum, Yochai; Grinfeld, Liliana; Gibbons, Raymond J; Granger, Christopher B; Goodman, Shaun G; Wagner, Galen S; Mahaffey, Kenneth W

    2005-10-01

    Noninvasive methods are needed to evaluate reperfusion success in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The AMISTAD trial was analyzed to compare MI size and myocardial salvage determined by electrocardiogram (ECG) with technetium Tc 99m sestamibi single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging. Of 236 patients enrolled in AMISTAD, 166 (70 %) with no ECG confounding factors and no prior MI were included in this analysis. Of these, group 1 (126 patients, 53%) had final infarct size (FIS) available by both ECG and SPECT. Group 2 (56 patients, 24%) had myocardium at risk, FIS, and salvage index (SI) assessed by both SPECT and ECG techniques. Aldrich/Clemmensen scores for myocardium at risk and the Selvester QRS score for final MI size were used. Salvage index was calculated as follows: SI = (myocardium at risk-FIS)/(myocardium at risk). In group 1, FIS was 15% (6, 24) as measured by ECG and 11% (2, 27) as measured by SPECT. In the adenosine group, FIS was 12% (6, 21) and 11% (2, 22). In the placebo group, FIS was 16.5% (7.5, 24) and 11.5% (3.0, 38.5) by ECG and SPECT, respectively. The overall correlation between SPECT and ECG for FIS was 0.58 (P = .0001): 0.60 in the placebo group (P = .0001) and 0.54 (P = .0001) in the adenosine group. In group 2, myocardium at risk was 23% (17, 30) and 26% (10, 50) with ECG and SPECT, respectively (P = .0066). Final infarct size was 17% (6, 21) and 12% (1, 24) (P < .0001). The SI was 29% (-7, 57) and 46% (15, 79) with ECG and SPECT, respectively (P = .0510). The ECG measurement of infarct size has a moderate relationship with SPECT infarct size measurements in the population with available assessments. This ECG algorithm must further be validated on clinical outcomes.

  1. Protective effects of Jiashen Prescription () on myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming-Jun; Wang, You-Ping; Xie, Shi-Yang; Liu, Wei-Hong; Li, Bin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Wang, He; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of Jiashen Prescription (, JSP) on myocardial infarction (MI) size and cardiac function at the early stage of MI in rats. One hundred male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham-operation or MI induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. The rats with MI were treated with vehicle, JSP 3 and 6 g/(kg·d), or losartan 10 mg/(kg·d) for 1 week. Compared with the vehicle-treated MI rats, 6 g/(kg·d) JSP reduced MI size 3 days after MI (P<0.05), and attenuated the MI-induced increases in left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic dimension and decreases in fractional shortening and ejection fraction 1 week after MI (P<0.05). In addition, 6 g/(kg·d) JSP and losartan were equally effective in reducing MI size and enhancing cardiac functional recovery. JSP reduces MI size and improves cardiac function after MI, suggesting that JSP has potential as a therapy for MI.

  2. Pyridostigmine ameliorates cardiac remodeling induced by myocardial infarction via inhibition of the transforming growth factor-β1/TGF-β1-activated kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Jun; Bi, Xue-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Kong, Shan-Shan; Qin, Fang-Fang; Zhou, Jun; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2014-05-01

    Autonomic imbalance characterized by sympathetic predominance coinciding with diminished vagal activity is an independent risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. Several studies show that vagus nerve stimulation exerted beneficial effects on cardiac function and survival. In this study, we investigated the vagomimetic effect of pyridostigmine on left ventricular (LV) remodeling in rats after myocardial infarction. After myocardial infarction, surviving rats were treated with or without pyridostigmine (31 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) for 2 weeks, and hemodynamic parameters were measured. LV tissue was used to assess infarct size and interstitial fibrosis by Masson's trichrome and 0.1% picrosirius red staining. Protein expression of heart tissues was used to assess the efficacy of the treatment. Pyridostigmine markedly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac diastolic function. These improvements were accompanied with a significant decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and collagen deposition. Additionally, pyridostigmine inhibited both transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and TGF-β1-activated kinase expression in hearts postmyocardial infarction. Thus, pyridostigmine reduces collagen deposition, attenuates cardiac fibrosis, and improves LV diastolic function after myocardial infarction via TGF-β1/TGF-β1-activated kinase pathway inhibition.

  3. Splenic infarction: an update on William Osler's observations.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Yaacov R; Pokroy, Russell; Berlowitz, Daniel; Aharoni, Dvora; Hain, Daniel; Breuer, Gabriel S

    2010-06-01

    Osler taught that splenic infarction presents with left upper abdominal quadrant pain, tenderness and swelling accompanied by a peritoneal friction rub. Splenic infarction is classically associated with bacterial endocarditis and sickle cell disease. To describe the contemporary experience of splenic infarction. We conducted a chart review of inpatients diagnosed with splenic infarction in a Jerusalem hospital between 1990 and 2003. We identified 26 cases with a mean age of 52 years. Common causes were hematologic malignancy (six cases) and intracardiac thrombus (five cases). Only three cases were associated with bacterial endocarditis. In 21 cases the splenic infarction brought a previously undiagnosed underlying disease to attention. Only half the subjects complained of localized left-sided abdominal pain, 36% had left-sided abdominal tenderness; 31% had no signs or symptoms localized to the splenic area, 36% had fever, 56% had leukocytosis and 71% had elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels. One splenectomy was performed and all patients survived to discharge. A post hoc analysis demonstrated that single infarcts were more likely to be associated with fever (20% vs. 63%, p < 0.05) and leukocytosis (75% vs. 33%, P = 0.06) The clinical presentation of splenic infarction in the modern era differs greatly from the classical teaching, regarding etiology, signs and symptoms. In patients with unexplained splenic infarction, investigation frequently uncovers a new underlying diagnosis.

  4. Culprit versus multivessel coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Satyanarayana R; Qamar, Arman; Arora, Sameer; Devarapally, Santhosh R; Kondur, Ashok; Kaul, Prashant

    2018-03-01

    The 2015 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association update on primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) recommended PCI of the non-infarct-related artery at the time of primary PCI (class IIb recommendation). Despite evidence supporting complete revascularization in STEMI, its benefit on mortality rates is uncertain. We searched all available databases for randomized controlled trials comparing complete multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (CMV PCI) with infarct-artery-only revascularization in patients with STEMI. Summary risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for both the efficacy and safety outcomes. Nine randomized controlled trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria, yielding 2991 patients. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 36 months. Compared with infarct-related artery-only PCI, CMV PCI was associated with significantly lower rates of major adverse cardiac events [relative risk (RR)=0.54, 95% CI=0.41-0.71; P<0.00001], cardiovascular mortality (RR=0.48, 95% CI=0.28-0.80; P=0.005), and repeat revascularization (RR=0.38, 95% CI=0.30-0.47; P<0.00001). Although, contrast-induced nephropathy and major bleed rates were comparable between both groups, CMV PCI failed to show any reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.75, 95% CI=0.53-1.07; P=0.11) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (RR=0.69, 95% CI=0.43-1.10; P=0.12). Our results suggest that in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, complete revascularization is safe, and is associated with reduced risks of major adverse cardiac events and cardiac death along with a reduced need for repeat revascularization. However, it showed no beneficial effect on all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction.

  5. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive

  6. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofang; Wang, Yuefen; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive

  7. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bonaca, Marc P; Bhatt, Deepak L; Cohen, Marc; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Storey, Robert F; Jensen, Eva C; Magnani, Giulia; Bansilal, Sameer; Fish, M Polly; Im, Kyungah; Bengtsson, Olof; Oude Ophuis, Ton; Budaj, Andrzej; Theroux, Pierre; Ruda, Mikhail; Hamm, Christian; Goto, Shinya; Spinar, Jindrich; Nicolau, José Carlos; Kiss, Robert G; Murphy, Sabina A; Wiviott, Stephen D; Held, Peter; Braunwald, Eugene; Sabatine, Marc S

    2015-05-07

    The potential benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy beyond 1 year after a myocardial infarction has not been established. We investigated the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist with established efficacy after an acute coronary syndrome, in this context. We randomly assigned, in a double-blind 1:1:1 fashion, 21,162 patients who had had a myocardial infarction 1 to 3 years earlier to ticagrelor at a dose of 90 mg twice daily, ticagrelor at a dose of 60 mg twice daily, or placebo. All the patients were to receive low-dose aspirin and were followed for a median of 33 months. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety end point was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding. The two ticagrelor doses each reduced, as compared with placebo, the rate of the primary efficacy end point, with Kaplan-Meier rates at 3 years of 7.85% in the group that received 90 mg of ticagrelor twice daily, 7.77% in the group that received 60 mg of ticagrelor twice daily, and 9.04% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for 90 mg of ticagrelor vs. placebo, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.96; P=0.008; hazard ratio for 60 mg of ticagrelor vs. placebo, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.95; P=0.004). Rates of TIMI major bleeding were higher with ticagrelor (2.60% with 90 mg and 2.30% with 60 mg) than with placebo (1.06%) (P<0.001 for each dose vs. placebo); the rates of intracranial hemorrhage or fatal bleeding in the three groups were 0.63%, 0.71%, and 0.60%, respectively. In patients with a myocardial infarction more than 1 year previously, treatment with ticagrelor significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke and increased the risk of major bleeding. (Funded by AstraZeneca; PEGASUS-TIMI 54 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01225562.).

  8. MicroRNA-133 overexpression promotes the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells on acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yueqiu; Zhao, Yunfeng; Chen, Weiqian; Xie, Lincen; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Yang, Junjie; Chen, Yihuan; Lei, Wei; Shen, Zhenya

    2017-11-25

    Our study aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of miR-133-overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on acute myocardial infarction. Rat MSCs were isolated and purified by whole bone marrow adherent culturing. After transfection with the agomir or antagomir of miR-133, MSCs were collected for assay of cell vitality, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. At the same time, exosomes were isolated from the supernatant to analyze the paracrine miR-133. For in-vivo studies, constitutive activation of miR-133 in MSCs was achieved by lentivirus-mediated miR-133 overexpression. A rat myocardial infarction model was created by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery, while control MSCs (vector-MSCs) or miR-133-overexpressed MSCs (miR-133-MSCs) were injected into the zone around the myocardial infarction. Subsequently, myocardial function was evaluated by echocardiography on days 7 and 28 post infarction. Finally the infarcted hearts were collected on days 7 and 28 for myocardial infarct size measurement and detection of snail 1 expression. Hypoxia-induced apoptosis of MSCs obviously reduced, along with enhanced expression of total poly ADP-ribose polymerase protein, after miR-133 agomir transfection, while the apoptosis rate increased in MSCs transfected with miR-133 antagomir. However, no change in cell viability and cell-cycle distribution was observed in control, miR-133-overexpressed, and miR-133-interfered MSCs. Importantly, rats transplanted with miR-133-MSCs displayed more improved cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction, compared with those that received vector-MSC injection. Further studies indicated that cardiac expression of snail 1 was significantly repressed by adjacent miR-133-overexpressing MSCs, and both the inflammatory level and the infarct size decreased in miR-133-MSC-injected rat hearts. miR-133-MSCs obviously improved cardiac function in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Transplantation of miR-133

  9. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMISTAD-II).

    PubMed

    Ross, Allan M; Gibbons, Raymond J; Stone, Gregg W; Kloner, Robert A; Alexander, R Wayne

    2005-06-07

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of intravenous adenosine on clinical outcomes and infarct size in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing reperfusion therapy. Previous small studies suggest that adenosine may reduce the size of an evolving infarction. Patients (n = 2,118) with evolving anterior STEMI receiving thrombolysis or primary angioplasty were randomized to a 3-h infusion of either adenosine 50 or 70 microg/kg/min or of placebo. The primary end point was new congestive heart failure (CHF) beginning >24 h after randomization, or the first re-hospitalization for CHF, or death from any cause within six months. Infarct size was measured in a subset of 243 patients by technetium-99m sestamibi tomography. There was no difference in the primary end point between placebo (17.9%) and either the pooled adenosine dose groups (16.3%) or, separately, the 50-microg/kg/min dose and 70-microg/kg/min groups (16.5% vs. 16.1%, respectively, p = 0.43). The pooled adenosine group trended toward a smaller median infarct size compared with the placebo group, 17% versus 27% (p = 0.074). A dose-response relationship with final median infarct size was seen: 11% at the high dose (p = 0.023 vs. placebo) and 23% at the low dose (p = NS vs. placebo). Infarct size and occurrence of a primary end point were significantly related (p < 0.001). Clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing reperfusion therapy were not significantly improved with adenosine, although infarct size was reduced with the 70-microg/kg/min adenosine infusion, a finding that correlated with fewer adverse clinical events. A larger study limited to the 70-microg/kg/min dose is, therefore, warranted.

  10. Splenic infarction associated with sickle cell trait at low altitude.

    PubMed

    Seegars, Mary Beth; Brett, Allan S

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell trait is widely known to be associated with splenic infarction at high altitudes. Although textbooks and reviews imply that this complication does not occur at low altitudes, we encountered such a case and identified several previous cases in the literature. An 18-year-old woman with sickle cell trait who resided near sea level presented with left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was found to have multiple splenic infarcts. She was otherwise well, with no comorbidities that would predispose to hypoxemia or vascular injury. A review of the literature revealed 12 previously published cases of low-altitude splenic infarction in patients with sickle trait; 7 of those patients had comorbidities that likely predisposed to splenic infarction. None. Spontaneous splenic infarction can occur in patients with sickle trait who live at low altitudes. It is unclear whether this complication is rare, or whether it is relatively common but under-recognized.

  11. Pathological Laughter as a Symptom of Midbrain Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dabby, Ron; Watemberg, Nathan; Lampl, Yair; Eilam, Anda; Rapaport, Abraham; Sadeh, Menachem

    2004-01-01

    Pathological laughter is an uncommon symptom usually caused by bilateral, diffuse cerebral lesions. It has rarely been reported in association with isolated cerebral lesions. Midbrain involvement causing pathological laughter is extremely unusual. We describe three patients who developed pathological laughter after midbrain and pontine-midbrain infarction. In two patients a small infarction in the left paramedian midbrain was detected, whereas the third one sustained a massive bilateral pontine infarction extending to the midbrain. Laughter heralded stroke by one day in one patient and occurred as a delayed phenomenon three months after stroke in another. Pathological laughter ceased within a few days in two patients and was still present at a two year follow-up in the patient with delayed-onset laughter. Pathological laughter can herald midbrain infarction or follow stroke either shortly after onset of symptoms or as a delayed phenomenon. Furthermore, small unilateral midbrain infarctions can cause this rare complication. PMID:15706050

  12. Diagnosis and initial management of cerebellar infarction.

    PubMed

    Edlow, Jonathan A; Newman-Toker, David E; Savitz, Sean I

    2008-10-01

    Cerebellar infarction is an important cause of stroke that often presents with common and non-specific symptoms such as dizziness, nausea and vomiting, unsteady gait, and headache. Accurate diagnosis frequently relies on careful attention to patients' coordination, gait, and eye movements--components of the neurological physical examination that are sometimes omitted or abridged if cerebellar stroke is not specifically being considered. The differential diagnosis is broad, and includes many common and benign causes. Furthermore, early-stage posterior fossa ischaemia is rarely seen with brain CT--the most commonly available initial imaging test that is used for stroke. Insufficient examination and imaging can result in misdiagnosis. However, early correct diagnosis is crucial to help prevent treatable but potentially fatal complications, such as brainstem compression and obstructive hydrocephalus. The identification and treatment of the underlying vascular lesions at an early stage can also prevent subsequent occurrences of stroke and improve patients' outcomes. Here, we review the clinical presentation of cerebellar infarction, from diagnosis and misdiagnosis to patients' monitoring, treatment, and potential complications.

  13. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    SciT

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logisticmore » regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine.« less

  14. [The reduction of stroke risk, risk of myocardial infarction and death by healthy diet and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Droste, D W; Keipes, M

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that a healthy diet and regular physical activity improve risk factors for cerebro-cardio-vascular disease and death. However, there is less evidence from prospective randomised controlled trials that they also reduce the actual risk of stroke, myocardial infarction and death. The only evidence from randomised controlled trials is, that a mediterranean diet with nuts and/or native olive oil considerably reduces stroke risk by 47% respectively 31%, however not the risk of myocardial infarction and death. A low-fat diet, a low-salt diet, and the addition of omega-3 fatty acids have no influence. In case of severe obesity with a BMI of > 34-38 kg/m2, weight reduction is the priority, if necessary by means of bariatric surgery. In longitudinal studies mortality (-29%), stroke (-34%), and myocardial infarction (-29%) could thus be reduced. Regular physical activity, whether endurance or more intense activity, leads to weight loss and improved vascular risk factors. An independent impact on stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality has not yet been demonstrated in prospective studies (double-blinding being impossible). Nevertheless, several epidemiological meta-analyses with observation durations of 4 to 28 years using data of up to 880 000 persons, indicate that there is a 2-3 fold risk reduction of cerebro-cardio-vascular death and global mortality in people with regular physical activity versus sedentary behaviour.

  15. Cardioprotective effects of traditional Chinese medicine Guanmaitong on acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Hua; Li, Guang-Ping; Yang, Wan-Song; Jiao, Zhan-Quan; Liu, Hong-Mei; Ni, Yan-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Guanmaitong (GMT) is a traditional Chinese herbal compound that has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other cardiovascular diseases. However, the efficacy of GMT in treating cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms and identify the targeted proteins and signaling networks associated with the physiological activity of GMT in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: Control group (sham-operated), the model group, and small, medium, and large dosage GMT groups. The rat model of AMI was established via ligation of the coronary artery. The results indicate that GMT was able to reduce myocardial infarction size and improve the activities of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-1. Furthermore, the reduced apoptotic index of the GMT-treated cardiocytes (P<0.05 vs. model group) was in accordance with the downregulated expression of Bax and the upregulated expression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, GMT may exert a protective potential against myocardial infarction injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation of cardiomyocytes, and may offer a promising adjunct treatment for CHD.

  16. Cardioprotective effects of traditional Chinese medicine Guanmaitong on acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing-Hua; Li, Guang-Ping; Yang, Wan-Song; Jiao, Zhan-Quan; Liu, Hong-Mei; Ni, Yan-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Guanmaitong (GMT) is a traditional Chinese herbal compound that has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other cardiovascular diseases. However, the efficacy of GMT in treating cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms and identify the targeted proteins and signaling networks associated with the physiological activity of GMT in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: Control group (sham-operated), the model group, and small, medium, and large dosage GMT groups. The rat model of AMI was established via ligation of the coronary artery. The results indicate that GMT was able to reduce myocardial infarction size and improve the activities of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-1. Furthermore, the reduced apoptotic index of the GMT-treated cardiocytes (P<0.05 vs. model group) was in accordance with the downregulated expression of Bax and the upregulated expression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, GMT may exert a protective potential against myocardial infarction injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation of cardiomyocytes, and may offer a promising adjunct treatment for CHD. PMID:28105124

  17. Hyaluronan Enhances Bone Marrow Cell Therapy for Myocardial Repair After Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hsi; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Wei, Erika IH; Chu, Ting-Yu; Hsieh, Patrick CH

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has been shown to play an important role during early heart development and promote angiogenesis under various physiological and pathological conditions. In recent years, stem cell therapy, which may reduce cardiomyocyte apoptosis, increase neovascularization, and prevent cardiac fibrosis, has emerged as a promising approach to treat myocardial infarction (MI). However, effective delivery of stem cells for cardiac therapy remains a major challenge. In this study, we tested whether transplanting a combination of HA and allogeneic bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs) promotes cell therapy efficacy and thus improves cardiac performance after MI in rats. We showed that HA provided a favorable microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and vascular differentiation in MNC culture. Following MI in rats, compared with the injection of HA alone or MNC alone, injection of both HA and MNCs significantly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and infarct size and also improved cell retention, angiogenesis, and arteriogenesis, and thus the overall cardiac performance. Ultimately, HA/MNC treatment improved vasculature engraftment of transplanted cells in the infarcted region. Together, our results indicate that combining the biocompatible material HA with bone marrow stem cells exerts a therapeutic effect on heart repair and may further provide potential treatment for ischemic diseases. PMID:23295948

  18. Reduction of infarct size by gentle reperfusion without activation of reperfusion injury salvage kinases in pigs.

    PubMed

    Musiolik, Judith; van Caster, Patrick; Skyschally, Andreas; Boengler, Kerstin; Gres, Petra; Schulz, Rainer; Heusch, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Reperfusion is mandatory to salvage ischaemic myocardium from infarction, but also induces additional reperfusion injury and contributes to infarct size (IS). Gentle reperfusion (GR) has been proposed to attenuate reperfusion injury, but this remains contentious. We now investigated whether (i) GR reduces IS and (ii) GR is associated with the activation of reperfusion injury salvage kinases (RISK). Anaesthetized pigs were subjected to 90 min left anterior descending coronary artery hypoperfusion and 120 min reperfusion. GR was induced by slowly increasing coronary inflow back to baseline over 30 min, using an exponential algorithm [F(t) = F(i)+e(-(0.1)(t)((min)-3)).(F(b)-F(i)); F(b), coronary inflow at baseline; F(i), coronary inflow during ischaemia; n = 12]. Pigs subjected to immediate full reperfusion (IFR; n = 13) served as controls. IS was determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. The expression level of phosphorylated RISK proteins was determined by western blot analysis in myocardial biopsies taken at baseline, after 80-85 min ischaemia and at 10, 30, and 120 min reperfusion. In additional experiments with IFR (n = 3) and GR (n = 3), the PI3-AKT and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways were pharmacologically blocked (BL). IS was 37 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM) of the area at risk with IFR and 29 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) with GR. RISK phosphorylation was similar between GR and IFR at baseline and 85 min ischaemia. At 10 min reperfusion, RISK phosphorylation was increased with IFR, but not with GR. At 30 and 120 min reperfusion, RISK phosphorylation was still greater with IFR than GR. RISK blockade did not abolish the IS reduction by GR (BL-IFR: 27 +/- 4% of the area at risk; BL-GR: 42 +/- 5%; P < 0.05). Gentle reperfusion reduces infarct size in pigs, but RISK activation is not causally involved in this infarct size reduction.

  19. The effect of optimal medical therapy on 1-year mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bramlage, P; Messer, C; Bitterlich, N; Pohlmann, C; Cuneo, A; Stammwitz, E; Tebbenjohanns, J; Gohlke, H; Senges, J; Tebbe, U

    2010-04-01

    Five drug classes have been shown to improve the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction in clinical trials: aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers and thienopyridines. We aimed to assess whether the benefits of combining these drugs (termed optimal medical therapy, OMT), will result in a reduction of mortality in clinical practice. Nationwide registry Hospitals with a cardiology unit or internal medicine department. 5353 patients with acute myocardial infarction. At hospital discharge 89% received aspirin, 90% beta-blockers, 84% statins, 81% RAS blockers, 70% a thienopyridine and 46.2% OMT. Pharmacotherapy OR with 95% CI for mortality from myocardial infarction were calculated and adjusted for patient risk at baseline. Total mortality was reduced by 74% in patients receiving OMT (adj OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.38) versus patients receiving one or no drug. This was consistent in subgroups defined by STEMI/NSTEMI, diabetes and gender. Mortality was also reduced in patients receiving 2-4 drugs (adj OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.68), diabetic patients being the only subgroup with no significant effect. Analyses on the relative importance of either component revealed that withdrawal of beta-blockers (adj OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.16) and/or a combination of aspirin/clopidogrel (adj OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.17) abolished the risk reduction conferred by OMT. OMT over 1 year was associated with a significantly lower mortality of patients with acute myocardial infarction in clinical practice. However OMT is provided to less than half of eligible patients leaving room for substantial improvement.

  20. The Post-Myocardial Infarction Pacing Remodeling Prevention Therapy (PRomPT) Trial: Design and Rationale.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eugene S; Fischer, Trent M; Kueffer, Fred; Anand, Inder S; Bax, Jeroen J; Gold, Michael R; Gorman, Robert C; Theres, Heinz; Udelson, James E; Stancak, Branislav; Svendsen, Jesper H; Stone, Gregg W; Leon, Angel

    2015-07-01

    Despite considerable improvements in the medical management of patients with myocardial infarction (MI), patients with large MI still have substantial risk of developing heart failure. In the early post-MI setting, implantable cardioverter defibrillators have reduced arrhythmic deaths but have no impact on overall mortality. Therefore, additional interventions are required to further reduce the overall morbidity and mortality of patients with large MI. The Pacing Remodeling Prevention Therapy (PRomPT) trial is designed to study the effects of peri-infarct pacing in preventing adverse post-MI remodeling. Up to 120 subjects with peak creatine phosphokinase >3,000 U/L (or troponin T >10 μg/L) at time of MI will be randomized to either dual-site or single-site biventricular pacing with the left ventricular lead implanted in a peri-infarct region or to a nonimplanted control group. Those randomized to a device will be blinded to the pacing mode, but randomization to a device or control cannot be blinded. Subjects randomized to pacing will have the device implanted within 10 days of MI. The primary objective is to assess the change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume from baseline to 18 months. Secondary objectives are to assess changes in clinical and mechanistic parameters between the groups, including rates of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular events, the incidence of sudden cardiac death and all-cause mortality, New York Heart Association functional class, 6-minute walking distance, and quality of life. The PRomPT trial will provide important evidence regarding the potential of peri-infarct pacing to interrupt adverse remodeling in patients with large MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The changes of potassium currents in rabbit ventricle with healed myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Niu, Huiyan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Cuntai; Zhou, Qiang; Ruan, Yanfei; Pu, Jun; Lu, Zaiying

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of arrhythmia in healed myocardial infarction (HMI), the changes of action potential duration (APD), transient outward potassium current (Ito), delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) and inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) of left ventricular myocytes in non-infarcted zone of HMI were investigated. Rabbits were randomly assigned into two groups: HMI group, in which animals were subjected to thoracotomy and ligation of the circumflex coronary and sham-operated group, in which rabbits underwent thoracotomy but no conorary ligation. 3 months after the operation, the whole myocyte patch clamp technique was used to record APD, Ito, IK, and IK1 of ventricular myocytes in non-infarcted zone. Our results showed that the membrane capacitance was larger in HMI group than in sham-operated group. Action potential duration was significantly lengthened in HMI group and early afterdepolarization (EAD) appeared in HMI group. The densities of Ito, I(K, tail), and IK1 were reduced significantly in HMI group, from 6.72 +/- 0.42 pA/pF, 1.54 +/- 0.13 pA/pF and 25.6 +/- 2.6 pA/pF in sham-operated group to 4.03 +/- 0.33 pA/pF, 1.14 +/- 0.11 pA/pF and 17.6 +/- 2.3 pA/pF, respectively. It is concluded that the reduced densities of Ito, I(K, tail) and IK1 in ventricular myocytes of non-infarcted zone in HMI were responsible for the prolongation of APD and the presentation of EAD which played important roles in the development of malignant arrhythmia in HMI.

  2. Morphological MRI characteristics of recent small subcortical infarcts.

    PubMed

    Gattringer, Thomas; Eppinger, Sebastian; Pinter, Daniela; Pirpamer, Lukas; Berghold, Andrea; Wünsch, Gerit; Ropele, Stefan; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz

    2015-10-01

    New imaging criteria for recent small subcortical infarcts have recently been proposed, replacing the earlier term 'lacunar infarction', but their applicability and impact on lesion selection is yet unknown. To collect information on the morphologic characteristics and variability of recent small subcortical infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging in regard to lesion location and demographic variables. We identified all patients with acute stroke and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging from 2008 to 2013 in our hospital database and selected those with a single recent small subcortical infarct defined by an estimated maximal axial diameter of 20 mm. Recent small subcortical infarcts were segmented on diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence to calculate the largest axial and longitudinal diameter and lesion volume. We assessed morphometric differences of recent small subcortical infarcts regarding location and demographic variables and the impact of different recent small subcortical infarct definitions on lesion selection. Three hundred forty-four patients (median age 72; range 25-92 years, 65% male) were selected. Most recent small subcortical infarcts were located in the basal ganglia (n = 111), followed by pons (n = 92), thalamus (n = 77), and centrum semiovale (n = 64). Quantitative measurements confirmed visual assessment of the axial diameter in 95%. All morphometric variables were strongly intercorrelated and comparable on diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence. Recent small subcortical infarcts in the basal ganglia were significantly larger both in the axial and longitudinal direction compared with other regions. Dichotomization of recent small subcortical infarcts according to axial (≤ / >15 mm) or longitudinal (≤ / >20 mm) sizes resulted in different regional frequencies and distributions. Age, gender, and time from stroke onset to magnetic resonance imaging

  3. Study design for the "effect of METOprolol in CARDioproteCtioN during an acute myocardial InfarCtion" (METOCARD-CNIC): a randomized, controlled parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of early pre-reperfusion metoprolol administration in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Borja; Fuster, Valentin; Macaya, Carlos; Sánchez-Brunete, Vicente; Pizarro, Gonzalo; López-Romero, Pedro; Mateos, Alonso; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanz, Ginés; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Corral, Ervigio; Barreiro, Maria-Victoria; Ruiz-Mateos, Borja; Goicolea, Javier; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Acebal, Carlos; García-Rubira, Juan Carlos; Albarrán, Agustín; Zamorano, José Luis; Casado, Isabel; Valenciano, Juan; Fernández-Vázquez, Felipe; de la Torre, José María; Pérez de Prado, Armando; Iglesias-Vázquez, José Antonio; Martínez-Tenorio, Pedro; Iñiguez, Andrés

    2012-10-01

    Infarct size predicts post-infarction mortality. Oral β-blockade within 24 hours of a ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a class-IA indication, however early intravenous (IV) β-blockers initiation is not encouraged. In recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based experimental studies, the β(1)-blocker metoprolol has been shown to reduce infarct size only when administered before coronary reperfusion. To date, there is not a single trial comparing the pre- vs. post-reperfusion β-blocker initiation in STEMI. The METOCARD-CNIC trial is testing whether the early initiation of IV metoprolol before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) could reduce infarct size and improve outcomes when compared to oral post-pPCI metoprolol initiation. The METOCARD-CNIC trial is a randomized parallel-group single-blind (to outcome evaluators) clinical effectiveness trial conducted in 5 Counties across Spain that will enroll 220 participants. Eligible are 18- to 80-year-old patients with anterior STEMI revascularized by pPCI ≤6 hours from symptom onset. Exclusion criteria are Killip-class ≥III, atrioventricular block or active treatment with β-blockers/bronchodilators. Primary end point is infarct size evaluated by MRI 5 to 7 days post-STEMI. Prespecified major secondary end points are salvage-index, left ventricular ejection fraction recovery (day 5-7 to 6 months), the composite of (death/malignant ventricular arrhythmias/reinfarction/admission due to heart failure), and myocardial perfusion. The METOCARD-CNIC trial is testing the hypothesis that the early initiation of IV metoprolol pre-reperfusion reduces infarct size in comparison to initiation of oral metoprolol post-reperfusion. Given the implications of infarct size reduction in STEMI, if positive, this trial might evidence that a refined use of an approved inexpensive drug can improve outcomes of patients with STEMI. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of miR-370 in fibrosis after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Gao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the expression of miR-370 in the border area of infarction after myocardial infarction and its role in the process of post-infarction fibrosis. A myocardial infarction model in Sprague-Dawley rats was established. After two weeks, the mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), TGFβRII, ColIa1, ColIIIa1 and miR-370 and the expression of TGFβ1, TGFβRII and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins in the border area of infarction were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Cardiac fibroblasts in neonatal rat were isolated and cultured, and the changes in the above indicators were detected after AngII and miR-370 intervention. Luciferase reporter gene assay was conducted to verify whether TGFβRII was a target gene of miR-370. In the border area after myocardial infarction, the expression of miR-370 decreased, while mRNA levels of TGFβ1, TGFβRII, ColIa1 and ColIIIa1 and levels of TGFβ1, TGFβRII and α-SMA proteins were all increased. Luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that TGFβRII was the target gene of miR-370. miR-370 reduced the expression of TGFβRII and inhibited the increased expression of TGFβRII and collagen protein caused by AngII. As well, its inhibited the differentiation effect of muscle fibroblasts while it did not inhibit the expression of TGFβ1. miR-370 inhibited the expression of TGFβRII protein by combining with TGFβRII mRNA. miR-370 also partially blocked TGFβ1-TGFβRII and induced the downstream signal transduction pathways, thus exerting anti-fibrotic effects. PMID:28350072

  5. Dietary non enzymatic antioxidant capacity and the risk of myocardial infarction in the Swedish women's lifestyle and health cohort.

    PubMed

    Hantikainen, Essi; Löf, Marie; Grotta, Alessandra; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Serafini, Mauro; Bellocco, Rino; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2018-02-01

    Foods rich in antioxidants have been associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction. However, findings from randomized clinical trials on the role of antioxidant supplementation remain controversial. It has been suggested that antioxidants interact with each other to promote cardiovascular health. We therefore investigated the association between dietary Non Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity (NEAC), measuring the total antioxidant potential of the whole diet, and the risk of myocardial infarction. We followed 45,882 women aged 30-49 years and free from cardiovascular diseases through record linkages from 1991 until 2012. Dietary NEAC was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire collected at baseline. Total dietary NEAC was categorized into quintiles and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up time of 20.3 years we detected 657 incident cases of myocardial infarction. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a significant 28% lower risk of myocardial infarction among women in the fourth (HR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95) and a 40% lower risk among women in the fifth quintile (HR: 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.81) of dietary NEAC compared to women in the first quintile, with a significant trend (p-value < 0.001). Higher dietary NEAC is associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction in young to middle-aged women. These findings support the hypothesis that dietary antioxidants protect from myocardial infarction and that this effect might be exerted through interactions between antioxidants.

  6. Gender differences in the assessment and treatment of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jortveit, Jarle; Govatsmark, Ragna Elise Støre; Langørgen, Jørund; Hole, Torstein; Mannsverk, Jan; Olsen, Siv; Risøe, Cecilie; Halvorsen, Sigrun

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that there are gender-related differences in the assessment and treatment of myocardial infarction, despite international guidelines that prescribe identical treatment for women and men. We investigated whether these differences occurred in Norway. All patients admitted to Norwegian hospitals with myocardial infarction from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014 and registered in the Norwegian Myocardial Infarction Registry were included. Data from the registry were used to analyse differences in the assessment, treatment, complications and survival of women and men in different age groups. A total of 26 447 myocardial infarctions were registered in the Norwegian Myocardial Infarction Registry in the period 2013 – 2014. Fewer women than men were assessed by means of coronary angiography. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was used to virtually the same extent for both genders if coronary stenosis was found. Women were recommended secondary prophylactic medication to a lesser extent than men. There were no major differences between men and women in the incidence of complications in the course following myocardial infarction or in survival. Fewer women than men suffering acute myocardial infarction were assessed by means of coronary angiography, and women were recommended secondary prophylactic medication less often than men. The reason for the gender differences is not known, but comorbidity and a potentially greater risk of adverse reactions in women may be contributory factors. The different views of doctors providing treatment may also play a part.

  7. Myocardial infarction false alarm: initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Esha Das; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of a myocardial infarction "false alarm" and evaluate the efficacy of the initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia. We recruited patients who were admitted with suspected myocardial infarction from June to August 2008. The medical records of these patients were reviewed for the initial electrocardiogram, initial cardiac enzyme levels (creatinine kinase-MB and troponin T), and the final diagnosis upon discharge. The subjects were stratified into 2 groups: true myocardial infarction, and false alarm. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. Following admission and further evaluation, the diagnosis was revised from myocardial infarction to other medical conditions in 48 (38.4%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the initial ischemic electrocardiographic changes were 54.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Raised cardiac enzymes had a sensitivity of 44.3% and specificity of 95.8%. A significant proportion of patients in Malaysia are admitted with a false-alarm myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the electrocardiogram in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia was comparable to the findings of Western studies, but the cardiac enzymes had a much lower sensitivity.

  8. Testosterone deficiency prevents left ventricular contractility dysfunction after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Júnior, R F; Ronconi, K S; Jesus, I C G; Almeida, P W M; Forechi, L; Vassallo, D V; Guatimosim, S; Stefanon, I; Fernandes, A A

    2018-01-15

    Testosterone may affect myocardial contractility since its deficiency decreases the contraction and relaxation of the heart. Meanwhile, testosterone replacement therapy has raised concerns because it may worsen cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we evaluate cardiac contractility 60 days after MI in rats with suppressed testosterone. Male Wistar rats underwent bilateral orchidectomy one week before the ligation of the anterior descending left coronary artery. The animals were divided into orchidectomized (OCT); MI; orchidectomized + MI (OCT + MI); orchidectomized + MI + testosterone (OCT + MI + T) and control (Sham) groups. Eight weeks after MI, papillary muscle contractility was analyzed under increasing calcium (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 mM) and isoproterenol (10 -8 to 10 -2  M) concentrations. Ventricular myocytes were isolated for intracellular calcium measurements and assessment of Ca 2+ handling proteins. Contractility was preserved in the orchidectomized animals after myocardial infarction and was reduced when testosterone was replaced (Ca 2+ 3.75 mM: Sham: 608 ± 70 (n = 11); OCT: 590 ± 37 (n = 16); MI: 311 ± 33* (n = 9); OCT + MI: 594 ± 76 (n = 7); OCT + MI + T: 433 ± 38* (n=4), g/g *p < 0.05 vs Sham). Orchidectomy also increased the Ca 2+ transient amplitude of the ventricular myocytes and SERCA-2a protein expression levels. PLB phosphorylation levels at Thr 17 were not different in the orchidectomized animals compared to the Sham animals but were reduced after testosterone replacement. CAMKII phosphorylation and protein nitrosylation increased in the orchidectomized animals. Our results support the view that testosterone deficiency prevents MI contractility dysfunction by altering the key proteins involved in Ca 2+ handling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diffuse cerebral symptoms in convalescents from cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Leegaard, O F

    1983-06-01

    In order to evaluate occurrence and cause of a number of diffuse cerebral symptoms (DCS), such as impaired memory, inability to concentrate, emotional instability, irritability, etc., 44 survivors of cerebral infarction (CI) and 40 survivors of myocardial infarction (MI) were seen 6-26 months after onset for psychometric testing and an interview about DCS. Although surprisingly common in both groups, DCS were significantly more frequent in CI patients than in MI patients. 1/2 of the former and 1/3 of the latter complained of 5 or more symptoms. In contrast, a significant difference in test performance was demonstrated in only 1 of 4 tests. There was no significant correlation between the number of DCS and test performance. In both groups, DCS occurrence was independent of age, whereas in the MI group, but not in the CI group, test performance was inversely related to age. In the CI group, DCS occurrence was not significantly related to size or site of the infarction. The results indicate that an organic brain damage cannot be the sole cause of DCS, and it is suggested that some of the symptoms are manifestations of a stress response syndrome provoked by insufficient coping with the consequences of the disease.

  10. [Acute myocardial infarction in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction : ESC guidelines 2017].

    PubMed

    Thiele, H; Desch, S; de Waha, S

    2017-12-01

    This article gives an update on the management of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) according to the recently released European Society of Cardiology guidelines 2017 and the modifications are compared to the previous STEMI guidelines from 2012. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains the preferred reperfusion strategy. New guideline recommendations relate to the access site with a clear preference for the radial artery, use of drug-eluting stents over bare metal stents, complete revascularization during the index hospitalization, and avoidance of routine thrombus aspiration. For periprocedural anticoagulation during PCI, bivalirudin has been downgraded. Oxygen treatment should be administered only if oxygen saturation is <90%. In cardiogenic shock, intra-aortic balloon pumps should no longer be used. New recommendations are in place with respect to the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy for patients without bleeding events during the first 12 months. Newly introduced sections cover myocardial infarction with no relevant stenosis of the coronary arteries (MINOCA), the introduction of new indicators for quality of care for myocardial infarction networks and new definitions for the time to reperfusion.

  11. Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Seo-Won; Kim, Bo-Bae; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed thyroid hormone levels, infarct severity, and the extent of transmurality in 40 STEMI patients evaluated via contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results The high triiodothyronine (T3) group (≥ 68.3 ng/dL) exhibited a significantly higher extent of transmural involvement (late transmural enhancement > 75% after administration of gadolinium contrast agent) than did the low T3 group (60% vs. 15%; p = 0.003). However, no significant difference was evident between the high- and low-thyroid-stimulating hormone/free thyroxine (FT4) groups. When the T3 cutoff level was set to 68.3 ng/dL using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 68% in terms of differentiating between those with and without transmural involvement. Upon logistic regression analysis, high T3 level was an independent predictor of transmural involvement after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (odds ratio, 40.62; 95% confidence interval, 3.29 to 502; p = 0.004). Conclusions The T3 level predicted transmural involvement that was independent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and DM positivity. PMID:25045293

  12. Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hun; Choi, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Seo-Won; Kim, Bo-Bae; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We retrospectively reviewed thyroid hormone levels, infarct severity, and the extent of transmurality in 40 STEMI patients evaluated via contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The high triiodothyronine (T3) group (≥ 68.3 ng/dL) exhibited a significantly higher extent of transmural involvement (late transmural enhancement > 75% after administration of gadolinium contrast agent) than did the low T3 group (60% vs. 15%; p = 0.003). However, no significant difference was evident between the high- and low-thyroid-stimulating hormone/free thyroxine (FT4) groups. When the T3 cutoff level was set to 68.3 ng/dL using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 68% in terms of differentiating between those with and without transmural involvement. Upon logistic regression analysis, high T3 level was an independent predictor of transmural involvement after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (odds ratio, 40.62; 95% confidence interval, 3.29 to 502; p = 0.004). The T3 level predicted transmural involvement that was independent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and DM positivity.

  13. Quantitative proteomic changes during post myocardial infarction remodeling reveals altered cardiac metabolism and Desmin aggregation in the infarct region.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kaberi; Basak, Trayambak; Varshney, Swati; Sengupta, Shantanu; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2017-01-30

    Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of cardiac dysfunction, failure and sudden death. Post infarction cardiac remodeling presents a poor prognosis, with 30%-45% of patients developing heart failure, in a period of 5-25years. Oxidative stress has been labelled as the primary causative factor for cardiac damage during infarction, however, the impact it may have during the process of post infarction remodeling has not been well probed. In this study, we have implemented iTRAQ proteomics to catalogue proteins and functional processes, participating both temporally (early and late phases) and spatially (infarct and remote zones), during post myocardial infarction remodeling of the heart as functions of the differential oxidative stress manifest during the remodeling process. Cardiac metabolism was the dominant network to be affected during infarction and the remodeling time points considered in this study. A distinctive expression pattern of cytoskeletal proteins was also observed with increased remodeling time points. Further, it was found that the cytoskeletal protein Desmin, aggregated in the infarct zone during the remodeling process, mediated by the protease Calpain1. Taken together, all of these data in conjunction may lay the foundation to understand the effects of oxidative stress on the remodeling process and elaborate the mechanism behind the compromised cardiac function observed during post myocardial infarction remodeling. Oxidative stress is the major driving force for cardiac damage during myocardial infarction. However, the impact of oxidative stress on the process of post MI remodeling in conducting the heart towards functional failure has not been well explored. In this study, a spatial and temporal approach was taken to elaborate the major proteins and cellular processes involved in post MI remodeling. Based on level/ intensity of ROS, spatially, infarct and noninfarct zones were chosen for analysis while on the temporal scale, early (30

  14. Clinical disease registries in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Reza; Hussain, Hussain; Brisk, Robert; Boardman, Leanne; Weston, Clive

    2014-06-26

    Disease registries, containing systematic records of cases, have for nearly 100 years been valuable in exploring and understanding various aspects of cardiology. This is particularly true for myocardial infarction, where such registries have provided both epidemiological and clinical information that was not readily available from randomised controlled trials in highly-selected populations. Registries, whether mandated or voluntary, prospective or retrospective in their analysis, have at their core a common study population and common data definitions. In this review we highlight how registries have diversified to offer information on epidemiology, risk modelling, quality assurance/improvement and original research-through data mining, transnational comparisons and the facilitation of enrolment in, and follow-up during registry-based randomised clinical trials.

  15. Infarct Volume Prediction by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Murine Stroke Model Depends on Ischemia Duration and Time of Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leithner, Christoph; Füchtemeier, Martina; Jorks, Devi; Mueller, Susanne; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Royl, Georg

    2015-11-01

    Despite standardization of experimental stroke models, final infarct sizes after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) vary considerably. This introduces uncertainties in the evaluation of drug effects on stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging may detect variability of surgically induced ischemia before treatment and thus improve treatment effect evaluation. MCAO of 45 and 90 minutes induced brain infarcts in 83 mice. During, and 3 and 6 hours after MCAO, we performed multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. We evaluated time courses of cerebral blood flow, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T1, T2, accuracy of infarct prediction strategies, and impact on statistical evaluation of experimental stroke studies. ADC decreased during MCAO but recovered completely on reperfusion after 45 and partially after 90-minute MCAO, followed by a secondary decline. ADC lesion volumes during MCAO or at 6 hours after MCAO largely determined final infarct volumes for 90 but not for 45 minutes MCAO. The majority of chance findings of final infarct volume differences in random group allocations of animals were associated with significant differences in early ADC lesion volumes for 90, but not for 45-minute MCAO. The prediction accuracy of early magnetic resonance imaging for infarct volumes depends on timing of magnetic resonance imaging and MCAO duration. Variability of the posterior communicating artery in C57Bl6 mice contributes to differences in prediction accuracy between short and long MCAO. Early ADC imaging may be used to reduce errors in the interpretation of post MCAO treatment effects on stroke volumes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Overexpression of Cx43 in cells of the myocardial scar: Correction of post-infarct arrhythmias through heterotypic cell-cell coupling.

    PubMed

    Roell, Wilhelm; Klein, Alexandra M; Breitbach, Martin; Becker, Torsten S; Parikh, Ashish; Lee, Jane; Zimmermann, Katrin; Reining, Shaun; Gabris, Beth; Ottersbach, Annika; Doran, Robert; Engelbrecht, Britta; Schiffer, Miriam; Kimura, Kenichi; Freitag, Patricia; Carls, Esther; Geisen, Caroline; Duerr, Georg D; Sasse, Philipp; Welz, Armin; Pfeifer, Alexander; Salama, Guy; Kotlikoff, Michael; Fleischmann, Bernd K

    2018-05-08

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is the most common and potentially lethal complication following myocardial infarction (MI). Biological correction of the conduction inhomogeneity that underlies re-entry could be a major advance in infarction therapy. As minimal increases in conduction of infarcted tissue markedly influence VT susceptibility, we reasoned that enhanced propagation of the electrical signal between non-excitable cells within a resolving infarct might comprise a simple means to decrease post-infarction arrhythmia risk. We therefore tested lentivirus-mediated delivery of the gap-junction protein Connexin 43 (Cx43) into acute myocardial lesions. Cx43 was expressed in (myo)fibroblasts and CD45 + cells within the scar and provided prominent and long lasting arrhythmia protection in vivo. Optical mapping of Cx43 injected hearts revealed enhanced conduction velocity within the scar, indicating Cx43-mediated electrical coupling between myocytes and (myo)fibroblasts. Thus, Cx43 gene therapy, by direct in vivo transduction of non-cardiomyocytes, comprises a simple and clinically applicable biological therapy that markedly reduces post-infarction VT.

  17. [Analysis of 58 neonatal cases with cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-hua; Chen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is one of severe diseases of central nervous system in neonates, and some infants with CI could have poor prognosis in the long term. This study aimed to analyze the clinical data and prognosis of all neonatal cases with cerebral infarction in recent years and to help future clinical work. Totally 58 neonatal cases with CI admitted to NICU of the hospital from January 1999 to December 2010 were included in this study. We analyzed all clinical data and prognosis by retrospective analysis. Fifty-two term babies and six preterm babies were included. There were altogether 51 cases with asphyxia and 7 with hemorrhagic cerebral infarction. Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia was the most common high-risk factor and it accounted for 46.6%. Seizure was the most frequent initial symptom and the most common clinical manifestation (accounted for 77.6%), and it was followed by intermittent cyanosis, apnea and lethargy. Cerebral CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging were major methods to help to make the diagnosis and they also had close relation with prognosis. Diffusion weighted imaging was very helpful to diagnose infarction in early stage. Left middle cerebral artery was the most common artery to be involved. Supportive therapy and symptomatic treatment were the main methods in the acute stage of neonatal cerebral infarction. Those babies with poor prognosis mostly had large infarction involving cerebral hemisphere, thalamus and basal ganglia. Neonatal cerebral infarction was a severe brain injury affecting long tern nervous system prognosis. Perinatal hypoxia was the most common high-risk factor and seizure was the most frequent initial symptom. Diffusion weighted imaging was valuable to diagnose infarction in early stage. Most of infants with poor prognosis had large infarction involving hemisphere, thalamus and basal ganglia. Early diagnosis with brain imaging would be helpful for rehabilitation therapy and improving prognosis.

  18. Aerobic exercise training delays cardiac dysfunction and improves autonomic control of circulation in diabetic rats undergoing myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Luciana; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Rosa, Kaleizu T; Medeiros, Alessandra; Malfitano, Christiane; de Souza, Alcione L; Viegas, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Lacchini, Silvia; Curi, Rui; Brum, Patricia C; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2012-09-01

    Exercise training (ET) has been used as a nonpharmacological strategy for treatment of diabetes and myocardial infarction (MI) separately. We evaluated the effects ET on functional and molecular left ventricular (LV) parameters as well as on autonomic function and mortality in diabetics after MI. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C), sedentary-diabetic infarcted (SDI), and trained-diabetic infarcted (TDI) groups. MI was induced after 15 days of streptozotocin-diabetes induction. Seven days after MI, the trained group underwent ET protocol (90 days, 50-70% maximal oxygen consumption-VO(2)max). LV function was evaluated noninvasively and invasively; baroreflex sensitivity, pulse interval variability, cardiac output, tissue blood flows, VEGF mRNA and protein, HIF1-α mRNA, and Ca(2+) handling proteins were measured. MI area was reduced in TDI (21 ± 4%) compared with SDI (38 ± 4%). ET induced improvement in cardiac function, hemodynamics, and tissue blood flows. These changes were probable consequences of a better expression of Ca(2+) handling proteins, increased VEGF mRNA and protein expression as well as improvement in autonomic function, that resulted in reduction of mortality in TDI (33%) compared with SDI (68%) animals. ET reduced cardiac and peripheral dysfunction and preserved autonomic control in diabetic infarcted rats. Consequently, these changes resulted in improved VO(2)max and survival after MI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of training and detraining on inflammatory and metabolic profile in infarcted rats: influences of cardiovascular autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Bruno; Santana, Aline Alves; Santamarina, Aline Boveto; Oyama, Lila Missae; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Barboza, Catarina de Andrade; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Figueroa, Diego; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Lira, Fábio Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (ET, 50-70% of VO2 max, 5 days/week) and detraining (DT) on inflammatory and metabolic profile after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n = 8), sedentary infarcted (SI, n = 9), trained infarcted (TI, n = 10; 3 months of ET), and detrained infarcted (DI, n = 11; 2 months of ET + 1 month of DT). After ET and DT protocols, ventricular function and inflammation, cardiovascular autonomic modulation (spectral analysis), and adipose tissue inflammation and lipolytic pathway were evaluated. ET after MI improved cardiac and vascular autonomic modulation, and these benefits were correlated with reduced inflammatory cytokines on the heart and adipose tissue. These positive changes were sustained even after 1 month of detraining. No expressive changes were observed in oxidative stress and lipolytic pathway in experimental groups. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the autonomic improvement promoted by ET, and maintained even after the detraining period, was associated with reduced inflammatory profile in the left ventricle and adipose tissue of rats subjected to MI. These data encourage enhancing cardiovascular autonomic function as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory process triggered by MI.

  20. Role of Training and Detraining on Inflammatory and Metabolic Profile in Infarcted Rats: Influences of Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Aline Alves; Santamarina, Aline Boveto; Oyama, Lila Missae; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Barboza, Catarina de Andrade; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Figueroa, Diego; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Lira, Fábio Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (ET, 50–70% of VO2 max, 5 days/week) and detraining (DT) on inflammatory and metabolic profile after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n = 8), sedentary infarcted (SI, n = 9), trained infarcted (TI, n = 10; 3 months of ET), and detrained infarcted (DI, n = 11; 2 months of ET + 1 month of DT). After ET and DT protocols, ventricular function and inflammation, cardiovascular autonomic modulation (spectral analysis), and adipose tissue inflammation and lipolytic pathway were evaluated. ET after MI improved cardiac and vascular autonomic modulation, and these benefits were correlated with reduced inflammatory cytokines on the heart and adipose tissue. These positive changes were sustained even after 1 month of detraining. No expressive changes were observed in oxidative stress and lipolytic pathway in experimental groups. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the autonomic improvement promoted by ET, and maintained even after the detraining period, was associated with reduced inflammatory profile in the left ventricle and adipose tissue of rats subjected to MI. These data encourage enhancing cardiovascular autonomic function as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory process triggered by MI. PMID:25045207

  1. Asian dust exposure triggers acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sunao; Michikawa, Takehiro; Ueda, Kayo; Sakamoto, Tetsuo; Matsui, Kunihiko; Kojima, Tomoko; Tsujita, Kenichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2017-11-14

    To elucidate whether Asian dust is associated with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to clarify whether patients who are highly sensitive to Asian dust will develop AMI. Twenty-one participating institutions located throughout Kumamoto Prefecture and capable of performing coronary intervention were included in the study. Data for ground-level observations of Asian dust events were measured at the Kumamoto Local Meteorological Observatory. Data collected between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015 were analysed, and 3713 consecutive AMI patients were included. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to examine the association between Asian dust exposure and AMI. The occurrence of Asian dust events at 1 day before the onset of AMI was associated with the incidence of AMI [odds ratio (OR), 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.95] and especially, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was significant (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.30-3.15). A significant association between AMI and Asian dust was observed in patients with age ≥75 years, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, never-smoking status, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, Asian dust events had a great impact on AMI onset in patients with CKD (P < 0.01). A scoring system accounting for several AMI risk factors was developed. The occurrence of Asian dust events was found to be significantly associated with AMI incidence among patients with a risk score of 5-6 (OR 2.45; 95% CI: 1.14-5.27). Asian dust events may lead to AMI and have a great impact on its onset in patients with CKD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Invasive strategy for treatment of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Höfling, B; von Pölnitz, A

    1990-01-01

    The classical approach to the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has been one of stabilization and complication management. In an effort to optimize treatment, the initiation of the cardiac care unit and the use of antiarrhythmic therapy have succeeded in lowering the mortality rate substantially. More modern concepts are aimed at limiting infarct size and preserving myocardial function. These aims can be achieved medically using intravenous (i.v.) thrombolysis or invasively either with intracoronary (i.c.) thrombolysis, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or bypass surgery. Although i.c. thrombolysis is more effective than the i.v. route, the necessity for acute coronary catheterization makes it incompatible and difficult for routine use, and thus is usually reserved for cases in which i.v. lysis has failed. Intravenous thrombolysis is becoming the standard approach to MI, and the remaining questions are those of which drug and dosage are optimal and how to approach the patient after thrombolysis. In this regard, we favor a symptom-guided approach, as shown by the TIMI-IIA and European cooperative studies. In patients with ongoing ischemia postlysis, heart catheterization is indicated and a decision regarding PTCA or surgery is then made, depending on anatomy. In patients remaining stable after acute lysis, a predischarge stress may help in selecting patients requiring catheterization. As an alternative invasive approach to acute MI, PTCA may be the quickest and most effective method to recanalize a vessel, but, again, logistical problems make it incompatible in the acute setting. The same is true for bypass surgery, and although extensive improvements have been made in intraoperative myocardial preservation so that a 2% mortality is achievable, it is reserved for patients with extensive ischemia and anatomy unsuitable for PTCA (extensive multivessel or left main disease).

  3. MiR-24 alleviates cardiomyocyte apoptosis after myocardial infarction via targeting BIM.

    PubMed

    Pan, L-J; Wang, X; Ling, Y; Gong, H

    2017-07-01

    Ischemia hypoxia induces cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis in the process of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It was showed that pro-apoptosis factor BIM participates in regulating tumor cell apoptosis under ischemia or hypoxia condition, while its role in CM apoptosis after AMI is still unclear. It was revealed that miR-24 expression was significantly reduced in myocardial tissue after AMI. Bioinformatics analysis exhibits that miR-24 is targeted to the 3'-UTR of BIM. This study aims to investigate the role of miR-24 in mediating BIM expression and CM apoptosis. Dual-luciferase assay was used to confirm the targeted regulation between miR-24 and BIM. Cells were cultured under ischemia hypoxia for 12 h after transfection for 48 h. Cell apoptosis was tested by using flow cytometry. The caspase activity was detected by using spectrophotometry. Wistar rats were divided into four groups, including Sham, AMI, AMI + agomir-control, and AMI + agomir-24 groups. Cardiac function was evaluated by using echocardiography. CM apoptosis was determined by using TUNEL. Infarction area was measured by using evans blue staining. MiR-24 targeted suppressed BIM expression. MiR-24 mimic and/or si-BIM transfection significantly declined the BIM expression, inhibited caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities, and reduced cell apoptosis in H9C2 cells. MiR-24 expression was decreased, while BIM levels were up-regulated in myocardium after AMI. Agomir-24 injection down-regulated the BIM expression in myocardium, reduced CM apoptosis, narrowed infarction area, and improved cardiac function in rats. MiR-24 was reduced, whereas BIM was enhanced in the CM after AMI. MiR-24 up-regulation plays a critical role in decreasing BIM expression, reducing CM apoptosis, and improving cardiac function after AMI.

  4. Bilateral medial medullary infarction due to bilateral vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Masafumi; Aiba, Toyotaka; Takahashi, Sho

    2004-03-01

    We describe a 52-year-old woman who experienced transient motor weakness and numbness of the left extremities and presented 2 days later with severe hemiparesis and sensory impairment of the right extremities and right lingual palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral upper medial medullary infarction, primarily in the left ventral portion. The findings of both three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic and conventional angiography suggested dissection of both intracranial vertebral arteries (VAs). Medial medullary infarction is generally caused by atherosclerosis within a VA or anterior spinal artery. This is the first report of bilateral medial medullary infarction due to dissection of both intracranial VAs.

  5. Air pollution exposure--a trigger for myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Berglind, Niklas; Ljungman, Petter; Möller, Jette; Hallqvist, Johan; Nyberg, Fredrik; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Pershagen, Göran; Bellander, Tom

    2010-04-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993-1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

  6. Pseudo-myocardial infarction in diabetic ketoacidosis with hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Bellazzini, Marc A; Meyer, Tom

    2010-10-01

    Hyperkalemia-induced electrocardiogram changes such as dysrhythmias and altered T wave morphology are well described in the medical literature. Pseudo-infarction hyperkalemia-induced changes are less well known, but present a unique danger for the clinician treating these critically ill patients. This article describes a case of pseudo anteroseptal myocardial infarction in a type 1 diabetic with hyperkalemia. The most common patterns of pseudo-infarct and their associated potassium concentrations are then summarized from a literature review of 24 cases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanisms of Post-Infarct Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    French, Brent A.; Kramer, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Heart failure secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality. Long-term outcome after MI can be largely be defined in terms of its impact on the size and shape of the left ventricle (i.e., LV remodeling). Three major mechanisms contribute to LV remodeling: 1) early infarct expansion, 2) subsequent infarct extension into adjacent noninfarcted myocardium, and 3) late hypertrophy in the remote LV. Future developments in preventing post-MI heart failure will depend not only on identifying drugs targeting each of these individual mechanisms, but also on diagnostic techniques capable of assessing efficacy against each mechanism. PMID:18690295

  8. [Splenic infarction after warfarin discontinuation during atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Trappolini, M; Scorzai, A; Loguercio, V; Stoppo, M; Sebastianelli, A; Iannotta, M; Del Porto, F; Proietta, M; Aliberti, G

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case of patient with splenic infarction, admitted to our department for sudden abdominal pain and fever after discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation, complicating a dilated myocardiopathy and mechanical prosthetic valve. Diagnosis of splenic infarction was made by enhanced-contrast computed tomography, while ultrasounds and radiography were negative. Anticoagulant therapy, gold-standard treatment, was followed by fast clinical improvement. Moreover, splenic infarction should be considered in all cases of acute or chronic pain in left hypochondrium and especially in patients with emboligenous cardiopathies or atrial fibrillation, the most common arrhythmia source of peripheral embolism in clinical practice.

  9. TRPV2 knockout mice demonstrate an improved cardiac performance following myocardial infarction due to attenuated activity of peri-infarct macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lena; Hertzberg-Bigelman, Einat; Levy, Ran; Ben-Shoshan, Jeremy; Keren, Gad

    2017-01-01

    Background We have recently shown that the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 channel, TRPV2, is upregulated in the peri-infarct zone 3–5 days following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Further analysis has demonstrated that invading monocytes maturing to macrophages merely harbor the documented elevated expression of this channel. Purpose Assess cardiac function in TRPV2-KO mice compared to TRPV2-WT following AMI and analyze the potential involvement of TRPV2-expressing macrophages in the recovery process. Methods TRPV2-KO or WT mice were induced with AMI by ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). In another set of experiments, TRPV2-KO mice induced with AMI, were intravenously (IV) injected with WT or TRPV2-KO peritoneal macrophages in order to directly assess the potential contribution of TRPV2-expressing macrophages to cardiac healing. Cardiac parameters were obtained by echocardiography 1 day and 30 days post infarction. The relative changes in the ejection fraction (EF) and additional cardiac parameters between baseline (day 1) and day 30 were calculated and statistical significance was determined (SPSS). Results The in vivo study showed that while EF was significantly decreased in the WT animals between baseline and day 30, EF was only slightly and insignificantly reduced in the KO animals. Likewise LVESD and LVESA were significantly modified exclusively in the WT animals. Moreover, intravenous administration of peritoneal WT macrophages, but not KO macrophages, significantly reduced survival of post-MI TRPV2-KO mice. Conclusion The data suggest that knockout of the TRPV2 channel may attenuate macrophage-dependent pro-inflammatory processes and result in better cardiac recovery. TRPV2 may thus represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of patients undergoing an acute MI. PMID:28481959

  10. TRPV2 knockout mice demonstrate an improved cardiac performance following myocardial infarction due to attenuated activity of peri-infarct macrophages.

    PubMed

    Entin-Meer, Michal; Cohen, Lena; Hertzberg-Bigelman, Einat; Levy, Ran; Ben-Shoshan, Jeremy; Keren, Gad

    2017-01-01

    We have recently shown that the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 channel, TRPV2, is upregulated in the peri-infarct zone 3-5 days following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Further analysis has demonstrated that invading monocytes maturing to macrophages merely harbor the documented elevated expression of this channel. Assess cardiac function in TRPV2-KO mice compared to TRPV2-WT following AMI and analyze the potential involvement of TRPV2-expressing macrophages in the recovery process. TRPV2-KO or WT mice were induced with AMI by ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). In another set of experiments, TRPV2-KO mice induced with AMI, were intravenously (IV) injected with WT or TRPV2-KO peritoneal macrophages in order to directly assess the potential contribution of TRPV2-expressing macrophages to cardiac healing. Cardiac parameters were obtained by echocardiography 1 day and 30 days post infarction. The relative changes in the ejection fraction (EF) and additional cardiac parameters between baseline (day 1) and day 30 were calculated and statistical significance was determined (SPSS). The in vivo study showed that while EF was significantly decreased in the WT animals between baseline and day 30, EF was only slightly and insignificantly reduced in the KO animals. Likewise LVESD and LVESA were significantly modified exclusively in the WT animals. Moreover, intravenous administration of peritoneal WT macrophages, but not KO macrophages, significantly reduced survival of post-MI TRPV2-KO mice. The data suggest that knockout of the TRPV2 channel may attenuate macrophage-dependent pro-inflammatory processes and result in better cardiac recovery. TRPV2 may thus represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of patients undergoing an acute MI.

  11. Adenoviral short hairpin RNA therapy targeting phosphodiesterase 5a relieves cardiac remodeling and dysfunction following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Longhu; Haider, Husnain Kh; Wang, Linlin; Lu, Gang; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-05-15

    We previously showed that treatment with tadalafil, a long-acting phosphodiesterase-5a (PDE5a) inhibitor, effectively prevented adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling of the infarcted heart. We hypothesized that short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) therapy targeting PDE5a would simulate the effects of pharmacological intervention for treatment of postinfarction LV remodeling and dysfunction. Experimental model of myocardial infarction was developed in female mice by permanent ligation of left coronary artery. Immediately after that, an adenoviral vector encoding for shRNA sequence targeting PDE5a (Ad-shPDE5a) was injected intramyocardially, which specifically inhibited PDE5a in the heart. Four weeks later, Ad-shPDE5a treated mice showed significant mitigation of the left ventricle (LV) dilatation and dysfunction as indicated by smaller LV cavity and more preserved ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Infarction size and fibrosis were significantly reduced in Ad-shPDE5a-treated mice. Additionally, more salvaged cardiomyocytes, significantly reduced collagen contents, and higher blood vessel density were observed in Ad-shPDE5a-treated mice. The cytoprotective effects of Ad-shPDE5a were demonstrated in vitro in Ad-shPDE5a transfected cardiomyocytes cultured under oxygen glucose deprivation. Among downstream mediators of PDE5a signaling, cyclic GMP (cGMP) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) were activated with concomitant reduction in caspase-3 activity. However, no significant change in PKA and cAMP activities were observed in Ad-shPDE5a-treated hearts. Inhibition with shRNA improved cardiac remodeling and dysfunction by reducing infarction size and cardiac fibrosis and increased cGMP and PKG activity. These findings suggest that PDE5 inhibition with Ad-shPDE5a is a novel approach for treatment of myocardial infarction.

  12. Smoking Status and Incidence of Cancer After Myocardial Infarction: A Follow-Up Study of over 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Katrin; Goldbourt, Uri; Gerber, Yariv

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated long-term incidence of cancer after myocardial infarction among current, former, and never smokers, and assessed whether reducing cigarette consumption is associated with decreased cancer risk. Consecutive patients aged ≤65 years discharged from 8 hospitals in central Israel after first myocardial infarction in 1992-1993 were followed for cancer and death. Extensive data including smoking habits were obtained at the index hospitalization and 4 time points during follow-up. Survival methods were applied to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer associated with smoking categories. Included in the study were 1486 cancer-free participants (mean age, 54 years; 81% men), among whom 787 were current smokers at baseline (average daily cigarette consumption = 29). Smokers were younger than nonsmokers and more likely to be male and of lower socioeconomic status. Over a median follow-up of 21.4 years, 273 (18.4%) patients developed cancer. Baseline smoking was associated with a ∼40% excess adjusted risk of cancer; ∼25% after accounting for death as a competing event. Considering changes in smoking during follow-up, the excess risk was confined to persistent smokers (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.50), whereas post- (HR 1.14; 95% CI, 0.80-1.62) and pre-myocardial infarction quitters (HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.71-1.47) were comparable with never smokers. Among persistent smokers, each reduction of 10 cigarettes relative to pre-myocardial infarction consumption was associated with a ∼10% reduced adjusted risk. Among young survivors of first myocardial infarction followed-up longitudinally, smoking cessation is associated with lower risk of cancer. Reducing consumption among smokers may also be beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adenoviral short hairpin RNA therapy targeting phosphodiesterase 5a relieves cardiac remodeling and dysfunction following myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longhu; Haider, Husnain Kh.; Wang, Linlin; Lu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that treatment with tadalafil, a long-acting phosphodiesterase-5a (PDE5a) inhibitor, effectively prevented adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling of the infarcted heart. We hypothesized that short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) therapy targeting PDE5a would simulate the effects of pharmacological intervention for treatment of postinfarction LV remodeling and dysfunction. Experimental model of myocardial infarction was developed in female mice by permanent ligation of left coronary artery. Immediately after that, an adenoviral vector encoding for shRNA sequence targeting PDE5a (Ad-shPDE5a) was injected intramyocardially, which specifically inhibited PDE5a in the heart. Four weeks later, Ad-shPDE5a treated mice showed significant mitigation of the left ventricle (LV) dilatation and dysfunction as indicated by smaller LV cavity and more preserved ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Infarction size and fibrosis were significantly reduced in Ad-shPDE5a-treated mice. Additionally, more salvaged cardiomyocytes, significantly reduced collagen contents, and higher blood vessel density were observed in Ad-shPDE5a-treated mice. The cytoprotective effects of Ad-shPDE5a were demonstrated in vitro in Ad-shPDE5a transfected cardiomyocytes cultured under oxygen glucose deprivation. Among downstream mediators of PDE5a signaling, cyclic GMP (cGMP) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) were activated with concomitant reduction in caspase-3 activity. However, no significant change in PKA and cAMP activities were observed in Ad-shPDE5a-treated hearts. Inhibition with shRNA improved cardiac remodeling and dysfunction by reducing infarction size and cardiac fibrosis and increased cGMP and PKG activity. These findings suggest that PDE5 inhibition with Ad-shPDE5a is a novel approach for treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:22447941

  14. Reperfusion therapy of myocardial infarction in Mexico: A challenge for modern cardiology.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Arias-Mendoza, Alexandra; González-Pacheco, Héctor; Araiza-Garaygordobil, Diego; Marroquín-Donday, Luis Alfonso; Padilla-Ibarra, Jorge; Sierra-Fernández, Carlos; Altamirano-Castillo, Alfredo; Álvarez-Sangabriel, Amada; Azar-Manzur, Francisco Javier; Briseño-de la Cruz, José Luis; Mendoza-García, Salvador; Piña-Reyna, Yigal; Martínez-Ríos, Marco Antonio

    Mexico has been positioned as the country with the highest mortality attributed to myocardial infarction among the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This rate responds to multiple factors, including a low rate of reperfusion therapy and the absence of a coordinated system of care. Primary angioplasty is the reperfusion method recommended by the guidelines, but requires multiple conditions that are not reached at all times. Early pharmacological reperfusion of the culprit coronary artery and early coronary angiography (pharmacoinvasive strategy) can be the solution to the logistical problem that primary angioplasty rises. Several studies have demonstrated pharmacoinvasive strategy as effective and safe as primary angioplasty ST-elevation myocardial infarction, which is postulated as the choice to follow in communities where access to PPCI is limited. The Mexico City Government together with the National Institute of Cardiology have developed a pharmaco-invasive reperfusion treatment program to ensure effective and timely reperfusion in STEMI. The model comprises a network of care at all three levels of health, including a system for early pharmacological reperfusion in primary care centers, a digital telemedicine system, an inter-hospital transport network to ensure primary angioplasty or early percutaneous coronary intervention after fibrinolysis and a training program with certification of the health care personal. This program intends to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovery from aphasia after hemicraniectomy for infarction of the speech-dominant hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Kastrau, Frank; Wolter, Marcus; Huber, Walter; Block, Frank

    2005-04-01

    The space-occupying effect of cerebral edema limits survival chances of patients with severe ischemic stroke. Besides conventional therapies to reduce intracranial pressure, hemicraniectomy can be considered as a therapeutic option after space-occupying cerebral infarction. There is controversy regarding the use of this method in patients with infarction of the speech-dominant hemisphere. In 14 patients with infarction of the dominant hemisphere and subsequent treatment with hemicraniectomy, recovery from aphasic symptoms was evaluated retrospectively. A group of patients who were treated between 1994 and 2003 in our aphasia ward was selected for the study. In all patients, a psychometric quantification was accomplished applying the Aachen Aphasia Test at least twice within a mean observation period of 470 days. A significant improvement of the statistical parameters representing different aspects of aphasia was observed in 13 of 14 patients. Also, an increase of the ability to communicate was evident in 13 patients. Young age at the time of stroke and early poststroke decompressive surgery were identified as main predictors for recovery from aphasia. A significant improvement of aphasic symptoms can be observed in a preselected group of patients after a massive stroke of the speech-dominant hemisphere treated by consecutive hemicraniectomy. Therefore, decompressive surgery can be considered for the treatment of this kind of stroke.

  16. Influenza as a trigger for acute myocardial infarction or death from cardiovascular disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smeeth, Liam; Hayward, Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Cardiac complications of influenza infection, such as myocarditis, are well recognised, but the role of influenza as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction is less clear. We did a systematic review of the evidence that influenza (including influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infection) triggers acute myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. We examined the effectiveness of influenza vaccines at protecting against cardiac events and did a meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials. 42 publications describing 39 studies were identified. Many observational studies in different settings with a range of methods reported consistent associations between influenza and acute myocardial infarction. There was weaker evidence of an association with cardiovascular death. Two small randomised trials assessed the protection provided by influenza vaccine against cardiac events in people with existing cardiovascular disease. Whereas one trial found that influenza vaccination gave significant protection against cardiovascular death, the other trial was inconclusive. A pooled estimate from a random-effects model suggests a protective, though non-significant, effect (relative risk 0.51, 95% CI 0.15-1.76). We believe influenza vaccination should be encouraged wherever indicated, especially in people with existing cardiovascular disease, among whom there is often suboptimum vaccine uptake. Further evidence is needed on the effectiveness of influenza vaccines to reduce the risk of cardiac events in people without established vascular disease.

  17. Activation of E-prostanoid 3 receptor in macrophages facilitates cardiac healing after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Juan; Shen, Yujun; Chen, Guilin; Wan, Qiangyou; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Jian; Qin, Jing; Liu, Guizhu; Zuo, Shengkai; Tao, Bo; Yu, Yu; Wang, Junwen; Lazarus, Michael; Yu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct monocyte (Mo)/macrophage (Mp) subsets (Ly6Clow and Ly6Chigh) orchestrate cardiac recovery process following myocardial infarction (MI). Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is involved in the Mo/Mp-mediated inflammatory response, however, the role of its receptors in Mos/Mps in cardiac healing remains to be determined. Here we show that pharmacological inhibition or gene ablation of the Ep3 receptor in mice suppresses accumulation of Ly6Clow Mos/Mps in infarcted hearts. Ep3 deletion in Mos/Mps markedly attenuates healing after MI by reducing neovascularization in peri-infarct zones. Ep3 deficiency diminishes CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in Mos/Mps by suppressing TGFβ1 signalling and subsequently inhibits Ly6Clow Mos/Mps migration and angiogenesis. Targeted overexpression of Ep3 receptors in Mos/Mps improves wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis. Thus, the PGE2/Ep3 axis promotes cardiac healing after MI by activating reparative Ly6Clow Mos/Mps, indicating that Ep3 receptor activation may be a promising therapeutic target for acute MI. PMID:28256515

  18. [Changes in heart rate variability after myocardial infarction. Value of Poincareé's diagram].

    PubMed

    Copie, X; Le Heuzey, J Y; Iliou, M C; Pousset, F; Lavergne, T; Guize, L

    1995-11-01

    The variability of the heart rate is reduced after myocardial infarction. It then progressively increases, to return to near normal values after several months. However, these changes in heart rate variability occur at the same time as slowing of the heart rate which makes interpretation difficult. Poincaré's diagram is constructed from a Holter recording plotting each RR interval against the preceding RR interval. The authors have developed a geometric approach to this diagram to evaluate parasympathetic tone for a given heart rate. By measuring the dispersion in height of the Poincaré's diagram, the authors evaluate the shor-term variability for a given RR interval. Two 24 hr Holter recordings were performed in 52 patients at one and two weeks after a myocardial infarction. The dispersion in the height of the Poincaré's diagrams was measured at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the total dispersion. The authors have shown an increase in the short-term variability of the shortest RR intervals (1th, 25th and 50th percentiles) which is not observed in the longer RR intervals (75th and 90th percentiles). In conclusion, theres is an increase in the heart rate variability at the shortest RR intervals. This suggests that the recovery of parasympathic tone after myocardial infarction occurs mainly at the fastest heart rates.

  19. Factor V leiden is a risk factor for myocardial infarction in young Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Hobikoglu, Gultekin F; Akyuz, Umit; Akyuz, Filiz; Ozer, Orhan; Güney, Dilvin; Narin, Ahmet; Unaltuna, Nihan

    2004-12-01

    Factor V Leiden is the most common known hereditary abnormality of the clotting system which leads to a reduced anticoagulant effect of activated protein C (APC resistance). FactorV Leiden has been shown to be the most frequent inherited thrombophilic disorder in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism. The relationship between this genetic abnormality and myocardial infarction is still unresolved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether factor V Leiden is a risk factor for myocardial infarction in young Turkish men or not. We compared 42 patients who had a diagnosis of acute MI and were younger than 40 years (35.6+/-4.8 years) with 66 healthy, age and sex-matched control subjects. Blood samples from the patients and the controls were analysed for the factor V Leiden mutation by DNA analysis, using polimerase chain reaction. Factor V Leiden mutation was found in 10 of 42 (23.8%) patients with myocardial infarction and 6 of 66 (9%) control subjects (p < 0.001). The odds ratio for MI was 3.1. (CI 95% 1.0-8.9) The results of this study suggest that the presence of factorV Leiden increases the risk of Ml in young Turkish men. ( Acta Cardiol 2004; 59(6): 594-597)

  20. Benefits of Intraaortic Balloon Support for Myocardial Infarction Patients in Severe Cardiogenic Shock Undergoing Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Lung; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung; Wen, Ming-Shien; Hsieh, I-Chang; Hung, Ming-Jui; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have suggested intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) have a neutral effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). However, the effects of IABP on patients with severe CS remain unclear. We therefore investigated the benefits of IABP in AMI patients with severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization. Methods and Results This study identified 14,088 adult patients with AMI and severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011, dividing them into the IABP group (n = 7044) and the Nonusers group (n = 7044) after propensity score matching to equalize confounding variables. The primary outcomes included myocardial infarction(MI), cerebrovascular accidents or cardiovascular death. In-hospital events including dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis were secondary outcomes. Primary outcomes were worse in the IABP group than in the Nonusers group in 1 month (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.84–2.12). The MI rate was higher in the IABP group (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.16–1.79), and the cardiovascular death was much higher in the IABP group (HR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.92–2.23). The IABP users had lower incidence of dialysis (8.5% and 9.5%, P = 0.04), stroke (2.6% and 3.8%, P<0.001), pneumonia (13.9% and 16.5%, P<0.001) and sepsis (13.2% and 16%, P<0.001) during hospitalization than Nonusers. Conclusion The use of IABP in patients with myocardial infarction and severe cardiogenic shock undergoing coronary revascularization did not improve the outcomes of recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. However, it did reduce the incidence of dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis during hospitalization. PMID:27483439

  1. Reperfusion Therapy with Rapamycin Attenuates Myocardial Infarction through Activation of AKT and ERK

    PubMed Central

    Filippone, Scott M.; Samidurai, Arun; Roh, Sean K.; Cain, Chad K.; He, Jun; Salloum, Fadi N.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2017-01-01

    Prompt coronary reperfusion is the gold standard for minimizing injury following acute myocardial infarction. Rapamycin, mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, exerts preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We hypothesized that Rapamycin, given at the onset of reperfusion, reduces myocardial infarct size through modulation of mTOR complexes. Adult C57 male mice were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion for 1 hour/24 hours. Rapamycin (0.25 mg/kg) or DMSO (7.5%) was injected intracardially at the onset of reperfusion. Post-I/R survival (87%) and cardiac function (fractional shortening, FS: 28.63 ± 3.01%) were improved in Rapamycin-treated mice compared to DMSO (survival: 63%, FS: 17.4 ± 2.6%). Rapamycin caused significant reduction in myocardial infarct size (IS: 26.2 ± 2.2%) and apoptosis (2.87 ± 0.64%) as compared to DMSO-treated mice (IS: 47.0 ± 2.3%; apoptosis: 7.39 ± 0.81%). Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of AKT S473 (target of mTORC2) but abolished ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (target of mTORC1) after I/R. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but inhibited p38 phosphorylation. Infarct-limiting effect of Rapamycin was abolished with ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Rapamycin also attenuated Bax and increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These results suggest that reperfusion therapy with Rapamycin protects the heart against I/R injury by selective activation of mTORC2 and ERK with concurrent inhibition of mTORC1 and p38. PMID:28373901

  2. Non-photic solar associations of heart rate variability and myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Breus, Tamara; Syutkina, Elena V.; Baevsky, Roman; Weydahl, Andi; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Siegelova, Jarmila; Fiser, Bohumil; Bakken, Earl E.

    2002-03-01

    Alignment of serial epidemiological, physiological, including electrocardiographic data with variations in galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetic activity, and atmospheric pressure suggests the possibility of links among these physical environmental variations and health risks, such as myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes, among others. An increase in the incidence of myocardial infarction in association with magnetic storms, reported by several investigators from Russia, Israel, Italy and Mexico, accounts in Minnesota for a 5% (220cases/year) increase in mortality during years of maximal solar activity by comparison with years of minimal solar activity. Magnetic storms are also found to decrease heart rate variability (HRV), indicating a possible mechanism since a reduced HRV is a prognostic factor for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Longitudinal electrocardiographic monitoring for a week or much longer spans in different geographic locations, notably in the auroral oval, further suggests that the decrease in HRV affects spectral regions other than that around 3.6s (0.15-0.40Hz), reportedly associated with the parasympathetic nervous system. Differences in some associations are observed from solar cycle to solar cycle, and as a function of solar cycle stage, a finding resolving controversies. Coordinated physiological and physical monitoring, the scope of an international project on the Biosphere and the Cosmos, seeks reference values for a better understanding of environmental effects on human health and for testing the merit of space weather reports that could prompt countermeasures in space and on earth. Physiological data being collected systematically worldwide and morbidity/mortality statistics from causes such as myocardial infarction and stroke constitute invaluable data bases for assessing changes within the physiological range, for detecting environmental effects and for recognizing endogenous as well as exogenous disease

  3. Detection of small subendocardial infarction using speckle tracking echocardiography in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Bachner-Hinenzon, Noa; Shlomo, Liron; Khamis, Hanan; Ertracht, Offir; Vered, Zvi; Malka, Assaf; Binah, Ofer; Adam, Dan

    2016-10-01

    It is challenging to detect small nontransmural infarcts visually or automatically. As it is important to detect myocardial infarction (MI) at early stages, we tested the hypothesis that small nontransmural MI can be detected using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) at the acute stage. Minimal nontransmural infarcts were induced in 18 rats by causing recurrent ischemia-reperfusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, followed by a 30-min ligation and by reperfusion. A week later, the scar size was measured by histological analysis. Each rat underwent three echocardiography measurements: at baseline, 1 day post-MI, and 1 week post-MI. To measure the peak circumferential strain (CS), peak systolic CS, radial strain (RS), and time-to-peak (TTP) of the CS, short-axis view of the apex was analyzed by a STE program. The TTP was normalized by the duration of the heart cycle to create percent change of heart cycle. Histological analysis after 1 week showed scar size of 4±6% at the anterior wall. At 24 h post-MI, the peak CS, peak systolic CS, and RS were reduced compared to baseline at the anterior wall due to the MI, and at the adjacent segments-the anterior septum and lateral wall, due to stunning (P<.05). However, only the anterior wall, the genuine damaged segment, showed prolonged TTP vs baseline (baseline 36%, 24 h 48%, P<.05). The TTP of the CS can distinguish between regions adjacent to MI (stunned or tethered) and MI, even in small nontransmural infarcts. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anti-thymocyte globulin induces neoangiogenesis and preserves cardiac function after experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lichtenauer, Michael; Mildner, Michael; Werba, Gregor; Beer, Lucian; Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Baumgartner, Andrea; Hasun, Matthias; Nickl, Stefanie; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Zimmermann, Matthias; Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Podesser, Bruno Karl; Klepetko, Walter; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2012-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) followed by ventricular remodeling is the major cause of congestive heart failure and death in western world countries. Of relevance are reports showing that infusion of apoptotic leucocytes or anti-lymphocyte serum after AMI reduces myocardial necrosis and preserves cardiac function. In order to corroborate this therapeutic mechanism, the utilization of an immunosuppressive agent with a comparable mechanism, such as anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) was evaluated in this study. AMI was induced in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Initially after the onset of ischemia, rabbit ATG (10 mg/rat) was injected intravenously. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that ATG induced a pronounced release of pro-angiogenic and chemotactic factors. Moreover, paracrine factors released from ATG co-incubated cell cultures conferred a down-regulation of p53 in cardiac myocytes. Rats that were injected with ATG evidenced higher numbers of CD68+ macrophages in the ischemic myocardium. Animals injected with ATG evidenced less myocardial necrosis, showed a significant reduction of infarct dimension and an improvement of post-AMI remodeling after six weeks (infarct dimension 24.9% vs. 11.4%, p<0.01). Moreover, a higher vessel density in the peri-infarct region indicated a better collateralization in rats that were injected with ATG. These data indicate that ATG, a therapeutic agent successfully applied in clinical transplant immunology, triggered cardioprotective effects after AMI that salvaged ischemic myocardium by down-regulation of p53. This might have raised the resistance against apoptotic cell death during ischemia. The combination of these mechanisms seems to be causative for improved cardiac function and less ventricular remodeling after experimental AMI.

  5. Information needs before hospital discharge of myocardial infarction patients: a comparative, descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan; Liles, Clive

    2007-04-01

    To explore the information needs of patients who have received treatment for a myocardial infarction before their discharge home from an acute hospital. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC: Providing information for myocardial infarction patients is an important nursing function and is part of the role of health-care professionals delivering cardiac rehabilitation. It is essential to acknowledge and incorporate the self-perceived needs of patients into the information they receive. Hospital stays are becoming shorter, reducing the opportunities for nurses to provide predischarge information to patients. This highlights the challenge of adequately assessing and meeting patients' information needs. A comparative, descriptive survey. A Patient Learning Needs Scale questionnaire was completed by 20 myocardial infarction patients within 72 hours of their intended discharge. Quantitative descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Patients indicated how important it was to know about each of 40 information items before discharge from hospital. Items related to medications, complications and physical activities were rated highly. Responses to an open question revealed that driving, returning to work and sources of support were issues of concern. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-tests showed that retired and older patients desired more information than their employed and younger counterparts, especially concerning community support. WHAT THE STUDY ADDS TO THE TOPIC: Previous research shows little examination of age and employment status in relation to the information needs of myocardial infarction patients. This study suggests that older and retired people may want more information than younger and employed patients. Older people are under represented in postdischarge cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Since these patients may need different information when discharged from younger individuals, nurses must decide how they can

  6. Reperfusion Therapy with Rapamycin Attenuates Myocardial Infarction through Activation of AKT and ERK.

    PubMed

    Filippone, Scott M; Samidurai, Arun; Roh, Sean K; Cain, Chad K; He, Jun; Salloum, Fadi N; Kukreja, Rakesh C; Das, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    Prompt coronary reperfusion is the gold standard for minimizing injury following acute myocardial infarction. Rapamycin, mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, exerts preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We hypothesized that Rapamycin, given at the onset of reperfusion, reduces myocardial infarct size through modulation of mTOR complexes. Adult C57 male mice were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion for 1 hour/24 hours. Rapamycin (0.25 mg/kg) or DMSO (7.5%) was injected intracardially at the onset of reperfusion. Post-I/R survival (87%) and cardiac function (fractional shortening, FS: 28.63 ± 3.01%) were improved in Rapamycin-treated mice compared to DMSO (survival: 63%, FS: 17.4 ± 2.6%). Rapamycin caused significant reduction in myocardial infarct size (IS: 26.2 ± 2.2%) and apoptosis (2.87 ± 0.64%) as compared to DMSO-treated mice (IS: 47.0 ± 2.3%; apoptosis: 7.39 ± 0.81%). Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of AKT S473 (target of mTORC2) but abolished ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (target of mTORC1) after I/R. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but inhibited p38 phosphorylation. Infarct-limiting effect of Rapamycin was abolished with ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Rapamycin also attenuated Bax and increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These results suggest that reperfusion therapy with Rapamycin protects the heart against I/R injury by selective activation of mTORC2 and ERK with concurrent inhibition of mTORC1 and p38.

  7. In vivo amino acid transport of subacute and chronic cerebral infarction evaluated by 12-18F-phenylalanine

    SciT

    Shimosegawa, E.; Miura, S.; Murakami, M.

    1994-05-01

    On the basis of previous validation of kinetic two-compartment model and the determination of normal values of three parameters (k{sub 1}:influx rate constant, k{sub 2}:outflux rate constant, Vd:distribution volume), PET measurements of in vivo amino acid transport from blood to brain using L-(2-18F)-fluorophenylalanine ({sup 18}F-Phe) were undergone in the patients with cerebral infarction. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the alteration of amino acid transport in subacute and chronic stage of cerebral infarction and to compare with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism. Dynamic {sup 18}F-Phe PET studies for 50 minutes were performed in 7 patients withmore » cerebral infarction. The input function was obtained by 27 points of arterial sampling. In all patients, measurements of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were made on the same day of {sup 18}F-Phe PET measurement. Each patient was studied twice, within 2 weeks of the onset and 3 months later. Weighted integration technique with table look-up method was applied for the reconstruction of parametric images of {sup 18}F-Phe and ROI analysis of k{sub 1}, k{sub 2}, and Vd. In subacute stage, significant reduction of k{sub 2} value in infarct area was observed when compared to that in periinfarct area (p<0.05) and in normal cortices (p<0.001). k{sub 1} value in this stage showed only slightly decrease in infarct area, therefore, Vd value in infarct area increased significantly compared to normal cortices (p<0.001). In chronic stage, both k{sub 1} and k{sub 2} values in infarct area were significantly lower than that in normal cortices (p<0.001), and corresponding Vd value reduced to normal level. Correlativity between kinetic parameters of {sup 18}F-Phe and CBF or oxygen metabolism was not observed both in subacute and chronic stage of infarction.« less

  8. Cardioprotective Effects of Intracoronary Morphine in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Prospective, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Gwag, Hye Bin; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Park, Taek Kyu; Lee, Joo Myung; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Song, Young Bin; Choi, Jin-Ho; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Sang Hoon; Chang, Sung-A; Park, Sung-Ji; Lee, Sang-Chol; Park, Seung Woo; Jang, Woo Jin; Lee, Mirae; Chun, Woo Jung; Oh, Ju Hyeon; Park, Yong Hwan; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Joo-Yong

    2017-04-03

    A cardioprotective role of morphine acting via opioid receptors has been demonstrated, and previous preclinical studies have reported that morphine could reduce reperfusion injury and myocardial infarct size in a way similar to that of ischemic periconditioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intracoronary morphine on myocardial infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. This study was designed as a 2-center, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point trial. A total of 91 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade of 0 to 1 undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to a morphine or control group at a 1:1 ratio. The morphine group received 3 mg of morphine sulfate diluted with 3 mL of normal saline, and the control group received 3 mL of normal saline into a coronary artery immediately after restoration of coronary flow. The primary end point was myocardial infarct size assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging The cardiac magnetic resonance images were evaluated for 42 and 38 patients in the morphine and control groups, respectively. Myocardial infarct size was not different between the 2 groups (25.6±11.2% versus 24.6±10.5%, P =0.77), nor was the extent of microvascular obstruction or myocardial salvage index (6.0±6.3% versus 5.1±4.6%, P =0.91; 31.1±15.2% versus 30.3±10.9%, P =0.75, respectively). There was no difference in peak creatine kinase-MB level, final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow, myocardial brush grade, or complete resolution of ST-segment. Intracoronary morphine administration could not reduce myocardial infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01738100. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the

  9. Beyond textbook neuroanatomy: The syndrome of malignant PCA infarction.

    PubMed

    Gogela, Steven L; Gozal, Yair M; Rahme, Ralph; Zuccarello, Mario; Ringer, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Given its limited vascular territory, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) usually does not result in malignant infarction. Challenging this concept, we present 3 cases of unilateral PCA infarction with secondary malignant progression, resulting from extension into what would classically be considered the posterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Interestingly, these were true PCA infarctions, not "MCA plus" strokes, since the underlying occlusive lesion was in the PCA. We hypothesize that congenital and/or acquired variability in the distribution and extent of territory supplied by the PCA may underlie this rare clinical entity. Patients with a PCA infarction should thus be followed closely and offered early surgical decompression in the event of malignant progression.

  10. Bilateral orbital bone infarction in sickle-cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri, Roya H; Lee, Irene; Freitag, Suzanne K; Pira, Tony N

    2011-01-01

    This is a case of a 2-year-old boy with sickle cell disease who presented with bilateral eyelid swelling, limited extraocular motility, and lateral subperiosteal fluid collection associated with bilateral lateral orbital wall infarctions on MRI. The patient was managed medically with intravenous fluids, analgesics, broad-spectrum antibiotics, systemic steroids, and clinically improved. Patients with sickle cell disease are susceptible to infarction of the orbital bones during vaso-occlusive crises. Orbital wall infarction can lead to acute proptosis and restricted extraocular motility. Orbital wall infarction should be considered in sickle cell patients with orbital diseases so that appropriate treatment can be instituted promptly to prevent the serious sequelae of orbital compression syndrome.

  11. An Unusual Complication Following Transarterial Chemoembolization: Acute Myocardial Infarction

    SciT

    Lai Yiliang; Chang Weichou; Kuo Wuhsien

    Transarterial chemoembolization has been widely used to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Various complications have been reported, but they have not included acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction results mainly from coronary artery occlusion by plaques that are vulnerable to rupture or from coronary spasm, embolization, or dissection of the coronary artery. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case report that describes a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent transarterial chemoembolization and died subsequently of acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of this complication induced by transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellularmore » carcinoma. This case illustrates the need to be aware of acute myocardial infarction when transarterial chemoembolization is planned for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in patients with underlying coronary artery disease.« less

  12. Unmet goals in the treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Review

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Alejandro; Barbagelata, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Reperfusion therapy decreases myocardium damage during an acute coronary event and consequently mortality. However, there are unmet needs in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, consequently mortality and heart failure continue to occur in about 10% and 20% of cases, respectively. Different strategies could improve reperfusion. These strategies, like generation of warning sign recognition and being initially assisted and transferred by an emergency service, could reduce the time to reperfusion. If the first electrocardiogram is performed en route, it can be transmitted and interpreted in a timely manner by a specialist at the receiving center, bypassing community hospitals without percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities. To administer thrombolytic therapy during transport to the catheterization laboratory could reduce time to reperfusion in cases with expected prolonged transport time to a percutaneous coronary intervention center or to a center without primary percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities with additional expected delay, known as pharmaco-invasive strategy. Myocardial reperfusion is known to produce damage and cell death, which defines the reperfusion injury. Lack of resolution of ST segment is used as a marker of reperfusion failure. In patients without ST segment resolution, mortality triples. It is important to note that, until recently, reperfusion injury and no-reflow were interpreted as a single entity and we should differentiate them as different entities; whereas no-reflow is the failure to obtain tissue flow, reperfusion injury is actually the damage produced by achieving flow. Therefore, treatment of no-reflow is obtained by tissue flow, whereas in reperfusion injury the treatment objective is protection of susceptible myocardium from reperfusion injury. Numerous trials for the treatment of reperfusion injury have been unsuccessful. Newer hypotheses such as “ controlled reperfusion”, in which the interventional

  13. The economics of cardiac biomarker testing in suspected myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Steve; Thokala, Praveen

    2015-03-01

    Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) is a common reason for emergency hospital attendance and admission. Cardiac biomarker measurement is an essential element of diagnostic assessment of suspected MI. Although the cost of a routinely available biomarker may be small, the large patient population and consequences in terms of hospital admission and investigation mean that the economic impact of cardiac biomarker testing is substantial. Economic evaluation involves comparing the estimated costs and effectiveness (outcomes) of two or more interventions or care alternatives. This process creates some difficulties with respect to cardiac biomarkers. Estimating the effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers involves identifying how they help to improve health and how we can measure this improvement. Comparison to an appropriate alternative is also problematic. New biomarkers may be promoted on the basis of reducing hospital admission or length of stay, but hospital admission for low risk patients may incur significant costs while providing very little benefit, making it an inappropriate comparator. Finally, economic evaluation may conclude that a more sensitive biomarker strategy is more effective but, by detecting and treating more cases, is also more expensive. In these circumstances it is unclear whether we should use the more effective or the cheaper option. This article provides an introduction to health economics and addresses the specific issues relevant to cardiac biomarkers. It describes the key concepts relevant to economic evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in suspected MI and highlights key areas of uncertainty and controversy. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of leukocytes and platelets in acute myocardial infarction

    SciT

    Bednar, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia initiates an inflammatory-like response in which invading neutrophils exacerbate the degree of injury. The effects of nafazatrom, a new antithrombotic agent, on leukocyte function in vitro and in vivo were related to its ability to salvage ischemic myocardium in an occulsion-reperfusion model of myocardial injury in the anesthetized dogs. Measurements of the neutrophil-specific myeloperoxidase enzyme in ischemic myocardium indicate that the smaller infarct size in dogs treated with nafazatrom is accompanied by a diminished leukocyte infiltration. The results obtained with nafazatrom emphasize the important role of the neutrophil in ischemia-induced myocardial damage. The possibility that myocardial ischemia-induced plateletmore » deposition was secondary to a neutrophil-mediated event was assessed by the injection of PGI{sub 2}-washed autologous {sup 111}indium-labeled platelets and measuring the amount of radioactivity in different regions of the heart following a 90 min. occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion for periods up to 5 hrs. Neutropenia, induced with specific sheep anti-dog neutrophil antiserum, significantly reduced platelet accumulation in the ischemic myocardium following 5 hrs. reperfusion and abolished the transmural platelet distribution. These results suggest that myocardial platelet deposition is secondary to a neutrophil-mediated event in this occlusion-reperfusion model of myocardial injury.« less

  15. Safety of air travel following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Roby, Howard; Lee, Anna; Hopkins, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial was carried out to: 1) examine the safety of patients flying on commercial airlines 2 wk after a myocardial infarction; 2) determine whether or not the use of supplemental oxygen was associated with a reduced risk of in-flight adverse events; and 3) determine the need for a medical escort. There were 38 patients who were prospectively and randomly assigned supplemental continuous oxygen therapy (2 L x min(-1) via nasal prongs; n = 19) or no oxygen (n = 19) during the flight. Prior to flying, an escorting doctor completed a medical questionnaire for each patient. Both groups underwent Holter monitoring throughout the flight. The major end-point was the development of inflight myocardial ischemia, as detected by Holter monitoring. Minor end-points included patients complaining of chest pain or dyspnea; the detection of bigeminy or trigeminy by Holter monitoring; or oxygen desaturation to less than 90%, as measured by pulse oximetry. Of the 38 patients enrolled, there was only 1 major end-point. This patient had a brief, self-limiting, asymptomatic episode of myocardial ischemia diagnosed by Holter monitoring. Minor end-points occurred in 13 (34%) patients. One patient had asymptomatic evidence of S-T depression on a transport monitor, but not on the Holter. Five patients had transient low (<90%) oxygen saturations, two complained of chest pain, and five had complex ventricular ectopic beats or periods of transient ventricular tachycardia. None of the minor end-points were associated with Holter evidence of myocardial ischemia. Of the 30 patients with completed questionnaires and Holter results, there was no difference in the incidence of minor end-points between the oxygen (5/13) and no oxygen groups (6/15) (p = 0.93). Intervention by the medical escort consisted of commencing oxygen therapy on those patients with low oxygen saturations and those with chest pain. Use of an already dispensed glyceryl trinitrate spray was

  16. Augmented healing process in female mice with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangfei; Keimig, Thomas; He, Quan; Ding, Jennifer; Zhang, Zhenggang; Pourabdollah-Nejad, Siamak; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2007-09-01

    It is well established that premenopausal women are protected from cardiovascular disease. This gender difference in favor of females is also demonstrated in animal studies. Our research group previously found that female mice had much lower incidence of cardiac rupture and mortality than did males during the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the mechanisms responsible for such protection are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the favorable cardiac effect observed in female mice with MI is due to an augmented healing process that includes less inflammation, reduced matrix degradation, and enhanced neovascularization. Twelve-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were subjected to MI by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery and then euthanized at 1, 4, 7, or 14 days post-MI. Inflammatory cell infiltration and myofibroblast transformation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-I expression, and neovascularization were examined by immunohistochemistry, zymography, Western blot, and laser scanning confocal microscopy, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography on day 14. We found that: (1) neutrophil infiltration during the early phase of MI (1-4 days) was much lower in females than in males and was associated with lower MMP-9 activity and higher TIMP-1 protein expression, indicating less-exaggerated inflammation and extracellular matrix degradation in females; (2) myofibroblast transformation, as indicated by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, was significantly greater in females than in males at day 7 of MI (P<0.05), indicating facilitated collagen deposition and scar formation; and (3) neovascularization (vascular area in the infarct border) was markedly increased in females, and was associated with better preserved cardiac function and less left ventricular dilatation. Our data suggest that less

  17. Collagen remodeling after myocardial infarction in the rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Cleutjens, J. P.; Verluyten, M. J.; Smiths, J. F.; Daemen, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    In this study changes in the amount and distribution of types I and III collagen mRNA and protein were investigated in the rat heart after induction of a left ventricular myocardial infarction (MI). Sham operated rats served as controls. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals after operation. Northern blotting of cardiac RNA and hybridization with cDNA probes for types I and III procollagen revealed a 5- to 15-fold increase in the infarcted left ventricle. Type III procollagen mRNA levels were already increased at day 2 after MI, whereas type I procollagen mRNA followed this response at day 4 after MI. This increase was sustained for at least 21 days in the infarcted left ventricle for type III procollagen mRNA, whereas type 1 procollagen mRNA levels were still elevated at 90 days after MI. In the noninfarcted right ventricle a 5- to 7-fold increase was observed for both type I and type III procollagen mRNA levels, but only at day 4 after MI. In the non-infarcted septum a transient increase was observed for type I procollagen mRNA from day 7-21 (4- to 5-fold increase) and a decline to sham levels thereafter. In the septum type III procollagen mRNA levels were only elevated at 7 days after MI (4- to 5-fold increase) compared with sham operated controls. In situ hybridization with the same types I and III procollagen probes showed procollagen mRNA-producing cells in the infarcted area around necrotic cardiomyocytes, and in the interstitial cells in the non-infarcted part of the myocardium. No labeling was detected above cardiomyocytes. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that the collagen mRNA producing cells have a myofibroblast-like phenotype in the infarcted myocardium and are fibroblasts in the noninfarcted septum and right ventricle. The increase in types I and III procollagen mRNA in both infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium was followed by an increased collagen deposition, measured by computerized morphometry on

  18. Collagen remodeling after myocardial infarction in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Cleutjens, J P; Verluyten, M J; Smiths, J F; Daemen, M J

    1995-08-01

    In this study changes in the amount and distribution of types I and III collagen mRNA and protein were investigated in the rat heart after induction of a left ventricular myocardial infarction (MI). Sham operated rats served as controls. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals after operation. Northern blotting of cardiac RNA and hybridization with cDNA probes for types I and III procollagen revealed a 5- to 15-fold increase in the infarcted left ventricle. Type III procollagen mRNA levels were already increased at day 2 after MI, whereas type I procollagen mRNA followed this response at day 4 after MI. This increase was sustained for at least 21 days in the infarcted left ventricle for type III procollagen mRNA, whereas type 1 procollagen mRNA levels were still elevated at 90 days after MI. In the noninfarcted right ventricle a 5- to 7-fold increase was observed for both type I and type III procollagen mRNA levels, but only at day 4 after MI. In the non-infarcted septum a transient increase was observed for type I procollagen mRNA from day 7-21 (4- to 5-fold increase) and a decline to sham levels thereafter. In the septum type III procollagen mRNA levels were only elevated at 7 days after MI (4- to 5-fold increase) compared with sham operated controls. In situ hybridization with the same types I and III procollagen probes showed procollagen mRNA-producing cells in the infarcted area around necrotic cardiomyocytes, and in the interstitial cells in the non-infarcted part of the myocardium. No labeling was detected above cardiomyocytes. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that the collagen mRNA producing cells have a myofibroblast-like phenotype in the infarcted myocardium and are fibroblasts in the noninfarcted septum and right ventricle. The increase in types I and III procollagen mRNA in both infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium was followed by an increased collagen deposition, measured by computerized morphometry on

  19. [Cerebellar infarction in vascular teritorry of arteria cerebelli superior].

    PubMed

    Savić, Dejan; Savić, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Cerebellar vascular diseases are focal cerebrovascular diseases in posterior circulation--vertebrobasilar system. The cerebellum is supplied by three main arteries arising from the vertebrobasilar system: arteria cerebelli inferior posterior, arteria cerebelli inferior anterior and arteria cerebelli superior. Cerebelar infarctions are rare but unpredictable disorders. The aim of this study was determination of main risk factors, clinical presentation and prognosis of the cerebellar infarctions in distal vascular teritorry of the arteria cerebelli superior. We evaluated 60 patients hospitalized after acute cerebellar infarction among other hospitalized patients in five year period. In 18 patients computerized tomography demonstrated infarction in distal vascular teritorry of the arteria cerebelli superior. All patients underwent clinical and other diagnostic investigations (computerized tomography, electrocardyography and standard blood tests) and were questioned by phone after finishing hospital treatment. Cerebellar infarcts in distal vascular teritorry of arteria cerebell superior was 30% of all cerebellar infarcts. The most frequent risk factor was hypertension (66.7%). Symptomatology and clinical signs were heterogenous but the most frequent were instability (77.8%), vertigo (72.2%) and vomiting (55.6%) followed by ataxia of the limbs (77.8%) and the body (61.1%), nystagmus (55.6%) and disarthria (33.3%) in clinical presentation. All patients had good recovery in hospital and one year afterwards. Infarctions in distribution of arteria cerebelli superior are rare and have multiple risk factors and various clinical features in majority of other studies as in this one. Mass effects are present in several studies but none in this one which reflects contraversions present in other published investigations. Cerebellar infarctions in vascular teritorry of arteria cerebelli superior have multiple risk factors, mostly heterogenous clinical presentations with

  20. Relationship Between Visceral Infarction and Ischemic Stroke Subtype.

    PubMed

    Finn, Caitlin; Hung, Peter; Patel, Praneil; Gupta, Ajay; Kamel, Hooman

    2018-03-01

    Most cryptogenic strokes are thought to have an embolic source. We sought to determine whether cryptogenic strokes are associated with visceral infarcts, which are usually embolic. Among patients prospectively enrolled in CAESAR (Cornell Acute Stroke Academic Registry), we selected those with a contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic scan within 1 year of admission. Our exposure variable was adjudicated stroke subtype per the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. Our outcome was renal or splenic infarction as assessed by a single radiologist blinded to stroke subtype. We used Fisher exact test and multiple logistic regression to compare the prevalence of visceral infarcts among cardioembolic strokes, strokes of undetermined etiology, and noncardioembolic strokes (large- or small-vessel strokes). Among 227 patients with ischemic stroke and a contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic scan, 59 had a visceral infarct (35 renal and 27 splenic). The prevalence of visceral infarction was significantly different among cardioembolic strokes (34.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23.7%-44.6%), strokes of undetermined etiology (23.9%; 95% CI, 15.0%-32.8%), and strokes from large-artery atherosclerosis or small-vessel occlusion (12.5%; 95% CI, 1.8%-23.2%; P =0.03). In multiple logistic regression models adjusted for demographics and vascular comorbidities, we found significant associations with visceral infarction for both cardioembolic stroke (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.2-9.9) and stroke of undetermined source (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1-10.5) as compared with noncardioembolic stroke. The prevalence of visceral infarction differed significantly across ischemic stroke subtypes. Cardioembolic and cryptogenic strokes were associated with a higher prevalence of visceral infarcts than noncardioembolic strokes. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Dodecafluoropentane emulsion elicits cardiac protection against myocardial infarction through an ATP-Sensitive K+ channel dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Strom, Joshua; Swyers, Trevor; Wilson, David; Unger, Evan; Chen, Qin M; Larson, Douglas F

    2014-12-01

    Dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe) is a perfluorocarbon with high oxygen dissolving, transport, and delivery capacity that may offer the potential to limit ischemic injury prior to clinical reperfusion. Here we investigated the cardiac protective potential of DDFPe in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was initiated by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Mice were administered vehicle or 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) intravenously 10 min before LAD occlusion followed by a single intravenous administration of vehicle or DDFPe immediately after occlusion. Heart tissue and serum samples were collected 24 after LAD occlusion for measurement of infarct size and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels, respectively. DDFPe treatment reduced infarct size by approximately 72% (36.9 ± 4.2% for vehicle vs 10.4 ± 2.3% for DDFPe; p < 0.01; n = 6-8) at 24 h. Serum cTnI levels were similarly reduced by DDFPe (35.0 ± 4.6 ng/ml for vehicle vs 15.8 ± 1.6 ng/ml for DDFPe; p < 0.01; n = 6-8). Pretreatment with 5-HD, a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoK(ATP)) inhibitor, blocked the reduction in infarct size (29.2 ± 4.4% for 5-HD vs 35.4 ± 7.4% for 5-HD+DDFPe; p = 0.48; n = 6-8) and serum cTnI levels (27.4 ± 5.1 ng/ml for 5-HD vs 34.6 ± 5.3 ng/ml for 5-HD+DDFPe; p = 0.86; n = 6-8) by DDFPe. Our data indicate a cardiac protective role of DDFPe that persists beyond its retention time in the body and is dependent on mitoK(ATP), an important mediator of ischemic preconditioning induced cardiac protection.

  2. Nitroglycerin Use in Myocardial Infarction Patients: Risks and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Julio C.B.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2012-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction and its sequelae are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nitroglycerin remains a first-line treatment for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction. Nitroglycerin achieves its benefit by giving rise to nitric oxide, which causes vasodilation and increases blood flow to the myocardium. However, continuous delivery of nitroglycerin results in tolerance, limiting the use of this drug. Nitroglycerin tolerance is due, at least in part, to inactivation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an enzyme that converts nitroglycerin to the vasodilator, nitric oxide. We have recently found that, in addition to nitroglycerin’s effect on the vasculature, sustained treatment with nitroglycerin negatively affects cardiomyocyte viability following ischemia, thus resulting in increased infarct size in a myocardial infarction model in animals. Co-administration of Alda-1, an activator of ALDH2, with nitroglycerin improves metabolism of reactive aldehyde adducts and prevents the nitroglycerin-induced increase in cardiac dysfunction following myocardial infarction. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms associated with the benefits and risks of nitroglycerin administration in myocardial infarction. (167 of 200). PMID:22040938

  3. Diagnostic pitfalls of infarcted Warthin tumor in frozen section evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yaohong; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Kerr, Darcy A; Chapman, Jennifer R; Kovacs, Christina; Arnold, David J; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen R

    2016-12-01

    Warthin tumor (WT) is the second most common benign salivary gland neoplasm and has characteristic cytologic and histologic findings. Fine-needle aspiration is a common and useful preoperative diagnostic technique, which sometimes leads to ischemic injury resulting in the infarction of these lesions. Infarcted WT may demonstrate variable gross and histologic alterations that may render the diagnosis challenging, particularly during intraoperative frozen section evaluation. In this study, we collected 11 resection specimens from 9 patients with infarcted WT. Seven patients were men and 2 were women, ranging from 49 to 85 years (mean, 69). All the patients had fine-needle aspiration before the resection. Macroscopically, the tumors were tan-white and contained soft, yellow, exudative material. The histologic findings were variable and included necrosis, ghosts of papillae, squamous metaplasia, cholesterol clefts, foamy macrophages, multinucleated giant cell reaction, necrotizing granulomas, and fibrosis. Each case predominantly demonstrated 1 or 2 of these histomorphologic features. In the permanent sections, additional sampling revealed foci of residual viable WT in 8 cases. Three cases were completely infarcted; however, they all had ghost-like papillae in which the architecture of WT was evident. Infarcted WT may present a diagnostic challenge during intraoperative frozen section evaluation. Associated morphologic alterations may preclude a definitive diagnosis of WT and may mimic malignancy. Awareness of the gross and microscopic features associated with infarcted WT is important, particularly for accurate frozen section evaluation of these salivary gland tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The challenges in the management of right ventricular infarction.

    PubMed

    Inohara, Taku; Kohsaka, Shun; Fukuda, Keiichi; Menon, Venu

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, right ventricular (RV) infarction seems to be underdiagnosed in most cases of acute myocardial ischaemia despite its frequent association with inferior-wall and, occasionally, anterior-wall myocardial infarction (MI). However, its initial management is drastically different from that of left ventricular MI, and studies have indicated that RV infarction remains associated with significant morbidity and mortality, even in the mechanical reperfusion era. The pathophysiology of RV infarction involves the interaction between the right and left ventricle (LV), and the mechanism has been clarified with the advent of diagnostic non-invasive modalities, such as echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the treatment of RV infarction; early revascularization remains the cornerstone of the management, and fluid resuscitation, with appropriate target selection, is necessary to maintain appropriate preload. Early recognition in intensive care with clear understanding of the pathophysiology is essential to improve its prognosis. In terms of management, the support strategy for RV dysfunction is different from that for LV dysfunction since the former may often be temporary. Along with early reperfusion, maintenance of an adequate heart rate and atrioventricular synchrony are essential to sustain a sufficient cardiac output in patients with RV infarction. In refractory cases, more intensive mechanical support is required, and new therapeutic options, such as Tandem-Heart or percutaneous cardiopulmonary support systems, are being developed.

  5. Factors associated with the misdiagnosis of cerebellar infarction.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yoko; Tei, Hideaki; Shimizu, Satoru; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2013-10-01

    Cerebellar infarction is easily misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. In this study, we investigated factors leading to misdiagnosis of cerebellar infarction in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Data on neurological and radiological findings from 114 consecutive patients with acute cerebellar infarction were analyzed. We investigated factors associated with misdiagnosis from the data on clinical findings. Thirty-two (28%) patients were misdiagnosed on admission. Misdiagnosis was significantly more frequent in patients below 60 years of age and in patients with vertebral artery dissection, and significantly less frequent in patients with dysarthria. It tended to be more frequent in patients with the medial branch of posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction, and infrequent in patients with the medial branch of the superior cerebellar artery territory infarction. Thirty out of 32 (94%) misdiagnosed patients were seen by physicians that were not neurologists at the first visit. Twenty-four of 32 (75%) misdiagnosed patients were screened only by brain CT. However, patients were not checked by brain MRI or follow-up CT until their conditions worsened. Patients below 60 years of age and patients with vertebral artery dissection are more likely to have a cerebellar infarction misdiagnosed by physicians other than neurologists. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertebral Artery Dissection Leading to Fornix Infarction: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Takashi; Baba, Yasuhisa; Fujino, Kimihiro; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Tomita, Yusuke; Nakane, Makoto; Yamada, Shoko Merrit; Tanaka, Fumiaki

    2015-07-01

    The subcallosal artery is a proximal branch of the anterior communicating artery and has been recognized as the vessel responsible for fornix infarction. Fornix infarction caused by vascular damage to the posterior circulation has not been reported previously. A 26-year-old woman suffered from fornix infarction due to artery-to-artery embolism after vertebral artery dissection. Cerebral infarctions were also found in the left thalamus, body of the left caudate nucleus, and the left occipital lobe other than the fornix. Occlusion of the subcallosal artery results in cerebral infarction of fornix, anterior cingulate cortex, and genu of the corpus callosum. However, in our case, lesions were restricted to the territory of posterior circulation. In addition to subcallosal artery, lateral posterior choroidal artery, a perforating branch of the posterior cerebral artery, has been described to send branches to the fornix, so we speculated that the left lateral posterior choroidal artery was actually responsible for fornix infarction. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for myocardial infarction in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piegas, Leopoldo S; Avezum, Alvaro; Pereira, Júlio César R; Neto, João Manoel Rossi; Hoepfner, Clóvis; Farran, Jorge A; Ramos, Rui F; Timerman, Ari; Esteves, José Péricles

    2003-08-01

    Approximately three-quarters of cardiovascular disease deaths in the world come from developing countries, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important cause of death. Brazil is one of the largest countries in Latin America and the contemporary evaluation of risk factors for AMI is crucial for a more efficacious disease management. The Acute Myocardial Infarction Risk Factor Assessment in Brazil (AFIRMAR) study is a case-control, hospital-based study involving 104 hospitals in 51 cities in Brazil, designed to evaluate risk factors for a first ST-segment elevation AMI. A total of 1279 pairs, matched by age (+/- 5 years) and sex, were enrolled. The conditional multivariable analysis of 33 variables showed the following independent risk factors for AMI: > or =5 cigarettes per day (odds ratio [OR] 4.90, P <.00001); glucose > or =126 mg/dL (OR 2.82, P <.00001); waist/hip ratio > or =0.94 (OR 2.45, P <.00001); family history of CAD (OR 2.29, P <.00001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol 100 to 120 mg/dL (OR 2.10, P <.00001); reported hypertension (OR 2.09, P <.00001); <5 cigarettes per day (OR 2.07, P =.0171); low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol >120 mg/dL (OR 1.75, P <.00001); reported diabetes mellitus (OR 1.70, P =.0069); waist/hip ratio 0.90 to 0.93 (OR 1.52, P =.0212); alcohol intake (up to 2 days/week) (OR 0.75, P <.0309); alcohol intake (3-7 days/week) (OR 0.60, P =.0085); family income R$600 to R$1200 and college education (OR 2.92, P =.0499); family income >R$1200 and college education (OR 0.68, P = 0.0239) The independent risk factors for AMI in Brazil showed a conventional distribution pattern (smoking, diabetes mellitus and central obesity among others) with different strengths of association; most of them being preventable by implementation of adequate policies.

  8. Effect of intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) on myocardial infarct size and collateral flow in an experimental dog model.

    PubMed

    Müller, K D; Lübbecke, F; Schaper, W; Walter, P

    1982-01-01

    To determine the influence of IABP on infarct size and collateral blood flow in each of 12 openchest anaesthetised mongrel dogs two small branches of the left coronary artery were occluded consecutively. The perfusion areas of both branches were comparable in size. IABP was started immediately before ligation of the first branch for a 90-min period followed by a reperfusion period of 90 min. Subsequently the second vessel was also occluded for 90 min as a control without IABP while myocardial oxygen consumption remained constant and was then reperfused. Infarct size was expressed as a percentage of the perfusion area. A difference in infarct size with and without IABP (18 +/- 17, 18 +/- 10% respectively) could not be observed. However a significant increase of collateral blood flow due to IABP in the subendocardial layer from 8.9 +/- 4.8 to 14.9 +/- 4.6 ml/100 g/min (p less than 0.05) was prevalent. In the subepicardial layer the augmentation from 23.7 +/- 19.9 to 26.9 +/- 15.2 was not significant. Thus, in spite of a small increase of collateral blood flow in the subendocardial layer of the ischemic myocardium the infarct size was not reduced by IABP in our dog model.

  9. Role of intramural platelet thrombus in the pathogenesis of wall rupture and intra-ventricular thrombosis following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Leonard; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Kiriazis, Helen; Liu, Yang; Lobo, Abhirup; Head, Geoffrey A; Dart, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) and rupture are important mechanical complications following myocardial infarction (MI) and are believed to be due to unrelated mechanisms. We studied whether, in fact, wall rupture and LVT are closely related in their pathogenesis with intramural platelet thrombus (IMT) playing a pivotal role. Male 129sv and C57Bl/6 mice underwent operation to induce MI, and autopsy was performed to confirm rupture deaths. Haemodynamic features of rupture events were monitored by telemetry in conscious mice. Detailed histological examination was conducted with special attention to the presence of IMT in relation to rupture location and LVT formation. IMT was detected in infarcted hearts of 129sv (82%) and C57Bl/6 (39%) mice with rupture in the form of a narrow streak spanning the wall or an occupying mass dissecting the infarcted myofibers apart. IMT often contained dense inflammatory cells and blood clot, indicating a dynamic process of thrombus formation and destruction. Notably, IMT was found extending into the cavity to form LVT. Haemodynamic monitoring by telemetry revealed that rupture occurred either as a single event or recurrent episodes. Importantly, the anti-platelet drug clopidogrel, but not aspirin, reduced the prevalence of rupture (10% vs. 45%) and IMT, and suppressed the degree of inflammation. Thus, IMT is a key pathological element in the infarcted heart closely associated with the complications of rupture and LVT. IMT could be either triggered by a wall tear or act as initiator of rupture. IMT may propagate towards the ventricular chamber to trigger LVT.

  10. Sitagliptin decreases ventricular arrhythmias by attenuated glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-dependent resistin signalling in infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ting; Chang, Nen-Chung

    2016-01-25

    Myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with insulin resistance, in which resistin acts as a critical mediator. We aimed to determine whether sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, can attenuate arrhythmias by regulating resistin-dependent nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in postinfarcted rats. Normoglycaemic male Wistar rats after ligating coronary artery were randomized to either vehicle or sitagliptin for 4 weeks starting 24 h after operation. Post-infarction was associated with increased myocardial noradrenaline [norepinephrine (NE)] levels and sympathetic hyperinnervation. Compared with vehicle, sympathetic innervation was blunted after administering sitagliptin, as assessed by immunofluorescent analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase, growth-associated factor 43 and neurofilament and western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NGF. Arrhythmic scores in the sitagliptin-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle. Furthermore, sitagliptin was associated with reduced resistin expression and increased Akt activity. Ex vivo studies showed that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) infusion, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), produced similar reduction in resistin levels to sitagliptin in postinfarcted rats. Furthermore, the attenuated effects of sitagliptin on NGF levels can be reversed by wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase antagonist) and exogenous resistin infusion. Sitagliptin protects ventricular arrhythmias by attenuating sympathetic innervation in the non-diabetic infarcted rats. Sitagliptin attenuated resistin expression via the GIP-dependent pathway, which inhibited sympathetic innervation through a signalling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt protein. © 2016 Authors.

  11. Surgical decompression for space-occupying cerebral infarction: outcomes at 3 years in the randomized HAMLET trial.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Marjolein; van der Worp, H Bart; Kappelle, L Jaap; Amelink, G Johan; Algra, Ale; Hofmeijer, Jeannette

    2013-09-01

    We assessed whether the effects of surgical decompression for space-occupying hemispheric infarction, observed at 1 year, are sustained at 3 years. Patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction, who were enrolled in the Hemicraniectomy After Middle cerebral artery infarction with Life-threatening Edema Trial within 4 days after stroke onset, were followed up at 3 years. Outcome measures included functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale), death, quality of life, and place of residence. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale >3. Of 64 included patients, 32 were randomized to decompressive surgery and 32 to best medical treatment. Just as at 1 year, surgery had no effect on the risk of poor functional outcome at 3 years (absolute risk reduction, 1%; 95% confidence interval, -21 to 22), but it reduced case fatality (absolute risk reduction, 37%; 95% confidence interval, 14-60). Sixteen surgically treated patients and 8 controls lived at home (absolute risk reduction, 27%; 95% confidence interval, 4-50). Quality of life improved between 1 and 3 years in patients treated with surgery. In patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction, the effects of decompressive surgery on case fatality and functional outcome observed at 1 year are sustained at 3 years. http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN94237756.

  12. K-134, a Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitor, Prevents Brain Damage by Inhibiting Thrombus Formation in a Rat Cerebral Infarction Model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hideo; Ashikawa, Yuka; Itoh, Shinsuke; Nakagawa, Takashi; Asanuma, Akimune; Tanabe, Sohei; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Background K-134 is a more potent antiplatelet drug with a selective inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) compared with its analogue, cilostazol. Objectives This study was performed to compare the ameliorating effects of K-134 and cilostazol on brain damage in an experimental photothrombotic cerebral infarction model. Methods and Results We investigated the effects of oral preadministration of PDE3 inhibitors in a rat stroke model established by photothrombotic middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. K-134 significantly prolonged MCA occlusion time at doses >10 mg/kg, and reduced cerebral infarct size at 30 mg/kg in the stroke model (n = 12, 87.5±5.6 vs. 126.8±7.5 mm3, P<0.01), indicating its potent antithrombotic effect. On the other hand, the effects of cilostazol on MCA occlusion time and cerebral infarct size are relatively weak even at the high dosage of 300 mg/kg. Furthermore, K-134 blocked rat platelet aggregation more potently than cilostazol in vitro. Also in an arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model, K-134 showed an antithrombotic effect greater than cilostazol. Conclusions These findings suggest that K-134, which has strong antithrombotic activity, is a promising drug for prevention of cerebral infarction associated with platelet hyperaggregability. PMID:23110051

  13. K-134, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, prevents brain damage by inhibiting thrombus formation in a rat cerebral infarction model.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideo; Ashikawa, Yuka; Itoh, Shinsuke; Nakagawa, Takashi; Asanuma, Akimune; Tanabe, Sohei; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    K-134 is a more potent antiplatelet drug with a selective inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) compared with its analogue, cilostazol. This study was performed to compare the ameliorating effects of K-134 and cilostazol on brain damage in an experimental photothrombotic cerebral infarction model. We investigated the effects of oral preadministration of PDE3 inhibitors in a rat stroke model established by photothrombotic middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. K-134 significantly prolonged MCA occlusion time at doses >10 mg/kg, and reduced cerebral infarct size at 30 mg/kg in the stroke model (n = 12, 87.5±5.6 vs. 126.8±7.5 mm(3), P<0.01), indicating its potent antithrombotic effect. On the other hand, the effects of cilostazol on MCA occlusion time and cerebral infarct size are relatively weak even at the high dosage of 300 mg/kg. Furthermore, K-134 blocked rat platelet aggregation more potently than cilostazol in vitro. Also in an arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model, K-134 showed an antithrombotic effect greater than cilostazol. These findings suggest that K-134, which has strong antithrombotic activity, is a promising drug for prevention of cerebral infarction associated with platelet hyperaggregability.

  14. Pharmacological prevention of reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction. A potential role for adenosine as a therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Miguel; Kahan, Thomas; Hjemdahl, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The concept of reperfusion injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Although the pathophysiology of reperfusion injury is complex, the major role that neutrophils play in this process is well known. Neutrophils generate free radicals, degranulation products, arachidonic acid metabolites and platelet-activating factors that interact with endothelial cells, inducing endothelial injury and neutralization of nitrous oxide vasodilator capacity. Adenosine, through its multi-targeted pharmacological actions, is able to inhibit some of the above-mentioned detrimental effects. The net protective of adenosine in in vivo models of reperfusion injury is the reduction of the infarct size, the improvement of the regional myocardial blood flow and of the regional function of the ischemic area. Additionally, adenosine preserves the post-ischemic coronary flow reserve, coronary blood flow and the post-ischemic regional contractility. In small-scale studies in patients with acute MI, treatment with adenosine has been associated with smaller infarcts, less no-reflow phenomenon and improved LV function. During elective PCI adenosine reduced ST segment shifts, lactate production and ischemic symptoms. During the

  15. (-) Epicatechin attenuates mitochondrial damage by enhancing mitochondrial multi-marker enzymes, adenosine triphosphate and lowering calcium in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac mitochondrial damage plays an important role in the pathology of myocardial infarction. The protective effects of (-) epicatechin on cardiac mitochondrial damage in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction were evaluated in rats. Rats were pretreated with (-) epicatechin (20 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 21 days. After the pretreatment period, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg body weight) was injected subcutaneously into rats twice at an interval of 24 h to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats showed a significant increase in the levels of cardiac diagnostic markers, heart mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, calcium, and a significant decrease in the activities/levels of heart mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione, isocitrate, succinate, malate, α-ketoglutarate and NADH-dehydrogenases, cytochrome-C-oxidase and adenosine triphosphate. (-) Epicatechin pretreatment showed significant protective effects on all the biochemical parameters evaluated. The in vitro study revealed the superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of (-) epicatechin. The possible mechanisms for the beneficial effects of (-) epicatechin on cardiac mitochondria could be attributed to scavenging of free radicals, decreasing calcium, increasing multi-enzymes (antioxidant, tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain enzymes), reduced glutathione and adenosine triphosphate. Thus, (-) epicatechin attenuated mitochondrial damage in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. AAV-mediated netrin-1 overexpression increases peri-infarct blood vessel density and improves motor function recovery after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Le, Thang; Chang, Tiffany T J; Habib, Aisha; Wu, Steven; Shen, Fanxia; Young, William L; Su, Hua; Liu, Jialing

    2011-10-01

    Apart from its role in axon guidance, netrin-1 is also known to be pro-angiogenic. The aim of this study is to determine whether adeno-associated viral (AAV) mediated overexpression of netrin-1 improves post-stroke neurovascular structure and recovery of function. AAV-Netrin-1 or AAV-LacZ of 1×10(10) genome copies each was injected medial and posterior to ischemic lesion at one hour following reperfusion using the distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression of netrin-1 transgene began as early as one day and increased dramatically about 3 weeks following vector injection. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy suggested that both the endogenous and transduced netrin-1 were expressed in the neurons of the peri-infarct cortex after MCAO. AAV-mediated netrin-1 overexpression significantly increased vascular density in the peri-infarct cortex and promoted the migration of immature neurons into the peri-infarct white matter, but it did not significantly reduce infarct size. Netrin-1 overexpression also enhanced post-stroke locomotor activity, improved exploratory behavior, and reduced ischemia-induced motor asymmetry in forelimb usage. However, it had little effect on post-stroke spatial learning and memory. Our results suggest that AAV mediated netrin-1 overexpression improves peri-infarct vascular density and post stroke motor function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effects and interaction, of cariporide and preconditioning on cardiac arrhythmias and infarction in rat in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Nu Nu; Komori, Sadayoshi; Hashimoto, Keitaro

    1999-01-01

    Although Na+-H+ exchange (NHE) inhibitors are reported to protect the myocardium against ischaemic injury, NHE activation has also been proposed as a potential mechanism of ischaemic preconditioning-induced protection. This study was performed to test any modifiable effect of cariporide, an NHE inhibitor, on cardioprotective effects of preconditioning.Anaesthetized rats were subjected to 30 min of coronary artery occlusion and 150 min of reperfusion. The preconditioning (PC) was induced by 3 min of ischaemia and 10 min of reperfusion (1PC) or three episodes of 3 min ischaemia and 5 min reperfusion (3PC). Cariporide (0.3 mg kg−1) an NHE inhibitor, was administered 30 min (cari(30)) or 45 min (cari(45)) before coronary ligation (n=8–11 for each group).Ventricular arrhythmias during 30 min ischaemia and infarct size (measured by triphenyltetrazolium (TTC) and expressed as a per cent area at risk (%AAR)) were determined. Cari(30) reduced ventricular fibrillation (VF) incidence and infarct size (from 45 to 0% and 34±4 to 9±2%; each P<0.05), whereas cari(45) did not. Likewise, 3PC reduced these variables (to 0% and 10±2%; P<0.05 in each case) whereas 1PC did not. Moreover, subthreshold preconditioning (1PC) and cariporide (cari(45)), when combined, reduced VF incidence and infarct size (to 0% and 15+3%; each P<0.05).In conclusion, changes in NHE activity do not seem to be responsible for the cardioprotective action of ischaemic preconditioning. Protective effects of NHE inhibition and subthreshold preconditioning appear to act additively. PMID:10433514

  18. Selective kana jargonagraphia following right hemispheric infarction.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, R; Tanaka, Y; Yoshida, M

    1998-06-01

    A strongly right-handed Japanese man showed an unusual writing disorder associated with Broca-type aphasia after suffering a right hemispheric infarction. Writing with his right hand produced a fluent output in contrast to his nonfluent speech. The patient's agraphia disproportionately affected the writing of kana (Japanese syllabograms), leaving relatively intact the writing of kanji (Japanese ideograms). His kana agraphia, consisting of substitutions, intrusions, transpositions, and deletions, became apparent as the number of syllables in target words increased. Quantitative analysis of the substitutions in terms of their phonological similarity to the target revealed that most of the substitutions were phonologically dissimilar. Those errors were distributed almost identically for familiar and novel words. Moreover, the errors were observed asymmetrically across the target: more errors occurred near the end than at the beginning of a word. The kana agraphia in association with fluent writing output resulted in kana jargonagraphia. These observations suggest that our patient's selective kana jargonagraphia is best explained by selective damage to the hypothesized kana graphemic buffer and by disinhibition of the motor engrams of writing behavior, both of which resulted from right hemispheric damage. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  19. Daylight savings time and myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Amneet; Seth, Milan; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown a transient increase in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after daylight savings time (DST) in the spring as well as a decrease in AMI after returning to standard time in the fall. These findings have not been verified in a broader population and if extant, may have significant public health and policy implications. Methods We assessed changes in admissions for AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2) database for the weeks following the four spring and three fall DST changes between March 2010 and September 2013. A negative binomial regression model was used to adjust for trend and seasonal variation. Results There was no difference in the total weekly number of PCIs performed for AMI for either the fall or spring time changes in the time period analysed. After adjustment for trend and seasonal effects, the Monday following spring time changes was associated with a 24% increase in daily AMI counts (p=0.011), and the Tuesday following fall changes was conversely associated with a 21% reduction (p=0.044). No other weekdays in the weeks following DST changes demonstrated significant associations. Conclusions In the week following the seasonal time change, DST impacts the timing of presentations for AMI but does not influence the overall incidence of this disease. PMID:25332784

  20. Daylight savings time and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Amneet; Seth, Milan; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown a transient increase in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after daylight savings time (DST) in the spring as well as a decrease in AMI after returning to standard time in the fall. These findings have not been verified in a broader population and if extant, may have significant public health and policy implications. We assessed changes in admissions for AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2) database for the weeks following the four spring and three fall DST changes between March 2010 and September 2013. A negative binomial regression model was used to adjust for trend and seasonal variation. There was no difference in the total weekly number of PCIs performed for AMI for either the fall or spring time changes in the time period analysed. After adjustment for trend and seasonal effects, the Monday following spring time changes was associated with a 24% increase in daily AMI counts (p=0.011), and the Tuesday following fall changes was conversely associated with a 21% reduction (p=0.044). No other weekdays in the weeks following DST changes demonstrated significant associations. In the week following the seasonal time change, DST impacts the timing of presentations for AMI but does not influence the overall incidence of this disease.

  1. Multi-Infarct Dementia: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    McKay, Erin; Counts, Scott E

    2017-01-01

    Multi-infarct dementia (MID), a prominent subtype of vascular dementia (VaD), has only achieved recognition in the last 4 decades. Since its original description, the characterization, etiological understanding, and therapeutic direction of MID and other VaD subtypes has progressed at an astounding rate. This paper divides the landmark discoveries and emergence of new research strategies for MID into decade-defining patterns so that a condensed picture of the total history of MID and its eventual inclusion as a VaD subtype emerges. This paper follows the first descriptive decade, a shift to a preventative focus, a renewed interest coinciding with timely advances in research technology, and a hopeful return to treatment possibilities for VaD. Concisely tracing the historical lineage of the modern understanding of MID, both as a singular entity and as part of the VaD con-stellation of disorders, provides a novel perspective on the foundation upon which future advances in combating vascular contributions to dementia will be based.

  2. Spirituality in survivors of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Momennasab, Marzieh; Moattari, Marzieh; Abbaszade, Abbas; Shamshiri, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Life-threatening and stressful events, such as myocardial infarction (MI) can lead to an actual crisis, which affects the patients spiritually as well as physically, psychologically, and socially. However, the focus of health care providers is on physical needs. Furthermore, the spirituality of the patients experiencing heart attack in the light of our cultural context is not well addressed in the literature. This study is aimed at exploring the spiritual experiences of the survivors of the MI. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research a grounded theory approach was used. Key informants were 9 MI patients hospitalized in the coronary care units of 3 hospitals in Shiraz. In addition, 7 nurses participated in the study. In-depth interviews and a focus group were used to generate data. Data analysis was done based on Strauss and Corbin method. Constant comparison analysis was performed until data saturation. Results: Five main categories emerged from the data, including perceived threat, seeking spiritual support, referring to religious values, increasing faith, and realization. The latter with its 3 subcategories was recognized as core category and represents a deep understanding beyond knowing. At the time of encountering MI, spirituality provided hope, strength, and peace for the participants. Conclusion: Based on the results we can conclude that connecting to God, religious values, and interconnectedness to others are the essential components of the participants’ spiritual experience during the occurrence of MI. Spirituality helps patients to overcome this stressful life-threatening situation. PMID:23853646

  3. Biomaterial strategies for alleviation of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Dan, Kai; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization estimated that heart failure initiated by coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction (MI) leads to 29 per cent of deaths worldwide. Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries and is expected to become a global epidemic within the twenty-first century. MI, the main cause of heart failure, leads to a loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. The damaged left ventricle undergoes progressive ‘remodelling’ and chamber dilation, with myocyte slippage and fibroblast proliferation. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro-engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for heart failure patients. These events reflect an apparent lack of effective intrinsic mechanism for myocardial repair and regeneration. Motivated by the desire to develop minimally invasive procedures, the last 10 years observed growing efforts to develop injectable biomaterials with and without cells to treat cardiac failure. Biomaterials evaluated include alginate, fibrin, collagen, chitosan, self-assembling peptides, biopolymers and a range of synthetic hydrogels. The ultimate goal in therapeutic cardiac tissue engineering is to generate biocompatible, non-immunogenic heart muscle with morphological and functional properties similar to natural myocardium to repair MI. This review summarizes the properties of biomaterial substrates having sufficient mechanical stability, which stimulates the native collagen fibril structure for differentiating pluripotent stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21900319

  4. Natural and unnatural triggers of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Previous analyses have suggested that factors that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and catecholamine release can trigger acute myocardial infarction. The wake-up time, Mondays, winter season, physical exertion, emotional upset, overeating, lack of sleep, cocaine, marijuana, anger, and sexual activity are some of the more common triggers. Certain natural disasters such as earthquakes and blizzards have also been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Certain unnatural triggers may play a role including the Holiday season. Holiday season cardiac events peak on Christmas and New Year. A number of hypotheses have been raised to explain the increase in cardiac events during the holidays, including overeating, excessive use of salt and alcohol, exposure to particulates, from fireplaces, a delay in seeking medical help, anxiety or depression related to the holidays, and poorer staffing of health care facilities at this time. War has been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Data regarding an increase in cardiac events during the 9/11 terrorist attack have been mixed. Understanding the cause of cardiovascular triggers will help in developing potential therapies.

  5. Drug-eluting stents and acute myocardial infarction: A lethal combination or friends?

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Shuji; Sabaté, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred reperfusion strategy for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). First generation drug-eluting stents (DES), (sirolimus drug-eluting stents and paclitaxel drug-eluting stents), reduce the risk of restenosis and target vessel revascularization compared to bare metal stents. However, stent thrombosis emerged as a major safety concern with first generation DES. In response to these safety issues, second generation DES were developed with different drugs, improved stent platforms and more biocompatible durable or bioabsorbable polymeric coating. This article presents an overview of safety and efficacy of the first and second generation DES in STEMI. PMID:25276295

  6. Comparison of hospital variation in acute myocardial infarction care and outcome between Sweden and United Kingdom: population based cohort study using nationwide clinical registries

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, Johan; Gale, Chris P; James, Stefan; Deanfield, John; Wallentin, Lars; Timmis, Adam; Jernberg, Tomas; Hemingway, Harry

    2015-01-01

    treatment in the UK hospitals. High quality healthcare across all hospitals, especially in the UK, with better use of guideline recommended treatment, may not only reduce unacceptable practice variation but also deliver improved clinical outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction. Clinical trials registration Clinical trials NCT01359033. PMID:26254445

  7. Intravenously Delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Systemic Anti-Inflammatory Effects Improve Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Luger, Dror; Lipinski, Michael J; Westman, Peter C; Glover, David K; Dimastromatteo, Julien; Frias, Juan C; Albelda, M Teresa; Sikora, Sergey; Kharazi, Alex; Vertelov, Grigory; Waksman, Ron; Epstein, Stephen E

    2017-05-12

    Virtually all mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) studies assume that therapeutic effects accrue from local myocardial effects of engrafted MSCs. Because few intravenously administered MSCs engraft in the myocardium, studies have mainly utilized direct myocardial delivery. We adopted a different paradigm. To test whether intravenously administered MSCs reduce left ventricular (LV) dysfunction both post-acute myocardial infarction and in ischemic cardiomyopathy and that these effects are caused, at least partly, by systemic anti-inflammatory activities. Mice underwent 45 minutes of left anterior descending artery occlusion. Human MSCs, grown chronically at 5% O 2 , were administered intravenously. LV function was assessed by serial echocardiography, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining determined infarct size, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assessed cell composition. Fluorescent and radiolabeled MSCs (1×10 6 ) were injected 24 hours post-myocardial infarction and homed to regions of myocardial injury; however, the myocardium contained only a small proportion of total MSCs. Mice received 2×10 6 MSCs or saline intravenously 24 hours post-myocardial infarction (n=16 per group). At day 21, we harvested blood and spleens for fluorescence-activated cell sorting and hearts for 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Adverse LV remodeling and deteriorating LV ejection fraction occurred in control mice with large infarcts (≥25% LV). Intravenous MSCs eliminated the progressive deterioration in LV end-diastolic volume and LV end-systolic volume. MSCs significantly decreased natural killer cells in the heart and spleen and neutrophils in the heart. Specific natural killer cell depletion 24 hours pre-acute myocardial infarction significantly improved infarct size, LV ejection fraction, and adverse LV remodeling, changes associated with decreased neutrophils in the heart. In an ischemic cardiomyopathy model, mice 4 weeks post-myocardial infarction were

  8. Comparison of hospital variation in acute myocardial infarction care and outcome between Sweden and United Kingdom: population based cohort study using nationwide clinical registries.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sheng-Chia; Sundström, Johan; Gale, Chris P; James, Stefan; Deanfield, John; Wallentin, Lars; Timmis, Adam; Jernberg, Tomas; Hemingway, Harry

    2015-08-07

    in the UK, with better use of guideline recommended treatment, may not only reduce unacceptable practice variation but also deliver improved clinical outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction. Clinical trials registration Clinical trials NCT01359033. © Chung et al 2015.

  9. Caspase-3 inhibitor prevents the apoptosis of brain tissue in rats with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhua; Xu, Yuming; Geng, Lijiao

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk on the apoptosis of the brain tissues of rats with acute cerebral infarction. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to establish a rat model of infarction, and the rats were randomly divided into a sham group (n=15), model group (n=15) and treatment group (n=15). z-DEVD-fmk (2.5 µg/kg) was injected into the intracranial artery of rats in the treatment group, while the same volume of phosphate-buffered saline solution was administered to the rats of the sham and model groups. After 48 h, all rats were sacrificed and their brain tissues were removed. The caspase-3 mRNA level, protein level and activity, brain cell apoptosis index and infarction scope of the three groups were analyzed. Neurological impairment was also assessed. At 48 h after model establishment, the caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels in the brain tissues of the model group were significantly higher than those of the sham group, and those in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group (P<0.05); however, they remained significantly higher than those in the sham group. Caspase-3 activity in the model group was significantly higher than that in the sham group, and treatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor significantly reduced caspase-3 activity compared with that in the model group (P<0.05). The apoptosis index and infarction scope in the model and treatment groups were significantly increased compared with those in the sham group, and were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the model group (P<0.05). The neurological impairment of rats in the model and treatment groups was increased significantly compared with that in the sham group, and the treatment group exhibited a significantly lower level of neurological impairment than the model group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk effectively inhibited apoptosis and delayed the necrosis of

  10. Imaging characteristics and pathogenesis of intracranial artery stenosis in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenyuan; Xie, Ning; Zhang, Cheng; Huang, Qin

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the imaging characteristics and pathogenesis of intracranial artery stenosis in patients with acute cerebral infarction. In total, 84 patients diagnosed with acute cerebral infarction were recruited. Magnetic resonance angiography was performed to detect the existence of intracranial artery stenosis or occlusion. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion weighted imaging were employed to analyze the infarction types and characteristics. In the majority of patients, the infarction resulted from internal carotid stenosis (77 cases; 91.7%), while it was caused by vertebral artery stenosis in a small number of cases (7 cases; 8.3%). Multiple infarction was identified the most common type of infarction among all cases (69.0%). The most common types of infarctions in the internal carotid system were multiple infarction implicating both the cortex and centrum ovale (23.4%), and internal watershed infarction (22.1%). Although the number of cases was relatively small, multiple infarction was observed to have a high incidence in the vertebral artery system. Bedside electrocardiogram was also recorded to determine the sinus rhythm and examine the abnormal hemodynamics. The sinus bradycardia rate of patients with multiple infarction was markedly greater in comparison with that in single infarction patients (χ2=0.01, P<0.05). Transcranial Doppler plus microembolus monitoring was utilized to explore the possible pathogenesis of all types of infarctions, such as arterial embolization. As compared with the single infarction patients, the embolus rate in patients with multiple infarction was notably increased by ~3.7-fold (χ2=8.65, P<0.05). In conclusion, the cerebral infarction was common in the internal carotid system, with multiple infarction observed in the majority of cases. The pathogenesis of cerebral infarction included arterial embolization and inadequate hemoperfusion. PMID:29725389

  11. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciT

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planarmore » imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.« less

  12. Space weather and myocardial infarction diseases at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Sergey; Kleimenova, Natalia; Petrova, Palmira

    The relationship of the number of calls for the emergency medical care in Yakutsk (subauroral latitudes) in connection with myocardial infarction diseases during years near the maximum (1992) and minimum (1998) of the 11-year geomagnetic disturbance cycle to space weather parameters has been studied. It is found that at subauroral latitudes, the increase of geomagnetic activity, namely, the occurrence of night magnetospheric substorms, plays the important role in the exacerbation of myocardial infarctions. Substorms are accompanied by Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations with periods of (0.5-3.0) Hz, coinciding with heart rhythms of a human being, thus, these waves can be a biotropic factor negatively influencing on the occurrence of myocardial infarctions. The comparison of seasonal change of the number of calls for emergency medical care to patients at subauroral latitudes with a simultaneous seasonal change of fatal endings because of an infarction at low latitudes (Bulgaria) has shown their essential difference. Thus, in Bulgaria the maximum of infarctions have been marked in winter, and minimum - in summer, and in Yakutsk a few maxima coinciding with the sharp and considerable increases of the level of the planetary geomagnetic disturbances have been observed. In this case, in Bulgaria the infarctions could be connected with availability of the Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations. Thus, the stable quasi-sinusoidal Pc1 pulsations can be a biotropic factor influencing on the development of myocardial infarctions at middle latitudes and the Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations, which do not propagate to the lower latitudes, could be a biotropic factor at subauroral latitudes.

  13. Characteristics of stroke mechanisms in patients with medullary infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Park, Y G; Kim, S J; Lee, J J; Bang, O Y; Kim, J S

    2012-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the mechanisms underlying medullary infarctions. Our aim in this study was to investigate stroke mechanisms in patients with medullary infarctions and to determine the clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics of these patients with different underlying stroke etiologies. Consecutive patients with medullary infarction were analysed. Stroke mechanisms were classified as large artery disease (LAD), cardiogenic embolism (CE), small vessel disease (SVD), arterial dissection or undetermined etiology. Clinical, radiological and laboratory factors were analysed according to the location of the lesion and stroke mechanisms. A total of 77 patients were enrolled in this study. Amongst them, 53 (68.8%) patients had lateral medullary infarction (LMI), 22 (28.6%) had medial medullary infarction (MMI), and the remaining 2 (2.6%) had hemimedullary infarction. In both LMI and MMI patients, LAD was the most frequently encountered stroke mechanism. Arterial dissection was the second most common cause followed by SVD and CE in patients with LMI, whereas SVD was more frequently observed (P < 0.001) and dissection and CE were less prevalent (P < 0.001 and P = 0.024, respectively) in MMI than in LMI. Regarding differences amongst stroke etiologies, patients with dissection were younger and had a significantly lower incidence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively) than patients with LAD and SVD. Patients in the LAD (19/34, 60%) and dissection groups (12/14, 75%) had abnormal perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) findings, whereas all patients with SVD (9/9) had normal PWI findings (P < 0.001). Stroke mechanisms in medullary infarction differ between LMI and MMI. Clinical and radiological characteristics, especially PWI features, are helpful in discriminating the etiologies of stroke in these patients. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  14. Weekend versus weekday admission and mortality from myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kostis, William J; Demissie, Kitaw; Marcella, Stephen W; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Wilson, Alan C; Moreyra, Abel E

    2007-03-15

    Management of acute myocardial infarction requires urgent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which may not be uniformly available throughout the week. We examined differences in mortality between patients admitted on weekends and those admitted on weekdays for a first acute myocardial infarction, using the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System. All such admissions in New Jersey from 1987 to 2002 (231,164) were included and grouped in 4-year intervals. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics, coexisting conditions, or infarction site between patients admitted on weekends and those admitted on weekdays. However, patients admitted on weekends were less likely to undergo invasive cardiac procedures, especially on the first and second days of hospitalization (P<0.001). In the interval from 1999 to 2002 (59,786 admissions), mortality at 30 days was significantly higher for patients admitted on weekends (12.9% vs. 12.0%, P=0.006). The difference became significant the day after admission (3.3% vs. 2.7%, P<0.001) and persisted at 1 year (1% absolute difference in mortality). The difference in mortality at 30 days remained significant after adjustment for demographic characteristics, coexisting conditions, and site of infarction (hazard ratio, 1.048; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.022 to 1.076; P<0.001), but it became nonsignificant after additional adjustment for invasive cardiac procedures (hazard ratio, 1.023; 95% CI, 0.997 to 1.049; P=0.09). For patients with myocardial infarction, admission on weekends is associated with higher mortality and lower use of invasive cardiac procedures. Our findings suggest that the higher mortality on weekends is mediated in part by the lower rate of invasive procedures, and we speculate that better access to care on weekends could improve the outcome for patients with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  15. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide protects the blood brain barrier of cerebral infarction by activating the Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y-J; Nai, Y; Ma, Q-S; Song, D-J; Ma, Y-B; Zhang, L-H; Mi, L-X

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (DBT) could protect blood-brain barrier (BBB) of mice with experimental cerebral infarction and the relevant mechanism. Adult male CD-1 mice were selected as the study objects. The permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was prepared by Longa's modified suture-occluded method. The mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: the sham operation group (Sham group), the cerebral infarction model group (CI group) and the DBT (120 mg/kg) intervention group (DBT group). Neurologic function deficits were evaluated by Longa's modified scoring method after 24 h of permanent MCAO. The wet and dry weight method was used for measuring water content in brain tissues. 2% 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining method was applied to determine the volume of cerebral infarction. Changes in the protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), claudin-5, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in ischemic brain tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Ultrastructure changes in BBBs were observed under an electron microscope. DBT improved the neurologic function deficits of mice and reduced the infarction volume of mice with cerebral infarction. DBT alleviated edema and decreased the permeability of BBBs of mice with cerebral infarction. DBT down-regulated the expression of MMP-9 and up-regulated the expression of claudin-5 in brain tissues of mice with cerebral infarction. DBT increased the expressions of VEGF and GFAP. DBT improved the ultrastructure in capillary endothelial cells of BBBs and increased the expressions of Nrf-2 and HO-1. DBT may protect BBB by activating the Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling pathway, thus achieving its protective effect

  16. n-3 Fatty Acids, Ventricular Arrhythmia–Related Events, and Fatal Myocardial Infarction in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kromhout, Daan; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; de Goede, Janette; Oude Griep, Linda M.; Mulder, Barbara J.M.; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Deckers, Jaap W.; Boersma, Eric; Zock, Peter L.; Giltay, Erik J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We carried out a secondary analysis in high-risk patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes in the Alpha Omega Trial. We tested the hypothesis that in these patients an increased intake of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA) will reduce the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and fatal MI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A subgroup of 1,014 post-MI patients with diabetes aged 60–80 years was randomly allocated to receive one of four trial margarines, three with an additional amount of n-3 fatty acids and one placebo for 40 months. The end points were ventricular arrhythmia–related events and fatal MI. The data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS The patients consumed on average 18.6 g of margarine per day, which resulted in an additional intake of 223 mg EPA plus 149 mg DHA and/or 1.9 g ALA in the active treatment groups. During follow-up, 29 patients developed a ventricular arrhythmia–related events and 27 had a fatal MI. Compared with placebo patients, the EPA-DHA plus ALA group experienced less ventricular arrhythmia–related events (hazard ratio 0.16; 95% CI 0.04–0.69). These n-3 fatty acids also reduced the combined end-point ventricular arrhythmia–related events and fatal MI (0.28; 0.11–0.71). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that low-dose supplementation of n-3 fatty acids exerts a protective effect against ventricular arrhythmia–related events in post-MI patients with diabetes. PMID:22110169

  17. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: process improvement in a rural ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction receiving center.

    PubMed

    Niles, Nathaniel W; Conley, Sheila M; Yang, Rayson C; Vanichakarn, Pantila; Anderson, Tamara A; Butterly, John R; Robb, John F; Jayne, John E; Yanofsky, Norman N; Proehl, Jean A; Guadagni, Donald F; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2010-01-01

    Rural ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care networks may be particularly disadvantaged in achieving a door-to-balloon time (D2B) of less than or equal to 90 minutes recommended in current guidelines. ST-ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PROCESS UPGRADE PROJECT: A multidisciplinary STEMI process upgrade group at a rural percutaneous coronary intervention center implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce time to electrocardiogram (ECG) and D2B, including catheterization laboratory activation triggered by either a prehospital ECG demonstrating STEMI or an emergency department physician diagnosing STEMI, single-call catheterization laboratory activation, catheterization laboratory response time less than or equal to 30 minutes, and prompt data feedback. An ongoing regional STEMI registry was used to collect process time intervals, including time to ECG and D2B, in a consecutive series of STEMI patients presenting before (group 1) and after (group 2) strategy implementation. Significant reductions in time to first ECG in the emergency department and D2B were seen in group 2 compared with group 1. Important improvement in the process of acute STEMI patient care was accomplished in the rural percutaneous coronary intervention center setting by implementing evidence-based strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Grade III ischemia on presentation with acute myocardial infarction predicts rapid progression of necrosis and less myocardial salvage with thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Yochai; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Criger, Douglas A; Gates, Kathy B; Barbash, Gabriel I; Barbagelata, Alejandro; Clemmensen, Peter; Sgarbossa, Elena B; Gibbons, Raymond J; Rahman, M Atiar; Califf, Robert M; Granger, Chistopher B; Wagner, Galen S

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the relation between baseline electrocardiographic ischemia grades and initial myocardial area at risk (AR) and final infarct size (IS) in 49 patients who had undergone (99m)Tc sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography before and 6 +/- 1 days after thrombolysis. Patients were classed as having grade III ischemia (ST segment elevation with terminal QRS distortion, n = 19) or grade II ischemia (ST elevation but no terminal QRS distortion, n = 30). We compared AR and IS by baseline ischemia grade and treatment (adenosine vs. placebo) and assessed relations of infarction index (IS/AR ratio x100) to time to thrombolysis, baseline ischemia grade, and adenosine therapy. Time to thrombolysis was similar for grade II and grade III. For placebo- treated patients, the median AR did not differ significantly between grade II (38%) and grade III patients (46%, p = 0.47), nor did median IS (16 vs. 40%, p = 0.096), but the median infarction index was 66 vs. 90% (p = 0.006). For adenosine-treated patients, median AR (21 vs. 26%, p = 0.44), median IS (5 vs. 17%, p = 0.15), and their ratio (31 vs. 67%, p = 0.23) did not differ significantly between grade II and grade III patients. The infarction index independently related to grade III ischemia (p = 0.0121) and adenosine therapy (p = 0.045). Infarct size related to baseline ischemia grade and was reduced by adenosine treatment. Necrosis progressed slowlier with baseline grade II versus III ischemia, which could offer more time for myocardial salvage with reperfusion. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Natural history of the spontaneous reperfusion of human cerebral infarcts as assessed by 99mTc HMPAO SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, J; Wade, J; Jones, B; Nijran, K; Steiner, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Little is known about the effect of spontaneous reperfusion of human cerebral infarcts. Single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) data were analysed from a study using 99Tcm HMPAO (99Tcm hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) in human cerebral infarction for the frequency of reperfusion and to see if it affected infarct size, oedema, haemorrhagic transformation, or functional outcome.
METHODS—Fifty sequential cases of ischaemic stroke were studied with 124 99Tcm HMPAO SPECT at around one day, one week, and three months after stroke along with detailed clinical and functional assessments.
RESULTS—Visually apparent reperfusion occurred in 14 of 50 patients (28%) with a mean delay of 5.8 days and reperfusion was seen in seven others in whom it was identified on the basis of changes in perfusion deficit volume. It occurred in 13 of 23 embolic events but only in three of 23 other events. In only two cases did spontaneous reperfusion occur early enough to preserve tissue or function. Reperfusion did not otherwise reduce infarct size, or improve clinical or functional outcome, and was not associated with oedema but an association with haemorrhagic transformation was suggested. Reperfusion significantly decreased the apparent perfusion defect as measured by SPECT one week from the ictus, but was mostly non-nutritional and transient. The mean volume of tissue preserved by nutritional reperfusion was 10 cm3, but this was unequally distributed between cases. Late washout of 99Tcm HMPAO from areas of hyperaemic reperfusion may be a good prognostic marker but is a rare phenomenon and too insensitive to be of general applicability.
CONCLUSIONS—Spontaneous reperfusion after cerebral infarction occurs in 42% of cases within the first week but is associated with clinical improvement in only 2%. It has few adverse consequences although it may be associated with haemorrhagic transformation.

 PMID:9436735

  20. Is delayed surgical revascularization in acute myocardial infarction useful or dangerous? New insights into an old problem.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, Philippe; Roth, Peter; Oster, Lukas; Schneider, Tobias M; Görlach, Gerold; Nieman, Bernd; Böning, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Haemodynamically stable patients admitted for coronary artery bypass grafting in acute myocardial infarction often undergo delayed surgery in order to avoid the risks of emergency surgery. However, initially stable patients undergoing delayed surgery may develop low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) during the waiting period, which might be a major drawback of this strategy. We aim to define risk factors and clinical consequences of LCOS during the waiting period. A total of 530 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (33% non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 67% ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction) underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting between 2008 and 2013. Outcomes after either immediate (<48 h after onset of symptoms) or delayed (>48 h after onset of symptoms) therapy were compared. Predictors of preoperative development of LCOS were identified using multivariate regression analysis. Of the 327 patients undergoing delayed therapy, 39 (12%) developed preoperative LCOS, resulting in increased mortality compared with patients who remained stable (21 vs 7.6%, P < 0.001). Immediate therapy resulted in similar mortality compared with delayed therapy (6.4 vs 7.6%; P = 0.68) and better 7-year survival (70 vs 55%; P < 0.001). Predictors of developing LCOS were reduced left ventricular function (odds ratio 4.4), renal impairment (odds ratio 3.0), acute pulmonary infection (odds ratio 3.4) and the extent of troponin elevation at admission (odds ratio 1.01 per increase by 1 µg/l). In patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing delayed coronary artery bypass grafting, preoperative LCOS is a relevant and dangerous condition that can be avoided by operating immediately or by carefully selecting patients to be delayed according to the risk parameters identified preoperatively. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All

  1. Expression of neuronal and signaling proteins in penumbra around a photothrombotic infarction core in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Demyanenko, S V; Panchenko, S N; Uzdensky, A B

    2015-06-01

    Photodynamic impact on animal cerebral cortex using water-soluble Bengal Rose as a photosensitizer, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier and remains in blood vessels, induces platelet aggregation, vessel occlusion, and brain tissue infarction. This reproduces ischemic stroke. Irreversible cell damage within the infarction core propagates to adjacent tissue and forms a transition zone - the penumbra. Tissue necrosis in the infarction core is too fast (minutes) to be prevented, but much slower penumbral injury (hours) can be limited. We studied the changes in morphology and protein expression profile in penumbra 1 h after local photothrombotic infarction induced by laser irradiation of the cerebral cortex after Bengal Rose administration. Morphological study using standard hematoxylin/eosin staining showed a 3-mm infarct core surrounded by 1.5-2.0 mm penumbra. Morphological changes in the penumbra were lesser and decreased towards its periphery. Antibody microarrays against 224 neuronal and signaling proteins were used for proteomic study. The observed upregulation of penumbra proteins involved in maintaining neurite integrity and guidance (NAV3, MAP1, CRMP2, PMP22); intercellular interactions (N-cadherin); synaptic transmission (glutamate decarboxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, Munc-18-1, Munc-18-3, and synphilin-1); mitochondria quality control and mitophagy (PINK1 and Parkin); ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and tissue clearance (UCHL1, PINK1, Parkin, synphilin-1); and signaling proteins (PKBα and ERK5) could be associated with tissue recovery. Downregulation of PKC, PKCβ1/2, and TDP-43 could also reduce tissue injury. These changes in expression of some neuronal proteins were directed mainly to protection and tissue recovery in the penumbra. Some upregulated proteins might serve as markers of protection processes in a penumbra.

  2. Rescue pulmonary vein isolation for hemodynamically unstable atrial fibrillation storm in a patient with an acute extensive myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Itsuro; Sone, Takahito; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Mukawa, Hiroaki

    2012-11-26

    New-onset atrial fibrillation in patients hospitalized for an acute myocardial infarction often leads to hemodynamic deterioration and has serious adverse prognostic implications; mortality is particularly high in patients with congestive heart failure and/or a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. The mechanism of atrial fibrillation in the context of an acute myocardial infarction has not been well characterized and an effective treatment other than optimal medical therapy and mechanical hemodynamic support are expected. A 71 year-old male with an acute myocardial infarction due to an occlusion of the left main coronary artery was treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. He had developed severe congestive heart failure with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 34%. The systemic circulation was maintained with an intraaortic balloon pump, continuous hemodiafiltration, and mechanical ventilation until atrial fibrillation occurred on day 3 which immediately led to cardiogenic shock. Because atrial fibrillation was refractory to intravenous amiodarone, beta-blockers, and a total of 15 electrical cardioversions, the patient underwent emergent radiofrequency catheter ablation on day 4. Soon after electrical cardioversion, ectopies from the right superior pulmonary vein triggered the initiation of atrial fibrillation. The right pulmonary veins were isolated during atrial fibrillation. Again, atrial fibrillation was electrically cardioverted, then, sinus rhythm was restored. Subsequently, the left pulmonary veins were isolated. The stabilization of the hemodynamics was successfully achieved with an increase in the blood pressure and urine volume. Hemodiafiltration and amiodarone were discontinued. The patient had been free from atrial fibrillation recurrence until he suddenly died due to ventricular fibrillation on day 9. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary vein isolation for a rescue purpose applied in a patient with

  3. Metformin improves cardiac function in mice with heart failure after myocardial infarction by regulating mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Yang, Fei

    2017-04-29

    To investigate whether metformin can improve the cardiac function through improving the mitochondrial function in model of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Male C57/BL6 mice aged about 8 weeks were selected and the anterior descending branch was ligatured to establish the heart failure model after myocardial infarction. The cardiac function was evaluated via ultrasound after 3 days to determine the modeling was successful, and the mice were randomly divided into two groups. Saline group (Saline) received the intragastric administration of normal saline for 4 weeks, and metformin group (Met) received the intragastric administration of metformin for 4 weeks. At the same time, Shame group (Sham) was set up. Changes in cardiac function in mice were detected at 4 weeks after operation. Hearts were taken from mice after 4 weeks, and cell apoptosis in myocardial tissue was detected using TUNEL method; fresh mitochondria were taken and changes in oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and respiratory control rate (RCR) of mitochondria in each group were detected using bio-energy metabolism tester, and change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of myocardial tissue was detected via JC-1 staining; the expressions and changes in Bcl-2, Bax, Sirt3, PGC-1α and acetylated PGC-1α in myocardial tissue were detected by Western blot. RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA levels in Sirt3 in myocardial tissues. Metformin improved the systolic function of heart failure model rats after myocardial infarction and reduced the apoptosis of myocardial cells after myocardial infarction. Myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and membrane potential were decreased after myocardial infarction, and metformin treatment significantly improved the mitochondrial respiratory function and mitochondrial membrane potential; Metformin up-regulated the expression of Sirt3 and the activity of PGC-1α in myocardial tissue of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Metformin decreases the

  4. Impact of the Timing of Metoprolol Administration During STEMI on Infarct Size and Ventricular Function.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Jose M; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; García-Alvarez, Ana; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Galán-Arriola, Carlos; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Mateos, Alonso; Nuno-Ayala, Mario; Aguero, Jaume; Sánchez-González, Javier; García-Prieto, Jaime; López-Melgar, Beatriz; Martínez-Tenorio, Pedro; López-Martín, Gonzalo J; Macías, Angel; Pérez-Asenjo, Braulio; Cabrera, José A; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Fuster, Valentín; Ibáñez, Borja

    2016-05-10

    Pre-reperfusion administration of intravenous (IV) metoprolol reduces infarct size in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study sought to determine how this cardioprotective effect is influenced by the timing of metoprolol therapy having either a long or short metoprolol bolus-to-reperfusion interval. We performed a post hoc analysis of the METOCARD-CNIC (effect of METOprolol of CARDioproteCtioN during an acute myocardial InfarCtion) trial, which randomized anterior STEMI patients to IV metoprolol or control before mechanical reperfusion. Treated patients were divided into short- and long-interval groups, split by the median time from 15 mg metoprolol bolus to reperfusion. We also performed a controlled validation study in 51 pigs subjected to 45 min ischemia/reperfusion. Pigs were allocated to IV metoprolol with a long (-25 min) or short (-5 min) pre-perfusion interval, IV metoprolol post-reperfusion (+60 min), or IV vehicle. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed in the acute and chronic phases in both clinical and experimental settings. For 218 patients (105 receiving IV metoprolol), the median time from 15 mg metoprolol bolus to reperfusion was 53 min. Compared with patients in the short-interval group, those with longer metoprolol exposure had smaller infarcts (22.9 g vs. 28.1 g; p = 0.06) and higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (48.3% vs. 43.9%; p = 0.019) on day 5 CMR. These differences occurred despite total ischemic time being significantly longer in the long-interval group (214 min vs. 160 min; p < 0.001). There was no between-group difference in the time from symptom onset to metoprolol bolus. In the animal study, the long-interval group (IV metoprolol 25 min before reperfusion) had the smallest infarcts (day 7 CMR) and highest long-term LVEF (day 45 CMR). In anterior STEMI patients undergoing primary angioplasty, the sooner IV metoprolol is administered in the course of infarction, the smaller the

  5. Anesthesia-Induced Hypothermia Attenuates Early-Phase Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption but Not Infarct Volume following Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Yu-Da; Wang, Hwai-Lee; Liao, Kate Hsiurong; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Pan, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ted Weita

    2017-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is thought to facilitate the development of cerebral infarction after a stroke. In a typical stroke model (such as the one used in this study), the early phase of BBB disruption reaches a peak 6 h post-ischemia and largely recovers after 8-24 h, whereas the late phase of BBB disruption begins 48-58 h post-ischemia. Because cerebral infarct develops within 24 h after the onset of ischemia, and several therapeutic agents have been shown to reduce the infarct volume when administered at 6 h post-ischemia, we hypothesized that attenuating BBB disruption at its peak (6 h post-ischemia) can also decrease the infarct volume measured at 24 h. We used a mouse stroke model obtained by combining 120 min of distal middle cerebral arterial occlusion (dMCAo) with ipsilateral common carotid arterial occlusion (CCAo). This model produced the most reliable BBB disruption and cerebral infarction compared to other models characterized by a shorter duration of ischemia or obtained with dMCAO or CCAo alone. The BBB permeability was measured by quantifying Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation, as this tracer has been shown to be more sensitive for the detection of early-phase BBB disruption compared to other intravascular tracers that are more appropriate for detecting late-phase BBB disruption. We showed that a 1 h-long treatment with isoflurane-anesthesia induced marked hypothermia and attenuated the peak of BBB disruption when administered 6 h after the onset of dMCAo/CCAo-induced ischemia. We also demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of isoflurane was hypothermia-dependent because the same treatment had no effect on ischemic BBB disruption when the mouse body temperature was maintained at 37°C. Importantly, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption by hypothermia had no effect on the volume of brain infarct 24 h post-ischemia. In conclusion, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption is not an effective neuroprotective strategy, especially in comparison

  6. Stem cell treatment for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sheila A; Zhang, Huajun; Doree, Carolyn; Mathur, Anthony; Martin-Rendon, Enca

    2015-09-30

    Cell transplantation offers a potential therapeutic approach to the repair and regeneration of damaged vascular and cardiac tissue after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This has resulted in multiple randomised controlled trials (RCTs) across the world. To determine the safety and efficacy of autologous adult bone marrow stem cells as a treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), focusing on clinical outcomes. This Cochrane review is an update of a previous version (published in 2012). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1974 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015) and the Transfusion Evidence Library (1980 to March 2015). In addition, we searched several international and ongoing trial databases in March 2015 and handsearched relevant conference proceedings to January 2011. RCTs comparing autologous bone marrow-derived cells with no cells in patients diagnosed with AMI were eligible. Two review authors independently screened all references, assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and extracted data. We conducted meta-analyses using random-effects models throughout. We analysed outcomes at short-term (less than 12 months) and long-term (12 months or more) follow-up. Dichotomous outcomes are reported as risk ratio (RR) and continuous outcomes are reported as mean difference (MD) or standardised MD (SMD). We performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate the results in the context of the risk of selection, performance and attrition bias. Exploratory subgroup analysis investigated the effects of baseline cardiac function (left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF) and cell dose, type and timing of administration, as well as the use of heparin in the final cell solution. Forty-one RCTs with a total of 2732 participants (1564 cell therapy, 1168 controls) were eligible for inclusion. Cell treatment was not associated with any changes in the risk of all-cause mortality

  7. Injectable biodegradable hydrogels for embryonic stem cell transplantation: improved cardiac remodelling and function of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Dexue; Guo, Xuan; Kasper, F Kurtis; Duan, Cuimi; Zhou, Jin; Mikos, Antonios G; Wang, Changyong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this study, an injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF) was investigated as a carrier of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). The OPF hydrogels were used to encapsulate mESCs. The cell differentiation in vitro over 14 days was determined via immunohistochemical examination. Then, mESCs encapsulated in OPF hydrogels were injected into the LV wall of a rat MI model. Detailed histological analysis and echocardiography were used to determine the structural and functional consequences after 4 weeks of transplantation. With ascorbic acid induction, mESCs could differentiate into cardiomyocytes and other cell types in all three lineages in the OPF hydrogel. After transplantation, both the 24-hr cell retention and 4-week graft size were significantly greater in the OPF + ESC group than that of the PBS + ESC group (P < 0.01). Four weeks after transplantation, OPF hydrogel alone significantly reduced the infarct size and collagen deposition and improved the cardiac function. The heart function and revascularization improved significantly, while the infarct size and fibrotic area decreased significantly in the OPF + ESC group compared with that of the PBS + ESC, OPF and PBS groups (P < 0.01). All treatments had significantly reduced MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels compared to the PBS control group, and the OPF + ESC group decreased most by Western blotting. Transplanted mESCs expressed cardiovascular markers. This study suggests the potential of a method for heart regeneration involving OPF hydrogels for stem cell encapsulation and transplantation. PMID:21838774

  8. IL-10-producing B-cells limit CNS inflammation and infarct volume in experimental stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bodhankar, Sheetal; Chen, Yingxin; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Murphy, Stephanie J.; Offner, Halina

    2013-01-01

    Clinical stroke induces inflammatory processes leading to cerebral injury. IL-10 expression is elevated during major CNS diseases and limits inflammation in the brain. Recent evidence demonstrated that absence of B-cells led to larger infarct volumes and increased numbers of activated T-cells, monocytes and microglial cells in the brain, thus implicating a regulatory role of B-cell subpopulations in limiting CNS damage from stroke. The aim of this study was to determine whether the IL-10-producing regulatory B-cell subset can limit CNS inflammation and reduce infarct volume following ischemic stroke in B-cell deficient (µMT−/−) mice. Five million IL-10-producing B-cells were obtained from IL-10-GFP reporter mice and transferred i.v. to µMT−/− mice. After 24 h following this transfer, recipients were subjected to 60 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 48 hours of reperfusion. Compared to vehicle-treated controls, the IL-10+ B-cell-replenished µMT−/− mice had reduced infarct volume and fewer infiltrating activated T-cells and monocytes in the affected brain hemisphere. These effects in CNS were accompanied by significant increases in regulatory T-cells and expression of the co-inhibitory receptor, PD-1, with a significant reduction in the proinflammatory milieu in the periphery. These novel observations provide the first proof of both immunoregulatory and protective functions of IL-10-secreting B-cells in MCAO that potentially could impart significant benefit for stroke patients in the clinic. PMID:23640015

  9. EMMPRIN-Targeted Magnetic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Visualization and Regression of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Irene; Piedras, Maria Jose Garcia Miguel; Herruzo, Irene; Turpin, Maria Del Carmen; Castejón, Borja; Reventun, Paula; Martin, Ana; Saura, Marta; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Zaragoza, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation may represent a mechanism for cardiac protection against ischemia. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is highly expressed in response to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and induces activation of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. We targeted EMMPRIN with paramagnetic/fluorescent micellar nanoparticles conjugated with the EMMPRIN binding peptide AP-9 (NAP9), or an AP-9 scrambled peptide as a negative control (NAPSC). We found that NAP9 binds to endogenous EMMPRIN in cultured HL1 myocytes and in mouse hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Injection of NAP9 at the time of or one day after IR, was enough to reduce progression of myocardial cell death when compared to CONTROL and NAPSC injected mice (infarct size in NAP9 injected mice: 32%±6.59 vs 46%±9.04 or NAPSC injected mice: 48%±7.64). In the same way, cardiac parameters were recovered to almost healthy levels (LVEF NAP9 63% ± 7.24 vs CONTROL 42% ± 4.74 or NAPSC 39% ± 6.44), whereas ECM degradation was also reduced as shown by inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans have shown a signal enhancement in the left ventricle of NAP9 injected mice with respect to non-injected, and to mice injected with NAPSC. A positive correlation between CMR enhancement and Evans-Blue/TTC staining of infarct size was calculated (R:0.65). Taken together, these results point to EMMPRIN targeted nanoparticles as a new approach to the mitigation of ischemic/reperfusion injury.

  10. Predictors of malignant brain edema in middle cerebral artery infarction observed on CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Jin, Seon Tak; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Seong Rim; Park, Ik Seong; Jo, Kwang Wook

    2015-03-01

    Patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction accompanied by MCA occlusion with or without internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion have a poor prognosis, as a result of brain cell damage caused by both the infarction and by space-occupying and life-threatening edema formation. Multiple treatments can reduce the likelihood of edema formation, but tend to show limited efficacy. Decompressive hemicraniectomy with duroplasty has been promising for improving functional outcomes and reducing mortality, particularly improved functional outcomes can be achieved with early decompressive surgery. Therefore, identifying patients at risk for developing fatal edema is important and should be performed as early as possible. Sixty-four patients diagnosed with major MCA infarction with MCA occlusion within 8 hours of symptom onset were retrospectively reviewed. Early clinical, laboratory, and computed tomography angiography (CTA) parameters were analyzed for malignant brain edema (MBE). Twenty of the 64 patients (31%) had MBE, and the clinical outcome was poor (3month modified Rankin Scale >2) in 95% of them. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score, Clot Burden Score, and Collateral Score (CS) showed statically significant differences in both groups. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age and sex identified the independent predictors of MBE: NIHSS score >18 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-16.0, p=0.023) and CS on CTA <2 (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 1.7-30.3,p=0.006). Our results provide useful information for selecting patients in need of aggressive treatment such as decompressive surgery. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective Effect of Ad-VEGF-Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Zhang, Feng; Li, Qiao-Yu; Gong, Aihua; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of intracerebroventricular transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genemodified bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in rats after cerebral infarction. The middle cerebral artery occlusion ischemia/reperfusion (MCAO I/R) model was established in rats using the Zea-Longa suture method. A recombinant adenovirus (Ad-VEGF) was engineered to express VEGF. The rats were divided into 3 groups. Control BMSC infected with control adenovirus (BMSC-Ad), BMSC infected by Ad-VEGF (BMSC-Ad-VEGF), and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) suspension were injected into the intracerebroventricular system of the rats in groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively, 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The neurological function of rats was evaluated with the modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS). The infarct volume of brain in rats was determined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain at 14 days. GFAP and pGSK3β expression of ischemic penumbra was determined using immunohistochemical method. GFAP, pAKT, AKT, and pGSK3β expressions were determined with Western blot. Functional improvement was accelerated in animals receiving BMSC-Ad, while improvement at all times between 7 days and 28 days post MCAO was significantly greater in animals transplanted with BMSC-Ad-VEGF than for other treated animals. The number of GFAP-labeled cells was prevented by post-ischemic BMSC-Ad-VEGF treatment; pMCAO activate the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway to reduce reactive gliosis. Our findings demonstrate that PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway could reduce reactive gliosis, ameliorate neurological deficit, diminish the percentage of cerebral infarction volume in rats, and facilitate angiogenesis.

  12. An injectable silk sericin hydrogel promotes cardiac functional recovery after ischemic myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Jinxiang; Sun, Ning; Huang, Kun; Li, Huili; Wang, Zheng; Huang, Kai; Wang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to morbidity and mortality due to cardiac dysfunction. Here we identify sericin, a silk-derived protein, as an injectable therapeutic biomaterial for the minimally invasive MI repair. For the first time, sericin prepared in the form of an injectable hydrogel has been utilized for cardiac tissue engineering and its therapeutical outcomes evaluated in a mouse MI model. The injection of this sericin hydrogel into MI area reduces scar formation and infarct size, increases wall thickness and neovascularization, and inhibits the MI-induced inflammatory responses and apoptosis, thereby leading to a significant functional improvement. The potential therapeutical mechanisms have been further analyzed in vitro. Our results indicate that sericin downregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-18) and chemokine (CCL2) and reduces TNF-α expression by suppressing the TLR4-MAPK/NF-κB pathways. Moreover, sericin exhibits angiogenic activity by promoting migration and tubular formation of human umbilical vessel endothelial cells (HUVECs). Also, sericin stimulates VEGFa expression via activating ERK phosphorylation. Further, sericin protects endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes from apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of caspase 3. Together, these diverse biochemical activities of sericin protein lead to a significant recovery of cardiac function. This work represents the first study reporting sericin as an effective therapeutic biomaterial for ischemic myocardial repair in vivo. Intramyocardial biomaterial injection is thought to be a potential therapeutic approach to improve cardiac performance after ischemic myocardial infarction. In this study, we report the successful fabrication and in vivo application of an injectable sericin hydrogel for ischemic heart disease. We for the first time show that the injection of in situ forming crosslinked sericin hydrogel promotes heart functional recovery accompanied with reduced

  13. Personality and mortality after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Denollet, J; Sys, S U; Brutsaert, D L

    1995-01-01

    Previous research showed: a) emotional distress is a risk factor for mortality after myocardial infarction (MI) and b) emotional distress is linked to stable personality traits. In this study, we examined the role of these personality traits in mortality after MI. Subjects were 105 men, 45 to 60 years of age, who survived a recent MI. Baseline assessment included biomedical and psychosocial risk factors, as well as each patient's personality type. After 2 to 5 (mean, 3.8) years of follow-up, 15 patients (14%) had died. Rate of death for patients with a distressed personality type (11/28 = 39%) was significantly greater than that for patients with other personality types (4/77 = 5%) (p < .0001). Patients with this personality type tend simultaneously to experience distress and inhibit expression of emotions. Low exercise tolerance, previous MI (p < .005), anterior MI, smoking, and age (p < .05) were also associated with mortality. A logistic regression model including these biomedical factors had a sensitivity for mortality of only 27%. The addition of distressed personality type in this model more than doubled its sensitivity. Of note, among patients with poor physical health, those with a distressed personality type had a five-fold mortality risk (p < .005). Consistent with the findings of other investigators, depression (p < .005), life stress, use of benzodiazepines (p < .01), and somatization (p < .05) were also related to post-MI mortality. These psychosocial risk factors were more prevalent in the distressed personality type than in the other personality types (p < .001-.05). Multiple logistic regression indicated that these psychosocial factors did not add to the predictive value of the distressed personality type. Hence, an important personality effect was observed despite the low power. This suggests that personality traits may play a role in the detrimental effect of emotional distress in MI patients.

  14. Could missile attacks trigger acute myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Zubaid, Mohammad; Suresh, Cheiyil G; Thalib, Lukman; Rashed, Wafa

    2006-08-01

    During the Gulf war in 2003, Kuwait was targeted with missile attacks for 10 consecutive days. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of missile attacks on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We retrospectively compared the number of admissions for AMI presenting to a major general hospital during missile attacks period (MAP) in 2003 with four control periods. MAP and each control period consisted of the same number of days (10 days). The four control periods were the 10 days immediately before and after MAP; and the same time period as MAP for the years 2001 and 2002. The number of admissions for AMI was highest during MAP, 21 cases compared to 14-16 cases in the four control periods, with a trend towards increase during MAP (incidence rate ratio = 1.59; 95% CI 0.95 to 2.66, p < 0.07). The number of admissions for AMI during the first 5 days of MAP was significantly higher compared to the first 5 days of the four control periods (incidence rate ratio = 2.43; 95% CI 1.23 to 4.26, p < 0.01). The observed AMI admission rate during the first 5 days of MAP was significantly higher than expected for a 5-day period in the years 2001, 2002 and 2003. This increase was specific to AMI and did not affect other acute cardiac conditions. Missile attacks were associated with an increase in the incidence of AMI. This increase was specific to AMI and did not influence acute cardiac conditions.

  15. Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Aronow, Herbert D; Abbott, J Dawn; Bhatt, Deepak L; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2018-03-27

    Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) increases the risk of acute myocardial infarction, which can result in cardiogenic shock. Data on the relation of diabetes and the occurrence and prognosis of cardiogenic shock postacute myocardial infarction are scant. Among the National Inpatient Sample patients aged ≥18 years and hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction during the 2012-2014 period, we examined the association between diabetes and the incidence and outcomes of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction, using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Of 1,332,530 hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, 72,765 (5.5%) were complicated by cardiogenic shock. In acute myocardial infarction patients, cardiogenic shock incidence was higher among those with vs without diabetes (5.8% vs 5.2%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.19; P < .001), with 42.8% (n = 31,135) of patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock having diabetes. Diabetic patients were less likely to undergo revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) (67.1% vs 68.7%; aOR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P = .003). Diabetes was associated with higher in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock (37.9% vs 36.8%; aOR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.28; P < .001). Among survivors, patients with diabetes had a longer hospital stay (mean ± SEM: 11.6 ± 0.16 vs 10.9 ± 0.16 days; adjusted estimate 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P < .001) and were more likely to be discharged to a skilled nursing home or with home health care (56.0% vs 50.5%; aOR 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33; P = .001). In a large cohort of acute myocardial infarction patients, preexisting diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cardiogenic shock and worse outcomes in those with cardiogenic shock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome is Associated With Higher Wall Motion Score and Larger Infarct Size After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Chitsazan, Mitra; Chitsazan, Mandana; Haghjoo, Majid; Babaali, Nima; Norouzzadeh, Zahra; Mohsenian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infarct size is an important surrogate end point for early and late mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Despite the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with atherosclerotic diseases, adequate data are still lacking regarding the extent of myocardial necrosis after acute myocardial infarction in these patients. Objectives: In the present study we aimed to compare myocardial infarction size in patients with metabolic syndrome to those without metabolic syndrome using peak CK-MB and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) at 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Patients and Methods: One-hundred patients with metabolic syndrome (group I) and 100 control subjects without metabolic syndrome (group II) who experienced acute myocardial infarction were included in the study. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines published in 2001. Myocardial infarction size was compared between the two groups of patients using peak CK-MB and cTnI level in 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Results: Peak CK-MB and cTnI in 72 hours were found to be significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with control subjects (both P < 0.001). Patients with metabolic syndrome also had markedly higher wall motion abnormality at 72 hours after the onset of symptoms as assessed by echocardiographically-derived Wall Motion Score Index (WMSI) (P < 0.001). Moreover, statistically significant relationships were found between WMSI and peak CK-MB and also cTnI at 72 hours (Spearman's rho = 0.56, P < 0.001 and Spearman's rho = 0.5, P < 0.001; respectively). However, association between WMSI and left ventricular ejection fraction was insignificant (Spearman's rho = -0.05, P = 0.46). Conclusions: We showed that patients with metabolic syndrome have larger infarct size compared to control subjects. PMID:25789257

  17. The thrombospondin-1 N700S polymorphism is associated with early myocardial infarction without altering von Willebrand factor multimer size.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I; Peyvandi, Flora; Palla, Roberta; Lombardi, Rossana; Canciani, Maria Teresa; Cairo, Andrea; Ardissino, Diego; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Bauer, Kenneth A; Lawler, Jack; Mannucci, Pier

    2006-08-15

    The N700S polymorphism of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been identified as a potential genetic risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). In a large case-control study of 1425 individuals who survived a myocardial infarction prior to age 45, the N700S polymorphism was a significant risk factor for myocardial infarction in both homozygous (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.3, P = .01) and heterozygous carriers of the S700 allele (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-3.3, P = .01). TSP-1 has been shown to reduce von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer size, and the domain responsible for VWF-reducing activity has been localized to the calcium-binding C-terminal sequence. As the N700S polymorphism was previously shown to alter the function of this domain, we investigated whether the altered VWF-reducing activity of TSP-1 underlies the observed prothrombotic phenotype. The TSP1 N700S polymorphism did not influence VWF multimer size in patients homozygous for either allele nor was there a significant reduction of VWF multimer size following incubation with recombinant N700S fragments or platelet-derived TSP-1.

  18. The thrombospondin-1 N700S polymorphism is associated with early myocardial infarction without altering von Willebrand factor multimer size

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Peyvandi, Flora; Palla, Roberta; Lombardi, Rossana; Canciani, Maria Teresa; Cairo, Andrea; Ardissino, Diego; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Bauer, Kenneth A.; Lawler, Jack; Mannucci, Pier

    2006-01-01

    The N700S polymorphism of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been identified as a potential genetic risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). In a large case-control study of 1425 individuals who survived a myocardial infarction prior to age 45, the N700S polymorphism was a significant risk factor for myocardial infarction in both homozygous (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.3, P = .01) and heterozygous carriers of the S700 allele (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-3.3, P = .01). TSP-1 has been shown to reduce von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer size, and the domain responsible for VWF-reducing activity has been localized to the calcium-binding C-terminal sequence. As the N700S polymorphism was previously shown to alter the function of this domain, we investigated whether the altered VWF-reducing activity of TSP-1 underlies the observed prothrombotic phenotype. The TSP1 N700S polymorphism did not influence VWF multimer size in patients homozygous for either allele nor was there a significant reduction of VWF multimer size following incubation with recombinant N700S fragments or platelet-derived TSP-1. PMID:16684956

  19. [Acute myocardial infarction in Morocco: FES-AMI registry data].

    PubMed

    Akoudad, H; El Khorb, N; Sekkali, N; Mechrafi, A; Zakari, N; Ouaha, L; Lahlou, I

    2015-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is the most dangerous complication of coronary atherothrombosis. There are several disparities in regard to its management around the world. The aim of this study is to analyze the specificities of management of acute myocardial infarction in Morocco. FES-AMI (Fès Acute Myocardial Infarction) is a prospective monocentric registry conducted in cardiology department of Hassan II university hospital in Fès. In this registry, we enrolled patients with acute myocardial infarction who presented within 5 days after symptom onset. From January 2005 to August 2015, we enrolled 1835 patients. Seventy-five percent of patients were males and mean age was 60 years old. Fifty-one percent of patients were smokers, 27% were hypertensives and 14% were diabetics. Sixty-six percent of patients had more than 2 risk factors. Time from symptom onset to hospital admission was less than six hours for 40% of the patients. Thirty-six percent of patients were admitted more than twelve hours after the onset of chest pain. Only 37% of patients received reperfusion therapy, 31% with in-hospital thrombolysis and 6% with primary angioplasty. In-hospital mortality was 7.6%. The patients enrolled in our registry have late presentation of acute myocardial infarction and less rate of reperfusion therapy. Furthermore, the majority of our patients have multiple risk factors and this result underlines the failure of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D cardiac wall thickening assessment for acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A.; Chan, B. T.; Lim, E.; Liew, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most severe form of coronary artery disease leading to localized myocardial injury and therefore irregularities in the cardiac wall contractility. Studies have found very limited differences in global indices (such as ejection fraction, myocardial mass and volume) between healthy subjects and AMI patients, and therefore suggested regional assessment. Regional index, specifically cardiac wall thickness (WT) and thickening is closely related to cardiac function and could reveal regional abnormality due to AMI. In this study, we developed a 3D wall thickening assessment method to identify regional wall contractility dysfunction due to localized myocardial injury from infarction. Wall thickness and thickening were assessed from 3D personalized cardiac models reconstructed from cine MRI images by fitting inscribed sphere between endocardial and epicardial wall. The thickening analysis was performed in 5 patients and 3 healthy subjects and the results were compared against the gold standard 2