Science.gov

Sample records for zpr1 domain tandem

  1. The Cytoplasmic Zinc Finger Protein ZPR1 Accumulates in the Nucleolus of Proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Galcheva-Gargova, Zoya; Gangwani, Laxman; Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Mikrut, Monique; Theroux, Steven J.; Enoch, Tamar; Davis, Roger J.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc finger protein ZPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus after treatment of cells with mitogens. The function of nuclear ZPR1 has not been defined. Here we demonstrate that ZPR1 accumulates in the nucleolus of proliferating cells. The role of ZPR1 was examined using a gene disruption strategy. Cells lacking ZPR1 are not viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the loss of ZPR1 caused disruption of nucleolar function, including preribosomal RNA expression. These data establish ZPR1 as an essential protein that is required for normal nucleolar function in proliferating cells. PMID:9763455

  2. Deregulation of ZPR1 causes respiratory failure in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Genabai, Naresh K; Kannan, Annapoorna; Ahmad, Saif; Jiang, Xiaoting; Bhatia, Kanchan; Gangwani, Laxman

    2017-08-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by the low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and is characterized by motor neuron degeneration and muscle atrophy. Respiratory failure causes death in SMA but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. The zinc finger protein ZPR1 interacts with SMN. ZPR1 is down regulated in SMA patients. We report that ZPR1 functions downstream of SMN to regulate HoxA5 levels in phrenic motor neurons that control respiration. Spatiotemporal inactivation of Zpr1 gene in motor neurons down-regulates HoxA5 and causes defects in the function of phrenic motor neurons that results in respiratory failure and perinatal lethality in mice. Modulation in ZPR1 levels directly correlates and influences levels of HoxA5 transcription. In SMA mice, SMN-deficiency causes down-regulation of ZPR1 and HoxA5 that result in degeneration of phrenic motor neurons. Identification of ZPR1 and HoxA5 as potential targets provides a paradigm for developing strategies to treat respiratory distress in SMA.

  3. Solanum tuberosum ZPR1 encodes a light-regulated nuclear DNA-binding protein adjusting the circadian expression of StBBX24 to light cycle.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka; Czarnecka, Jagoda; Banachowicz, Ewa; Rey, Pascal; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    ZPR1 proteins belong to the C4-type of zinc finger coordinators known in animal cells to interact with other proteins and participate in cell growth and proliferation. In contrast, the current knowledge regarding plant ZPR1 proteins is very scarce. Here, we identify a novel potato nuclear factor belonging to this family and named StZPR1. StZPR1 is specifically expressed in photosynthetic organs during the light period, and the ZPR1 protein is located in the nuclear chromatin fraction. From modelling and experimental analyses, we reveal the StZPR1 ability to bind the circadian DNA cis motif 'CAACAGCATC', named CIRC and present in the promoter of the clock-controlled double B-box StBBX24 gene, the expression of which peaks in the middle of the day. We found that transgenic lines silenced for StZPR1 expression still display a 24 h period for the oscillation of StBBX24 expression but delayed by 4 h towards the night. Importantly, other BBX genes exhibit altered circadian regulation in these lines. Our data demonstrate that StZPR1 allows fitting of the StBBX24 circadian rhythm to the light period and provide evidence that ZPR1 is a novel clock-associated protein in plants necessary for the accurate rhythmic expression of specific circadian-regulated genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Kristin K; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2015-01-01

    Tandem-repeat protein domains, composed of repeated units of conserved stretches of 20-40 amino acids, are required for a wide array of biological functions. Despite their diverse and fundamental functions, there has been no comprehensive assessment of their taxonomic distribution, incidence, and associations with organismal lifestyle and phylogeny. In this study, we assess for the first time the abundance of armadillo (ARM) and tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeat domains across all three domains in the tree of life and compare the results to our previous analysis on ankyrin (ANK) repeat domains in this journal. All eukaryotes and a majority of the bacterial and archaeal genomes analyzed have a minimum of one TPR and ARM repeat. In eukaryotes, the fraction of ARM-containing proteins is approximately double that of TPR and ANK-containing proteins, whereas bacteria and archaea are enriched in TPR-containing proteins relative to ARM- and ANK-containing proteins. We show in bacteria that phylogenetic history, rather than lifestyle or pathogenicity, is a predictor of TPR repeat domain abundance, while neither phylogenetic history nor lifestyle predicts ARM repeat domain abundance. Surprisingly, pathogenic bacteria were not enriched in TPR-containing proteins, which have been associated within virulence factors in certain species. Taken together, this comparative analysis provides a newly appreciated view of the prevalence and diversity of multiple types of tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life. A central finding of this analysis is that tandem repeat domain-containing proteins are prevalent not just in eukaryotes, but also in bacterial and archaeal species.

  5. Tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Kristin K.

    2015-01-01

    Tandem-repeat protein domains, composed of repeated units of conserved stretches of 20–40 amino acids, are required for a wide array of biological functions. Despite their diverse and fundamental functions, there has been no comprehensive assessment of their taxonomic distribution, incidence, and associations with organismal lifestyle and phylogeny. In this study, we assess for the first time the abundance of armadillo (ARM) and tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeat domains across all three domains in the tree of life and compare the results to our previous analysis on ankyrin (ANK) repeat domains in this journal. All eukaryotes and a majority of the bacterial and archaeal genomes analyzed have a minimum of one TPR and ARM repeat. In eukaryotes, the fraction of ARM-containing proteins is approximately double that of TPR and ANK-containing proteins, whereas bacteria and archaea are enriched in TPR-containing proteins relative to ARM- and ANK-containing proteins. We show in bacteria that phylogenetic history, rather than lifestyle or pathogenicity, is a predictor of TPR repeat domain abundance, while neither phylogenetic history nor lifestyle predicts ARM repeat domain abundance. Surprisingly, pathogenic bacteria were not enriched in TPR-containing proteins, which have been associated within virulence factors in certain species. Taken together, this comparative analysis provides a newly appreciated view of the prevalence and diversity of multiple types of tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life. A central finding of this analysis is that tandem repeat domain-containing proteins are prevalent not just in eukaryotes, but also in bacterial and archaeal species. PMID:25653910

  6. Versatile communication strategies among tandem WW domain repeats

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Emma Joy; Fishbain-Yoskovitz, Vered; Rotem-Bamberger, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    Interactions mediated by short linear motifs in proteins play major roles in regulation of cellular homeostasis since their transient nature allows for easy modulation. We are still far from a full understanding and appreciation of the complex regulation patterns that can be, and are, achieved by this type of interaction. The fact that many linear-motif-binding domains occur in tandem repeats in proteins indicates that their mutual communication is used extensively to obtain complex integration of information toward regulatory decisions. This review is an attempt to overview, and classify, different ways by which two and more tandem repeats cooperate in binding to their targets, in the well-characterized family of WW domains and their corresponding polyproline ligands. PMID:25710931

  7. Structure of a double-domain phosphagen kinase reveals an asymmetric arrangement of the tandem domains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiming; Qiao, Zhu; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang

    2015-04-01

    Tandem duplications and fusions of single genes have led to magnificent expansions in the divergence of protein structures and functions over evolutionary timescales. One of the possible results is polydomain enzymes with interdomain cooperativities, few examples of which have been structurally characterized at the full-length level to explore their innate synergistic mechanisms. This work reports the crystal structures of a double-domain phosphagen kinase in both apo and ligand-bound states, revealing a novel asymmetric L-shaped arrangement of the two domains. Unexpectedly, the interdomain connections are not based on a flexible hinge linker but on a rigid secondary-structure element: a long α-helix that tethers the tandem domains in relatively fixed positions. Besides the connective helix, the two domains also contact each other directly and form an interdomain interface in which hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions further stabilize the L-shaped domain arrangement. Molecular-dynamics simulations show that the interface is generally stable, suggesting that the asymmetric domain arrangement crystallographically observed in the present study is not a conformational state simply restrained by crystal-packing forces. It is possible that the asymmetrically arranged tandem domains could provide a structural basis for further studies of the interdomain synergy.

  8. Structural Basis of Actin Filament Nucleation by Tandem W Domains

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaorui; Ni, Fengyun; Tian, Xia; Kondrashkina, Elena; Wang, Qinghua; Ma, Jianpeng

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Spontaneous nucleation of actin is very inefficient in cells. To overcome this barrier, cells have evolved a set of actin filament nucleators to promote rapid nucleation and polymerization in response to specific stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of actin nucleation remains poorly understood. This is hindered largely by the fact that actin nucleus, once formed, rapidly polymerizes into filament, thus making it impossible to capture stable multisubunit actin nucleus. Here, we report an effective double-mutant strategy to stabilize actin nucleus by preventing further polymerization. Employing this strategy, we solved the crystal structure of AMPPNP-actin in complex with the first two tandem W domains of Cordon-bleu (Cobl), a potent actin filament nucleator. Further sequence comparison and functional studies suggest that the nucleation mechanism of Cobl is probably shared by the p53 cofactor JMY, but not Spire. Moreover, the double-mutant strategy opens the way for atomic mechanistic study of actin nucleation and polymerization. PMID:23727244

  9. Ligand Binding to WW Tandem Domains of YAP2 Transcriptional Regulator Is Under Negative Cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Brett J.; Mikles, David C.; Hoang, Lawrence M.; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B.; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-01-01

    YAP2 transcriptional regulator drives a multitude of cellular processes, including the newly discovered Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, by virtue of the ability of its WW domains to bind and recruit PPXY-containing ligands to specific subcellular compartments. Herein, we employ an array of biophysical tools to investigate allosteric communication between the WW tandem domains of YAP2. Our data show that the WW tandem domains of YAP2 negatively cooperate when binding to their cognate ligands. Moreover, the molecular origin of such negative cooperativity lies in an unfavorable entropic contribution to the overall free energy relative to ligand binding to isolated WW domains. Consistent with this notion, the WW tandem domains adopt a fixed spatial orientation such that the WW1 domain curves outwards and stacks onto the binding groove of WW2 domain, thereby sterically hindering ligand binding to both itself and its tandem partner. Although ligand binding to both WW domains disrupts such interdomain stacking interaction, they reorient themselves and adopt an alternative fixed spatial orientation in the liganded state by virtue of their ability to engage laterally so as to allow their binding grooves to point outwards and away from each other. In short, while the ability of WW tandem domains to aid ligand binding is well-documented, our demonstration that they may also be subject to negative binding cooperativity represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the molecular action of this ubiquitous family of protein modules. PMID:25283809

  10. Ligand binding to WW tandem domains of YAP2 transcriptional regulator is under negative cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Brett J; Mikles, David C; Hoang, Lawrence M; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-12-01

    YES-associated protein 2 (YAP2) transcriptional regulator drives a multitude of cellular processes, including the newly discovered Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, by virtue of the ability of its WW domains to bind and recruit PPXY-containing ligands to specific subcellular compartments. Herein, we employ an array of biophysical tools to investigate allosteric communication between the WW tandem domains of YAP2. Our data show that the WW tandem domains of YAP2 negatively cooperate when binding to their cognate ligands. Moreover, the molecular origin of such negative cooperativity lies in an unfavorable entropic contribution to the overall free energy relative to ligand binding to isolated WW domains. Consistent with this notion, the WW tandem domains adopt a fixed spatial orientation such that the WW1 domain curves outwards and stacks onto the binding groove of the WW2 domain, thereby sterically hindering ligand binding to both itself and its tandem partner. Although ligand binding to both WW domains disrupts such interdomain stacking interaction, they reorient themselves and adopt an alternative fixed spatial orientation in the liganded state by virtue of their ability to engage laterally so as to allow their binding grooves to point outwards and away from each other. In short, while the ability of WW tandem domains to aid ligand binding is well documented, our demonstration that they may also be subject to negative binding cooperativity represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the molecular action of this ubiquitous family of protein modules. © 2014 FEBS.

  11. Structure of the tandem PX-PH domains of Bem3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imtiaz; Eu, Sungmin; Koch, Daniel; Bleimling, Nathalie; Goody, Roger S; Müller, Matthias P

    2018-05-01

    The structure of the tandem lipid-binding PX and pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains of the Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein Bem3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain S288c) has been determined to a resolution of 2.2 Å (R work = 21.1%, R free = 23.4%). It shows that the domains adopt a relative orientation that enables them to simultaneously bind to a membrane and suggests possible cooperativity in membrane binding. open access.

  12. Structure of the tandem PX-PH domains of Bem3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Imtiaz; Eu, Sungmin; Bleimling, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    The structure of the tandem lipid-binding PX and pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains of the Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein Bem3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain S288c) has been determined to a resolution of 2.2 Å (R work = 21.1%, R free = 23.4%). It shows that the domains adopt a relative orientation that enables them to simultaneously bind to a membrane and suggests possible cooperativity in membrane binding. PMID:29718000

  13. Specificity and autoregulation of Notch binding by tandem WW domains in suppressor of Deltex.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Martin D; Blankley, Richard T; Baron, Martin; Golovanov, Alexander P; Avis, Johanna M

    2007-09-28

    WW domains target proline-tyrosine (PY) motifs and frequently function as tandem pairs. When studied in isolation, single WW domains are notably promiscuous and regulatory mechanisms are undoubtedly required to ensure selective interactions. Here, we show that the fourth WW domain (WW4) of Suppressor of Deltex, a modular Nedd4-like protein that down-regulates the Notch receptor, is the primary mediator of a direct interaction with a Notch-PY motif. A natural Trp to Phe substitution in WW4 reduces its affinity for general PY sequences and enhances selective interaction with the Notch-PY motif via compensatory specificity-determining interactions with PY-flanking residues. When WW4 is paired with WW3, domain-domain association, impeding proper folding, competes with Notch-PY binding to WW4. This novel mode of autoinhibition is relieved by binding of another ligand to WW3. Such cooperativity may facilitate the transient regulatory interactions observed in vivo between Su(dx) and Notch in the endocytic pathway. The highly conserved tandem arrangement of WW domains in Nedd4 proteins, and similar arrangements in more diverse proteins, suggests domain-domain communication may be integral to regulation of their associated cellular activities.

  14. Crystal structure of tandem type III fibronectin domains from Drosophila neuroglian at 2.0 A.

    PubMed

    Huber, A H; Wang, Y M; Bieber, A J; Bjorkman, P J

    1994-04-01

    We report the crystal structure of two adjacent fibronectin type III repeats from the Drosophila neural cell adhesion molecule neuroglian. Each domain consists of two antiparallel beta sheets and is folded topologically identically to single fibronectin type III domains from the extracellular matrix proteins tenascin and fibronectin. beta bulges and left-handed polyproline II helices disrupt the regular beta sheet structure of both neuroglian domains. The hydrophobic interdomain interface includes a metal-binding site, presumably involved in stabilizing the relative orientation between domains and predicted by sequence comparision to be present in the vertebrate homolog molecule L1. The neuroglian domains are related by a near perfect 2-fold screw axis along the longest molecular dimension. Using this relationship, a model for arrays of tandem fibronectin type III repeats in neuroglian and other molecules is proposed.

  15. Tandem SAM Domain Structure of Human Caskin1: A Presynaptic, Self-Assembling Scaffold for CASK

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Hinde, Elizabeth; Knight, Mary Jane

    2012-02-07

    The synaptic scaffolding proteins CASK and Caskin1 are part of the fibrous mesh of proteins that organize the active zones of neural synapses. CASK binds to a region of Caskin1 called the CASK interaction domain (CID). Adjacent to the CID, Caskin1 contains two tandem sterile a motif (SAM) domains. Many SAM domains form polymers so they are good candidates for forming the fibrous structures seen in the active zone. We show here that the SAM domains of Caskin1 form a new type of SAM helical polymer. The Caskin1 polymer interface exhibits a remarkable segregation of charged residues, resulting in amore » high sensitivity to ionic strength in vitro. The Caskin1 polymers can be decorated with CASK proteins, illustrating how these proteins may work together to organize the cytomatrix in active zones.« less

  16. Mechanism of Mediator recruitment by tandem Gcn4 activation domains and three Gal11 activator-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Eric; Warfield, Linda; Fish, Lisa; Fishburn, James; Knutson, Bruce A; Moorefield, Beth; Pacheco, Derek; Hahn, Steven

    2010-05-01

    Targets of the tandem Gcn4 acidic activation domains in transcription preinitiation complexes were identified by site-specific cross-linking. The individual Gcn4 activation domains cross-link to three common targets, Gal11/Med15, Taf12, and Tra1, which are subunits of four conserved coactivator complexes, Mediator, SAGA, TFIID, and NuA4. The Gcn4 N-terminal activation domain also cross-links to the Mediator subunit Sin4/Med16. The contribution of the two Gcn4 activation domains to transcription was gene specific and varied from synergistic to less than additive. Gcn4-dependent genes had a requirement for Gal11 ranging from 10-fold dependence to complete Gal11 independence, while the Gcn4-Taf12 interaction did not significantly contribute to the expression of any gene studied. Complementary methods identified three conserved Gal11 activator-binding domains that bind each Gcn4 activation domain with micromolar affinity. These Gal11 activator-binding domains contribute additively to transcription activation and Mediator recruitment at Gcn4- and Gal11-dependent genes. Although we found that the conserved Gal11 KIX domain contributes to Gal11 function, we found no evidence of specific Gcn4-KIX interaction and conclude that the Gal11 KIX domain does not function by specific interaction with Gcn4. Our combined results show gene-specific coactivator requirements, a surprising redundancy in activator-target interactions, and an activator-coactivator interaction mediated by multiple low-affinity protein-protein interactions.

  17. Targeting lysine specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A) tandem TUDOR domain - A fragment based approach.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Anup K; Judge, Russell A; Li, Leiming; Pithawalla, Ron; Simanis, Justin; Bodelle, Pierre M; Marin, Violeta L; Henry, Rodger F; Petros, Andrew M; Sun, Chaohong

    2018-06-01

    The tandem TUDOR domains present in the non-catalytic C-terminal half of the KDM4A, 4B and 4C enzymes play important roles in regulating their chromatin localizations and substrate specificities. They achieve this regulatory role by binding to different tri-methylated lysine residues on histone H3 (H3-K4me3, H3-K23me3) and histone H4 (H4-K20me3) depending upon the specific chromatin environment. In this work, we have used a 2D-NMR based fragment screening approach to identify a novel fragment (1a), which binds to the KDM4A-TUDOR domain and shows modest competition with H3-K4me3 binding in biochemical as well as in vitro cell based assays. A co-crystal structure of KDM4A TUDOR domain in complex with 1a shows that the fragment binds stereo-specifically to the methyl lysine binding pocket forming a network of strong hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. We anticipate that the fragment 1a can be further developed into a novel allosteric inhibitor of the KDM4 family of enzymes through targeting their C-terminal tandem TUDOR domain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of novel recombinant single-domain antibodies against tandem repeat region of MUC1 mucin.

    PubMed

    Rahbarizadeh, F; Rasaee, M J; Forouzandeh Moghadam, M; Allameh, A A; Sadroddiny, E

    2004-06-01

    Recently, the existence of "heavy-chain" antibody in Camelidae has been described. However, as yet there is no data on the binding of this type of antibody to peptides. In addition, there was not any report of production of single-domain antibodies in two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus). In the present study, these questions are addressed. We showed the feasibility of immunizing old world camels, cloning the repertoire of the variable domain of their heavy-chain antibodies, panning and selection, leading to the successful identification of minimum-sized antigen binders. Antigen-specific fragments of the heavy-chain IgGs (V(HH)) are of great interest in biotechnology because they are very stable, highly soluble, and react specifically and with high affinity to the antigens. In this study, we immunized two camels (Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus) with homogenized cancerous tissues, synthetic peptide, and human milk fat globule membrane (HMFG), and generated two V(HH) libraries displayed on phage particles. Some single-domain antibody fragments have been isolated that specifically recognize the tandem repeat region of MUC1. The camels' single-domain V(HH) harbor the original, intact antigen binding site and reacted specifically and with high affinity to the tandem repeat region of MUC1. Indeed soluble, specific antigen binders and good affinities (in the range of 0.2 x 10(9) M(-1) to 0.6 x 10(9) M(-1)) were identified from these libraries. This is the first example of the isolation of camel anti-peptide V(HH) domains.

  19. Structure and Specificity of a Binary Tandem Domain F-Lectin from Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchet, M.; Odom, E; Vasta, J

    2010-01-01

    The plasma of the striped bass Morone saxatilis contains a fucose-specific lectin (MsaFBP32) that consists of two F-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in tandem. The crystal structure of the complex of MsaFBP32 with l-fucose reported here shows a cylindrical 81-A-long and 60-A-wide trimer divided into two globular halves: one containing N-terminal CRDs (N-CRDs) and the other containing C-terminal CRDs (C-CRDs). The resulting binding surfaces at the opposite ends of the cylindrical trimer have the potential to cross-link cell surface or humoral carbohydrate ligands. The N-CRDs and C-CRDs of MsaFBP32 exhibit significant structural differences, suggesting that they recognize different glycans. Analysismore » of the carbohydrate binding sites provides the structural basis for the observed specificity of MsaFBP32 for simple carbohydrates and suggests that the N-CRD recognizes more complex fucosylated oligosaccharides and with a relatively higher avidity than the C-CRD. Modeling of MsaFBP32 complexed with fucosylated glycans that are widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes rationalizes the observation that binary tandem CRD F-type lectins function as opsonins by cross-linking 'non-self' carbohydrate ligands and 'self' carbohydrate ligands, such as sugar structures displayed by microbial pathogens and glycans on the surface of phagocytic cells from the host.« less

  20. The structure and dynamics of tandem WW domains in a negative regulator of notch signaling, Suppressor of deltex.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Oleg Y; Townson, Sharon A; Golovanov, Alexander P; Baron, Martin; Avis, Johanna M

    2004-08-13

    WW domains mediate protein recognition, usually though binding to proline-rich sequences. In many proteins, WW domains occur in tandem arrays. Whether or how individual domains within such arrays cooperate to recognize biological partners is, as yet, poorly characterized. An important question is whether functional diversity of different WW domain proteins is reflected in the structural organization and ligand interaction mechanisms of their multiple domains. We have determined the solution structure and dynamics of a pair of WW domains (WW3-4) from a Drosophila Nedd4 family protein called Suppressor of deltex (Su(dx)), a regulator of Notch receptor signaling. We find that the binding of a type 1 PPPY ligand to WW3 stabilizes the structure with effects propagating to the WW4 domain, a domain that is not active for ligand binding. Both WW domains adopt the characteristic triple-stranded beta-sheet structure, and significantly, this is the first example of a WW domain structure to include a domain (WW4) lacking the second conserved Trp (replaced by Phe). The domains are connected by a flexible linker, which allows a hinge-like motion of domains that may be important for the recognition of functionally relevant targets. Our results contrast markedly with those of the only previously determined three-dimensional structure of tandem WW domains, that of the rigidly oriented WW domain pair from the RNA-splicing factor Prp40. Our data illustrate that arrays of WW domains can exhibit a variety of higher order structures and ligand interaction mechanisms.

  1. Structural features and ligand binding properties of tandem WW domains from YAP and TAZ, nuclear effectors of the Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Webb, Claire; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Giuntini, Francesca; Eggleston, Ian; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Ishima, Rieko; Bagby, Stefan

    2011-04-26

    The paralogous multifunctional adaptor proteins YAP and TAZ are the nuclear effectors of the Hippo pathway, a central mechanism of organ size control and stem cell self-renewal. WW domains, mediators of protein-protein interactions, are essential for YAP and TAZ function, enabling interactions with PPxY motifs of numerous partner proteins. YAP has single and double WW domain isoforms (YAP1 and YAP2) whereas only a single WW domain isoform of TAZ has been described to date. Here we identify the first example of a double WW domain isoform of TAZ. Using NMR, we have characterized conformational features and peptide binding of YAP and TAZ tandem WW domains (WW1-WW2). The solution structure of YAP WW2 confirms that it has a canonical three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet WW domain fold. While chemical shift-based analysis indicates that the WW domains in the tandem WW pairs retain the characteristic WW domain fold, 15N relaxation data show that, within the respective WW pairs, YAP WW1 and both WW1 and WW2 of TAZ undergo conformational exchange. 15N relaxation data also indicate that the linker between the WW domains is flexible in both YAP and TAZ. Within both YAP and TAZ tandem WW pairs, WW1 and WW2 bind single PPxY-containing peptide ligand concurrently and noncooperatively with sub-mM affinity. YAP and TAZ WW1-WW2 bind a dual PPxY-containing peptide with approximately 6-fold higher affinity. Our results indicate that both WW domains in YAP and TAZ are functional and capable of enhanced affinity binding to multi-PPxY partner proteins such as LATS1, ErbB4, and AMOT.

  2. A novel signal transduction protein: Combination of solute binding and tandem PAS-like sensor domains in one polypeptide chain.

    PubMed

    Wu, R; Wilton, R; Cuff, M E; Endres, M; Babnigg, G; Edirisinghe, J N; Henry, C S; Joachimiak, A; Schiffer, M; Pokkuluri, P R

    2017-04-01

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of a novel periplasmic ligand-binding protein, Dret_0059, from Desulfohalobium retbaense DSM 5692, an organism isolated from Lake Retba, in Senegal. The structure of the protein consists of a unique combination of a periplasmic solute binding protein (SBP) domain at the N-terminal and a tandem PAS-like sensor domain at the C-terminal region. SBP domains are found ubiquitously, and their best known function is in solute transport across membranes. PAS-like sensor domains are commonly found in signal transduction proteins. These domains are widely observed as parts of many protein architectures and complexes but have not been observed previously within the same polypeptide chain. In the structure of Dret_0059, a ketoleucine moiety is bound to the SBP, whereas a cytosine molecule is bound in the distal PAS-like domain of the tandem PAS-like domain. Differential scanning flourimetry support the binding of ligands observed in the crystal structure. There is significant interaction between the SBP and tandem PAS-like domains, and it is possible that the binding of one ligand could have an effect on the binding of the other. We uncovered three other proteins with this structural architecture in the non-redundant sequence data base, and predict that they too bind the same substrates. The genomic context of this protein did not offer any clues for its function. We did not find any biological process in which the two observed ligands are coupled. The protein Dret_0059 could be involved in either signal transduction or solute transport. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  3. Structure and Function of the Two Tandem WW Domains of the Pre-mRNA Splicing Factor FBP21 (Formin-binding Protein 21)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojuan; Beullens, Monique; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhou, Yi; Nicolaescu, Emilia; Lesage, Bart; Hu, Qi; Wu, Jihui; Bollen, Mathieu; Shi, Yunyu

    2009-01-01

    Human FBP21 (formin-binding protein 21) contains a matrin-type zinc finger and two tandem WW domains. It is a component of the spliceosomes and interacts with several established splicing factors. Here we demonstrate for the first time that FBP21 is an activator of pre-mRNA splicing in vivo and that its splicing activation function and interaction with the splicing factor SIPP1 (splicing factor that interacts with PQBP1 and PP1) are both mediated by the two tandem WW domains of group III. We determined the solution structure of the tandem WW domains of FBP21 and found that the WW domains recognize peptide ligands containing either group II (PPLP) or group III (PPR) motifs. The binding interfaces involve both the XP and XP2 grooves of the two WW domains. Significantly, the tandem WW domains of FBP21 are connected by a highly flexible region, enabling their simultaneous interaction with two proline-rich motifs of SIPP1. The strong interaction between SIPP1 and FBP21 can be explained by the conjugation of two low affinity interactions with the tandem WW domains. Our study provides a structural basis for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the functional implication of FBP21 and the biological specificity of tandem WW domains. PMID:19592703

  4. Solution structure of the tandem acyl carrier protein domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase reveals beads-on-a-string configuration.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Uldaeliz; Vázquez-Rosa, Edwin; Oyola-Robles, Delise; Stagg, Loren J; Vassallo, David A; Vega, Irving E; Arold, Stefan T; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2013-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthases from deep-sea bacteria invariably contain multiple acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains in tandem. This conserved tandem arrangement has been implicated in both amplification of fatty acid production (additive effect) and in structural stabilization of the multidomain protein (synergistic effect). While the more accepted model is one in which domains act independently, recent reports suggest that ACP domains may form higher oligomers. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of tandem arrangements may therefore give important insights into the functional relevance of these structures, and hence guide bioengineering strategies. In an effort to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of tandem repeats from deep-sea anaerobic bacteria, we have expressed and purified a fragment consisting of five tandem ACP domains from the PUFA synthase from Photobacterium profundum. Analysis of the tandem ACP fragment by analytical gel filtration chromatography showed a retention time suggestive of a multimeric protein. However, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the multi-ACP fragment is an elongated monomer which does not form a globular unit. Stokes radii calculated from atomic monomeric SAXS models were comparable to those measured by analytical gel filtration chromatography, showing that in the gel filtration experiment, the molecular weight was overestimated due to the elongated protein shape. Thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism showed that unfolding of the tandem construct was not cooperative, and that the tandem arrangement did not stabilize the protein. Taken together, these data are consistent with an elongated beads-on-a-string arrangement of the tandem ACP domains in PUFA synthases, and speak against synergistic biocatalytic effects promoted by quaternary structuring. Thus, it is possible to envision bioengineering strategies which simply involve the artificial linking of multiple ACP

  5. Solution Structure of the Tandem Acyl Carrier Protein Domains from a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synthase Reveals Beads-on-a-String Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Uldaeliz; Vázquez-Rosa, Edwin; Oyola-Robles, Delise; Stagg, Loren J.; Vassallo, David A.; Vega, Irving E.; Arold, Stefan T.; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2013-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthases from deep-sea bacteria invariably contain multiple acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains in tandem. This conserved tandem arrangement has been implicated in both amplification of fatty acid production (additive effect) and in structural stabilization of the multidomain protein (synergistic effect). While the more accepted model is one in which domains act independently, recent reports suggest that ACP domains may form higher oligomers. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of tandem arrangements may therefore give important insights into the functional relevance of these structures, and hence guide bioengineering strategies. In an effort to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of tandem repeats from deep-sea anaerobic bacteria, we have expressed and purified a fragment consisting of five tandem ACP domains from the PUFA synthase from Photobacterium profundum. Analysis of the tandem ACP fragment by analytical gel filtration chromatography showed a retention time suggestive of a multimeric protein. However, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the multi-ACP fragment is an elongated monomer which does not form a globular unit. Stokes radii calculated from atomic monomeric SAXS models were comparable to those measured by analytical gel filtration chromatography, showing that in the gel filtration experiment, the molecular weight was overestimated due to the elongated protein shape. Thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism showed that unfolding of the tandem construct was not cooperative, and that the tandem arrangement did not stabilize the protein. Taken together, these data are consistent with an elongated beads-on-a-string arrangement of the tandem ACP domains in PUFA synthases, and speak against synergistic biocatalytic effects promoted by quaternary structuring. Thus, it is possible to envision bioengineering strategies which simply involve the artificial linking of multiple ACP

  6. A novel signal transduction protein: Combination of solute binding and tandem PAS-like sensor domains in one polypeptide chain

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, R.; Wilton, R.; Cuff, M. E.; ...

    2017-02-07

    The tandem Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) like sensors are commonly found in signal transduction proteins. The periplasmic solute binding protein (SBP) domains are found ubiquitously and are generally involved in solute transport. These domains are widely observed as parts of separate proteins but not within the same polypeptide chain. We report the structural and biochemical characterization of the extracellular ligand-binding receptor, Dret_0059 from Desulfohalobium retbaense DSM 5692, an organism isolated from the Retba salt lake in Senegal. The structure of Dret_0059 consists of a novel combination of SBP and TPAS sensor domains. The N-terminal region forms an SBP domain and the C-terminalmore » region folds into a tandem PAS-like domain structure. A ketoleucine moiety is bound to the SBP, whereas a cytosine molecule is bound in the distal PAS domain of the TPAS. The differential scanning flourimetry studies in solution support the ligands observed in the crystal structure. There are only two other proteins with this structural architecture in the non-redundant sequence data base and we predict that they too bind the same substrates. There is significant interaction between the SBP and TPAS domains, and it is quite conceivable that the binding of one ligand will have an effect on the binding of the other. Our attempts to remove the ligands bound to the protein during expression were not successful, therefore, it is not clear what the relative affects are. The genomic context of this receptor does not contain any protein components expected for transport function, hence, we suggest that Dret_0059 is likely involved in signal transduction and not in solute transport.« less

  7. Tandem duplications of a degenerated GTP-binding domain at the origin of GTPase receptors Toc159 and thylakoidal SRP

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez Torres, Jorge; Maldonado, Monica Alexandra Arias; Chomilier, Jacques

    2007-12-14

    The evolutionary origin of some nuclear encoded proteins that translocate proteins across the chloroplast envelope remains unknown. Therefore, sequences of GTPase proteins constituting the Arabidopsis thaliana translocon at the outer membrane of chloroplast (atToc) complexes were analyzed by means of HCA. In particular, atToc159 and related proteins (atToc132, atToc120, and atToc90) do not have proven homologues of prokaryotic or eukaryotic ancestry. We established that the three domains commonly referred to as A, G, and M originate from the GTPase G domain, tandemly repeated, and probably evolving toward an unstructured conformation in the case of the A domain. It resulted frommore » this study a putative common ancestor for these proteins and a new domain definition, in particular the splitting of A into three domains (A1, A2, and A3), has been proposed. The family of Toc159, previously containing A. thaliana and Pisum sativum, has been extended to Medicago truncatula and Populus trichocarpa and it has been revised for Oryza sativa. They have also been compared to GTPase subunits involved in the cpSRP system. A distant homology has been revealed among Toc and cpSRP GTP-hydrolyzing proteins of A. thaliana, and repetitions of a GTPase domain were also found in cpSRP protein receptors, by means of HCA analysis.« less

  8. Structural Studies of the Tandem Tudor Domains of Fragile X Mental Retardation Related Proteins FXR1 and FXR2

    SciTech Connect

    Adams-Cioaba, Melanie A.; Guo, Yahong; Bian, ChuanBing

    Expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5'-untranslated region of the FMR1, fragile X mental retardation 1, gene results in suppression of protein expression for this gene and is the underlying cause of Fragile X syndrome. In unaffected individuals, the FMRP protein, together with two additional paralogues (Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome-related Protein 1 and 2), associates with mRNA to form a ribonucleoprotein complex in the nucleus that is transported to dendrites and spines of neuronal cells. It is thought that the fragile X family of proteins contributes to the regulation of protein synthesis at sites where mRNAs aremore » locally translated in response to stimuli. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of the non-canonical nuclear localization signals of the FXR1 and FXR2 autosomal paralogues of FMRP, which were determined at 2.50 and 1.92 {angstrom}, respectively. The nuclear localization signals of the FXR1 and FXR2 comprise tandem Tudor domain architectures, closely resembling that of UHRF1, which is proposed to bind methylated histone H3K9. The FMRP, FXR1 and FXR2 proteins comprise a small family of highly conserved proteins that appear to be important in translational regulation, particularly in neuronal cells. The crystal structures of the N-terminal tandem Tudor domains of FXR1 and FXR2 revealed a conserved architecture with that of FMRP. Biochemical analysis of the tandem Tudor doamins reveals their ability to preferentially recognize trimethylated peptides in a sequence-specific manner.« less

  9. Mutations in the LRRK2 Roc-COR tandem domain link Parkinson's disease to Wnt signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Rosa M; Law, Bernard M H; Harvey, Kirsten

    2009-10-15

    Mutations in PARK8, encoding LRRK2, are the most common known cause of Parkinson's disease. The LRRK2 Roc-COR tandem domain exhibits GTPase activity controlling LRRK2 kinase activity via an intramolecular process. We report the interaction of LRRK2 with the dishevelled family of phosphoproteins (DVL1-3), key regulators of Wnt (Wingless/Int) signalling pathways important for axon guidance, synapse formation and neuronal maintenance. Interestingly, DVLs can interact with and mediate the activation of small GTPases with structural similarity to the LRRK2 Roc domain. The LRRK2 Roc-COR domain and the DVL1 DEP domain were necessary and sufficient for LRRK2-DVL1 interaction. Co-expression of DVL1 increased LRRK2 steady-state protein levels, an effect that was dependent on the DEP domain. Strikingly, LRRK2-DVL1-3 interactions were disrupted by the familial PARK8 mutation Y1699C, whereas pathogenic mutations at residues R1441 and R1728 strengthened LRRK2-DVL1 interactions. Co-expression of DVL1 with LRRK2 in mammalian cells resulted in the redistribution of LRRK2 to typical cytoplasmic DVL1 aggregates in HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells and co-localization in neurites and growth cones of differentiated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. This is the first report of the modulation of a key LRRK2-accessory protein interaction by PARK8 Roc-COR domain mutations segregating with Parkinson's disease. Since the DVL1 DEP domain is known to be involved in the regulation of small GTPases, we propose that: (i) DVLs may influence LRRK2 GTPase activity, and (ii) Roc-COR domain mutations modulating LRRK2-DVL interactions indirectly influence kinase activity. Our findings also link LRRK2 to Wnt signalling pathways, suggesting novel pathogenic mechanisms and new targets for genetic analysis in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Mutations in the LRRK2 Roc-COR tandem domain link Parkinson's disease to Wnt signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Rosa M.; Law, Bernard M.H.; Harvey, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in PARK8, encoding LRRK2, are the most common known cause of Parkinson's disease. The LRRK2 Roc-COR tandem domain exhibits GTPase activity controlling LRRK2 kinase activity via an intramolecular process. We report the interaction of LRRK2 with the dishevelled family of phosphoproteins (DVL1-3), key regulators of Wnt (Wingless/Int) signalling pathways important for axon guidance, synapse formation and neuronal maintenance. Interestingly, DVLs can interact with and mediate the activation of small GTPases with structural similarity to the LRRK2 Roc domain. The LRRK2 Roc-COR domain and the DVL1 DEP domain were necessary and sufficient for LRRK2–DVL1 interaction. Co-expression of DVL1 increased LRRK2 steady-state protein levels, an effect that was dependent on the DEP domain. Strikingly, LRRK2–DVL1-3 interactions were disrupted by the familial PARK8 mutation Y1699C, whereas pathogenic mutations at residues R1441 and R1728 strengthened LRRK2–DVL1 interactions. Co-expression of DVL1 with LRRK2 in mammalian cells resulted in the redistribution of LRRK2 to typical cytoplasmic DVL1 aggregates in HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells and co-localization in neurites and growth cones of differentiated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. This is the first report of the modulation of a key LRRK2-accessory protein interaction by PARK8 Roc-COR domain mutations segregating with Parkinson's disease. Since the DVL1 DEP domain is known to be involved in the regulation of small GTPases, we propose that: (i) DVLs may influence LRRK2 GTPase activity, and (ii) Roc-COR domain mutations modulating LRRK2–DVL interactions indirectly influence kinase activity. Our findings also link LRRK2 to Wnt signalling pathways, suggesting novel pathogenic mechanisms and new targets for genetic analysis in Parkinson's disease. PMID:19625296

  11. Crystal structures of ryanodine receptor SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains reveal a critical FKBP12 binding determinant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Yuen, Siobhan M. Wong King; Lau, Kelvin; Underhill, Ainsley Q.; Cornea, Razvan L.; Fessenden, James D.; van Petegem, Filip

    2015-08-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form calcium release channels located in the membranes of the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum. RyRs play a major role in excitation-contraction coupling and other Ca2+-dependent signalling events, and consist of several globular domains that together form a large assembly. Here we describe the crystal structures of the SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains at 1.2-1.5 Å resolution, which reveal several structural elements not detected in recent cryo-EM reconstructions of RyRs. The cryo-EM studies disagree on the position of SPRY domains, which had been proposed based on homology modelling. Computational docking of the crystal structures, combined with FRET studies, show that the SPRY1 domain is located next to FK506-binding protein (FKBP). Molecular dynamics flexible fitting and mutagenesis experiments suggest a hydrophobic cluster within SPRY1 that is crucial for FKBP binding. A RyR1 disease mutation, N760D, appears to directly impact FKBP binding through interfering with SPRY1 folding.

  12. Coupling of tandem Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor (Smurf) WW domains modulates target specificity.

    PubMed

    Chong, P Andrew; Lin, Hong; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2010-10-26

    Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that participates in degradation of TGF-β receptors and other targets. Smurf2 WW domains recognize PPXY (PY) motifs on ubiquitin ligase target proteins or on adapters, such as Smad7, that bind to E3 target proteins. We previously demonstrated that the isolated WW3 domain of Smurf2, but not the WW2 domain, can directly bind to a Smad7 PY motif. We show here that the WW2 augments this interaction by binding to the WW3 and making auxiliary contacts with the PY motif and a novel E/D-S/T-P motif, which is N-terminal to all Smad PY motifs. The WW2 likely enhances the selectivity of Smurf2 for the Smad proteins. NMR titrations confirm that Smad1 and Smad2 are bound by Smurf2 with the same coupled WW domain arrangement used to bind Smad7. The analogous WW domains in the short isoform of Smurf1 recognize the Smad7 PY peptide using the same coupled mechanism. However, a longer Smurf1 isoform, which has an additional 26 residues in the inter-WW domain linker, is only partially able to use the coupled WW domain binding mechanism. The longer linker results in a decrease in affinity for the Smad7 peptide. Interdomain coupling of WW domains enhances selectivity and enables the tuning of interactions by isoform switching.

  13. Coupling of tandem Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor (Smurf) WW domains modulates target specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chong, P. Andrew; Lin, Hong; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; Forman-Kay, Julie D.

    2010-01-01

    Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that participates in degradation of TGF-β receptors and other targets. Smurf2 WW domains recognize PPXY (PY) motifs on ubiquitin ligase target proteins or on adapters, such as Smad7, that bind to E3 target proteins. We previously demonstrated that the isolated WW3 domain of Smurf2, but not the WW2 domain, can directly bind to a Smad7 PY motif. We show here that the WW2 augments this interaction by binding to the WW3 and making auxiliary contacts with the PY motif and a novel E/D-S/T-P motif, which is N-terminal to all Smad PY motifs. The WW2 likely enhances the selectivity of Smurf2 for the Smad proteins. NMR titrations confirm that Smad1 and Smad2 are bound by Smurf2 with the same coupled WW domain arrangement used to bind Smad7. The analogous WW domains in the short isoform of Smurf1 recognize the Smad7 PY peptide using the same coupled mechanism. However, a longer Smurf1 isoform, which has an additional 26 residues in the inter-WW domain linker, is only partially able to use the coupled WW domain binding mechanism. The longer linker results in a decrease in affinity for the Smad7 peptide. Interdomain coupling of WW domains enhances selectivity and enables the tuning of interactions by isoform switching. PMID:20937913

  14. Lateral diffusion of proteins on supported lipid bilayers: additive friction of synaptotagmin 7 C2A-C2B tandem domains.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Joseph K; Chantranuvatana, Kan; Giardina, Daniel T; Coffman, Matthew D; Knight, Jefferson D

    2014-12-23

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca(2+) to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A-C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1.

  15. Communication between Tandem cAMP Binding Domains in the Regulatory Subunit of Protein Kinase A-Iα as Revealed by Domain-silencing Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    McNicholl, E. Tyler; Das, Rahul; SilDas, Soumita; Taylor, Susan S.; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is the main receptor for the universal cAMP second messenger. PKA is a tetramer with two catalytic (C) and two regulatory (R) subunits, each including two tandem cAMP binding domains, i.e. CBD-A and -B. Structural investigations of RIα have revealed that although CBD-A plays a pivotal role in the cAMP-dependent inhibition of C, the main function of CBD-B is to regulate the access of cAMP to site A. To further understand the mechanism underlying the cross-talk between CBD-A and -B, we report here the NMR investigation of a construct of R, RIα-(119–379), which unlike previous fragments characterized by NMR, spans in full both CBDs. Our NMR studies were also extended to two mutants, R209K and the corresponding R333K, which severely reduce the affinity of cAMP for CBD-A and -B, respectively. The comparative NMR analysis of wild-type RIα-(119–379) and of the two domain silencing mutations has led to the definition at an unprecedented level of detail of both intra- and interdomain allosteric networks, revealing several striking differences between the two CBDs. First, the two domains, although homologous in sequence and structure, exhibit remarkably different responses to the R/K mutations especially at the β2-3 allosteric “hot spot.” Second, although the two CBDs are reciprocally coupled at the level of local unfolding of the hinge, the A-to-B and B-to-A pathways are dramatically asymmetrical at the level of global unfolding. Such an asymmetric interdomain cross-talk ensures efficiency and robustness in both the activation and de-activation of PKA. PMID:20202931

  16. A novel signal transduction protein: Combination of solute binding and tandem PAS-like sensor domains in one polypeptide chain: Periplasmic Ligand Binding Protein Dret_0059

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Wilton, R.; Cuff, M. E.

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of a novel periplasmic ligand-binding protein, Dret_0059, from Desulfohalobium retbaense DSM 5692, an organism isolated from the Salt Lake Retba in Senegal. The structure of the protein consists of a unique combination of a periplasmic solute binding protein (SBP) domain at the N-terminal and a tandem PAS-like sensor domain at the C-terminal region. SBP domains are found ubiquitously and their best known function is in solute transport across membranes. PAS-like sensor domains are commonly found in signal transduction proteins. These domains are widely observed as parts of many protein architectures and complexes butmore » have not been observed previously within the same polypeptide chain. In the structure of Dret_0059, a ketoleucine moiety is bound to the SBP, whereas a cytosine molecule is bound in the distal PAS-like domain of the tandem PAS-like domain. Differential scanning flourimetry support the binding of ligands observed in the crystal structure. There is significant interaction between the SBP and tandem PAS-like domains, and it is possible that the binding of one ligand could have an effect on the binding of the other. We uncovered three other proteins with this structural architecture in the non-redundant sequence data base, and predict that they too bind the same substrates. The genomic context of this protein did not offer any clues for its function. We did not find any biological process in which the two observed ligands are coupled. The protein Dret_0059 could be involved in either signal transduction or solute transport.« less

  17. An ice-binding and tandem beta-sandwich domain-containing protein in Shewanella frigidimarina is a potential new type of ice adhesin.

    PubMed

    Vance, Tyler D R; Graham, Laurie A; Davies, Peter L

    2018-04-01

    Out of the dozen different ice-binding protein (IBP) structures known, the DUF3494 domain is the most widespread, having been passed many times between prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms by horizontal gene transfer. This ~25-kDa β-solenoid domain with an adjacent parallel α-helix is most commonly associated with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide. However, examples of the DUF3494 domain preceded by tandem Bacterial Immunoglobulin-like (BIg) domains are sometimes found, though uncharacterized. Here, we present one such protein (SfIBP_1) from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella frigidimarina. We have confirmed and characterized the ice-binding activity of its ice-binding domain using thermal hysteresis measurements, fluorescent ice plane affinity analysis, and ice recrystallization inhibition assays. X-ray crystallography was used to solve the structure of the SfIBP_1 ice-binding domain, to further characterize its ice-binding surface and unique method of stabilizing or 'capping' the ends of the solenoid structure. The latter is formed from the interaction of two loops mediated by a combination of tandem prolines and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, given their domain architecture and membrane association, we propose that these BIg-containing DUF3494 IBPs serve as ice-binding adhesion proteins that are capable of adsorbing their host bacterium onto ice. Submitted new structure to the Protein Data Bank (PDB: 6BG8). © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Multivalent binding of formin-binding protein 21 (FBP21)-tandem-WW domains fosters protein recognition in the pre-spliceosome.

    PubMed

    Klippel, Stefan; Wieczorek, Marek; Schümann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Marg, Berenice; Seidel, Thorsten; Meyer, Tim; Knapp, Ernst-Walter; Freund, Christian

    2011-11-04

    The high abundance of repetitive but nonidentical proline-rich sequences in spliceosomal proteins raises the question of how these known interaction motifs recruit their interacting protein domains. Whereas complex formation of these adaptors with individual motifs has been studied in great detail, little is known about the binding mode of domains arranged in tandem repeats and long proline-rich sequences including multiple motifs. Here we studied the interaction of the two adjacent WW domains of spliceosomal protein FBP21 with several ligands of different lengths and composition to elucidate the hallmarks of multivalent binding for this class of recognition domains. First, we show that many of the proteins that define the cellular proteome interacting with FBP21-WW1-WW2 contain multiple proline-rich motifs. Among these is the newly identified binding partner SF3B4. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis reveals the tandem-WW domains of FBP21 to interact with splicing factor 3B4 (SF3B4) in nuclear speckles where splicing takes place. Isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR shows that the tandem arrangement of WW domains and the multivalency of the proline-rich ligands both contribute to affinity enhancement. However, ligand exchange remains fast compared with the NMR time scale. Surprisingly, a N-terminal spin label attached to a bivalent ligand induces NMR line broadening of signals corresponding to both WW domains of the FBP21-WW1-WW2 protein. This suggests that distinct orientations of the ligand contribute to a delocalized and semispecific binding mode that should facilitate search processes within the spliceosome.

  19. Multivalent Binding of Formin-binding Protein 21 (FBP21)-Tandem-WW Domains Fosters Protein Recognition in the Pre-spliceosome*

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, Stefan; Wieczorek, Marek; Schümann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Marg, Berenice; Seidel, Thorsten; Meyer, Tim; Knapp, Ernst-Walter; Freund, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The high abundance of repetitive but nonidentical proline-rich sequences in spliceosomal proteins raises the question of how these known interaction motifs recruit their interacting protein domains. Whereas complex formation of these adaptors with individual motifs has been studied in great detail, little is known about the binding mode of domains arranged in tandem repeats and long proline-rich sequences including multiple motifs. Here we studied the interaction of the two adjacent WW domains of spliceosomal protein FBP21 with several ligands of different lengths and composition to elucidate the hallmarks of multivalent binding for this class of recognition domains. First, we show that many of the proteins that define the cellular proteome interacting with FBP21-WW1-WW2 contain multiple proline-rich motifs. Among these is the newly identified binding partner SF3B4. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis reveals the tandem-WW domains of FBP21 to interact with splicing factor 3B4 (SF3B4) in nuclear speckles where splicing takes place. Isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR shows that the tandem arrangement of WW domains and the multivalency of the proline-rich ligands both contribute to affinity enhancement. However, ligand exchange remains fast compared with the NMR time scale. Surprisingly, a N-terminal spin label attached to a bivalent ligand induces NMR line broadening of signals corresponding to both WW domains of the FBP21-WW1-WW2 protein. This suggests that distinct orientations of the ligand contribute to a delocalized and semispecific binding mode that should facilitate search processes within the spliceosome. PMID:21917930

  20. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Albornos, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Iglesias, Rebeca; Jiménez, Teresa; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2012-11-07

    Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the described group of 20 to 40

  1. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. Results ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. Conclusions We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the

  2. Modification by covalent reaction or oxidation of cysteine residues in the tandem-SH2 domains of ZAP-70 and Syk can block phosphopeptide binding.

    PubMed

    Visperas, Patrick R; Winger, Jonathan A; Horton, Timothy M; Shah, Neel H; Aum, Diane J; Tao, Alyssa; Barros, Tiago; Yan, Qingrong; Wilson, Christopher G; Arkin, Michelle R; Weiss, Arthur; Kuriyan, John

    2015-01-01

    Zeta-chain associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases that are essential for T-cell and B-cell antigen receptor signalling respectively. They are recruited, via their tandem-SH2 (Src-homology domain 2) domains, to doubly phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) on invariant chains of immune antigen receptors. Because of their critical roles in immune signalling, ZAP-70 and Syk are targets for the development of drugs for autoimmune diseases. We show that three thiol-reactive small molecules can prevent the tandem-SH2 domains of ZAP-70 and Syk from binding to phosphorylated ITAMs. We identify a specific cysteine residue in the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket of each protein (Cys39 in ZAP-70, Cys206 in Syk) that is necessary for inhibition by two of these compounds. We also find that ITAM binding to ZAP-70 and Syk is sensitive to the presence of H2O2 and these two cysteine residues are also necessary for inhibition by H2O2. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which the reactive oxygen species generated during responses to antigen could attenuate signalling through these kinases and may also inform the development of ZAP-70 and Syk inhibitors that bind covalently to their SH2 domains.

  3. Modification by covalent reaction or oxidation of cysteine residues in the Tandem-SH2 Domains of ZAP-70 and Syk Can Block Phosphopeptide Binding

    PubMed Central

    Visperas, Patrick R.; Winger, Jonathan A.; Horton, Timothy M.; Shah, Neel H.; Aum, Diane J.; Tao, Alyssa; Barros, Tiago; Yan, Qingrong; Wilson, Christopher G.; Arkin, Michelle R.; Weiss, Arthur; Kuriyan, John

    2015-01-01

    Zeta-chain Associated Protein of 70kDa (ZAP-70) and Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases that are essential for T-cell and B-cell antigen receptor signaling, respectively. They are recruited, via their tandem-SH2 domains, to doubly-phosphorylated Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) on invariant chains of immune antigen receptors. Because of their critical roles in immune signaling, ZAP-70 and Syk are targets for the development of drugs for autoimmune diseases. We show that three thiol-reactive small molecules can prevent the tandem-SH2 domains of ZAP-70 and Syk from binding to phosphorylated ITAMs. We identify a specific cysteine residue in the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket of each protein (Cys 39 in ZAP-70, Cys 206 in Syk) that is necessary for inhibition by two of these compounds. We also find that ITAM binding to ZAP-70 and Syk is sensitive to the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and these two cysteine residues are also necessary for inhibition by hydrogen peroxide. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which the generation of reactive oxygen species generated during responses to antigen could attenuate signaling through these kinases, and may also inform the development of ZAP-70 and Syk inhibitors that bind covalently to their SH2 domains. PMID:25287889

  4. Solution structure and function of the "tandem inactivation domain" of the neuronal A-type potassium channel Kv1.4.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, Ralph; Bildl, Wolfgang; Oliver, Dominik; Beyermann, Michael; Kalbitzer, Hans-Robert; Bentrop, Detlef; Fakler, Bernd

    2003-05-02

    Cumulative inactivation of voltage-gated (Kv) K(+) channels shapes the presynaptic action potential and determines timing and strength of synaptic transmission. Kv1.4 channels exhibit rapid "ball-and-chain"-type inactivation gating. Different from all other Kvalpha subunits, Kv1.4 harbors two inactivation domains at its N terminus. Here we report the solution structure and function of this "tandem inactivation domain" using NMR spectroscopy and patch clamp recordings. Inactivation domain 1 (ID1, residues 1-38) consists of a flexible N terminus anchored at a 5-turn helix, whereas ID2 (residues 40-50) is a 2.5-turn helix made up of small hydrophobic amino acids. Functional analysis suggests that only ID1 may work as a pore-occluding ball domain, whereas ID2 most likely acts as a "docking domain" that attaches ID1 to the cytoplasmic face of the channel. Deletion of ID2 slows inactivation considerably and largely impairs cumulative inactivation. Together, the concerted action of ID1 and ID2 may promote rapid inactivation of Kv1.4 that is crucial for the channel function in short term plasticity.

  5. The central domain of bovine submaxillary mucin consists of over 50 tandem repeats of 329 amino acids. Chromosomal localization of the BSM1 gene and relations to ovine and porcine counterparts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W; Gupta, D; Gallagher, D; Davis, S; Bhavanandan, V P

    2000-04-01

    We previously elucidated five distinct protein domains (I-V) for bovine submaxillary mucin, which is encoded by two genes, BSM1 and BSM2. Using Southern blot analysis, genomic cloning and sequencing of the BSM1 gene, we now show that the central domain (V) consists of approximately 55 tandem repeats of 329 amino acids and that domains III-V are encoded by a 58.4-kb exon, the largest exon known for all genes to date. The BSM1 gene was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to the proximal half of chromosome 5 at bands q2. 2-q2.3. The amino-acid sequence of six tandem repeats (two full and four partial) were found to have only 92-94% identities. We propose that the variability in the amino-acid sequences of the mucin tandem repeat is important for generating the combinatorial library of saccharides that are necessary for the protective function of mucins. The deduced peptide sequences of the central domain match those determined from the purified bovine submaxillary mucin and also show 68-94% identity to published peptide sequences of ovine submaxillary mucin. This indicates that the core protein of ovine submaxillary mucin is closely related to that of bovine submaxillary mucin and contains similar tandem repeats in the central domain. In contrast, the central domain of porcine submaxillary mucin is reported to consist of 81-amino-acid tandem repeats. However, both bovine submaxillary mucin and porcine submaxillary mucin contain similar N-terminal and C-terminal domains and the corresponding genes are in the conserved linkage regions of the respective genomes.

  6. Switching Cyclic Nucleotide-Selective Activation of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Dependent Protein Kinase Holoenzyme Reveals Distinct Roles of Tandem Cyclic Nucleotide-Binding Domains.

    PubMed

    He, Daniel; Lorenz, Robin; Kim, Choel; Herberg, Friedrich W; Lim, Chinten James

    2017-12-15

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinases (PKA and PKG) are key effectors of cyclic nucleotide signaling. Both share structural features that include tandem cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB) domains, CNB-A and CNB-B, yet their functions are separated through preferential activation by either cAMP or cGMP. Based on structural studies and modeling, key CNB contact residues have been identified for both kinases. In this study, we explored the requirements for conversion of PKA activation from cAMP-dependent to cGMP-dependent. The consequences of the residue substitutions T192R/A212T within CNB-A or G316R/A336T within CNB-B of PKA-RIα on cyclic nucleotide binding and holoenzyme activation were assessed in vitro using purified recombinant proteins, and ex vivo using RIα-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts genetically reconstituted with wild-type or mutant PKA-RIα. In vitro, a loss of binding and activation selectivity was observed when residues in either one of the CNB domains were mutated, while mutations in both CNB domains resulted in a complete switch of selectivity from cAMP to cGMP. The switch in selectivity was also recapitulated ex vivo, confirming their functional roles in cells. Our results highlight the importance of key cyclic nucleotide contacts within each CNB domain and suggest that these domains may have evolved from an ancestral gene product to yield two distinct cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases.

  7. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fused with Tandem Collagen-Binding Domains from Clostridium histolyticum Collagenase ColG Increases Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsushita, Osamu; Inoue, Gen; Nishi, Nozomu; Masuda, Ryo; Hamamoto, Nana; Koide, Takaki; Shoji, Shintaro; Takaso, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (bFGF) accelerates bone formation during fracture healing. Because the efficacy of bFGF decreases rapidly following its diffusion from fracture sites, however, repeated dosing is required to ensure a sustained therapeutic effect. We previously developed a fusion protein comprising bFGF, a polycystic kidney disease domain (PKD; s2b), and collagen-binding domain (CBD; s3) sourced from the Clostridium histolyticum class II collagenase, ColH, and reported that the combination of this fusion protein with a collagen-like peptide, poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) 10 , induced mesenchymal cell proliferation and callus formation at fracture sites. In addition, C. histolyticum produces class I collagenase (ColG) with tandem CBDs (s3a and s3b) at the C-terminus. We therefore hypothesized that a bFGF fusion protein containing ColG-derived tandem CBDs (s3a and s3b) would show enhanced collagen-binding activity, leading to improved bone formation. Here, we examined the binding affinity of four collagen anchors derived from the two clostridial collagenases to H-Gly-Pro-Arg-Gly-(Pro-Hyp-Gly) 12 -NH 2 , a collagenous peptide, by surface plasmon resonance and found that tandem CBDs (s3a-s3b) have the highest affinity for the collagenous peptide. We also constructed four fusion proteins consisting of bFGF and s3 (bFGF-s3), s2b-s3b (bFGF-s2b-s3), s3b (bFGF-s3b), and s3a-s3b (bFGF-s3a-s3b) and compared their biological activities to those of a previous fusion construct (bFGF-s2b-s3) using a cell proliferation assay in vitro and a mouse femoral fracture model in vivo. Among these CB-bFGFs, bFGF-s3a-s3b showed the highest capacity to induce mesenchymal cell proliferation and callus formation in the mice fracture model. The poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) 10 /bFGF-s3a-s3b construct may therefore have the potential to promote bone formation in clinical settings.

  8. Drosophila CTCF tandemly aligns with other insulator proteins at the borders of H3K27me3 domains.

    PubMed

    Van Bortle, Kevin; Ramos, Edward; Takenaka, Naomi; Yang, Jingping; Wahi, Jessica E; Corces, Victor G

    2012-11-01

    Several multiprotein DNA complexes capable of insulator activity have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, yet only CTCF, a highly conserved zinc finger protein, and the transcription factor TFIIIC have been shown to function in mammals. CTCF is involved in diverse nuclear activities, and recent studies suggest that the proteins with which it associates and the DNA sequences that it targets may underlie these various roles. Here we show that the Drosophila homolog of CTCF (dCTCF) aligns in the genome with other Drosophila insulator proteins such as Suppressor of Hairy wing [SU(HW)] and Boundary Element Associated Factor of 32 kDa (BEAF-32) at the borders of H3K27me3 domains, which are also enriched for associated insulator proteins and additional cofactors. RNAi depletion of dCTCF and combinatorial knockdown of gene expression for other Drosophila insulator proteins leads to a reduction in H3K27me3 levels within repressed domains, suggesting that insulators are important for the maintenance of appropriate repressive chromatin structure in Polycomb (Pc) domains. These results shed new insights into the roles of insulators in chromatin domain organization and support recent models suggesting that insulators underlie interactions important for Pc-mediated repression. We reveal an important relationship between dCTCF and other Drosophila insulator proteins and speculate that vertebrate CTCF may also align with other nuclear proteins to accomplish similar functions.

  9. Drosophila CTCF tandemly aligns with other insulator proteins at the borders of H3K27me3 domains

    PubMed Central

    Van Bortle, Kevin; Ramos, Edward; Takenaka, Naomi; Yang, Jingping; Wahi, Jessica E.; Corces, Victor G.

    2012-01-01

    Several multiprotein DNA complexes capable of insulator activity have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, yet only CTCF, a highly conserved zinc finger protein, and the transcription factor TFIIIC have been shown to function in mammals. CTCF is involved in diverse nuclear activities, and recent studies suggest that the proteins with which it associates and the DNA sequences that it targets may underlie these various roles. Here we show that the Drosophila homolog of CTCF (dCTCF) aligns in the genome with other Drosophila insulator proteins such as Suppressor of Hairy wing [SU(HW)] and Boundary Element Associated Factor of 32 kDa (BEAF-32) at the borders of H3K27me3 domains, which are also enriched for associated insulator proteins and additional cofactors. RNAi depletion of dCTCF and combinatorial knockdown of gene expression for other Drosophila insulator proteins leads to a reduction in H3K27me3 levels within repressed domains, suggesting that insulators are important for the maintenance of appropriate repressive chromatin structure in Polycomb (Pc) domains. These results shed new insights into the roles of insulators in chromatin domain organization and support recent models suggesting that insulators underlie interactions important for Pc-mediated repression. We reveal an important relationship between dCTCF and other Drosophila insulator proteins and speculate that vertebrate CTCF may also align with other nuclear proteins to accomplish similar functions. PMID:22722341

  10. Mapping the Free Energy Landscape of PKA Inhibition and Activation: A Double-Conformational Selection Model for the Tandem cAMP-Binding Domains of PKA RIα

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Madoka; McNicholl, Eric Tyler; Ramkissoon, Avinash; Moleschi, Kody; Taylor, Susan S.; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. cAMP binds to two tandem cAMP-binding domains (CBD-A and -B) within the regulatory subunit of PKA (R), unleashing the activity of the catalytic subunit (C). While CBD-A in RIα is required for PKA inhibition and activation, CBD-B functions as a “gatekeeper” domain that modulates the control exerted by CBD-A. Preliminary evidence suggests that CBD-B dynamics are critical for its gatekeeper function. To test this hypothesis, here we investigate by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) the two-domain construct RIα (91–379) in its apo, cAMP2, and C-bound forms. Our comparative NMR analyses lead to a double conformational selection model in which each apo CBD dynamically samples both active and inactive states independently of the adjacent CBD within a nearly degenerate free energy landscape. Such degeneracy is critical to explain the sensitivity of CBD-B to weak interactions with C and its high affinity for cAMP. Binding of cAMP eliminates this degeneracy, as it selectively stabilizes the active conformation within each CBD and inter-CBD contacts, which require both cAMP and W260. The latter is contributed by CBD-B and mediates capping of the cAMP bound to CBD-A. The inter-CBD interface is dispensable for intra-CBD conformational selection, but is indispensable for full activation of PKA as it occludes C-subunit recognition sites within CBD-A. In addition, the two structurally homologous cAMP-bound CBDs exhibit marked differences in their residual dynamics profiles, supporting the notion that conservation of structure does not necessarily imply conservation of dynamics. PMID:26618408

  11. Evidence that the tandem-pleckstrin-homology-domain-containing protein TAPP1 interacts with Ptd(3,4)P2 and the multi-PDZ-domain-containing protein MUPP1 in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kimber, Wendy A; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Cheung, Peter C F; Deak, Maria; Marsden, Louisa J; Kieloch, Agnieszka; Watt, Stephen; Javier, Ronald T; Gray, Alex; Downes, C Peter; Lucocq, John M; Alessi, Dario R

    2002-01-01

    PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is an established second messenger of growth-factor and insulin-induced signalling pathways. There is increasing evidence that one of the immediate breakdown products of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, namely PtdIns(3,4)P2, whose levels are elevated by numerous extracellular agonists, might also function as a signalling molecule. Recently, we identified two related pleckstrin-homology (PH)-domain-containing proteins, termed 'tandem-PH-domain-containing protein-1' (TAPP1) and TAPP2, which interacted in vitro with high affinity with PtdIns(3,4)P2, but did not bind PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 or other phosphoinositides. In the present study we demonstrate that stimulation of Swiss 3T3 or 293 cells with agonists that stimulate PtdIns(3,4)P2 production results in the marked translocation of TAPP1 to the plasma membrane. This recruitment is dependent on a functional PtdIns(3,4)P2-binding PH domain and is inhibited by wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor that prevents PtdIns(3,4)P2 generation. A search for proteins that interact with TAPP1 identified the multi-PDZ-containing protein termed 'MUPP1', a protein possessing 13 PDZ domains and no other known modular or catalytic domains [PDZ is postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disc large tumour suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1)]. We demonstrate that immunoprecipitation of endogenously expressed TAPP1 from 293-cell lysates results in the co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous MUPP1, indicating that these proteins are likely to interact with each other physiologically. We show that TAPP1 and TAPP2 interact with the 10th and 13th PDZ domain of MUPP1 through their C-terminal amino acids. The results of the present study suggest that TAPP1 and TAPP2 could function in cells as adapter proteins to recruit MUPP1, or other proteins that they may interact with, to the plasma membrane in response to signals that elevate PtdIns(3,4)P2. PMID:11802782

  12. Tandem betatron

    DOEpatents

    Keinigs, Rhonald K.

    1992-01-01

    Two betatrons are provided in tandem for alternately accelerating an electron beam to avoid the single flux swing limitation of conventional betatrons and to accelerate the electron beam to high energies. The electron beam is accelerated in a first betatron during a period of increasing magnetic flux. The eletron beam is extracted from the first betatron as a peak magnetic flux is reached and then injected into a second betatron at a time of minimum magnetic flux in the second betatron. The cycle may be repeated until the desired electron beam energy is obtained. In one embodiment, the second betatron is axially offset from the first betatron to provide for electron beam injection directly at the axial location of the beam orbit in the second betatron.

  13. C1q/TNF-related Protein 4 (CTRP4) Is a Unique Secreted Protein with Two Tandem C1q Domains That Functions in the Hypothalamus to Modulate Food Intake and Body Weight*

    PubMed Central

    Byerly, Mardi S.; Petersen, Pia S.; Ramamurthy, Santosh; Seldin, Marcus M.; Lei, Xia; Provost, Elayne; Wei, Zhikui; Ronnett, Gabriele V.; Wong, G. William

    2014-01-01

    CTRP4 is a unique member of the C1q family, possessing two tandem globular C1q domains. Its physiological function is poorly defined. Here, we show that CTRP4 is an evolutionarily conserved, ∼34-kDa secretory protein expressed in the brain. In human, mouse, and zebrafish brain, CTRP4 expression begins early in development and is widespread in the central nervous system. Neurons, but not astrocytes, express and secrete CTRP4, and secreted proteins form higher-order oligomeric complexes. CTRP4 is also produced by peripheral tissues and circulates in blood. Its serum levels are increased in leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice. Functional studies suggest that CTRP4 acts centrally to modulate energy metabolism. Refeeding following an overnight fast induced the expression of CTRP4 in the hypothalamus. Central administration of recombinant protein suppressed food intake and altered the whole-body energy balance in both chow-fed and high-fat diet-fed mice. Suppression of food intake by CTRP4 is correlated with a decreased expression of orexigenic neuropeptide (Npy and Agrp) genes in the hypothalamus. These results establish CTRP4 as a novel nutrient-responsive central regulator of food intake and energy balance. PMID:24366864

  14. Four Amino Acids within a Tandem QxVx Repeat in a Predicted Extended α-Helix of the Smad-Binding Domain of Sip1 Are Necessary for Binding to Activated Smad Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Conidi, Andrea; van den Berghe, Veronique; Leslie, Kris; Stryjewska, Agata; Xue, Hua; Chen, Ye-Guang; Seuntjens, Eve; Huylebroeck, Danny

    2013-01-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor Smad-interacting protein-1 (Sip1; Zeb2, Zfhx1b) plays an important role during vertebrate embryogenesis in various tissues and differentiating cell types, and during tumorigenesis. Previous biochemical analysis suggests that interactions with several partner proteins, including TGFβ family receptor-activated Smads, regulate the activities of Sip1 in the nucleus both as a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor and activator. Using a peptide aptamer approach we mapped in Sip1 its Smad-binding domain (SBD), initially defined as a segment of 51 amino acids, to a shorter stretch of 14 amino acids within this SBD. Modelling suggests that this short SBD stretch is part of an extended α-helix that may fit the binding to a hydrophobic corridor within the MH2 domain of activated Smads. Four amino acids (two polar Q residues and two non-polar V residues) that form the tandem repeat (QxVx)2 in this 14-residue stretch were found to be crucial for binding to both TGFβ/Nodal/Activin-Smads and BMP-Smads. A full-length Sip1 with collective mutation of these Q and V residues (to A) no longer binds to Smads, while it retains its binding activity to its cognate bipartite target DNA sequence. This missense mutant Sip1(AxAx)2 provides a new molecular tool to identify SBD (in)dependent target genes in Sip1-controlled TGFβ and/or BMP (de)regulated cellular, developmental and pathological processes. PMID:24146916

  15. A unique alkaline pH-regulated and fatty acid-activated tandem pore domain potassium channel (K2P) from a marine sponge

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Gregory D.; Tang, Qiong-Yao; Heler, Robert; Tompkins-MacDonald, Gabrielle J.; Pritchard, Erica N.; Leys, Sally P.; Logothetis, Diomedes E.; Boland, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A cDNA encoding a potassium channel of the two-pore domain family (K2P, KCNK) of leak channels was cloned from the marine sponge Amphimedon queenslandica. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AquK2P cannot be placed into any of the established functional groups of mammalian K2P channels. We used the Xenopus oocyte expression system, a two-electrode voltage clamp and inside-out patch clamp electrophysiology to determine the physiological properties of AquK2P. In whole cells, non-inactivating, voltage-independent, outwardly rectifying K+ currents were generated by external application of micromolar concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA; EC50 ∼30 μmol l–1), when applied in an alkaline solution (≥pH 8.0). Prior activation of channels facilitated the pH-regulated, AA-dependent activation of AquK2P but external pH changes alone did not activate the channels. Unlike certain mammalian fatty-acid-activated K2P channels, the sponge K2P channel was not activated by temperature and was insensitive to osmotically induced membrane distortion. In inside-out patch recordings, alkalinization of the internal pH (pKa 8.18) activated the AquK2P channels independently of AA and also facilitated activation by internally applied AA. The gating of the sponge K2P channel suggests that voltage-independent outward rectification and sensitivity to pH and AA are ancient and fundamental properties of animal K2P channels. In addition, the membrane potential of some poriferan cells may be dynamically regulated by pH and AA. PMID:22723483

  16. A unique alkaline pH-regulated and fatty acid-activated tandem pore domain potassium channel (K₂P) from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gregory D; Tang, Qiong-Yao; Heler, Robert; Tompkins-MacDonald, Gabrielle J; Pritchard, Erica N; Leys, Sally P; Logothetis, Diomedes E; Boland, Linda M

    2012-07-15

    A cDNA encoding a potassium channel of the two-pore domain family (K(2P), KCNK) of leak channels was cloned from the marine sponge Amphimedon queenslandica. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AquK(2P) cannot be placed into any of the established functional groups of mammalian K(2P) channels. We used the Xenopus oocyte expression system, a two-electrode voltage clamp and inside-out patch clamp electrophysiology to determine the physiological properties of AquK(2P). In whole cells, non-inactivating, voltage-independent, outwardly rectifying K(+) currents were generated by external application of micromolar concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA; EC(50) ∼30 μmol l(-1)), when applied in an alkaline solution (≥pH 8.0). Prior activation of channels facilitated the pH-regulated, AA-dependent activation of AquK(2P) but external pH changes alone did not activate the channels. Unlike certain mammalian fatty-acid-activated K(2P) channels, the sponge K(2P) channel was not activated by temperature and was insensitive to osmotically induced membrane distortion. In inside-out patch recordings, alkalinization of the internal pH (pK(a) 8.18) activated the AquK(2P) channels independently of AA and also facilitated activation by internally applied AA. The gating of the sponge K(2P) channel suggests that voltage-independent outward rectification and sensitivity to pH and AA are ancient and fundamental properties of animal K(2P) channels. In addition, the membrane potential of some poriferan cells may be dynamically regulated by pH and AA.

  17. Orthogonal tandem catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, Tracy L.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2015-05-20

    Tandem catalysis is a growing field that is beginning to yield important scientific and technological advances toward new and more efficient catalytic processes. 'One-pot' tandem reactions, where multiple catalysts and reagents, combined in a single reaction vessel undergo a sequence of precisely staged catalytic steps, are highly attractive from the standpoint of reducing both waste and time. Orthogonal tandem catalysis is a subset of one-pot reactions in which more than one catalyst is used to promote two or more mechanistically distinct reaction steps. This Perspective summarizes and analyses some of the recent developments and successes in orthogonal tandem catalysis, withmore » particular focus on recent strategies to address catalyst incompatibility. We also highlight the concept of thermodynamic leveraging by coupling multiple catalyst cycles to effect challenging transformations not observed in single-step processes, and to encourage application of this technique to energetically unfavourable or demanding reactions.« less

  18. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  19. TANDEM: matching proteins with tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Craig, Robertson; Beavis, Ronald C

    2004-06-12

    Tandem mass spectra obtained from fragmenting peptide ions contain some peptide sequence specific information, but often there is not enough information to sequence the original peptide completely. Several proprietary software applications have been developed to attempt to match the spectra with a list of protein sequences that may contain the sequence of the peptide. The application TANDEM was written to provide the proteomics research community with a set of components that can be used to test new methods and algorithms for performing this type of sequence-to-data matching. The source code and binaries for this software are available at http://www.proteome.ca/opensource.html, for Windows, Linux and Macintosh OSX. The source code is made available under the Artistic License, from the authors.

  20. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  1. Partners in crime: The role of tandem modules in gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajal; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Histones and their modifications play an important role in the regulation of gene transcription. Numerous modifications, such as acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation, have been described. These modifications almost always co-occur and thereby increase the combinatorial complexity of post-translational modification detection. The domains that recognize these histone modifications often occur in tandem in the context of larger proteins and complexes. The presence of multiple modifications can positively or negatively regulate the binding of these tandem domains, influencing downstream cellular function. Alternatively, these tandem domains can have novel functions from their independent parts. Here we summarize structural and functional information known about major tandem domains and their histone binding properties. An understanding of these interactions is key for the development of epigenetic therapy. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  2. Bifacial tandem solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Wojtczuk, Steven J.; Chiu, Philip T.; Zhang, Xuebing; Gagnon, Edward; Timmons, Michael

    2016-06-14

    A method of fabricating on a semiconductor substrate bifacial tandem solar cells with semiconductor subcells having a lower bandgap than the substrate bandgap on one side of the substrate and with subcells having a higher bandgap than the substrate on the other including, first, growing a lower bandgap subcell on one substrate side that uses only the same periodic table group V material in the dislocation-reducing grading layers and bottom subcells as is present in the substrate and after the initial growth is complete and then flipping the substrate and growing the higher bandgap subcells on the opposite substrate side which can be of different group V material.

  3. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  4. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1994-06-21

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. 9 figs.

  5. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

  6. 47 CFR 69.111 - Tandem-switched transport and tandem charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tandem-switched transport and tandem charge. 69... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.111 Tandem-switched transport and tandem...-switched transport shall consist of two rate elements, a transmission charge and a tandem switching charge...

  7. Covalently Linked Tandem Lesions in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Patrzyc, Helen B.; Dawidzik, Jean B.; Budzinski, Edwin E.; Freund, Harold G.; Wilton, John H.; Box, Harold C.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generate a type of DNA damage called tandem lesions, two adjacent nucleotides both modified. A subcategory of tandem lesions consists of adjacent nucleotides linked by a covalent bond. Covalently linked tandem lesions generate highly characteristic liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) elution profiles. We have used this property to comprehensively survey X-irradiated DNA for covalently linked tandem lesions. A total of 15 tandem lesions were detected in DNA irradiated in deoxygenated aqueous solution, five tandem lesions were detected in DNA that was irradiated in oxygenated solution. PMID:23106212

  8. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to

  9. Achieving 15% Tandem Polymer Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-23

    solar cell structures – both polymer only and hybrid tandem cells to constantly pushing the envelope of solution processed solar cell ...performance – 11.6% polymer tandem cell , 7% transparent tandem polymer cell , and over 10% PCE hybrid tandem solar cells were achieved. In addition, AFOSR’s...final support also enabled us to explore novel hybrid perovskite solar cells in depth. For example, single junction cell efficiency

  10. Domain Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  11. Identification and characterization of tandem repeats in exon III of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) genes from different mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Svend Arild; Mogensen, Line; Dietz, Rune; Baagøe, Hans Jørgen; Andersen, Mogens; Werge, Thomas; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg

    2005-12-01

    In this study we have identified and characterized dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III tandem repeats in 33 public available nucleotide sequences from different mammalian species. We found that the tandem repeat in canids could be described in a novel and simple way, namely, as a structure composed of 15- and 12- bp modules. Tandem repeats composed of 18-bp modules were found in sequences from the horse, zebra, onager, and donkey, Asiatic bear, polar bear, common raccoon, dolphin, harbor porpoise, and domestic cat. Several of these sequences have been analyzed previously without a tandem repeat being found. In the domestic cow and gray seal we identified tandem repeats composed of 36-bp modules, each consisting of two closely related 18-bp basic units. A tandem repeat consisting of 9-bp modules was identified in sequences from mink and ferret. In the European otter we detected an 18-bp tandem repeat, while a tandem repeat consisting of 27-bp modules was identified in a sequence from European badger. Both these tandem repeats were composed of 9-bp basic units, which were closely related with the 9-bp repeat modules identified in the mink and ferret. Tandem repeats could not be identified in sequences from rodents. All tandem repeats possessed a high GC content with a strong bias for C. On phylogenetic analysis of the tandem repeats evolutionary related species were clustered into the same groups. The degree of conservation of the tandem repeats varied significantly between species. The deduced amino acid sequences of most of the tandem repeats exhibited a high propensity for disorder. This was also the case with an amino acid sequence of the human DRD4 exon III tandem repeat, which was included in the study for comparative purposes. We identified proline-containing motifs for SH3 and WW domain binding proteins, potential phosphorylation sites, PDZ domain binding motifs, and FHA domain binding motifs in the amino acid sequences of the tandem repeats. The numbers of

  12. MR-Tandem: parallel X!Tandem using Hadoop MapReduce on Amazon Web Services

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Brian; Howbert, J. Jeffry; Tasman, Natalie I.; Nilsson, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: MR-Tandem adapts the popular X!Tandem peptide search engine to work with Hadoop MapReduce for reliable parallel execution of large searches. MR-Tandem runs on any Hadoop cluster but offers special support for Amazon Web Services for creating inexpensive on-demand Hadoop clusters, enabling search volumes that might not otherwise be feasible with the compute resources a researcher has at hand. MR-Tandem is designed to drop in wherever X!Tandem is already in use and requires no modification to existing X!Tandem parameter files, and only minimal modification to X!Tandem-based workflows. Availability and implementation: MR-Tandem is implemented as a lightly modified X!Tandem C++ executable and a Python script that drives Hadoop clusters including Amazon Web Services (AWS) Elastic Map Reduce (EMR), using the modified X!Tandem program as a Hadoop Streaming mapper and reducer. The modified X!Tandem C++ source code is Artistic licensed, supports pluggable scoring, and is available as part of the Sashimi project at http://sashimi.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/sashimi/trunk/trans_proteomic_pipeline/extern/xtandem/. The MR-Tandem Python script is Apache licensed and available as part of the Insilicos Cloud Army project at http://ica.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/ica/trunk/mr-tandem/. Full documentation and a windows installer that configures MR-Tandem, Python and all necessary packages are available at this same URL. Contact: brian.pratt@insilicos.com PMID:22072385

  13. MR-Tandem: parallel X!Tandem using Hadoop MapReduce on Amazon Web Services.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Brian; Howbert, J Jeffry; Tasman, Natalie I; Nilsson, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    MR-Tandem adapts the popular X!Tandem peptide search engine to work with Hadoop MapReduce for reliable parallel execution of large searches. MR-Tandem runs on any Hadoop cluster but offers special support for Amazon Web Services for creating inexpensive on-demand Hadoop clusters, enabling search volumes that might not otherwise be feasible with the compute resources a researcher has at hand. MR-Tandem is designed to drop in wherever X!Tandem is already in use and requires no modification to existing X!Tandem parameter files, and only minimal modification to X!Tandem-based workflows. MR-Tandem is implemented as a lightly modified X!Tandem C++ executable and a Python script that drives Hadoop clusters including Amazon Web Services (AWS) Elastic Map Reduce (EMR), using the modified X!Tandem program as a Hadoop Streaming mapper and reducer. The modified X!Tandem C++ source code is Artistic licensed, supports pluggable scoring, and is available as part of the Sashimi project at http://sashimi.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/sashimi/trunk/trans_proteomic_pipeline/extern/xtandem/. The MR-Tandem Python script is Apache licensed and available as part of the Insilicos Cloud Army project at http://ica.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/ica/trunk/mr-tandem/. Full documentation and a windows installer that configures MR-Tandem, Python and all necessary packages are available at this same URL. brian.pratt@insilicos.com

  14. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-14

    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  15. Portable Tandem Mass Spectrometer Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    The planned instrument was to be small enough to be portable in small vehicles and was to be able to use either an atmospheric pressure ion source or a...conventional electron impact/chemical ionization ion source. In order to accomplish these developments an atmospheric pressure ionization source was...developed for a compact, commercially available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. This ion source could be readily exchanged with the conventional

  16. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    PubMed Central

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. PMID:22414427

  17. The evolution of filamin-a protein domain repeat perspective.

    PubMed

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  19. Detecting long tandem duplications in genomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Audemard, Eric; Schiex, Thomas; Faraut, Thomas

    2012-05-08

    Detecting duplication segments within completely sequenced genomes provides valuable information to address genome evolution and in particular the important question of the emergence of novel functions. The usual approach to gene duplication detection, based on all-pairs protein gene comparisons, provides only a restricted view of duplication. In this paper, we introduce ReD Tandem, a software using a flow based chaining algorithm targeted at detecting tandem duplication arrays of moderate to longer length regions, with possibly locally weak similarities, directly at the DNA level. On the A. thaliana genome, using a reference set of tandem duplicated genes built using TAIR,(a) we show that ReD Tandem is able to predict a large fraction of recently duplicated genes (dS  <  1) and that it is also able to predict tandem duplications involving non coding elements such as pseudo-genes or RNA genes. ReD Tandem allows to identify large tandem duplications without any annotation, leading to agnostic identification of tandem duplications. This approach nicely complements the usual protein gene based which ignores duplications involving non coding regions. It is however inherently restricted to relatively recent duplications. By recovering otherwise ignored events, ReD Tandem gives a more comprehensive view of existing evolutionary processes and may also allow to improve existing annotations.

  20. Optimizing a tandem disk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, J. V.

    1983-08-01

    The optimum values of the solidity ratio, tip speed ratio (TSR), and the preset angle of attack, the corresponding distribution, and the breakdown mechanism for a tandem disk model for a crosswind machine such as a Darrieus are examined analytically. Equations are formulated for thin blades with zero drag in consideration of two plane rectangular disks, both perpendicular to the wind flow. Power coefficients are obtained for both disks and comparisons are made between a single-disk system and a two-disk system. The power coefficient for the tandem disk model is shown to be a sum of the coefficients of the individual disks, with a maximum value of twice the Betz limit at an angle of attack of -1 deg and the TSR between 4-7. The model, applied to the NACA 0012 profile, gives a maximum power coefficient of 0.967 with a solidity ratio of 0.275 and highly limited ranges for the angle of attack and TSR.

  1. Hybrid Tandem Solar Cells | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Hybrid Tandem Solar Cells Hybrid Tandem Solar Cells To achieve aggressive cost reductions in photovoltaics (PV) beyond the 6¢/kWh SunShot Initiative 2020 goal, module efficiency must be increased beyond on a silicon platform and that aim to provide viable prototypes for commercialization. PV Research

  2. Tandem junction amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell has an active body with two or a series of layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in a tandem stacked configuration with one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in tandem configuration can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps.

  3. Tandem Translation Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dohun; Koh, Taejin

    2018-01-01

    The transition to student-centred learning, advances in teleconferencing tools, and active international student exchange programmes have stimulated tandem learning in many parts of the world. This pedagogical model is based on a mutual language exchange between tandem partners, where each student is a native speaker in the language the…

  4. Two-state dynamics of the SH3–SH2 tandem of Abl kinase and the allosteric role of the N-cap

    PubMed Central

    Corbi-Verge, Carles; Marinelli, Fabrizio; Zafra-Ruano, Ana; Ruiz-Sanz, Javier; Luque, Irene; Faraldo-Gómez, José D.

    2013-01-01

    The regulation and localization of signaling enzymes is often mediated by accessory modular domains, which frequently function in tandems. The ability of these tandems to adopt multiple conformations is as important for proper regulation as the individual domain specificity. A paradigmatic example is Abl, a ubiquitous tyrosine kinase of significant pharmacological interest. SH3 and SH2 domains inhibit Abl by assembling onto the catalytic domain, allosterically clamping it in an inactive state. We investigate the dynamics of this SH3–SH2 tandem, using microsecond all-atom simulations and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results indicate that the Abl tandem is a two-state switch, alternating between the conformation observed in the structure of the autoinhibited enzyme and another configuration that is consistent with existing scattering data for an activated form. Intriguingly, we find that the latter is the most probable when the tandem is disengaged from the catalytic domain. Nevertheless, an amino acid stretch preceding the SH3 domain, the so-called N-cap, reshapes the free-energy landscape of the tandem and favors the interaction of this domain with the SH2-kinase linker, an intermediate step necessary for assembly of the autoinhibited complex. This allosteric effect arises from interactions between N-cap and the SH2 domain and SH3–SH2 connector, which involve a phosphorylation site. We also show that the SH3–SH2 connector plays a determinant role in the assembly equilibrium of Abl, because mutations thereof hinder the engagement of the SH2-kinase linker. These results provide a thermodynamic rationale for the involvement of N-cap and SH3–SH2 connector in Abl regulation and expand our understanding of the principles of modular domain organization. PMID:23959873

  5. Two-state dynamics of the SH3-SH2 tandem of Abl kinase and the allosteric role of the N-cap.

    PubMed

    Corbi-Verge, Carles; Marinelli, Fabrizio; Zafra-Ruano, Ana; Ruiz-Sanz, Javier; Luque, Irene; Faraldo-Gómez, José D

    2013-09-03

    The regulation and localization of signaling enzymes is often mediated by accessory modular domains, which frequently function in tandems. The ability of these tandems to adopt multiple conformations is as important for proper regulation as the individual domain specificity. A paradigmatic example is Abl, a ubiquitous tyrosine kinase of significant pharmacological interest. SH3 and SH2 domains inhibit Abl by assembling onto the catalytic domain, allosterically clamping it in an inactive state. We investigate the dynamics of this SH3-SH2 tandem, using microsecond all-atom simulations and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results indicate that the Abl tandem is a two-state switch, alternating between the conformation observed in the structure of the autoinhibited enzyme and another configuration that is consistent with existing scattering data for an activated form. Intriguingly, we find that the latter is the most probable when the tandem is disengaged from the catalytic domain. Nevertheless, an amino acid stretch preceding the SH3 domain, the so-called N-cap, reshapes the free-energy landscape of the tandem and favors the interaction of this domain with the SH2-kinase linker, an intermediate step necessary for assembly of the autoinhibited complex. This allosteric effect arises from interactions between N-cap and the SH2 domain and SH3-SH2 connector, which involve a phosphorylation site. We also show that the SH3-SH2 connector plays a determinant role in the assembly equilibrium of Abl, because mutations thereof hinder the engagement of the SH2-kinase linker. These results provide a thermodynamic rationale for the involvement of N-cap and SH3-SH2 connector in Abl regulation and expand our understanding of the principles of modular domain organization.

  6. Tandem catalysis: a new approach to polymers.

    PubMed

    Robert, Carine; Thomas, Christophe M

    2013-12-21

    The creation of polymers by tandem catalysis represents an exciting frontier in materials science. Tandem catalysis is one of the strategies used by Nature for building macromolecules. Living organisms generally synthesize macromolecules by in vivo enzyme-catalyzed chain growth polymerization reactions using activated monomers that have been formed within cells during complex metabolic processes. However, these biological processes rely on highly complex biocatalysts, thus limiting their industrial applications. In order to obtain polymers by tandem catalysis, homogeneous and enzyme catalysts have played a leading role in the last two decades. In the following feature article, we will describe selected published efforts to achieve these research goals.

  7. Controlled human malaria infection trials: How tandems of trust and control construct scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bijker, Else M; Sauerwein, Robert W; Bijker, Wiebe E

    2016-02-01

    Controlled human malaria infections are clinical trials in which healthy volunteers are deliberately infected with malaria under controlled conditions. Controlled human malaria infections are complex clinical trials: many different groups and institutions are involved, and several complex technologies are required to function together. This functioning together of technologies, people, and institutions is under special pressure because of potential risks to the volunteers. In this article, the authors use controlled human malaria infections as a strategic research site to study the use of control, the role of trust, and the interactions between trust and control in the construction of scientific knowledge. The authors argue that tandems of trust and control play a central role in the successful execution of clinical trials and the construction of scientific knowledge. More specifically, two aspects of tandems of trust and control will be highlighted: tandems are sites where trust and control coproduce each other, and tandems link the personal, the technical, and the institutional domains. Understanding tandems of trust and control results in setting some agendas for both clinical trial research and science and technology studies.

  8. Peptide Analysis Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    to give pyroglutamic acid during storage, eliminating ammonia. It is almost absent in the spectrum of a freshly-prepared sample and is not seen in...USING TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY INTRODUCTION S The objective of the project was to determine the complete amino acid sequence of the large polypeptide...Ubiquitin by use of fast atom bombardment (FAB) ionization and tandem mass spectrometry. The peptide containing 76 amino acid residues was available

  9. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) on preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this ...

  10. Interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, socio-demographic and built environment) on preterm birth.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures are often measured individually, though many occur in tandem. To address aggregate exposures, a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) representing five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) was constructed. Recent st...

  11. Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Fung, Man-Keung; Li, Yan-Qing; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    A tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is an organic optoelectronic device that has two or more electroluminescence (EL) units connected electrically in series with unique intermediate connectors within the device. Researchers have studied this new OLED architecture with growing interest and have found that the current efficiency of a tandem OLED containing N EL units (N > 1) should be N times that of a conventional OLED containing only a single EL unit. Therefore, this new architecture is potentially useful for constructing high-efficiency, high-luminance, and long-lifetime OLED displays and organic solid-state lighting sources. In a tandem OLED, the intermediate connector plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the stacked EL units. The interfaces in the connector control the inner charge generation and charge injection into the adjacent EL units. Meanwhile, the transparency and the thickness of the connector affect the light output of the device. Therefore, the intermediate connector should be made to meet both the electrical and optical requirements for achieving optimal performance. Here, recent advances in the research of the tandem OLEDs is discussed, with the main focus on material selection and interface studies in the intermediate connectors, as well as the optical design of the tandem OLEDs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Alpha particle confinement in tandem mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.; Ohnishi, M.; Kerns, J.

    1980-10-10

    Mechanisms leading to loss of alpha particles from non-axisymmetric tandem mirrors are considered. Stochastic diffusion due to bounce-drift resonances, which can cause rapid radial losses of high-energy alpha particles, can be suppressed by imposing a 20% rise in axisymmetric fields before the quadrupole transition sections. Alpha particles should then be well-confined until thermal energies when they enter the resonant plateau require. A fast code for computation of drift behavior in reactors is described. Sample calculations are presented for resonant particles in a proposed coil set for the Tandem Mirror Next Step.

  13. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOEpatents

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  14. 47 CFR 69.129 - Signalling for tandem switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signalling for tandem switching. 69.129 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.129 Signalling for tandem switching. A charge that is... provision of signalling for tandem switching. [59 FR 32930, June 27, 1994] ...

  15. 47 CFR 69.129 - Signalling for tandem switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signalling for tandem switching. 69.129 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.129 Signalling for tandem switching. A charge that is... provision of signalling for tandem switching. [59 FR 32930, June 27, 1994] ...

  16. 47 CFR 69.129 - Signalling for tandem switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signalling for tandem switching. 69.129 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.129 Signalling for tandem switching. A charge that is... provision of signalling for tandem switching. [59 FR 32930, June 27, 1994] ...

  17. 47 CFR 69.129 - Signalling for tandem switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signalling for tandem switching. 69.129 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.129 Signalling for tandem switching. A charge that is... provision of signalling for tandem switching. [59 FR 32930, June 27, 1994] ...

  18. The evolution and function of protein tandem repeats in plants.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Elke; Anisimova, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Sequence tandem repeats (TRs) are abundant in proteomes across all domains of life. For plants, little is known about their distribution or contribution to protein function. We exhaustively annotated TRs and studied the evolution of TR unit variations for all Ensembl plants. Using phylogenetic patterns of TR units, we detected conserved TRs with unit number and order preserved during evolution, and those TRs that have diverged via recent TR unit gains/losses. We correlated the mode of evolution of TRs to protein function. TR number was strongly correlated with proteome size, with about one-half of all TRs recognized as common protein domains. The majority of TRs have been highly conserved over long evolutionary distances, some since the separation of red algae and green plants c. 1.6 billion yr ago. Conversely, recurrent recent TR unit mutations were rare. Our results suggest that the first TRs by far predate the first plants, and that TR appearance is an ongoing process with similar rates across the plant kingdom. Interestingly, the few detected highly mutable TRs might provide a source of variation for rapid adaptation. In particular, such TRs are enriched in leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) commonly found in R genes, where TR unit gain/loss may facilitate resistance to emerging pathogens. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Structural insights into the functional versatility of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent work on WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) tumor suppressor is beginning to shed new light on both the molecular mechanism of action of its WW domains as well as the contiguous catalytic domain. Herein, the structural basis underlying the ability of WW1 domain to bind to various physiological ligands and how the orphan WW2 tandem partner synergizes its ligand binding in the context of WW1–WW2 tandem module of WWOX is discussed. Notably, the WW domains within the WW1–WW2 tandem module physically associate so as to adopt a fixed spatial orientation relative to each other. In this manner, the association of WW2 domain with WW1 hinders ligand binding to the latter. Consequently, ligand binding to WW1 domain not only results in the displacement of WW2 lid but also disrupts the fixed orientation of WW domains in the liganded conformation. Equally importantly, structure-guided functional approach suggests that the catalytic domain of WWOX likely serves as a retinal oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible oxidation and reduction of all-trans-retinal. Collectively, this review provides structural insights into the functional versatility of a key signaling protein with important implications on its biology. PMID:25662954

  20. Structural insights into the functional versatility of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Amjad

    2015-03-01

    Recent work on WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) tumor suppressor is beginning to shed new light on both the molecular mechanism of action of its WW domains as well as the contiguous catalytic domain. Herein, the structural basis underlying the ability of WW1 domain to bind to various physiological ligands and how the orphan WW2 tandem partner synergizes its ligand binding in the context of WW1-WW2 tandem module of WWOX is discussed. Notably, the WW domains within the WW1-WW2 tandem module physically associate so as to adopt a fixed spatial orientation relative to each other. In this manner, the association of WW2 domain with WW1 hinders ligand binding to the latter. Consequently, ligand binding to WW1 domain not only results in the displacement of WW2 lid but also disrupts the fixed orientation of WW domains in the liganded conformation. Equally importantly, structure-guided functional approach suggests that the catalytic domain of WWOX likely serves as a retinal oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible oxidation and reduction of all-trans-retinal. Collectively, this review provides structural insights into the functional versatility of a key signaling protein with important implications on its biology. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  1. Inverted Three-Junction Tandem Thermophotovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven

    2012-01-01

    An InGaAs-based three-junction (3J) tandem thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell has been investigated to utilize more of the blackbody spectrum (from a 1,100 C general purpose heat source GPHS) efficiently. The tandem consists of three vertically stacked subcells, a 0.74-eV InGaAs cell, a 0.6- eV InGaAs cell, and a 0.55-eV InGaAs cell, as well as two interconnecting tunnel junctions. A greater than 20% TPV system efficiency was achieved by another group with a 1,040 C blackbody using a single-bandgap 0.6- eV InGaAs cell MIM (monolithic interconnected module) (30 lateral junctions) that delivered about 12 V/30 or 0.4 V/junction. It is expected that a three-bandgap tandem MIM will eventually have about 3 this voltage (1.15 V) and about half the current. A 4 A/cm2 would be generated by a single-bandgap 0.6-V InGaAs MIM, as opposed to the 2 A/cm2 available from the same spectrum when split among the three series-connected junctions in the tandem stack. This would then be about a 50% increase (3xVoc, 0.5xIsc) in output power if the proposed tandem replaced the single- bandgap MIM. The advantage of the innovation, if successful, would be a 50% increase in power conversion efficiency from radioisotope heat sources using existing thermophotovoltaics. Up to 50% more power would be generated for radioisotope GPHS deep space missions. This type of InGaAs multijunction stack could be used with terrestrial concentrator solar cells to increase efficiency from 41 to 45% or more.

  2. Quality evaluation of tandem mass spectral libraries.

    PubMed

    Oberacher, Herbert; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Dresen, Sebastian

    2011-06-01

    Tandem mass spectral libraries are gaining more and more importance for the identification of unknowns in different fields of research, including metabolomics, forensics, toxicology, and environmental analysis. Particularly, the recent invention of reliable, robust, and transferable libraries has increased the general acceptance of these tools. Herein, we report on results obtained from thorough evaluation of the match reliabilities of two tandem mass spectral libraries: the MSforID library established by the Oberacher group in Innsbruck and the Weinmann library established by the Weinmann group in Freiburg. Three different experiments were performed: (1) Spectra of the libraries were searched against their corresponding library after excluding either this single compound-specific spectrum or all compound-specific spectra prior to searching; (2) the libraries were searched against each other using either library as reference set or sample set; (3) spectra acquired on different mass spectrometric instruments were matched to both libraries. Almost 13,000 tandem mass spectra were included in this study. The MSforID search algorithm was used for spectral matching. Statistical evaluation of the library search results revealed that principally both libraries enable the sensitive and specific identification of compounds. Due to higher mass accuracy of the QqTOF compared with the QTrap instrument, matches to the MSforID library were more reliable when comparing spectra with both libraries. Furthermore, only the MSforID library was shown to be efficiently transferable to different kinds of tandem mass spectrometers, including "tandem-in-time" instruments; this is due to the coverage of a large range of different collision energy settings-including the very low range-which is an outstanding characteristics of the MSforID library.

  3. A TALE-inspired computational screen for proteins that contain approximate tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Perycz, Malgorzata; Krwawicz, Joanna; Bochtler, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors (TALEs) are bacterial proteins that are secreted from bacteria to plant cells to act as transcriptional activators. TALEs and related proteins (RipTALs, BurrH, MOrTL1 and MOrTL2) contain approximate tandem repeats that differ in conserved positions that define specificity. Using PERL, we screened ~47 million protein sequences for TALE-like architecture characterized by approximate tandem repeats (between 30 and 43 amino acids in length) and sequence variability in conserved positions, without requiring sequence similarity to TALEs. Candidate proteins were scored according to their propensity for nuclear localization, secondary structure, repeat sequence complexity, as well as covariation and predicted structural proximity of variable residues. Biological context was tentatively inferred from co-occurrence of other domains and interactome predictions. Approximate repeats with TALE-like features that merit experimental characterization were found in a protein of chestnut blight fungus, a eukaryotic plant pathogen.

  4. A TALE-inspired computational screen for proteins that contain approximate tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    Krwawicz, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors (TALEs) are bacterial proteins that are secreted from bacteria to plant cells to act as transcriptional activators. TALEs and related proteins (RipTALs, BurrH, MOrTL1 and MOrTL2) contain approximate tandem repeats that differ in conserved positions that define specificity. Using PERL, we screened ~47 million protein sequences for TALE-like architecture characterized by approximate tandem repeats (between 30 and 43 amino acids in length) and sequence variability in conserved positions, without requiring sequence similarity to TALEs. Candidate proteins were scored according to their propensity for nuclear localization, secondary structure, repeat sequence complexity, as well as covariation and predicted structural proximity of variable residues. Biological context was tentatively inferred from co-occurrence of other domains and interactome predictions. Approximate repeats with TALE-like features that merit experimental characterization were found in a protein of chestnut blight fungus, a eukaryotic plant pathogen. PMID:28617832

  5. Molecular tandem repeat strategy for elucidating mechanical properties of high-strength proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Huihun; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Saadat, Alham; Sebastian, Aswathy; Kim, Dong Hwan; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Albert, Istvan; Allen, Benjamin D.; Demirel, Melik C.

    2016-01-01

    Many globular and structural proteins have repetitions in their sequences or structures. However, a clear relationship between these repeats and their contribution to the mechanical properties remains elusive. We propose a new approach for the design and production of synthetic polypeptides that comprise one or more tandem copies of a single unit with distinct amorphous and ordered regions. Our designed sequences are based on a structural protein produced in squid suction cups that has a segmented copolymer structure with amorphous and crystalline domains. We produced segmented polypeptides with varying repeat number, while keeping the lengths and compositions of the amorphous and crystalline regions fixed. We showed that mechanical properties of these synthetic proteins could be tuned by modulating their molecular weights. Specifically, the toughness and extensibility of synthetic polypeptides increase as a function of the number of tandem repeats. This result suggests that the repetitions in native squid proteins could have a genetic advantage for increased toughness and flexibility. PMID:27222581

  6. Software for peak finding and elemental composition assignment for glycosaminoglycan tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Hogan, John D; Klein, Joshua A; Wu, Jiandong; Chopra, Pradeep; Boons, Geert-Jan; Carvalho, Luis; Lin, Cheng; Zaia, Joseph

    2018-04-03

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) covalently linked to proteoglycans (PGs) are characterized by repeating disaccharide units and variable sulfation patterns along the chain. GAG length and sulfation patterns impact disease etiology, cellular signaling, and structural support for cells. We and others have demonstrated the usefulness of tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) for assigning the structures of GAG saccharides; however, manual interpretation of tandem mass spectra is time-consuming, so computational methods must be employed. In the proteomics domain, the identification of monoisotopic peaks and charge states relies on algorithms that use averagine, or the average building block of the compound class being analyzed. While these methods perform well for protein and peptide spectra, they perform poorly on GAG tandem mass spectra, due to the fact that a single average building block does not characterize the variable sulfation of GAG disaccharide units. In addition, it is necessary to assign product ion isotope patterns in order to interpret the tandem mass spectra of GAG saccharides. To address these problems, we developed GAGfinder, the first tandem mass spectrum peak finding algorithm developed specifically for GAGs. We define peak finding as assigning experimental isotopic peaks directly to a given product ion composition, as opposed to deconvolution or peak picking, which are terms more accurately describing the existing methods previously mentioned. GAGfinder is a targeted, brute force approach to spectrum analysis that utilizes precursor composition information to generate all theoretical fragments. GAGfinder also performs peak isotope composition annotation, which is typically a subsequent step for averagine-based methods. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009101. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  8. A high fusion power gain tandem mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, T. K.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.

    2017-10-01

    Utilizing advances in high field superconducting magnet technology and microwave gyrotrons we illustrate the possibility of a high power gain (Q = 10-20) tandem mirror fusion reactor. Inspired by recent Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) achievements we employ a simple axisymmetric mirror magnet configuration. We consider both DT and cat. DD fuel options that utilize existing as well as future technology development. We identify subjects requiring further study such as hot electron physics, trapped particle modes and plasma startup.

  9. Transonic Axial Splittered Rotor Tandem Stator Stage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Development of a procedure to model the hot shape of a rotor blade and a comparison analysis of the transonic...fluid-structure interaction. Rotational forces as well as gas loading forces were observed as an influence on blade deformation. Utilizing the...Turbomachinery, splittered rotor, tandem stator, transonic compressor, blade deformation, fluid-structure interaction 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 87 16. PRICE

  10. Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.

    1987-01-01

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  11. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, Christophe; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, Ji; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015–2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini–Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini–Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfière) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere.

  12. Flow field interactions between two tandem cyclists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Nathan; Burton, David; Sheridan, John; Thompson, Mark; Brown, Nicholas A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Aerodynamic drag is the primary resistive force acting on cyclists at racing speeds. Many events involve cyclists travelling in very close proximity. Previous studies have shown that interactions result in significant drag reductions for inline cyclists. However, the interaction between cyclist leg position (pedalling) and the vortical flow structures that contribute significantly to the drag on an isolated cyclist has not previously been quantified or described for tandem cyclists of varying separation. To this end, scale model cyclists were constructed for testing in a water channel for inline tandem configurations. Particle image velocimetry was used to capture time-averaged velocity fields around two tandem cyclists. Perhaps surprisingly, the wake of a trailing cyclist maintains strong similarity to the characteristic wake of a single cyclist despite a significant disturbance to the upstream flow. Together with streamwise velocity measurements through the wake and upstream of the trailing cyclist, this work supports previous findings, which showed that the trailing cyclist drag reduction is primarily due to upstream sheltering effects reducing the stagnation pressure on forward-facing surfaces.

  13. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R. H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R. A.; Griffith, C. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M. R.; Lunine, J. I.; McKay, C. P.; Moussas, X.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E. C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E. P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J. H.; Baines, K. H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A. J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R. D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C. C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D. H.; Bénilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bézard, B.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M. T.; Chassefière, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I. A.; de Angelis, E.; de Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F. M.; Fortes, A. D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Küppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Menor Salvan, C.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C. D.; Nixon, C. A.; Nna Mvondo, D.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F. T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Ruiz Bermejo, M.; Sarris, E. T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L. J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D. F.; Szego, K.; Szopa, C.; Thissen, R.; Tomasko, M. G.; Toublanc, D.; Vali, H.; Vardavas, I.; Vuitton, V.; West, R. A.; Yelle, R.; Young, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfière) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere.

  14. Thermodynamic characterization of tandem mismatches found in naturally occurring RNA

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Martha E.; Znosko, Brent M.

    2009-01-01

    Although all sequence symmetric tandem mismatches and some sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches have been thermodynamically characterized and a model has been proposed to predict the stability of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches [Christiansen,M.E. and Znosko,B.M. (2008) Biochemistry, 47, 4329–4336], experimental thermodynamic data for frequently occurring tandem mismatches is lacking. Since experimental data is preferred over a predictive model, the thermodynamic parameters for 25 frequently occurring tandem mismatches were determined. These new experimental values, on average, are 1.0 kcal/mol different from the values predicted for these mismatches using the previous model. The data for the sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches reported here were then combined with the data for 72 sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches that were published previously, and the parameters used to predict the thermodynamics of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches were updated. The average absolute difference between the measured values and the values predicted using these updated parameters is 0.5 kcal/mol. This updated model improves the prediction for tandem mismatches that were predicted rather poorly by the previous model. This new experimental data and updated predictive model allow for more accurate calculations of the free energy of RNA duplexes containing tandem mismatches, and, furthermore, should allow for improved prediction of secondary structure from sequence. PMID:19509311

  15. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Xuecheng

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Bigmore » domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca{sup 2+} binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca{sup 2+}-binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.« less

  16. The elastic free energy of a tandem modular protein under force.

    PubMed

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Eckels, Edward C; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Fernandez, Julio M

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have provided a theoretical framework for including entropic elasticity in the free energy landscape of proteins under mechanical force. Accounting for entropic elasticity using polymer physics models has helped explain the hopping behavior seen in single molecule experiments in the low force regime. Here, we expand on the construction of the free energy of a single protein domain under force proposed by Berkovich et al. to provide a free energy landscape for N tandem domains along a continuous polypeptide. Calculation of the free energy of individual domains followed by their concatenation provides a continuous free energy landscape whose curvature is dominated by the worm-like chain at forces below 20 pN. We have validated our free energy model using Brownian dynamics and reproduce key features of protein folding. This free energy model can predict the effects of changes in the elastic properties of a multidomain protein as a consequence of biological modifications such as phosphorylation or the formation of disulfide bonds. This work lays the foundations for the modeling of tissue elasticity, which is largely determined by the properties of tandem polyproteins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Tandem CARDs of NOD2: Intramolecular Interactions and Recognition of RIP2

    PubMed Central

    Fridh, Veronica; Rittinger, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) are homotypic protein interaction modules that link the stimulus-dependent assembly of large signaling platforms such as inflammasomes to the activation of downstream effectors that often include caspases and kinases and thereby play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways. NOD2 belongs to the NOD-like (NLR) family of intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRR) and induces activation of the NF-κB pathway in response to the recognition of bacterial components. This process requires the specific recognition of the CARD of the protein kinase RIP2 by the tandem CARDs of NOD2. Here we demonstrate that the tandem CARDs of NOD2 are engaged in an intramolecular interaction that is important for the structural stability of this region. Using a combination of ITC and pull-down experiments we identify distinct surface areas that are involved in the intramolecular tandem CARD interaction and the interaction with the downstream effector RIP2. Our findings indicate that while CARDa of NOD2 might be the primary binding partner of RIP2 the two CARDs of NOD2 do not act independently of one another but may cooperate to from a binding surface that is distinct from that of single CARDs. PMID:22470564

  18. The JH2 domain and SH2-JH2 linker regulate JAK2 activity: A detailed kinetic analysis of wild type and V617F mutant kinase domains.

    PubMed

    Sanz Sanz, Arturo; Niranjan, Yashavanthi; Hammarén, Henrik; Ungureanu, Daniela; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Touw, Ivo P; Silvennoinen, Olli; Hilhorst, Riet

    2014-10-01

    JAK2 tyrosine kinase regulates many cellular functions. Its activity is controlled by the pseudokinase (JH2) domain by still poorly understood mechanisms. The V617F mutation in the pseudokinase domain activates JAK2 and causes myeloproliferative neoplasms. We conducted a detailed kinetic analysis of recombinant JAK2 tyrosine kinase domain (JH1) and wild-type and V617F tandem kinase (JH1JH2) domains using peptide microarrays to define the functions of the kinase domains. The results show that i) JAK2 follows a random Bi-Bi reaction mechanism ii) JH2 domain restrains the activity of the JH1 domain by reducing the affinity for ATP and ATP competitive inhibitors iii) V617F decreases affinity for ATP but increases catalytic activity compared to wild-type and iv) the SH2-JH2 linker region participates in controlling activity by reducing the affinity for ATP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. TRAP: automated classification, quantification and annotation of tandemly repeated sequences.

    PubMed

    Sobreira, Tiago José P; Durham, Alan M; Gruber, Arthur

    2006-02-01

    TRAP, the Tandem Repeats Analysis Program, is a Perl program that provides a unified set of analyses for the selection, classification, quantification and automated annotation of tandemly repeated sequences. TRAP uses the results of the Tandem Repeats Finder program to perform a global analysis of the satellite content of DNA sequences, permitting researchers to easily assess the tandem repeat content for both individual sequences and whole genomes. The results can be generated in convenient formats such as HTML and comma-separated values. TRAP can also be used to automatically generate annotation data in the format of feature table and GFF files.

  20. Flexible and fragmentable tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, S.; Uran, C.; Bozok, B.; Gungor, K.; Kelestemur, Y.; Lesnyak, V.; Gaponik, N.; Eychmüller, A.; Demir, H. V.

    2016-02-01

    We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of single monolayers of colloidal water-soluble CdTe and CdHgTe nanocrystals (NCs) in adjacent junctions on a Kapton polymer tape. Owing to the usage of a single NC layer in each junction, noise generation was significantly reduced while keeping the resulting PNS films considerably transparent. In each junction, photogenerated excitons are dissociated at the interface of the semi-transparent Al electrode and the NC layer, with holes migrating to the contact electrode and electrons trapped in the NCs. As a result, the tandem PNSs lead to an open-circuit photovoltage buildup equal to the sum of those of the two single junctions, exhibiting a total voltage buildup of 128.4 mV at an excitation intensity of 75.8 μW cm-2 at 350 nm. Furthermore, we showed that these flexible PNSs could be bent over 3.5 mm radius of curvature and cut out in arbitrary shapes without damaging the operation of individual parts and without introducing any significant loss in the total sensitivity. These findings indicate that the NC skins are promising as building blocks to make low-cost, flexible, large-area UV/visible sensing platforms with highly efficient full-spectrum conversion.We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of

  1. Tandem robot control system and method for controlling mobile robots in tandem

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.

    2002-01-01

    A control system for controlling mobile robots provides a way to control mobile robots, connected in tandem with coupling devices, to navigate across difficult terrain or in closed spaces. The mobile robots can be controlled cooperatively as a coupled system in linked mode or controlled individually as separate robots.

  2. 47 CFR 69.111 - Tandem-switched transport and tandem charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., geographically averaged on a study-area-wide basis, that the incumbent local exchange carrier experiences based... exchange carrier experiences based on the prior year's annual use. Tandem-switched transport transmission..., geographically averaged on a study-area-wide basis, that the incumbent local exchange carrier experiences based...

  3. A Hybrid Approach To Tandem Cylinder Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Aeolian tone generation from tandem cylinders is predicted using a hybrid approach. A standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used to compute the unsteady flow around the cylinders, and the acoustics are calculated using the acoustic analogy. The CFD code is nominally second order in space and time and includes several turbulence models, but the SST k - omega model is used for most of the calculations. Significant variation is observed between laminar and turbulent cases, and with changes in the turbulence model. A two-dimensional implementation of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation is used to predict the far-field noise.

  4. Method of fabricating bifacial tandem solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Wojtczuk, Steven J; Chiu, Philip T; Zhang, Xuebing; Gagnon, Edward; Timmons, Michael

    2014-10-07

    A method of fabricating on a semiconductor substrate bifacial tandem solar cells with semiconductor subcells having a lower bandgap than the substrate bandgap on one side of the substrate and with subcells having a higher bandgap than the substrate on the other including, first, growing a lower bandgap subcell on one substrate side that uses only the same periodic table group V material in the dislocation-reducing grading layers and bottom subcells as is present in the substrate and after the initial growth is complete and then flipping the substrate and growing the higher bandgap subcells on the opposite substrate side which can be of different group V material.

  5. The Naples University 3 MV tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Campajola, L.; Brondi, A.

    2013-07-18

    The 3 MV tandem accelerator of the Naples University is used for research activities and applications in many fields. At the beginning of operation (1977) the main utilization was in the field of nuclear physics. Later, the realization of new beam lines allowed the development of applied activities as radiocarbon dating, ion beam analysis, biophysics, ion implantation etc. At present, the availability of different ion sources and many improvements on the accelerator allow to run experiments in a wide range of subjects. An overview of the characteristics and major activities of the laboratory is presented.

  6. Tandem Carbocupration/Oxygenation of Terminal Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donghui; Ready, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    A direct and general synthesis of α-branched aldehydes and their enol derivatives is described. Carbocupration of terminal alkynes and subsequent oxygenation with lithium tert-butyl peroxide generates a metallo-enolate. Trapping with various electrophiles provides α-branched aldehydes or stereo-defined trisubstituted enol esters or silyl ethers. The tandem carbocupration/oxygenation tolerates alkyl and silyl ethers, esters and tertiary amines. The reaction is effective with organocopper complexes derived from primary, secondary and tertiary Grignard reagents and from n-butyllithium. PMID:16321021

  7. The HARP domain dictates the annealing helicase activity of HARP/SMARCAL1.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Gargi; Yuan, Jingsong; Chen, Junjie

    2011-06-01

    Mutations in HepA-related protein (HARP, or SMARCAL1) cause Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD). HARP has ATP-dependent annealing helicase activity, which helps to stabilize stalled replication forks and facilitate DNA repair during replication. Here, we show that the conserved tandem HARP (2HP) domain dictates this annealing helicase activity. Furthermore, chimeric proteins generated by fusing the 2HP domain of HARP with the SNF2 domain of BRG1 or HELLS show annealing helicase activity in vitro and, when targeted to replication forks, mimic the functions of HARP in vivo. We propose that the HARP domain endows HARP with this ATP-driven annealing helicase activity.

  8. Protein domain evolution is associated with reproductive diversification and adaptive radiation in the genus Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Anna R; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Myburg, Alexander A

    2015-06-01

    Eucalyptus is a pivotal genus within the rosid order Myrtales with distinct geographic history and adaptations. Comparative analysis of protein domain evolution in the newly sequenced Eucalyptus grandis genome and other rosid lineages sheds light on the adaptive mechanisms integral to the success of this genus of woody perennials. We reconstructed the ancestral domain content to elucidate the gain, loss and expansion of protein domains and domain arrangements in Eucalyptus in the context of rosid phylogeny. We used functional gene ontology (GO) annotation of genes to investigate the possible biological and evolutionary consequences of protein domain expansion. We found that protein modulation within the angiosperms occurred primarily on the level of expansion of certain domains and arrangements. Using RNA-Seq data from E. grandis, we showed that domain expansions have contributed to tissue-specific expression of tandemly duplicated genes. Our results indicate that tandem duplication of genes, a key feature of the Eucalyptus genome, has played an important role in the expansion of domains, particularly in proteins related to the specialization of reproduction and biotic and abiotic interactions affecting root and floral biology, and that tissue-specific expression of proteins with expanded domains has facilitated subfunctionalization in domain families. © 2014 University of Pretoria New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Rational design of alpha-helical tandem repeat proteins with closed architectures

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Lindsey; Hallinan, Jazmine; Bolduc, Jill; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Baker, David; Stoddard, Barry L.; Bradley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Tandem repeat proteins, which are formed by repetition of modular units of protein sequence and structure, play important biological roles as macromolecular binding and scaffolding domains, enzymes, and building blocks for the assembly of fibrous materials1,2. The modular nature of repeat proteins enables the rapid construction and diversification of extended binding surfaces by duplication and recombination of simple building blocks3,4. The overall architecture of tandem repeat protein structures – which is dictated by the internal geometry and local packing of the repeat building blocks – is highly diverse, ranging from extended, super-helical folds that bind peptide, DNA, and RNA partners5–9, to closed and compact conformations with internal cavities suitable for small molecule binding and catalysis10. Here we report the development and validation of computational methods for de novo design of tandem repeat protein architectures driven purely by geometric criteria defining the inter-repeat geometry, without reference to the sequences and structures of existing repeat protein families. We have applied these methods to design a series of closed alpha-solenoid11 repeat structures (alpha-toroids) in which the inter-repeat packing geometry is constrained so as to juxtapose the N- and C-termini; several of these designed structures have been validated by X-ray crystallography. Unlike previous approaches to tandem repeat protein engineering12–20, our design procedure does not rely on template sequence or structural information taken from natural repeat proteins and hence can produce structures unlike those seen in nature. As an example, we have successfully designed and validated closed alpha-solenoid repeats with a left-handed helical architecture that – to our knowledge – is not yet present in the protein structure database21. PMID:26675735

  10. Electromagnetic resonance modes on a two-dimensional tandem grating and its application for broadband absorption in the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Han, Sunwoo; Lee, Bong Jae

    2016-01-25

    In this work, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic resonances on two-dimensional tandem grating structures. The base of a tandem grating consists of an opaque Au substrate, a SiO(2) spacer, and a Au grating (concave type); that is, a well-known fishnet structure forming Au/SiO(2)/Au stack. A convex-type Au grating (i.e., topmost grating) is then attached on top of the base fishnet structure with or without additional SiO(2) spacer, resulting in two types of tandem grating structures. In order to calculate the spectral reflectance and local magnetic field distribution, the finite-difference time-domain method is employed. When the topmost Au grating is directly added onto the base fishnet structure, the surface plasmon and magnetic polariton in the base structure are branched out due to the geometric asymmetry with respect to the SiO(2) spacer. If additional SiO(2) spacer is added between the topmost Au grating and the base fishnet structure, new magnetic resonance modes appear due to coupling between two vertically aligned Au/SiO(2)/Au stacks. With the understanding of multiple electromagnetic resonance modes on the proposed tandem grating structures, we successfully design a broadband absorber made of Au and SiO(2) in the visible spectrum.

  11. Proteins with an Euonymus lectin-like domain are ubiquitous in Embryophyta

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cloning of the Euonymus lectin led to the discovery of a novel domain that also occurs in some stress-induced plant proteins. The distribution and the diversity of proteins with an Euonymus lectin (EUL) domain were investigated using detailed analysis of sequences in publicly accessible genome and transcriptome databases. Results Comprehensive in silico analyses indicate that the recently identified Euonymus europaeus lectin domain represents a conserved structural unit of a novel family of putative carbohydrate-binding proteins, which will further be referred to as the Euonymus lectin (EUL) family. The EUL domain is widespread among plants. Analysis of retrieved sequences revealed that some sequences consist of a single EUL domain linked to an unrelated N-terminal domain whereas others comprise two in tandem arrayed EUL domains. A new classification system for these lectins is proposed based on the overall domain architecture. Evolutionary relationships among the sequences with EUL domains are discussed. Conclusion The identification of the EUL family provides the first evidence for the occurrence in terrestrial plants of a highly conserved plant specific domain. The widespread distribution of the EUL domain strikingly contrasts the more limited or even narrow distribution of most other lectin domains found in plants. The apparent omnipresence of the EUL domain is indicative for a universal role of this lectin domain in plants. Although there is unambiguous evidence that several EUL domains possess carbohydrate-binding activity further research is required to corroborate the carbohydrate-binding properties of different members of the EUL family. PMID:19930663

  12. Negotiating Multiple Identities through eTandem Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Se Jeong; Yi, Youngjoo

    2017-01-01

    Much of eTandem research has investigated either linguistic or cross-cultural aspects of second language (L2) learning, but relatively little is known about issues of identity construction in an eTandem context. Situating the study within theories and research of language learner identity, we examined ways in which two adult L2 learners (a Korean…

  13. Form-Focused Interaction in Online Tandem Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Breffni

    2005-01-01

    Tandem language learning--a configuration involving pairs of learners with complementary target/native languages--is an underexploited but potentially very powerful use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in second-language pedagogy. Tandem offers the benefits of authentic, culturally grounded interaction, while also promoting a pedagogical…

  14. Monitoring Bilingualism: Pedagogical Implications of the Bilingual Tandem Analyser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwienhorst, Klaus; Borgia, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Tandem learning is the collaborative learning partnership of two language learners with complementary language combinations, for example an Irish student learning German and a German student learning English. One of the major principles in tandem learning, apart from reciprocity and learner autonomy, is balanced bilingualism. While learners may…

  15. Internationalized Domain Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielansky, Marc D.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of what may appear at first to be an arcane topic--the internationalization of domain names on the Internet. Concludes that expanding domain names internationally poses challenges to the inherent open structure of the Internet; to its ease of use for those accustomed to Latin-alphabet-only domain names; and to corporate…

  16. Selecting tandem partners for silicon solar cells [Selecting tandem partners for silicon solar cells using spectral efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhengshan; Leilaeioun, Mehdi; Holman, Zachary

    Combining silicon and other materials in tandem solar cells is one approach to enhancing the overall power conversion efficiency of the cells. Here, we argue that top cell partners for silicon tandem solar cells should be selected on the basis of their spectral efficiency — their efficiency resolved by wavelength.

  17. Selecting tandem partners for silicon solar cells [Selecting tandem partners for silicon solar cells using spectral efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Zhengshan; Leilaeioun, Mehdi; Holman, Zachary

    2016-09-26

    Combining silicon and other materials in tandem solar cells is one approach to enhancing the overall power conversion efficiency of the cells. Here, we argue that top cell partners for silicon tandem solar cells should be selected on the basis of their spectral efficiency — their efficiency resolved by wavelength.

  18. Electronic Tandem Language Learning (eTandem): A Third Approach to Second Language Learning for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cziko, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    Tandem language learning occurs when two learners of different native languages work together to help each other learn the other language. First used in face-to-face contexts, Tandem is now increasingly being used by language-learning partners located in different countries who are linked via various forms of electronic communication, a context…

  19. Axisymmetric Tandem Mirrors: Stabilization and Confinement Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Fowler, T.K.; Bulmer, R.

    2005-01-15

    The 'Kinetic Stabilizer' has been proposed as a means of MHD stabilizing an axisymmetric tandem mirror system. The K-S concept is based on theoretical studies by Ryutov, confirmed experimentally in the Gas Dynamic Trap experiment in Novosibirsk. In the K-S beams of ions are directed into the end of an 'expander' region outside the outer mirror of a tandem mirror. These ions, slowed, stagnated, and reflected as they move up the magnetic gradient, produce a low-density stabilizing plasma.At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have been conducting theoretical and computational studies of the K-S Tandem Mirror. These studies have employedmore » a low-beta code written especially to analyze the beam injection/stabilization process,and a new code SYMTRAN (by Hua and Fowler)that solves the coupled radial and axial particle and energy transport in a K-S T-M. Also, a 'legacy' MHD stability code, FLORA, has been upgraded and employed to benchmark the injection/stabilization code and to extend its results to high beta values.The FLORA code studies so far have confirmed the effectiveness of the K-S in stabilizing high-beta (40%) plasmas with stabilizer plasmas the peak pressures of which are several orders of magnitude smaller than those of the confined plasma.Also the SYMTRAN code has shown D-T plasma ignition from alpha particle energy deposition in T-M regimes with strong end plugging.Our studies have confirmed the viability of the K-S T-M concept with respect to MHD stability and radial and axial confinement. We are continuing these studies in order to optimize the parameters and to examine means for the stabilization of possible residual instability modes, such as drift modes and 'trapped-particle' modes. These modes may in principle be controlled by tailoring the stabilizer plasma distribution and/or the radial potential distribution.In the paper the results to date of our studies are summarized and projected to scope out possible fusion-power versions of the

  20. Axisymmetric Tandem Mirrors: Stabilization and Confinement Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F; Fowler, T K; Bulmer, R

    2004-07-15

    The 'Kinetic Stabilizer' has been proposed as a means of MHD stabilizing an axisymmetric tandem mirror system. The K-S concept is based on theoretical studies by Ryutov, confirmed experimentally in the Gas Dynamic Trap experiment in Novosibirsk. In the K-S beams of ions are directed into the end of an 'expander' region outside the outer mirror of a tandem mirror. These ions, slowed, stagnated, and reflected as they move up the magnetic gradient, produce a low-density stabilizing plasma. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have been conducting theoretical and computational studies of the K-S Tandem Mirror. These studies havemore » employed a low-beta code written especially to analyze the beam injection/stabilization process, and a new code SYMTRAN (by Hua and Fowler) that solves the coupled radial and axial particle and energy transport in a K-S TM. Also, a 'legacy' MHD stability code, FLORA, has been upgraded and employed to benchmark the injection/stabilization code and to extend its results to high beta values. The FLORA code studies so far have confirmed the effectiveness of the K-S in stabilizing high-beta (40%) plasmas with stabilizer plasmas the peak pressures of which are several orders of magnitude smaller than those of the confined plasma. Also the SYMTRAN code has shown D-T plasma ignition from alpha particle energy deposition in T-M regimes with strong end plugging. Our studies have confirmed the viability of the K-S-T-M concept with respect to MHD stability and radial and axial confinement. We are continuing these studies in order to optimize the parameters and to examine means for the stabilization of possible residual instability modes, such as drift modes and 'trapped-particle' modes. These modes may in principle be controlled by tailoring the stabilizer plasma distribution and/or the radial potential distribution. In the paper the results to date of our studies are summarized and projected to scope out possible fusion-power versions

  1. Folding and Aggregation of Mucin Domains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanc, Brigita; Bansil, Rama; Turner, Bradley

    2007-03-01

    Mucin glycoproteins consist of tandem repeating glycosylated regions flanked by non-repetitive protein domains with little glycosylation. These non-repetitive domains are involved in polymerization of mucin via disulfide bonds and play an important role in the pH dependent gelation of gastric mucin, which is essential to protecting the stomach from autodigestion. We have examined the folding and aggregation of the non-repetitive sequence of von Willebrand factor vWF-C1 domain (67 amino acids) and PGM 2X (242 amino acids) using Discrete Molecular Dynamics (four-bead protein model with hydrogen bonding and amino acid-specific hydrophobic/hydrophilic and electrostatic interactions of side chains). Simulations of vWF C1 show 4-6 β-strands separated by turns/loops with more loops at lower pH. A simulation of several vWF C1 proteins at low pH shows aggregates still with a high content of β-strands and enhanced turn/loop regions. For the PGM 2X simulation the contact map shows several salt bridges enclosing hairpin turns. The implications of these simulations for describing the aggregation/gelation of PGM will be discussed.

  2. Protein Sequencing with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziady, Assem G.; Kinter, Michael

    The recent introduction of electrospray ionization techniques that are suitable for peptides and whole proteins has allowed for the design of mass spectrometric protocols that provide accurate sequence information for proteins. The advantages gained by these approaches over traditional Edman Degradation sequencing include faster analysis and femtomole, sometimes attomole, sensitivity. The ability to efficiently identify proteins has allowed investigators to conduct studies on their differential expression or modification in response to various treatments or disease states. In this chapter, we discuss the use of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, a technique whereby protein-derived peptides are subjected to fragmentation in the gas phase, revealing sequence information for the protein. This powerful technique has been instrumental for the study of proteins and markers associated with various disorders, including heart disease, cancer, and cystic fibrosis. We use the study of protein expression in cystic fibrosis as an example.

  3. Educational activities with a tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolaro, P.; Campajola, L.; Balzano, E.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Figari, R.; Vardaci, E.; La Rana, G.

    2018-05-01

    Selected experiments in fundamental physics have been proposed for many years at the Tandem Accelerator of the University of Napoli ‘Federico II’s Department of Physics as a part of a one-semester laboratory course for graduate students. The aim of this paper is to highlight the educational value of the experimental realization of the nuclear reaction 19F(p,α)16O. With the purpose of verifying the mass-energy equivalence principle, different aspects of both classical and modern physics can be investigated, e.g. conservation laws, atomic models, nuclear physics applications to compositional analysis, nuclear cross-section, Q-value and nuclear spectroscopic analysis.

  4. Tandem cyclopropanation with dibromomethane under Grignard conditions.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Gerhard; Eberhard, Laura; Oetiker, Jürg; Schröder, Fridtjof

    2008-10-03

    Tertiary Grignard reagents and dibromomethane efficiently cyclopropanate allylic (and certain homoallylic) magnesium and lithium alcoholates at ambient temperature in ether solvents. Lithium (homo)allyl alcoholates are directly cyclopropanated with magnesium and CH2Br2 under Barbier conditions at higher temperatures. The reaction rates depend on the substitution pattern of the (homo)allylic alcoholates and on the counterion with lithium giving best results. Good to excellent syn-selectivities are obtained from alpha-substituted substrates, which are in accord with a staggered Houk model. In tandem reactions, cyclopropyl carbinols are obtained from allyloxylithium or -magnesium intermediates, generated in situ by alkylation of conjugated aldehydes, ketones, and esters as well as from allyl carboxylates or vinyloxiranes. Using this methodology, numerous fragrance ingredients and their precursors were efficiently converted to the corresponding cyclopropyl carbinols.

  5. A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator.

    PubMed

    Persaud, A; Kwan, J W; Leitner, M; Leung, K-N; Ludewigt, B; Tanaka, N; Waldron, W; Wilde, S; Antolak, A J; Morse, D H; Raber, T

    2010-02-01

    A dual-energy tandem-type gamma generator has been developed at E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The tandem accelerator geometry allows higher energy nuclear reactions to be reached, thereby allowing more flexible generation of MeV-energy gammas for active interrogation applications. Both positively charged ions and atoms of hydrogen are created from negative ions via a gas stripper. In this paper, we show first results of the working tandem-based gamma generator and that a gas stripper can be utilized in a compact source design. Preliminary results of monoenergetic gamma production are shown.

  6. Domain wall nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalan, G.; Seidel, J.; Ramesh, R.; Scott, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Domains in ferroelectrics were considered to be well understood by the middle of the last century: They were generally rectilinear, and their walls were Ising-like. Their simplicity stood in stark contrast to the more complex Bloch walls or Néel walls in magnets. Only within the past decade and with the introduction of atomic-resolution studies via transmission electron microscopy, electron holography, and atomic force microscopy with polarization sensitivity has their real complexity been revealed. Additional phenomena appear in recent studies, especially of magnetoelectric materials, where functional properties inside domain walls are being directly measured. In this paper these studies are reviewed, focusing attention on ferroelectrics and multiferroics but making comparisons where possible with magnetic domains and domain walls. An important part of this review will concern device applications, with the spotlight on a new paradigm of ferroic devices where the domain walls, rather than the domains, are the active element. Here magnetic wall microelectronics is already in full swing, owing largely to the work of Cowburn and of Parkin and their colleagues. These devices exploit the high domain wall mobilities in magnets and their resulting high velocities, which can be supersonic, as shown by Kreines’ and co-workers 30 years ago. By comparison, nanoelectronic devices employing ferroelectric domain walls often have slower domain wall speeds, but may exploit their smaller size as well as their different functional properties. These include domain wall conductivity (metallic or even superconducting in bulk insulating or semiconducting oxides) and the fact that domain walls can be ferromagnetic while the surrounding domains are not.

  7. APE1 incision activity at abasic sites in tandem repeat sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengxia; Völker, Jens; Breslauer, Kenneth J; Wilson, David M

    2014-05-29

    Repetitive DNA sequences, such as those present in microsatellites and minisatellites, telomeres, and trinucleotide repeats (linked to fragile X syndrome, Huntington disease, etc.), account for nearly 30% of the human genome. These domains exhibit enhanced susceptibility to oxidative attack to yield base modifications, strand breaks, and abasic sites; have a propensity to adopt non-canonical DNA forms modulated by the positions of the lesions; and, when not properly processed, can contribute to genome instability that underlies aging and disease development. Knowledge on the repair efficiencies of DNA damage within such repetitive sequences is therefore crucial for understanding the impact of such domains on genomic integrity. In the present study, using strategically designed oligonucleotide substrates, we determined the ability of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) to cleave at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in a collection of tandem DNA repeat landscapes involving telomeric and CAG/CTG repeat sequences. Our studies reveal the differential influence of domain sequence, conformation, and AP site location/relative positioning on the efficiency of APE1 binding and strand incision. Intriguingly, our data demonstrate that APE1 endonuclease efficiency correlates with the thermodynamic stability of the DNA substrate. We discuss how these results have both predictive and mechanistic consequences for understanding the success and failure of repair protein activity associated with such oxidatively sensitive, conformationally plastic/dynamic repetitive DNA domains. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Phylogenetic and specificity studies of two-domain GNA-related lectins: generation of multispecificity through domain duplication and divergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Els J. M.; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Smith, David F.; Ongenaert, Maté; Winter, Harry C.; Rougé, Pierre; Goldstein, Irwin J.; Mo, Hanqing; Kominami, Junko; Culerrier, Raphaël; Barre, Annick; Hirabayashi, Jun; Peumans, Willy J.

    2007-01-01

    A re-investigation of the occurrence and taxonomic distribution of proteins built up of protomers consisting of two tandem arrayed domains equivalent to the GNA [Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin] revealed that these are widespread among monotyledonous plants. Phylogenetic analysis of the available sequences indicated that these proteins do not represent a monophylogenetic group but most probably result from multiple independent domain duplication/in tandem insertion events. To corroborate the relationship between inter-domain sequence divergence and the widening of specificity range, a detailed comparative analysis was made of the sequences and specificity of a set of two-domain GNA-related lectins. Glycan microarray analyses, frontal affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance measurements demonstrated that the two-domain GNA-related lectins acquired a marked diversity in carbohydrate-binding specificity that strikingly contrasts the canonical exclusive specificity of their single domain counterparts towards mannose. Moreover, it appears that most two-domain GNA-related lectins interact with both high mannose and complex N-glycans and that this dual specificity relies on the simultaneous presence of at least two different independently acting binding sites. The combined phylogenetic, specificity and structural data strongly suggest that plants used domain duplication followed by divergent evolution as a mechanism to generate multispecific lectins from a single mannose-binding domain. Taking into account that the shift in specificity of some binding sites from high mannose to complex type N-glycans implies that the two-domain GNA-related lectins are primarily directed against typical animal glycans, it is tempting to speculate that plants developed two-domain GNA-related lectins for defence purposes. PMID:17288538

  9. Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Iavarone, M; Moore, S A; Fedor, J; Ciocys, S T; Karapetrov, G; Pearson, J; Novosad, V; Bader, S D

    2014-08-28

    In magnetically coupled, planar ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures, magnetic domain walls can be used to spatially confine the superconductivity. In contrast to a superconductor in a uniform applied magnetic field, the nucleation of the superconducting order parameter in F/S structures is governed by the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution. The interplay between the superconductivity localized at the domain walls and far from the walls leads to effects such as re-entrant superconductivity and reverse domain superconductivity with the critical temperature depending upon the location. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly image the nucleation of superconductivity at the domain wall in F/S structures realized with Co-Pd multilayers and Pb thin films. Our results demonstrate that such F/S structures are attractive model systems that offer the possibility to control the strength and the location of the superconducting nucleus by applying an external magnetic field, potentially useful to guide vortices for computing application.

  10. Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity

    PubMed Central

    Iavarone, M.; Moore, S. A.; Fedor, J.; Ciocys, S. T.; Karapetrov, G.; Pearson, J.; Novosad, V.; Bader, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    In magnetically coupled, planar ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures, magnetic domain walls can be used to spatially confine the superconductivity. In contrast to a superconductor in a uniform applied magnetic field, the nucleation of the superconducting order parameter in F/S structures is governed by the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution. The interplay between the superconductivity localized at the domain walls and far from the walls leads to effects such as re-entrant superconductivity and reverse domain superconductivity with the critical temperature depending upon the location. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly image the nucleation of superconductivity at the domain wall in F/S structures realized with Co-Pd multilayers and Pb thin films. Our results demonstrate that such F/S structures are attractive model systems that offer the possibility to control the strength and the location of the superconducting nucleus by applying an external magnetic field, potentially useful to guide vortices for computing application. PMID:25164004

  11. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  12. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF UNITEDTOD TWIN TANDEM STEAM ENGINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF UNITED-TOD TWIN TANDEM STEAM ENGINE. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  13. SYMTRAN - A Time-dependent Symmetric Tandem Mirror Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, D; Fowler, T

    2004-06-15

    A time-dependent version of the steady-state radial transport model in symmetric tandem mirrors in Ref. [1] has been coded up and first tests performed. Our code, named SYMTRAN, is an adaptation of the earlier SPHERE code for spheromaks, now modified for tandem mirror physics. Motivated by Post's new concept of kinetic stabilization of symmetric mirrors, it is an extension of the earlier TAMRAC rate-equation code omitting radial transport [2], which successfully accounted for experimental results in TMX. The SYMTRAN code differs from the earlier tandem mirror radial transport code TMT in that our code is focused on axisymmetric tandem mirrorsmore » and classical diffusion, whereas TMT emphasized non-ambipolar transport in TMX and MFTF-B due to yin-yang plugs and non-symmetric transitions between the plugs and axisymmetric center cell. Both codes exhibit interesting but different non-linear behavior.« less

  14. Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion with Photoelectrochemical Tandem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sivula, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently and inexpensively converting solar energy into chemical fuels is an important goal towards a sustainable energy economy. An integrated tandem cell approach could reasonably convert over 20% of the sun's energy directly into chemical fuels like H2 via water splitting. Many different systems have been investigated using various combinations of photovoltaic cells and photoelectrodes, but in order to be economically competitive with the production of H2 from fossil fuels, a practical water splitting tandem cell must optimize cost, longevity and performance. In this short review, the practical aspects of solar fuel production are considered from the perspective of a semiconductor-based tandem cell and the latest advances with a very promising technology - metal oxide photoelectrochemical tandem cells - are presented.

  15. Tandem internal models execute motor learning in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takeru; Nagao, Soichi; Hashimoto, Yuji; Ishikawa, Kinya; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ito, Masao

    2018-06-25

    In performing skillful movement, humans use predictions from internal models formed by repetition learning. However, the computational organization of internal models in the brain remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that a computational architecture employing a tandem configuration of forward and inverse internal models enables efficient motor learning in the cerebellum. The model predicted learning adaptations observed in hand-reaching experiments in humans wearing a prism lens and explained the kinetic components of these behavioral adaptations. The tandem system also predicted a form of subliminal motor learning that was experimentally validated after training intentional misses of hand targets. Patients with cerebellar degeneration disease showed behavioral impairments consistent with tandemly arranged internal models. These findings validate computational tandemization of internal models in motor control and its potential uses in more complex forms of learning and cognition. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  17. Transcription of tandemly repetitive DNA: functional roles.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Olmo, Ettore; Barucca, Marco

    2015-09-01

    A considerable fraction of the eukaryotic genome is made up of satellite DNA constituted of tandemly repeated sequences. These elements are mainly located at centromeres, pericentromeres, and telomeres and are major components of constitutive heterochromatin. Although originally satellite DNA was thought silent and inert, an increasing number of studies are providing evidence on its transcriptional activity supporting, on the contrary, an unexpected dynamicity. This review summarizes the multiple structural roles of satellite noncoding RNAs at chromosome level. Indeed, satellite noncoding RNAs play a role in the establishment of a heterochromatic state at centromere and telomere. These highly condensed structures are indispensable to preserve chromosome integrity and genome stability, preventing recombination events, and ensuring the correct chromosome pairing and segregation. Moreover, these RNA molecules seem to be involved also in maintaining centromere identity and in elongation, capping, and replication of telomere. Finally, the abnormal variation of centromeric and pericentromeric DNA transcription across major eukaryotic lineages in stress condition and disease has evidenced the critical role that these transcripts may play and the potentially dire consequences for the organism.

  18. Short tandem repeat analysis in Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Hashiyada, M

    2000-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs), known as microsatellites, are one of the most informative genetic markers for characterizing biological materials. Because of the relatively small size of STR alleles (generally 100-350 nucleotides), amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is relatively easy, affording a high sensitivity of detection. In addition, STR loci can be amplified simultaneously in a multiplex PCR. Thus, substantial information can be obtained in a single analysis with the benefits of using less template DNA, reducing labor, and reducing the contamination. We investigated 14 STR loci in a Japanese population living in Sendai by three multiplex PCR kits, GenePrint PowerPlex 1.1 and 2.2. Fluorescent STR System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and AmpF/STR Profiler (Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, CT, USA). Genomic DNA was extracted using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) proteinase K or Chelex 100 treatment followed by the phenol/chloroform extraction. PCR was performed according to the manufacturer's protocols. Electrophoresis was carried out on an ABI 377 sequencer and the alleles were determined by GeneScan 2.0.2 software (Perkin-Elmer). In 14 STRs loci, statistical parameters indicated a relatively high rate, and no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected. We apply this STR system to paternity testing and forensic casework, e.g., personal identification in rape cases. This system is an effective tool in the forensic sciences to obtain information on individual identification.

  19. Software dependability in the Tandem GUARDIAN system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Inhwan; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    Based on extensive field failure data for Tandem's GUARDIAN operating system this paper discusses evaluation of the dependability of operational software. Software faults considered are major defects that result in processor failures and invoke backup processes to take over. The paper categorizes the underlying causes of software failures and evaluates the effectiveness of the process pair technique in tolerating software faults. A model to describe the impact of software faults on the reliability of an overall system is proposed. The model is used to evaluate the significance of key factors that determine software dependability and to identify areas for improvement. An analysis of the data shows that about 77% of processor failures that are initially considered due to software are confirmed as software problems. The analysis shows that the use of process pairs to provide checkpointing and restart (originally intended for tolerating hardware faults) allows the system to tolerate about 75% of reported software faults that result in processor failures. The loose coupling between processors, which results in the backup execution (the processor state and the sequence of events) being different from the original execution, is a major reason for the measured software fault tolerance. Over two-thirds (72%) of measured software failures are recurrences of previously reported faults. Modeling, based on the data, shows that, in addition to reducing the number of software faults, software dependability can be enhanced by reducing the recurrence rate.

  20. Tandem mass spectrometry: analysis of complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Applications of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the analysis of complex mixtures results in increased specificity and selectivity by using a variety of reagent gases in both negative and positive ion modes. Natural isotopic abundance ratios were examined in both simple and complex mixtures using parent, daughter and neutral loss scans. MS/MS was also used to discover new compounds. Daughter scans were used to identify seven new alkaloids in a cactus species. Three of these alkaloids were novel compounds, and included the first simple, fully aromatic isoquinoline alkaloids reported in Cactaceae. MS/MS was used to characterize the chemical reaction productsmore » of coal in studies designed to probe its macromolecular structure. Negative ion chemical ionization was utilized to study reaction products resulting from the oxidation of coal. Possible structural units in the precursor coal were predicted based on the reaction products identified, aliphatic and aromatic acids and their anhydrides. The MS/MS method was also used to characterize reaction products resulting from coal liquefaction and/or extraction. These studies illustrate the types of problems for which MS/MS is useful. Emphasis has been placed on characterization of complex mixtures by selecting experimental parameters which enhance the information obtained. The value of using MS/MS in conjunction with other analytical techniques as well as the chemical pretreatment is demonstrated.« less

  1. Traditional and modern medicine working in tandem.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, E

    1991-12-01

    Because of the many problems relating to health care delivery in Africa, it is becoming apparent that neither the exclusive/monopolistic nor the tolerant legislative systems should be tolerated any longer. Especially since the Alma Ata Conference held by the WHO/UNICEF there has been growing impetus towards either inclusive/parallel (the beneficial co-existence of traditional and modern medical systems), or integrated systems. Although the idea of making traditional and modern medicine work in tandem in a united treatment context has its merits, it is also plagued by issues such as the nature of the products of an integrated training, resistance by stubborn protagonists of either of the two systems, or that only lip-service is paid to the idea of co-operation. Nevertheless, it is believed that all interest groups--the authorities responsible for health care delivery, the Western-trained health care workers, the traditional healers and the users of these services--stand to gain from such liaison.

  2. Thermal denaturation of the BRCT tandem repeat region of human tumour suppressor gene product BRCA1.

    PubMed

    Pyrpassopoulos, Serapion; Ladopoulou, Angela; Vlassi, Metaxia; Papanikolau, Yannis; Vorgias, Constantinos E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nounesis, George

    2005-04-01

    Reduced stability of the tandem BRCT domains of human BReast CAncer 1 (BRCA1) due to missense mutations may be critical for loss of function in DNA repair and damage-induced checkpoint control. In the present thermal denaturation study of the BRCA1 BRCT region, high-precision differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy provide evidence for the existence of a denatured state that is structurally very similar to the native. Consistency between theoretical structure-based estimates of the enthalpy (DeltaH) and heat capacity change (DeltaCp) and the calorimetric results is obtained when considering partial thermal unfolding contained in the region of the conserved hydrophobic pocket formed at the interface of the two BRCT repeats. The structural integrity of this region has been shown to be crucial for the interaction of BRCA1 with phosphorylated peptides. In addition, cancer-causing missense mutations located at the inter-BRCT-repeat interface have been linked to the destabilization of the tandem BRCT structure.

  3. Phosphotyrosine recognition domains: the typical, the atypical and the versatile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    SH2 domains are long known prominent players in the field of phosphotyrosine recognition within signaling protein networks. However, over the years they have been joined by an increasing number of other protein domain families that can, at least with some of their members, also recognise pTyr residues in a sequence-specific context. This superfamily of pTyr recognition modules, which includes substantial fractions of the PTB domains, as well as much smaller, or even single member fractions like the HYB domain, the PKCδ and PKCθ C2 domains and RKIP, represents a fascinating, medically relevant and hence intensely studied part of the cellular signaling architecture of metazoans. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation clearly serves a plethora of functions and pTyr recognition domains are used in a similarly wide range of interaction modes, which encompass, for example, partner protein switching, tandem recognition functionalities and the interaction with catalytically active protein domains. If looked upon closely enough, virtually no pTyr recognition and regulation event is an exact mirror image of another one in the same cell. Thus, the more we learn about the biology and ultrastructural details of pTyr recognition domains, the more does it become apparent that nature cleverly combines and varies a few basic principles to generate a sheer endless number of sophisticated and highly effective recognition/regulation events that are, under normal conditions, elegantly orchestrated in time and space. This knowledge is also valuable when exploring pTyr reader domains as diagnostic tools, drug targets or therapeutic reagents to combat human diseases. PMID:23134684

  4. Enhancing Accuracy in Molecular Weight Determination of Highly Heterogeneously Glycosylated Proteins by Native Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanbo; de Jong, Rob N; van den Bremer, Ewald T J; Parren, Paul W H I; Heck, Albert J R

    2017-05-02

    The determination of molecular weights (MWs) of heavily glycosylated proteins is seriously hampered by the physicochemical characteristics and heterogeneity of the attached carbohydrates. Glycosylation impacts protein migration during sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis. Standard electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry does not provide a direct solution as this approach is hindered by extensive interference of ion signals caused by closely spaced charge states of broadly distributed glycoforms. Here, we introduce a native tandem MS-based approach, enabling charge-state resolution and charge assignment of protein ions including those that escape mass analysis under standard MS conditions. Using this method, we determined the MW of two model glycoproteins, the extra-cellular domains of the highly and heterogeneously glycosylated proteins CD38 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as well as the overall MW and binding stoichiometries of these proteins in complex with a specific antibody.

  5. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 has a novel homodimer-like structure formed by tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Morio; Toma-Fukai, Sachiko; Kim, Jun-Dal; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-21

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to nitrogen atoms on arginine residues. Here, we describe the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans PRMT7 in complex with its reaction product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. The structural data indicated that PRMT7 harbors two tandem repeated PRMT core domains that form a novel homodimer-like structure. S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine bound to the N-terminal catalytic site only; the C-terminal catalytic site is occupied by a loop that inhibits cofactor binding. Mutagenesis demonstrated that only the N-terminal catalytic site of PRMT7 is responsible for cofactor binding. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Conserved Tandem Donor Sites and Intronic Motifs Required for Alternative Splicing in Corticosteroid Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaoxiao; Matthews, Laura; Lightman, Stafford; Ray, David; Norman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing events from tandem donor sites result in mRNA variants coding for additional amino acids in the DNA binding domain of both the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. We now show that expression of both splice variants is extensively conserved in mammalian species, providing strong evidence for their functional significance. An exception to the conservation of the MR tandem splice site (an A at position +5 of the MR+12 donor site in the mouse) was predicted to decrease U1 small nuclear RNA binding. In accord with this prediction, we were unable to detect the MR+12 variant in this species. The one exception to the conservation of the GR tandem splice site, an A at position +3 of the platypus GRγ donor site that was predicted to enhance binding of U1 snRNA, was unexpectedly associated with decreased expression of the variant from the endogenous gene as well as a minigene. An intronic pyrimidine motif present in both GR and MR genes was found to be critical for usage of the downstream donor site, and overexpression of TIA1/TIAL1 RNA binding proteins, which are known to bind such motifs, led to a marked increase in the proportion of GRγ and MR+12. These results provide striking evidence for conservation of a complex splicing mechanism that involves processes other than stochastic spliceosome binding and identify a mechanism that would allow regulation of variant expression. PMID:19819975

  7. Understanding pathogenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms in multidomain proteins – studies of isolated domains are not enough

    PubMed Central

    Randles, Lucy G; Dawes, Gwen J S; Wensley, Beth G; Steward, Annette; Nickson, Adrian A; Clarke, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Studying the effects of pathogenic mutations is more complex in multidomain proteins when compared with single domains: mutations occurring at domain boundaries may have a large effect on a neighbouring domain that will not be detected in a single-domain system. To demonstrate this, we present a study that utilizes well-characterized model protein domains from human spectrin to investigate the effect of disease-and non-disease-causing single point mutations occurring at the boundaries of human spectrin repeats. Our results show that mutations in the single domains have no clear correlation with stability and disease; however, when studied in a tandem model system, the disease-causing mutations are shown to disrupt stabilizing interactions that exist between domains. This results in a much larger decrease in stability than would otherwise have been predicted, and demonstrates the importance of studying such mutations in the correct protein context. PMID:23241237

  8. Concerted action of the PHD, chromo and motor domains regulates the human chromatin remodelling ATPase CHD4.

    PubMed

    Morra, Rosa; Lee, Benjamin M; Shaw, Heather; Tuma, Roman; Mancini, Erika J

    2012-07-30

    CHD4, the core subunit of the Nucleosome Remodelling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, is a chromatin remodelling ATPase that, in addition to a helicase domain, harbors tandem plant homeo finger and chromo domains. By using a panel of domain constructs we dissect their roles and demonstrate that DNA binding, histone binding and ATPase activities are allosterically regulated. Molecular shape reconstruction from small-angle X-ray scattering reveals extensive domain-domain interactions, which provide a structural explanation for the regulation of CHD4 activities by intramolecular domain communication. Our results demonstrate functional interdependency between domains within a chromatin remodeller. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. NMR assignments of the N-terminal domain of Nephila clavipes spidroin 1

    PubMed Central

    Parnham, Stuart; Gaines, William A.; Duggan, Brendan M.; Marcotte, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The building blocks of spider dragline silk are two fibrous proteins secreted from the major ampullate gland named spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1, MaSp2). These proteins consist of a large central domain composed of approximately 100 tandem copies of a 35–40 amino acid repeat sequence. Non-repetitive N and C-terminal domains, of which the C-terminal domain has been implicated to transition from soluble and insoluble states during spinning, flank the repetitive core. The N-terminal domain until recently has been largely unknown due to difficulties in cloning and expression. Here, we report nearly complete assignment for all 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances in the 14 kDa N-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1-N) of the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes. PMID:21152998

  10. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Marty

    2010-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials have great potential in influencing the future of small scale electronics. At a basic level, this is because ferroelectric surfaces are charged, and so interact strongly with charge-carrying metals and semiconductors - the building blocks for all electronic systems. Since the electrical polarity of the ferroelectric can be reversed, surfaces can both attract and repel charges in nearby materials, and can thereby exert complete control over both charge distribution and movement. It should be no surprise, therefore, that microelectronics industries have already looked very seriously at harnessing ferroelectric materials in a variety of applications, from solid state memory chips (FeRAMs) to field effect transistors (FeFETs). In all such applications, switching the direction of the polarity of the ferroelectric is a key aspect of functional behavior. The mechanism for switching involves the field-induced nucleation and growth of domains. Domain coarsening, through domain wall propagation, eventually causes the entire ferroelectric to switch its polar direction. It is thus the existence and behavior of domains that determine the switching response, and ultimately the performance of the ferroelectric device. A major issue, associated with the integration of ferroelectrics into microelectronic devices, has been that the fundamental properties associated with ferroelectrics, when in bulk form, appear to change quite dramatically and unpredictably when at the nanoscale: new modes of behaviour, and different functional characteristics from those seen in bulk appear. For domains, in particular, the proximity of surfaces and boundaries have a dramatic effect: surface tension and depolarizing fields both serve to increase the equilibrium density of domains, such that minor changes in scale or morphology can have major ramifications for domain redistribution. Given the importance of domains in dictating the overall switching characteristics of a device

  11. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline Thin Film Tandem Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Lukas; Abate, Antonio; Feurer, Thomas; Fu, Fan; Avancini, Enrico; Löckinger, Johannes; Reinhard, Patrick; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2015-07-16

    A promising way to enhance the efficiency of CIGS solar cells is by combining them with perovskite solar cells in tandem devices. However, so far, such tandem devices had limited efficiency due to challenges in developing NIR-transparent perovskite top cells, which allow photons with energy below the perovskite band gap to be transmitted to the bottom cell. Here, a process for the fabrication of NIR-transparent perovskite solar cells is presented, which enables power conversion efficiencies up to 12.1% combined with an average sub-band gap transmission of 71% for photons with wavelength between 800 and 1000 nm. The combination of a NIR-transparent perovskite top cell with a CIGS bottom cell enabled a tandem device with 19.5% efficiency, which is the highest reported efficiency for a polycrystalline thin film tandem solar cell. Future developments of perovskite/CIGS tandem devices are discussed and prospects for devices with efficiency toward and above 27% are given.

  12. Cooperative cell motility during tandem locomotion of amoeboid cells

    PubMed Central

    Bastounis, Effie; Álvarez-González, Begoña; del Álamo, Juan C.; Lasheras, Juan C.; Firtel, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Streams of migratory cells are initiated by the formation of tandem pairs of cells connected head to tail to which other cells subsequently adhere. The mechanisms regulating the transition from single to streaming cell migration remain elusive, although several molecules have been suggested to be involved. In this work, we investigate the mechanics of the locomotion of Dictyostelium tandem pairs by analyzing the spatiotemporal evolution of their traction adhesions (TAs). We find that in migrating wild-type tandem pairs, each cell exerts traction forces on stationary sites (∼80% of the time), and the trailing cell reuses the location of the TAs of the leading cell. Both leading and trailing cells form contractile dipoles and synchronize the formation of new frontal TAs with ∼54-s time delay. Cells not expressing the lectin discoidin I or moving on discoidin I–coated substrata form fewer tandems, but the trailing cell still reuses the locations of the TAs of the leading cell, suggesting that discoidin I is not responsible for a possible chemically driven synchronization process. The migration dynamics of the tandems indicate that their TAs’ reuse results from the mechanical synchronization of the leading and trailing cells’ protrusions and retractions (motility cycles) aided by the cell–cell adhesions. PMID:26912787

  13. Structural analysis of poly-SUMO chain recognition by the RNF4-SIMs domain.

    PubMed

    Kung, Camy C-H; Naik, Mandar T; Wang, Szu-Huan; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Chang, Che-Chang; Lin, Li-Ying; Chen, Chia-Lin; Ma, Che; Chang, Chi-Fon; Huang, Tai-Huang

    2014-08-15

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) contains four tandem SIM [SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier)-interaction motif] repeats for selective interaction with poly-SUMO-modified proteins, which it targets for degradation. We employed a multi-faceted approach to characterize the structure of the RNF4-SIMs domain and the tetra-SUMO2 chain to elucidate the interaction between them. In solution, the SIM domain was intrinsically disordered and the linkers of the tetra-SUMO2 were highly flexible. Individual SIMs of the RNF4-SIMs domains bind to SUMO2 in the groove between the β2-strand and the α1-helix parallel to the β2-strand. SIM2 and SIM3 bound to SUMO with a high affinity and together constituted the recognition module necessary for SUMO binding. SIM4 alone bound to SUMO with low affinity; however, its contribution to tetra-SUMO2 binding avidity is comparable with that of SIM3 when in the RNF4-SIMs domain. The SAXS data of the tetra-SUMO2-RNF4-SIMs domain complex indicate that it exists as an ordered structure. The HADDOCK model showed that the tandem RNF4-SIMs domain bound antiparallel to the tetra-SUMO2 chain orientation and wrapped around the SUMO protamers in a superhelical turn without imposing steric hindrance on either molecule.

  14. The B-Box Domain Protein BBX21 Promotes Photomorphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongqing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Jian; Holm, Magnus; Deng, Xing Wang

    2018-03-01

    B-box-containing (BBX) proteins play critical roles in a variety of cellular and developmental processes in plants. BBX21 (also known as SALT TOLERANCE HOMOLOG2), which contains two B-box domains in tandem at the N terminus, has been previously demonstrated as a key component involved in the COP1-HY5 signaling hub. However, the exact molecular and physiological roles of B-box domains in BBX21 are largely unclear. Here, we found that structurally disruption of the second B-box domain, but not the first one, in BBX21 completely abolishes its biological and physiological activity in conferring hyperphotomorphogenetic phenotype in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). Intact B-box domains in BBX21 are not required for interaction with COP1 and its degradation by COP1 via the 26S proteasome system. However, disruption of the second B-box of BBX21 nearly impairs its ability for binding of T/G-box within the HY5 promoter both in vitro and in vivo, as well as controlling HY5 and HY5-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis seedlings. Taken together, this study provides a mechanistic framework in which BBX21 directly binds to the T/G-box present in the HY5 promoter possibly through its second B-box domain, which in turn controls HY5 and HY5-regulated gene expression to promote photomorphogenesis. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively comparedmore » to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially

  16. Domain atrophy creates rare cases of functional partial protein domains.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ananth; Bateman, Alex

    2015-04-30

    Protein domains display a range of structural diversity, with numerous additions and deletions of secondary structural elements between related domains. We have observed a small number of cases of surprising large-scale deletions of core elements of structural domains. We propose a new concept called domain atrophy, where protein domains lose a significant number of core structural elements. Here, we implement a new pipeline to systematically identify new cases of domain atrophy across all known protein sequences. The output of this pipeline was carefully checked by hand, which filtered out partial domain instances that were unlikely to represent true domain atrophy due to misannotations or un-annotated sequence fragments. We identify 75 cases of domain atrophy, of which eight cases are found in a three-dimensional protein structure and 67 cases have been inferred based on mapping to a known homologous structure. Domains with structural variations include ancient folds such as the TIM-barrel and Rossmann folds. Most of these domains are observed to show structural loss that does not affect their functional sites. Our analysis has significantly increased the known cases of domain atrophy. We discuss specific instances of domain atrophy and see that there has often been a compensatory mechanism that helps to maintain the stability of the partial domain. Our study indicates that although domain atrophy is an extremely rare phenomenon, protein domains under certain circumstances can tolerate extreme mutations giving rise to partial, but functional, domains.

  17. Low-Cost CdTe/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tamboli, Adele C.; Bobela, David C.; Kanevce, Ana

    Achieving higher photovoltaic efficiency in single-junction devices is becoming increasingly difficult, but tandem modules offer the possibility of significant efficiency improvements. By device modeling we show that four-terminal CdTe/Si tandem solar modules offer the prospect of 25%-30% module efficiency, and technoeconomic analysis predicts that these efficiency gains can be realized at costs per Watt that are competitive with CdTe and Si single junction alternatives. The cost per Watt of the modeled tandems is lower than crystalline silicon, but slightly higher than CdTe alone. But, these higher power modules reduce area-related balance of system costs, providing increased value especially in area-constrainedmore » applications. This avenue for high-efficiency photovoltaics enables improved performance on a near-term timeframe, as well as a path to further reduced levelized cost of electricity as module and cell processes continue to advance.« less

  18. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  19. Low-Cost CdTe/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Tamboli, Adele C.; Bobela, David C.; Kanevce, Ana; ...

    2017-09-06

    Achieving higher photovoltaic efficiency in single-junction devices is becoming increasingly difficult, but tandem modules offer the possibility of significant efficiency improvements. By device modeling we show that four-terminal CdTe/Si tandem solar modules offer the prospect of 25%-30% module efficiency, and technoeconomic analysis predicts that these efficiency gains can be realized at costs per Watt that are competitive with CdTe and Si single junction alternatives. The cost per Watt of the modeled tandems is lower than crystalline silicon, but slightly higher than CdTe alone. But, these higher power modules reduce area-related balance of system costs, providing increased value especially in area-constrainedmore » applications. This avenue for high-efficiency photovoltaics enables improved performance on a near-term timeframe, as well as a path to further reduced levelized cost of electricity as module and cell processes continue to advance.« less

  20. A tandem mirror hybrid plume plasma propulsion facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. F.; Krueger, W. A.; Peng, S.; Urbahn, J.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel concept in electrodeless plasma propulsion, in which the materials problems are ameliorated by an electrodeless magnetic confinement scheme borrowed from the tandem mirror approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. The concept also features a two-stage magnetic nozzle with an annular hypersonic coaxial gas injector near the throat. The nozzle produces hybrid plume by the coaxial injection of hypersonic neutral gas, and the gas layer thus formed protects the material walls from the hot plasma and, through increased collisions, helps detach it from the diverging magnetic field. The tandem mirror plasma propulsion facility is capable of delivering a variable I(sp). The results of numerical simulation of this concept are presented together with those from an experimental tandem-mirror plasma propulsion device.

  1. A tandem mirror plasma source for hybrid plume plasma studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. F.; Chang, F. R.; Miller, R. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Krueger, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A tandem mirror device to be considered as a hot plasma source for the hybrid plume rocket concept is discussed. The hot plamsa from this device is injected into an exhaust duct, which will interact with an annular hypersonic layer of neutral gas. The device can be used to study the dynamics of the hybrid plume, and to verify the numerical predictions obtained with computer codes. The basic system design is also geared towards low weight and compactness, and high power density at the exhaust. The basic structure of the device consists of four major subsystems: (1) an electric power supply; (2) a low temperature, high density plasma gun, such as a stream gun, an MPD source or gas cell; (3) a power booster in the form of a tandem mirror machine; and (4) an exhaust nozzle arrangement. The configuration of the tandem mirror section is shown.

  2. Supra-domains: evolutionary units larger than single protein domains.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christine; Berzuini, Carlo; Bashton, Matthew; Gough, Julian; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2004-02-20

    Domains are the evolutionary units that comprise proteins, and most proteins are built from more than one domain. Domains can be shuffled by recombination to create proteins with new arrangements of domains. Using structural domain assignments, we examined the combinations of domains in the proteins of 131 completely sequenced organisms. We found two-domain and three-domain combinations that recur in different protein contexts with different partner domains. The domains within these combinations have a particular functional and spatial relationship. These units are larger than individual domains and we term them "supra-domains". Amongst the supra-domains, we identified some 1400 (1203 two-domain and 166 three-domain) combinations that are statistically significantly over-represented relative to the occurrence and versatility of the individual component domains. Over one-third of all structurally assigned multi-domain proteins contain these over-represented supra-domains. This means that investigation of the structural and functional relationships of the domains forming these popular combinations would be particularly useful for an understanding of multi-domain protein function and evolution as well as for genome annotation. These and other supra-domains were analysed for their versatility, duplication, their distribution across the three kingdoms of life and their functional classes. By examining the three-dimensional structures of several examples of supra-domains in different biological processes, we identify two basic types of spatial relationships between the component domains: the combined function of the two domains is such that either the geometry of the two domains is crucial and there is a tight constraint on the interface, or the precise orientation of the domains is less important and they are spatially separate. Frequently, the role of the supra-domain becomes clear only once the three-dimensional structure is known. Since this is the case for only a

  3. Optimal domain decomposition strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Yonghyun; Soni, Bharat K.

    1995-01-01

    The primary interest of the authors is in the area of grid generation, in particular, optimal domain decomposition about realistic configurations. A grid generation procedure with optimal blocking strategies has been developed to generate multi-block grids for a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The focus of this study is the domain decomposition which optimizes solution algorithm/block compatibility based on geometrical complexities as well as the physical characteristics of flow field. The progress realized in this study is summarized in this paper.

  4. Unexpected peaks in tandem mass spectra due to reaction of product ions with residual water in mass spectrometer collision cells.

    PubMed

    Neta, Pedatsur; Farahani, Mahnaz; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Liang, Yuxue; Yang, Xiaoyu; Stein, Stephen E

    2014-12-15

    Certain product ions in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry are found to react with residual water in the collision cell. This reaction often leads to the formation of ions that cannot be formed directly from the precursor ions, and this complicates the mass spectra and may distort MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) results. Various drugs, pesticides, metabolites, and other compounds were dissolved in acetonitrile/water/formic acid and studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to record their MS(2) and MS(n) spectra in several mass spectrometers (QqQ, QTOF, IT, and Orbitrap HCD). Certain product ions were found to react with residual water in collision cells. The reaction was confirmed by MS(n) studies and the rate of reaction was determined in the IT instrument using zero collision energy and variable activation times. Examples of product ions reacting with water include phenyl and certain substituted phenyl cations, benzoyl-type cations formed from protonated folic acid and similar compounds by loss of the glutamate moiety, product ions formed from protonated cyclic siloxanes by loss of methane, product ions formed from organic phosphates, and certain negative ions. The reactions of product ions with residual water varied greatly in their rate constant and in the extent of reaction (due to isomerization). Various types of product ions react with residual water in mass spectrometer collision cells. As a result, tandem mass spectra may contain unexplained peaks and MRM results may be distorted by the occurrence of such reactions. These often unavoidable reactions must be taken into account when annotating peaks in tandem mass spectra and when interpreting MRM results. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  6. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  7. Time-domain imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolliver, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    The quest for the highest resolution microwave imaging and principle of time-domain imaging has been the primary motivation for recent developments in time-domain techniques. With the present technology, fast time varying signals can now be measured and recorded both in magnitude and in-phase. It has also enhanced our ability to extract relevant details concerning the scattering object. In the past, the interface of object geometry or shape for scattered signals has received substantial attention in radar technology. Various scattering theories were proposed to develop analytical solutions to this problem. Furthermore, the random inversion, frequency swept holography, and the synthetic radar imaging, have two things in common: (1) the physical optic far-field approximation, and (2) the utilization of channels as an extra physical dimension, were also advanced. Despite the inherent vectorial nature of electromagnetic waves, these scalar treatments have brought forth some promising results in practice with notable examples in subsurface and structure sounding. The development of time-domain techniques are studied through the theoretical aspects as well as experimental verification. The use of time-domain imaging for space robotic vision applications has been suggested.

  8. Performance of a tandem-rotor/tandem-stator conical-flow compressor designed for a pressure ratio of 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. R.; Owen, A. K.; Schumann, L. F.

    1982-01-01

    A conical-flow compressor stage with a large radius change through the rotor was tested at three values of rotor tip clearance. The stage had a tandem rotor and a tandem stator. Peak efficiency at design speed was 0.774 at a pressure ratio of 2.613. The rotor was tested without the stator, and detailed survey data were obtained for each rotor blade row. Overall peak rotor efficiency was 0.871 at a pressure ratio of 2.952.

  9. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research. PMID:27711401

  10. Gold(I)-catalyzed tandem cyclization approach to tetracyclic indolines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongxiang; Xu, Wenqing; Wang, Xiang

    2010-04-02

    Two highly stereoselective cationic gold(I)-catalyzed tandem cyclization reactions of alkynylindoles are described. These reactions demonstrated a novel and general strategy to rapidly construct highly functionalized polycyclic indolines. This approach was successfully employed for a formal synthesis of the akuammiline alkaloid minfiensine.

  11. Email Tandem Exchanges as a Tool for Authentic Cultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llopis-García, Reyes

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the description of an email Tandem exchange project conducted between 94 intermediate-level students (47 pairs) from Columbia University/Barnard College in New York and Universidad Autonóma de Madrid in Spain during the Fall Semester 2010. There were several goals to this project: to help improve students' writing skills; to…

  12. Dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Sankin, Georgy; Zhong, Pei

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel (800 × 21 μm, W × H) have been investigated using high-speed photography, with resultant fluid motion characterized by particle imaging velocimetry. A single or tandem bubble is produced reliably via laser absorption by micron-sized gold dots (6 μm in diameter with 40 μm in separation distance) coated on a glass surface of the microfluidic channel. Using two pulsed Nd:YAG lasers at λ = 1064 nm and ∼10 μJ/pulse, the dynamics of tandem bubble interaction (individual maximum bubble diameter of 50 μm with a corresponding collapse time of 5.7 μs) are examined at different phase delays. In close proximity (i.e., interbubble distance = 40 μm or γ = 0.8), the tandem bubbles interact strongly with each other, leading to asymmetric deformation of the bubble walls and jet formation, as well as the production of two pairs of vortices in the surrounding fluid rotating in opposite directions. The direction and speed of the jet (up to 95 m/s), as well as the orientation and strength of the vortices can be varied by adjusting the phase delay. PMID:22088007

  13. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K; Loland, Claus J; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-10-04

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research.

  14. The Dynamics of Social Interaction in Telecollaborative Tandem Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen Sanchez, Brianna

    2015-01-01

    Using both quantitative and qualitative methods of inquiry, this dissertation study undertakes an exploration of the dynamics of the social interaction in discourse co-constructed by pairs of college students in telecollaborative tandem exchanges. Two groups of participants, Mexican learners of English as a foreign language and American learners…

  15. Synthesis of 1-methyleneindenes via palladium-catalyzed tandem reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shengqing; Gao, Ke; Zhou, Haibo; Yang, Xiaodi; Wu, Jie

    2009-09-28

    Palladium-catalyzed tandem reactions of 2-alkenylphenyl-acetylenes with CuCl2 or CuBr2 afforded 3-chloro- or 3-bromo-1-methyleneindenes in good yields; these compounds could be further elaborated via palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.

  16. 14 CFR 105.45 - Use of tandem parachute systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Has completed a minimum of 500 freefall parachute jumps using a ram-air parachute, and (iii) Holds a... parachute jump with a tandem parachute system unless— (1) The main parachute has been packed by a certificated parachute rigger, the parachutist in command making the next jump with that parachute, or a person...

  17. Peptide Identification by Database Search of Mixture Tandem Mass Spectra*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Bourne, Philip E.; Bandeira, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    In high-throughput proteomics the development of computational methods and novel experimental strategies often rely on each other. In certain areas, mass spectrometry methods for data acquisition are ahead of computational methods to interpret the resulting tandem mass spectra. Particularly, although there are numerous situations in which a mixture tandem mass spectrum can contain fragment ions from two or more peptides, nearly all database search tools still make the assumption that each tandem mass spectrum comes from one peptide. Common examples include mixture spectra from co-eluting peptides in complex samples, spectra generated from data-independent acquisition methods, and spectra from peptides with complex post-translational modifications. We propose a new database search tool (MixDB) that is able to identify mixture tandem mass spectra from more than one peptide. We show that peptides can be reliably identified with up to 95% accuracy from mixture spectra while considering only a 0.01% of all possible peptide pairs (four orders of magnitude speedup). Comparison with current database search methods indicates that our approach has better or comparable sensitivity and precision at identifying single-peptide spectra while simultaneously being able to identify 38% more peptides from mixture spectra at significantly higher precision. PMID:21862760

  18. The "Bologna-München" Tandem--Experiencing Interculturality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Martino, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the "Bologna-München" Tandem, a cross-border collaboration which began in 2011. The aim of the collaboration is to give students studying Italian at the Ludwig- Maximilians-University in Munich and students studying German at the University of Bologna the opportunity to experience interculturality through…

  19. Typing Clostridium difficile strains based on tandem repeat sequences

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Genotyping of epidemic Clostridium difficile strains is necessary to track their emergence and spread. Portability of genotyping data is desirable to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons and epidemiological studies. Results This report presents results from a systematic screen for variation in repetitive DNA in the genome of C. difficile. We describe two tandem repeat loci, designated 'TR6' and 'TR10', which display extensive sequence variation that may be useful for sequence-based strain typing. Based on an investigation of 154 C. difficile isolates comprising 75 ribotypes, tandem repeat sequencing demonstrated excellent concordance with widely used PCR ribotyping and equal discriminatory power. Moreover, tandem repeat sequences enabled the reconstruction of the isolates' largely clonal population structure and evolutionary history. Conclusion We conclude that sequence analysis of the two repetitive loci introduced here may be highly useful for routine typing of C. difficile. Tandem repeat sequence typing resolves phylogenetic diversity to a level equivalent to PCR ribotypes. DNA sequences may be stored in databases accessible over the internet, obviating the need for the exchange of reference strains. PMID:19133124

  20. Dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Sankin, Georgy; Zhong, Pei

    2011-11-01

    The dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel (800  ×  21 μm, W × H) have been investigated using high-speed photography, with resultant fluid motion characterized by particle imaging velocimetry. A single or tandem bubble is produced reliably via laser absorption by micron-sized gold dots (6 μm in diameter with 40 μm in separation distance) coated on a glass surface of the microfluidic channel. Using two pulsed Nd:YAG lasers at λ = 1064 nm and ∼10 μJ/pulse, the dynamics of tandem bubble interaction (individual maximum bubble diameter of 50 μm with a corresponding collapse time of 5.7 μs) are examined at different phase delays. In close proximity (i.e., interbubble distance = 40 μm or γ = 0.8), the tandem bubbles interact strongly with each other, leading to asymmetric deformation of the bubble walls and jet formation, as well as the production of two pairs of vortices in the surrounding fluid rotating in opposite directions. The direction and speed of the jet (up to 95 m/s), as well as the orientation and strength of the vortices can be varied by adjusting the phase delay.

  1. BRCT-domain protein BRIT1 influences class switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Wei-Feng; Chaudhry, Ashutosh; Vaidyanathan, Bharat; Yewdell, William T.; Pucella, Joseph N.; Sharma, Rahul; Li, Kaiyi; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2017-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) serve as obligatory intermediates for Ig heavy chain (Igh) class switch recombination (CSR). The mechanisms by which DSBs are resolved to promote long-range DNA end-joining while suppressing genomic instability inherently associated with DSBs are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we use a targeted short-hairpin RNA screen in a B-cell lymphoma line to identify the BRCT-domain protein BRIT1 as an effector of CSR. We show that conditional genetic deletion of BRIT1 in mice leads to a marked increase in unrepaired Igh breaks and a significant reduction in CSR in ex vivo activated splenic B cells. We find that the C-terminal tandem BRCT domains of BRIT1 facilitate its interaction with phosphorylated H2AX and that BRIT1 is recruited to the Igh locus in an activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and H2AX-dependent fashion. Finally, we demonstrate that depletion of another BRCT-domain protein, MDC1, in BRIT1-deleted B cells increases the severity of CSR defect over what is observed upon loss of either protein alone. Our results identify BRIT1 as a factor in CSR and demonstrate that multiple BRCT-domain proteins contribute to optimal resolution of AID-induced DSBs. PMID:28724724

  2. Twinning, Epitaxy and Domain Switching in Ferroelastic Inclusion Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Mark D.; Peterson, Matthew L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research is in the area of solid-state organic chemistry, which lies at the interface between physical organic chemistry and materials science. We use crystalline solids as models to probe fundamental issues about physical processes, molecular interactions and chemical reactions that are important for fabrication, stabilization and application of technological materials. Much of our most recent work has focused on the phenomena of ferroelastic and ferroelectric domain switching, in which application of an external force or electric field to a crystal causes the molecules inside the crystal to reorient, in tandem, to a new orientational state. To better understand and control the domain switching process, we have designed and synthesized over twenty closely related, ferroelastic organic crystals. Our approach has been to use crystalline inclusion compounds, in which one molecule (the guest) is trapped within the crystalline framework of a second molecule (the host). By keeping the host constant and varying the proportions and kinds of guests, it has been possible to tailor these materials so that domain switching is rapid and reversible (which is desirable for high technology applications). Inclusion compounds therefore serve as powerful systems for understanding the specific molecular mechanisms that control domain switching.

  3. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  4. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  5. The crystal structures of EAP domains from Staphylococcus aureus reveal an unexpected homology to bacterial superantigens.

    PubMed

    Geisbrecht, Brian V; Hamaoka, Brent Y; Perman, Benjamin; Zemla, Adam; Leahy, Daniel J

    2005-04-29

    The Eap (extracellular adherence protein) of Staphylococcus aureus functions as a secreted virulence factor by mediating interactions between the bacterial cell surface and several extracellular host proteins. Eap proteins from different Staphylococcal strains consist of four to six tandem repeats of a structurally uncharacterized domain (EAP domain). We have determined the three-dimensional structures of three different EAP domains to 1.8, 2.2, and 1.35 A resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a core fold that is comprised of an alpha-helix lying diagonally across a five-stranded, mixed beta-sheet. Comparison of EAP domains with known structures reveals an unexpected homology with the C-terminal domain of bacterial superantigens. Examination of the structure of the superantigen SEC2 bound to the beta-chain of a T-cell receptor suggests a possible ligand-binding site within the EAP domain (Fields, B. A., Malchiodi, E. L., Li, H., Ysern, X., Stauffacher, C. V., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K., and Mariuzza, R. (1996) Nature 384, 188-192). These results provide the first structural characterization of EAP domains, relate EAP domains to a large class of bacterial toxins, and will guide the design of future experiments to analyze EAP domain structure/function relationships.

  6. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: daido@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: kitajima@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m ≅ 10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f ≅ 10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV . Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domainmore » wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.« less

  7. Simplified Parallel Domain Traversal

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2011-01-01

    Many data-intensive scientific analysis techniques require global domain traversal, which over the years has been a bottleneck for efficient parallelization across distributed-memory architectures. Inspired by MapReduce and other simplified parallel programming approaches, we have designed DStep, a flexible system that greatly simplifies efficient parallelization of domain traversal techniques at scale. In order to deliver both simplicity to users as well as scalability on HPC platforms, we introduce a novel two-tiered communication architecture for managing and exploiting asynchronous communication loads. We also integrate our design with advanced parallel I/O techniques that operate directly on native simulation output. We demonstrate DStep bymore » performing teleconnection analysis across ensemble runs of terascale atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate data, and we show scalability results on up to 65,536 IBM BlueGene/P cores.« less

  8. Frequency domain measurement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eischer, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    Stable frequency sources and signal processing blocks were characterized by their noise spectra, both discrete and random, in the frequency domain. Conventional measures are outlined, and systems for performing the measurements are described. Broad coverage of system configurations which were found useful is given. Their functioning and areas of application are discussed briefly. Particular attention is given to some of the potential error sources in the measurement procedures, system configurations, double-balanced-mixer-phase-detectors, and application of measuring instruments.

  9. SH2 Domain Histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Buhs, Sophia; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Among posttranslational modifications, the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key modification in cell signaling. Because of its biological importance, characterization of the cellular state of tyrosine phosphorylation is of great interest. Based on the unique properties of endogenously expressed SH2 domains recognizing tyrosine phosphorylated signaling proteins with high specificity we have developed an alternative approach, coined SH2 profiling, enabling us to decipher complex patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in various normal and cancerous tissues. So far, SH2 profiling has largely been applied for the analysis of protein extracts with the limitation that information on spatial distribution and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation within a tissue is lost. Here, we describe a novel SH2 domain based strategy for differential characterization of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. This approach demonstrates that SH2 domains may serve as very valuable tools for the analysis of the differential state of tyrosine phosphorylation in primary tissues fixed and processed under conditions frequently applied by routine pathology laboratories.

  10. Monolithic Parallel Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cell with Transparent Carbon Nanotube Interlayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, S.; Mielczarek, K.; Ovalle-Robles, R.; Wang, B.; Hsu, D.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate an organic photovoltaic cell with a monolithic tandem structure in parallel connection. Transparent multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets are used as an interlayer anode electrode for this parallel tandem. The characteristics of front and back cells are measured independently. The short circuit current density of the parallel tandem cell is larger than the currents of each individual cell. The wavelength dependence of photocurrent for the parallel tandem cell shows the superposition spectrum of the two spectral sensitivities of the front and back cells. The monolithic three-electrode photovoltaic cell indeed operates as a parallel tandem with improved efficiency.

  11. TRedD—A database for tandem repeats over the edit distance

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Dina; Atagun, Firat

    2010-01-01

    A ‘tandem repeat’ in DNA is a sequence of two or more contiguous, approximate copies of a pattern of nucleotides. Tandem repeats are common in the genomes of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. They are significant markers for human identity testing, disease diagnosis, sequence homology and population studies. In this article, we describe a new database, TRedD, which contains the tandem repeats found in the human genome. The database is publicly available online, and the software for locating the repeats is also freely available. The definition of tandem repeats used by TRedD is a new and innovative definition based upon the concept of ‘evolutive tandem repeats’. In addition, we have developed a tool, called TandemGraph, to graphically depict the repeats occurring in a sequence. This tool can be coupled with any repeat finding software, and it should greatly facilitate analysis of results. Database URL: http://tandem.sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu/ PMID:20624712

  12. Domain Specific vs Domain General: Implications for Dynamic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaniel, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    The article responds to the need for evidence-based dynamic assessment. The article is divided into two sections: In Part 1 we examine the scientific answer to the question of how far human mental activities and capabilities are domain general (DG) / domain specific (DS). A highly complex answer emerges from the literature review of domains such…

  13. ATP binding to p97/VCP D1 domain regulates selective recruitment of adaptors to its proximal N-domain.

    PubMed

    Chia, Wei Sheng; Chia, Diana Xueqi; Rao, Feng; Bar Nun, Shoshana; Geifman Shochat, Susana

    2012-01-01

    p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a member of the AAA-ATPase family involved in many cellular processes including cell division, intracellular trafficking and extraction of misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). It is a homohexamer with each subunit containing two tandem D1 and D2 ATPase domains and N- and C-terminal regions that function as adaptor protein binding domains. p97/VCP is directed to its many different functional pathways by associating with various adaptor proteins. The regulation of the recruitment of the adaptor proteins remains unclear. Two adaptor proteins, Ufd1/Npl4 and p47, which bind exclusively to the p97/VCP N-domain and direct p97/VCP to either ERAD-related processes or homotypic fusion of Golgi fragments, were studied here. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based assays allowed the study of binding kinetics in real time. In competition experiments, it was observed that in the presence of ATP, Ufd1/Npl4 was able to compete more effectively with p47 for binding to p97/VCP. By using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and the hexameric truncated p97/N-D1 fragment, it was shown that binding rather than hydrolysis of ATP to the proximal D1 domain strengthened the Ufd1/Npl4 association with the N-domain, thus regulating the recruitment of either Ufd1/Npl4 or p47. This novel role of ATP and an assigned function to the D1 AAA-ATPase domain link the multiple functions of p97/VCP to the metabolic status of the cell.

  14. ATP Binding to p97/VCP D1 Domain Regulates Selective Recruitment of Adaptors to Its Proximal N-Domain

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Wei Sheng; Chia, Diana Xueqi; Rao, Feng; Bar Nun, Shoshana; Geifman Shochat, Susana

    2012-01-01

    p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a member of the AAA-ATPase family involved in many cellular processes including cell division, intracellular trafficking and extraction of misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). It is a homohexamer with each subunit containing two tandem D1 and D2 ATPase domains and N- and C-terminal regions that function as adaptor protein binding domains. p97/VCP is directed to its many different functional pathways by associating with various adaptor proteins. The regulation of the recruitment of the adaptor proteins remains unclear. Two adaptor proteins, Ufd1/Npl4 and p47, which bind exclusively to the p97/VCP N-domain and direct p97/VCP to either ERAD-related processes or homotypic fusion of Golgi fragments, were studied here. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based assays allowed the study of binding kinetics in real time. In competition experiments, it was observed that in the presence of ATP, Ufd1/Npl4 was able to compete more effectively with p47 for binding to p97/VCP. By using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and the hexameric truncated p97/N-D1 fragment, it was shown that binding rather than hydrolysis of ATP to the proximal D1 domain strengthened the Ufd1/Npl4 association with the N-domain, thus regulating the recruitment of either Ufd1/Npl4 or p47. This novel role of ATP and an assigned function to the D1 AAA-ATPase domain link the multiple functions of p97/VCP to the metabolic status of the cell. PMID:23226521

  15. Intra-domain phage display (ID-PhD) of peptides and protein mini-domains censored from canonical pIII phage display.

    PubMed

    Tjhung, Katrina F; Deiss, Frédérique; Tran, Jessica; Chou, Ying; Derda, Ratmir

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe multivalent display of peptide and protein sequences typically censored from traditional N-terminal display on protein pIII of filamentous bacteriophage M13. Using site-directed mutagenesis of commercially available M13KE phage cloning vector, we introduced sites that permit efficient cloning using restriction enzymes between domains N1 and N2 of the pIII protein. As infectivity of phage is directly linked to the integrity of the connection between N1 and N2 domains, intra-domain phage display (ID-PhD) allows for simple quality control of the display and the natural variations in the displayed sequences. Additionally, direct linkage to phage propagation allows efficient monitoring of sequence cleavage, providing a convenient system for selection and evolution of protease-susceptible or protease-resistant sequences. As an example of the benefits of such an ID-PhD system, we displayed a negatively charged FLAG sequence, which is known to be post-translationally excised from pIII when displayed on the N-terminus, as well as positively charged sequences which suppress production of phage when displayed on the N-terminus. ID-PhD of FLAG exhibited sub-nanomolar apparent Kd suggesting multivalent nature of the display. A TEV-protease recognition sequence (TEVrs) co-expressed in tandem with FLAG, allowed us to demonstrate that 99.9997% of the phage displayed the FLAG-TEVrs tandem and can be recognized and cleaved by TEV-protease. The residual 0.0003% consisted of phage clones that have excised the insert from their genome. ID-PhD is also amenable to display of protein mini-domains, such as the 33-residue minimized Z-domain of protein A. We show that it is thus possible to use ID-PhD for multivalent display and selection of mini-domain proteins (Affibodies, scFv, etc.).

  16. Scientific Reasoning across Different Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert; And Others

    This study seeks to establish which scientific reasoning skills are primarily domain-general and which appear to be domain-specific. The subjects, 12 university undergraduates, each participated in self-directed experimentation with three different content domains. The experimentation contexts were computer-based laboratories in d.c. circuits…

  17. On Probability Domains IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Stressing a categorical approach, we continue our study of fuzzified domains of probability, in which classical random events are replaced by measurable fuzzy random events. In operational probability theory (S. Bugajski) classical random variables are replaced by statistical maps (generalized distribution maps induced by random variables) and in fuzzy probability theory (S. Gudder) the central role is played by observables (maps between probability domains). We show that to each of the two generalized probability theories there corresponds a suitable category and the two resulting categories are dually equivalent. Statistical maps and observables become morphisms. A statistical map can send a degenerated (pure) state to a non-degenerated one —a quantum phenomenon and, dually, an observable can map a crisp random event to a genuine fuzzy random event —a fuzzy phenomenon. The dual equivalence means that the operational probability theory and the fuzzy probability theory coincide and the resulting generalized probability theory has two dual aspects: quantum and fuzzy. We close with some notes on products and coproducts in the dual categories.

  18. Characteristics of the flow around tandem flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscutt, Luke; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Weymouth, Gabriel; The University of Southampton Team

    2014-11-01

    Vortex recapture is a fundamental fluid mechanics phenomenon which is important to many fields. Any large scale vorticity contained within a freestream flow may affect the aerodynamic properties of a downstream body. In the case of tandem flapping wings, the front wing generates strong large scale vorticity which impinges on the hind wing. The characteristics of this interaction are greatly affected by the spacing, and the phase of flapping between the front and rear wings. The interaction of the vorticity of the rear wing with the shed vorticity of the front wing may be constructive or destructive, increasing thrust or efficiency of the hind wing when compared to a wing operating in isolation. Knowledge of the parameter space where the maximum increases in these are obtained is important for the development of tandem wing unmanned air and underwater vehicles, commercial aerospace and renewable energy applications. This question is addressed with a combined computational and experimental approach, and a discussion of these is presented.

  19. Tandem catalysis for the preparation of cylindrical polypeptide brushes.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Allison J; Deming, Timothy J

    2012-11-28

    Here, we report a method for synthesis of cylindrical copolypeptide brushes via N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerization utilizing a new tandem catalysis approach that allows preparation of brushes with controlled segment lengths in a straightforward, one-pot procedure requiring no intermediate isolation or purification steps. To obtain high-density brush copolypeptides, we used a "grafting from" approach where alloc-α-aminoamide groups were installed onto the side chains of NCAs to serve as masked initiators. These groups were inert during cobalt-initiated NCA polymerization and gave allyloxycarbonyl-α-aminoamide-substituted polypeptide main chains. The alloc-α-aminoamide groups were then activated in situ using nickel to generate initiators for growth of side-chain brush segments. This use of stepwise tandem cobalt and nickel catalysis was found to be an efficient method for preparation of high-chain-density, cylindrical copolypeptide brushes, where both the main chains and side chains can be prepared with controlled segment lengths.

  20. Tandem Repeats in Proteins: Prediction Algorithms and Biological Role.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Tandem repetitions in protein sequence and structure is a fascinating subject of research which has been a focus of study since the late 1990s. In this survey, we give an overview on the multi-faceted aspects of research on protein tandem repeats (PTR for short), including prediction algorithms, databases, early classification efforts, mechanisms of PTR formation and evolution, and synthetic PTR design. We also touch on the rather open issue of the relationship between PTR and flexibility (or disorder) in proteins. Detection of PTR either from protein sequence or structure data is challenging due to inherent high (biological) signal-to-noise ratio that is a key feature of this problem. As early in silico analytic tools have been key enablers for starting this field of study, we expect that current and future algorithmic and statistical breakthroughs will have a high impact on the investigations of the biological role of PTR.

  1. Summary of results from the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX)

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T.C.

    1981-02-26

    This report summarizes results from the successful experimental operation of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) over the period October 1978 through September 1980. The experimental program, summarized by the DOE milestones given in Table 1-1, had three basic phases: (1) an 8-month checkout period, October 1978 through May 1979; (2) a 6-month initial period of operation, June through November 1979, during which the basic principles of the tandem configuration were demonstrated (i.e., plasma confinement was improved over that of a single-cell mirror); and (3) a 10-month period, December 1979 through September 1980, during which the initial TMX results were corroboratedmore » by additional diagnostic measurements and many detailed physics investigations were carried out. This report summarizes the early results, presents results of recent data analysis, and outlines areas of ongoing research and data analysis which will be reported in future journal publications.« less

  2. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2012-03-06

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  3. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2011-10-18

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  4. Charge exchange cooling in the tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Logan, B. Grant

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus for cooling a plasma of warm charged species confined in the center mirror cell of the tandem mirror apparatus by injecting cold neutral species of the plasma into at least one mirroring region of the center mirror cell, the cooling due to the loss of warm charged species through charge exchange with the cold neutral species with resulting diffusion of the warm neutral species out of the plasma.

  5. Crux: Rapid Open Source Protein Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Efficiently and accurately analyzing big protein tandem mass spectrometry data sets requires robust software that incorporates state-of-the-art computational, machine learning, and statistical methods. The Crux mass spectrometry analysis software toolkit (http://cruxtoolkit.sourceforge.net) is an open source project that aims to provide users with a cross-platform suite of analysis tools for interpreting protein mass spectrometry data. PMID:25182276

  6. Co-Teaching ELLs: Riding a Tandem Bike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honigsfeld, Andrea; Dove, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine getting on the tandem bike of co-teaching. You have a lot to decide. Who sits in the front and takes the lead? Who takes the backseat? The fact is, neither classroom teachers nor secondary content-area teachers have proven eager to give up leading their lesson when they have a co-teacher present, whether to support ELLs or students with…

  7. 27. Bollinger twinchain tandem, pigcasting machine, located at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Bollinger twin-chain tandem, pig-casting machine, located at the north end of the plant. Prior to closing, approximately 40 percent of the plant's: iron production was cast into pigs and sold to foundry customers. The pig-casting machine employed a controller, lime man, trough man, and crane operator. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. The production and characterization of novel heavy-chain antibodies against the tandem repeat region of MUC1 mucin.

    PubMed

    Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Rasaee, Mohammad J; Forouzandeh, Mehdi; Allameh, Abdolamir; Sarrami, Ramin; Nasiry, Habib; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2005-01-01

    Camelidae are known to produce immunoglobulins (Igs) devoid of light chains and constant heavy-chain domains (CH1). Antigen-specific fragments of these heavy-chain IgGs (VHH) are of great interest in biotechnology applications. This paper describes the first example of successfully raised heavy-chain antibodies in Camelus dromedarius (single-humped camel) and Camelus bactrianus (two-humped camel) against a MUC1 related peptide that is found to be an important epitope expressed in cancerous tissue. Camels were immunized against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the tandem repeat region of MUC1 mucin and cancerous tissue preparation obtained from patients suffering from breast carcinoma. Three IgG subclasses with different binding properties to protein A and G were purified by affinity chromatography. Both conventional and heavy-chain IgG antibodies were produced in response to MUC1-related peptide. The elicited antibodies could react specifically with the tandem repeat region of MUC1 mucin in an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Anti-peptide antibodies were purified after passing antiserum over two affinity chromatography columns. Using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting, the interaction of purified antibodies with different antigens was evaluated. The antibodies were observed to be selectively bound to antigens namely: MUC1 peptide (tandem repeat region), human milk fat globule membrane (HMFG), deglycosylated human milk fat globule membrane (D-HMFG), homogenized cancerous breast tissue and a native MUC1 purified from ascitic fluid. Ka values of specific polyclonal antipeptide antibodies were estimated in C. dromedarius and C. bactrianus, as 7 x 10(10) M(-1) and 1.4 x 10(10) M(-1) respectively.

  9. High Performance Tandem Perovskite/Polymer Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Bag, Monojit; Page, Zachariah; Renna, Lawrence; Kim, Paul; Choi, Jaewon; Emrick, Todd; Venkataraman, D.; Russell, Thomas

    Combining perovskites with other inorganic materials, such as copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) or silicon, is enabling significant improvement in solar cell device performance. Here, we demonstrate a highly efficient hybrid tandem solar cell fabricated through a facile solution deposition approach to give a perovskite front sub-cell and a polymer:fullerene blend back sub-cell. This methodology eliminates the adverse effects of thermal annealing during perovskite fabrication on polymer solar cells. The record tandem solar cell efficiency of 15.96% is 40% greater than the corresponding perovskite-based single junction device and 65% greater than the polymer-based single junction device, while mitigating deleterious hysteresis effects often associated with perovskite solar cells. The hybrid tandem devices demonstrate the synergistic effects arising from the combination of perovskite and polymer-based materials for solar cells. This work was supported by the Department of Energy-supported Energy Frontier Research Center at the University of Massachusetts (DE-SC0001087). The authors acknowledge the W.M. Keck Electron Microscopy.

  10. Comparison and Evaluation of Clustering Algorithms for Tandem Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Vera; Schork, Karin U; Kerschke, Laura; Blank-Landeshammer, Bernhard; Sickmann, Albert; Rahnenführer, Jörg

    2017-11-03

    In proteomics, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is established for identifying peptides and proteins. Duplicated spectra, that is, multiple spectra of the same peptide, occur both in single MS/MS runs and in large spectral libraries. Clustering tandem mass spectra is used to find consensus spectra, with manifold applications. First, it speeds up database searches, as performed for instance by Mascot. Second, it helps to identify novel peptides across species. Third, it is used for quality control to detect wrongly annotated spectra. We compare different clustering algorithms based on the cosine distance between spectra. CAST, MS-Cluster, and PRIDE Cluster are popular algorithms to cluster tandem mass spectra. We add well-known algorithms for large data sets, hierarchical clustering, DBSCAN, and connected components of a graph, as well as the new method N-Cluster. All algorithms are evaluated on real data with varied parameter settings. Cluster results are compared with each other and with peptide annotations based on validation measures such as purity. Quality control, regarding the detection of wrongly (un)annotated spectra, is discussed for exemplary resulting clusters. N-Cluster proves to be highly competitive. All clustering results benefit from the so-called DISMS2 filter that integrates additional information, for example, on precursor mass.

  11. Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eperon, Giles E.; Leijtens, Tomas; Bush, Kevin A.; Prasanna, Rohit; Green, Thomas; Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei; McMeekin, David P.; Volonakis, George; Milot, Rebecca L.; May, Richard; Palmstrom, Axel; Slotcavage, Daniel J.; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Patel, Jay B.; Parrott, Elizabeth S.; Sutton, Rebecca J.; Ma, Wen; Moghadam, Farhad; Conings, Bert; Babayigit, Aslihan; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Bent, Stacey; Giustino, Feliciano; Herz, Laura M.; Johnston, Michael B.; McGehee, Michael D.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate four- and two-terminal perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells with ideally matched band gaps. We develop an infrared-absorbing 1.2-electron volt band-gap perovskite, FA0.75Cs0.25Sn0.5Pb0.5I3, that can deliver 14.8% efficiency. By combining this material with a wider-band gap FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.5Br0.5)3 material, we achieve monolithic two-terminal tandem efficiencies of 17.0% with >1.65-volt open-circuit voltage. We also make mechanically stacked four-terminal tandem cells and obtain 20.3% efficiency. Notably, we find that our infrared-absorbing perovskite cells exhibit excellent thermal and atmospheric stability, not previously achieved for Sn-based perovskites. This device architecture and materials set will enable “all-perovskite” thin-film solar cells to reach the highest efficiencies in the long term at the lowest costs.

  12. The mechanics and behavior of cliff swallows during tandem flights.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Ryan M; Jackson, Brandon E; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are highly maneuverable social birds that often forage and fly in large open spaces. Here we used multi-camera videography to measure the three-dimensional kinematics of their natural flight maneuvers in the field. Specifically, we collected data on tandem flights, defined as two birds maneuvering together. These data permit us to evaluate several hypotheses on the high-speed maneuvering flight performance of birds. We found that high-speed turns are roll-based, but that the magnitude of the centripetal force created in typical maneuvers varied only slightly with flight speed, typically reaching a peak of ~2 body weights. Turning maneuvers typically involved active flapping rather than gliding. In tandem flights the following bird copied the flight path and wingbeat frequency (~12.3 Hz) of the lead bird while maintaining position slightly above the leader. The lead bird turned in a direction away from the lateral position of the following bird 65% of the time on average. Tandem flights vary widely in instantaneous speed (1.0 to 15.6 m s(-1)) and duration (0.72 to 4.71 s), and no single tracking strategy appeared to explain the course taken by the following bird. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Structural plasticity of the TDRD3 Tudor domain probed by a fragment screening hit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiuyang; Zhang, Shuya; Liu, Mingqing; Liu, Yaqian; Nshogoza, Gilbert; Gao, Jia; Ma, Rongsheng; Yang, Yang; Wu, Jihui; Zhang, Jiahai; Li, Fudong; Ruan, Ke

    2018-04-12

    As a reader of di-methylated arginine on various proteins, such as histone, RNA polymerase II, PIWI and Fragile X mental retardation protein, the Tudor domain of Tudor domain-containing protein 3 (TDRD3) mediates transcriptional activation in nucleus and formation of stress granules in the cytoplasm. Despite the TDRD3 implication in cancer cell proliferation and invasion, warheads to block the di-methylated arginine recognition pocket of the TDRD3 Tudor domain have not yet been uncovered. Here we identified 14 small molecule hits against the TDRD3 Tudor domain through NMR fragment-based screening. These hits were further cross-validated by using competitive fluorescence polarization and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments. The crystal structure of the TDRD3 Tudor domain in complex with hit 1 reveals a distinct binding mode from the nature substrate. Hit 1 protrudes into the aromatic cage of the TDRD3 Tudor domain, where the aromatic residues are tilted to accommodate a sandwich-like π-π interaction. The side chain of the conserved residue N596 swings away 3.1 Å to form a direct hydrogen bond with hit 1. Moreover, this compound shows a decreased affinity against the single Tudor domain of survival motor neuron protein, but no detectable binding to neither the tandem Tudor domain of TP53-binding protein 1 nor the extended Tudor domain of staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing protein 1. Our work depicts the structural plasticity of the TDRD3 Tudor domain and paves the way for the subsequent structure-guided discovery of selective inhibitors targeting Tudor domains. Structural data are available in the PDB under the accession number 5YJ8. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Prioritisation of associations between protein domains and complex diseases using domain-domain interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Zhang, W; Jiang, R; Luan, Y

    2010-05-01

    It is of vital importance to find genetic variants that underlie human complex diseases and locate genes that are responsible for these diseases. Since proteins are typically composed of several structural domains, it is reasonable to assume that harmful genetic variants may alter structures of protein domains, affect functions of proteins and eventually cause disorders. With this understanding, the authors explore the possibility of recovering associations between protein domains and complex diseases. The authors define associations between protein domains and disease families on the basis of associations between non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) and complex diseases, similarities between diseases, and relations between proteins and domains. Based on a domain-domain interaction network, the authors propose a 'guilt-by-proximity' principle to rank candidate domains according to their average distance to a set of seed domains in the domain-domain interaction network. The authors validate the method through large-scale cross-validation experiments on simulated linkage intervals, random controls and the whole genome. Results show that areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC scores) can be as high as 77.90%, and the mean rank ratios can be as low as 21.82%. The authors further offer a freely accessible web interface for a genome-wide landscape of associations between domains and disease families.

  15. Crystallization of PTP Domains.

    PubMed

    Levy, Colin; Adams, James; Tabernero, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Protein crystallography is the most powerful method to obtain atomic resolution information on the three-dimensional structure of proteins. An essential step towards determining the crystallographic structure of a protein is to produce good quality crystals from a concentrated sample of purified protein. These crystals are then used to obtain X-ray diffraction data necessary to determine the 3D structure by direct phasing or molecular replacement if the model of a homologous protein is available. Here, we describe the main approaches and techniques to obtain suitable crystals for X-ray diffraction. We include tools and guidance on how to evaluate and design the protein construct, how to prepare Se-methionine derivatized protein, how to assess the stability and quality of the sample, and how to crystallize and prepare crystals for diffraction experiments. While general strategies for protein crystallization are summarized, specific examples of the application of these strategies to the crystallization of PTP domains are discussed.

  16. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  17. Stability studies of extracellular domain two of neural-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Vunnam, Nagamani; McCool, John K; Williamson, Michael; Pedigo, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Neural- (NCAD) and epithelial- (ECAD) cadherin are calcium-dependent cell-adhesive molecules, and are localized at excitatory and inhibitory synapses respectively. They play an important role in synaptogenesis, synapse maintenance and plasticity. The extracellular region plays a critical role in cadherin-mediated cell adhesion, and has five tandemly repeated ectodomains (EC1-EC5). Calcium binding is required for dimer formation between first two N-terminal domains (EC1-EC2). Despite similarity in the primary structure, the extracellular domains of NCAD and ECAD have different intrinsic stability, dimerization affinity and kinetics of disassembly. To investigate the origin of these differences, we are characterizing the modular domains individually. Here, we report studies of NCAD2, EC2 of NCAD. This domain is important for calcium binding and is the physical linkage between the dimerization interface in EC1 and the membrane proximal modular domains. Thermal-denaturation studies show that NCAD2 is less stable than ECAD2 and less influenced by the adjoining 7-residue, N- and C-terminal linker segments. In addition the NCAD2 constructs are less influenced by added salt. This difference is likely due to variation in the overall number and distribution of charges on these anionic proteins. Our studies indicate that despite their sequence similarity and apparently passive role in adhesive dimer formation, EC2 of E- and N-cadherins are distinctly different and may contribute to the differences in energetics and kinetics of dimerization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    PubMed

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  19. Solution-processed parallel tandem polymer solar cells using silver nanowires as intermediate electrode.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Kubis, Peter; Li, Ning; Przybilla, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard; Stubhan, Tobias; Ameri, Tayebeh; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2014-12-23

    Tandem architecture is the most relevant concept to overcome the efficiency limit of single-junction photovoltaic solar cells. Series-connected tandem polymer solar cells (PSCs) have advanced rapidly during the past decade. In contrast, the development of parallel-connected tandem cells is lagging far behind due to the big challenge in establishing an efficient interlayer with high transparency and high in-plane conductivity. Here, we report all-solution fabrication of parallel tandem PSCs using silver nanowires as intermediate charge collecting electrode. Through a rational interface design, a robust interlayer is established, enabling the efficient extraction and transport of electrons from subcells. The resulting parallel tandem cells exhibit high fill factors of ∼60% and enhanced current densities which are identical to the sum of the current densities of the subcells. These results suggest that solution-processed parallel tandem configuration provides an alternative avenue toward high performance photovoltaic devices.

  20. Identification of hidden relationships from the coupling of hydrophobic cluster analysis and domain architecture information.

    PubMed

    Faure, Guilhem; Callebaut, Isabelle

    2013-07-15

    Describing domain architecture is a critical step in the functional characterization of proteins. However, some orphan domains do not match any profile stored in dedicated domain databases and are thereby difficult to analyze. We present here an original novel approach, called TREMOLO-HCA, for the analysis of orphan domain sequences and inspired from our experience in the use of Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA). Hidden relationships between protein sequences can be more easily identified from the PSI-BLAST results, using information on domain architecture, HCA plots and the conservation degree of amino acids that may participate in the protein core. This can lead to reveal remote relationships with known families of domains, as illustrated here with the identification of a hidden Tudor tandem in the human BAHCC1 protein and a hidden ET domain in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Taf14p and human AF9 proteins. The results obtained in such a way are consistent with those provided by HHPRED, based on pairwise comparisons of HHMs. Our approach can, however, be applied even in absence of domain profiles or known 3D structures for the identification of novel families of domains. It can also be used in a reverse way for refining domain profiles, by starting from known protein domain families and identifying highly divergent members, hitherto considered as orphan. We provide a possible integration of this approach in an open TREMOLO-HCA package, which is fully implemented in python v2.7 and is available on request. Instructions are available at http://www.impmc.upmc.fr/∼callebau/tremolohca.html. isabelle.callebaut@impmc.upmc.fr Supplementary Data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Chemical shift assignments of the partially deuterated Fyn SH2-SH3 domain.

    PubMed

    Kieken, Fabien; Loth, Karine; van Nuland, Nico; Tompa, Peter; Lenaerts, Tom

    2018-04-01

    Src Homology 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3) are two key protein interaction modules involved in regulating the activity of many proteins such as tyrosine kinases and phosphatases by respective recognition of phosphotyrosine and proline-rich regions. In the Src family kinases, the inactive state of the protein is the direct result of the interaction of the SH2 and the SH3 domain with intra-molecular regions, leading to a closed structure incompetent with substrate modification. Here, we report the 1 H, 15 N and 13 C backbone- and side-chain chemical shift assignments of the partially deuterated Fyn SH3-SH2 domain and structural differences between tandem and single domains. The BMRB accession number is 27165.

  2. An examination of the origin and evolution of additional tandem repeats in the mitochondrial DNA control region of Japanese sika deer (Cervus Nippon).

    PubMed

    Ba, Hengxing; Wu, Lang; Liu, Zongyue; Li, Chunyi

    2016-01-01

    Tandem repeat units are only detected in the left domain of the mitochondrial DNA control region in sika deer. Previous studies showed that Japanese sika deer have more tandem repeat units than its cousins from the Asian continent and Taiwan, which often have only three repeat units. To determine the origin and evolution of these additional repeat units in Japanese sika deer, we obtained the sequence of repeat units from an expanded dataset of the control region from all sika deer lineages. The functional constraint is inferred to act on the first repeat unit because this repeat has the least sequence divergence in comparison to the other units. Based on slipped-strand mispairing mechanisms, the illegitimate elongation model could account for the addition or deletion of these additional repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population. We also report that these additional repeat units could be occurring in the internal positions of tandem repeat regions, possibly via coupling with a homogenization mechanism within and among these lineages. Moreover, the increased number of repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population could reflect a balance between mutation and selection, as well as genetic drift.

  3. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; He, Q.; Chu, Y. H.

    2014-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  4. Tandem SUMO fusion vectors for improving soluble protein expression and purification.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Fernando; Ciragan, Annika; Iwaï, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    Availability of highly purified proteins in quantity is crucial for detailed biochemical and structural investigations. Fusion tags are versatile tools to facilitate efficient protein purification and to improve soluble overexpression of proteins. Various purification and fusion tags have been widely used for overexpression in Escherichia coli. However, these tags might interfere with biological functions and/or structural investigations of the protein of interest. Therefore, an additional purification step to remove fusion tags by proteolytic digestion might be required. Here, we describe a set of new vectors in which yeast SUMO (SMT3) was used as the highly specific recognition sequence of ubiquitin-like protease 1, together with other commonly used solubility enhancing proteins, such as glutathione S-transferase, maltose binding protein, thioredoxin and trigger factor for optimizing soluble expression of protein of interest. This tandem SUMO (T-SUMO) fusion system was tested for soluble expression of the C-terminal domain of TonB from different organisms and for the antiviral protein scytovirin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CFD-CAA Coupled Calculations of a Tandem Cylinder Configuration to Assess Facility Installation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redonnet, Stephane; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical assessment of acoustic installation effects in the tandem cylinder (TC) experiments conducted in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility (QFF), an open-jet, anechoic wind tunnel. Calculations that couple the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) of the TC configuration within the QFF are conducted using the CFD simulation results previously obtained at NASA LaRC. The coupled simulations enable the assessment of installation effects associated with several specific features in the QFF facility that may have impacted the measured acoustic signature during the experiment. The CFD-CAA coupling is based on CFD data along a suitably chosen surface, and employs a technique that was recently improved to account for installed configurations involving acoustic backscatter into the CFD domain. First, a CFD-CAA calculation is conducted for an isolated TC configuration to assess the coupling approach, as well as to generate a reference solution for subsequent assessments of QFF installation effects. Direct comparisons between the CFD-CAA calculations associated with the various installed configurations allow the assessment of the effects of each component (nozzle, collector, etc.) or feature (confined vs. free jet flow, etc.) characterizing the NASA LaRC QFF facility.

  6. Comparative and functional characterization of intragenic tandem repeats in 10 Aspergillus genomes.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, John G; Rokas, Antonis

    2009-03-01

    Intragenic tandem repeats (ITRs) are consecutive repeats of three or more nucleotides found in coding regions. ITRs are the underlying cause of several human genetic diseases and have been associated with phenotypic variation, including pathogenesis, in several clades of the tree of life. We have examined the evolution and functional role of ITRs in 10 genomes spanning the fungal genus Aspergillus, a clade of relevance to medicine, agriculture, and industry. We identified several hundred ITRs in each of the species examined. ITR content varied extensively between species, with an average 79% of ITRs unique to a given species. For the fraction of conserved ITR regions, sequence comparisons within species and between close relatives revealed that they were highly variable. ITR-containing proteins were evolutionarily less conserved, compositionally distinct, and overrepresented for domains associated with cell-surface localization and function relative to the rest of the proteome. Furthermore, ITRs were preferentially found in proteins involved in transcription, cellular communication, and cell-type differentiation but were underrepresented in proteins involved in metabolism and energy. Importantly, although ITRs were evolutionarily labile, their functional associations appeared. To be remarkably conserved across eukaryotes. Fungal ITRs likely participate in a variety of developmental processes and cell-surface-associated functions, suggesting that their contribution to fungal lifestyle and evolution may be more general than previously assumed.

  7. Diverse Cis-Regulatory Mechanisms Contribute to Expression Evolution of Tandem Gene Duplicates

    PubMed Central

    Baudouin-Gonzalez, Luís; Santos, Marília A; Tempesta, Camille; Sucena, Élio; Roch, Fernando; Tanaka, Kohtaro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pairs of duplicated genes generally display a combination of conserved expression patterns inherited from their unduplicated ancestor and newly acquired domains. However, how the cis-regulatory architecture of duplicated loci evolves to produce these expression patterns is poorly understood. We have directly examined the gene-regulatory evolution of two tandem duplicates, the Drosophila Ly6 genes CG9336 and CG9338, which arose at the base of the drosophilids between 40 and 60 Ma. Comparing the expression patterns of the two paralogs in four Drosophila species with that of the unduplicated ortholog in the tephritid Ceratitis capitata, we show that they diverged from each other as well as from the unduplicated ortholog. Moreover, the expression divergence appears to have occurred close to the duplication event and also more recently in a lineage-specific manner. The comparison of the tissue-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) controlling the paralog expression in the four Drosophila species indicates that diverse cis-regulatory mechanisms, including the novel tissue-specific enhancers, differential inactivation, and enhancer sharing, contributed to the expression evolution. Our analysis also reveals a surprisingly variable cis-regulatory architecture, in which the CRMs driving conserved expression domains change in number, location, and specificity. Altogether, this study provides a detailed historical account that uncovers a highly dynamic picture of how the paralog expression patterns and their underlying cis-regulatory landscape evolve. We argue that our findings will encourage studying cis-regulatory evolution at the whole-locus level to understand how interactions between enhancers and other regulatory levels shape the evolution of gene expression. PMID:28961967

  8. Mapping the Moral Domain

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  9. PTGBase: an integrated database to study tandem duplicated genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Ke, Tao; Tehrim, Sadia; Sun, Fengming; Liao, Boshou; Hua, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tandem duplication is a wide-spread phenomenon in plant genomes and plays significant roles in evolution and adaptation to changing environments. Tandem duplicated genes related to certain functions will lead to the expansion of gene families and bring increase of gene dosage in the form of gene cluster arrays. Many tandem duplication events have been studied in plant genomes; yet, there is a surprising shortage of efforts to systematically present the integration of large amounts of information about publicly deposited tandem duplicated gene data across the plant kingdom. To address this shortcoming, we developed the first plant tandem duplicated genes database, PTGBase. It delivers the most comprehensive resource available to date, spanning 39 plant genomes, including model species and newly sequenced species alike. Across these genomes, 54 130 tandem duplicated gene clusters (129 652 genes) are presented in the database. Each tandem array, as well as its member genes, is characterized in complete detail. Tandem duplicated genes in PTGBase can be explored through browsing or searching by identifiers or keywords of functional annotation and sequence similarity. Users can download tandem duplicated gene arrays easily to any scale, up to the complete annotation data set for an entire plant genome. PTGBase will be updated regularly with newly sequenced plant species as they become available. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  11. Tandem Repeat Proteins Inspired By Squid Ring Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena-Francesch, Abdon

    Proteins are large biomolecules consisting of long chains of amino acids that hierarchically assemble into complex structures, and provide a variety of building blocks for biological materials. The repetition of structural building blocks is a natural evolutionary strategy for increasing the complexity and stability of protein structures. However, the relationship between amino acid sequence, structure, and material properties of protein systems remains unclear due to the lack of control over the protein sequence and the intricacies of the assembly process. In order to investigate the repetition of protein building blocks, a recently discovered protein from squids is examined as an ideal protein system. Squid ring teeth are predatory appendages located inside the suction cups that provide a strong grasp of prey, and are solely composed of a group of proteins with tandem repetition of building blocks. The objective of this thesis is the understanding of sequence, structure and property relationship in repetitive protein materials inspired in squid ring teeth for the first time. Specifically, this work focuses on squid-inspired structural proteins with tandem repeat units in their sequence (i.e., repetition of alternating building blocks) that are physically cross-linked via beta-sheet structures. The research work presented here tests the hypothesis that, in these systems, increasing the number of building blocks in the polypeptide chain decreases the protein network defects and improves the material properties. Hence, the sequence, nanostructure, and properties (thermal, mechanical, and conducting) of tandem repeat squid-inspired protein materials are examined. Spectroscopic structural analysis, advanced materials characterization, and entropic elasticity theory are combined to elucidate the structure and material properties of these repetitive proteins. This approach is applied not only to native squid proteins but also to squid-inspired synthetic polypeptides

  12. Improved Tandem Measurement Techniques for Aerosol Particle Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Vivek Kumar

    Non-spherical, chemically inhomogeneous (complex) nanoparticles are encountered in a number of natural and engineered environments, including combustion systems (which produces highly non-spherical aggregates), reactors used in gas-phase materials synthesis of doped or multicomponent materials, and in ambient air. These nanoparticles are often highly diverse in size, composition and shape, and hence require determination of property distribution functions for accurate characterization. This thesis focuses on development of tandem mobility-mass measurement techniques coupled with appropriate data inversion routines to facilitate measurement of two dimensional size-mass distribution functions while correcting for the non-idealities of the instruments. Chapter 1 provides the detailed background and motivation for the studies performed in this thesis. In chapter 2, the development of an inversion routine is described which is employed to determine two dimensional size-mass distribution functions from Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer tandem measurements. Chapter 3 demonstrates the application of the two dimensional distribution function to compute cumulative mass distribution function and also evaluates the validity of this technique by comparing the calculated total mass concentrations to measured values for a variety of aerosols. In Chapter 4, this tandem measurement technique with the inversion routine is employed to analyze colloidal suspensions. Chapter 5 focuses on application of a transverse modulation ion mobility spectrometer coupled with a mass spectrometer to study the effect of vapor dopants on the mobility shifts of sub 2 nm peptide ion clusters. These mobility shifts are then compared to models based on vapor uptake theories. Finally, in Chapter 6, a conclusion of all the studies performed in this thesis is provided and future avenues of research are discussed.

  13. A tandem cross-metathesis/semipinacol rearrangement reaction.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Christopher W; Soheili, Arash; Leighton, James L

    2012-05-18

    An efficient and (E)-selective synthesis of a 6-alkylidenebicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-one has been developed. The key step is a tandem cross-metathesis/semipinacol rearrangement reaction, wherein the Hoveyda-Grubbs II catalyst, or more likely a derivative thereof, serves as the Lewis acid for the rearrangement. Despite the fact that both the starting alkene and the cross-metathesis product are viable rearrangement substrates, only the latter rearranges, suggesting that the Lewis acidic species is generated only after the cross-metathesis reaction is complete.

  14. Tandem mass spectrometry data quality assessment by self-convolution.

    PubMed

    Choo, Keng Wah; Tham, Wai Mun

    2007-09-20

    Many algorithms have been developed for deciphering the tandem mass spectrometry (MS) data sets. They can be essentially clustered into two classes. The first performs searches on theoretical mass spectrum database, while the second based itself on de novo sequencing from raw mass spectrometry data. It was noted that the quality of mass spectra affects significantly the protein identification processes in both instances. This prompted the authors to explore ways to measure the quality of MS data sets before subjecting them to the protein identification algorithms, thus allowing for more meaningful searches and increased confidence level of proteins identified. The proposed method measures the qualities of MS data sets based on the symmetric property of b- and y-ion peaks present in a MS spectrum. Self-convolution on MS data and its time-reversal copy was employed. Due to the symmetric nature of b-ions and y-ions peaks, the self-convolution result of a good spectrum would produce a highest mid point intensity peak. To reduce processing time, self-convolution was achieved using Fast Fourier Transform and its inverse transform, followed by the removal of the "DC" (Direct Current) component and the normalisation of the data set. The quality score was defined as the ratio of the intensity at the mid point to the remaining peaks of the convolution result. The method was validated using both theoretical mass spectra, with various permutations, and several real MS data sets. The results were encouraging, revealing a high percentage of positive prediction rates for spectra with good quality scores. We have demonstrated in this work a method for determining the quality of tandem MS data set. By pre-determining the quality of tandem MS data before subjecting them to protein identification algorithms, spurious protein predictions due to poor tandem MS data are avoided, giving scientists greater confidence in the predicted results. We conclude that the algorithm performs well

  15. Current- and lattice-matched tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.

    1985-10-21

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga/sub x/In/sub 1-x/P (0.505 equal to or less than x equal to or less than 0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice-matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low resistance heterojunction, preferably a p/sup +//n/sup +/ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice-matched and current-matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  16. Src binds cortactin through an SH2 domain cystine-mediated linkage.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jason V; Ammer, Amanda G; Jett, John E; Bolcato, Chris A; Breaux, Jason C; Martin, Karen H; Culp, Mark V; Gannett, Peter M; Weed, Scott A

    2012-12-15

    Tyrosine-kinase-based signal transduction mediated by modular protein domains is critical for cellular function. The Src homology (SH)2 domain is an important conductor of intracellular signaling that binds to phosphorylated tyrosines on acceptor proteins, producing molecular complexes responsible for signal relay. Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein and tyrosine kinase substrate that regulates actin-based motility through interactions with SH2-domain-containing proteins. The Src kinase SH2 domain mediates cortactin binding and tyrosine phosphorylation, but how Src interacts with cortactin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Src binds cortactin through cystine bonding between Src C185 in the SH2 domain within the phosphotyrosine binding pocket and cortactin C112/246 in the cortactin repeats domain, independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. Interaction studies show that the presence of reducing agents ablates Src-cortactin binding, eliminates cortactin phosphorylation by Src, and prevents Src SH2 domain binding to cortactin. Tandem MS/MS sequencing demonstrates cystine bond formation between Src C185 and cortactin C112/246. Mutational studies indicate that an intact cystine binding interface is required for Src-mediated cortactin phosphorylation, cell migration, and pre-invadopodia formation. Our results identify a novel phosphotyrosine-independent binding mode between the Src SH2 domain and cortactin. Besides Src, one quarter of all SH2 domains contain cysteines at or near the analogous Src C185 position. This provides a potential alternative mechanism to tyrosine phosphorylation for cysteine-containing SH2 domains to bind cognate ligands that may be widespread in propagating signals regulating diverse cellular functions.

  17. Src binds cortactin through an SH2 domain cystine-mediated linkage

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jason V.; Ammer, Amanda G.; Jett, John E.; Bolcato, Chris A.; Breaux, Jason C.; Martin, Karen H.; Culp, Mark V.; Gannett, Peter M.; Weed, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tyrosine-kinase-based signal transduction mediated by modular protein domains is critical for cellular function. The Src homology (SH)2 domain is an important conductor of intracellular signaling that binds to phosphorylated tyrosines on acceptor proteins, producing molecular complexes responsible for signal relay. Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein and tyrosine kinase substrate that regulates actin-based motility through interactions with SH2-domain-containing proteins. The Src kinase SH2 domain mediates cortactin binding and tyrosine phosphorylation, but how Src interacts with cortactin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Src binds cortactin through cystine bonding between Src C185 in the SH2 domain within the phosphotyrosine binding pocket and cortactin C112/246 in the cortactin repeats domain, independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. Interaction studies show that the presence of reducing agents ablates Src-cortactin binding, eliminates cortactin phosphorylation by Src, and prevents Src SH2 domain binding to cortactin. Tandem MS/MS sequencing demonstrates cystine bond formation between Src C185 and cortactin C112/246. Mutational studies indicate that an intact cystine binding interface is required for Src-mediated cortactin phosphorylation, cell migration, and pre-invadopodia formation. Our results identify a novel phosphotyrosine-independent binding mode between the Src SH2 domain and cortactin. Besides Src, one quarter of all SH2 domains contain cysteines at or near the analogous Src C185 position. This provides a potential alternative mechanism to tyrosine phosphorylation for cysteine-containing SH2 domains to bind cognate ligands that may be widespread in propagating signals regulating diverse cellular functions. PMID:23097045

  18. Structure and catalytic regulatory function of ubiquitin specific protease 11 N-terminal and ubiquitin-like domains.

    PubMed

    Harper, Stephen; Gratton, Hayley E; Cornaciu, Irina; Oberer, Monika; Scott, David J; Emsley, Jonas; Dreveny, Ingrid

    2014-05-13

    The ubiquitin specific protease 11 (USP11) is implicated in DNA repair, viral RNA replication, and TGFβ signaling. We report the first characterization of the USP11 domain architecture and its role in regulating the enzymatic activity. USP11 consists of an N-terminal "domain present in USPs" (DUSP) and "ubiquitin-like" (UBL) domain, together referred to as DU domains, and the catalytic domain harboring a second UBL domain. Crystal structures of the DU domains show a tandem arrangement with a shortened β-hairpin at the two-domain interface and altered surface characteristics compared to the homologues USP4 and USP15. A conserved VEVY motif is a signature feature at the two-domain interface that shapes a potential protein interaction site. Small angle X-ray scattering and gel filtration experiments are consistent with the USP11DU domains and full-length USP11 being monomeric. Unexpectedly, we reveal, through kinetic assays of a series of deletion mutants, that the catalytic activity of USP11 is not regulated through intramolecular autoinhibition or activation by the N-terminal DU or UBL domains. Moreover, ubiquitin chain cleavage assays with all eight linkages reveal a preference for Lys(63)-, Lys(6)-, Lys(33)-, and Lys(11)-linked chains over Lys(27)-, Lys(29)-, and Lys(48)-linked and linear chains consistent with USP11's function in DNA repair pathways that is mediated by the protease domain. Our data support a model whereby USP11 domains outside the catalytic core domain serve as protein interaction or trafficking modules rather than a direct regulatory function of the proteolytic activity. This highlights the diversity of USPs in substrate recognition and regulation of ubiquitin deconjugation.

  19. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE PAGES

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; ...

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  20. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  1. Tandem luminescent solar concentrators based on engineered quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaifeng; Li, Hongbo; Klimov, Victor I.

    2018-02-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) can serve as large-area sunlight collectors for terrestrial and space-based photovoltaics. Due to their high emission efficiencies and readily tunable emission and absorption spectra, colloidal quantum dots have emerged as a new and promising type of LSC fluorophore. Spectral tunability of the quantum dots also facilitates the realization of stacked multilayered LSCs, where enhanced performance is obtained through spectral splitting of incident sunlight, as in multijunction photovoltaics. Here, we demonstrate a large-area (>230 cm2) tandem LSC based on two types of nearly reabsorption-free quantum dots spectrally tuned for optimal solar-spectrum splitting. This prototype device exhibits a high optical quantum efficiency of 6.4% for sunlight illumination and solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency of 3.1%. The efficiency gains due to the tandem architecture over single-layer devices quickly increase with increasing LSC size and can reach more than 100% in structures with window sizes of more than 2,500 cm2.

  2. Cloud parallel processing of tandem mass spectrometry based proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Yassene; Mostovenko, Ekaterina; Henneman, Alex A; Marissen, Rob J; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-10-05

    Data analysis in mass spectrometry based proteomics struggles to keep pace with the advances in instrumentation and the increasing rate of data acquisition. Analyzing this data involves multiple steps requiring diverse software, using different algorithms and data formats. Speed and performance of the mass spectral search engines are continuously improving, although not necessarily as needed to face the challenges of acquired big data. Improving and parallelizing the search algorithms is one possibility; data decomposition presents another, simpler strategy for introducing parallelism. We describe a general method for parallelizing identification of tandem mass spectra using data decomposition that keeps the search engine intact and wraps the parallelization around it. We introduce two algorithms for decomposing mzXML files and recomposing resulting pepXML files. This makes the approach applicable to different search engines, including those relying on sequence databases and those searching spectral libraries. We use cloud computing to deliver the computational power and scientific workflow engines to interface and automate the different processing steps. We show how to leverage these technologies to achieve faster data analysis in proteomics and present three scientific workflows for parallel database as well as spectral library search using our data decomposition programs, X!Tandem and SpectraST.

  3. The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Fang, Guan-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Wei; Cheng, Shuo-Hsien; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Kuo, Ting-Yi; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2014-06-04

    Exploiting our recently developed bilayer interface methodology, together with a new wide energy-gap, low LUMO acceptor (A) and the designated donor (D) layers, we succeeded in fabricating an exciplex-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) systematically tuned from blue to red. Further optimization rendered a record-high blue exciplex OLED with η(ext) of 8%. We then constructed a device structure configured by two parallel blend layers of mCP/PO-T2T and DTAF/PO-T2T, generating blue and yellow exciplex emission, respectively. The resulting device demonstrates for the first time a tandem, all-exciplex-based white-light OLED (WOLED) with excellent efficiencies η(ext): 11.6%, η(c): 27.7 cd A(-1), and η(p): 15.8 ml W(-1) with CIE(0.29, 0.35) and CRI 70.6 that are nearly independent of EL intensity. The tandem architecture and blend-layer D/A (1:1) configuration are two key elements that fully utilize the exciplex delay fluorescence, providing a paragon for the use of low-cost, abundant organic compounds en route to commercial WOLEDs.

  4. The First Tandem, All-exciplex-based WOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Fang, Guan-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Wei; Cheng, Shuo-Hsien; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Kuo, Ting-Yi; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2014-06-01

    Exploiting our recently developed bilayer interface methodology, together with a new wide energy-gap, low LUMO acceptor (A) and the designated donor (D) layers, we succeeded in fabricating an exciplex-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) systematically tuned from blue to red. Further optimization rendered a record-high blue exciplex OLED with ηext of 8%. We then constructed a device structure configured by two parallel blend layers of mCP/PO-T2T and DTAF/PO-T2T, generating blue and yellow exciplex emission, respectively. The resulting device demonstrates for the first time a tandem, all-exciplex-based white-light OLED (WOLED) with excellent efficiencies ηext: 11.6%, ηc: 27.7 cd A-1, and ηp: 15.8 ml W-1 with CIE(0.29, 0.35) and CRI 70.6 that are nearly independent of EL intensity. The tandem architecture and blend-layer D/A (1:1) configuration are two key elements that fully utilize the exciplex delay fluorescence, providing a paragon for the use of low-cost, abundant organic compounds en route to commercial WOLEDs.

  5. The First Tandem, All-exciplex-based WOLED

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Fang, Guan-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Wei; Cheng, Shuo-Hsien; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Kuo, Ting-Yi; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting our recently developed bilayer interface methodology, together with a new wide energy-gap, low LUMO acceptor (A) and the designated donor (D) layers, we succeeded in fabricating an exciplex-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) systematically tuned from blue to red. Further optimization rendered a record-high blue exciplex OLED with ηext of 8%. We then constructed a device structure configured by two parallel blend layers of mCP/PO-T2T and DTAF/PO-T2T, generating blue and yellow exciplex emission, respectively. The resulting device demonstrates for the first time a tandem, all-exciplex-based white-light OLED (WOLED) with excellent efficiencies ηext: 11.6%, ηc: 27.7 cd A−1, and ηp: 15.8 ml W−1 with CIE(0.29, 0.35) and CRI 70.6 that are nearly independent of EL intensity. The tandem architecture and blend-layer D/A (1:1) configuration are two key elements that fully utilize the exciplex delay fluorescence, providing a paragon for the use of low-cost, abundant organic compounds en route to commercial WOLEDs. PMID:24895098

  6. Quantitative Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra Obtained on Various Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazsó, Fanni Laura; Ozohanics, Oliver; Schlosser, Gitta; Ludányi, Krisztina; Vékey, Károly; Drahos, László

    2016-08-01

    The similarity between two tandem mass spectra, which were measured on different instruments, was compared quantitatively using the similarity index (SI), defined as the dot product of the square root of peak intensities in the respective spectra. This function was found to be useful for comparing energy-dependent tandem mass spectra obtained on various instruments. Spectral comparisons show the similarity index in a 2D "heat map", indicating which collision energy combinations result in similar spectra, and how good this agreement is. The results and methodology can be used in the pharma industry to design experiments and equipment well suited for good reproducibility. We suggest that to get good long-term reproducibility, it is best to adjust the collision energy to yield a spectrum very similar to a reference spectrum. It is likely to yield better results than using the same tuning file, which, for example, does not take into account that contamination of the ion source due to extended use may influence instrument tuning. The methodology may be used to characterize energy dependence on various instrument types, to optimize instrumentation, and to study the influence or correlation between various experimental parameters.

  7. Estimating the Efficiency of Phosphopeptide Identification by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Xue, Liang; Arrington, Justine V.; Wang, Pengcheng; Paez Paez, Juan Sebastian; Zhou, Yuan; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Tao, W. Andy

    2017-06-01

    Mass spectrometry has played a significant role in the identification of unknown phosphoproteins and sites of phosphorylation in biological samples. Analyses of protein phosphorylation, particularly large scale phosphoproteomic experiments, have recently been enhanced by efficient enrichment, fast and accurate instrumentation, and better software, but challenges remain because of the low stoichiometry of phosphorylation and poor phosphopeptide ionization efficiency and fragmentation due to neutral loss. Phosphoproteomics has become an important dimension in systems biology studies, and it is essential to have efficient analytical tools to cover a broad range of signaling events. To evaluate current mass spectrometric performance, we present here a novel method to estimate the efficiency of phosphopeptide identification by tandem mass spectrometry. Phosphopeptides were directly isolated from whole plant cell extracts, dephosphorylated, and then incubated with one of three purified kinases—casein kinase II, mitogen-activated protein kinase 6, and SNF-related protein kinase 2.6—along with 16O4- and 18O4-ATP separately for in vitro kinase reactions. Phosphopeptides were enriched and analyzed by LC-MS. The phosphopeptide identification rate was estimated by comparing phosphopeptides identified by tandem mass spectrometry with phosphopeptide pairs generated by stable isotope labeled kinase reactions. Overall, we found that current high speed and high accuracy mass spectrometers can only identify 20%-40% of total phosphopeptides primarily due to relatively poor fragmentation, additional modifications, and low abundance, highlighting the urgent need for continuous efforts to improve phosphopeptide identification efficiency. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. The Alto Tandem and Isol Facility at IPN Orsay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchoo, Serge

    Alto is an infrastructure for experimental nuclear physics in France that comprises both an on-line isotope-separation facility based on the photofission of uranium and a stable-ion beam facility based on a 14.5-MV tandem accelerator. The isotope-separation on-line section of Alto is dedicated to the production of neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIB) from the interaction of the γ-flux induced by a 50-MeV 10-µA electron beam in a uranium-carbide target. It is dimensioned for 1011 fissions per second. The RIB facility is exploited in alternating mode with the tandem-based section of Alto, capable of accelerating both light ions for nuclear astrophysics and heavy ions for γ-spectroscopy. The facility thereby offers the opportunity to deliver beams to a large range of physics programmes from nuclear to interdisciplinary physics. In this article, we present the Alto facility as well as some of the highlights and prospects of the experimental programme.

  9. Hydrodynamic studies on two traveling wavy foils in tandem arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jian; Shao, Xue-Ming; Yu, Zhao-Sheng

    2007-11-01

    In this study, the hydrodynamic interactions between two tandem foils undergoing fishlike swimming motion are investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the immersed-boundary method. The two foils represent two tandem propellers attached on a concept ship. The thrusts and efficiencies at three typical Strouhal numbers, i.e., St =0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, are investigated. The results show that a fish situated directly behind another one does not always undergo a lower thrust. Whether it experiences a thrust enhancement or reduction depends on the Strouhal number. At a relatively low Strouhal number (e.g., St =0.4), the usual wake drag-reduction effect predominates over the drag-enhancement effect caused by the reverse von Kármán vortices, resulting in a thrust enhancement. The opposite happens at a relatively high Strouhal number (e.g., St =0.8). The downstream fish can benefit from the upstream one by slalom between the vortices rather than through them. For the upstream fish, the thrusts and efficiencies for all Strouhal numbers studied are higher than those for a single fish when the two fish are closely spaced, and approach those for a single fish as the spacing is increased.

  10. Two tandemly repeated telomere-associated sequences in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    PubMed

    Chen, C M; Wang, C T; Wang, C J; Ho, C H; Kao, Y Y; Chen, C C

    1997-12-01

    Two tandemly repeated telomere-associated sequences, NP3R and NP4R, have been isolated from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. The length of a repeating unit for NP3R and NP4R is 165 and 180 nucleotides respectively. The abundance of NP3R, NP4R and telomeric repeats is, respectively, 8.4 x 10(4), 6 x 10(3) and 1.5 x 10(6) copies per haploid genome of N. plumbaginifolia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that NP3R is located at the ends and/or in interstitial regions of all 10 chromosomes and NP4R on the terminal regions of three chromosomes in the haploid genome of N. plumbaginifolia. Sequence homology search revealed that not only are NP3R and NP4R homologous to HRS60 and GRS, respectively, two tandem repeats isolated from N. tabacum, but that NP3R and NP4R are also related to each other, suggesting that they originated from a common ancestral sequence. The role of these repeated sequences in chromosome healing is discussed based on the observation that two to three copies of a telomere-similar sequence were present in each repeating unit of NP3R and NP4R.

  11. Separated matter and antimatter domains with vanishing domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A.D.; Godunov, S.I.; Rudenko, A.S.

    2015-10-01

    We present a model of spontaneous (or dynamical) C and CP violation where it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP) violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated baryonic and/or antibaryonic domains. So the problem of domain walls in this model does not exist. These features are achieved through a postulated form of interaction between inflaton and a new scalar field, realizing short time C(CP) violation.

  12. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  13. Direct mapping of symbolic DNA sequence into frequency domain in global repeat map algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Glunčić, Matko; Paar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The main feature of global repeat map (GRM) algorithm (www.hazu.hr/grm/software/win/grm2012.exe) is its ability to identify a broad variety of repeats of unbounded length that can be arbitrarily distant in sequences as large as human chromosomes. The efficacy is due to the use of complete set of a K-string ensemble which enables a new method of direct mapping of symbolic DNA sequence into frequency domain, with straightforward identification of repeats as peaks in GRM diagram. In this way, we obtain very fast, efficient and highly automatized repeat finding tool. The method is robust to substitutions and insertions/deletions, as well as to various complexities of the sequence pattern. We present several case studies of GRM use, in order to illustrate its capabilities: identification of α-satellite tandem repeats and higher order repeats (HORs), identification of Alu dispersed repeats and of Alu tandems, identification of Period 3 pattern in exons, implementation of ‘magnifying glass’ effect, identification of complex HOR pattern, identification of inter-tandem transitional dispersed repeat sequences and identification of long segmental duplications. GRM algorithm is convenient for use, in particular, in cases of large repeat units, of highly mutated and/or complex repeats, and of global repeat maps for large genomic sequences (chromosomes and genomes). PMID:22977183

  14. Comparative analysis of tandem repeats from hundreds of species reveals unique insights into centromere evolution.

    PubMed

    Melters, Daniël P; Bradnam, Keith R; Young, Hugh A; Telis, Natalie; May, Michael R; Ruby, J Graham; Sebra, Robert; Peluso, Paul; Eid, John; Rank, David; Garcia, José Fernando; DeRisi, Joseph L; Smith, Timothy; Tobias, Christian; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Korf, Ian; Chan, Simon W L

    2013-01-30

    Centromeres are essential for chromosome segregation, yet their DNA sequences evolve rapidly. In most animals and plants that have been studied, centromeres contain megabase-scale arrays of tandem repeats. Despite their importance, very little is known about the degree to which centromere tandem repeats share common properties between different species across different phyla. We used bioinformatic methods to identify high-copy tandem repeats from 282 species using publicly available genomic sequence and our own data. Our methods are compatible with all current sequencing technologies. Long Pacific Biosciences sequence reads allowed us to find tandem repeat monomers up to 1,419 bp. We assumed that the most abundant tandem repeat is the centromere DNA, which was true for most species whose centromeres have been previously characterized, suggesting this is a general property of genomes. High-copy centromere tandem repeats were found in almost all animal and plant genomes, but repeat monomers were highly variable in sequence composition and length. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of sequence homology showed little evidence of sequence conservation beyond approximately 50 million years of divergence. We find that despite an overall lack of sequence conservation, centromere tandem repeats from diverse species showed similar modes of evolution. While centromere position in most eukaryotes is epigenetically determined, our results indicate that tandem repeats are highly prevalent at centromeres of both animal and plant genomes. This suggests a functional role for such repeats, perhaps in promoting concerted evolution of centromere DNA across chromosomes.

  15. Comparative analysis of tandem repeats from hundreds of species reveals unique insights into centromere evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Centromeres are essential for chromosome segregation, yet their DNA sequences evolve rapidly. In most animals and plants that have been studied, centromeres contain megabase-scale arrays of tandem repeats. Despite their importance, very little is known about the degree to which centromere tandem repeats share common properties between different species across different phyla. We used bioinformatic methods to identify high-copy tandem repeats from 282 species using publicly available genomic sequence and our own data. Results Our methods are compatible with all current sequencing technologies. Long Pacific Biosciences sequence reads allowed us to find tandem repeat monomers up to 1,419 bp. We assumed that the most abundant tandem repeat is the centromere DNA, which was true for most species whose centromeres have been previously characterized, suggesting this is a general property of genomes. High-copy centromere tandem repeats were found in almost all animal and plant genomes, but repeat monomers were highly variable in sequence composition and length. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of sequence homology showed little evidence of sequence conservation beyond approximately 50 million years of divergence. We find that despite an overall lack of sequence conservation, centromere tandem repeats from diverse species showed similar modes of evolution. Conclusions While centromere position in most eukaryotes is epigenetically determined, our results indicate that tandem repeats are highly prevalent at centromeres of both animal and plant genomes. This suggests a functional role for such repeats, perhaps in promoting concerted evolution of centromere DNA across chromosomes. PMID:23363705

  16. Simulation of Two Dimensional Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Teaching Proteomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations--2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.…

  17. Comparative analysis of tandem repeats from hundreds of species reveals unique insights into centromere evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Centromeres are essential for chromosome segregation, yet their DNA sequences evolve rapidly. In most animals and plants that have been studied, centromeres comprise of megabase-scale arrays of tandem repeats. The true prevalence of centromere tandem repeats, and whether they exhibit conserved seque...

  18. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-switched transport services. 69.713 Section 69.713 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION..., traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph governs requests for...)(2) of this chapter. (3) The traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services, as...

  19. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-switched transport services. 69.713 Section 69.713 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION..., traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph governs requests for...)(2) of this chapter. (3) The traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services, as...

  20. Catalytic stereoselective synthesis of highly substituted indanones via tandem Nazarov cyclization and electrophilic fluorination trapping.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Cui, Han-Feng; Hua, Ming-Qing; Ma, Jun-An

    2007-08-02

    A new catalytic stereoselective tandem transformation via Nazarov cyclization/electrophilic fluorination has been accomplished. This sequence is efficiently catalyzed by a Cu(II) complex to afford fluorine-containing 1-indanone derivatives with two new stereocenters with high diastereoselectivity (trans/cis up to 49/1). Three examples of catalytic enantioselective tandem transformation are presented.

  1. R&D issues in scale-up and manufacturing of amorphous silicon tandem modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, R. R.; Carlson, D. E.; Chen, L. F.; Ganguly, G.; He, M.; Lin, G.; Middya, R.; Wood, G.; Newton, J.; Bennett, M.; Jackson, F.; Willing, F.

    1999-03-01

    R & D on amorphous silicon based tandem junction devices has improved the throughtput, the material utilization, and the performance of devices on commercial tin oxide coated glass. The tandem junction technology has been scaled-up to produce 8.6 Ft2 monolithically integrated modules in manufacturing at the TF1 plant. Optimization of performance and stability of these modules is ongoing.

  2. Mutation of domain III and domain VI in L gene conserved domain of Nipah virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalani, Siti Aishah; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2016-11-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is the etiologic agent responsible for the respiratory illness and causes fatal encephalitis in human. NiV L protein subunit is thought to be responsible for the majority of enzymatic activities involved in viral transcription and replication. The L protein which is the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase has high sequence homology among negative sense RNA viruses. In negative stranded RNA viruses, based on sequence alignment six conserved domain (domain I-IV) have been determined. Each domain is separated on variable regions that suggest the structure to consist concatenated functional domain. To directly address the roles of domains III and VI, site-directed mutations were constructed by the substitution of bases at sequences 2497, 2500, 5528 and 5532. Each mutated L gene can be used in future studies to test the ability for expression on in vitro translation.

  3. Modeling software systems by domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippolito, Richard; Lee, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The Software Architectures Engineering (SAE) Project at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed engineering modeling techniques that both reduce the complexity of software for domain-specific computer systems and result in systems that are easier to build and maintain. These techniques allow maximum freedom for system developers to apply their domain expertise to software. We have applied these techniques to several types of applications, including training simulators operating in real time, engineering simulators operating in non-real time, and real-time embedded computer systems. Our modeling techniques result in software that mirrors both the complexity of the application and the domain knowledge requirements. We submit that the proper measure of software complexity reflects neither the number of software component units nor the code count, but the locus of and amount of domain knowledge. As a result of using these techniques, domain knowledge is isolated by fields of engineering expertise and removed from the concern of the software engineer. In this paper, we will describe kinds of domain expertise, describe engineering by domains, and provide relevant examples of software developed for simulator applications using the techniques.

  4. Discussion summary: Fictitious domain methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glowinski, Rowland; Rodrigue, Garry

    1991-01-01

    Fictitious Domain methods are constructed in the following manner: Suppose a partial differential equation is to be solved on an open bounded set, Omega, in 2-D or 3-D. Let R be a rectangle domain containing the closure of Omega. The partial differential equation is first solved on R. Using the solution on R, the solution of the equation on Omega is then recovered by some procedure. The advantage of the fictitious domain method is that in many cases the solution of a partial differential equation on a rectangular region is easier to compute than on a nonrectangular region. Fictitious domain methods for solving elliptic PDEs on general regions are also very efficient when used on a parallel computer. The reason is that one can use the many domain decomposition methods that are available for solving the PDE on the fictitious rectangular region. The discussion on fictitious domain methods began with a talk by R. Glowinski in which he gave some examples of a variational approach to ficititious domain methods for solving the Helmholtz and Navier-Stokes equations.

  5. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  6. Predicting domain-domain interaction based on domain profiles with feature selection and support vector machines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI) plays essential roles in cellular functions. The cost, time and other limitations associated with the current experimental methods have motivated the development of computational methods for predicting PPIs. As protein interactions generally occur via domains instead of the whole molecules, predicting domain-domain interaction (DDI) is an important step toward PPI prediction. Computational methods developed so far have utilized information from various sources at different levels, from primary sequences, to molecular structures, to evolutionary profiles. Results In this paper, we propose a computational method to predict DDI using support vector machines (SVMs), based on domains represented as interaction profile hidden Markov models (ipHMM) where interacting residues in domains are explicitly modeled according to the three dimensional structural information available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Features about the domains are extracted first as the Fisher scores derived from the ipHMM and then selected using singular value decomposition (SVD). Domain pairs are represented by concatenating their selected feature vectors, and classified by a support vector machine trained on these feature vectors. The method is tested by leave-one-out cross validation experiments with a set of interacting protein pairs adopted from the 3DID database. The prediction accuracy has shown significant improvement as compared to InterPreTS (Interaction Prediction through Tertiary Structure), an existing method for PPI prediction that also uses the sequences and complexes of known 3D structure. Conclusions We show that domain-domain interaction prediction can be significantly enhanced by exploiting information inherent in the domain profiles via feature selection based on Fisher scores, singular value decomposition and supervised learning based on support vector machines. Datasets and source code are freely available on the web at http

  7. Numerical investigation & comparison of a tandem-bladed turbocharger centrifugal compressor stage with conventional design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danish, Syed Noman; Qureshi, Shafiq Rehman; EL-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Umer, Usama; Ma, Chaochen

    2014-12-01

    Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor. Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels, axial spacings and circumferential clockings. Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle, meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design. Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance. Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed. Comparing two designs, it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates. However; near choke flow, tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area. Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.

  8. [Polymorphic loci and polymorphism analysis of short tandem repeats within XNP gene].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-Ji; Gong, Yao-Qin; Guo, Chen-Hong; Chen, Bing-Xi; Li, Jiang-Xia; Guo, Yi-Shou

    2002-01-01

    To select polymorphic short tandem repeat markers within X-linked nuclear protein (XNP) gene, genomic clones which contain XNP gene were recognized by homologous analysis with XNP cDNA. By comparing the cDNA with genomic DNA, non-exonic sequences were identified, and short tandem repeats were selected from non-exonic sequences by using BCM search Launcher. Polymorphisms of the short tandem repeats in Chinese population were evaluated by PCR amplification and PAGE. Five short tandem repeats were identified from XNP gene, two of which were polymorphic. Four and 11 alleles were observed in Chinese population for XNPSTR1 and XNPSTR4, respectively. Heterozygosities were 47% for XNPSTR1 and 70% for XNPSTR4. XNPSTR1 and XNPSTR4 localized within 3' end and intron 10, respectively. Two polymorphic short tandem repeats have been identified within XNP gene and will be useful for linkage analysis and gene diagnosis of XNP gene.

  9. Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of citrus limonoids.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven J

    2003-10-15

    Methods for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) of citrus limonoid aglycones and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of limonoid glucosides are reported. The fragmentation patterns of four citrus limonoid aglycones (limonin, nomilin, obacunone, and deacetylnomilin) and six limonoid glucosides, that is, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG), nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NG), nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NAG), deacetyl nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DNAG), obacunone 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG), and obacunoic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OAG) were investigated using a quadruple mass spectrometer in low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). The four limonoid aglycones and four limonoid glucosides (LG, OG, NAG, and DNAG) were purified from citrus seeds; the other two limonoid glucosides (NG and OAG) were tentatively identified in the crude extract of grapefruit seeds by ESI mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion analysis. Ammonium hydroxide or acetic acid was added to the mobile phase to facilitate ionization. During positive ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, protonated molecular ion, [M + H]+, or adduct ion, [M + NH3 + H]-, was formed as base peaks when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. Molecular anions or adduct ions with acetic acid ([M + HOAc - H] and [M + HOAc]-) or a deprotonated molecular ion were produced during negative ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, depending on the mobile-phase modifier used. Positive ion ESI-MS of limonoid glucosides produced adduct ions of [M + H + NH3]+, [M + Na]+, and [M + K]+ when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. After collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the limonoid aglycone molecular ions in negative ion APCI analysis, fragment ions indicated structural information of the precursor ions, showing the presence of methyl, carboxyl, and oxygenated ring

  10. 76 FR 40935 - Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...] Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB... Standard on Vertical Tandem Lifts (VTLs) in Marine Terminals (29 CFR part 1917). The collection of... on Vertical Tandem Lifts for Marine Terminals (29 CFR part 1917). OSHA is proposing to increase the...

  11. The Classification of Protein Domains.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Natalie; Sillitoe, Ian; Marsden, Russell L; Orengo, Christine A

    2017-01-01

    The significant expansion in protein sequence and structure data that we are now witnessing brings with it a pressing need to bring order to the protein world. Such order enables us to gain insights into the evolution of proteins, their function and the extent to which the functional repertoire can vary across the three kingdoms of life. This has lead to the creation of a wide range of protein family classifications that aim to group proteins based upon their evolutionary relationships.In this chapter we discuss the approaches and methods that are frequently used in the classification of proteins, with a specific emphasis on the classification of protein domains. The construction of both domain sequence and domain structure databases is considered and we show how the use of domain family annotations to assign structural and functional information is enhancing our understanding of genomes.

  12. The Thioredoxin Domain of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae PilB can use Electrons from DsbD to Reduce Downstream Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases

    SciTech Connect

    Brot,N.; Collet, J.; Johnson, L.

    2006-01-01

    The PilB protein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae is located in the periplasm and made up of three domains. The N-terminal, thioredoxin-like domain (NT domain) is fused to tandem methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B domains (MsrA/B). We show that the {alpha} domain of Escherichia coli DsbD is able to reduce the oxidized NT domain, which suggests that DsbD in Neisseria can transfer electrons from the cytoplasmic thioredoxin to the periplasm for the reduction of the MsrA/B domains. An analysis of the available complete genomes provides further evidence for this proposition in other bacteria where DsbD/CcdA, Trx, MsrA, and MsrB gene homologsmore » are all located in a gene cluster with a common transcriptional direction. An examination of wild-type PilB and a panel of Cys to Ser mutants of the full-length protein and the individually expressed domains have also shown that the NT domain more efficiently reduces the MsrA/B domains when in the polyprotein context. Within this framework there does not appear to be a preference for the NT domain to reduce the proximal MsrA domain over MsrB domain. Finally, we report the 1.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the NT domain. This structure confirms the presence of a surface loop that makes it different from other membrane-tethered, Trx-like molecules including TlpA, CcmG and ResA. Subtle differences are observed in this loop when compared to the N. meningitidis NT domain structure. The data taken together supports the formation of specific NT domain interactions with the MsrA/B domains and its in vivo recycling partner, DsbD.« less

  13. Intramolecular trimerization, a novel strategy for making multispecific antibodies with controlled orientation of the antigen binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Compte, Marta; Cuesta, Angel M.; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Bonet, Jaume; Navarro, Rocio; Muñoz-Briones, Clara; Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Mølgaard, Kasper; Oliva, Baldo; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J.; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a new strategy that allows the rapid and efficient engineering of mono and multispecific trivalent antibodies. By fusing single-domain antibodies from camelid heavy-chain-only immunoglobulins (VHHs) to the N-terminus of a human collagen XVIII trimerization domain (TIEXVIII) we produced monospecific trimerbodies that were efficiently secreted as soluble functional proteins by mammalian cells. The purified VHH-TIEXVIII trimerbodies were trimeric in solution and exhibited excellent antigen binding capacity. Furthermore, by connecting with two additional glycine-serine-based linkers three VHH-TIEXVIII modules on a single polypeptide chain, we present an approach for the rational design of multispecific tandem trimerbodies with defined stoichiometry and controlled orientation. Using this technology we report here the construction and characterization of a tandem VHH-based trimerbody capable of simultaneously binding to three different antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Multispecific tandem VHH-based trimerbodies were well expressed in mammalian cells, had good biophysical properties and were capable of simultaneously binding their targeted antigens. Importantly, these antibodies were very effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Multispecific VHH-based trimerbodies are therefore ideal candidates for future applications in various therapeutic areas. PMID:27345490

  14. Structure of the E2 DNA-binding domain from human papillomavirus serotype 31 at 2.4 A.

    PubMed

    Bussiere, D E; Kong, X; Egan, D A; Walter, K; Holzman, T F; Lindh, F; Robins, T; Giranda, V L

    1998-11-01

    The papillomaviruses are a family of small double-stranded DNA viruses which exclusively infect epithelial cells and stimulate the proliferation of those cells. A key protein within the papillomavirus life-cycle is known as the E2 (Early 2) protein and is responsible for regulating viral transcription from all viral promoters as well as for replication of the papillomavirus genome in tandem with another protein known as E1. The E2 protein itself consists of three functional domains: an N-terminal trans-activation domain, a proline-rich linker, and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain. The first crystal structure of the human papillomavirus, serotype 31 (HPV-31), E2 DNA-binding domain has been determined at 2.4 A resolution. The HPV DNA-binding domain monomer consists of two beta-alpha-beta repeats of approximately equal length and is arranged as to have an anti-parallel beta-sheet flanked by the two alpha-helices. The monomers form the functional in vivo dimer by association of the beta-sheets of each monomer so as to form an eight-stranded anti-parallel beta-barrel at the center of the dimer, with the alpha-helices lining the outside of the barrel. The overall structure of HVP-31 E2 DNA-binding domain is similar to both the bovine papillomavirus E2-binding domain and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 DNA-binding domain.

  15. Structure of the USP15 N-terminal domains: a β-hairpin mediates close association between the DUSP and UBL domains.

    PubMed

    Harper, Stephen; Besong, Tabot M D; Emsley, Jonas; Scott, David J; Dreveny, Ingrid

    2011-09-20

    Ubiquitin specific protease 15 (USP15) functions in COP9 signalosome mediated regulation of protein degradation and cellular signaling through catalyzing the ubiquitin deconjugation reaction of a discrete number of substrates. It influences the stability of adenomatous polyposis coli, IκBα, caspase-3, and the human papillomavirus type 16 E6. USP15 forms a subfamily with USP4 and USP11 related through a shared presence of N-terminal "domain present in ubiquitin specific proteases" (DUSP) and "ubiquitin-like" (UBL) domains (DU subfamily). Here we report the 1.5 Å resolution crystal structure of the human USP15 N-terminal domains revealing a 80 Å elongated arrangement with the DU domains aligned in tandem. This architecture is generated through formation of a defined interface that is dominated by an intervening β-hairpin structure (DU finger) that engages in an intricate hydrogen-bonding network between the domains. The UBL domain is closely related to ubiquitin among β-grasp folds but is characterized by the presence of longer loop regions and different surface characteristics, indicating that this domain is unlikely to act as ubiquitin mimic. Comparison with the related murine USP4 DUSP-UBL crystal structure reveals that the main DU interdomain contacts are conserved. Analytical ultracentrifugation, small-angle X-ray scattering, and gel filtration experiments revealed that USP15 DU is monomeric in solution. Our data provide a framework to advance study of the structure and function of the DU subfamily. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. United theory of planet formation (i): Tandem regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Imaeda, Yusuke

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is the first one of a series of papers that present the new united theory of planet formation, which includes magneto-rotational instability and porous aggregation of solid particles in an consistent way. We here describe the ;tandem; planet formation regime, in which a solar system like planetary systems are likely to be produced. We have obtained a steady-state, 1-D model of the accretion disk of a protostar taking into account the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) and and porous aggregation of solid particles. We find that the disk is divided into an outer turbulent region (OTR), a MRI suppressed region (MSR), and an inner turbulent region (ITR). The outer turbulent region is fully turbulent because of MRI. However, in the range, rout(= 8 - 60 AU) from the central star, MRI is suppressed around the midplane of the gas disk and a quiet area without turbulence appears, because the degree of ionization of gas becomes low enough. The disk becomes fully turbulent again in the range rin(= 0.2 - 1 AU), which is called the inner turbulent region, because the midplane temperature become high enough (>1000 K) due to gravitational energy release. Planetesimals are formed through gravitational instability at the outer and inner MRI fronts (the boundaries between the MRI suppressed region (MSR) and the outer and inner turbuent regions) without particle enhancement in the original nebula composition, because of the radial concentration of the solid particles. At the outer MRI front, icy particles grow through low-velocity collisions into porous aggregates with low densities (down to ∼10-5 gcm-3). They eventually undergo gravitational instability to form icy planetesimals. On the other hand, rocky particles accumulate at the inner MRI front, since their drift velocities turn outward due to the local maximum in gas pressure. They undergo gravitational instability in a sub-disk of pebbles to form rocky planetesimals at the inner MRI front. They are likely

  17. A tandem mass spectrometric method for singlet oxygen measurement.

    PubMed

    Karonen, Maarit; Mattila, Heta; Huang, Ping; Mamedov, Fikret; Styring, Stenbjörn; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2014-01-01

    Singlet oxygen, a harmful reactive oxygen species, can be quantified with the substance 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP) that reacts with singlet oxygen, forming a stable nitroxyl radical (TEMPO). TEMPO has earlier been quantified with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In this study, we designed an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) quantification method for TEMPO and showed that the method based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) can be used for the measurements of singlet oxygen from both nonbiological and biological samples. Results obtained with both UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS and EPR methods suggest that plant thylakoid membranes produce 3.7 × 10(-7) molecules of singlet oxygen per chlorophyll molecule in a second when illuminated with the photosynthetic photon flux density of 2000 μmol m(-2 ) s(-1). © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. Modification of the argon stripping target of the tandem accelerator.

    PubMed

    Makarov, A; Ostreinov, Yu; Taskaev, S; Vobly, P

    2015-12-01

    The tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation has been proposed and developed in Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. Negative hydrogen ions are accelerated by the positive 1MV potential of the high-voltage electrode, converted into protons in the gas stripping target inside the electrode, and then protons are accelerated again by the same potential. A stationary proton beam with 2 MeV energy, 1.6 mA current, 0.1% energy monochromaticity, and 0.5% current stability is obtained now. To conduct Boron Neutron Capture Therapy it is planned to increase the proton beam current to at least 3 mA. The paper presents the results of experimental studies clarifying the reasons for limiting the current, and gives suggestions for modifying the gas stripping target in order to increase the proton beam current along with the stability of the accelerator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. De novo generation of plant centromeres at tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chee How; Lermontova, Inna; Houben, Andreas; Mette, Michael Florian; Schubert, Ingo

    2013-06-01

    Artificial minichromosomes are highly desirable tools for basic research, breeding, and biotechnology purposes. We present an option to generate plant artificial minichromosomes via de novo engineering of plant centromeres in Arabidopsis thaliana by targeting kinetochore proteins to tandem repeat arrays at non-centromeric positions. We employed the bacterial lactose repressor/lactose operator system to guide derivatives of the centromeric histone H3 variant cenH3 to LacO operator sequences. Tethering of cenH3 to non-centromeric loci led to de novo assembly of kinetochore proteins and to dicentric carrier chromosomes which potentially form anaphase bridges. This approach will be further developed and may contribute to generating minichromosomes from preselected genomic regions, potentially even in a diploid background.

  20. Status of the University of Rochester tandem upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Clinton; Miller, Thomas

    1986-05-01

    The status of the University of Rochester tandem Van de Graaff accelerator upgrade is reviewed. The accelerator upgrade to 18 MV consists of extended tubes, shielded resistors, dead-section ion pumping, two rotating insulating power shaft systems to provide power to the dead sections and terminal, and a pelletron charging system to replace the charging belt. Control of many of the accelerator operating systems will be done by two IBM personal computers. The negative ion injector diffusion pump, isolation transformer, preacceleration high-voltage power supply, and high-voltage corona enclosure will all be replaced. Finally, the SF6 gas handling system will be improved with the addition of a second set of gas dryers and a larger recirculating pump.

  1. Interpreting short tandem repeat variations in humans using mutational constraint

    PubMed Central

    Gymrek, Melissa; Willems, Thomas; Reich, David; Erlich, Yaniv

    2017-01-01

    Identifying regions of the genome that are depleted of mutations can reveal potentially deleterious variants. Short tandem repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, are among the largest contributors of de novo mutations in humans. However, per-locus studies of STR mutations have been limited to highly ascertained panels of several dozen loci. Here, we harnessed bioinformatics tools and a novel analytical framework to estimate mutation parameters for each STR in the human genome by correlating STR genotypes with local sequence heterozygosity. We applied our method to obtain robust estimates of the impact of local sequence features on mutation parameters and used this to create a framework for measuring constraint at STRs by comparing observed vs. expected mutation rates. Constraint scores identified known pathogenic variants with early onset effects. Our metric will provide a valuable tool for prioritizing pathogenic STRs in medical genetics studies. PMID:28892063

  2. Sequencing of Oligourea Foldamers by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathany, Katell; Owens, Neil W.; Guichard, Gilles; Schmitter, Jean-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This study is focused on sequence analysis of peptidomimetic helical oligoureas by means of tandem mass spectrometry, to build a basis for de novo sequencing for future high-throughput combinatorial library screening of oligourea foldamers. After the evaluation of MS/MS spectra obtained for model compounds with either MALDI or ESI sources, we found that the MALDI-TOF-TOF instrument gave more satisfactory results. MS/MS spectra of oligoureas generated by decay of singly charged precursor ions show major ion series corresponding to fragmentation across both CO-NH and N'H-CO urea bonds. Oligourea backbones fragment to produce a pattern of a, x, b, and y type fragment ions. De novo decoding of spectral information is facilitated by the occurrence of low mass reporter ions, representative of constitutive monomers, in an analogous manner to the use of immonium ions for peptide sequencing.

  3. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  4. Molecular recognition of the Tes LIM2-3 domains by the actin-related protein Arp7A.

    PubMed

    Boëda, Batiste; Knowles, Phillip P; Briggs, David C; Murray-Rust, Judith; Soriano, Erika; Garvalov, Boyan K; McDonald, Neil Q; Way, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Actin-related proteins (Arps) are a highly conserved family of proteins that have extensive sequence and structural similarity to actin. All characterized Arps are components of large multimeric complexes associated with chromatin or the cytoskeleton. In addition, the human genome encodes five conserved but largely uncharacterized "orphan" Arps, which appear to be mostly testis-specific. Here we show that Arp7A, which has 43% sequence identity with β-actin, forms a complex with the cytoskeletal proteins Tes and Mena in the subacrosomal layer of round spermatids. The N-terminal 65-residue extension to the actin-like fold of Arp7A interacts directly with Tes. The crystal structure of the 1-65(Arp7A)·LIM2-3(Tes)·EVH1(Mena) complex reveals that residues 28-49 of Arp7A contact the LIM2-3 domains of Tes. Two alanine residues from Arp7A that occupy equivalent apolar pockets in both LIM domains as well as an intervening GPAK linker that binds the LIM2-3 junction are critical for the Arp7A-Tes interaction. Equivalent occupied apolar pockets are also seen in the tandem LIM domain structures of LMO4 and Lhx3 bound to unrelated ligands. Our results indicate that apolar pocket interactions are a common feature of tandem LIM domain interactions, but ligand specificity is principally determined by the linker sequence.

  5. Multifactorial Understanding of Ion Abundance in Tandem Mass Spectrometry Experiments.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Zeeshan; Southey, Bruce R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2013-01-29

    In a bottom-up shotgun approach, the proteins of a mixture are enzymatically digested, separated, and analyzed via tandem mass spectrometry. The mass spectra relating fragment ion intensities (abundance) to the mass-to-charge are used to deduce the amino acid sequence and identify the peptides and proteins. The variables that influence intensity were characterized using a multi-factorial mixed-effects model, a ten-fold cross-validation, and stepwise feature selection on 6,352,528 fragment ions from 61,543 peptide ions. Intensity was higher in fragment ions that did not have neutral mass loss relative to any mass loss or that had a +1 charge state. Peptide ions classified for proton mobility as non-mobile had lowest intensity of all mobility levels. Higher basic residue (arginine, lysine or histidine) counts in the peptide ion and low counts in the fragment ion were associated with lower fragment ion intensities. Higher counts of proline in peptide and fragment ions were associated with lower intensities. These results are consistent with the mobile proton theory. Opposite trends between peptide and fragment ion counts and intensity may be due to the different impact of factor under consideration at different stages of the MS/MS experiment or to the different distribution of observations across peptide and fragment ion levels. Presence of basic residues at all three positions next to the fragmentation site was associated with lower fragment ion intensity. The presence of proline proximal to the fragmentation site enhanced fragmentation and had the opposite trend when located distant from the site. A positive association between fragment ion intensity and presence of sulfur residues (cysteine and methionine) on the vicinity of the fragmentation site was identified. These results highlight the multi-factorial nature of fragment ion intensity and could improve the algorithms for peptide identification and the simulation in tandem mass spectrometry experiments.

  6. Multifactorial Understanding of Ion Abundance in Tandem Mass Spectrometry Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Zeeshan; Southey, Bruce R; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    In a bottom-up shotgun approach, the proteins of a mixture are enzymatically digested, separated, and analyzed via tandem mass spectrometry. The mass spectra relating fragment ion intensities (abundance) to the mass-to-charge are used to deduce the amino acid sequence and identify the peptides and proteins. The variables that influence intensity were characterized using a multi-factorial mixed-effects model, a ten-fold cross-validation, and stepwise feature selection on 6,352,528 fragment ions from 61,543 peptide ions. Intensity was higher in fragment ions that did not have neutral mass loss relative to any mass loss or that had a +1 charge state. Peptide ions classified for proton mobility as non-mobile had lowest intensity of all mobility levels. Higher basic residue (arginine, lysine or histidine) counts in the peptide ion and low counts in the fragment ion were associated with lower fragment ion intensities. Higher counts of proline in peptide and fragment ions were associated with lower intensities. These results are consistent with the mobile proton theory. Opposite trends between peptide and fragment ion counts and intensity may be due to the different impact of factor under consideration at different stages of the MS/MS experiment or to the different distribution of observations across peptide and fragment ion levels. Presence of basic residues at all three positions next to the fragmentation site was associated with lower fragment ion intensity. The presence of proline proximal to the fragmentation site enhanced fragmentation and had the opposite trend when located distant from the site. A positive association between fragment ion intensity and presence of sulfur residues (cysteine and methionine) on the vicinity of the fragmentation site was identified. These results highlight the multi-factorial nature of fragment ion intensity and could improve the algorithms for peptide identification and the simulation in tandem mass spectrometry experiments. PMID

  7. Kinetically Stabilized Axisymmetric Tandem Mirrors: Summary of Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F

    2005-02-08

    The path to practical fusion power through plasma confinement in magnetic fields, if it is solely based on the present front-runner, the tokamak, is clearly long, expensive, and arduous. The root causes for this situation lie in the effects of endemic plasma turbulence and in the complexity the tokamak's ''closed'' field geometry. The studies carried out in the investigations described in the attached reports are aimed at finding an approach that does not suffer from these problems. This goal is to be achieved by employing an axisymmetric ''open'' magnetic field geometry, i.e. one generated by a linear array of circularmore » magnet coils, and employing the magnetic mirror effect in accomplishing the plugging of end leakage. More specifically, the studies were aimed at utilizing the tandem-mirror concept in an axisymmetric configuration to achieve performance superior to the tokamak, and in a far simpler system, one for which the cost and development time could be much lower than that for the tokamak, as exemplified by ITER and its follow-ons. An important stimulus for investigating axisymmetric versions of the tandem mirror is the fact that, beginning from early days in fusion research there have been examples of axisymmetric mirror experiments where the plasma exhibited crossfield transport far below the turbulence-enhanced rates characteristic of tokamaks, in specific cases approaching the ''classical'' rate. From the standpoint of theory, axisymmetric mirror-based systems have special characteristics that help explain the low levels of turbulence that have been observed. Among these are the facts that there are no parallel currents in the equilibrium state, and that the drift surfaces of all of the trapped particles are closed surfaces, as shown early on by Teller and Northrop. In addition, in such systems it is possible to arrange that the radial boundary of the confined plasma terminates without contact with the chamber wall. This possibility reduces the

  8. Domain-to-domain coupling in voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Souhei; Matsuda, Makoto; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a transmembrane voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic enzyme region. The enzyme region contains the phosphatase and C2 domains, is structurally similar to the tumor suppressor phosphatase PTEN, and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphoinositides. The transmembrane voltage sensor is connected to the phosphatase through a short linker region, and phosphatase activity is induced upon membrane depolarization. Although the detailed molecular characteristics of the voltage sensor domain and the enzyme region have been revealed, little is known how these two regions are coupled. In addition, it is important to know whether mechanism for coupling between the voltage sensor domain and downstream effector function is shared among other voltage sensor domain-containing proteins. Recent studies in which specific amino acid sites were genetically labeled using a fluorescent unnatural amino acid have enabled detection of the local structural changes in the cytoplasmic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP that occur with a change in membrane potential. The results of those studies provide novel insight into how the enzyme activity of the cytoplasmic region of VSP is regulated by the voltage sensor domain.

  9. Domain-to-domain coupling in voltage-sensing phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Souhei; Matsuda, Makoto; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a transmembrane voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic enzyme region. The enzyme region contains the phosphatase and C2 domains, is structurally similar to the tumor suppressor phosphatase PTEN, and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphoinositides. The transmembrane voltage sensor is connected to the phosphatase through a short linker region, and phosphatase activity is induced upon membrane depolarization. Although the detailed molecular characteristics of the voltage sensor domain and the enzyme region have been revealed, little is known how these two regions are coupled. In addition, it is important to know whether mechanism for coupling between the voltage sensor domain and downstream effector function is shared among other voltage sensor domain-containing proteins. Recent studies in which specific amino acid sites were genetically labeled using a fluorescent unnatural amino acid have enabled detection of the local structural changes in the cytoplasmic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP that occur with a change in membrane potential. The results of those studies provide novel insight into how the enzyme activity of the cytoplasmic region of VSP is regulated by the voltage sensor domain. PMID:28744425

  10. A 170kDa multi-domain cystatin of Fasciola gigantica is active in the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Geadkaew, Amornrat; Kosa, Nanthawat; Siricoon, Sinee; Grams, Suksiri Vichasri; Grams, Rudi

    2014-09-01

    Cystatins are functional as intra- and extracellular inhibitors of cysteine proteases and are expressed as single or multi-domain proteins. We have previously described two single domain type 1 cystatins in the trematode Fasciola gigantica that are released into the parasite's intestinal tract and exhibit inhibitory activity against endogenous and host cathepsin L and B proteases. In contrast, the here presented 170kDa multi-domain cystatin (FgMDC) comprises signal peptide and 12 tandem repeated cystatin-like domains with similarity to type 2 single domain cystatins. The domains show high sequence divergence with identity values often <20% and at only 26.8% between the highest matching domains 6 and 10. Several domains contain degenerated QVVAG core motifs and/or lack other important residues of active type 2 cystatins. Domain-specific antisera detected multiple forms of FgMDC ranging from <10 to >120kDa molecular mass in immunoblots of parasite crude extracts and ES product with different banding patterns for each antiserum demonstrating complex processing of the proprotein. The four domains with the highest conserved QVVAG motifs were expressed in Escherichia coli and the refolded recombinant proteins blocked cysteine protease activity in the parasite's ES product. Strikingly, immunohistochemical analysis using seven domain-specific antisera localized FgMDC in testis lobes and sperm. It is speculated that the processed cystatin-like domains have function analogous to the mammalian group of male reproductive tissue-specific type 2 cystatins and are functional in spermiogenesis and fertilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The C-terminal extension of human RTEL1, mutated in Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, contains harmonin-N-like domains.

    PubMed

    Faure, Guilhem; Revy, Patrick; Schertzer, Michael; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Callebaut, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have recently shown that germline mutations in RTEL1, an essential DNA helicase involved in telomere regulation and DNA repair, cause Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS), a severe form of dyskeratosis congenita. Using original new softwares, facilitating the delineation of the different domains of the protein and the identification of remote relationships for orphan domains, we outline here that the C-terminal extension of RTEL1, downstream of its catalytic domain and including several HHS-associated mutations, contains a yet unidentified tandem of harmonin-N-like domains, which may serve as a hub for partner interaction. This finding highlights the potential critical role of this region for the function of RTEL1 and gives insights into the impact that the identified mutations would have on the structure and function of these domains. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Generation of single domain antibody fragments derived from camelids and generation of manifold constructs.

    PubMed

    Vincke, Cécile; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Wernery, Ulrich; Devoogdt, Nick; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Muyldermans, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Immunizing a camelid (camels and llamas) with soluble, properly folded proteins raises an affinity-matured immune response in the unique camelid heavy-chain only antibodies (HCAbs). The peripheral blood lymphocytes of the immunized animal are used to clone the antigen-binding antibody fragment from the HCAbs in a phage display vector. A representative aliquot of the library of these antigen-binding fragments is used to retrieve single domain antigen-specific binders by successive rounds of panning. These single domain antibody fragments are cloned in tandem to generate manifold constructs (bivalent, biparatopic or bispecific constructs) to increase their functional affinity, to increase specificity, or to connect two independent antigen molecules.

  13. Targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Sato, Atsushi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hanya, Yoshiki; Oguma, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    We describe here the first successful construction of a targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae. The targeted tandem chromosomal duplication was achieved by using strains that had a 5'-deleted pyrG upstream of the region targeted for tandem chromosomal duplication and a 3'-deleted pyrG downstream of the target region. Consequently,strains bearing a 210-kb targeted tandem chromosomal duplication near the centromeric region of chromosome 8 and strains bearing a targeted tandem chromosomal duplication of a 700-kb region of chromosome 2 were successfully constructed. The strains bearing the tandem chromosomal duplication were efficiently obtained from the regenerated protoplast of the parental strains. However, the generation of the chromosomal duplication did not depend on the introduction of double-stranded breaks(DSBs) by I-SceI. The chromosomal duplications of these strains were stably maintained after five generations of culture under nonselective conditions. The strains bearing the tandem chromosomal duplication in the 700-kb region of chromosome 2 showed highly increased protease activity in solid-state culture, indicating that the duplication of large chromosomal segments could be a useful new breeding technology and gene analysis method.

  14. Tunable color parallel tandem organic light emitting devices with carbon nanotube and metallic sheet interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Jorge; Papadimitratos, Alexios; Desirena, Haggeo; De la Rosa, Elder; Zakhidov, Anvar A.

    2015-11-01

    Parallel tandem organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated with transparent multiwall carbon nanotube sheets (MWCNT) and thin metal films (Al, Ag) as interlayers. In parallel monolithic tandem architecture, the MWCNT (or metallic films) interlayers are an active electrode which injects similar charges into subunits. In the case of parallel tandems with common anode (C.A.) of this study, holes are injected into top and bottom subunits from the common interlayer electrode; whereas in the configuration of common cathode (C.C.), electrons are injected into the top and bottom subunits. Both subunits of the tandem can thus be monolithically connected functionally in an active structure in which each subunit can be electrically addressed separately. Our tandem OLEDs have a polymer as emitter in the bottom subunit and a small molecule emitter in the top subunit. We also compared the performance of the parallel tandem with that of in series and the additional advantages of the parallel architecture over the in-series were: tunable chromaticity, lower voltage operation, and higher brightness. Finally, we demonstrate that processing of the MWCNT sheets as a common anode in parallel tandems is an easy and low cost process, since their integration as electrodes in OLEDs is achieved by simple dry lamination process.

  15. De novo protein sequencing by combining top-down and bottom-up tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowen; Dekker, Lennard J M; Wu, Si; Vanduijn, Martijn M; Luider, Theo M; Tolić, Nikola; Kou, Qiang; Dvorkin, Mikhail; Alexandrova, Sonya; Vyatkina, Kira; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2014-07-03

    There are two approaches for de novo protein sequencing: Edman degradation and mass spectrometry (MS). Existing MS-based methods characterize a novel protein by assembling tandem mass spectra of overlapping peptides generated from multiple proteolytic digestions of the protein. Because each tandem mass spectrum covers only a short peptide of the target protein, the key to high coverage protein sequencing is to find spectral pairs from overlapping peptides in order to assemble tandem mass spectra to long ones. However, overlapping regions of peptides may be too short to be confidently identified. High-resolution mass spectrometers have become accessible to many laboratories. These mass spectrometers are capable of analyzing molecules of large mass values, boosting the development of top-down MS. Top-down tandem mass spectra cover whole proteins. However, top-down tandem mass spectra, even combined, rarely provide full ion fragmentation coverage of a protein. We propose an algorithm, TBNovo, for de novo protein sequencing by combining top-down and bottom-up MS. In TBNovo, a top-down tandem mass spectrum is utilized as a scaffold, and bottom-up tandem mass spectra are aligned to the scaffold to increase sequence coverage. Experiments on data sets of two proteins showed that TBNovo achieved high sequence coverage and high sequence accuracy.

  16. DNA Damage by Ionizing Radiation: Tandem Double Lesions by Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Wang, Dunyou; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation are the source of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, damage to the central nervous system, lowering of the immune response, as well as other radiation-induced damages to human health. Monte Carlo track simulations and kinetic modeling of radiation damages to the DNA employ available molecular and cellular data to simulate the biological effect of high and low LET radiation io the DNA. While the simulations predict single and double strand breaks and base damages, so far all complex lesions are the result of stochastic coincidence from independent processes. Tandem double lesions have not yet been taken into account. Unlike the standard double lesions that are produced by two separate attacks by charged particles or radicals, tandem double lesions are produced by one single attack. The standard double lesions dominate at the high dosage regime. On the other hand, tandem double lesions do not depend on stochastic coincidences and become important at the low dosage regime of particular interest to NASA. Tandem double lesions by hydroxyl radical attack of guanine in isolated DNA have been reported at a dosage of radiation as low as 10 Gy. The formation of two tandem base lesions was found to be linear with the applied doses, a characteristic of tandem lesions. However, tandem double lesions from attack by a charged particle have not been reported.

  17. TRDistiller: a rapid filter for enrichment of sequence datasets with proteins containing tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Richard, François D; Kajava, Andrey V

    2014-06-01

    The dramatic growth of sequencing data evokes an urgent need to improve bioinformatics tools for large-scale proteome analysis. Over the last two decades, the foremost efforts of computer scientists were devoted to proteins with aperiodic sequences having globular 3D structures. However, a large portion of proteins contain periodic sequences representing arrays of repeats that are directly adjacent to each other (so called tandem repeats or TRs). These proteins frequently fold into elongated fibrous structures carrying different fundamental functions. Algorithms specific to the analysis of these regions are urgently required since the conventional approaches developed for globular domains have had limited success when applied to the TR regions. The protein TRs are frequently not perfect, containing a number of mutations, and some of them cannot be easily identified. To detect such "hidden" repeats several algorithms have been developed. However, the most sensitive among them are time-consuming and, therefore, inappropriate for large scale proteome analysis. To speed up the TR detection we developed a rapid filter that is based on the comparison of composition and order of short strings in the adjacent sequence motifs. Tests show that our filter discards up to 22.5% of proteins which are known to be without TRs while keeping almost all (99.2%) TR-containing sequences. Thus, we are able to decrease the size of the initial sequence dataset enriching it with TR-containing proteins which allows a faster subsequent TR detection by other methods. The program is available upon request. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of RIG-I N-terminal tandem CARD and splice variant in TRIM25-mediated antiviral signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Gack, Michaela U.; Kirchhofer, Axel; Shin, Young C.; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Liang, Chengyu; Cui, Sheng; Myong, Sua; Ha, Taekjip; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Jung, Jae U.

    2008-01-01

    The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of intracellular adaptors and sensors plays a critical role in the assembly of signaling complexes involved in innate host defense against pathogens and in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The cytosolic receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) recognizes viral RNA in a 5′-triphosphate-dependent manner and initiates an antiviral signaling cascade. Upon viral infection, the N-terminal CARDs of RIG-I undergo the K63-linked ubiquitination induced by tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25), critical for the interaction of RIG-I with its downstream signaling partner MAVS/VISA/IPS-1/Cardif. Here, we demonstrate the distinct roles of RIG-I first and second CARD in TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination: TRIM25 binds the RIG-I first CARD and subsequently ubiquitinates its second CARD. The T55I mutation in RIG-I first CARD abolishes TRIM25 interaction, whereas the K172R mutation in the second CARD eliminates polyubiquitin attachment. The necessity of the intact tandem CARD for RIG-I function is further evidenced by a RIG-I splice variant (SV) whose expression is robustly up-regulated upon viral infection. The RIG-I SV carries a short deletion (amino acids 36–80) within the first CARD and thereby loses TRIM25 binding, CARD ubiquitination, and downstream signaling ability. Furthermore, because of its robust inhibition of virus-induced RIG-I multimerization and RIG-I-MAVS signaling complex formation, this SV effectively suppresses the RIG-I-mediated IFN-β production. This study not only elucidates the vital role of the intact tandem CARD for TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation but also identifies the RIG-I SV as an off-switch regulator of its own signaling pathway. PMID:18948594

  19. Roles of RIG-I N-terminal tandem CARD and splice variant in TRIM25-mediated antiviral signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Gack, Michaela U; Kirchhofer, Axel; Shin, Young C; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Liang, Chengyu; Cui, Sheng; Myong, Sua; Ha, Taekjip; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Jung, Jae U

    2008-10-28

    The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of intracellular adaptors and sensors plays a critical role in the assembly of signaling complexes involved in innate host defense against pathogens and in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The cytosolic receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) recognizes viral RNA in a 5'-triphosphate-dependent manner and initiates an antiviral signaling cascade. Upon viral infection, the N-terminal CARDs of RIG-I undergo the K(63)-linked ubiquitination induced by tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25), critical for the interaction of RIG-I with its downstream signaling partner MAVS/VISA/IPS-1/Cardif. Here, we demonstrate the distinct roles of RIG-I first and second CARD in TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination: TRIM25 binds the RIG-I first CARD and subsequently ubiquitinates its second CARD. The T(55)I mutation in RIG-I first CARD abolishes TRIM25 interaction, whereas the K(172)R mutation in the second CARD eliminates polyubiquitin attachment. The necessity of the intact tandem CARD for RIG-I function is further evidenced by a RIG-I splice variant (SV) whose expression is robustly up-regulated upon viral infection. The RIG-I SV carries a short deletion (amino acids 36-80) within the first CARD and thereby loses TRIM25 binding, CARD ubiquitination, and downstream signaling ability. Furthermore, because of its robust inhibition of virus-induced RIG-I multimerization and RIG-I-MAVS signaling complex formation, this SV effectively suppresses the RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production. This study not only elucidates the vital role of the intact tandem CARD for TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation but also identifies the RIG-I SV as an off-switch regulator of its own signaling pathway.

  20. YY1 as a controlling factor for the Peg3 and Gnas imprinted domains

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Do; Hinz, Angela K.; Choo, Jung Ha; Stubbs, Lisa; Kim, Joomyeong

    2007-01-01

    Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) often harbor tandem arrays of transcription factor binding sites, as demonstrated by the identification of multiple YY1 binding sites within the ICRs of Peg3, Nespas, and Xist/Tsix domains. In the current study, we have sought to characterize possible roles of YY1 in transcriptional control and epigenetic modification of these imprinted domains. RNA interference-based knockdown experiments in Neuro2A cells resulted in overall transcriptional up-regulation of most of the imprinted genes within the Peg3 domain and also, concomitantly, caused significant loss in the DNA methylation of Peg3-DMR (Differentially Methylated Regions). A similar overall and coordinated expression change was also observed for the imprinted genes of the Gnas domain: up-regulation of Nespas and down-regulation of Nesp and Gnasxl. YY1 knockdown also resulted in changes in the expression levels of Xist and Snrpn. These results support the idea that YY1 plays a major role, as a trans factor, for the control of these imprinted domains. PMID:17067777

  1. Interactions of U24 from Roseolovirus with WW domains: canonical vs noncanonical.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yurou; Zhang, Rui; Creagh, A Louise; Haynes, Charles A; Straus, Suzana K

    2017-06-01

    U24 is a C-terminal membrane-anchored protein found in both human herpes virus type 6 and 7 (HHV-6 and HHV-7), with an N-terminal segment that is rich in prolines (PPxY motif in both HHV-6A and 7; PxxP motif in HHV-6A). Previous work has shown that U24 interacts strongly with Nedd4 WW domains, in particular, hNedd4L-WW3*. It was also shown that this interaction depends strongly on the nature of the amino acids that are upstream from the PY motif in U24. In this contribution, data was obtained from pull-downs, isothermal titration calorimetry, and NMR to further determine what modulates U24:WW domain interactions. Specifically, 3 non-canonical WW domains from human Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor (Smurf), namely hSmurf2-WW2, hSmurf2-WW3, and a tandem construct hSmurf2-WW2 + 3, were studied. Overall, the interactions between U24 and these Smurf WW domains were found to be weaker than those in U24:Nedd4 WW domain pairs, suggesting that U24 function is tightly linked to specific E3 ubiqitin ligases.

  2. A New Method for Determining Structure Ensemble: Application to a RNA Binding Di-Domain Protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jingfeng; Fan, Jing-Song; Tria, Giancarlo; Grüber, Gerhard; Yang, Daiwen

    2016-05-10

    Structure ensemble determination is the basis of understanding the structure-function relationship of a multidomain protein with weak domain-domain interactions. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement has been proven a powerful tool in the study of structure ensembles, but there exist a number of challenges such as spin-label flexibility, domain dynamics, and overfitting. Here we propose a new (to our knowledge) method to describe structure ensembles using a minimal number of conformers. In this method, individual domains are considered rigid; the position of each spin-label conformer and the structure of each protein conformer are defined by three and six orthogonal parameters, respectively. First, the spin-label ensemble is determined by optimizing the positions and populations of spin-label conformers against intradomain paramagnetic relaxation enhancements with a genetic algorithm. Subsequently, the protein structure ensemble is optimized using a more efficient genetic algorithm-based approach and an overfitting indicator, both of which were established in this work. The method was validated using a reference ensemble with a set of conformers whose populations and structures are known. This method was also applied to study the structure ensemble of the tandem di-domain of a poly (U) binding protein. The determined ensemble was supported by small-angle x-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation data. The ensemble obtained suggests an induced fit mechanism for recognition of target RNA by the protein. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel protein domains and repeats in Drosophila melanogaster: insights into structure, function, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Ponting, C P; Mott, R; Bork, P; Copley, R R

    2001-12-01

    Sequence database searching methods such as BLAST, are invaluable for predicting molecular function on the basis of sequence similarities among single regions of proteins. Searches of whole databases however, are not optimized to detect multiple homologous regions within a single polypeptide. Here we have used the prospero algorithm to perform self-comparisons of all predicted Drosophila melanogaster gene products. Predicted repeats, and their homologs from all species, were analyzed further to detect hitherto unappreciated evolutionary relationships. Results included the identification of novel tandem repeats in the human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa type-2 gene product, repeated segments in cystinosin, associated with a defect in cystine transport, and 'nested' homologous domains in dysferlin, whose gene is mutated in limb girdle muscular dystrophy. Novel signaling domain families were found that may regulate the microtubule-based cytoskeleton and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, respectively. Two families of glycosyl hydrolases were shown to contain internal repetitions that hint at their evolution via a piecemeal, modular approach. In addition, three examples of fruit fly genes were detected with tandem exons that appear to have arisen via internal duplication. These findings demonstrate how completely sequenced genomes can be exploited to further understand the relationships between molecular structure, function, and evolution.

  4. Domain and Specification Models for Software Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iscoe, Neil; Liu, Zheng-Yang; Feng, Guohui

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses our approach to representing application domain knowledge for specific software engineering tasks. Application domain knowledge is embodied in a domain model. Domain models are used to assist in the creation of specification models. Although many different specification models can be created from any particular domain model, each specification model is consistent and correct with respect to the domain model. One aspect of the system-hierarchical organization is described in detail.

  5. Spectral identification of topological domains

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Hero, Alfred O.; Rajapakse, Indika

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Topological domains have been proposed as the backbone of interphase chromosome structure. They are regions of high local contact frequency separated by sharp boundaries. Genes within a domain often have correlated transcription. In this paper, we present a computational efficient spectral algorithm to identify topological domains from chromosome conformation data (Hi-C data). We consider the genome as a weighted graph with vertices defined by loci on a chromosome and the edge weights given by interaction frequency between two loci. Laplacian-based graph segmentation is then applied iteratively to obtain the domains at the given compactness level. Comparison with algorithms in the literature shows the advantage of the proposed strategy. Results: An efficient algorithm is presented to identify topological domains from the Hi-C matrix. Availability and Implementation: The Matlab source code and illustrative examples are available at http://bionetworks.ccmb.med.umich.edu/ Contact: indikar@med.umich.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153657

  6. Modified tandem gratings anastigmatic imaging spectrometer with oblique incidence for spectral broadband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chengguang; Wang, Shurong; Huang, Yu; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Bo; Yu, Lei

    2015-09-01

    A modified spectrometer with tandem gratings that exhibits high spectral resolution and imaging quality for solar observation, monitoring, and understanding of coastal ocean processes is presented in this study. Spectral broadband anastigmatic imaging condition, spectral resolution, and initial optical structure are obtained based on geometric aberration theory. Compared with conventional tandem gratings spectrometers, this modified design permits flexibility in selecting gratings. A detailed discussion of the optical design and optical performance of an ultraviolet spectrometer with tandem gratings is also included to explain the advantage of oblique incidence for spectral broadband.

  7. An approach for configuring space photovoltaic tandem arrays based on cell layer performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flora, C. S.; Dillard, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Meeting solar array performance goals of 300 W/Kg requires use of solar cells with orbital efficiencies greater than 20 percent. Only multijunction cells and cell layers operating in tandem produce this required efficiency. An approach for defining solar array design concepts that use tandem cell layers involve the following: transforming cell layer performance at standard test conditions to on-orbit performance; optimizing circuit configuration with tandem cell layers; evaluating circuit sensitivity to cell current mismatch; developing array electrical design around selected circuit; and predicting array orbital performance including seasonal variations.

  8. Electrical and optical analyses of tandem organic light-emitting diodes with organic charge-generation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong Sung; Chae, Heeyeop; Chung, Ho Kyoon; Cho, Sung Min

    2018-06-01

    The electrical and optical properties of tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), in which a fluorescent and phosphorescent emitting units are connected by an organic charge-generation layer (CGL), were experimentally analyzed. To investigate the internal properties of the tandem OLEDs, we fabricated and compared two single, two homo-tandem, and two hetero-tandem OLEDs using the fluorescent and phosphorescent units. From the experimental results of the OLEDs obtained at the same current density, the voltage across the CGL as well as the individual emission spectra and luminance of each unit of tandem OLEDs were obtained and compared with the theoretical simulation results. The analysis method proposed in this study can be utilized as a method to verify the accuracy of optical or electrical computer simulation of tandem OLED and it will be useful to understand the overall electrical and optical characteristics of tandem OLEDs.

  9. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    PubMed

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  10. Domain Processes in Ferroelectric Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-14

    elastic strain tensor and eikl is the Levi - Civita density. Eqs (11) and (12) has three nontrivial solutions: Xr3 = 0 (13) Xr"= -1 { [ 2sj2Q 12 -Sl I...ABSTRACT (aA~iMUM 200 wardt) This report Outlines the progres achieved during a two year effort sponsored by the AFOSR on the theoretical study of domain...INTRODUCTION This is the final progress report for this two year program sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research on "Domain Processes in

  11. Frizzled 7 and PIP2 binding by syntenin PDZ2 domain supports Frizzled 7 trafficking and signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egea-Jimenez, Antonio Luis; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Ivarsson, Ylva; Wawrzyniak, Anna Maria; Kashyap, Rudra; Loris, Remy; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Zimmermann, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    PDZ domain-containing proteins work as intracellular scaffolds to control spatio-temporal aspects of cell signalling. This function is supported by the ability of their PDZ domains to bind other proteins such as receptors, but also phosphoinositide lipids important for membrane trafficking. Here we report a crystal structure of the syntenin PDZ tandem in complex with the carboxy-terminal fragment of Frizzled 7 and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). The crystal structure reveals a tripartite interaction formed via the second PDZ domain of syntenin. Biophysical and biochemical experiments establish co-operative binding of the tripartite complex and identify residues crucial for membrane PIP2-specific recognition. Experiments with cells support the importance of the syntenin-PIP2 interaction for plasma membrane targeting of Frizzled 7 and c-jun phosphorylation. This study contributes to our understanding of the biology of PDZ proteins as key players in membrane compartmentalization and dynamics.

  12. A β-solenoid model of the Pmel17 repeat domain: insights to the formation of functional amyloid fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louros, Nikolaos N.; Baltoumas, Fotis A.; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A.

    2016-02-01

    Pmel17 is a multidomain protein involved in biosynthesis of melanin. This process is facilitated by the formation of Pmel17 amyloid fibrils that serve as a scaffold, important for pigment deposition in melanosomes. A specific luminal domain of human Pmel17, containing 10 tandem imperfect repeats, designated as repeat domain (RPT), forms amyloid fibrils in a pH-controlled mechanism in vitro and has been proposed to be essential for the formation of the fibrillar matrix. Currently, no three-dimensional structure has been resolved for the RPT domain of Pmel17. Here, we examine the structure of the RPT domain by performing sequence threading. The resulting model was subjected to energy minimization and validated through extensive molecular dynamics simulations. Structural analysis indicated that the RPT model exhibits several distinct properties of β-solenoid structures, which have been proposed to be polymerizing components of amyloid fibrils. The derived model is stabilized by an extensive network of hydrogen bonds generated by stacking of highly conserved polar residues of the RPT domain. Furthermore, the key role of invariant glutamate residues is proposed, supporting a pH-dependent mechanism for RPT domain assembly. Conclusively, our work attempts to provide structural insights into the RPT domain structure and to elucidate its contribution to Pmel17 amyloid fibril formation.

  13. Mono- and tri-ester hydrogenolysis using tandem catalysis. Scope and mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, Tracy L.; Li, Zhi; Assary, Rajeev S.

    The scope and mechanism of thermodynamically leveraged ester RC(O)O–R' bond hydrogenolysis by tandem metal triflate + supported Pd catalysts are investigated both experimentally and theoretically by DFT and energy span analysis.

  14. Studies of the Lateral-Directional Flying Qualities of a Tandem Helicopter in Forward Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B; Tapscott, Robert J

    1954-01-01

    An investigation of the lateral-directional flying qualities of a tandem-rotor helicopter in forward flight was undertaken to determine desirable goals for helicopter lateral-directional flying qualities and possible methods of achieving these goals in the tandem-rotor helicopter. Comparison between directional stability as measured in flight and rotor-off model tests in a wind tunnel shows qualitative agreement and, hence, indicates such wind-tunnel test, despite the absence of the rotors, to be one effective method of studying means of improving the directional stability of the tandem helicopter. Flight-test measurements of turns and oscillations, in conjunction with analytical studies, suggest possible practical methods of achieving the goals of satisfactory turn and oscillatory characteristics in the tandem helicopter.

  15. Maximizing tandem solar cell power extraction using a three-terminal design

    DOE PAGES

    Warren, Emily L.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Rienacker, Michael; ...

    2018-04-09

    Three-terminal tandem solar cells can provide a robust operating mechanism to efficiently capture the solar spectrum without the need to current match sub-cells or fabricate complicated metal interconnects.

  16. Design and long-term monitoring of DSC/CIGS tandem solar module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vildanova, M. F.; Nikolskaia, A. B.; Kozlov, S. S.; Shevaleevskiy, O. I.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the design and development of tandem dye-sensitized/Cu(In, Ga)Se (DSC/CIGS) PV modules. The tandem PV module comprised of the top DSC module and a bottom commercial 0,8 m2 CIGS module. The top DSC module was made of 10 DSC mini-modules with the field size of 20 × 20 cm2 each. Tandem DSC/CIGS PV modules were used for providing the long-term monitoring of energy yield and electrical parameters in comparison with standalone CIGS modules under outdoor conditions. The outdoor test facility, containing solar modules of both types and a measurement unit, was located on the roof of the Institute of Biochemical Physics in Moscow. The data obtained during monitoring within the 2014 year period has shown the advantages of the designed tandem DSC/CIGS PV-modules over the conventional CIGS modules, especially for cloudy weather and low-intensity irradiation conditions.

  17. Low driving voltage simplified tandem organic light-emitting devices by using exciplex-forming hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dong-Ying; Cui, Lin-Song; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Aziz, Hany

    2014-10-01

    Tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), i.e., OLEDs containing multiple electroluminescence (EL) units that are vertically stacked, are attracting significant interest because of their ability to realize high current efficiency and long operational lifetime. However, stacking multiple EL units in tandem OLEDs increases driving voltage and complicates fabrication process relative to their standard single unit counterparts. In this paper, we demonstrate low driving voltage tandem OLEDs via utilizing exciplex-forming hosts in the EL units instead of conventional host materials. The use of exciplex-forming hosts reduces the charge injection barriers and the trapping of charges on guest molecules, resulting in the lower driving voltage. The use of exciplex-forming hosts also allows using fewer layers, hence simpler EL configuration which is beneficial for reducing the fabrication complexity of tandem OLEDs.

  18. Optical enhancement of a printed organic tandem solar cell using diffractive nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jan A; Offermans, Ton; Chrapa, Marek; Pfannmöller, Martin; Bals, Sara; Ferrini, Rolando; Nisato, Giovanni

    2018-03-19

    Solution processable organic tandem solar cells offer a promising approach to achieve cost-effective, lightweight and flexible photovoltaics. In order to further enhance the efficiency of optimized organic tandem cells, diffractive light-management nanostructures were designed for an optimal redistribution of the light as function of both wavelength and propagation angles in both sub-cells. As the fabrication of these optical structures is compatible with roll-to-roll production techniques such as hot-embossing or UV NIL imprinting, they present an optimal cost-effective solution for printed photovoltaics. Tandem cells with power conversion efficiencies of 8-10% were fabricated in the ambient atmosphere by doctor blade coating, selected to approximate the conditions during roll-to-roll manufacturing. Application of the light management structure onto an 8.7% efficient encapsulated tandem cell boosted the conversion efficiency of the cell to 9.5%.

  19. Maximizing tandem solar cell power extraction using a three-terminal design

    DOE PAGES

    Warren, Emily L.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Rienäcker, Michael; ...

    2018-01-01

    Three-terminal tandem solar cells can provide a robust operating mechanism to efficiently capture the solar spectrum without the need to current match sub-cells or fabricate complicated metal interconnects.

  20. Tandem Repeated Irritation Test (TRIT) Studies and Clinical Relevance: Post 2006.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Rasika; Maibach, Howard

    2018-06-11

    Single or multiple applications of irritants can lead to occupational contact dermatitis, and most commonly irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Tandem irritation, the sequential application of two irritants to a target skin area, has been studied using the Tandem Repeated Irritation Test (TRIT) to provide a more accurate representation of skin irritation. Here we present an update to Kartono's review on tandem irritation studies since 2006 [1]. We surveyed the literature available on PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and the UCSF Dermatology library databases since 2006. The studies included discuss the tandem effects of common chemical irritants, organic solvents, occlusion as well as clinical relevance - and enlarge our ability to discern whether multiple chemical exposures are more or less likely to enhance irritation.

  1. Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS

    DOE PAGES

    Bailie, Colin D.; Christoforo, M. Greyson; Mailoa, Jonathan P.; ...

    2014-12-23

    A promising approach for upgrading the performance of an established low-bandgap solar technology without adding much cost is to deposit a high bandgap polycrystalline semiconductor on top to make a tandem solar cell. We use a transparent silver nanowire electrode on perovskite solar cells to achieve a semi-transparent device. We place the semi-transparent cell in a mechanically-stacked tandem configuration onto copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and low-quality multicrystalline silicon (Si) to achieve solid-state polycrystalline tandem solar cells with a net improvement in efficiency over the bottom cell alone. Furthermore, this work paves the way for integrating perovskites into a low-costmore » and high-efficiency (>25%) tandem cell.« less

  2. Mono- and tri-ester hydrogenolysis using tandem catalysis. Scope and mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, Tracy L.; Li, Zhi; Assary, Rajeev S.

    2016-01-01

    The scope and mechanism of thermodynamically leveraged ester RC(O)O–R' bond hydrogenolysis by tandem metal triflate + supported Pd catalysts are investigated both experimentally and theoretically by DFT and energy span analysis.

  3. Tandem nucleophilic addition-Oppenauer oxidation of aromatic aldehydes to aryl ketones with triorganoaluminium reagents.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Yang, Yanshou; Hügel, Helmut M; Du, Zhengyin; Wang, Kehu; Huang, Danfeng; Hu, Yulai

    2013-07-21

    In the presence of pinacolone, the in situ prepared triorganoaluminium reagents reacted with aromatic aldehydes to give ketones in moderate to high yield. We propose that the products are formed via a tandem organoaluminium reagents addition-Oppenauer oxidation sequence.

  4. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  5. Enabling Interoperability in Heliophysical Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Robert

    2013-04-01

    There are many aspects of science in the Solar System that are overlapping - phenomena observed in one domain can have effects in other domains. However, there are many problems related to exploiting the data in cross-disciplinary studies because of lack of interoperability of the data and services. The CASSIS project is a Coordination Action funded under FP7 that has the objective of improving the interoperability of data and services related Solar System science. CASSIS has been investigating how the data could be made more accessible with some relatively minor changes to the observational metadata. The project has been looking at the services that are used within the domain and determining whether they are interoperable with each other and if not what would be required make them so. It has also been examining all types of metadata that are used when identifying and using observations and trying to make them more compliant with techniques and standards developed by bodies such as the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Many of the lessons that are being learnt in the study are applicable to domains that go beyond those directly involved in heliophysics. Adopting some simple standards related to the design of the services interfaces and metadata that are used would make it much easier to investigate interdisciplinary science topics. We will report on our finding and describe a roadmap for the future. For more information about CASSIS, please visit the project Web site on cassis-vo.eu

  6. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  7. Highly loaded multi-stage fan drive turbine-tandem blade configuration design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. C.; Wolfmeyer, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the tandem blade configuration design study are reported. The three stage constant-inside-diameter turbine utilizes tandem blading in the stage two and stage three vanes and in the stage three blades. All other bladerows use plain blades. Blading detailed design is discussed, and design data are summarized. Steady-state stresses and vibratory behavior are discussed, and the results of the mechanical design analysis are presented.

  8. Better load-weight distribution is needed for tandem-axle logging trucks

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras

    1976-01-01

    To determine the GVW and axle weights of tandem-axle logging trucks hauling into two West Virginia sawmills, 543 truckloads of hardwood sawlogs were weighed. The results showed that less than 2 percent of the truckloads exceeded the 48,000 pound GVW limit. While 58 percent of the truckloads exceeded the 32,000 pound tandem-axle weight limit, the front-axle weights...

  9. N719 dye-sensitized organophotocatalysis: enantioselective tandem Michael addition/oxyamination of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyo-Sang; Ho, Xuan-Huong; Jang, Jiyeon; Lee, Hwa-Jung; Kim, Seung-Joo; Jang, Hye-Young

    2012-07-06

    A remarkably efficient photosensitizer, N719 dye, was used in asymmetric tandem Michael addition/oxyamination of aldehydes, rendering α,β-substituted aldehydes in good yields with excellent levels of enantioselectivity and diastereoselectivity. This is the first report of a multiorganocatalytic reaction involving iminium catalysis and photoinduced singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) catalysis. This reaction is expected to expand the scope of tandem organocatalytic reactions.

  10. Unexpected formation of 2,1-benzisothiazol-3-ones from oxathiolano ketenimines: a rare tandem process.

    PubMed

    Alajarin, Mateo; Bonillo, Baltasar; Sanchez-Andrada, Pilar; Vidal, Angel; Bautista, Delia

    2009-03-19

    A rare one-pot reaction, a tandem [1,5]-H shift/1,5 electrocyclization/[3 + 2] cycloreversion process, leading from N-[2-(1,3-oxathiolan-2-yl)]phenyl ketenimines to 1-(beta-styryl)-2,1-benzisothiazol-3-ones and ethylene, is disclosed and mechanistically unraveled by means of a computational DFT study. The two latter stages of the tandem process are calculated to occur in a single mechanistic step via a transition structure of pseudopericyclic characteristics.

  11. R&D issues in scale-up and manufacturing of amorphous silicon tandem modules

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, R.R.; Carlson, D.E.; Chen, L.F.

    1999-03-01

    R & D on amorphous silicon based tandem junction devices has improved the throughtput, the material utilization, and the performance of devices on commercial tin oxide coated glass. The tandem junction technology has been scaled-up to produce 8.6&hthinsp;Ft{sup 2} monolithically integrated modules in manufacturing at the TF1 plant. Optimization of performance and stability of these modules is ongoing. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. A Method to Examine Content Domain Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome; Karpinski, Aryn; Welsh, Megan

    2011-01-01

    After a test is developed, most content validation analyses shift from ascertaining domain definition to studying domain representation and relevance because the domain is assumed to be set once a test exists. We present an approach that allows for the examination of alternative domain structures based on extant test items. In our example based on…

  13. Domains of awareness in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gilleen, J; Greenwood, K; David, A S

    2011-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are often characterized as lacking insight or awareness into their illness and symptoms, yet despite considerable research, we still lack a full understanding of the factors involved in causing poor awareness. Within schizophrenia, there has been shown to be a fractionation across dimensions of awareness into mental illness: of being ill, of symptoms, and of treatment compliance. Recently, attention has turned to evidence of a fractionation between awareness of illness and of cognitive impairments and functioning. The current study investigated the degree of fractionation across a broad range of domains of function in schizophrenia and how each domain may be associated with neuropsychological functioning, clinical, mood, and demographic variables. Thirty-one mostly chronic stable patients with schizophrenia completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of psychopathology, including mood. Cognitive insight and awareness of illness, symptoms, memory, and behavioral functioning were also measured. Insight and awareness were assessed using a combination of semistructured interview, observer-rated, self-rated, and objective measures, and included measures of the discrepancy between carer and self-ratings of impairment. Results revealed that awareness of functioning in each domain was largely independent and that awareness in each domain was predicted by different factors. Insight into symptoms was relatively poor while insight into cognitive deficits was preserved. Relative to neuropsychological variables, cognitive insight, comprising self-certainty and self-reflexivity, was a greater predictor of awareness. In conclusion, awareness is multiply fractionated and multiply determined. Therapeutic interventions could, therefore, produce beneficial changes within specific domains of awareness.

  14. Domains of Awareness in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gilleen, J.; Greenwood, K.; David, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are often characterized as lacking insight or awareness into their illness and symptoms, yet despite considerable research, we still lack a full understanding of the factors involved in causing poor awareness. Within schizophrenia, there has been shown to be a fractionation across dimensions of awareness into mental illness: of being ill, of symptoms, and of treatment compliance. Recently, attention has turned to evidence of a fractionation between awareness of illness and of cognitive impairments and functioning. The current study investigated the degree of fractionation across a broad range of domains of function in schizophrenia and how each domain may be associated with neuropsychological functioning, clinical, mood, and demographic variables. Thirty-one mostly chronic stable patients with schizophrenia completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of psychopathology, including mood. Cognitive insight and awareness of illness, symptoms, memory, and behavioral functioning were also measured. Insight and awareness were assessed using a combination of semistructured interview, observer-rated, self-rated, and objective measures, and included measures of the discrepancy between carer and self-ratings of impairment. Results revealed that awareness of functioning in each domain was largely independent and that awareness in each domain was predicted by different factors. Insight into symptoms was relatively poor while insight into cognitive deficits was preserved. Relative to neuropsychological variables, cognitive insight, comprising self-certainty and self-reflexivity, was a greater predictor of awareness. In conclusion, awareness is multiply fractionated and multiply determined. Therapeutic interventions could, therefore, produce beneficial changes within specific domains of awareness. PMID:20851850

  15. Inferring Domain-Domain Interactions from Protein-Protein Interactions with Formal Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains. PMID:24586450

  16. BamA POTRA Domain Interacts with a Native Lipid Membrane Surface.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Patrick J; Patel, Dhilon S; Wu, Emilia L; Qi, Yifei; Yeom, Min Sun; Sousa, Marcelo Carlos; Fleming, Karen G; Im, Wonpil

    2016-06-21

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is an asymmetric membrane with lipopolysaccharides on the external leaflet and phospholipids on the periplasmic leaflet. This outer membrane contains mainly β-barrel transmembrane proteins and lipidated periplasmic proteins (lipoproteins). The multisubunit protein β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) catalyzes the insertion and folding of the β-barrel proteins into this membrane. In Escherichia coli, the BAM complex consists of five subunits, a core transmembrane β-barrel with a long periplasmic domain (BamA) and four lipoproteins (BamB/C/D/E). The BamA periplasmic domain is composed of five globular subdomains in tandem called POTRA motifs that are key to BAM complex formation and interaction with the substrate β-barrel proteins. The BAM complex is believed to undergo conformational cycling while facilitating insertion of client proteins into the outer membrane. Reports describing variable conformations and dynamics of the periplasmic POTRA domain have been published. Therefore, elucidation of the conformational dynamics of the POTRA domain in full-length BamA is important to understand the function of this molecular complex. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we present evidence that the conformational flexibility of the POTRA domain is modulated by binding to the periplasmic surface of a native lipid membrane. Furthermore, membrane binding of the POTRA domain is compatible with both BamB and BamD binding, suggesting that conformational selection of different POTRA domain conformations may be involved in the mechanism of BAM-facilitated insertion of outer membrane β-barrel proteins. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tandem Gravimetric and Volumetric Apparatus for Methane Sorption Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald

    Concerns about global climate change have driven the search for alternative fuels. Natural gas (NG, methane) is a cleaner fuel than gasoline and abundantly available due to hydraulic fracturing. One hurdle to the adoption of NG vehicles is the bulky cylindrical storage vessels needed to store the NG at high pressures (3600 psi, 250 bar). The adsorption of methane in microporous materials can store large amounts of methane at low enough pressures for the allowance of conformable, ``flat'' pressure vessels. The measurement of the amount of gas stored in sorbent materials is typically done by measuring pressure differences (volumetric, manometric) or masses (gravimetric). Volumetric instruments of the Sievert type have uncertainties that compound with each additional measurement. Therefore, the highest-pressure measurement has the largest uncertainty. Gravimetric instruments don't have that drawback, but can have issues with buoyancy corrections. An instrument will be presented with which methane adsorption measurements can be performed using both volumetric and gravimetric methods in tandem. The gravimetric method presented has no buoyancy corrections and low uncertainty. Therefore, the gravimetric measurements can be performed throughout an entire isotherm or just at the extrema to verify the results from the volumetric measurements. Results from methane sorption measurements on an activated carbon (MSC-30) and a metal-organic framework (Cu-BTC, HKUST-1, MOF-199) will be shown. New recommendations for calculations of gas uptake and uncertainty measurements will be discussed.

  18. Perovskite Solar Cells for High-Efficiency Tandems

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Michael; Buonassisi, Tonio

    The first monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem was made with a diffused silicon p-n junction, a tunnel junction made of n ++ hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a titania electron transport layer, a methylammonium lead iodide absorber, and a Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer (HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) was only 13.7% due to excessive parasitic absorption of light in the HTL, limiting the matched current density to 11.5 mA/cm 2. Werner et al. 15 raised the PCE to a record 21.2% by switching to a silicon heterojunction bottom cell and carefully tuning layer thicknesses to achieve lower optical loss and a higher currentmore » density of 15.9 mA/cm 2. It is clear from these reports that minimizing parasitic absorption in the window layers is crucial to achieving higher current densities and efficiencies in monolithic tandems. To this end, the window layers through which light first passes before entering the perovskite and silicon absorber materials must be highly transparent. The front electrode must also be conductive to carry current laterally across the top of the device. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely utilized as a transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices such as flat-panel displays, smart windows, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells due to its high conductivity and broadband transparency. ITO is typically deposited through magnetron sputtering; however, the high kinetic energy of sputtered particles can damage underlying layers. In perovskite solar cells, a sputter buffer layer is required to protect the perovskite and organic carrier extraction layers from damage during sputter deposition. The ideal buffer layer should also be energetically well aligned so as to act as a carrier-selective contact, have a wide bandgap to enable high optical transmission, and have no reaction with the halides in the perovskite. Additionally, this buffer layer should act as a diffusion barrier layer to prevent both organic cation evolution and

  19. A new concept of a vacuum insulation tandem accelerator.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, I; Taskaev, S

    2015-12-01

    A tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation has been proposed and developed in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. Negative hydrogen ions are accelerated by the positive 1 MV potential of the high voltage electrode, converted into protons in the gas stripping target inside the electrode, and then the protons are accelerated again by the same potential. The potential for high voltage and intermediate electrodes is supplied by the sectioned rectifier through a sectioned bushing insulator with a resistive divider. In this work, we propose a radical improvement of the accelerator concept. It is proposed to abandon the separate placement of the accelerator and the power supply and connect them through the bushing insulator. The source of high voltage is proposed to be located inside the accelerator insulator with high voltage and intermediate electrodes mounted on it. This will reduce the facility height from 7 m to 3m and make it really compact and attractive for placing in a clinic. This will significantly increase the stability of the accelerator because the potential for intermediate electrodes can be fed directly from the relevant sections of the rectifier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry: ethical and social issues.

    PubMed

    Avard, Denise; Vallance, Hilary; Greenberg, Cheryl; Potter, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Emerging technologies like Tandem Mass Spectrometry (TMS) enable multiple tests on a single blood sample and allow the expansion of Newborn Screening (NBS) to include various metabolic diseases. Introducing TMS for NBS raises important social and ethical questions: what are the criteria for adding disorders to screening panels? What evidence justifies expansion of screening? How can equity in NBS access and standards be ensured? How can policy standards be set, given the multiplicity of stakeholders? To address emerging issues, policy-makers, patient advocates, clinicians and researchers had a workshop during the 2005 Garrod Symposium. The participants received a summary of the discussion and understood the workshop's goal was to provide a basis for further discussion. This article contributes to this ongoing discussion. Several proposed recommendations assert the centrality of including social and ethical issues in the assessment of whether or not to introduce TMS. The article outlines five key recommendations for advancing the NBS agenda: national public health leadership; transparency; increased national consistency in NBS strategy, including minimum standards; collaboration between the federal and provincial/territorial governments and diverse stakeholders; and supporting research and/or programs based on effectiveness, which integrate ethical and social issues into assessment.

  1. Modeling tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bing; Kawahara, Masahiro; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance presents a challenge to the treatment of cancer patients, especially for melanomas, most of which are caused by the hyperactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. Innate or acquired drug-resistant relapse calls for the investigation of the resistant mechanisms and new anti-cancer drugs to provide implications for the ultimate goal of curative therapy. Aging-associated gene 8 (AAG8, encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene) is a chaperone protein profoundly elaborated in neurology. However, roles of AAG8 in carcinogenesis remain unclear. Herein, we discover AAG8 antagonists as new MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells and propose a novel drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy by presenting the experimental evidences. We report that specific antagonism of AAG8, efficiently suppresses melanoma cell growth and migration through, at least in part, the inactivation of the RAS-CRAF-MEK signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that melanoma cells that are resistant to AAG8 antagonist harbor refractory CRAF-MEK activity. MEK acts as a central mediator for anti-cancer effects and also for the resistance mechanism, leading to our proposal of tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells. Combination of AAG8 antagonist and very low concentration of a MEK inhibitor synergistically restricts the growth of drug-resistant cells. These data collectively pinpoint AAG8 as a potential target and delineate a promising drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy. PMID:24634165

  2. Tandem Affinity Purification of Protein Complexes from Eukaryotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Fung, Victor; D'Orso, Iván

    2017-01-26

    The purification of active protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid complexes is crucial for the characterization of enzymatic activities and de novo identification of novel subunits and post-translational modifications. Bacterial systems allow for the expression and purification of a wide variety of single polypeptides and protein complexes. However, this system does not enable the purification of protein subunits that contain post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation and acetylation), and the identification of novel regulatory subunits that are only present/expressed in the eukaryotic system. Here, we provide a detailed description of a novel, robust, and efficient tandem affinity purification (TAP) method using STREP- and FLAG-tagged proteins that facilitates the purification of protein complexes with transiently or stably expressed epitope-tagged proteins from eukaryotic cells. This protocol can be applied to characterize protein complex functionality, to discover post-translational modifications on complex subunits, and to identify novel regulatory complex components by mass spectrometry. Notably, this TAP method can be applied to study protein complexes formed by eukaryotic or pathogenic (viral and bacterial) components, thus yielding a wide array of downstream experimental opportunities. We propose that researchers working with protein complexes could utilize this approach in many different ways.

  3. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    van Breeman, R.B.; Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J.

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenesmore » formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.« less

  4. Modeling tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Kawahara, Masahiro; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2014-06-01

    Drug resistance presents a challenge to the treatment of cancer patients, especially for melanomas, most of which are caused by the hyperactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. Innate or acquired drug-resistant relapse calls for the investigation of the resistant mechanisms and new anti-cancer drugs to provide implications for the ultimate goal of curative therapy. Aging-associated gene 8 (AAG8, encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene) is a chaperone protein profoundly elaborated in neurology. However, roles of AAG8 in carcinogenesis remain unclear. Herein, we discover AAG8 antagonists as new MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells and propose a novel drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy by presenting the experimental evidences. We report that specific antagonism of AAG8, efficiently suppresses melanoma cell growth and migration through, at least in part, the inactivation of the RAS-CRAF-MEK signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that melanoma cells that are resistant to AAG8 antagonist harbor refractory CRAF-MEK activity. MEK acts as a central mediator for anti-cancer effects and also for the resistance mechanism, leading to our proposal of tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells. Combination of AAG8 antagonist and very low concentration of a MEK inhibitor synergistically restricts the growth of drug-resistant cells. These data collectively pinpoint AAG8 as a potential target and delineate a promising drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. EqualTDRL: illustrating equivalent tandem duplication random loss rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Tom; Bernt, Matthias; Middendorf, Martin

    2018-05-30

    To study the differences between two unichromosomal circular genomes, e.g., mitochondrial genomes, under the tandem duplication random loss (TDRL) rearrangement it is important to consider the whole set of potential TDRL rearrangement events that could have taken place. The reason is that for two given circular gene orders there can exist different TDRL rearrangements that transform one of the gene orders into the other. Hence, a TDRL event cannot always be reconstructed only from the knowledge of the circular gene order before a TDRL event and the circular gene order after it. We present the program EqualTDRL that computes and illustrates the complete set of TDRLs for pairs of circular gene orders that differ by only one TDRL. EqualTDRL considers the circularity of the given genomes and certain restrictions on the TDRL rearrangements. Examples for the latter are sequences of genes that have to be conserved during a TDRL or pairs of genes that frame intergenic regions which might represent remnants of duplicated genes. Additionally, EqualTDRL allows to determine the set of TDRLs that are minimum with respect to the number of duplicated genes. EqualTDRL supports scientists to study the complete set of TDRLs that possibly could have taken place in the evolution of mitochondrial genomes. EqualTDRL is implemented in C++ using the ggplot2 package of the open source programming language R and is freely available from http://pacosy.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/equaltdrl .

  6. Visualization of tandem repeat mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Dormeyer, Miriam; Lentes, Sabine; Ballin, Patrick; Wilkens, Markus; Klumpp, Stefan; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Stannek, Lorena; Grünberger, Alexander; Commichau, Fabian M

    2018-03-01

    Mutations are crucial for the emergence and evolution of proteins with novel functions, and thus for the diversity of life. Tandem repeats (TRs) are mutational hot spots that are present in the genomes of all organisms. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying TR mutagenesis at the level of single cells requires the development of mutation reporter systems. Here, we present a mutation reporter system that is suitable to visualize mutagenesis of TRs occurring in single cells of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis using microfluidic single-cell cultivation. The system allows measuring the elimination of TR units due to growth rate recovery. The cultivation of bacteria carrying the mutation reporter system in microfluidic chambers allowed us for the first time to visualize the emergence of a specific mutation at the level of single cells. The application of the mutation reporter system in combination with microfluidics might be helpful to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying TR (in)stability in bacteria. Moreover, the mutation reporter system might be useful to assess whether mutations occur in response to nutrient starvation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Ablordey, Anthony; Swings, Jean; Hubans, Christine; Chemlal, Karim; Locht, Camille; Portaels, Françoise; Supply, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The apparent genetic homogeneity of Mycobacterium ulcerans contributes to the poorly understood epidemiology of M. ulcerans infection. Here, we report the identification of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences as novel polymorphic elements in the genome of this species. A total of 19 potential VNTR loci identified in the closely related M. marinum genome sequence were screened in a collection of 23 M. ulcerans isolates, one Mycobacterium species referred to here as an intermediate species, and five M. marinum strains. Nine of the 19 loci were polymorphic in the three species (including the intermediate species) and revealed eight M. ulcerans and five M. marinum genotypes. The results from the VNTR analysis corroborated the genetic relationships of M. ulcerans isolates from various geographical origins, as defined by independent molecular markers. Although these results further highlight the extremely high clonal homogeneity within certain geographic regions, we report for the first time the discrimination of the two South American strains from Surinam and French Guyana. These findings support the potential of a VNTR-based genotyping method for strain discrimination within M. ulcerans and M. marinum. PMID:15814964

  8. A tandem mirror hybrid plume plasma propulsion facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Yang, T. F.; Krueger, W. A.; Peng, S.; Urbahn, J.; Yao, X.; Griffin, D.

    1988-01-01

    A concept in electrodeless plasma propulsion, which is also capable of delivering a variable Isp, is presented. The concept involves a three-stage system of plasma injection, heating, and subsequent ejection through a magnetic nozzle. The nozzle produces the hybrid plume by the coaxial injection of hypersonic neutral gas. The gas layer, thus formed, protects the material walls from the hot plasma and, through increased collisions, helps detach it from the diverging magnetic field. The physics of this concept is evaluated numerically through full spatial and temporal simulations; these explore the operating characteristics of such a device over a wide region of parameter space. An experimental facility to study the plasma dynamics in the hybrid plume was built. The device consists of a tandem mirror operating in an asymmetric mode. A later upgrade of this system will incorporate a cold plasma injector at one end of the machine. Initial experiments involve the full characterization of the operating envelope, as well as extensive measurements of plasma properties at the exhaust. The results of the numerical simulations are described.

  9. Sputtered Metal Oxide Broken Gap Junctions for Tandem Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Forrest

    Broken gap metal oxide junctions have been created for the first time by sputtering using ZnSnO3 for the n-type material and Cu 2O or CuAlO2 for the p-type material. Films were sputtered from either ceramic or metallic targets at room temperature from 10nm to 220nm thick. The band structure of the respective materials have theoretical work functions which line up with the band structure for tandem CIAGS/CIGS solar cell applications. Multiple characterization methods demonstrated consistent ohmic I-V profiles for devices on rough surfaces such as ITO/glass and a CIAGS cell. Devices with total junction specific contact resistance of under 0.001 Ohm-cm2 have been achieved with optical transmission close to 100% using 10nm films. Devices showed excellent stability up to 600°C anneals over 1hr using ZnSnO3 and CuAlO2. These films were also amorphous -a great diffusion barrier during top cell growth at high temperatures. Rapid Thermal Anneal (RTA) demonstrated the ability to shift the band structure of the whole device, allowing for tuning it to align with adjacent solar layers. These results remove a key barrier for mass production of multi-junction thin film solar cells.

  10. Robust optimization of a tandem grating solar thermal absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongin; Kim, Mingeon; Kang, Kyeonghwan; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-04-01

    Ideal solar thermal absorbers need to have a high value of the spectral absorptance in the broad solar spectrum to utilize the solar radiation effectively. Majority of recent studies about solar thermal absorbers focus on achieving nearly perfect absorption using nanostructures, whose characteristic dimension is smaller than the wavelength of sunlight. However, precise fabrication of such nanostructures is not easy in reality; that is, unavoidable errors always occur to some extent in the dimension of fabricated nanostructures, causing an undesirable deviation of the absorption performance between the designed structure and the actually fabricated one. In order to minimize the variation in the solar absorptance due to the fabrication error, the robust optimization can be performed during the design process. However, the optimization of solar thermal absorber considering all design variables often requires tremendous computational costs to find an optimum combination of design variables with the robustness as well as the high performance. To achieve this goal, we apply the robust optimization using the Kriging method and the genetic algorithm for designing a tandem grating solar absorber. By constructing a surrogate model through the Kriging method, computational cost can be substantially reduced because exact calculation of the performance for every combination of variables is not necessary. Using the surrogate model and the genetic algorithm, we successfully design an effective solar thermal absorber exhibiting a low-level of performance degradation due to the fabrication uncertainty of design variables.

  11. Tandem ion mobility spectrometry coupled to laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Anne-Laure; Chirot, Fabien; Choi, Chang Min; Clavier, Christian; Barbaire, Marc; Maurelli, Jacques; Dagany, Xavier; MacAleese, Luke; Dugourd, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    This manuscript describes a new experimental setup that allows to perform tandem ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) measurements and which is coupled to a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It consists of two 79 cm long drift tubes connected by a dual ion funnel assembly. The setup was built to permit laser irradiation of the ions in the transfer region between the two drift tubes. This geometry allows selecting ions according to their ion mobility in the first drift tube, to irradiate selected ions, and examine the ion mobility of the product ions in the second drift tube. Activation by collision is possible in the same region (between the two tubes) and between the second tube and the time-of-flight. IMS-IMS experiments on Ubiquitin are reported. We selected a given isomer of charge state +7 and explored its structural rearrangement following collisional activation between the two drift tubes. An example of IMS-laser-IMS experiment is reported on eosin Y, where laser irradiation was used to produce radical ions by electron photodetachment starting from doubly deprotonated species. This allowed measuring the collision cross section of the radical photo-product, which cannot be directly produced with an electrospray source.

  12. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of ammonium cationized polyethers.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011

  13. Probabilistic consensus scoring improves tandem mass spectrometry peptide identification.

    PubMed

    Nahnsen, Sven; Bertsch, Andreas; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Nordheim, Alfred; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2011-08-05

    Database search is a standard technique for identifying peptides from their tandem mass spectra. To increase the number of correctly identified peptides, we suggest a probabilistic framework that allows the combination of scores from different search engines into a joint consensus score. Central to the approach is a novel method to estimate scores for peptides not found by an individual search engine. This approach allows the estimation of p-values for each candidate peptide and their combination across all search engines. The consensus approach works better than any single search engine across all different instrument types considered in this study. Improvements vary strongly from platform to platform and from search engine to search engine. Compared to the industry standard MASCOT, our approach can identify up to 60% more peptides. The software for consensus predictions is implemented in C++ as part of OpenMS, a software framework for mass spectrometry. The source code is available in the current development version of OpenMS and can easily be used as a command line application or via a graphical pipeline designer TOPPAS.

  14. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongfa; Chan, Kenneth K; Wang, Jeffrey J

    2005-01-01

    A detailed multi-stage (MSn) fragmentation study of cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosfamide (IF) and their major metabolites, using an ion-trap mass spectrometer and a Q-TOF mass spectrometer, was performed with the aid of specifically deuterium-labeled analogs. The analytes showed good responses in positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometry as [MH]+ ions. Tandem mass spectra revealed a wealth of structurally specific ions, allowing characterization of the fragmentation pathways of these analytes. The major fragmentation pathways of the protonated CP and IF are elimination of ethylene from C5 and C6 of 1,3,2-oxazaphosphorine-2-oxide via a McLafferty rearrangement, and cleavage of the P-N bond. However, their activated 4-OOH and 4-OH metabolites primarily underwent hydrogen peroxide elimination and dehydration, respectively, followed by fragmentation pathways similar to those of CP and IF. These results should prove useful in structural elucidation of future analogs of CP and IF, and/or of their metabolites. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Silicon wafer-based tandem cells: The ultimate photovoltaic solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent large price reductions with wafer-based cells have increased the difficulty of dislodging silicon solar cell technology from its dominant market position. With market leaders expected to be manufacturing modules above 16% efficiency at 0.36/Watt by 2017, even the cost per unit area (60-70/m2) will be difficult for any thin-film photovoltaic technology to significantly undercut. This may make dislodgement likely only by appreciably higher energy conversion efficiency approaches. A silicon wafer-based cell able to capitalize on on-going cost reductions within the mainstream industry, but with an appreciably higher than present efficiency, might therefore provide the ultimate PV solution. With average selling prices of 156 mm quasi-square monocrystalline Si photovoltaic wafers recently approaching 1 (per wafer), wafers now provide clean, low cost templates for overgrowth of thin, wider bandgap high performance cells, nearly doubling silicon's ultimate efficiency potential. The range of possible Si-based tandem approaches is reviewed together with recent results and ultimate prospects.

  16. Measurements of the Flowfield Interaction Between Tandem Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the most recent measurements from an ongoing investigation of the unsteady wake interference between a pair of circular cylinders in tandem. The purpose of this investigation is to help build an in-depth experimental database for this canonical flow configuration that embodies the effects of component interaction in landing gear noise. This new set of measurements augments the previous database at the primary Reynolds number (based on tunnel speed and cylinder diameter) of 1.66 105 in four important respects. First, better circumferential resolution of surface pressure fluctuations is obtained via cylinder "clocking". Second, higher resolution particle image velocimetry measurements of the shear layer separating from the cylinders are achieved. Third, the effects of simultaneous boundary layer trips along both the front and rear cylinders, versus front cylinder alone in the previous measurements, are studied. Lastly, on-surface and off-surface characteristics of unsteady flow near the "critical" cylinder spacing, wherein the flow switches intermittently between two states that are characteristic of lower and higher spacings, are examined. This critical spacing occurs in the middle of a relatively sudden change in the drag of either cylinder and is characterized by a loud intermittent noise and a flow behavior that randomly transitions between shear layer attachment to the rear cylinder and constant shedding and rollup in front of it. Analysis of this bistable flow state reveals much larger spanwise correlation lengths of surface pressure fluctuations than those at larger and smaller values of the cylinder spacing.

  17. Economic viability of thin-film tandem solar modules in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Sarah E.; Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Weiss, Dirk N.; Stanbery, Billy J.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Peters, I. Marius

    2018-05-01

    Tandem solar cells are more efficient but more expensive per unit area than established single-junction (SJ) solar cells. To understand when specific tandem architectures should be utilized, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different II-VI-based thin-film tandem solar cells and compare them to the SJ subcells. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and energy yield are calculated for four technologies: industrial cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium selenide, and their hypothetical two-terminal (series-connected subcells) and four-terminal (electrically independent subcells) tandems, assuming record SJ quality subcells. Different climatic conditions and scales (residential and utility scale) are considered. We show that, for US residential systems with current balance-of-system costs, the four-terminal tandem has the lowest LCOE because of its superior energy yield, even though it has the highest US per watt (US W-1) module cost. For utility-scale systems, the lowest LCOE architecture is the cadmium telluride single junction, the lowest US W-1 module. The two-terminal tandem requires decreased subcell absorber costs to reach competitiveness over the four-terminal one.

  18. IMPLICATIONS OF CROSS DOMAIN FIRES IN MULTI-DOMAIN BATTLE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    States Air Force 6 April 2017 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 1 DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this...their cyber capability that will ultimately reinforce their influence and power across the Middle East. In viewing North Korea threat capabilities...land-based assets operating in cross domain denial type operations. In viewing the historical warfare capabilities captured in 13 the case study

  19. The chitin-binding domain of a GH-18 chitinase from Vibrio harveyi is crucial for chitin-chitinase interactions.

    PubMed

    Suginta, Wipa; Sirimontree, Paknisa; Sritho, Natchanok; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio harveyi chitinase A (VhChiA) is a GH-18 glycosyl hydrolase with a structure containing three distinct domains: i) the N-terminal chitin-binding domain; ii) the (α/β) 8 TIM barrel catalytic domain; and iii) the α+β insertion domain. In this study, we cloned the gene fragment encoding the chitin-binding domain of VhChiA, termed ChBD Vh ChiA . The recombinant ChBD Vh ChiA was heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 strain Tuner(DE3)pLacI host cells, and purified to homogeneity. CD measurements suggested that ChBD Vh ChiA contained β-sheets as major structural components and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the protein domain was folded correctly, and suitable for functional characterization. Chitin binding assays showed that ChBD Vh ChiA bound to both α- and β-chitins, with the greatest affinity for β-colloidal chitin, but barely bound to polymeric chitosan. These results identified the tandem N-acetamido functionality on chitin chains as the specific sites of enzyme-substrate interactions. The binding affinity of the isolated domain was significantly lower than that of intact VhChiA, suggesting that the catalytic domain works synergistically with the chitin-binding domain to guide the polymeric substrate into the substrate binding cleft. These data confirm the physiological role of the chitin-binding domain of the marine bacterial GH-18 chitinase A in chitin-chitinase interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High Fractional Occupancy of a Tandem Maf Recognition Element and Its Role in Long-Range β-Globin Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Stees, Jared R.; Hossain, Mir A.; Sunose, Tomoki; Kudo, Yasushi; Pardo, Carolina E.; Nabilsi, Nancy H.; Darst, Russell P.; Poudyal, Rosha; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kladde, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers and promoters assemble protein complexes that ultimately regulate the recruitment and activity of RNA polymerases. Previous work has shown that at least some enhancers form stable protein complexes, leading to the formation of enhanceosomes. We analyzed protein-DNA interactions in the murine β-globin gene locus using the methyltransferase accessibility protocol for individual templates (MAPit). The data show that a tandem Maf recognition element (MARE) in locus control region (LCR) hypersensitive site 2 (HS2) reveals a remarkably high degree of occupancy during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia cells. Most of the other transcription factor binding sites in LCR HS2 or in the adult β-globin gene promoter regions exhibit low fractional occupancy, suggesting highly dynamic protein-DNA interactions. Targeting of an artificial zinc finger DNA-binding domain (ZF-DBD) to the HS2 tandem MARE caused a reduction in the association of MARE-binding proteins and transcription complexes at LCR HS2 and the adult βmajor-globin gene promoter but did not affect expression of the βminor-globin gene. The data demonstrate that a stable MARE-associated footprint in LCR HS2 is important for the recruitment of transcription complexes to the adult βmajor-globin gene promoter during erythroid cell differentiation. PMID:26503787

  1. Crystal Structure of the Central Coiled-Coil Domain from Human Liprin-[beta]2

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R.

    2012-02-07

    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-{alpha}s and two liprin-{beta}s which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant subdomains within the liprin-{beta}1 and liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core ofmore » the liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step toward determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions.« less

  2. Single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance after concussion.

    PubMed

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2017-07-01

    To compare single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance between athletes after concussion with controls on observer-timed, spatio-temporal, and center-of-mass (COM) balance control measurements. Ten participants (19.0±5.5years) were prospectively identified and completed a tandem gait test protocol within 72h of concussion and again 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months post-injury. Seven uninjured controls (20.0±4.5years) completed the same protocol in similar time increments. Tandem gait test trials were performed with (dual-task) and without (single-task) concurrently performing a cognitive test as whole-body motion analysis was performed. Outcome variables included test completion time, average tandem gait velocity, cadence, and whole-body COM frontal plane displacement. Concussion participants took significantly longer to complete the dual-task tandem gait test than controls throughout the first 2 weeks post-injury (mean time=16.4 [95% CI: 13.4-19.4] vs. 10.1 [95% CI: 6.4-13.7] seconds; p=0.03). Single-task tandem gait times were significantly lower 72h post-injury (p=0.04). Dual-task cadence was significantly lower for concussion participants than controls (89.5 [95% CI: 68.6-110.4] vs. 127.0 [95% CI: 97.4-156.6] steps/minute; p=0.04). Moderately-high to high correlations between tandem gait test time and whole-body COM medial-lateral displacement were detected at each time point during dual-task gait (r s =0.70-0.93; p=0.03-0.001). Adding a cognitive task during the tandem gait test resulted in longer detectable deficits post-concussion compared to the traditional single-task tandem gait test. As a clinical tool to assess dynamic motor function, tandem gait may assist with return to sport decisions after concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emergence of novel domains in proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteins are composed of a combination of discrete, well-defined, sequence domains, associated with specific functions that have arisen at different times during evolutionary history. The emergence of novel domains is related to protein functional diversification and adaptation. But currently little is known about how novel domains arise and how they subsequently evolve. Results To gain insights into the impact of recently emerged domains in protein evolution we have identified all human young protein domains that have emerged in approximately the past 550 million years. We have classified them into vertebrate-specific and mammalian-specific groups, and compared them to older domains. We have found 426 different annotated young domains, totalling 995 domain occurrences, which represent about 12.3% of all human domains. We have observed that 61.3% of them arose in newly formed genes, while the remaining 38.7% are found combined with older domains, and have very likely emerged in the context of a previously existing protein. Young domains are preferentially located at the N-terminus of the protein, indicating that, at least in vertebrates, novel functional sequences often emerge there. Furthermore, young domains show significantly higher non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates than older domains using human and mouse orthologous sequence comparisons. This is also true when we compare young and old domains located in the same protein, suggesting that recently arisen domains tend to evolve in a less constrained manner than older domains. Conclusions We conclude that proteins tend to gain domains over time, becoming progressively longer. We show that many proteins are made of domains of different age, and that the fastest evolving parts correspond to the domains that have been acquired more recently. PMID:23425224

  4. WW Domains of the Yes-Kinase-Associated-Protein (YAP) Transcriptional Regulator Behave as Independent Units with Different Binding Preferences for PPxY Motif-Containing Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Bexiga, Manuel; Castillo, Francisco; Cobos, Eva S.; Oka, Tsutomu; Sudol, Marius; Luque, Irene

    2015-01-01

    YAP is a WW domain-containing effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, and the object of heightened interest as a potent oncogene and stemness factor. YAP has two major isoforms that differ in the number of WW domains they harbor. Elucidating the degree of co-operation between these WW domains is important for a full understanding of the molecular function of YAP. We present here a detailed biophysical study of the structural stability and binding properties of the two YAP WW domains aimed at investigating the relationship between both domains in terms of structural stability and partner recognition. We have carried out a calorimetric study of the structural stability of the two YAP WW domains, both isolated and in a tandem configuration, and their interaction with a set of functionally relevant ligands derived from PTCH1 and LATS kinases. We find that the two YAP WW domains behave as independent units with different binding preferences, suggesting that the presence of the second WW domain might contribute to modulate target recognition between the two YAP isoforms. Analysis of structural models and phage-display studies indicate that electrostatic interactions play a critical role in binding specificity. Together, these results are relevant to understand of YAP function and open the door to the design of highly specific ligands of interest to delineate the functional role of each WW domain in YAP signaling. PMID:25607641

  5. Frequency domain optical parametric amplification

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

    2014-01-01

    Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength. PMID:24805968

  6. Domain decomposition methods in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.; Saltz, Joel

    1990-01-01

    Compressible Euler equations are solved for two-dimensional problems by a preconditioned conjugate gradient-like technique. An approximate Riemann solver is used to compute the numerical fluxes to second order accuracy in space. Two ways to achieve parallelism are tested, one which makes use of parallelism inherent in triangular solves and the other which employs domain decomposition techniques. The vectorization/parallelism in triangular solves is realized by the use of a recording technique called wavefront ordering. This process involves the interpretation of the triangular matrix as a directed graph and the analysis of the data dependencies. It is noted that the factorization can also be done in parallel with the wave front ordering. The performances of two ways of partitioning the domain, strips and slabs, are compared. Results on Cray YMP are reported for an inviscid transonic test case. The performances of linear algebra kernels are also reported.

  7. Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja

    Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD-OCT), first reported in 1991, makes use of the low temporal coherence properties of a NIR broadband laser to create depth sectioning of up to 2mm under the surface using optical interferometry and point to point scanning. Prior and ongoing work in OCT in the research community has concentrated on improving axial resolution through the development of broadband sources and speed of image acquisition through new techniques such as Spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). In SD-OCT, an entire depth scan is acquired at once with a low numerical aperture (NA) objective lens focused at a fixed point within the sample. In this imaging geometry, a longer depth of focus is achieved at the expense of lateral resolution, which is typically limited to 10 to 20 mum. Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), introduced in 1994, combined the advantages of high axial resolution obtained in OCT with high lateral resolution obtained by increasing the NA of the microscope placed in the sample arm. However, OCM presented trade-offs caused by the inverse quadratic relationship between the NA and the DOF of the optics used. For applications requiring high lateral resolution, such as cancer diagnostics, several solutions have been proposed including the periodic manual re-focusing of the objective lens in the time domain as well as the spectral domain C-mode configuration in order to overcome the loss in lateral resolution outside the DOF. In this research, we report for the first time, high speed, sub-cellular imaging (lateral resolution of 2 mum) in OCM using a Gabor domain image processing algorithm with a custom designed and fabricated dynamic focus microscope interfaced to a Ti:Sa femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm within an SD-OCM configuration. It is envisioned that this technology will provide a non-invasive replacement for the current practice of multiple biopsies for skin cancer diagnosis. The research reported here presents three important advances

  8. Certifying Domain-Specific Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Proof-checking code for compliance to safety policies potentially enables a product-oriented approach to certain aspects of software certification. To date, previous research has focused on generic, low-level programming-language properties such as memory type safety. In this paper we consider proof-checking higher-level domain -specific properties for compliance to safety policies. The paper first describes a framework related to abstract interpretation in which compliance to a class of certification policies can be efficiently calculated Membership equational logic is shown to provide a rich logic for carrying out such calculations, including partiality, for certification. The architecture for a domain-specific certifier is described, followed by an implemented case study. The case study considers consistency of abstract variable attributes in code that performs geometric calculations in Aerospace systems.

  9. Life sciences domain analysis model

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, Robert R; Freund, Elaine T; Schick, Lisa; Sharma, Mukesh K; Stafford, Grace A; Suzek, Baris E; Hernandez, Joyce; Hipp, Jason; Kelley, Jenny M; Rokicki, Konrad; Pan, Sue; Buckler, Andrew; Stokes, Todd H; Fernandez, Anna; Fore, Ian; Buetow, Kenneth H

    2012-01-01

    Objective Meaningful exchange of information is a fundamental challenge in collaborative biomedical research. To help address this, the authors developed the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM), an information model that provides a framework for communication among domain experts and technical teams developing information systems to support biomedical research. The LS DAM is harmonized with the Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) model of protocol-driven clinical research. Together, these models can facilitate data exchange for translational research. Materials and methods The content of the LS DAM was driven by analysis of life sciences and translational research scenarios and the concepts in the model are derived from existing information models, reference models and data exchange formats. The model is represented in the Unified Modeling Language and uses ISO 21090 data types. Results The LS DAM v2.2.1 is comprised of 130 classes and covers several core areas including Experiment, Molecular Biology, Molecular Databases and Specimen. Nearly half of these classes originate from the BRIDG model, emphasizing the semantic harmonization between these models. Validation of the LS DAM against independently derived information models, research scenarios and reference databases supports its general applicability to represent life sciences research. Discussion The LS DAM provides unambiguous definitions for concepts required to describe life sciences research. The processes established to achieve consensus among domain experts will be applied in future iterations and may be broadly applicable to other standardization efforts. Conclusions The LS DAM provides common semantics for life sciences research. Through harmonization with BRIDG, it promotes interoperability in translational science. PMID:22744959

  10. InfoDOMAIN. Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    magazine of Navy Cyber Forces that promotes the advancement of Information Dominance through an open exchange of better practices, tactics, and... Information Dominance Corps is central to that effort. For the Department of Defense and the Navy to operate freely within the cyber domain, we must...Officer (CIO) Division on the staff of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Information Dominance (OPNAV N2/N6). Fleet assignments include combat

  11. Terrorism in the Maritime Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Indonesia-based terrorist group formed in the early 1990s to establish an Islamic state encompassing southern Thailand, Malaysia , Singapore, Indonesia...overseas. There are instances where the warships need to replenish their fuel and food supplies in a foreign country’s harbor. The terrorist group...initiated to improve the maritime domain awareness in the tri-border area (TBA) between the Philippines, Malaysia , and Indonesia, where terrorist

  12. Escalation of the Space Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    vision of Arnold and other Air Force pioneers. Manned flight becomes the domain of NASA , and the United States shelves the idea of an aircraft-like...are similar in nature and application to those seen in science fiction moves or on television (i.e., Star Trek ) that can provide direct kinetic...Space, Infobase Publishing, New York: NY, 2011, pg. 12. 45 Ibid., pg. 12. 46 “Whom Gods Destroy.” Star Trek (original television series), Season 3

  13. Mapping knowledge domains: Characterizing PNAS

    PubMed Central

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    A review of data mining and analysis techniques that can be used for the mapping of knowledge domains is given. Literature mapping techniques can be based on authors, documents, journals, words, and/or indicators. Most mapping questions are related to research assessment or to the structure and dynamics of disciplines or networks. Several mapping techniques are demonstrated on a data set comprising 20 years of papers published in PNAS. Data from a variety of sources are merged to provide unique indicators of the domain bounded by PNAS. By using funding source information and citation counts, it is shown that, on an aggregate basis, papers funded jointly by the U.S. Public Health Service (which includes the National Institutes of Health) and non-U.S. government sources outperform papers funded by other sources, including by the U.S. Public Health Service alone. Grant data from the National Institute on Aging show that, on average, papers from large grants are cited more than those from small grants, with performance increasing with grant amount. A map of the highest performing papers over the 20-year period was generated by using citation analysis. Changes and trends in the subjects of highest impact within the PNAS domain are described. Interactions between topics over the most recent 5-year period are also detailed. PMID:14963238

  14. A three-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor exhibiting domain inhibitory and bacteriostatic activities from freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Cang; Wang, Xian-Wei; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2009-12-01

    In crustaceans, Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in hemolymph are believed to function as regulators of the host-defense reactions or inhibitors against proteinases from microorganisms. In this study, we report a Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, named hcPcSPI1, from freshwater crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). We found that hcPcSPI1 is composed of a putative signal peptide, an RGD motif, and three tandem Kazal-type domains with the domain P1 residues L, L and E, respectively. Mainly, hcPcSPI1 was detected in hemocytes as well as in the heart, gills, and intestine at both the mRNA and protein levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that hcPcSPI1 in hemocytes was upregulated by the stimulation of Esherichia coli (8099) or became decreased after a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. In addition, hcPcSPI1 and its three independent domains were overexpressed and purified to explore their potential functions. All four proteins inhibited subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not alpha-chymotypsin or trypsin. Recombinant hcPcSPI1 could firmly attach to Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae; Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Staphylococcus aureus; fungi Candida albicans and Saccharomyce cerevisiae, and only domain 1 was responsible for the binding to E. coli and S. aureus. In addition, recombinant hcPcSPI1 was also found to possess bacteriostatic activity against the B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis. Domains 2 and 3 contributed mainly to these bacteriostatic activities. All results suggested that hcPcSPI1 might play important roles in the innate immunity of crayfish.

  15. Modeling the Performance Limitations and Prospects of Perovskite/Si Tandem Solar Cells under Realistic Operating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite/Si tandem solar cells have the potential to considerably out-perform conventional solar cells. Under standard test conditions, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells already outperform the Si single junction. Under realistic conditions, however, as we show, tandem solar cells made from current record cells are hardly more efficient than the Si cell alone. We model the performance of realistic perovskite/Si tandem solar cells under real-world climate conditions, by incorporating parasitic cell resistances, nonradiative recombination, and optical losses into the detailed-balance limit. We show quantitatively that when optimizing these parameters in the perovskite top cell, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells could reach efficiencies above 38% under realistic conditions, even while leaving the Si cell untouched. Despite the rapid efficiency increase of perovskite solar cells, our results emphasize the need for further material development, careful device design, and light management strategies, all necessary for highly efficient perovskite/Si tandem solar cells. PMID:28920081

  16. Modeling the Performance Limitations and Prospects of Perovskite/Si Tandem Solar Cells under Realistic Operating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Futscher, Moritz H; Ehrler, Bruno

    2017-09-08

    Perovskite/Si tandem solar cells have the potential to considerably out-perform conventional solar cells. Under standard test conditions, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells already outperform the Si single junction. Under realistic conditions, however, as we show, tandem solar cells made from current record cells are hardly more efficient than the Si cell alone. We model the performance of realistic perovskite/Si tandem solar cells under real-world climate conditions, by incorporating parasitic cell resistances, nonradiative recombination, and optical losses into the detailed-balance limit. We show quantitatively that when optimizing these parameters in the perovskite top cell, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells could reach efficiencies above 38% under realistic conditions, even while leaving the Si cell untouched. Despite the rapid efficiency increase of perovskite solar cells, our results emphasize the need for further material development, careful device design, and light management strategies, all necessary for highly efficient perovskite/Si tandem solar cells.

  17. DIMA 3.0: Domain Interaction Map.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qibin; Pagel, Philipp; Vilne, Baiba; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    Domain Interaction MAp (DIMA, available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/dima) is a database of predicted and known interactions between protein domains. It integrates 5807 structurally known interactions imported from the iPfam and 3did databases and 46,900 domain interactions predicted by four computational methods: domain phylogenetic profiling, domain pair exclusion algorithm correlated mutations and domain interaction prediction in a discriminative way. Additionally predictions are filtered to exclude those domain pairs that are reported as non-interacting by the Negatome database. The DIMA Web site allows to calculate domain interaction networks either for a domain of interest or for entire organisms, and to explore them interactively using the Flash-based Cytoscape Web software.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of ferroelectric domain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B. L.; Liu, X. P.; Fang, F.; Zhu, J. L.; Liu, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of two-dimensional isothermal domain growth in a quenched ferroelectric system is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation based on a realistic Ginzburg-Landau ferroelectric model with cubic-tetragonal (square-rectangle) phase transitions. The evolution of the domain pattern and domain size with annealing time is simulated, and the stability of trijunctions and tetrajunctions of domain walls is analyzed. It is found that in this much realistic model with strong dipole alignment anisotropy and long-range Coulomb interaction, the powerlaw for normal domain growth still stands applicable. Towards the late stage of domain growth, both the average domain area and reciprocal density of domain wall junctions increase linearly with time, and the one-parameter dynamic scaling of the domain growth is demonstrated.

  19. Multiplexed bovine milk oligosaccharide analysis with aminoxy tandem mass tags

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Barile, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides (OS) are a key factor that influences the infant gut microbial composition, and their importance in promoting healthy infant development and disease prevention is becoming increasingly apparent. Investigating the structures, properties, and sources of these compounds requires a host of complementary analytical techniques. Relative compound quantification by mass spectral analysis of isobarically labeled samples is a relatively new technique that has been used mainly in the proteomics field. Glycomics applications have so far focused on analysis of protein-linked glycans, while analysis of free milk OS has previously been conducted only on analytical standards. In this paper, we extend the use of isobaric glycan tags to the analysis of bovine milk OS by presenting a method for separation of labeled OS on a porous graphitized carbon liquid chromatographic column with subsequent analysis by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Abundances for 15 OS extracted from mature bovine milk were measured, with replicate injections providing coefficients of variation below 15% for most OS. Isobaric labeling improved ionization efficiency for low-abundance, high-molecular weight fucosylated OS, which are known to exist in bovine milk but have been only sporadically reported in the literature. We compared the abundances of four fucosylated OS in milk from Holstein and Jersey cattle and found that three of the compounds were more abundant in Jersey milk, which is in general agreement with a previous study. This novel method represents an advancement in our ability to characterize milk OS and provides the advantages associated with isobaric labeling, including reduced instrumental analysis time and increased analyte ionization efficiency. This improved ability to measure differences in bioactive OS abundances in large datasets will facilitate exploration of OS from all food sources for the purpose of developing health-guiding products for infants

  20. TRStalker: an efficient heuristic for finding fuzzy tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Marco; Renda, M Elena; Vecchio, Alessio

    2010-06-15

    Genomes in higher eukaryotic organisms contain a substantial amount of repeated sequences. Tandem Repeats (TRs) constitute a large class of repetitive sequences that are originated via phenomena such as replication slippage and are characterized by close spatial contiguity. They play an important role in several molecular regulatory mechanisms, and also in several diseases (e.g. in the group of trinucleotide repeat disorders). While for TRs with a low or medium level of divergence the current methods are rather effective, the problem of detecting TRs with higher divergence (fuzzy TRs) is still open. The detection of fuzzy TRs is propaedeutic to enriching our view of their role in regulatory mechanisms and diseases. Fuzzy TRs are also important as tools to shed light on the evolutionary history of the genome, where higher divergence correlates with more remote duplication events. We have developed an algorithm (christened TRStalker) with the aim of detecting efficiently TRs that are hard to detect because of their inherent fuzziness, due to high levels of base substitutions, insertions and deletions. To attain this goal, we developed heuristics to solve a Steiner version of the problem for which the fuzziness is measured with respect to a motif string not necessarily present in the input string. This problem is akin to the 'generalized median string' that is known to be an NP-hard problem. Experiments with both synthetic and biological sequences demonstrate that our method performs better than current state of the art for fuzzy TRs and that the fuzzy TRs of the type we detect are indeed present in important biological sequences. TRStalker will be integrated in the web-based TRs Discovery Service (TReaDS) at bioalgo.iit.cnr.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Screening of carnitine and biotin deficiencies on tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Kubota, Mitsuru; Nambu, Ryusuke; Kagimoto, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    It is important to assess pediatric patients for nutritional deficiency when they are receiving specific interventions, such as enteral feeding. We focused on measurement of C0 and 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5-OH) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is performed as part of the newborn mass screening. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of MS/MS for screening carnitine and biotin deficiencies. Forty-two children (24 boys, 18 girls) were enrolled between December 2013 and December 2015. Blood tests, including measurement of serum free carnitine via the enzyme cycling method, and acylcarnitine analysis on MS/MS of dried blood spot (DBS), were performed for the evaluation of nutrition status. Median patient age was 2 years (range, 2 months-14 years). Mean serum free carnitine was 41.8 ± 19.2 μmol/L. In six of the 42 patients, serum free carnitine was <20 μmol/L (range, 4.0-18.7 μmol/L). C0 and C5-OH measured on MS/MS of DBS were 33.8 ± 20.2 nmol/mL and 0.48 ± 0.22 nmol/mL, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.89, P < 0.001) between serum free carnitine and C0 measured on the same day. In one patient on hydrolyzed formula, C5-OH was >1.00 nmol/L. Therapy-resistant eczema was improved by treatment with additional biotin and a non-hydrolyzed formula. C0 and C5-OH, measured on MS/MS of DBS, were useful for screening carnitine and biotin deficiencies. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Modified and Platinated Oligoribonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyakas, Adrien; Stucki, Silvan R.; Schürch, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Therapeutic approaches for treatment of various diseases aim at the interruption of transcription or translation. Modified oligonucleotides, such as 2'- O-methyl- and methylphosphonate-derivatives, exhibit high resistance against cellular nucleases, thus rendering application for, e.g., antigene or antisense purposes possible. Other approaches are based on administration of cross-linking agents, such as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin, DDP), which is still the most widely used anticancer drug worldwide. Due to the formation of 1,2-intrastrand cross links at adjacent guanines, replication of the double-strand is disturbed, thus resulting in significant cytotoxicity. Evidence for the gas-phase dissociation mechanism of platinated RNA is given, based on nano-electrospray ionization high-resolution multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS n ). Confirmation was found by investigating the fragmentation pattern of platinated and unplatinated 2'-methoxy oligoribonucleotide hexamers and their corresponding methylphosphonate derivatives. Platinated 2'-methoxy oligoribonucleotides exhibit a similar gas-phase dissociation behavior as the corresponding DNA and RNA sequences, with the 3'-C-O bond adjacent to the vicinal guanines being cleaved preferentially, leading to wx-ion formation. By examination of the corresponding platinated methylphosphonate derivatives of the 2'-methoxy oligoribonucleotides, the key role of the negatively charged phosphate oxygen atoms in direct proximity to the guanines was proven. The significant alteration of fragmentation due to platination is demonstrated by comparison of the fragment ion patterns of unplatinated and platinated 2'- O-methyl- and 2'- O-methyl methylphosphonate oligoribonucleotides, and the results obtained by H/D exchange experiments.

  3. Crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 (PRYSPRY) domain: a key component of antiviral signalling.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Akshay A; Kershaw, Nadia J; Chiang, Jessica J; Wang, May K; Nicola, Nicos A; Babon, Jeffrey J; Gack, Michaela U; Nicholson, Sandra E

    2013-12-01

    TRIM (tripartite motif) proteins primarily function as ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate the innate immune response to infection. TRIM25 [also known as Efp (oestrogen-responsive finger protein)] has been implicated in the regulation of oestrogen receptor α signalling and in the regulation of innate immune signalling via RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I). RIG-I senses cytosolic viral RNA and is subsequently ubiquitinated by TRIM25 at its N-terminal CARDs (caspase recruitment domains), leading to type I interferon production. The interaction with RIG-I is dependent on the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, a protein-interaction domain composed of the PRY and SPRY tandem sequence motifs. In the present study we describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, which exhibits a typical B30.2/SPRY domain fold comprising two N-terminal α-helices, thirteen β-strands arranged into two β-sheets and loop regions of varying lengths. A comparison with other B30.2/SPRY structures and an analysis of the loop regions identified a putative binding pocket, which is likely to be involved in binding target proteins. This was supported by mutagenesis and functional analyses, which identified two key residues (Asp(488) and Trp(621)) in the TRIM25 B30.2 domain as being critical for binding to the RIG-I CARDs.

  4. Crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 (PRYSPRY) domain: a key component of antiviral signalling

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Akshay A.; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Chiang, Jessica J.; Wang, May K.; Nicola, Nicos A.; Babon, Jeffrey J.; Gack, Michaela U.; Nicholson, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    TRIM (tripartite motif) proteins primarily function as ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate the innate immune response to infection. TRIM25 [also known as Efp (oestrogen-responsive finger protein)] has been implicated in the regulation of oestrogen receptor α signalling and in the regulation of innate immune signalling via RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I). RIG-I senses cytosolic viral RNA and is subsequently ubiquitinated by TRIM25 at its N-terminal CARDs (caspase recruitment domains), leading to type I interferon production. The interaction with RIG-I is dependent on the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, a protein-interaction domain composed of the PRY and SPRY tandem sequence motifs. In the present study we describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, which exhibits a typical B30.2/SPRY domain fold comprising two N-terminal α-helices, thirteen β-strands arranged into two β-sheets and loop regions of varying lengths. A comparison with other B30.2/SPRY structures and an analysis of the loop regions identified a putative binding pocket, which is likely to be involved in binding target proteins. This was supported by mutagenesis and functional analyses, which identified two key residues (Asp488 and Trp621) in the TRIM25 B30.2 domain as being critical for binding to the RIG-I CARDs. PMID:24015671

  5. Artificial urinary sphincter revision for urethral atrophy: Comparing single cuff downsizing and tandem cuff placement.

    PubMed

    Linder, Brian J; Viers, Boyd R; Ziegelmann, Matthew J; Rivera, Marcelino E; Elliott, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    To compare outcomes for single urethral cuff downsizing versus tandem cuff placement during artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) revision for urethral atrophy. We identified 1778 AUS surgeries performed at our institution from 1990-2014. Of these, 406 were first AUS revisions, including 69 revisions for urethral atrophy. Multiple clinical and surgical variables were evaluated for potential association with device outcomes following revision, including surgical revision strategy (downsizing a single urethral cuff versus placing tandem urethral cuffs). Of the 69 revision surgeries for urethral atrophy at our institution, 56 (82%) were tandem cuff placements, 12 (18%) were single cuff downsizings and one was relocation of a single cuff. When comparing tandem cuff placements and single cuff downsizings, the cohorts were similar with regard to age (p=0.98), body-mass index (p=0.95), prior pelvic radiation exposure (p=0.73) and length of follow-up (p=0.12). Notably, there was no difference in 3-year overall device survival compared between single cuff and tandem cuff revisions (60% versus 76%, p=0.94). Likewise, no significant difference was identified for tandem cuff placement (ref. single cuff) when evaluating the risk of any tertiary surgery (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.32-4.12, p=0.94) or urethral erosion/device infection following revision (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.20-5.22, p=0.77). There was no significant difference in overall device survival in patients undergoing single cuff downsizing or tandem cuff placement during AUS revision for urethral atrophy. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  6. Fluoroscopic percutaneous brush cytology, forceps biopsy and both in tandem for diagnosis of malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Boos, Johannes; Yoo, Raphael J; Steinkeler, Jennifer; Ayata, Gamze; Ahmed, Muneeb; Sarwar, Ammar; Weinstein, Jeffrey; Faintuch, Salomao; Brook, Olga R

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate percutaneous brush cytology, forceps biopsy and a tandem procedure consisting of both, in the diagnosis of malignant biliary obstruction. A retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent biliary brush cytology and/or forceps biopsy between 01/2010 and 09/2014 was performed. The cytology and pathology results were compared to the composite outcome (including radiological, pathological and clinical data). Cost for tandem procedure compared to brush cytology and forceps biopsy alone was calculated. A total of 232 interventions in 129 patients (70.8 ± 11.0 years) were included. Composite outcome showed malignancy in 94/129 (72.9%) patients. Sensitivity for brush cytology, forceps biopsy and tandem procedure was 40.6% (95% CI 32.6-48.7%), 42.7% (32.4-53.0%) and 55.8% (44.7-66.9%) with 100% specificity, respectively. There were 9/43 (20.9%) additional cancers diagnosed when forceps biopsy was performed in addition to brush cytology, while there were 13/43 (30.2%) more cancers diagnosed when brush cytology was performed in addition to forceps biopsy. Additional costs per additionally diagnosed malignancy if tandem approach is to be utilised in all cases was $704.96. Using brush cytology and forceps biopsy in tandem improves sensitivity compared to brush cytology and forceps biopsy alone in the diagnosis of malignant biliary obstruction. • Tandem procedure improves sensitivity compared to brush cytology and forceps biopsy. • Brush cytology may help to overcome "crush artefacts" from forceps biopsy. • The cost per diagnosed malignancy may warrant tandem procedure in all patients.

  7. Full-length model of the human galectin-4 and insights into dynamics of inter-domain communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustiguel, Joane K.; Soares, Ricardo O. S.; Meisburger, Steve P.; Davis, Katherine M.; Malzbender, Kristina L.; Ando, Nozomi; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Nonato, Maria Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Galectins are proteins involved in diverse cellular contexts due to their capacity to decipher and respond to the information encoded by β-galactoside sugars. In particular, human galectin-4, normally expressed in the healthy gastrointestinal tract, displays differential expression in cancerous tissues and is considered a potential drug target for liver and lung cancer. Galectin-4 is a tandem-repeat galectin characterized by two carbohydrate recognition domains connected by a linker-peptide. Despite their relevance to cell function and pathogenesis, structural characterization of full-length tandem-repeat galectins has remained elusive. Here, we investigate galectin-4 using X-ray crystallography, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, molecular modelling, molecular dynamics simulations, and differential scanning fluorimetry assays and describe for the first time a structural model for human galectin-4. Our results provide insight into the structural role of the linker-peptide and shed light on the dynamic characteristics of the mechanism of carbohydrate recognition among tandem-repeat galectins.

  8. Improved Tandem Affinity Purification Tag and Methods for Isolation of Proteins and Protein Complexes from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Zilio, Nicola; Boddy, Michael N

    2017-03-01

    The tandem affinity purification (TAP) method uses an epitope that contains two different affinity purification tags separated by a site-specific protease site to isolate a protein rapidly and easily. Proteins purified via the TAP tag are eluted under mild conditions, allowing them to be used for structural and biochemical analyses. The original TAP tag contains a calmodulin-binding peptide and the IgG-binding domain from protein A separated by a tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease cleavage site. After capturing the Protein A epitope on an IgG resin, bound proteins are released by incubation with the TEV protease and then isolated on a calmodulin matrix in the presence of calcium; elution from this resin is achieved by chelating calcium with EGTA. However, because the robustness of the calmodulin-binding step in this procedure is highly variable, we replaced the calmodulin-binding peptide with three copies of the FLAG epitope, (3× FLAG)-TEV-Protein A, which can be isolated using an anti-FLAG resin. Elution from this matrix is achieved in the presence of an excess of a 3× FLAG peptide. In addition to allowing proteins to be released under mild conditions, elution by the 3× FLAG peptide adds an extra layer of specificity to the TAP procedure, because it liberates only FLAG-tagged proteins. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Conservation of the Human Integrin-Type Beta-Propeller Domain in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.; Denessiouk, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface receptors with key functions in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Integrin α and β subunits are present throughout the metazoans, but it is unclear whether the subunits predate the origin of multicellular organisms. Several component domains have been detected in bacteria, one of which, a specific 7-bladed β-propeller domain, is a unique feature of the integrin α subunits. Here, we describe a structure-derived motif, which incorporates key features of each blade from the X-ray structures of human αIIbβ3 and αVβ3, includes elements of the FG-GAP/Cage and Ca2+-binding motifs, and is specific only for the metazoan integrin domains. Separately, we searched for the metazoan integrin type β-propeller domains among all available sequences from bacteria and unicellular eukaryotic organisms, which must incorporate seven repeats, corresponding to the seven blades of the β-propeller domain, and so that the newly found structure-derived motif would exist in every repeat. As the result, among 47 available genomes of unicellular eukaryotes we could not find a single instance of seven repeats with the motif. Several sequences contained three repeats, a predicted transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic motif associated with some integrins, but otherwise differ from the metazoan integrin α subunits. Among the available bacterial sequences, we found five examples containing seven sequential metazoan integrin-specific motifs within the seven repeats. The motifs differ in having one Ca2+-binding site per repeat, whereas metazoan integrins have three or four sites. The bacterial sequences are more conserved in terms of motif conservation and loop length, suggesting that the structure is more regular and compact than those example structures from human integrins. Although the bacterial examples are not full-length integrins, the full-length metazoan-type 7-bladed β-propeller domains are present, and sometimes two tandem

  10. rTANDEM, an R/Bioconductor package for MS/MS protein identification.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Frédéric; Joly Beauparlant, Charles; Paradis, René; Droit, Arnaud

    2014-08-01

    rTANDEM is an R/Bioconductor package that interfaces the X!Tandem protein identification algorithm. The package can run the multi-threaded algorithm on proteomic data files directly from R. It also provides functions to convert search parameters and results to/from R as well as functions to manipulate parameters and automate searches. An associated R package, shinyTANDEM, provides a web-based graphical interface to visualize and interpret the results. Together, those two packages form an entry point for a general MS/MS-based proteomic pipeline in R/Bioconductor. rTANDEM and shinyTANDEM are distributed in R/Bioconductor, http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/. The packages are under open licenses (GPL-3 and Artistice-1.0). frederic.fournier@crchuq.ulaval.ca or arnaud.droit@crchuq.ulaval.ca Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Generation of Tandem Direct Duplications by Reversed-Ends Transposition of Maize Ac Elements

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Tandem direct duplications are a common feature of the genomes of eukaryotes ranging from yeast to human, where they comprise a significant fraction of copy number variations. The prevailing model for the formation of tandem direct duplications is non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Here we report the isolation of a series of duplications and reciprocal deletions isolated de novo from a maize allele containing two Class II Ac/Ds transposons. The duplication/deletion structures suggest that they were generated by alternative transposition reactions involving the termini of two nearby transposable elements. The deletion/duplication breakpoint junctions contain 8 bp target site duplications characteristic of Ac/Ds transposition events, confirming their formation directly by an alternative transposition mechanism. Tandem direct duplications and reciprocal deletions were generated at a relatively high frequency (∼0.5 to 1%) in the materials examined here in which transposons are positioned nearby each other in appropriate orientation; frequencies would likely be much lower in other genotypes. To test whether this mechanism may have contributed to maize genome evolution, we analyzed sequences flanking Ac/Ds and other hAT family transposons and identified three small tandem direct duplications with the structural features predicted by the alternative transposition mechanism. Together these results show that some class II transposons are capable of directly inducing tandem sequence duplications, and that this activity has contributed to the evolution of the maize genome. PMID:23966872

  12. On the Relativistic Correction of Particles Trajectory in Tandem Type Electrostatic Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minárik, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    A constant potential is applied to the acceleration of the ion-beam in the tandem type electrostatic accelerator. However, not just one voltage is applied, but instead a number of applications can be made in succession by means of the tandem arrangement of high voltage tubes. This number of voltage applications, which is the number of so-called "stages" of a tandem accelerator, may be two, three, or four, depending on the chosen design. Electrostatic field with approximately constant intensity acts on ions in any stage. In general, non-relativistic dynamics is used for the description of the ion transport in tandem accelerator. Energies of accelerated ions are too low and relativistic effects cannot be commonly observed by standard experimental technique. Estimation of possible relativistic correction of ion trajectories is therefore only a matter of calculation. In this note, we briefly present such calculation. Our aim is to show how using the relativistic dynamics modifies the particles trajectory in tandem type accelerator and what parameters determine this modification.

  13. Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one’s ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency. PMID:28225028

  14. Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one’s ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency.

  15. Hybrid tandem quantum dot/organic photovoltaic cells with complementary near infrared absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taesoo; Palmiano, Elenita; Liang, Ru-Ze; Hu, Hanlin; Murali, Banavoth; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Firdaus, Yuliar; Gao, Yangqin; Sheikh, Arif; Yuan, Mingjian; Mohammed, Omar F.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Sargent, Edward H.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-05-01

    Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies have not been demonstrated to date. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid tandem cells with a low bandgap PbS CQD subcell harvesting the visible and near-infrared photons and a polymer:fullerene—poly (diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)—top cell absorbing effectively the red and near-infrared photons of the solar spectrum in a complementary fashion. The two subcells are connected in series via an interconnecting layer (ICL) composed of a metal oxide layer, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, and an ultrathin layer of Au. The ultrathin layer of Au forms nano-islands in the ICL, reducing the series resistance, increasing the shunt resistance, and enhancing the device fill-factor. The hybrid tandems reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.9%, significantly higher than the PCE of the corresponding individual single cells, representing one of the highest efficiencies reported to date for hybrid tandem solar cells based on CQD and polymer subcells.

  16. Simulation of two dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry for teaching proteomics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations-2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. The two simulations are integrated together and are designed to teach the concept of proteome analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 2DE-Tandem MS can be used as a freestanding simulation, or in conjunction with a wet lab, to introduce proteomics in the undergraduate classroom. 2DE Tandem MS is a free program available on Sourceforge at https://sourceforge.net/projects/jbf/. It was developed using Java Swing and functions in Mac OSX, Windows, and Linux, ensuring that every student sees a consistent and informative graphical user interface no matter the computer platform they choose. Java must be installed on the host computer to run 2DE Tandem MS. Example classroom exercises are provided in the Supporting Information. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Efficient Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Cell Area >1 cm(2).

    PubMed

    Werner, Jérémie; Weng, Ching-Hsun; Walter, Arnaud; Fesquet, Luc; Seif, Johannes Peter; De Wolf, Stefaan; Niesen, Bjoern; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-01-07

    Monolithic perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells hold great promise for further performance improvement of well-established silicon photovoltaics; however, monolithic tandem integration is challenging, evidenced by the modest performances and small-area devices reported so far. Here we present first a low-temperature process for semitransparent perovskite solar cells, yielding efficiencies of up to 14.5%. Then, we implement this process to fabricate monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cells yielding efficiencies of up to 21.2 and 19.2% for cell areas of 0.17 and 1.22 cm(2), respectively. Both efficiencies are well above those of the involved subcells. These single-junction perovskite and tandem solar cells are hysteresis-free and demonstrate steady performance under maximum power point tracking for several minutes. Finally, we present the effects of varying the intermediate recombination layer and hole transport layer thicknesses on tandem cell photocurrent generation, experimentally and by transfer matrix simulations.

  18. Tandem UIMs confer Lys48 ubiquitin chain substrate preference to deubiquitinase USP25

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Kohei; Uo, Kazune; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Komada, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) 25, belonging to the USP family of deubiquitinases, harbors two tandem ubiquitin-interacting motifs (UIMs), a ~20-amino-acid α-helical stretch that binds to ubiquitin. However, the role of the UIMs in USP25 remains unclear. Here we show that the tandem UIM region binds to Lys48-, but not Lys63-, linked ubiquitin chains, where the two UIMs played a critical and cooperative role. Purified USP25 exhibited higher ubiquitin isopeptidase activity to Lys48-, than to Lys63-, linked ubiquitin chains. Mutations that disrupted the ubiquitin-binding ability of the tandem UIMs resulted in a reduced ubiquitin isopeptidase activity of USP25, suggesting a role for the UIMs in exerting the full catalytic activity of USP25. Moreover, when mutations that convert the binding preference from Lys48- to Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains were introduced into the tandem UIM region, the USP25 mutants acquired elevated and reduced isopeptidase activity toward Lys63- and Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains, respectively. These results suggested that the binding preference of the tandem UIMs toward Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains contributes not only to the full catalytic activity but also to the ubiquitin chain substrate preference of USP25, possibly by selectively holding the Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain substrates in the proximity of the catalytic core. PMID:28327663

  19. Frequency-Domain Optical Mammogram

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    have performed the proposed analysis of frequency-domain optical mammograms for a clinical population of about 150 patients. This analysis has led to...model the propagation of light in tissue14-20 have led to new approaches to optical mammography. As The authors are with the Department of Electrical...Modulation Methods, and Signal Detection /406 7.2.1 Lasers and arc lamps / 407’ 7.2.2 Pulsed sources / 407 7.2.3 Laser diodes and light-emitting diodes ( LEDs

  20. Generic domain models in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  1. Photochemical Stereocontrol Using Tandem Photoredox-Chiral Lewis Acid Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tehshik P

    2016-10-18

    The physical, biological, and materials properties of organic compounds are determined by their three-dimensional molecular shape. The development of methods to dictate the stereochemistry of organic reactions has consequently emerged as one of the central themes of contemporary synthetic chemistry. Over the past several decades, chiral catalysts have been developed to control the enantioselectivity of almost every class of synthetically useful transformation. Photochemical reactions, however, are a conspicuous exception. Relatively few examples of highly enantioselective catalytic photoreactions have been reported to date, despite almost a century of research in this field. The development of robust strategies for photochemical enantiocontrol has thus proven to be a long-standing and surprisingly difficult challenge. For the past decade, our laboratory has been studying the application of transition metal photocatalysts to a variety of problems in synthetic organic chemistry. These efforts have recently culminated in the discovery of an effective system in which the activity of a visible light absorbing transition metal photoredox catalyst is combined with a second stereocontrolling chiral Lewis acid catalyst. This dual catalyst strategy has been applied to a diverse range of photochemical reactions; these have included highly enantioselective photocatalytic [2 + 2] cycloadditions, [3 + 2] cycloadditions, and radical conjugate addition reactions. This Account describes the development of the tandem Lewis acid photoredox catalysis strategy utilized in our laboratory. It provides an analysis of the factors that we believe to be particularly important to the success of this seemingly robust approach to photocatalytic stereocontrol. (1) The photocatalysts utilized in our systems are activated by wavelengths of visible light where the organic substrates are transparent, which minimizes the possibility of competitive racemic background photoreactions. (2) The high

  2. Photochemical Stereocontrol Using Tandem Photoredox–Chiral Lewis Acid Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The physical, biological, and materials properties of organic compounds are determined by their three-dimensional molecular shape. The development of methods to dictate the stereochemistry of organic reactions has consequently emerged as one of the central themes of contemporary synthetic chemistry. Over the past several decades, chiral catalysts have been developed to control the enantioselectivity of almost every class of synthetically useful transformation. Photochemical reactions, however, are a conspicuous exception. Relatively few examples of highly enantioselective catalytic photoreactions have been reported to date, despite almost a century of research in this field. The development of robust strategies for photochemical enantiocontrol has thus proven to be a long-standing and surprisingly difficult challenge. For the past decade, our laboratory has been studying the application of transition metal photocatalysts to a variety of problems in synthetic organic chemistry. These efforts have recently culminated in the discovery of an effective system in which the activity of a visible light absorbing transition metal photoredox catalyst is combined with a second stereocontrolling chiral Lewis acid catalyst. This dual catalyst strategy has been applied to a diverse range of photochemical reactions; these have included highly enantioselective photocatalytic [2 + 2] cycloadditions, [3 + 2] cycloadditions, and radical conjugate addition reactions. This Account describes the development of the tandem Lewis acid photoredox catalysis strategy utilized in our laboratory. It provides an analysis of the factors that we believe to be particularly important to the success of this seemingly robust approach to photocatalytic stereocontrol. (1) The photocatalysts utilized in our systems are activated by wavelengths of visible light where the organic substrates are transparent, which minimizes the possibility of competitive racemic background photoreactions. (2) The

  3. Aeroacoustic Simulations of Tandem Cylinders with Subcritical Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Tandem cylinders are being studied because they model a variety of component level interactions of landing gear. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders with their centroids separated in the streamwise direction by 1.435 diameters. Experiments in the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel and Quiet Flow Facility at NASA Langley Research Center have provided an extensive experimental database of the nearfield flow and radiated noise. The measurements were conducted at a Mach number of 0.1285 and Reynolds number of 1.66x10(exp 5) based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent flow separation and, hence, to simulate a major aspect of high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The experiments exhibited an asymmetry in the surface pressure that was persistent despite attempts to eliminate it through small changes in the configuration. To model the asymmetry, the simulations were run with the cylinder configuration at a nonzero but small angle of attack. The computed results and experiments are in general agreement that vortex shedding for the spacing studied herein is weak relative to that observed at supercritical spacings. Although the shedding was subdued in the simulations, it was still more prominent than in the experiments. Overall, the simulation comparisons with measured near-field data and the radiated acoustics are reasonable, especially if one is concerned with capturing the trends relative to larger cylinder spacings. However, the flow details of the 1.435 diameter spacing have not been captured in full even though very fine grid computations have been performed. Some of the discrepancy may be associated with the simulation s inexact representation of the

  4. Pectin Homogalacturonans: Nanostructural Characterization of Methylesterified Domains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functionality of pectic hydrocolloids is largely dependent on the two major domains commonly found in their homogalacturonan (HG) regions, i.e., methylester protected domains (MPDs)and non methylesterified domains (NMDs). MPDs can participate in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions but unli...

  5. Underwater Advanced Time-Domain Electromagnetic System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-03

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The overall objective of the project is to design , build and demonstrate an underwater advanced time -domain...Description The overall objective of the project is to design , build and demonstrate an underwater advanced time - domain electromagnetic (TEM) system...Electromagnetic System Design (July, 2015), and in the Underwater Advanced Time -Domain Electromagnetic System Evaluation Plan (October, 2016). A

  6. One Health Core Competency Domains.

    PubMed

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting "One Health" approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  7. One Health Core Competency Domains

    PubMed Central

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting “One Health” approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches. PMID:27679794

  8. Identification of hierarchical chromatin domains

    PubMed Central

    Weinreb, Caleb; Raphael, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The three-dimensional structure of the genome is an important regulator of many cellular processes including differentiation and gene regulation. Recently, technologies such as Hi-C that combine proximity ligation with high-throughput sequencing have revealed domains of self-interacting chromatin, called topologically associating domains (TADs), in many organisms. Current methods for identifying TADs using Hi-C data assume that TADs are non-overlapping, despite evidence for a nested structure in which TADs and sub-TADs form a complex hierarchy. Results: We introduce a model for decomposition of contact frequencies into a hierarchy of nested TADs. This model is based on empirical distributions of contact frequencies within TADs, where positions that are far apart have a greater enrichment of contacts than positions that are close together. We find that the increase in contact enrichment with distance is stronger for the inner TAD than for the outer TAD in a TAD/sub-TAD pair. Using this model, we develop the TADtree algorithm for detecting hierarchies of nested TADs. TADtree compares favorably with previous methods, finding TADs with a greater enrichment of chromatin marks such as CTCF at their boundaries. Availability and implementation: A python implementation of TADtree is available at http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software/ Contact: braphael@cs.brown.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26315910

  9. AIDA: ab initio domain assembly for automated multi-domain protein structure prediction and domain–domain interaction prediction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Li, Zhanwen; Godzik, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Most proteins consist of multiple domains, independent structural and evolutionary units that are often reshuffled in genomic rearrangements to form new protein architectures. Template-based modeling methods can often detect homologous templates for individual domains, but templates that could be used to model the entire query protein are often not available. Results: We have developed a fast docking algorithm ab initio domain assembly (AIDA) for assembling multi-domain protein structures, guided by the ab initio folding potential. This approach can be extended to discontinuous domains (i.e. domains with ‘inserted’ domains). When tested on experimentally solved structures of multi-domain proteins, the relative domain positions were accurately found among top 5000 models in 86% of cases. AIDA server can use domain assignments provided by the user or predict them from the provided sequence. The latter approach is particularly useful for automated protein structure prediction servers. The blind test consisting of 95 CASP10 targets shows that domain boundaries could be successfully determined for 97% of targets. Availability and implementation: The AIDA package as well as the benchmark sets used here are available for download at http://ffas.burnham.org/AIDA/. Contact: adam@sanfordburnham.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25701568

  10. Two-terminal monolithic InP-based tandem solar cells with tunneling intercell ohmic connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C. C.; Chang, P. T.; Emery, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    A monolithic two-terminal InP/InGaAsP tandem solar cell was successfully fabricated. This tandem solar cell consists of a p/n InP homojunction top subcell and a 0.95 eV p/n InGaAsP homojunction bottom subcell. A patterned 0.95 eV n(+)/p(+) InGaAsP tunnel diode was employed as an intercell ohmic connection. The solar cell structure was prepared by two-step liquid phase epitaxial growth. Under one sun, AM1.5 global illumination, the best tandem cell delivered a conversion efficiency of 14.8 pct.

  11. Producing multicharged fullerene ion beam extracted from the second stage of tandem-type ECRIS.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Tomoki; Nishiokada, Takuya; Hagino, Shogo; Uchida, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Kato, Yushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    2016-02-01

    We have been constructing the tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Two ion sources of the tandem-type ECRIS are possible to generate plasma individually, and they also confined individual ion species by each different plasma parameter. Hence, it is considered to be suitable for new materials production. As the first step, we try to produce and extract multicharged C60 ions by supplying pure C60 vapor in the second stage plasma because our main target is producing the endohedral fullerenes. We developed a new evaporator to supply fullerene vapor, and we succeeded in observation about multicharged C60 ion beam in tandem-type ECRIS for the first time.

  12. Perovskite Solar Cells with Large-Area CVD-Graphene for Tandem Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lang, Felix; Gluba, Marc A; Albrecht, Steve; Rappich, Jörg; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Nickel, Norbert H

    2015-07-16

    Perovskite solar cells with transparent contacts may be used to compensate for thermalization losses of silicon solar cells in tandem devices. This offers a way to outreach stagnating efficiencies. However, perovskite top cells in tandem structures require contact layers with high electrical conductivity and optimal transparency. We address this challenge by implementing large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition as a highly transparent electrode in perovskite solar cells, leading to identical charge collection efficiencies. Electrical performance of solar cells with a graphene-based contact reached those of solar cells with standard gold contacts. The optical transmission by far exceeds that of reference devices and amounts to 64.3% below the perovskite band gap. Finally, we demonstrate a four-terminal tandem device combining a high band gap graphene-contacted perovskite top solar cell (Eg = 1.6 eV) with an amorphous/crystalline silicon bottom solar cell (Eg = 1.12 eV).

  13. Highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices employing an easily fabricated charge generation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huishan; Yu, Yaoyao; Wu, Lishuang; Qu, Biao; Lin, Wenyan; Yu, Ye; Wu, Zhijun; Xie, Wenfa

    2018-02-01

    We have realized highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) employing an easily fabricated charge generation unit (CGU) combining 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile with ultrathin bilayers of CsN3 and Al. The charge generation and separation processes of the CGU have been demonstrated by studying the differences in the current density-voltage characteristics of external-carrier-excluding devices. At high luminances of 1000 and 10000 cd/m2, the current efficiencies of the phosphorescent tandem device are about 2.2- and 2.3-fold those of the corresponding single-unit device, respectively. Simultaneously, an efficient tandem white OLED exhibiting high color stability and warm white emission has also been fabricated.

  14. A thermoresponsive nanorattle containing two different catalysts for controllable one-pot tandem catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chengrong; Hu, Jie; Li, Yinfeng; Leng, Jinghang; Li, Songjun

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, a thermoresponsive nanorattle with a Ag nanoparticle (NP) core (one catalyst in the nanorattle), and a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) shell was developed. An imidazole group was grafted on the polymer shell by copolymerization as the other catalyst. Owing to the catalytic activities of the imidazole group and Ag NP with regards to hydrolysis and reduction, respectively, this nanorattle exhibited tandem-reaction catalytic abilities. In addition, because of the shrinkage of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) shell at high temperatures, the tandem reaction could be controlled to stop at the first reaction step. That is to say, only the hydrolysis reaction was catalyzed by the imidazole group being grafted on the surface of the shell. The reduction step in the tandem reaction catalyzed by the Ag particle, however, was switched off by the shrinkage of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) shell. This protocol opens up an opportunity to develop controllable catalysts for complicated chemical processes.

  15. Producing multicharged fullerene ion beam extracted from the second stage of tandem-type ECRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaya, Tomoki, E-mail: nagaya@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nishiokada, Takuya; Hagino, Shogo

    2016-02-15

    We have been constructing the tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Two ion sources of the tandem-type ECRIS are possible to generate plasma individually, and they also confined individual ion species by each different plasma parameter. Hence, it is considered to be suitable for new materials production. As the first step, we try to produce and extract multicharged C{sub 60} ions by supplying pure C{sub 60} vapor in the second stage plasma because our main target is producing the endohedral fullerenes. We developed a new evaporator to supply fullerene vapor, and we succeeded in observation about multicharged C{sub 60}more » ion beam in tandem-type ECRIS for the first time.« less

  16. Tandem concentrator photovoltaic array applied to Space Station Freedom evolutionary power requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Edward M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Additional power is required to support Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolution. Boeing Defense and Space Group, LeRC, and Entech Corporation have participated in the development of efficiency gallium arsenide and gallium antimonide solar cells make up the solar array tandem cell stacks. Entech's Mini-Dome Fresnel Lens Concentrators focus solar energy onto the active area of the solar cells at 50 times one solar energy flux. Development testing for a flight array, to be launched in Nov. 1992 is under way with support from LeRC. The tandem cells, interconnect wiring, concentrator lenses, and structure were integrated into arrays subjected to environmental testing. A tandem concentrator array can provide high mass and area specific power and can provide equal power with significantly less array area and weight than the baseline array design. Alternatively, for SSF growth, an array of twice the baseline power can be designed which still has a smaller drag area than the baseline.

  17. Production of multicharged metal ion beams on the first stage of tandem-type ECRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hagino, Shogo, E-mail: hagino@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagaya, Tomoki; Nishiokada, Takuya

    2016-02-15

    Multicharged metal ion beams are required to be applied in a wide range of fields. We aim at synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene by transporting iron ion beams from the first stage into the fullerene plasma in the second stage of the tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). We developed new evaporators by using a direct ohmic heating method and a radiation heating method from solid state pure metal materials. We investigate their properties in the test chamber and produce iron ions on the first stage of the tandem-type ECRIS. As a result, we were successful in extracting Fe{sup +} ionmore » beams from the first stage and introducing Fe{sup +} ion beams to the second stage. We will try synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene on the tandem-type ECRIS by using these evaporators.« less

  18. Old and New Techniques as a Safe Hybrid Approach for Carotid Tandem Lesions.

    PubMed

    Barillà, David; Massara, Mafalda; Alberti, Antonino; Volpe, Alberto; Cutrupi, Andrea; Versace, Paolo; Volpe, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Carotid revascularization is performed to prevent stroke. Carotid tandem lesions represent a challenge for treatment, and a hybrid approach may result effective. A high-risk 65-year-old woman presented with a "tandem lesion" of left common and internal carotid artery. She was deemed unfit for "simple" standard carotid endarterectomy (CEA). A "single-step" safe hybrid procedure was scheduled for the patient. A "Cormier" carotid vein graft bypass with a retrograde stenting was performed under local anesthesia. The "safe hybrid procedure" for tandem lesions of the common and internal carotid artery is effective and suitable in high-risk patients in a high-volume centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diffractive intermediate layer enables broadband light trapping for high efficiency ultrathin c-Si tandem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guijun; Ho, Jacob Y. L.; Li, He; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2014-06-01

    Light management through the intermediate reflector in the tandem cell configuration is of great practical importance for achieving high stable efficiency and also low cost production. So far, however, the intermediate reflectors employed currently are mainly focused on the light absorption enhancement of the top cell. Here, we present a diffractive intermediate layer that allows for light trapping over a broadband wavelength for the ultrathin c-Si tandem solar cell. Compared with the standard intermediate reflector, this nanoscale architectural intermediate layer results in a 35% and 21% remarkable enhancement of the light absorption in the top (400-800 nm) and bottom (800-1100 nm) cells simultaneously, and ultrathin c-Si tandem cells with impressive conversion efficiency of 13.3% are made on the glass substrate.

  20. Thermodynamic efficiency limits of classical and bifacial multi-junction tandem solar cells: An analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Khan, M. Ryyan

    2016-10-01

    Bifacial tandem cells promise to reduce three fundamental losses (i.e., above-bandgap, below bandgap, and the uncollected light between panels) inherent in classical single junction photovoltaic (PV) systems. The successive filtering of light through the bandgap cascade and the requirement of current continuity make optimization of tandem cells difficult and accessible only to numerical solution through computer modeling. The challenge is even more complicated for bifacial design. In this paper, we use an elegantly simple analytical approach to show that the essential physics of optimization is intuitively obvious, and deeply insightful results can be obtained with a few lines of algebra. This powerful approach reproduces, as special cases, all of the known results of conventional and bifacial tandem cells and highlights the asymptotic efficiency gain of these technologies.

  1. Probing Photocurrent Nonuniformities in the Subcells of Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhaoning; Werner, Jérémie; Shrestha, Niraj; Sahli, Florent; De Wolf, Stefaan; Niesen, Björn; Watthage, Suneth C; Phillips, Adam B; Ballif, Christophe; Ellingson, Randy J; Heben, Michael J

    2016-12-15

    Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with high power conversion efficiencies have the potential to become a commercially viable photovoltaic option in the near future. However, device design and optimization is challenging because conventional characterization methods do not give clear feedback on the localized chemical and physical factors that limit performance within individual subcells, especially when stability and degradation is a concern. In this study, we use light beam induced current (LBIC) to probe photocurrent collection nonuniformities in the individual subcells of perovskite/silicon tandems. The choices of lasers and light biasing conditions allow efficiency-limiting effects relating to processing defects, optical interference within the individual cells, and the evolution of water-induced device degradation to be spatially resolved. The results reveal several types of microscopic defects and demonstrate that eliminating these and managing the optical properties within the multilayer structures will be important for future optimization of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells.

  2. Indium Zinc Oxide Mediated Wafer Bonding for III-V/Si Tandem Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tamboli, Adele C.; Essig, Stephanie; Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.

    Silicon-based tandem solar cells are desirable as a high efficiency, economically viable approach to one sun or low concentration photovoltaics. We present an approach to wafer bonded III-V/Si solar cells using amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) as an interlayer. We investigate the impact of a heavily doped III-V contact layer on the electrical and optical properties of bonded test samples, including the predicted impact on tandem cell performance. We present economic modeling which indicates that the path to commercial viability for bonded cells includes developing low-cost III-V growth and reducing constraints on material smoothness. If these challenges can be surmounted,more » bonded tandems on Si can be cost-competitive with incumbent PV technologies, especially in low concentration, single axis tracking systems.« less

  3. Monitoring of Sea Ice Dynamic by Means of ERS-Envisat Tandem Cross-Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, Paolo; Cantone, Alessio; Barbieri, Massimo; Engdahl, Marcus

    2010-03-01

    The interest in the monitoring of sea ice masses has increased greatly over the past decades for a variety of reasons. These include:- Navigation in northern latitude waters;- transportation of petroleum;- exploitation of mineral deposits in the Arctic, and- the use of icebergs as a source of fresh water.The availability of ERS-Envisat 28minute tandem acquisitions from dedicated campaigns, covering large areas in the northern latitudes with large geometrical baseline and very short temporal separation, allows the precise estimation of sea ice displacement fields with an accuracy that cannot be obtained on large scale from any other instrument. This article presents different results of sea ice dynamic monitoring over northern Canada obtained within the "ERS-Envisat Tandem Cross-Interferometry Campaigns: CInSAR processing and studies over extended areas" project from data acquired during the 2008-2009 Tandem campaign..

  4. Domain adaptation via transfer component analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sinno Jialin; Tsang, Ivor W; Kwok, James T; Yang, Qiang

    2011-02-01

    Domain adaptation allows knowledge from a source domain to be transferred to a different but related target domain. Intuitively, discovering a good feature representation across domains is crucial. In this paper, we first propose to find such a representation through a new learning method, transfer component analysis (TCA), for domain adaptation. TCA tries to learn some transfer components across domains in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space using maximum mean miscrepancy. In the subspace spanned by these transfer components, data properties are preserved and data distributions in different domains are close to each other. As a result, with the new representations in this subspace, we can apply standard machine learning methods to train classifiers or regression models in the source domain for use in the target domain. Furthermore, in order to uncover the knowledge hidden in the relations between the data labels from the source and target domains, we extend TCA in a semisupervised learning setting, which encodes label information into transfer components learning. We call this extension semisupervised TCA. The main contribution of our work is that we propose a novel dimensionality reduction framework for reducing the distance between domains in a latent space for domain adaptation. We propose both unsupervised and semisupervised feature extraction approaches, which can dramatically reduce the distance between domain distributions by projecting data onto the learned transfer components. Finally, our approach can handle large datasets and naturally lead to out-of-sample generalization. The effectiveness and efficiency of our approach are verified by experiments on five toy datasets and two real-world applications: cross-domain indoor WiFi localization and cross-domain text classification.

  5. Treating Refractory Cardiogenic Shock With the TandemHeart and Impella Devices: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Bryan G.; Ludeman, Daniel J.; Mayeda, Guy S.; Kloner, Robert A.; Economides, Christina; Burstein, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) are routinely treated with intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs). The utility of 2 new percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (PLVADs), the Impella and TandemHeart, is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the use of PLVADs for patients with CS at our institution. Methods All cases involving PLVADs in patients with CS between between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010 at a private, tertiary referral hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Results All 76 cases were identified (50 IABP only, 7 Impella, 19 TandemHeart). Most Impella (5/7) and TandemHeart (10/19) patients were initially treated with an IABP before "upgrading" for increased hemodynamic support. All 76 devices (100%) were initiated successfully. Percutaneous revascularization was attempted in 63 patients with angiographic success in 57 (90%). The incidences of major complications were similar between groups, except bleeding occurred less frequently with the IABP. Mean ejection fraction on presentation was 30.4±16.5% and increased by a mean of 6.6±11.4% (P < 0.001). With the institutional approach of treating patients with CS initially with vasopressors and IABPs, then upgrading to an Impella or TandemHeart device for patients refractory to IABP therapy, the overall mortality rate was 40%. Conclusion The Impella and TandemHeart devices can be initiated successfully in patients with CS, are associated with high rates of angiographic success during high risk percutaneous interventions and may benefit the myocardium during myocardial infarction. Randomized trials are warranted investigating use of the Impella and TandemHeart devices in patients with CS and in patients refractory to conventional IABP therapy. PMID:28348673

  6. Molecular characterization and distribution of a 145-bp tandem repeat family in the genus Populus.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, J; Das, S; Khurana, D K; Srivastava, P S; Lakshmikumaran, M

    1999-10-01

    This report aims to describe the identification and molecular characterization of a 145-bp tandem repeat family that accounts for nearly 1.5% of the Populus genome. Three members of this repeat family were cloned and sequenced from Populus deltoides and P. ciliata. The dimers of the repeat were sequenced in order to confirm the head-to-tail organization of the repeat. Hybridization-based analysis using the 145-bp tandem repeat as a probe on genomic DNA gave rise to ladder patterns which were identified to be a result of methylation and (or) sequence heterogeneity. Analysis of the methylation pattern of the repeat family using methylation-sensitive isoschizomers revealed variable methylation of the C residues and lack of methylation of the A residues. Sequence comparisons between the monomers revealed a high degree of sequence divergence that ranged between 6% and 11% in P. deltoides and between 4.2% and 8.3% in P. ciliata. This indicated the presence of sub-families within the 145-bp tandem family of repeats. Divergence was mainly due to the accumulation of point mutations and was concentrated in the central region of the repeat. The 145-bp tandem repeat family did not show significant homology to known tandem repeats from plants. A short stretch of 36 bp was found to show homology of 66.7% to a centromeric repeat from Chironomus plumosus. Dot-blot analysis and Southern hybridization data revealed the presence of the repeat family in 13 of the 14 Populus species examined. The absence of the 145-bp repeat from P. euphratica suggested that this species is relatively distant from other members of the genus, which correlates with taxonomic classifications. The widespread occurrence of the tandem family in the genus indicated that this family may be of ancient origin.

  7. Evaluating the economic viability of CdTe/CIS and CIGS/CIS tandem photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Horowitz, Kelsey; Kanevce, Ana

    In this paper, we analyze the potential cost competitiveness of two frameless, glass–glass thin-film tandem photovoltaic module structures, cadmium telluride (CdTe)/CuInSe 2 (CIS) and CuIn 0.3Ga 0.7Se 2 (CIGS)/CIS, based on the demonstrated cost of manufacturing the respective component cell technologies in high volume. To consider multiple economic scenarios, we base the CdTe/CIS module efficiency on the current industrial production of CdTe modules, while for CIGS/CIS, we use an aspirational estimate for CIGS efficiency. We focus on four-terminal mechanically stacked structures, thus avoiding the need to achieve current matching between the two cells. The top cell in such a tandemmore » must have a transparent back contact, which has not been successfully implemented to date. However, for the purpose of understanding the economic viability of both tandems, we assume that this can be implemented at a cost similar to that of sputtered indium tin oxide. The cost of both tandem module structures was found to be nearly identical on an equal-area basis and approximately $30/m 2 higher than the single-junction alternatives. Both tandem modules are about 4% (absolute) more efficient than a module by using the top-cell material alone. We find that these tandem modules might reduce total system cost by as much as 11% in applications having a high area-related balance-of-system cost, such as area-constrained residential systems; however, the relative advantage of tandems decreases in the cases where balance-of-system costs are lower, such as in commercial and utility scale systems.« less

  8. Evaluating the economic viability of CdTe/CIS and CIGS/CIS tandem photovoltaic modules

    DOE PAGES

    Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Horowitz, Kelsey; Kanevce, Ana; ...

    2017-01-20

    In this paper, we analyze the potential cost competitiveness of two frameless, glass–glass thin-film tandem photovoltaic module structures, cadmium telluride (CdTe)/CuInSe 2 (CIS) and CuIn 0.3Ga 0.7Se 2 (CIGS)/CIS, based on the demonstrated cost of manufacturing the respective component cell technologies in high volume. To consider multiple economic scenarios, we base the CdTe/CIS module efficiency on the current industrial production of CdTe modules, while for CIGS/CIS, we use an aspirational estimate for CIGS efficiency. We focus on four-terminal mechanically stacked structures, thus avoiding the need to achieve current matching between the two cells. The top cell in such a tandemmore » must have a transparent back contact, which has not been successfully implemented to date. However, for the purpose of understanding the economic viability of both tandems, we assume that this can be implemented at a cost similar to that of sputtered indium tin oxide. The cost of both tandem module structures was found to be nearly identical on an equal-area basis and approximately $30/m 2 higher than the single-junction alternatives. Both tandem modules are about 4% (absolute) more efficient than a module by using the top-cell material alone. We find that these tandem modules might reduce total system cost by as much as 11% in applications having a high area-related balance-of-system cost, such as area-constrained residential systems; however, the relative advantage of tandems decreases in the cases where balance-of-system costs are lower, such as in commercial and utility scale systems.« less

  9. Optimizing Algorithm Choice for Metaproteomics: Comparing X!Tandem and Proteome Discoverer for Soil Proteomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, K. S.; Kim, E. H.; Jones, R. M.; de Leon, K. C.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Tyson, G. W.; Rich, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    The growing field of metaproteomics links microbial communities to their expressed functions by using mass spectrometry methods to characterize community proteins. Comparison of mass spectrometry protein search algorithms and their biases is crucial for maximizing the quality and amount of protein identifications in mass spectral data. Available algorithms employ different approaches when mapping mass spectra to peptides against a database. We compared mass spectra from four microbial proteomes derived from high-organic content soils searched with two search algorithms: 1) Sequest HT as packaged within Proteome Discoverer (v.1.4) and 2) X!Tandem as packaged in TransProteomicPipeline (v.4.7.1). Searches used matched metagenomes, and results were filtered to allow identification of high probability proteins. There was little overlap in proteins identified by both algorithms, on average just ~24% of the total. However, when adjusted for spectral abundance, the overlap improved to ~70%. Proteome Discoverer generally outperformed X!Tandem, identifying an average of 12.5% more proteins than X!Tandem, with X!Tandem identifying more proteins only in the first two proteomes. For spectrally-adjusted results, the algorithms were similar, with X!Tandem marginally outperforming Proteome Discoverer by an average of ~4%. We then assessed differences in heat shock proteins (HSP) identification by the two algorithms by BLASTing identified proteins against the Heat Shock Protein Information Resource, because HSP hits typically account for the majority signal in proteomes, due to extraction protocols. Total HSP identifications for each of the 4 proteomes were approximately ~15%, ~11%, ~17%, and ~19%, with ~14% for total HSPs with redundancies removed. Of the ~15% average of proteins from the 4 proteomes identified as HSPs, ~10% of proteins and spectra were identified by both algorithms. On average, Proteome Discoverer identified ~9% more HSPs than X!Tandem.

  10. Structure of the mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate-recognition domain reveals the mechanism of oligosaccharide recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Krejciríková, Veronika; Pachl, Petr; Fábry, Milan

    2011-11-18

    Galectin-4, a member of the tandem-repeat subfamily of galectins, participates in cell-membrane interactions and plays an important role in cell adhesion and modulation of immunity and malignity. The oligosaccharide specificity of the mouse galectin-4 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) has been reported previously. In this work, the structure and binding properties of the N-terminal domain CRD1 were further investigated and the crystal structure of CRD1 in complex with lactose was determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The lactose-binding affinity was characterized by fluorescence measurements and two lactose-binding sites were identified: a high-affinity site with a K{sub d} value in the micromolar range (K{submore » d1} = 600 {+-} 70 {mu}M) and a low-affinity site with K{sub d2} = 28 {+-} 10 mM.« less

  11. Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome: Structure of the KH1-KH2 Domains of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde,R.; Poznyakova, I.; Kajander, T.

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans, with an estimated prevalence of about 1 in 4000 males. Although several observations indicate that the absence of functional Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is the underlying basis of Fragile X syndrome, the structure and function of FMRP are currently unknown. Here, we present an X-ray crystal structure of the tandem KH domains of human FMRP, which reveals the relative orientation of the KH1 and KH2 domains and the location of residue Ile304, whose mutation to Asn is associated with a particularly severe incidence ofmore » Fragile X syndrome. We show that the Ile304Asn mutation both perturbs the structure and destabilizes the protein.« less

  12. Structure of an Antibody in Complex with Its Mucin Domain Linear Epitope That Is Protective against Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Olal, Daniel; Kuehne, Ana I.; Bale, Shridhar; Halfmann, Peter; Hashiguchi, Takao; Fusco, Marnie L.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; King, Liam B.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Dye, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody 14G7 is protective against lethal Ebola virus challenge and recognizes a distinct linear epitope in the prominent mucin-like domain of the Ebola virus glycoprotein GP. The structure of 14G7 in complex with its linear peptide epitope has now been determined to 2.8 Å. The structure shows that this GP sequence forms a tandem β-hairpin structure that binds deeply into a cleft in the antibody-combining site. A key threonine at the apex of one turn is critical for antibody interaction and is conserved among all Ebola viruses. This work provides further insight into the mechanism of protection by antibodies that target the protruding, highly accessible mucin-like domain of Ebola virus and the structural framework for understanding and characterizing candidate immunotherapeutics. PMID:22171276

  13. Structure of an antibody in complex with its mucin domain linear epitope that is protective against Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Olal, Daniel; Kuehne, Ana I; Bale, Shridhar; Halfmann, Peter; Hashiguchi, Takao; Fusco, Marnie L; Lee, Jeffrey E; King, Liam B; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Dye, John M; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2012-03-01

    Antibody 14G7 is protective against lethal Ebola virus challenge and recognizes a distinct linear epitope in the prominent mucin-like domain of the Ebola virus glycoprotein GP. The structure of 14G7 in complex with its linear peptide epitope has now been determined to 2.8 Å. The structure shows that this GP sequence forms a tandem β-hairpin structure that binds deeply into a cleft in the antibody-combining site. A key threonine at the apex of one turn is critical for antibody interaction and is conserved among all Ebola viruses. This work provides further insight into the mechanism of protection by antibodies that target the protruding, highly accessible mucin-like domain of Ebola virus and the structural framework for understanding and characterizing candidate immunotherapeutics.

  14. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Tube-Launched Tandem Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosid, Nurhayyan H.; Irsyad Lukman, E.; Fadlillah, M. Ahmad; Agoes Moelyadi, M.

    2018-04-01

    Tube Launched UAV with expandable tandem-wing configuration becomes one of the most interesting topic to be investigated. Folding wing mechanism is used due to the requirements that the UAV should be folded into tubular launcher. This paper focuses on investigating the aerodynamics characteristics because of the effects of folding wing mechanism, tandem wing configuration, and rapid deploying process from tube launcher. The aerodynamic characteristics investigation is conducted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) at low Reynolds numbers (Re < 200000). The results of the simulation are used for the development of ITB Tube-launched UAV prototype and for future studies.

  15. Nonfullerene Tandem Organic Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage of 1.97 V.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqing; Li, Shuixing; Huang, Jiang; Yang, Shida; Chen, Jiehuan; Zuo, Lijian; Shi, Minmin; Zhan, Xiaowei; Li, Chang-Zhi; Chen, Hongzheng

    2016-11-01

    Small-molecule nonfullerene-based tandem organic solar cells (OSCs) are fabricated for the first time by utilizing P3HT:SF(DPPB) 4 and PTB7-Th:IEIC bulk heterojunctions as the front and back subcells, respectively. A power conversion efficiency of 8.48% is achieved with an ultrahigh open-circuit voltage of 1.97 V, which is the highest voltage value reported to date among efficient tandem OSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Tandemly repeated sequences in mtDNA control region of whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus.

    PubMed

    Brzuzan, P

    2000-06-01

    Length variation of the mitochondrial DNA control region was observed with PCR amplification of a sample of 138 whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). Nucleotide sequences of representative PCR products showed that the variation was due to the presence of an approximately 100-bp motif tandemly repeated two, three, or five times in the region between the conserved sequence block-3 (CSB-3) and the gene for phenylalanine tRNA. This is the first report on the tandem array composed of long repeat units in mitochondrial DNA of salmonids.

  17. Variable Number Of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) and its application in bacterial epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; McNerney, Ruth

    2007-08-15

    Molecular epidemiology is the using of molecular techniques to study bacterial distribution in human populations. Recently molecular epidemiologist benefit from several techniques such as Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing method to typing bacterial strains. Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing is a tool for genotyping and provides data in a simple and numeric format based on the number of repetitive sequences. VNTR for first time identified in M. tuberculosis as Mycobacterial Interspersed Repeat Units (MIRUs). General terms of VNTR have now been reported in Bacillus anthracis, Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157.

  18. The structure of Zika virus NS5 reveals a conserved domain conformation

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Boxiao; Tan, Xiao -Feng; Thurmond, Stephanie; ...

    2017-03-27

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has imposed a serious threat to public health. Here we report the crystal structure of the ZIKV NS5 protein in complex with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, in which the tandem methyltransferase (MTase) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains stack into one of the two alternative conformations of flavivirus NS5 proteins. In conclusion, the activity of this NS5 protein is verified through a de novo RdRp assay on a subgenomic ZIKV RNA template. Importantly, our structural analysis leads to the identification of a potential drug-binding site of ZIKV NS5, which might facilitate the development of novel antiviralsmore » for ZIKV.« less

  19. Wasatch: An architecture-proof multiphysics development environment using a Domain Specific Language and graph theory

    DOE PAGES

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-05-04

    To address the coding and software challenges of modern hybrid architectures, we propose an approach to multiphysics code development for high-performance computing. This approach is based on using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) in tandem with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem to be solved that allows runtime algorithm generation. When coupled with a large-scale parallel framework, the result is a portable development framework capable of executing on hybrid platforms and handling the challenges of multiphysics applications. In addition, we share our experience developing a code in such an environment – an effort that spans an interdisciplinarymore » team of engineers and computer scientists.« less

  20. Wasatch: An architecture-proof multiphysics development environment using a Domain Specific Language and graph theory

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    To address the coding and software challenges of modern hybrid architectures, we propose an approach to multiphysics code development for high-performance computing. This approach is based on using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) in tandem with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem to be solved that allows runtime algorithm generation. When coupled with a large-scale parallel framework, the result is a portable development framework capable of executing on hybrid platforms and handling the challenges of multiphysics applications. In addition, we share our experience developing a code in such an environment – an effort that spans an interdisciplinarymore » team of engineers and computer scientists.« less

  1. Mechanical switching of ferroelectric domains beyond flexoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weijin; Liu, Jianyi; Ma, Lele; Liu, Linjie; Jiang, G. L.; Zheng, Yue

    2018-02-01

    The resurgence of interest in flexoelectricity has prompted discussions on the feasibility of switching ferroelectric domains 'non-electrically'. In this work, we perform three-dimensional thermodynamic simulations in combination with ab initio calculations and effective Hamiltonian simulations to demonstrate the great effects of surface screening and surface bonding on ferroelectric domain switching triggered by local tip loading. A three-dimensional simulation scheme has been developed to capture the tip-induced domain switching behavior in ferroelectric thin films by adequately taking into account the surface screening effect and surface bonding effect of the ferroelectric film, as well as the finite elastic stiffness of the substrate and the electrode layers. The major findings are as follows. (i) Compared with flexoelectricity, surface effects can be overwhelming and lead to much more efficient mechanical switching caused by tip loading. (ii) The surface-assisted mechanical switching can be bi-directional without the necessity of reversing strain gradients. (iii) A mode transition from local to propagating domain switching occurs when the screening below a critical value. A ripple effect of domain switching appears with the formation of concentric loop domains. (iv) The ripple effect can lead to 'domain interference' and a deterministic writing of confined loop domain patterns by local excitations. Our study reveals the hidden switching mechanisms of ferroelectric domains and the possible roles of surface in mechanical switching. The ripple effect of domain switching, which is believed to be general in dipole systems, broadens our current knowledge of domain engineering.

  2. LIM domain protein TES changes its conformational states in different cellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yingli; Zhu, Jiaolian; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jianlin; Ren, Kaiqun; Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The human TESTIN (TES) is a putative tumor suppressor and localizes to the cytoplasm as a component of focal adhesions and cell contacts. TES contains a PET domain in the NH(2)-terminus and three tandem LIM domains in the COOH-terminus. It has been hypothesized that interactions between two termini of TES might lead to a "closed" conformational state of the protein. Here, we provide evidence for different conformational states of TES. We confirmed that the NH(2)-terminus of TES can interact with its third LIM domain in the COOH-terminus by GST pull-down assays. In addition, antisera against the full-length or two truncations of TES were prepared to examine the relationship between the conformation and cellular distribution of the protein. We found that these antisera recognize different regions of TES and showed that TES is co-localised with the marker protein B23 in nucleolus, in addition to its localization in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, our co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) analysis of TES and B23 demonstrated their co-existence in the same complex. Taken together, our results suggest that TES has different conformational states in different cellular compartments, and a "closed" conformational state of TES may be involved in nucleolar localization.

  3. A hybrid-domain approach for modeling climate data time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Qiuzi H.; Wang, Xiaolan L.; Wong, Augustine

    2011-09-01

    In order to model climate data time series that often contain periodic variations, trends, and sudden changes in mean (mean shifts, mostly artificial), this study proposes a hybrid-domain (HD) algorithm, which incorporates a time domain test and a newly developed frequency domain test through an iterative procedure that is analogue to the well known backfitting algorithm. A two-phase competition procedure is developed to address the confounding issue between modeling periodic variations and mean shifts. A variety of distinctive features of climate data time series, including trends, periodic variations, mean shifts, and a dependent noise structure, can be modeled in tandem using the HD algorithm. This is particularly important for homogenization of climate data from a low density observing network in which reference series are not available to help preserve climatic trends and long-term periodic variations, preventing them from being mistaken as artificial shifts. The HD algorithm is also powerful in estimating trend and periodicity in a homogeneous data time series (i.e., in the absence of any mean shift). The performance of the HD algorithm (in terms of false alarm rate and hit rate in detecting shifts/cycles, and estimation accuracy) is assessed via a simulation study. Its power is further illustrated through its application to a few climate data time series.

  4. Functional Characterisation of the WW Minimal Domain for Delivering Therapeutic Proteins by Adenovirus Dodecahedron

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Méndez, Ana; Fender, Pascal; Garin, Marina I.; Rothe, Romy; Liguori, Lavinia; Marques, Bruno; Lenormand, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Protein transduction offers a great therapeutic potential by efficient delivery of biologically active cargo into cells. The Adenovirus Dd (Dodecahedron) has recently been shown to deliver proteins fused to the tandem WW2-3-4 structural domains from the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4. In this study, we conclusively show that Dd is able to efficiently deliver cargo inside living cells, which mainly localize in fast moving endocytic vesicles, supporting active transport along the cytoskeleton. We further improve this delivery system by expressing a panel of 13 WW-GFP mutant forms to characterize their binding properties towards Dd. We identified the domain WW3 and its mutant form WW3_10_13 to be sufficient for optimal binding to Dd. We greatly minimise the interacting WW modules from 20 to 6 kDa without compromising its efficient delivery by Dd. Using these minimal WW domains fused to the tumor suppressor p53 protein, we show efficient cellular uptake and distribution into cancer cells, leading to specific induction of apoptosis in these cells. Taken together, these findings represent a step further towards the development of a Dd-based delivery system for future therapeutic application. PMID:23028993

  5. Phylogeny of the TRAF/MATH domain.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Juan M; Martínez-García, Vanesa; Lefebvre, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    The TNF-receptor associated factor (TRAF) domain (TD), also known as the meprin and TRAF-C homology (MATH) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel p-helices that participates in protein-protein interactions. This fold is broadly represented among eukaryotes, where it is found associated with a discrete set of protein-domains. Virtually all protein families encompassing a TRAF/MATH domain seem to be involved in the regulation of protein processing and ubiquitination, strongly suggesting a parallel evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain and certain proteolysis pathways in eukaryotes. The restricted number of living organisms for which we have information of their genetic and protein make-up limits the scope and analysis of the MATH domain in evolution. However, the available information allows us to get a glimpse on the origins, distribution and evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain, which will be overviewed in this chapter.

  6. PHD domain-mediated E3 ligase activity directs intramolecular sumoylation of an adjacent bromodomain required for gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexey V; Peng, Hongzhuang; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Yap, Kyoko L; Negorev, Dmitri G; Schultz, David C; Psulkowski, Elyse; Fredericks, William J; White, David E; Maul, Gerd G; Sadofsky, Moshe J; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Rauscher, Frank J

    2007-12-14

    Tandem PHD and bromodomains are often found in chromatin-associated proteins and have been shown to cooperate in gene silencing. Each domain can bind specifically modified histones: the mechanisms of cooperation between these domains are unknown. We show that the PHD domain of the KAP1 corepressor functions as an intramolecular E3 ligase for sumoylation of the adjacent bromodomain. The RING finger-like structure of the PHD domain is required for both Ubc9 binding and sumoylation and directs modification to specific lysine residues in the bromodomain. Sumoylation is required for KAP1-mediated gene silencing and functions by directly recruiting the SETDB1 histone methyltransferase and the CHD3/Mi2 component of the NuRD complex via SUMO-interacting motifs. Sumoylated KAP1 stimulates the histone methyltransferase activity of SETDB1. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for the cooperation of PHD and bromodomains in gene regulation and describe a function of the PHD domain as an intramolecular E3 SUMO ligase.

  7. Domain-Generality versus Domain-Specificity: The Life and Impending Death of a False Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the question of whether information representation and processing are domain-general or domain-specific is neither meaningful nor answerable. Researchers should be asking questions about ways in which representation and processing are domain-general and ways in which they are domain-specific. (RH)

  8. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  10. Electrolytes Based on TEMPO–Co Tandem Redox Systems Outperform Single Redox Systems in Dye‐sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Jiayan; Hao, Yan; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new TEMPO–Co tandem redox system with TEMPO and Co(bpy)3 2+/3+ has been investigated for the use in dye‐sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A large open‐circuit voltage (V OC) increase, from 862 mV to 965 mV, was observed in the tandem redox system, while the short‐circuit current density (J SC) was maintained. The conversion efficiency was observed to increase from 7.1 % for cells containing the single Co(bpy)3 2+/3+ redox couple, to 8.4 % for cells containing the TEMPO–Co tandem redox system. The reason for the increase in V OC and overall efficiency is ascribed to the involvement of partial regeneration of the sensitizing dye molecules by TEMPO. This assumption can be verified through the observed much faster regeneration dynamics exhibited in the presence of the tandem system. Using the tandem redox system, the faster recombination problem of the single TEMPO redox couple is resolved and the mass‐transport of the metal‐complex‐based electrolyte is also improved. This TEMPO–Co tandem system is so far the most effienct tandem redox electrolyte reported not involving iodine. The current results show a promising future for tandem system as replacements for single redox systems in electrolytes for DSSCs. PMID:25504818

  11. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA (TYPHACEAE) AND THE IMPACT OF POLLUTANTS EXAMINED WITH TANDEM-REPETITIVE DNA PROBES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci was examined in the common cattail, Typha latifolia (Typhaceae), using three synthetic DNA probes composed of tandemly repeated "core" sequences (GACA, GATA, and GCAC). The principal objectives of this investigation w...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... mass spectrometry is a device that consists of stable isotope internal standards, control materials..., free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. 862.1055 Section 862.1055 Food and... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mass spectrometry is a device that consists of stable isotope internal standards, control materials..., free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. 862.1055 Section 862.1055 Food and... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a...

  14. Aryl Ketone Synthesis via Tandem Orthoplatinated Triarylphosphite-Catalyzed Addition Reactions of Arylboronic Acids with Aldehydes Followed by Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Tandem orthoplatinated triarylphosphite-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids with aldehydes followed by oxidation to yield aryl ketones is described. 3-Pentanone was identified as a suitable oxidant for the tandem aryl ketone formation reaction. By using microwave energy, aryl ketones were obtained in high yields with the catalyst loading as low as 0.01%. PMID:20849092

  15. Angular-domain scattering interferometry.

    PubMed

    Shipp, Dustin W; Qian, Ruobing; Berger, Andrew J

    2013-11-15

    We present an angular-scattering optical method that is capable of measuring the mean size of scatterers in static ensembles within a field of view less than 20 μm in diameter. Using interferometry, the method overcomes the inability of intensity-based models to tolerate the large speckle grains associated with such small illumination areas. By first estimating each scatterer's location, the method can model between-scatterer interference as well as traditional single-particle Mie scattering. Direct angular-domain measurements provide finer angular resolution than digitally transformed image-plane recordings. This increases sensitivity to size-dependent scattering features, enabling more robust size estimates. The sensitivity of these angular-scattering measurements to various sizes of polystyrene beads is demonstrated. Interferometry also allows recovery of the full complex scattered field, including a size-dependent phase profile in the angular-scattering pattern.

  16. Recruitment of mRNA-destabilizing protein TIS11 to stress granules is mediated by its zinc finger domain

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Tomiyasu; Morita, Noriyoshi; Hikita, Kiyomi

    2005-02-15

    TIS11, a member of the CCCH zinc finger protein family, was found to be distributed throughout cells with a preferential cytoplasmic localization when transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. Upon treatment with heat shock, TIS11 became localized in discrete particles in the cytoplasm of the transfectants. We showed the TIS11-positive particles to be stress granules (SGs), which are known to be formed in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in response to environmental stresses. By deletion studies using the green fluorescent protein fusion system, we mapped a functional stress granule (SG) localization signal to a region containing two tandem repeats of themore » zinc finger motif of TIS11. Site-directed mutations of Tyr105/Tyr113, Gly109/Gly 114, and Phe119 in the first zinc finger motif diminished the ability of this TIS11 domain to direct SG localization. Importantly, when the zinc-chelating Cys residues in either the first or second zinc finger were mutated to Ala residues, the recruitment of the TIS11 zinc finger region to SG was significantly inhibited by the mutation and was completely abolished by the mutation in both zinc fingers. These results suggest that recruitment of TIS11 to heat shock-induced SG is governed by the tandem zinc finger domains of this protein.« less

  17. A Dual-Intein Autoprocessing Domain that Directs Synchronized Protein Co-Expression in Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bei; Rapolu, Madhusudhan; Liang, Zhibin; Han, Zhenlin; Williams, Philip G.; Su, Wei Wen

    2015-01-01

    Being able to coordinate co-expression of multiple proteins is necessary for a variety of important applications such as assembly of protein complexes, trait stacking, and metabolic engineering. Currently only few options are available for multiple recombinant protein co-expression, and most of them are not applicable to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. Here, we report a new polyprotein vector system that is based on a pair of self-excising mini-inteins fused in tandem, termed the dual-intein (DI) domain, to achieve synchronized co-expression of multiple proteins. The DI domain comprises an Ssp DnaE mini-intein N159A mutant and an Ssp DnaB mini-intein C1A mutant connected in tandem by a peptide linker to mediate efficient release of the flanking proteins via autocatalytic cleavage. Essentially complete release of constituent proteins, GFP and RFP (mCherry), from a polyprotein precursor, in bacterial, mammalian, and plant hosts was demonstrated. In addition, successful co-expression of GFP with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, and thioredoxin with RFP, respectively, further substantiates the general applicability of the DI polyprotein system. Collectively, our results demonstrate the DI-based polyprotein technology as a highly valuable addition to the molecular toolbox for multi-protein co-expression which finds vast applications in biotechnology, biosciences, and biomedicine. PMID:25712612

  18. Evaluation of the kinase domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Joshua D; Kiupel, Matti; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    Background Mutations in the c-KIT proto-oncogene have been implicated in the progression of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Mutations in human mastocytosis patients primarily occur in c-KIT exon 17, which encodes a portion of its kinase domain. In contrast, deletions and internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in approximately 15% of canine MCTs. In addition, ITD c-KIT mutations are significantly associated with aberrant KIT protein localization in canine MCTs. However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors. Methods In order to characterize the prevalence of mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain in canine MCTs exons 16–20 of 33 canine MCTs from 33 dogs were amplified and sequenced. Additionally, in order to determine if mutations in c-KIT exon 17 are responsible for aberrant KIT localization in MCTs that lack juxtamembrane domain c-KIT mutations, c-KIT exon 17 was amplified and sequenced from 18 canine MCTs that showed an aberrant KIT localization pattern but did not have ITD c-KIT mutations. Results No mutations or polymorphisms were identified in exons 16–20 of any of the MCTs examined. Conclusion In conclusion, mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain do not play an important role in the progression of canine cutaneous MCTs, or in the aberrant localization of KIT in canine MCTs. PMID:16579858

  19. Proteolytic dissection of Zab, the Z-DNA-binding domain of human ADAR1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, T.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Kim, Y. G.; Li, L.; Brown, B. A. 2nd; Herbert, A.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zalpha is a peptide motif that binds to Z-DNA with high affinity. This motif binds to alternating dC-dG sequences stabilized in the Z-conformation by means of bromination or supercoiling, but not to B-DNA. Zalpha is part of the N-terminal region of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1), a candidate enzyme for nuclear pre-mRNA editing in mammals. Zalpha is conserved in ADAR1 from many species; in each case, there is a second similar motif, Zbeta, separated from Zalpha by a more divergent linker. To investigate the structure-function relationship of Zalpha, its domain structure was studied by limited proteolysis. Proteolytic profiles indicated that Zalpha is part of a domain, Zab, of 229 amino acids (residues 133-361 in human ADAR1). This domain contains both Zalpha and Zbeta as well as a tandem repeat of a 49-amino acid linker module. Prolonged proteolysis revealed a minimal core domain of 77 amino acids (positions 133-209), containing only Zalpha, which is sufficient to bind left-handed Z-DNA; however, the substrate binding is strikingly different from that of Zab. The second motif, Zbeta, retains its structural integrity only in the context of Zab and does not bind Z-DNA as a separate entity. These results suggest that Zalpha and Zbeta act as a single bipartite domain. In the presence of substrate DNA, Zab becomes more resistant to proteases, suggesting that it adopts a more rigid structure when bound to its substrate, possibly with conformational changes in parts of the protein.

  20. Characterization of a Fasciola gigantica protein carrying two DM9 domains reveals cellular relocalization property.

    PubMed

    Phadungsil, Wansika; Smooker, Peter M; Vichasri-Grams, Suksiri; Grams, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Even at the present age of whole-organism analysis, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, the biological roles of many proteins remain unresolved. Classified among the proteins of unknown function is a family of proteins harboring repeats of the DM9 domain, a 60-75 amino acids motif first described in a small number of Drosophila melanogaster proteins. Proteins may carry two or more DM9 domains either in combination with other domains or as their sole constituent. Here we have characterized a 16.8 kDa Fasciola gigantica protein comprising two tandem repeated DM9 domains (FgDM9-1). The protein was located in the parenchyma of the immature and mature parasite and consequently it was not detected in the ES product of the parasite but only in the whole worm extract. Interestingly, extraction with SDS yielded a substantially higher amount of the protein suggesting association with insoluble cell components. In Sf9 insect cells a heterologously expressed EGFP-FgDM9-1 chimera showed cell-wide distribution but relocated to vesicle-like structures in the cytoplasm after stimulating cellular stress by bacteria, heat shock or chloroquine. These structures did not colocalize with the markers of endocytosis/phagocytosis ubiquitin, RAB7, GABARAP. The same behavior was noted for Aedes aegypti PRS1, a homologous mosquito DM9 protein as a positive control while EGFP did not exhibit such relocation in the insect cells. Cross-linking experiments on soluble recombinant FgDM9-1 indicated that the protein can undergo specific oligomerization. It is speculated that proteins carrying the DM9 domain have a role in vesicular transport in flatworms and insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Silicon–Singlet Fission Tandem Solar Cell Exceeding 100% External Quantum Efficiency with High Spectral Stability

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    After 60 years of research, silicon solar cell efficiency saturated close to the theoretical limit, and radically new approaches are needed to further improve the efficiency. The use of tandem systems raises this theoretical power conversion efficiency limit from 34% to 45%. We present the advantageous spectral stability of using voltage-matched tandem solar cells with respect to their traditional series-connected counterparts and experimentally demonstrate how singlet fission can be used to produce simple voltage-matched tandems. Our singlet fission silicon–pentacene tandem solar cell shows efficient photocurrent addition. This allows the tandem system to benefit from carrier multiplication and to produce an external quantum efficiency exceeding 100% at the main absorption peak of pentacene. PMID:28261671

  2. Ubiquitin Regulates Caspase Recruitment Domain-mediated Signaling by Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain-containing Proteins NOD1 and NOD2*

    PubMed Central

    Ver Heul, Aaron M.; Fowler, C. Andrew; Ramaswamy, S.; Piper, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    NOD1 and NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammation and autophagy. These pathways rely on the caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) within the receptors, which serve as protein interaction platforms that coordinately regulate immune signaling. We show that NOD1 CARD binds ubiquitin (Ub), in addition to directly binding its downstream targets receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2) and autophagy-related protein 16-1 (ATG16L1). NMR spectroscopy and structure-guided mutagenesis identified a small hydrophobic surface of NOD1 CARD that binds Ub. In vitro, Ub competes with RIP2 for association with NOD1 CARD. In vivo, we found that the ligand-stimulated activity of NOD1 with a mutant CARD lacking Ub binding but retaining ATG16L1 and RIP2 binding is increased relative to wild-type NOD1. Likewise, point mutations in the tandem NOD2 CARDs at positions analogous to the surface residues defining the Ub interface on NOD1 resulted in loss of Ub binding and increased ligand-stimulated NOD2 signaling. These data suggest that Ub binding provides a negative feedback loop upon NOD-dependent activation of RIP2. PMID:23300079

  3. Domain Adaptation with Conditional Transferable Components

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mingming; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Glymour, Clark; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Domain adaptation arises in supervised learning when the training (source domain) and test (target domain) data have different distributions. Let X and Y denote the features and target, respectively, previous work on domain adaptation mainly considers the covariate shift situation where the distribution of the features P(X) changes across domains while the conditional distribution P(Y∣X) stays the same. To reduce domain discrepancy, recent methods try to find invariant components T(X) that have similar P(T(X)) on different domains by explicitly minimizing a distribution discrepancy measure. However, it is not clear if P(Y∣T(X)) in different domains is also similar when P(Y∣X) changes. Furthermore, transferable components do not necessarily have to be invariant. If the change in some components is identifiable, we can make use of such components for prediction in the target domain. In this paper, we focus on the case where P(X∣Y) and P(Y) both change in a causal system in which Y is the cause for X. Under appropriate assumptions, we aim to extract conditional transferable components whose conditional distribution P(T(X)∣Y) is invariant after proper location-scale (LS) transformations, and identify how P(Y) changes between domains simultaneously. We provide theoretical analysis and empirical evaluation on both synthetic and real-world data to show the effectiveness of our method. PMID:28239433

  4. The immunoglobulin-like domains 1 and 2 of the protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR adopt an unusual horseshoe-like conformation

    PubMed Central

    Biersmith, Bridget H.; Hammel, Michal; Geisbrecht, Erika R.; Bouyain, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis depends on exquisitely regulated interactions between macromolecules on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. In particular, interactions between proteoglycans and members of the type IIa subgroup of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases underlie critical developmental processes such as the formation of synapses at the neuromuscular junction and the migration of axons to their appropriate targets. We report here the crystal structures of the first and second immunoglobulin-like domains of the Drosophila type IIa receptor Dlar and its mouse homologue LAR. These two domains adopt an unusual antiparallel arrangement that has not been previously observed in tandem repeats of immunoglobulin-like domains and that is presumably conserved in all type IIa receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases. PMID:21402080

  5. Advanced astigmatism-corrected tandem Wadsworth mounting for small-scale spectral broadband imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Lin, Guan-yu

    2013-01-01

    Tandem gratings of double-dispersion mount make it possible to design an imaging spectrometer for the weak light observation with high spatial resolution, high spectral resolution, and high optical transmission efficiency. The traditional tandem Wadsworth mounting is originally designed to match the coaxial telescope and large-scale imaging spectrometer. When it is used to connect the off-axis telescope such as off-axis parabolic mirror, it presents lower imaging quality than to connect the coaxial telescope. It may also introduce interference among the detector and the optical elements as it is applied to the short focal length and small-scale spectrometer in a close volume by satellite. An advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting has been investigated to deal with the situation. The Wadsworth astigmatism-corrected mounting condition for which is expressed as the distance between the second concave grating and the imaging plane is calculated. Then the optimum arrangement for the first plane grating and the second concave grating, which make the anterior Wadsworth condition fulfilling each wavelength, is analyzed by the geometric and first order differential calculation. These two arrangements comprise the advanced Wadsworth mounting condition. The spectral resolution has also been calculated by these conditions. An example designed by the optimum theory proves that the advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting performs excellently in spectral broadband.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in plants and green algae

    Treesearch

    Zhixin Zhao; Cheng Guo; Sreeskandarajan Sutharzan; Pei Li; Craig Echt; Jie Zhang; Chun Liang

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among...

  7. Tandem Solar Cells from Accessible Low Band-Gap Polymers Using an Efficient Interconnecting Layer.

    PubMed

    Bag, Santanu; Patel, Romesh J; Bunha, Ajaykumar; Grand, Caroline; Berrigan, J Daniel; Dalton, Matthew J; Leever, Benjamin J; Reynolds, John R; Durstock, Michael F

    2016-01-13

    Tandem solar cell architectures are designed to improve device photoresponse by enabling the capture of wider range of solar spectrum as compared to single-junction device. However, the practical realization of this concept in bulk-heterojunction polymer systems requires the judicious design of a transparent interconnecting layer compatible with both polymers. Moreover, the polymers selected should be readily synthesized at large scale (>1 kg) and high performance. In this work, we demonstrate a novel tandem polymer solar cell that combines low band gap poly isoindigo [P(T3-iI)-2], which is easily synthesized in kilogram quantities, with a novel Cr/MoO3 interconnecting layer. Cr/MoO3 is shown to be greater than 80% transparent above 375 nm and an efficient interconnecting layer for P(T3-iI)-2 and PCDTBT, leading to 6% power conversion efficiencies under AM 1.5G illumination. These results serve to extend the range of interconnecting layer materials for tandem cell fabrication by establishing, for the first time, that a thin, evaporated layer of Cr/MoO3 can work as an effective interconnecting layer in a tandem polymer solar cells made with scalable photoactive materials.

  8. Progress in Tandem Solar Cells Based on Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Bai, Yang

    Owing to their high efficiency, low-cost solution-processability, and tunable bandgap, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) made of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films are promising top-cell candidates for integration with bottom-cells based on Si or other low-bandgap solar-cell materials to boost the power conversion efficiency (PCE) beyond the Shockley-Quiesser (S-Q) limit. In this review, recent progress in such tandem solar cells based on the emerging PSCs is summarized and reviewed critically. Notable achievements for different tandem solar cell configurations including mechanically-stacked, optical coupling, and monolithically-integrated with PSCs as top-cells are described in detail. Highly-efficient semitransparent PSC top-cells with high transmittance inmore » near-infrared (NIR) region are critical for tandem solar cells. Different types of transparent electrodes with high transmittance and low sheet-resistance for PSCs are reviewed, which presents a grand challenge for PSCs. The strategies to obtain wide-bandgap PSCs with good photo-stability are discussed. In conclusion, the PCE reduction due to reflection loss, parasitic absorption, electrical loss, and current mismatch are analyzed to provide better understanding of the performance of PSC-based tandem solar cells.« less

  9. Making the Case for Objective Performance Metrics in Newborn Screening by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldo, Piero; Zafari, Saba; Tortorelli, Silvia; Matern, Dietrich

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of newborn screening programs to include multiplex testing by tandem mass spectrometry requires understanding and close monitoring of performance metrics. This is not done consistently because of lack of defined targets, and interlaboratory comparison is almost nonexistent. Between July 2004 and April 2006 (N = 176,185 cases), the…

  10. Impeller tandem blade study with grid embedding for local grid refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bache, George

    1992-01-01

    Flow non-uniformity at the discharge of high power density impellers can result in significant unsteady interactions between impeller blades and downstream diffuser vanes. These interactions result in degradation of both performance and pump reliability. The MSFC Pump Technology Team has recognized the importance of resolving this problem and has thus initiated the development and testing of a high head coefficient impeller. One of the primary goals of this program is to improve impeller performance and discharge flow uniformity. The objective of the present work is complimentary. Flow uniformity and performance gains were sought through the application of a tandem blade arrangement. The approach adopted was to numerically establish flow characteristics at the impeller discharge for the baseline MSFC impeller and then parametrically evaluate tandem blade configurations. A tandem design was sought that improves both impeller performance and discharge uniformity. The Navier-Stokes solver AEROVISC was used to conduct the study. Grid embedding is used to resolve local gradients while attempting to minimize model size. Initial results indicate that significant gains in flow uniformity can be achieved through the tandem blade concept and that blade clocking rather than slot location is the primary driver for flow uniformity.

  11. MEASUREMENT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - TANDEM MASS SPECTROSCOPY (LC-MS/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    An invited review article. Measurement of oxidative stress parameters using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS)
    Why was it done?
    Although oxidative stress is frequently cited as a cause of various adverse biological eff...

  12. A Tandem Catalyst with Multiple Metal Oxide Interfaces Produced by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huibin; Zhang, Bin; Gu, Xiaomin; Liang, Haojie; Yang, Huimin; Gao, Zhe; Wang, Jianguo; Qin, Yong

    2016-06-13

    Ideal heterogeneous tandem catalysts necessitate the rational design and integration of collaborative active sites. Herein, we report on the synthesis of a new tandem catalyst with multiple metal-oxide interfaces based on a tube-in-tube nanostructure using template-assisted atomic layer deposition, in which Ni nanoparticles are supported on the outer surface of the inner Al2 O3 nanotube (Ni/Al2 O3 interface) and Pt nanoparticles are attached to the inner surface of the outer TiO2 nanotube (Pt/TiO2 interface). The tandem catalyst shows remarkably high catalytic efficiency in nitrobenzene hydrogenation over Pt/TiO2 interface with hydrogen formed in situ by the decomposition of hydrazine hydrate over Ni/Al2 O3 interface. This can be ascribed to the synergy effect of the two interfaces and the confined nanospace favoring the instant transfer of intermediates. The tube-in-tube tandem catalyst with multiple metal-oxide interfaces represents a new concept for the design of highly efficient and multifunctional nanocatalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Analysis of rolling fracture of the conticasted and tandem rolled blanks of low alloyed aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zeng, Lingping; Jiao Xie, Xian

    2018-01-01

    Optical microscopy, electron microscopy and energy spectrum were used to test the morphology of grains, as-cast microstructure and secondary phases in confiscated and tandem rolled planks of 8011 low alloying aluminum alloy. It can be concluded that the existence of inhomogeneous secondary FeSiAl phases lead to the fracture of planks during rolling.

  14. A review of recent progress in heterogeneous silicon tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Lee, Kan-Hua; Araki, Kenji; Kojima, Nobuaki

    2018-04-01

    Silicon solar cells are the most established solar cell technology and are expected to dominate the market in the near future. As state-of-the-art silicon solar cells are approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit, stacking silicon solar cells with other photovoltaic materials to form multi-junction devices is an obvious pathway to further raise the efficiency. However, many challenges stand in the way of fully realizing the potential of silicon tandem solar cells because heterogeneously integrating silicon with other materials often degrades their qualities. Recently, above or near 30% silicon tandem solar cell has been demonstrated, showing the promise of achieving high-efficiency and low-cost solar cells via silicon tandem. This paper reviews the recent progress of integrating solar cell with other mainstream solar cell materials. The first part of this review focuses on the integration of silicon with III-V semiconductor solar cells, which is a long-researched topic since the emergence of III-V semiconductors. We will describe the main approaches—heteroepitaxy, wafer bonding and mechanical stacking—as well as other novel approaches. The second part introduces the integration of silicon with polycrystalline thin-film solar cells, mainly perovskites on silicon solar cells because of its rapid progress recently. We will also use an analytical model to compare the material qualities of different types of silicon tandem solar cells and project their practical efficiency limits.

  15. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in straw roughage by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multiresidue analytical method using a modification of the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) sample preparation approach combined with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was established and validated for the rapid determination of 69 pesti...

  16. Tandem reactions initiated by copper-catalyzed cross-coupling: a new strategy towards heterocycle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Wan, Jie-Ping

    2011-10-21

    Copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions which lead to the formation of C-N, C-O, C-S and C-C bonds have been recognized as one of the most useful strategies in synthetic organic chemistry. During past decades, important breakthroughs in the study of Cu-catalyzed coupling processes demonstrated that Cu-catalyzed reactions are broadly applicable to a variety of research fields related to organic synthesis. Representatively, employing these coupling transformations as key steps, a large number of tandem reactions have been developed for the construction of various heterocyclic compounds. These tactics share the advantages of high atom economics of tandem reactions as well as the broad tolerance of Cu-catalyst systems. Therefore, Cu-catalyzed C-X (X = N, O, S, C) coupling transformation-initiated tandem reactions were quickly recognized as a strategy with great potential for synthesizing heterocyclic compounds and gained worldwide attention. In this review, recent research progress in heterocycle syntheses using tandem reactions initiated by copper-catalyzed coupling transformations, including C-N, C-O, C-S as well as C-C coupling processes are summarized.

  17. All-silicon tandem solar cells: Practical limits for energy conversion and possible routes for improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xuguang; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Xia, Hongze; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Lin, Ziyun; Zhang, Tian; Wu, Lingfeng; Nomoto, Keita; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) embedded in a dielectric matrix is regarded as one of the most promising materials for the third generation photovoltaics, owing to their tunable bandgap that allows fabrication of optimized tandem devices. Previous work has demonstrated fabrication of Si NCs based tandem solar cells by sputter-annealing of thin multi-layers of silicon rich oxide and SiO2. However, these device efficiencies were much lower than expected given that their theoretical values are much higher. Thus, it is necessary to understand the practical conversion efficiency limits for these devices. In this article, practical efficiency limits of Si NC based double junction tandem cells determined by fundamental material properties such as minority carrier, mobility, and lifetime are investigated. The practical conversion efficiency limits for these devices are significantly different from the reported efficiency limits which use Shockley-Queisser assumptions. Results show that the practical efficiency limit of a double junction cell (1.6 eV Si NC top cell and a 25% efficient c-Si PERL cell as the bottom cell) is 32%. Based on these results suggestions for improvement to the performance of Si nanocrystal based tandem solar cells in terms of the different parameters that were simulated are presented.

  18. Progress in Tandem Solar Cells Based on Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Bai, Yang; ...

    2017-03-06

    Owing to their high efficiency, low-cost solution-processability, and tunable bandgap, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) made of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films are promising top-cell candidates for integration with bottom-cells based on Si or other low-bandgap solar-cell materials to boost the power conversion efficiency (PCE) beyond the Shockley-Quiesser (S-Q) limit. In this review, recent progress in such tandem solar cells based on the emerging PSCs is summarized and reviewed critically. Notable achievements for different tandem solar cell configurations including mechanically-stacked, optical coupling, and monolithically-integrated with PSCs as top-cells are described in detail. Highly-efficient semitransparent PSC top-cells with high transmittance inmore » near-infrared (NIR) region are critical for tandem solar cells. Different types of transparent electrodes with high transmittance and low sheet-resistance for PSCs are reviewed, which presents a grand challenge for PSCs. The strategies to obtain wide-bandgap PSCs with good photo-stability are discussed. In conclusion, the PCE reduction due to reflection loss, parasitic absorption, electrical loss, and current mismatch are analyzed to provide better understanding of the performance of PSC-based tandem solar cells.« less

  19. Thermodynamically Leveraged Tandem Catalysis for Ester RC(O)O–R' Bond Hydrogenolysis. Scope and Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, Tracy L.; Li, Zhi; Assary, Rajeev S.

    2015-05-18

    Rapid and selective formal hydrogenolysis of aliphatic ester RC(O)O–R' linkages is achieved by a tandem homogeneous metal triflate + supported palladium catalytic system. The triflate catalyzes the mildly exothermic, turnover-limiting O–R' cleavage process, whereas the exothermic hydrogenation of the intermediate alkene further drives the overall reaction to completion.

  20. Thermodynamically leveraged Tandem catalysis for ester RC(O)O-R' bond hydrogenolysis. scope and mechanism.

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, Tracy L.; Li, Zhi; Assary, Rajeev S.

    2015-06-01

    Rapid and selective formal hydrogenolysis of aliphatic ester RC(O)O-R' linkages is achieved by a tandem homogeneous metal triflate + supported palladium catalytic system. The triflate catalyzes the mildly exothermic, turnover-limiting O-R' cleavage process, whereas the exothermic hydrogenation of the intermediate alkene further drives the overall reaction to completion.