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Sample records for zr based bulk

  1. Friction stir welding of Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y. S.; Fujii, H.; Maeda, M.; Nakata, K.; Kimura, H.; Inoue, A.; Nogi, K.

    2009-05-01

    A Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass plate was successfully welded below its crystallization temperature by friction stir welding. The flash formation and heat concentration at the shoulder edge was minimized using a wider tool and the angle of the recessed shoulder surface was 3°. To analyze the crystallization of the base material and stir zone, the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed using DSC, XRD, TEM, and micro-hardness. As a result, it was found that the amorphous structure and original mechanical properties were maintained in the whole joints.

  2. Zr-based bulk metallic glass as a cylinder material for high pressure apparatuses

    DOE PAGES

    Komatsu, Kazuki; Munakata, Koji; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; ...

    2015-05-12

    Zirconium-based bulk metallic glass (Zr-based BMG) has outstanding properties as a cylinder mate- rial for piston-cylinder high pressure apparatuses and is especially useful for neutron scattering. The piston-cylinder consisting of a Zr-based BMG cylinder with outer/inner diameters of 8.8/2.5 mm sustains pressures up to 1.81 GPa and ruptured at 2.0 GPa, with pressure values determined by the superconduct- ing temperature of lead. The neutron attenuation of Zr-based BMG is similar to that of TiZr null-scattering alloy and more transparent than that of CuBe alloy. No contamination of sharp Bragg reflections is observed in the neutron diffraction pattern for Zr-based BMG.more » The magnetic susceptibility of Zr-based BMG is similar to that of CuBe alloy; this leads to a potential application for measurements of magnetic properties under pressure.« less

  3. Biocompatible Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with high-Zr-content: compositional optimization for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Nengbin; Huang, Lu; Chen, Wenzhe; He, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The present study designs and prepares Ni-free Zr60+xTi2.5Al10Fe12.5-xCu10Ag5 (at.%, x=0, 2.5, 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by copper mold casting for potential biomedical application. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility of the Zr-based BMGs are evaluated by investigating mechanical properties, bio-corrosion behavior, and cellular responses. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high notch toughness. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based BMGs are corrosion resistant in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The bio-corrosion resistance of BMGs is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. Regular cell responses of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells, including cell adhesion and proliferation, are observed on the Zr-Ti-Al-Fe-Cu-Ag BMGs, which reveals their general biosafety. The high-Zr-based BMGs exhibit a higher cell proliferation activity in comparison with that of pure Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility can be used to guide the future design of biocompatible Zr-based BMGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plastic deformation behaviors of Ni- and Zr-based bulk metallic glasses subjected to nanoindentation

    SciT

    Weizhong, Liang, E-mail: wzliang1966@126.com; Zhiliang, Ning; Zhenqian, Dang

    2013-12-15

    Plastic deformation behaviors of Ni{sub 42}Ti{sub 20}Zr{sub 21.5}Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}Si{sub 3.5} and Zr{sub 51}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 25}Al{sub 9} bulk metallic glasses at room temperature were studied by nanoindentation testing and atomic force microscopy under equivalent indentation experimental conditions. The different chemical composition of these two bulk metallic glasses produced variant tendencies for displacement serrated flow to occur during the loading process. The nanoindentation strain rate was calculated as a function of indentation displacement in order to verify the occurrence of displacement serrated flow at different loading rates. Atomic force microscopy revealed decreasing numbers of discrete shear bands around the indentationmore » sites as loading rates increased from 0.025 to 2.5 mNs{sup −1}. Variations in plastic deformation behaviors between Ni and Zr-based glasses materials can be explained by the different metastable microstructures and thermal stabilities of the two materials. The mechanism governing plastic deformation of these metallic glasses was analyzed in terms of an established model of the shear transformation zone. - Highlights: • Plastic deformation of Ni- and Zr-based BMG is studied under identical conditions • Zr-based BMG undergoes a greater extent of plastic deformation than Ni-based BMG • Nanoindentation strain rate is studied to clarify variation in plastic deformation • Metastable microstructure, thermal stability affect BMG plastic deformation.« less

  5. Fracture Behavior of Zr-BASED Bulk Metallic Glass Under Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Oh, Sang-Yeob

    The fracture behavior of a Zr-based bulk amorphous metal under impact loading using subsize V-shaped Charpy specimens was investigated. Influences of loading rate on the fracture behavior of amorphous Zr-Al-Ni-Cu alloy were examined. As a result, the maximum load and absorbed fracture energy under impact loading were lower than those under quasi-static loading. A large part of the absorbed fracture energy in the Zr-based BMG was consumed in the process for crack initiation and not for crack propagation. In addition, fractographic characteristics of BMGs, especially the initiation and development of shear bands at the notch tip were investigated. Fractured surfaces under impact loading are smoother than those under quasi-static loading. The absorbed fracture energy appeared differently depending on the appearance of the shear bands developed. It can be found that the fracture energy and fracture toughness of Zr-based BMG are closely related with the extent of shear bands developed during fracture.

  6. Tribological characterisation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass in simulated physiological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Chan, K. C.; Liu, L.

    2011-10-01

    Due to their excellent wear resistant properties and high strength, as well as a low Young's modulus, Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are potentially suitable biomaterials for low-friction arthroplasty. The wear characteristics of the Zr60.14Cu22.31Fe4.85Al9.7Ag3 bulk amorphous alloy against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) compared to a CoCrMo/UHMWPE combination were investigated in two different wear screening test devices, reciprocating and unidirectional. Hank's solution and sterile calf bovine serum were selected as the lubricant fluid media. It was found that different fluid media had insignificant effect on polyethylene wear against BMG counterfaces. The wear behaviour obtained on both test devices demonstrated that Zr-based BMG achieved UHMWPE counterface wear rates superior to conventional cast CoCrMo alloy, where the wear rate of UHMWPE is decreased by over 20 times. The tribological performance of these joints is superior to that of conventional metal-on-polymer designs. Contact angle measurements suggested that the advantage of BMG over a CoCrMo alloy counterface is attributed to its highly hydrophilic surfaces.

  7. Toughness of Wear-Resistant Cu-Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Laura M.

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have the potential to exhibit exceptional wear-resistance due to their high hardness and strength. Combined with their other unique properties, this makes them ideal candidates for a wide range of technological applications (e.g. gears, bearings, biomaterials). In the course of this dissertation, high-glass-forming bulk metallic glasses are prepared and characterized in order to identify wear-resistant compositions and optimize their toughness. First, a comprehensive study identifies a class of Cu-Zr-based BMGs that exhibit more exceptional wear performance than other BMGs. The results demonstrate that when BMGs are designed properly, they exhibit wear properties that compete with, and can surpass, state-of-the-art engineering materials. It is identified that, in order to optimize the wear performance of Cu-Zr-based BMG gears, toughness should be maximized. Second, the notch toughness of wear-resistant Cu43Zr 43Al7Be7 BMGs with in-situ crystallization is investigated. In order to identify in-situ crystallization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Cu K? radiation, extremely long dwell times and high X-ray fluxes are required. This demonstrates the importance of reporting operating parameters when trying to evaluate the amorphous nature of BMGs. XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are used to identify the metastable crystalline phase. The notch toughness is found to correlate closely with the amount of crystallization and the composition of the remaining amorphous matrix. Finally, the effect of substituting standard-grade zirconium lump (99.8% excluding up to 4% hafnium) for high-purity zirconium crystal bar (99.5%) in Cu43Zr43Al7Be7 is investigated. Introducing low-purity zirconium significantly decreases the glass-forming-ability and reduces the notch toughness of the BMG. Furthermore, Weibull statistics provide an analysis of the variability in toughness for high-purity ingots

  8. Mechanical relaxation in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass: Analysis based on physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, J. C.; Pelletier, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    The mechanical relaxation behavior in a Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glass is investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis in both temperature and frequency domains. Master curves can be obtained for the storage modulus G' and for the loss modulus G'', confirming the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle. Different models are discussed to describe the main (α) relaxation, e.g., Debye model, Havriliak-Negami (HN) model, Kohlrausch-Williams-Watt (KWW) model, and quasi-point defects (QPDs) model. The main relaxation in bulk metallic glass cannot be described using a single relaxation time. The HN model, the KWW model, and the QPD theory can be used to fit the data of mechanical spectroscopy experiments. However, unlike the HN model and the KWW model, some physical parameters are introduced in QPD model, i.e., atomic mobility and correlation factor, giving, therefore, a new physical approach to understand the mechanical relaxation in bulk metallic glasses.

  9. Degradation of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses used in load-bearing implants: A tribocorrosion appraisal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Hua; Aune, Ragnhild E; Mao, Huahai; Espallargas, Nuria

    2016-07-01

    Owing to the amorphous structure, Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) have been demonstrating attractive properties for potential biomedical applications. In the present work, the degradation mechanisms of Zr-based BMGs with nominal compositions Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 and Zr65Cu18Ni7Al10 as potential load-bearing implant material were investigated in a tribocorrosion environment. The composition-dependent micro-mechanical and tribological properties of the two BMGs were evaluated prior to the tribocorrosion tests. The sample Zr65-BMG with a higher Zr content exhibited increased plasticity but relatively reduced wear resistance during the ball-on-disc tests. Both BMGs experienced abrasive wear after the dry wear test under the load of 2N. The cross-sectional subsurface structure of the wear track was examined by Focused Ion Beam (FIB). The electrochemical properties of the BMGs in simulated body fluid were evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The spontaneous passivation of Zr-based BMGs in Phosphate Buffer Saline solution was mainly attributed to the highly concentrated zirconium cation (Zr(4+)) in the passive film. The tribocorrosion performance of the BMGs was investigated using a reciprocating tribometer equipped with an electrochemical cell. The more passive nature of the Zr65-BMG had consequently a negative influence on its tribocorrosion resistance, which induced the wear-accelerated corrosion and eventually speeded-up the degradation process. It has been revealed the galvanic coupling was established between the depassivated wear track and the surrounding passive area, which is the main degradation mechanism for the passive Zr65-BMG subjected to the tribocorrosion environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature rise and flow of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses under high shearing stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiguo; Ma, Mingzhen; Song, Aijun; Liang, Shunxing; Hao, Qiuhong; Tan, Chunlin; Jing, Qin; Liu, Riping

    2011-11-01

    Deformation of the bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and the creation and propagation of the shear bands are closely interconnected. Shearing force was loaded on Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5(Vit.1) BMGs by cutting during the turning of the BMG rod. The temperature rise of alloy on the shear bands was calculated and the result showed that it could reach the temperature of the super-cooled liquid zone or exceed the melting point. The temperature rise caused viscous fluid flow and brought about the deformation of BMGs. This suggested that the deformation of BMGs was derived, at least to some extent, from the adiabatic shear temperature rise.

  11. Tribological studies of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass with different states

    SciT

    Jiang, Feng; Qu, Jun; Fan, Guojiang

    The tribological characteristics of a bulk-metallic glass (BMG) Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10.0Ti5.0 (Vit 105) with different states have been studied. Friction and wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding apparatus against AISI E52100 bearing steel under dry condition. The observed wear resistance in an ascending order is deformed, crept, relaxed, and as-cast. Results suggested that the wear process of BMG alloys involved abrasion, adhesion, and oxidation. The differences in hardness, free volume, and embrittlement at different states significantly affected the friction and wear behaviors of the BMG alloys.

  12. The influence of Sc addition on the welding microstructure of Zr-based bulk metallic glass: The stability of the amorphous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shing Hoa; Kuo, Pei Hung; Tsang, Hsiao Tsung; Jeng, Rong Ruey; Lin, Yu Lon

    2007-10-01

    Pulsed direct current autogeneous tungsten inert gas arc welding was conducted on rods of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 and (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 under two different cooling conditions. The crystalline precipitates in the fusion zone of BMG Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 were confirmed by microfocused x-ray diffraction pattern analysis as Zr2Ni and Zr2(Cu,Al) intermetallic compounds. In contrast, BMG with Sc addition (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 shows an excellent stable glass forming ability. The fusion zone of BMG (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 remains in the same amorphous state as that of the amorphous base metal when the weld is cooled with accelerated cooling.

  13. Pair distribution function study and mechanical behavior of as-cast and structurally relaxed Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Cang; Liaw, P. K.; Wilson, T. W.; Choo, H.; Gao, Y. F.; Liu, C. T.; Proffen, Th.; Richardson, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Contrary to reported results on structural relaxation inducing brittleness in amorphous alloys, the authors found that structural relaxation actually caused an increase in the strength of Zr55Cu35Al10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) without changing the plasticity. Three dimensional models were rebuilt for the as-cast and structurally relaxed BMGs by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations based on the pair distribution function (PDF) measured by neutron scattering. Only a small portion of the atom pairs was found to change to more dense packing. The concept of free volume was defined based on the PDF and RMC studies, and the mechanism of mechanical behavior was discussed.

  14. Deformation behavior, corrosion resistance, and cytotoxicity of Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Qiu, C L; Chen, Q; Chan, K C; Zhang, S M

    2008-07-01

    Two Ni-free bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of Zr(60)Nb(5)Cu(22.5)Pd(5)Al(7.5) and Zr(60)Nb(5)Cu(20)Fe(5)Al(10) were successfully prepared by arc-melting and copper mold casting. The thermal stability and crystallization were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. It demonstrates that the two BMGs exhibit very good glass forming ability with a wide supercooled liquid region. A multi-step process of crystallization with a preferential formation of quasicrystals occurred in both BMGs under continuous heating. The deformation behavior of the two BMGs was investigated using quasi-static compression testing. It reveals that the BMGs exhibit not only superior strength but also an extended plasticity. Corrosion behaviors of the BMGs were investigated in phosphate buffered solution by electrochemical polarization. The result shows that the two BMGs exhibit excellent corrosion resistance characterized by low corrosion current densities and wide passive regions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that the passive film formed after anodic polarization was highly enriched in zirconium, niobium, and aluminum oxides. This is attributed to the excellent corrosion resistance. Additionally, the potential cytotoxicity of the two Ni-free BMGs was evaluated through cell culture for 1 week followed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and SEM observation. The results indicate that the two Ni-free BMGs exhibit as good biocompatibility as Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and thus show a promising potential for biomedical applications. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Rapid Relaxation and Embrittlement of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses by Electropulsing

    SciT

    Yiu, P; Chen, Y. C.; Chu, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical relaxation and embrittlement of Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 bulk metallic glasses were achieved rapidly by the direct current electropulsing treatment. The temperature profile was recorded by an infrared camera and it was found to be non-uniform in the treated specimen. Specifically, temperatures below the glass transition temperature, near and above the crystallization temperature could be ach- ieved, respectively, at different locations in the same treated specimen. Two sets of nanoindentation were conducted. While the first set investigated the mechanical properties of three individually elec- tropulsed specimens with different conditions, the second set indented a single treated specimen along its temperature gradient. Bothmore » sets of indentation revealed that by Joule heating to different tempera- tures, relaxation, embrittlement, and crystallization were significantly accelerated by electrical pulses. Results suggest that electropulsing provides an opportunity to simultaneously achieve plastic forming and mechanical property control of metallic glasses.« less

  16. Structural and mechanical modifications induced on Zr-based bulk metallic glass by laser shock peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunhu; Fu, Jie; Zheng, Chao; Ji, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, surface modification of a Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (vit1) bulk metallic glass (BMG) has been studied in an effort to improve the mechanical properties by laser shock peening (LSP) treatment. The phase structure, mechanical properties, and microstructural evolution of the as-cast and LSP treated specimens were systematically investigated. It was found that the vit1 BMG still consisted of fully amorphous structure after LSP treatment. Measurements of the heat relaxation indicate that a large amount of free volume is introduced into vit1 BMG during LSP process. LSP treatment causes a decrease of hardness attributable to generation of free volume. The plastic deformation ability of vit1 BMG was investigated under three-point bending conditions. The results demonstrate that the plastic strain of LSP treated specimen is 1.83 times as large as that of the as-cast specimen. The effect of LSP technology on the hardness and plastic deformation ability of vit1 BMG is discussed on the basis of free volume theory. The high dense shear bands on the side surface, the increase of striations and critical shear displacement on the tensile fracture region, and more uniform dimples structure on the compressive fracture region also demonstrate that the plasticity of vit1 BMG can be enhanced by LSP.

  17. Fatigue-Induced Damage in Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chih-Pin; Yuan, Tao; Dmowski, Wojciech; Wang, Gong-Yao; Freels, Matt; Liaw, Peter K.; Li, Ran; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the effect of “fatigue” on the fatigue behavior and atomic structure of Zr-based BMGs. Fatigue experiments on the failed-by-fatigue samples indicate that the remnants generally have similar or longer fatigue life than the as-cast samples. Meanwhile, the pair-distribution-function (PDF) analysis of the as-cast and post-fatigue samples showed very small changes of local atomic structures. These observations suggest that the fatigue life of the 6-mm in-diameter Zr-based BMG is dominated by the number of pre-existing crack-initiation sites in the sample. Once the crack initiates in the specimen, the fatigue-induced damage is accumulated locally on these initiated sites, while the rest of the region deforms elastically. The results suggest that the fatigue failure of BMGs under compression-compression fatigue experiments is a defect-controlled process. The present work indicates the significance of the improved fatigue resistance with decreasing the sample size. PMID:23999496

  18. Effect of MoSi2 Content on Dry Sliding Tribological Properties of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longfei; Yang, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass and its composites were prepared by suction casting into a copper mold. The effect of MoSi2 content on the tribological behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG was studied by using a high-speed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The results indicate that the friction coefficient and wear resistance of the BMGs can be improved by a certain amount of crystalline phase induced by MoSi2 content from 1 to 3% and deteriorated with MoSi2 content of 4%. The wear mechanism of both the metallic glass and its composite is abrasive wear. The mechanism of crystalline phase-dependent tribological properties of the composite was discussed based on the wear track and mechanical properties in the present work. The wear behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG and its composite indicates that a good combination of the toughness and the hardness can make the composite be well wear resistant.

  19. Effect of high strain rates on peak stress in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunny, George; Yuan, Fuping; Prakash, Vikas; Lewandowski, John

    2008-11-01

    The mechanical behavior of Zr41.25Ti13.75Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (LM-1) has been extensively characterized under quasistatic loading conditions; however, its mechanical behavior under dynamic loading conditions is currently not well understood. A Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a single-stage gas gun are employed to characterize the mechanical behavior of LM-1 in the strain-rate regime of 102-105/s. The SHPB experiments are conducted with a tapered insert design to mitigate the effects of stress concentrations and preferential failure at the specimen-insert interface. The higher strain-rate plate-impact compression-and-shear experiments are conducted by impacting a thick tungsten carbide (WC) flyer plate with a sandwich sample comprising a thin bulk metallic glass specimen between two thicker WC target plates. Specimens employed in the SHPB experiments failed in the gage-section at a peak stress of approximately 1.8 GPa. Specimens in the high strain-rate plate-impact experiments exhibited a flow stress in shear of approximately 0.9 GPa, regardless of the shear strain-rate. The flow stress under the plate-impact conditions was converted to an equivalent flow stress under uniaxial compression by assuming a von Mises-like material behavior and accounting for the plane strain conditions. The results of these experiments, when compared to the previous work conducted at quasistatic loading rates, indicate that the peak stress of LM-1 is essentially strain rate independent over the strain-rate range up to 105/s.

  20. Corrosion fatigue studies on a bulk glassy Zr-based alloy under three-point bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grell, Daniel; Wilkin, Yannic; Gostin, Petre F.; Gebert, Annett; Kerscher, Eberhard

    2016-12-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF) tests were carried out on bulk glassy Zr52.5Cu17.9Al10Ni14.6Ti5 (Vitreloy 105) samples under load-controlled three-point bending conditions with a load ratio of R = 0.1 in 0.01 M Na2SO4 + 0.01 M NaCl electrolyte. During cyclic testing, the bar-shaped specimens were polarized in situ at constant potentials and the current was monitored. Three different anodic potentials within the interval between the pitting potential EP and the repassivation potential ER, and three different load amplitudes were applied. In some cases, in situ microscopic observations revealed the formation of black corrosion products in the vicinity of the crack tip during anodic polarization. Fractographic analysis revealed a clear distinction between two modes of crack growth characterized by smooth dissolution induced regions on the one hand and slim fast fracture areas on the other hand. Both alternating features contributed to a broad striated corrosion fatigue fracture surface. Moreover, further fatigue tests were carried out under free corrosion conditions yielding additional information on crack initiation and crack propagation period by means of the open circuit potential (OCP) changes. Thereby, a slight increase in OCP was detected after rupture of the passive layer due to bare metal exposed to the electrolyte. The electrochemical response increased continuously according to stable crack propagation until fracture occurred. Finally, the fracture surfaces of the corrosion fatigue samples were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray with the objective of analyzing the elemental distribution after anodic dissolution. Interestingly, anodic polarization at a near repassivation potential of -50 mV vs. SCE (Saturated Calomel Electrode, E = 0.241 V vs. SHE, Standard Hydrogen Electrode) led to favorable effects on the fatigue lifetime. In conclusion, all results are conflated to a corrosion fatigue model for bulk glassy Vitreloy 105 under anodic polarization in chloride

  1. Laser Shock Peening on Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass and Its Effect on Plasticity: Experiment and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yunfeng; Xie, Xie; Antonaglia, James; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Wang, Gongyao; Shin, Yung C.; Withers, Philip J.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-05-01

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new family of attractive materials with good glass-forming ability and excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength and good wear resistance, which make them candidates for structural and biomedical materials. Although the mechanical behavior of BMGs has been widely investigated, their deformation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In particular, their poor ductility significantly impedes their industrial application. In the present work, we show that the ductility of Zr-based BMGs with nearly zero plasticity is improved by a laser shock peening technique. Moreover, we map the distribution of laser-induced residual stresses via the micro-slot cutting method, and then predict them using a three-dimensional finite-element method coupled with a confined plasma model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between the experimental and modeling results. The analyses of serrated flows reveal plentiful and useful information of the underlying deformation process. Our work provides an easy and effective way to extend the ductility of intrinsically-brittle BMGs, opening up wider applications of these materials.

  2. Laser shock peening on Zr-based bulk metallic glass and its effect on plasticity: Experiment and modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Yunfeng; Xie, Xie; Antonaglia, James; ...

    2015-05-20

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new family of attractive materials with good glass-forming ability and excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength and excellent wear resistance, which make them candidates for structural and biomedical materials. Although the mechanical behavior of BMGs has been widely investigated, their deformation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In particular, their poor ductility significantly impedes their industrial application. In the present work, we show that the ductility of Zr-based BMGs with nearly zero plasticity is improved by a laser shock peening technique. Moreover, we map the distribution of laser-induced residual stresses via themore » micro-slot cutting method, and then predict them using a three dimensional finite-element method coupled with a confined plasma model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between the experimental and modeling results. The analysis of serrated flow reveals plentiful and useful information of the underlying deformation process. As a result, our work provides an easy and effective way to extend the ductility of intrinsically-brittle BMGs, opening up wider applications of these materials.« less

  3. The electrochemical Evaluation of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass in a Phosphate-Buffered Saline Electrolyte

    SciT

    Morrison, M. L.; Buchanan, R. A.; Leon, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials with an amorphous structure and a unique combination of properties. The objectives of this investigation were to define the electrochemical behavior of a specific Zr-based BMG alloy in a physiologically relevant environment and to compare these properties to standard, crystalline biomaterials as well as other Zr-based BMG compositions. Cyclic-anodic-polarization studies were conducted with a Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10.0}Ti{sub 5.0} (at %) BMG in a phosphate-buffered saline electrolyte with a physiologically relevant oxygen content at 37 C. The results were compared to three common, crystalline biomaterials: CoCrMo, 316L stainless steel,more » and Ti-6Al-4V. The BMG alloy was found to have a lower corrosion penetration rate (CPR), as compared to the 316L stainless steel, and an equivalent CPR, as compared to the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Furthermore, the BMG alloy demonstrated better localized corrosion resistance than the 316L stainless steel. However, the localized corrosion resistance of the BMG alloy was not as high as those of the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in the tested environment. The excellent electrochemical properties demonstrated by the BMG alloy are combined with a low modulus and unparalleled strength. This unique combination of properties dramatically demonstrates the potential for amorphous alloys as a new generation of biomaterials.« less

  4. The structural properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses subjected to high pressure torsion at different temperatures

    SciT

    Boltynjuk, E. V., E-mail: boltynjuk@gmail.com; Ubyivovk, E. V.; Kshumanev, A. M.

    2016-06-17

    The structural properties of a Zr{sub 62}Cu{sub 22}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 5}Dy{sub 1} bulk metallic glasses were investigated. Cylindrical rods of the Zr{sub 62}Cu{sub 22}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 5}Dy{sub 1} BMG were subjected to high pressure torsion at temperatures of 20°C and 150°C. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy were used to determine peculiarities of the modified structure. Analysis of fracture surfaces, nanohardness measurements were conducted to investigate the influence of structural changes on mechanical behavior of processed samples.

  5. Four-point-bending-fatigue behavior of the Zr-based Vitreloy 105 bulk metallic glass

    SciT

    Morrison, M. L.; Buchanan, R. A.; Liaw, Peter K

    The purpose of this study was to make a direct comparison between four-point-bending and uniaxial fatigue tests with the Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10.0}Ti{sub 5.0} (at.%) BMG alloy (Vitreloy 105). The fatigue lifetimes in four-point bending were found to be greater than those reported in uniaxial testing. However, the fatigue-endurance limit found in four-point bending was slightly less than that reported for uniaxial fatigue. Thus, the significant differences between fatigue studies in the literature are not likely due to this difference in testing geometry. On the contrary, the fatigue lifetimes were found to be highly dependent upon surface defects andmore » material quality. The four-point-bending-fatigue performance of the Vit 105 alloy was found to be greater than most BMGs and similar to the 300 M high-strength steel and other crystalline alloys in spite of not being 'perfectly amorphous.' Due to the detrimental effects of these inhomogeneities and wear at the supporting pins, this fatigue behavior can be assumed to be a conservative estimate of the potential fatigue performance of a perfectly amorphous and homogeneous BMG.« less

  6. Spallation behaviour of a Zr-bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Z.; Huang, X.; Shen, L. T.; Dai, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    Plate impact experiments have been conducted on a Zr-based bulk metal glass (BMG) using a single stage light gas gun. To understand the spallation process of the material, samples were subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of the same amplitude but different durations. Fractographs of spallation surface and fracture features were characterized and the fracture mechanism of different regions of the spallation surface was discussed. Morphology of the spallation surface in the Zr-BMG exhibited a typical equiaxial cellular pattern and porous microstructure. These experiments revealed that, subjected to hydro-tensile stresses, the microdamage of the spallation occurred in the Zr-BMG is microvoids; the spallation in the Zr-BMG is resulted from nucleation, growth and coalescence of microvoids; and the time needed for these microvoids nucleation is less than 100 ns with a stress amplitude of 3.18 GPa.

  7. A Zr-based bulk metallic glass for future stent applications: Materials properties, finite element modeling, and in vitro human vascular cell response.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Pu, Chao; Fisher, Richard K; Mountain, Deidra J H; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K; Zhang, Wei; He, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Despite the prevalent use of crystalline alloys in current vascular stent technology, new biomaterials are being actively sought after to improve stent performance. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of a Zr-Al-Fe-Cu bulk metallic glass (BMG) to serve as a candidate stent material. The mechanical properties of the Zr-based BMG, determined under both static and cyclic loadings, were characterized by high strength, which would allow for the design of thinner stent struts to improve stent biocompatibility. Finite element analysis further complemented the experimental results and revealed that a stent made of the Zr-based BMG was more compliant with the beats of a blood vessel, compared with medical 316L stainless steel. The Zr-based BMG was found to be corrosion resistant in a simulated body environment, owing to the presence of a highly stable ZrO2-rich surface passive film. Application-specific biocompatibility studies were conducted using human aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The Zr-Al-Fe-Cu BMG was found to support stronger adhesion and faster coverage of endothelial cells and slower growth of smooth muscle cells than 316L stainless steel. These results suggest that the Zr-based BMG could promote re-endothelialization and potentially lower the risk of restenosis, which are critical to improve vascular stent implantation integration. In general, findings in this study raised the curtain for the potential application of BMGs as future candidates for stent applications. Vascular stents are medical devices typically used to restore the lumen of narrowed or clogged blood vessel. Despite the clinical success of metallic materials in stent-assisted angioplasty, post-surgery complications persist due to the mechanical failures, corrosion, and in-stent restenosis of current stents. To overcome these hurdles, strategies including new designs and surface functionalization have been exercised. In addition, the development of new materials with

  8. Dual self-organised shear banding behaviours and enhanced ductility in phase separating Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Q.; Song, K. K.; Sun, B. A.; Wang, L.; Cui, W. C.; Qin, Y. S.; Han, X. L.; Xue, Q. S.; Peng, C. X.; Sarac, B.; Spieckermann, F.; Kaban, I.; Eckert, J.

    2018-07-01

    The multiplication and interaction of self-organised shear bands often transform to a stick-slip behaviour of a major shear band along the primary shear plane, and ultimately the major shear band becomes runaway and terminates the plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Here, we examined the deformation behaviours of the nanoscale phase-separating Zr65-xCu25Al10Fex (x = 5 and 7.5 at.%) BMGs. The formation of multi-step phase separation, being mainly governed by nucleation and growth, results in the microstructural inhomogeneity on a wide range of length-scales and leads to obviously macroscopic and repeatable ductility. The good deformability can be attributed to two mechanisms for stabilizing shear banding process, i.e. the mutual interaction of multiple shear bands away from the major shear band and the delaying slip-to-failure of dense fine shear bands around the major shear band, both of which show a self-organised criticality yet with different power-law exponents. The two mechanisms could come into effect in the intermediate (stable) and later plastic deformation regime, respectively. Our findings provide a possibility to enhance the shear banding stability over the whole plastic deformation through a proper design of microstructure heterogeneities.

  9. Comparison of Structural Relaxation Behavior in As-Cast and Pre-Annealed Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses Just below Glass Transition

    DOE PAGES

    Haruyama, Osami; Yoshikawa, Kazuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshikatsu; ...

    2015-04-25

    In this paper, the α-relaxation of pre-annealed Zr 55Cu 30Ni 5Al 10 bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) was compared with that of as-cast Zr-based BMGs including Zr 55Cu 30Ni 5Al 10. The α-relaxation was investigated by volume relaxation. The relaxation behavior was well described by a stretched exponential relaxation function, Φ (t) ≈ exp [ - (t/τ α ) β α ], with the isothermal relaxation time, τ α, and the Kohlrausch exponent, β α. The β α exhibited the strong temperature dependence for the pre-annealed BMG, while the weak temperature dependence was visualized for the as-cast BMG similar to themore » dynamic relaxation. The τ α’s were modified by Moynihan and Narayanaswamy-Tool-Moynihan methods that reduce the difference in the thermal history of sample. Finally, as a result, the relaxation kinetics in the glass resembled that of a liquid deduced from the behavior of viscosity in the supercooled liquid.« less

  10. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    ZrB2 appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B4C. Since ZrB2 has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB2, significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB2 powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB2 by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13-23 GPa and 1.8-2.8 MPa m0.5, respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study.

  11. Anomalous shear band characteristics and extra-deep shock-affected zone in Zr-based bulk metallic glass treated with nanosecond laser peening.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanpeng; Xu, Guangyue; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Zhe; Guo, Yacong; Huang, Chenguang; Wei, Bingchen

    2017-03-07

    The effects of nanosecond laser peening on Zr 41 Ti 14 Cu 12.5 Ni 10 Be 22.5 metallic glass were investigated in this study. The peening treatment produced an extra-deep shock-affected zone compared to crystal metal. As opposed to the conventional shear bands, numerous arc shear bands appeared and aggregated in the vertical direction of the laser beam, forming basic units for accommodating plastic deformation. The arc shear bands exhibited short and discrete features near the surface of the material, then grew longer and fewer at deeper peened layer depths, which was closely related to the laser shock wave attenuation. An energy dissipation model was established based on Hugoniot Elastic Limit and shear band characteristics to represent the formation of an extra-deep shock-affected zone. The results presented here suggest that the bulk modification of metallic glass with a considerable affected depth is feasible. Further, they reveal that nanosecond laser peening is promising as an effective approach to tuning shear bands for improved MGs ductility.

  12. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in bulk ZrT e5 single crystals: Evidence for a weak topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Kai-Wen; Li, Xiang-Bing; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Y. B.; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Li, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2018-03-01

    The study of ZrT e5 crystals is revived because of the recent theoretical prediction of topological phase in bulk ZrT e5 . However, the current conclusions for the topological character of bulk ZrT e5 are quite contradictory. To resolve this puzzle, we here identify the Berry phase on both b - and c planes of high-quality ZrT e5 crystals by the Shubnikov-de-Hass (SdH) oscillation under tilted magnetic field at 2 K. The angle-dependent SdH oscillation frequency, both on b - and c planes of ZrT e5 , demonstrates the two-dimensional feature. However, phase analysis of SdH verifies that a nontrivial π-Berry phase is observed in the c -plane SdH oscillation, but not in the b -plane one. Compared to bulk Fermi surface predicted by the first-principle calculation, the two-dimensional-like behavior of SdH oscillation measured at b plane comes from the bulk electron. Based on these analyses, it is suggested that bulk ZrT e5 at low temperature (˜2 K) belongs to a weak topological insulator, rather than Dirac semimetal or strong topological insulator as reported previously.

  13. Cladding of Mg alloy with Zr based BMG Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, A. K.; Oh, Y. S.; Faisal, M. K.; Kim, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to clad AZ31 magnesium alloy with Zr-based bulk metallic glassy alloy (Vit-1), by casting method. The interface studies conducted using SEM-EDS line scan indicate that a good bond is formed at the clad interface of Zr and Mg. And the mechanism involved is discussed herein.

  14. Surface Mechanoengineering of a Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass via Ar-Nanobubble Doping to Probe Cell Sensitivity to Rigid Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Lu; Tian, Mengkun; Wu, Dong; ...

    2017-11-24

    In this paper, a new materials platform, utilizing the amorphous microstructure of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and the versatility of ion implantation, was developed for the fundamental investigation of cell responses to substrate-rigidity variations in the gigapascal modulus range, which was previously unattainable with polymeric materials. The surface rigidity of a Zr-Al- Ni-Cu-Y BMG was modulated with low-energy Ar-ion implantation owing to the impartment of Ar nanobubbles into the amorphous matrix. Surface softening was achieved due to the formation of nanobubble-doped transitional zones in the Zrbased BMG substrate. Bone-forming cell studies on this newly designed platform demonstrated that mechanical cues,more » accompanied with the potential effects of other surface properties (i.e. roughness, morphology, and chemistry), contributed to modulating cell behaviors. Cell adhesion and actin filaments were found to be less established on less stiff surfaces, especially on the surface with an elastic modulus of 51 GPa. Cell growth appeared to be affected by surface mechanical properties. A lower stiffness was generally related to a higher growth rate. Findings in this study broadened our fundamental understanding concerning the mechanosensing of bone cells on stiff substrates. It also suggests that surface mechano-engineering of metallic materials could be a potential strategy to promote osseointegration of such materials for bone-implant applications. Further investigations are proposed to fine tune the ion implantation variables in order to further distinguish the surface-mechanical effect on bone-forming cell activities from the contributions of other surface properties.« less

  15. Surface Mechanoengineering of a Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass via Ar-Nanobubble Doping to Probe Cell Sensitivity to Rigid Materials

    SciT

    Huang, Lu; Tian, Mengkun; Wu, Dong

    In this paper, a new materials platform, utilizing the amorphous microstructure of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and the versatility of ion implantation, was developed for the fundamental investigation of cell responses to substrate-rigidity variations in the gigapascal modulus range, which was previously unattainable with polymeric materials. The surface rigidity of a Zr-Al- Ni-Cu-Y BMG was modulated with low-energy Ar-ion implantation owing to the impartment of Ar nanobubbles into the amorphous matrix. Surface softening was achieved due to the formation of nanobubble-doped transitional zones in the Zrbased BMG substrate. Bone-forming cell studies on this newly designed platform demonstrated that mechanical cues,more » accompanied with the potential effects of other surface properties (i.e. roughness, morphology, and chemistry), contributed to modulating cell behaviors. Cell adhesion and actin filaments were found to be less established on less stiff surfaces, especially on the surface with an elastic modulus of 51 GPa. Cell growth appeared to be affected by surface mechanical properties. A lower stiffness was generally related to a higher growth rate. Findings in this study broadened our fundamental understanding concerning the mechanosensing of bone cells on stiff substrates. It also suggests that surface mechano-engineering of metallic materials could be a potential strategy to promote osseointegration of such materials for bone-implant applications. Further investigations are proposed to fine tune the ion implantation variables in order to further distinguish the surface-mechanical effect on bone-forming cell activities from the contributions of other surface properties.« less

  16. The influence of Zr substitution for Nb on the corrosion behaviors of the Ni-Nb-Zr bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, DengKe; Zhu, ZhengWang; Zhang, HaiFeng; Wang, AiMin; Hu, ZhuangQi

    2012-12-01

    The influence of Zr content on corrosion behaviors of the Ni61.5Nb38.5- x Zr x ( x=1, 3, 5, 7, 9 at.%) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in 1 M HCl aqueous solution was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that these BMG alloys possess superior corrosion resistance, that is, with large passive region of about 1.5 V and low passive current density (as low as 0.05 Am-2 for Ni61.5Nb31.5Zr7). XPS analysis indicates that the high corrosion resistance is attributed to the formation of Nb- and Zr-enriched surface films formed in the aggressive acid solution. The Zr substitution for Nb effectively reduces the Ni content, particularly the metallic state Ni content in the surface films, which depresses the electrical conduction of the surface films and reduces the passive current density, thus leading to the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of these Ni-Nb-Zr BMGs. These alloys may potentially be useful for engineering applications.

  17. Nanocrystallization in Cu-Zr-Al-Sm Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikan, Fatih; Yasar, Bengisu; Kalay, Ilkay

    2018-04-01

    The effect of rare-earth element (Sm) microalloying on the thermal stability and crystallization kinetics of melt-spun ribbons and suction-cast rods of Zr48Cu38.4Al9.6Sm4 alloy were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atom probe tomography (APT). The XRD results of constant heating rate annealing indicated that amorphous Zr48Cu38.4Al9.6Sm4 melt-spun ribbons devitrifies into Cu2Sm at 673 K (400 °C). The sequence continues with the precipitation of Cu10Zr7 and then these two phases coexist. XRD and TEM studies on 1 mm diameter as suction-cast rods indicated the precipitation of 30-nm-mean size Cu2Sm crystals during solidification. TEM investigation of the isothermal crystallization sequence of melt-spun ribbons and 1-mm-diameter suction-cast rods revealed the precipitation of Cu2Sm nanocrystals at the onset of crystallization and the restriction of the growth of these nanocrystals up to 10 nm diameter with further annealing. APT analysis of 1-mm-diameter suction-cast rods showed that the limited growth of Cu2Sm nanocrystals is due to sluggish diffusion of Sm and Al-Zr pile up at the interface.

  18. Atomic structure and glass forming ability of Cu46Zr46Al8 bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. D.; Jiang, Q. K.; Cao, Q. P.; Bednarcik, J.; Franz, H.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2008-11-01

    By using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental and computational methods, the high glass forming ability (GFA) of Cu46Zr46Al8 alloy is studied from the view of its atomic packing. Three-dimensional atomic configuration is well established. It is found that Al atoms almost homogeneously distribute around Cu and Zr atoms without segregation, causing the local environment around Cu and Zr atoms in Cu46Zr46Al8 bulk metallic glass different from that of the major competing phase of Cu10Zr7. Furthermore, the addition of Al not only increases the amount of icosahedronlike clusters but also makes them more homogeneous distribution, which can enhance the GFA by increasing the structural incompatibility with the competing crystalline phases.

  19. On the origin of bulk glass forming ability in Cu-Hf, Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, Ramir; Zadro, Krešo; Pajić, Damir; Figueroa, Ignacio A.; Babić, Emil

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the formation of bulk metallic glasses (BMG) in metallic systems and finding a reliable criterion for selection of BMG compositions are among the most important issues in condensed-matter physics and material science. Using the results of magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on both amorphous and crystallized Cu-Hf alloys (30-70 at% Cu) we find a correlation between the difference in magnetic susceptibilities of corresponding glassy and crystalline alloys and the variation in the glass forming ability (GFA) in these alloys. Since the same correlation can be inferred from data for the properties associated with the electronic structure of Cu-Zr alloys, it seems quite general and may apply to other glassy alloys based on early and late transition metals. This correlation is plausible from the free-energy considerations and provides a simple way to select the compositions with high GFA.

  20. Biocompatible Zr-Al-Fe bulk metallic glasses with large plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, NengBin; Li, Ran; Wang, JianFeng; Zhang, Tao

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, high-zirconium ternary Zr-Al-Fe bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with low Young's modulus and good plasticity were developed. Zr75Al7.5Fe17.5 BMG exhibits a low Young's modulus of 70 GPa and high Poisson's ratio of 0.403. Pronounced plasticity was demonstrated under both compression and bending conditions for the BMGs. Furthermore, the alloys show high corrosion resistance in phosphate buffered solution. The combination of desirable mechanical and chemical properties implies potential for biomedical applications.

  1. Modeling deformation behavior of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, S.; Liu, G.; Wang, G.; Das, J.; Kim, K. B.; Kühn, U.; Kim, D. H.; Eckert, J.

    2009-09-01

    In the present work we prepared an in situ Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 bulk metallic glass matrix composite derived from the shape memory alloy CuZr. We use a strength model, which considers percolation and a three-microstructural-element body approach, to understand the effect of the crystalline phase on the yield stress and the fracture strain under compressive loading, respectively. The intrinsic work-hardenability due to the martensitic transformation of the crystalline phase causes significant work hardening also of the composite material.

  2. Development of High Strength Ni-Cu-Zr-Ti-Si-Sn In-Situ Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Reinforced by Hard B2 Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyo Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hae Jin; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Jeong Tae; Na, Young Sang; Lim, Ka Ram; Wang, Wei-Min; Kim, Ki Buem

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, the influence of atomic ratio of Zr to Ti on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ni-Cu-Zr-Ti-Si-Sn alloys is investigated. The alloys were designed by fine replacement of Ti for Zr from Ni39Cu20Zr36-xTixSi2Sn3. The increase of Ti content enhances glass forming ability of the alloy by suppression of formation of (Ni, Cu)10(Zr, Ti)7 phase during solidification. With further increasing Ti content up to 24 at.%, the B2 phase is introduced in the amorphous matrix with a small amount of B19' phase from alloy melt. The bulk metallic glass composite containing B2 phase with a volume fraction of 10 vol% exhibits higher fracture strength ( 2.5 GPa) than that of monolithic bulk metallic glass ( 2.3 GPa). This improvement is associated to the individual mechanical characteristics of the B2 phase and amorphous matrix. The B2 phase exhibits higher hardness and modulus than those of amorphous matrix as well as effective stress accommodation up to the higher stress level than the yield strength of amorphous matrix. The large stress accommodation capacity of the hard B2 phase plays an important factor to improve the mechanical properties of in situ Ni-based bulk metallic glass composites.

  3. ZrCuAl Bulk Metallic Glass spall induced by laser shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodar, Benjamin; Loison, Didier; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Lescoute, Emilien; Berthe, Laurent; Sangleboeuf, Jean-Christophe

    2017-06-01

    To face High Velocity Impacts, the aerospace industry is always seeking for innovative materials usable as debris shielding components. Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG) revealed interesting mechanical properties in case of static and quasi-static loading conditions: high elasticity, high tenacity, low density and high fracture threshold... The department of Mechanics and Glass of the Institut of Physics Rennes conducted on the ELFIE facility, laser shock experiments to study the behavior of a ternary ZrCuAl BMG under high strain rate, up-to fragmentation process. On the one hand, in-situ diagnostics were used to measure ejection velocities with PDV and debris morphologies were observed by Shadowgraphy. On the other hand, spalled areas (dimensions and features) were characterized through post-mortem analysis (optical observations, profilometry and SEM). These results are compared to experimental and numerical data on the crystalline forms of the ZrCuAl basic compounds.

  4. Bulk Al-Al3Zr composite prepared by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkhorshid, E.; Enayati, M. H.; Sabooni, S.; Karimzadeh, F.; Paydar, M. H.

    2017-08-01

    Bulk Al/Al3Zr composite was prepared by a combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and hot extrusion processes. Elemental Al and Zr powders were milled for up to 10 h and heat treated at 600°C for 1 h to form stable Al3Zr. The prepared Al3Zr powder was then mixed with the pure Al powder to produce an Al-Al3Zr composite. The composite powder was finally consolidated by hot extrusion at 550°C. The mechanical properties of consolidated samples were evaluated by hardness and tension tests at room and elevated temperatures. The results show that annealing of the 10-h-milled powder at 600°C for 1 h led to the formation of a stable Al3Zr phase. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results confirmed that the formation of Al3Zr began with the nucleation of a metastable phase, which subsequently transformed to the stable tetragonal Al3Zr structure. The tension yield strength of the Al-10wt%Al3Zr composite was determined to be 103 MPa, which is approximately twice that for pure Al (53 MPa). The yield stress of the Al/Al3Zr composite at 300°C is just 10% lower than that at room temperature, which demonstrates the strong potential for the prepared composite to be used in high-temperature structural applications.

  5. On the crystallization kinetics of Zr-(Co,Ni)-Al bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, X. M.; Zhang, Q. F.; Duan, X. Y.; Wang, X. C.; Jiang, Y. H.; Zhou, R.; Tan, J.

    2017-07-01

    Zr-based amorphous alloys are promising materials applied in engineering field, due to their strong glass-forming ability, outstanding mechanical properties and relatively low cost. In this work, the crystallization kinetics of Zr56Co18-xNixAl16 (x = 0, 2, 4 and 8; marked as Ni0, Ni2, Ni4 and Ni8, respectively) alloys are investigated in detail. The results show that, due to the addition of Ni, the glass transition of the alloys presents obvious dynamic characteristics, i.e., with the increasing heating rate, all characteristic temperatures are shifted to higher temperature. By fitting the Kissinger equation, the glass transition activation energy of Ni8 is the highest, indicating that Ni8 is much more difficult to crystallize. Therefore, the Ni8 alloy has the strongest anti-crystallization ability in the Zr56Co18-xNixAl16 alloys investigated.

  6. Nanostructured Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) bulk metallic composites: Novel biocompatible materials with superior mechanical strength and elastic recovery.

    PubMed

    Hynowska, A; Blanquer, A; Pellicer, E; Fornell, J; Suriñach, S; Baró, M D; Gebert, A; Calin, M; Eckert, J; Nogués, C; Ibáñez, E; Barrios, L; Sort, J

    2015-11-01

    The microstructure, mechanical behaviour, and biocompatibility (cell culture, morphology, and cell adhesion) of nanostructured Ti45 Zr15 Pd35- x Si5 Nbx with x = 0, 5 (at. %) alloys, synthesized by arc melting and subsequent Cu mould suction casting, in the form of rods with 3 mm in diameter, are investigated. Both Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) materials show a multi-phase (composite-like) microstructure. The main phase is cubic β-Ti phase (Im3m) but hexagonal α-Ti (P63/mmc), cubic TiPd (Pm3m), cubic PdZr (Fm3m), and hexagonal (Ti, Zr)5 Si3 (P63/mmc) phases are also present. Nanoindentation experiments show that the Ti45 Zr15 Pd30 Si5 Nb5 sample exhibits lower Young's modulus than Ti45 Zr15 Pd35 Si5 . Conversely, Ti45 Zr15 Pd35 Si5 is mechanically harder. Actually, both alloys exhibit larger values of hardness when compared with commercial Ti-40Nb, (HTi-Zr-Pd-Si ≈ 14 GPa, HTi-Zr-Pd-Si-Nb ≈ 10 GPa and HTi-40Nb ≈ 2.7 GPa). Concerning the biological behaviour, preliminary results of cell viability performed on several Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) discs indicate that the number of live cells is superior to 94% in both cases. The studied Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) bulk metallic system is thus interesting for biomedical applications because of the outstanding mechanical properties (relatively low Young's modulus combined with large hardness), together with the excellent biocompatibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium-based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid -Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium-based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid -Metal...including Al, Cu, Ni, Zr, Mg, Pd, Ga , Ca. Many new Al-based amorphous alloys were found within the numerous alloy systems studied in this project, and

  8. Second amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation in Cu(60)Ti(20)Zr(20) bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Cao, Q P; Li, J F; Zhang, P N; Horsewell, A; Jiang, J Z; Zhou, Y H

    2007-06-20

    The second amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation in Cu(60)Ti(20)Zr(20) bulk metallic glass was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffractometry. The difference of the Gibbs free energies between the amorphous phase and the crystalline products during the transformation is estimated to be about 2.46 kJ mol(-1) at 753 K, much smaller than the 61 kJ mol(-1) obtained assuming that it is a polymorphic transformation. It was revealed that the phase transformation occurs through a eutectic crystallization of Cu(51)Zr(14) and Cu(2)TiZr, having an effective activation energy of the order of 400 kJ mol(-1). The average Avrami exponent n is about 2.0, indicating that the crystallization is diffusion controlled.

  9. Al-centered icosahedral ordering in Cu46Zr46Al8 bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. Z.; Hui, X.; Chen, G. L.; Liu, Z. K.

    2009-03-01

    Icosahedral short-range order, of which Al atoms are caged in the center of icosahedra with Cu and Zr atoms being the vertices, has been evidenced in the Cu46Zr46Al8 glassy structure by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. These Al-centered clusters distribute irregularly in the three-dimensional space and form a "backbone" structure of the Cu46Zr46Al8 glass alloy. It is suggested that this kind of local structural feature is attributed to the requirement of efficient dense packing and the chemical affinity between Zr-Zr, Zr-Al, and Cu-Zr atoms. Our calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Deformation behaviors of Cu29Zr32Ti15Al5Ni19 high entropy bulk metallic glass during nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qihong; Yi, Ming; Li, Jia; Liu, Bin; Huang, Zaiwang

    2018-06-01

    The deformation behaviors of Cu29Zr32Ti15Al5Ni19 high entropy bulk metallic glass (HE-BMG) during the nanoindentation are presented via the large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The indentation tests are carried out using spherical rigid indenter to investigate the microstructural evolution on the mechanical properties of HE-BMGs in terms of shear strain, indentation force, and surface morphology as well as radial distribution function (RDF). Based on the Hertzian fitting the load-displacement curve, HE-BMG Cu29Zr32Ti15Al5Ni19 has the Young's modulus of 93.1 GPa and hardness of 8.8 GPa. The indentation force requiring for the continual increasing contacted area between the indenter and the substrate goes up with the increasing of indentation depth. In addition, the symmetrical distribution of atomic displacement reveals the isotropic of HE-BMG after the indentation treatment. In the deformation region, the Al element would lead to the serious fluctuation in the first peak of RDF, which is much stronger than the other elements. The severe distortion from the atomic size difference maybe reduce the activation energy to the occurrence of shear deformation in HE-BMG, leading to the transition from brittle to ductile observed by the whole sliding of the local atom group. Through the indentation load-displacement curves at various temperatures, the softening of HE-BMG at high temperatures is in qualitative agreement with the experimental findings. Moreover, this effective strategy is used to accelerate the discovery of excellent mechanical properties of HE-BMGs by means of MD simulation, as well as understand the fundamental nanoindentation response of HE-BMGs.

  11. Impact of nano and bulk ZrO2, TiO2 particles on soil nutrient contents and PGPR.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2013-01-01

    Currently, nanometal oxides are used extensively in different industries such as medicine, cosmetics and food. The increased consumption of nanoparticles (NPs) leads the necessity to understand the fate of the nanoparticles in the environment. The present study focused on the ecotoxicological behaviour of bulk and nano ZrO2 (Zirconia) and TiO2 (Titania) particles on PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria), soil and its nutrient contents. The microbial susceptibility study showed that nano TiO2 had 13 +/- 0.9 mm (B. megaterium), 15 +/- 0.2 mm (P. fluorescens), 16 +/- 0.2 mm (A. vinelandii) and 12 +/- 0.3 mm (B. brevis) zones of inhibition. However, nano and bulk ZrO2 particles were non-toxic to PGPR. In addition, it was found that toxicity varied depends on the medium of reaction. The soil study showed that nano TiO2 was found to be highly toxic, whereas bulk TiO2 was less toxic towards soil bacterial populations at 1000 mg L(-1). In contrast, nano and bulk ZrO2 were found to be inert at 1000 mg L(-1). The observed zeta potential and hydrophobicity of TiO2 particles causes more toxic than ZrO2 in parallel with particle size. However, nano TiO2 decreases the microbial population as well as nutrient level of the soil but not zirconia. Our finding shows that the mechanism of toxicity depends on size, hydrophobic potential and zeta potential of the metal oxide particles. Thus, it is necessary to take safety measures during the disposal and use of such toxic nanoparticles in the soil to prevent their hazardous effects.

  12. Spectroscopic evidence for bulk-band inversion and three-dimensional massive Dirac fermions in ZrTe5

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Guo; Chen, R. Y.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, John; Zhang, C.; Huang, Y.; Qu, Fanming; Yu, Rui; Gu, G. D.; Wang, N. L.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators (3D TIs) represent states of quantum matters in which surface states are protected by time-reversal symmetry and an inversion occurs between bulk conduction and valence bands. However, the bulk-band inversion, which is intimately tied to the topologically nontrivial nature of 3D Tis, has rarely been investigated by experiments. Besides, 3D massive Dirac fermions with nearly linear band dispersions were seldom observed in TIs. Recently, a van der Waals crystal, ZrTe5, was theoretically predicted to be a TI. Here, we report an infrared transmission study of a high-mobility [∼33,000 cm2/(V ⋅ s)] multilayer ZrTe5 flake at magnetic fields (B) up to 35 T. Our observation of a linear relationship between the zero-magnetic-field optical absorption and the photon energy, a bandgap of ∼10 meV and a B dependence of the Landau level (LL) transition energies at low magnetic fields demonstrates 3D massive Dirac fermions with nearly linear band dispersions in this system. More importantly, the reemergence of the intra-LL transitions at magnetic fields higher than 17 T reveals the energy cross between the two zeroth LLs, which reflects the inversion between the bulk conduction and valence bands. Our results not only provide spectroscopic evidence for the TI state in ZrTe5 but also open up a new avenue for fundamental studies of Dirac fermions in van der Waals materials. PMID:28096330

  13. Influence of the Ag concentration on the medium-range order in a CuZrAlAg bulk metallic glass

    DOE PAGES

    Gammer, C.; Escher, B.; Ebner, C.; ...

    2017-03-21

    Fluctuation electron microscopy of bulk metallic glasses of CuZrAl(Ag) demonstrates that medium-range order is sensitive to minor compositional changes. Furthermore, by analyzing nanodiffraction patterns medium-range order is detected with crystal-like motifs based on the B2 CuZr structure and its distorted structures resembling the martensitic ones. This result thus demonstrates some structural homology between the metallic glass and its high temperature crystalline phase. The amount of medium-range order seems slightly affected with increasing Ag concentration (0, 2, 5 at.%) but the structural motifs of the medium-range ordered clusters become more diverse at the highest Ag concentration. The decrease of dominant clustersmore » is consistent with the destabilization of the B2 structure measured by calorimetry and accounts for the increased glass-forming ability.« less

  14. Influence of the Ag concentration on the medium-range order in a CuZrAlAg bulk metallic glass

    SciT

    Gammer, C.; Escher, B.; Ebner, C.

    Fluctuation electron microscopy of bulk metallic glasses of CuZrAl(Ag) demonstrates that medium-range order is sensitive to minor compositional changes. Furthermore, by analyzing nanodiffraction patterns medium-range order is detected with crystal-like motifs based on the B2 CuZr structure and its distorted structures resembling the martensitic ones. This result thus demonstrates some structural homology between the metallic glass and its high temperature crystalline phase. The amount of medium-range order seems slightly affected with increasing Ag concentration (0, 2, 5 at.%) but the structural motifs of the medium-range ordered clusters become more diverse at the highest Ag concentration. The decrease of dominant clustersmore » is consistent with the destabilization of the B2 structure measured by calorimetry and accounts for the increased glass-forming ability.« less

  15. Structures and mechanical behaviors of Zr55Cu35Al10 bulk amorphous alloys at ambient and cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Cang; Liaw, P. K.; Haas, V.; Wall, J. J.; Choo, H.; Inoue, A.; Liu, C. T.

    2006-07-01

    Based on a systematic study of pair distribution functions, carried out at cryogenic and ambient temperatures, on as-cast and crystallized ternary Zr-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs), we found that the atoms in BAAs are inhomogenously distributed at a local atomic level. They exist as different clusters with significantly shorter bond lengths than their crystallized counterpart structures—intermetallic compounds, and these structures exist stably in the amorphous state. This results in additional free volume, which is about ˜7% larger than that measured by the Archimedes method. The compressive strength measured at ˜77K was found to be ˜16% larger than that measured at 298K . In this study, an amorphous structural model is proposed, in which strongly bonded clusters acting as units are randomly distributed and strongly correlated to one another, as the free volume forms between clusters. Simulations with reverse Monte Carlo were performed by combining icosehadral and cubic structures as the initial structures for the BAA. The simulations show results consistent with our model. An attempt has been made to connect the relationship between amorphous structures and their mechanical properties.

  16. Surface Modifier-Free Organic-Inorganic Hybridization To Produce Optically Transparent and Highly Refractive Bulk Materials Composed of Epoxy Resins and ZrO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Kazushi; Kikuchi, Moriya; Narumi, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou

    2018-04-25

    Surface modifier-free hybridization of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) with epoxy-based polymers is demonstrated for the first time to afford highly transparent and refractive bulk materials. This is achieved by a unique and versatile hybridization via the one-pot direct phase transfer of ZrO 2 NPs from water to epoxy monomers without any aggregation followed by curing with anhydride. Three types of representative epoxy monomers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (CEL), and 1,3,5-tris(3-(oxiran-2-yl)propyl)-1,3,5-triazinane-2,4,6-trione (TEPIC), are used to produce transparent viscous dispersions. The resulting ZrO 2 NPs are thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. The results from DLS and TEM analyses indicate nanodispersion of ZrO 2 into epoxy monomers as a continuous medium. A surface modification mechanism and the binding fashion during phase transfer are proposed based on the FT-IR and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. Epoxy-based hybrid materials with high transparency and refractive index are successfully fabricated by heat curing or polymerizing a mixture of monomers containing epoxy-functionalized ZrO 2 NPs and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride in the presence of a phosphoric catalyst. The TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the hybrids show a nanodispersion of ZrO 2 in the epoxy networks. The refractive index at 594 nm ( n 594 ) increases up to 1.765 for BADGE-based hybrids, 1.667 for CEL-based hybrids, and 1.693 for TEPIC-based hybrids. Their refractive indices and Abbe's numbers are quantitatively described by the Lorentz-Lorenz effective medium expansion theory. Their transmissivity is also reasonably explained using Fresnel refraction, Rayleigh scattering, and the Lambert-Beer theories. This surface modifier-free hybridization

  17. Alloying effect on the room temperature creep characteristics of a Ti-Zr-Be bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Pan; Wang, Sibo; Li, Fangwei; Wang, Xinyun

    2018-02-01

    The effect of alloying elements (e.g. Fe, Al, and Ni) on the room temperature creep behavior of a lightweight Ti41Zr25Be34 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was investigated via nanoindentation tests. The generalized Kelvin model was adopted to describe the creep curves. The strain rate sensitivity m has been derived as a measure of the creep resistance. The compliance spectrum and retardation spectrum were also derived. The results show that the creep resistance of Ti41Zr25Be34 alloy can be obviously improved with the addition of alloying elements, and the most effective element is found to be Al. The mechanism for enhancing the creep resistance was discussed in terms of the scale variation of the shear transformation zone induced by alloying.

  18. In situ observation of defect annihilation in Kr ion-irradiated bulk Fe/amorphous-Fe 2 Zr nanocomposite alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, K. Y.; Fan, Z.; Chen, Y.; ...

    2014-08-26

    Enhanced irradiation tolerance in crystalline multilayers has received significant attention lately. However, little is known on the irradiation response of crystal/amorphous nanolayers. We report on in situ Kr ion irradiation studies of a bulk Fe 96Zr 4 nanocomposite alloy. Irradiation resulted in amorphization of Fe 2Zr and formed crystal/amorphous nanolayers. α-Fe layers exhibited drastically lower defect density and size than those in large α-Fe grains. In situ video revealed that mobile dislocation loops in α-Fe layers were confined by the crystal/amorphous interfaces and kept migrating to annihilate other defects. This study provides new insights on the design of irradiation-tolerant crystal/amorphousmore » nanocomposites.« less

  19. Spectroscopic evidence for bulk-band inversion and three-dimensional massive Dirac fermions in ZrTe 5

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Zhi -Guo; Chen, R. Y.; Zhong, R. D.; ...

    2017-01-17

    Three-dimensional topological insulators (3D TIs) represent states of quantum matters in which surface states are protected by time-reversal symmetry and an inversion occurs between bulk conduction and valence bands. However, the bulk-band inversion, which is intimately tied to the topologically nontrivial nature of 3D Tis, has rarely been investigated by experiments. Besides, 3D massive Dirac fermions with nearly linear band dispersions were seldom observed in TIs. Recently, a van der Waals crystal, ZrTe 5, was theoretically predicted to be a TI. Here, we report an infrared transmission study of a high-mobility [~33,000 cm 2/(V • s)] multilayer ZrTe 5 flakemore » at magnetic fields (B) up to 35 T. Our observation of a linear relationship between the zero-magnetic-field optical absorption and the photon energy, a bandgap of ~10 meV and a √B dependence of the Landau level (LL) transition energies at low magnetic fields demonstrates 3D massive Dirac fermions with nearly linear band dispersions in this system. More importantly, the reemergence of the intra-LL transitions at magnetic fields higher than 17 T reveals the energy cross between the two zeroth LLs, which reflects the inversion between the bulk conduction and valence bands. Finally, our results not only provide spectroscopic evidence for the TI state in ZrTe 5 but also open up a new avenue for fundamental studies of Dirac fermions in van der Waals materials.« less

  20. Microstructural development at weld interface between Zr-based glassy alloy and stainless steel by resistance microwelding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, S.; Minami, M.; Soeda, A.; Matsushima, M.; Takahashi, M.; Yokoyama, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    2012-08-01

    Zr-based bulk metallic glasses are expected to be welded to conventional structural alloys. Dissimilar welding of metallic glasses to stainless steel was carried out by resistance microwelding. The metallurgical analysis of the weld interface revealed the welding mechanism. A thin reaction layer was formed between the two liquid materials. The melting of stainless steel should be limited to obtain sound joints.

  1. The effect of Nb addition on mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and metal-ion release of ZrAlCuNi bulk metallic glasses in artificial body fluid.

    PubMed

    Qiu, C L; Liu, L; Sun, M; Zhang, S M

    2005-12-15

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of Zr(65 - x)Nb(x)- Cu(17.5)Ni(10)Al(7.5) with Nb = 0, 2, and 5 at % were prepared by copper mold casting. Compression tests reveal that the two BMGs containing Nb exhibited superior strength and plasticity to the base alloy. The corrosion behavior of the alloys obtained was investigated in artificial body fluid by electrochemical measurements. It was found that the addition of Nb significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the Zr-based BMG, as indicated by a remarkable increase in corrosion potential and pitting potential. XPS analysis revealed that the passive film formed after anodic polarization was enriched in aluminum oxide and depleted in phosphate ions for the BMGs containing Nb, which accounts for the improvement of corrosion resistance. On the other hand, metal-ion release of different BMGs were determined in PPb (ng/mL) level with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after being immersed in artificial body fluid at 37 degrees C for 20 days. It was found that the addition of Nb considerably reduced the ion release of all kinds of metals of the base system. This is probably attributed to the promoting effect of Nb on a rapid formation of highly protective film.

  2. Composition-controlled active-passive transition and corrosion behavior of Fe-Cr(Mo)-Zr-B bulk amorphous steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Jiajia; Wu, Yidong; Wang, Tan; Liu, Yanhui; Hui, Xidong

    2018-07-01

    Various corrosive environments in daily life and industry have put forward high requirement on corrosion resistance of metals, especially steels. Unlike the strict demand in Cr content of crystalline stainless steels, amorphous steels (ASs) with lower Cr content can be endowed with outstanding corrosion resistance, while the intrinsic mechanism is not fully understood. Herein, we present a novel Fe92-x-y-zCrxMoyZr8Bz (6 ≤ x ≤ 40, 0 ≤ y ≤ 22, and 12 ≤ z ≤ 18) bulk amorphous steel (BAS) forming system and reveal the synergistic effect of Cr and Mo in determining the chemical stability of oxide films. It has been found the Fe92-x-zCrxZr8Bz BASs with 1 mm in diameter display a Cr-controlling active-passive transition at the Cr threshold of ∼25% in 1 M hydrochloric acid. When adding minor Mo into the BASs, the Cr threshold can be remarkably reduced by forming favorable hexavalent Mo oxides. The generation of Mo6+ is facilitated by atomic selective dissolution at the interface and can promote the passivation. In contrast, when the Cr content of the Mo-doped glasses exceeds 25%, few Mo6+ oxides would produce as the prior formation of protective passive films inhibits the further oxidation of Mo. Therefore, manipulating the active-passive transition properly is crucial to designing ASs with high stainlessness.

  3. Investigation on Explosive Welding of Zr53Cu35Al12 Bulk Metallic Glass with Crystalline Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianrui; Chen, Pengwan; Zhou, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    A Zr53Cu35Al12 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was welded to a crystalline Cu using explosive welding technique. The morphology and the composition of the composite were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The investigation indicated that the BMG and Cu were tightly joined together without visible defects, and a thin diffusion layer appeared at the interface. The captured jet at the end of the welding region mostly comes from the Cu side. Amorphous and partially crystallized structures have been observed within the diffusion layer, but the BMG in close proximity to the interface still retains its amorphous state. Nanoindentation tests reveal that the interface exhibits an increment in hardness compared with the matrix on both sides.

  4. Temperature-dependent dielectric and energy-storage properties of Pb(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 antiferroelectric bulk ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Chenhong; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin

    2016-05-01

    The dielectric and energy-storage properties of Pb0.99Nb0.02[(Zr0.60Sn0.40)0.95Ti0.05]0.98O3 (PNZST) bulk ceramics near the antiferroelectric (AFE)-ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary are investigated as a function of temperature. Three characteristic temperatures T0, TC, T2 are obtained from the dielectric temperature spectrum. At different temperature regions (below T0, between T0 and TC, and above TC), three types of hysteresis loops are observed as square double loop, slim loop and linear loop, respectively. The switching fields and recoverable energy density all first increase and then decrease with increasing temperature, and reach their peak values at ˜T0. These results provide a convenient method to optimize the working temperature of antiferroelectric electronic devices through testing the temperature dependent dielectric properties of antiferroelectric ceramics.

  5. Preparation, glass forming ability, crystallization and deformation of (zirconium, hafnium)-copper-nickel-aluminum-titanium-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaofeng

    Multicomponent Zr-based bulk metallic glasses are the most promising metallic glass forming systems. They exhibit great glass forming ability and fascinating mechanical properties, and thus are considered as potential structural materials. One potential application is that they could be replacements of the depleted uranium for making kinetic energy armor-piercing projectiles, but the density of existing Zr-based alloys is too low for this application. Based on the chemical and crystallographic similarities between Zr and Hf, we have developed two series of bulk metallic glasses with compositions of (HfxZr1-x) 52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 and (HfxZr1-x) 57Cu20Ni8Al10Ti5 ( x = 0--1) by gradually replacing Zr by Hf. Remarkably increased density and improved mechanical properties have been achieved in these alloys. In these glasses, Hf and Zr play an interchangeable role in determining the short range order. Although the glass forming ability decreases continuously with Hf addition, most of these alloys remain bulk glass-forming. Recently, nanocomposites produced from bulk metallic glasses have attracted wide attention due to improved mechanical properties. However, their crystalline microstructure (the grain size and the crystalline volume fraction) has to be optimized. We have investigated crystallization of (Zr, Hf)-based bulk metallic glasses, including the composition dependence of crystallization paths and crystallization mechanisms. Our results indicate that the formation of high number density nanocomposites from bulk metallic glasses can be attributed to easy nucleation and slowing-down growth processes, while the multistage crystallization behavior makes it more convenient to control the microstructure evolution. Metallic glasses are known to exhibit unique plastic deformation behavior. At low temperature and high stress, plastic flow is localized in narrow shear bands. Macroscopic investigations of shear bands (e.g., chemical etching) suggest that the internal

  6. Biocompatibility Study of Zirconium-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Orthopedic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Chuang, Andrew; Cao, Zheng; Liaw, Peter K.

    2010-07-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials that offer an attractive combination of properties, such as high strength, low modulus, good fatigue limit, and near-net-shape formability. The BMGs have been explored in mechanical, chemical, and magnetic applications. However, little research has been attracted in the biomedical field. In this work, we study the potential of BMGs for the orthopedic repair and replacement. We report the biocompatibility study of zirconium (Zr)-based solid BMGs using mouse osteoblast cells. Cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation are compared to Ti-6Al-4V, a well-studied alloy biomaterial. Our in-vitro study has demonstrated that cells cultured on the Zr-based BMG substrate showed higher attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone matrix deposition compared to those grown on the control Ti alloy substrate. Cytotoxicity staining also revealed the remarkable viability of cells growing on the BMG substrates.

  7. Nanometer scale atomic structure of zirconium based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo

    We have studied the nanometer scale structure of bulk metallic glass (BMG) using fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM). The nanometer scale medium range order (MRO) in BMG is of significant interest because of its possible relationship to the properties, but the experimental study of the MRO is difficult because conventional diffraction techniques are not sensitive to the MRO scale. FEM is a quantitative transmission electron microscopy technique which measures the nanoscale structural fluctuation associated with MRO in amorphous materials, and provides information about the size, distribution, and internal structure of MRO. In this work, we developed an improved method for FEM using energy-filtered STEM nanodiffraction with highly coherent probes with size up to 11nm in a state-of-the-art Cs- corrected STEM. We also developed an effective way to eliminate the effect of sample thickness variation to the FEM data by using Z-contrast images as references. To study the detailed structure of MRO, we developed a hybrid reverse Monte Carlo (H-RMC) simulation which combines an empirical atomic potential and the FEM data. H-RMC generated model structures that match the experimental data at short and medium range. In addition, the subtle rotational symmetries in the FEM nanodiffraction patterns were analyzed by angular correlation function to reveal more details of the internal structure of MRO. Our experiments and simulations show that Zr-based BMG contains pseudo-planar, crystal-like MRO as well as icosahedral clusters in its nanoscale structure. We found that some icosahedral clusters may be connected, and that structural relaxation by annealing increases the population of icosahedral clusters.

  8. Production and properties of high strength Ni free Zr-based BMGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M.; Wang, W. H.

    2014-06-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are well known for very attractive physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Zr-based BMGs are used as structural materials in sports goods, electronics, jewelry, medical and aerospace applications. Ni free Zr48Cu36Al8M8 (M = Nb, Ti and Ta) BMGs are successfully synthesized by Cu mold casting technique. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) results show that the Zr48Cu36Al8Nb8 BMG have good thermal stability, wide supercooled liquid region of 80 K and contain the double stage crystallization. The alloy has fracture strength of 1.953 GPa. Shear angle was measured to be in the range of 43.5±5° for the alloy studied. Vicker's hardness of the BMGs was found to be over 500 Hv for the as cast alloy which enhanced about 11 % more by annealing up to 600 °C/20 min. Intersected shear bands were observed. The observed promising mechanical and thermal properties showed that BMG studied can be used for industrial applications.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Reactive In Situ Zr Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Reactive in situ multi-material additive manufacturing of ZrB2-based ultra-high-temperature ceramics in a Zr metal matrix was demonstrated using LENS™. Sound metallurgical bonding was achieved between the Zr metal and Zr-BN composites with Ti6Al4V substrate. Though the feedstock Zr power had α phase, LENS™ processing of the Zr powder and Zr-BN premix powder mixture led to the formation of some β phase of Zr. Microstructure of the Zr-BN composite showed primary grains of zirconium diboride phase in zirconium metal matrix. The presence of ZrB2 ceramic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness of pure Zr was measured as 280 ± 12 HV and, by increasing the BN content in the feedstock, the hardness was found to increase. In Zr-5%BN composite, the hardness was 421 ± 10 HV and the same for Zr-10%BN composite was 562 ± 10 HV. It is envisioned that such multi-materials additive manufacturing will enable products in the future that cannot be manufactured using traditional approaches particularly in the areas of high-temperature metal-ceramic composites with compositional and functional gradation.

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of binary Cu64Zr36 bulk metallic glass: Validation of the cluster-plus-glue-atom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Wang, Lu; Zhao, JiJun; Dong, Chuang; Wen, Bin; Wang, Qing

    2011-06-01

    We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of Cu64Zr36 alloy at descending temperatures (from 2000 K to 400 K) and discussed the evolution of short-range order with temperature. The pair-correlation functions, coordination numbers, and chemical compositions of the most abundant local clusters have been analyzed. We found that icosahedral short-range order exists in the liquid, undercooled, and glass states, and it becomes dominant in the glass states. Moreover, we demonstrated the existence of Cu-centered Cu8Zr5 icosahedral clusters as the major local structural unit in the Cu64Zr36 amorphous alloy. This finding agrees well with our previous cluster model of Cu-Zr-based BMG as well as experimental evidences from synchrotron x ray and neutron diffraction measurements.

  11. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  12. Characterization of hot-pressed short ZrO{sub 2} fiber toughened ZrB{sub 2}-based ultra-high temperature ceramics

    SciT

    Lin, Jia, E-mail: 2013113205@xmut.edu.cn; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Houan

    2014-09-15

    Two different ZrB{sub 2}-based ultra-high temperature ceramics were produced by hot pressing: ZrB{sub 2} + 20 vol.% SiC particle + 15 vol.% ZrO{sub 2} fiber and ZrB{sub 2} + 20 vol.% SiC whisker + 15 vol.% ZrO{sub 2} fiber. The microstructures were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that a clean interface without any impurities was identified in ZrB{sub 2}-based hybrid ceramics with SiC whiskers and ZrO{sub 2} fibers, which would significantly improve the toughening mechanism. The results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that stacking faults in SiC whiskers resulted frommore » an insertion of a (111) layer, which would be one of the main reasons for material anisotropy. However, the interface between the SiC particle and ZrO{sub 2} fiber was found to be ambiguous in ZrB{sub 2}-based hybrid ceramics with SiC particles and ZrO{sub 2} fibers due to the slight reaction. The orientation relationship between t-ZrO{sub 2} and m-ZrO{sub 2} phases obeyed the classical correspondence: (100){sub m}//(100){sub t} and [001]{sub m}//〈001〉{sub t}, which further verified the feasibility of phase transformation toughening mechanism. - Highlights: • ZrB{sub 2}-based ceramics toughened by short ZrO{sub 2} fiber are characterized by TEM and HRTEM. • The orientation relationship of t- and m-ZrO{sub 2} are (100){sub m}//(100){sub t}, [001]{sub m}//〈001〉{sub t} • The clean interface without any impurities leads to improve the toughening mechanism.« less

  13. Martensitic transformation in a B2-containing CuZr-based BMG composite revealed by in situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Gian; Lee, Chanho; Hong, Sung Hwan; ...

    2017-06-27

    Here, CuZr-based bulk-metallic-glass (BMG) composites reinforced by a B2-type CuZr crystalline-phase (CP) have been widely studied, and exhibit that the plastic deformation of the CP induces martensitic transformation from the B2 to B19', which plays a dominant role in the deformation behavior and mechanical properties. In the present study, 2.0% Co containing CuZr-based BMG composites were investigated using in-situ neutron-diffraction technique. The in-situ neutron-diffraction results reveal the continuous load transfer from the glass matrix to B2 CP and martensitic transformation from the B2 CP to B19' during the deformation of the composite. Moreover, it was found that the martensitic transformationmore » is initiated at the applied stress higher than 1500 MPa, and is significantly suppressed during the deformation, as compared to other 0.5% Co-containing CuZr-based BMG composites. Based on these in-situ neutron-diffraction results, the martensitic transformation is strongly affected by the amount of the addition of Co, which determines the mechanical properties of CP-reinforced BMG composites, such as ductility and hardening capability.« less

  14. Martensitic transformation in a B2-containing CuZr-based BMG composite revealed by in situ neutron diffraction

    SciT

    Song, Gian; Lee, Chanho; Hong, Sung Hwan

    Here, CuZr-based bulk-metallic-glass (BMG) composites reinforced by a B2-type CuZr crystalline-phase (CP) have been widely studied, and exhibit that the plastic deformation of the CP induces martensitic transformation from the B2 to B19', which plays a dominant role in the deformation behavior and mechanical properties. In the present study, 2.0% Co containing CuZr-based BMG composites were investigated using in-situ neutron-diffraction technique. The in-situ neutron-diffraction results reveal the continuous load transfer from the glass matrix to B2 CP and martensitic transformation from the B2 CP to B19' during the deformation of the composite. Moreover, it was found that the martensitic transformationmore » is initiated at the applied stress higher than 1500 MPa, and is significantly suppressed during the deformation, as compared to other 0.5% Co-containing CuZr-based BMG composites. Based on these in-situ neutron-diffraction results, the martensitic transformation is strongly affected by the amount of the addition of Co, which determines the mechanical properties of CP-reinforced BMG composites, such as ductility and hardening capability.« less

  15. Mechanical properties of Zr41.2Ti13.8Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 bulk metallic glass with different geometric confinements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changqin; Zhang, Haifeng; Sun, Qilei; Liu, Kegao

    2018-03-01

    Zr41.2Ti13.8Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 (Vit 1) bulk metallic glass with Cu sleeves at different positions was prepared by the Cu mold casting method, and the effects of different geometric confinements offered by Cu sleeves on the mechanical properties of Vit 1 were investigated. It was found that the mechanical properties were prominently influenced by different geometric confinements and the plasticity could be modified by optimizing the positions of Cu sleeves. The results revealed that shear band initiation and propagation could be efficiently intervened by changing the radial boundary restraints, which led to quite different mechanical behaviors.

  16. Kinetics of Glass Transition and Crystallization of a Zr40Hf10Ti4Y1Al10Cu25Ni7Co2Fe1 Bulk Metallic Glass with High Mixing Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Pan; Wang, Sibo; Li, Fangwei; Wang, Xinyun

    2018-04-01

    The kinetics of glass transition and crystallization of a novel Zr40Hf10Ti4Y1Al10Cu25Ni7Co2Fe1 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high mixing entropy have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The continuous DSC curves show five stages of crystallization at lower heating rates (≤ 20 K/min). The activation energies of glass transition were determined by Moynihan and Kissinger methods, while the activation energies of crystallization were calculated utilizing Kissinger, Ozawa, and Boswell models. The crystalline phases corresponding to each crystallization step have been found out. The kinetic fragility of Zr40Hf10Ti4Y1Al10Cu25Ni7Co2Fe1 BMG has also been evaluated. Based on the isothermal DSC curves, the Avrami exponent, evaluated from the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation, has been analyzed in detail. The current study reveals that the crystallization behavior of Zr40Hf10Ti4Y1Al10Cu25Ni7Co2Fe1 BMG exhibits characteristics of both the high entropy BMGs and traditional BMGs with a single principal element, leading to its high glass-forming ability.

  17. Bulk amorphous steels based on Fe alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lu, ZhaoPing; Liu, Chain T.

    2006-05-30

    A bulk amorphous alloy has the approximate composition: Fe.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Y.sub.aMn.sub.bT.sub.cM.sub.dX.sub.e wherein: T includes at least one of the group consisting of: Ni, Cu, Cr and Co; M includes at least one of the group consisting of W, Mo, Nb, Ta, Al and Ti; X includes at least one of the group consisting of Co, Ni and Cr; a is an atomic percentage, and a<5; b is an atomic percentage, and b.ltoreq.25; c is an atomic percentage, and c.ltoreq.25; d is an atomic percentage, and d.ltoreq.25; and e is an atomic percentage, and 5.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.30.

  18. Shock wave response of a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Shiming; Lu, Jun; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2002-06-01

    A zirconium-based bulk metallic glass, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (Vit 1), and its composite, Zr56.3Ti13.8Cu6.9Ni5.6Nb5.0Be12.5 (beta-Vit), were subjected to planar impact loading. A surprisingly low amplitude elastic precursor and bulk wave, corresponding to the elastic response of the "frozen structure" of the intact metallic glasses, were observed to precede the rate-dependent large deformation shock wave. A concave downward curvature after the initial increase of the Us-Up shock Hugoniots suggests that a phase-change-like transition occurred during shock compression. Further, compression damage occurred due to the shear localization. The spalling in Vit 1 was induced by shear localization, while in beta-Vit, it was due to debonding of the beta-phase boundary from the matrix. The spall strengths at strain rate of 2 x106 s-1 were determined to be 2.35 and 2.11 GPa for Vit 1 and beta-Vit, respectively.

  19. Bulk and grain-boundary ionic conductivity in sodium zirconophosphosilicate Na3Zr2(SiO4)2PO4 (NASICON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunghammer, S.; Ma, Q.; Rettenwander, D.; Hanzu, I.; Tietz, F.; Wilkening, H. M. R.

    2018-06-01

    Sodium zirconophosphosilicates (Na1+x Zr2(P1-x SixO4)3 (0 < x < 3)) currently experience a kind of renaissance as promising ceramic electrolytes for safe all-solid-state Na batteries. Such energy storage systems are an emerging option for next-generation technologies with attractive cost due to the use of abundant elements as sodium. To identify the right candidates their ion transport properties need to be precisely studied. In many cases less is known about the contributions of blocking grain boundaries to the overall charge carrier transport. Here, we took advantage of broadband impedance and conductivity spectroscopy carried out at sufficiently low temperature to make visible these two contributions for polycrystalline Na3Zr2(SiO4)2PO4. It turned out that ion transport across the grain boundaries of a sintered pellet do not greatly hinder long-range ion dynamics. While bulk ion dynamics in Na3Zr2(SiO4)2PO4 is characterized by 1.0 mS cm-1, the grain boundary ionic conductivity is only slightly lower viz. 0.7 mS cm-1. The latter value is of large practical interest as it allows the realization of all-solid-state Na batteries without strong interfering resistances from grain boundaries.

  20. Synchrotron x-ray scattering investigations of oxygen-induced nucleation in a Zr-based glass-forming alloy.

    SciT

    Wall, J. J.; Almer, J. D.; Vogel, S. C.

    The metallic glass-forming alloy VIT-105 (Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}) was used to study the effect of oxygen on nucleation. Ex situ synchrotron X-ray scattering experiments performed on as-cast samples showed that oxygen leads to the formation of tetragonal and/or cubic phases, depending on oxygen content. The samples crystallized into either a primitive tetragonal phase or the so-called fcc 'big cube' phase in a glassy matrix. A subsequent discussion on the role of oxygen in heterogeneous nucleation in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses is presented.

  1. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Strellis, Dan

    2007-08-01

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals.

  2. An in situ neutron diffraction study of plastic deformation in a Cu 46.5Zr 46.5Al 7 bulk metallic glass composite

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, D. M.; Chen, Yan; Mu, Juan; ...

    2018-05-21

    Micro-mechanical behaviors of a Cu 46.5Zr 46.5Al 7 bulk metallic glass composite in the plastic regime were investigated by continuous in situ neutron diffraction during compression. Three stages of the plastic deformation were observed according to the work-hardening rate. Here, the underlying natures of the work hardening, correlating with the lattice/microscopic strain evolution, are revealed for the three stages: (1) the initiation of shear bands, (2) the phase load transferring from the amorphous phase to the B2 phase and (3) the accelerated martensitic transformation and the work hardening of the polycrystalline phases promoted by the rapid propagation of the shearmore » bands.« less

  3. An in situ neutron diffraction study of plastic deformation in a Cu 46.5Zr 46.5Al 7 bulk metallic glass composite

    SciT

    Wang, D. M.; Chen, Yan; Mu, Juan

    Micro-mechanical behaviors of a Cu 46.5Zr 46.5Al 7 bulk metallic glass composite in the plastic regime were investigated by continuous in situ neutron diffraction during compression. Three stages of the plastic deformation were observed according to the work-hardening rate. Here, the underlying natures of the work hardening, correlating with the lattice/microscopic strain evolution, are revealed for the three stages: (1) the initiation of shear bands, (2) the phase load transferring from the amorphous phase to the B2 phase and (3) the accelerated martensitic transformation and the work hardening of the polycrystalline phases promoted by the rapid propagation of the shearmore » bands.« less

  4. Extraordinary high ductility/strength of the interface designed bulk W-ZrC alloy plate at relatively low temperature

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Z. M.; Liu, R.; Miao, S.; Yang, X. D.; Zhang, T.; Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.; Luo, G. N.; Lian, Y. Y.; Liu, X.

    2015-01-01

    The refractory tungsten alloys with high ductility/strength/plasticity are highly desirable for a wide range of critical applications. Here we report an interface design strategy that achieves 8.5 mm thick W-0.5 wt. %ZrC alloy plates with a flexural strength of 2.5 GPa and a strain of 3% at room temperature (RT) and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of about 100 °C. The tensile strength is about 991 MPa at RT and 582 MPa at 500 °C, as well as total elongation is about 1.1% at RT and as large as 41% at 500 °C, respectively. In addition, the W-ZrC alloy plate can sustain 3.3 MJ/m2 thermal load without any cracks. This processing route offers the special coherent interfaces of grain/phase boundaries (GB/PBs) and the diminishing O impurity at GBs, which significantly strengthens GB/PBs and thereby enhances the ductility/strength/plasticity of W alloy. The design thought can be used in the future to prepare new alloys with higher ductility/strength. PMID:26531172

  5. Deposition rate and substrate temperature effects on the structure and properties of bulk-sputtered OFHC Cu and Cu-0.15Zr. [Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. J.; Mullaly, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Bulk-sputtered OFHC Cu and Cu-0.15 Zr used as inner walls of advanced regeneratively cooled thrust chambers are evaluated as to microstructure, surface topography, and fractography. It is found that under conditions of low substrate temperature, crystallite size and openness of the structure increase with increasing deposition rate for both materials. At elevated temperatures, an equiaxed ductile structure of OFHC Cu is produced only at low deposition rates; at higher deposition rate, open structures are observed with recrystallized equiaxed grains within large poorly bonded crystallites. The Cu-0.15 Zr alloy sputtered from the hollow cathode using a diode discharge shows open-type structures for all conditions evaluated. The use of a triode discharge in generating a dense non-voided structure of Cu-0.15 Zr is discussed.

  6. Magnetic Compton scattering study of Laves phase ZrFe2 and Sc doped ZrFe2: Experiment and Green function based relativistic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Samir; Mund, H. S.; Kumar, Kishor; Bapna, Komal; Dashora, Alpa; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    Spin momentum densities of ferromagnetic ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2 have been measured using magnetic Compton scattering with 182.65 keV circularly polarized synchrotron radiations. Site specific spin moments, which are responsible for the formation of total spin moment, have been deduced from Compton line shapes. At room temperature, the computed spin moment of ZrFe2 is found to be slightly higher than that of Sc doped ZrFe2 which is in consensus with the magnetization data. To compare the experimental data, we have also computed magnetic Compton profiles (MCPs), total and partial spin projected density of states (DOS) and the site specific spin moments using spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. It is observed that the spin moment at Fe site is aligned antiparallel to that of Zr site in both ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2. The MCP results when compared with vibrating sample magnetometer based magnetization data, show a very small contribution of orbital moment in the formation of total magnetic moments in both the compounds. The DOS of ferromagnetic ground state of ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2 are interpreted on the basis of a covalent magnetic model beyond the Stoner rigid band model. It appears that on alloying between a magnetic and a non-magnetic partner (with low valence), a polarization develops on the non-magnetic atom which is anti-parallel to that of the magnetic atom.

  7. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    SciT

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals;more » new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  8. Localized atomic segregation in the spalled area of a Zr50Cu40Al10 bulk metallic glasses induced by laser-shock experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodar, B.; Loison, D.; Yokoyama, Y.; Lescoute, E.; Nivard, M.; Berthe, L.; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-shock experiments were performed on a ternary {Zr50{Cu}40{Al}10} bulk metallic glass. A spalling process was studied through post-mortem analyses conducted on a recovered sample and spall. Scanning electron microscopy magnification of fracture surfaces revealed the presence of a peculiar feature known as cup-cone. Cups are found on sample fracture surface while cones are observed on spall. Two distinct regions can be observed on cups and cones: a smooth viscous-like region in the center and a flat one with large vein-pattern in the periphery. Energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements conducted on these features emphasized atomic distribution discrepancies both on the sample and spall. We propose a mechanism for the initiation and the growth of these features but also a process for atomic segregation during spallation. Cup and cones would originate from cracks arising from shear bands formation (softened paths). These shear bands result from a quadrupolar-shaped atomic disorder engendered around an initiation site by shock wave propagation. This disorder turns into a shear band when tensile front reaches spallation plane. During the separation process, temperature gain induced by shock waves and shear bands generation decreases material viscosity leading to higher atomic mobility. Once in a liquid-like form, atomic clusters migrate and segregate due to inertial effects originating from particle velocity variation (interaction of release waves). As a result, a high rate of copper is found in sample cups and high zirconium concentration is found on spall cones.

  9. Temperature-dependent dielectric and energy-storage properties of Pb(Zr,Sn,Ti)O{sub 3} antiferroelectric bulk ceramics

    SciT

    Chen, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Chenhong

    2016-05-15

    The dielectric and energy-storage properties of Pb{sub 0.99}Nb{sub 0.02}[(Zr{sub 0.60}Sn{sub 0.40}){sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}]{sub 0.98}O{sub 3} (PNZST) bulk ceramics near the antiferroelectric (AFE)-ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary are investigated as a function of temperature. Three characteristic temperatures T{sub 0}, T{sub C}, T{sub 2} are obtained from the dielectric temperature spectrum. At different temperature regions (below T{sub 0}, between T{sub 0} and T{sub C}, and above T{sub C}), three types of hysteresis loops are observed as square double loop, slim loop and linear loop, respectively. The switching fields and recoverable energy density all first increase and then decrease with increasing temperature, and reachmore » their peak values at ∼T{sub 0}. These results provide a convenient method to optimize the working temperature of antiferroelectric electronic devices through testing the temperature dependent dielectric properties of antiferroelectric ceramics.« less

  10. On the combustion mechanisms of ZrH2 in double-base propellant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjing; Zhao, Fengqi; Yuan, Zhifeng; Wang, Ying; An, Ting; Chen, Xueli; Xuan, Chunlei; Zhang, Jiankan

    2017-12-13

    Metal hydrides are regarded as a series of promising hydrogen-supplying fuel for solid rocket propellants. Their effects on the energetic and combustion performances of propellants are closely related to their reaction mechanisms. Here we report a first attempt to determine the reaction mechanism of ZrH 2 , a high-density metal hydride, in the combustion of a double-base propellant to evaluate its potential as a fuel. ZrH 2 is determined to possess good resistance to oxidation by nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Thus its combustion starts with dehydrogenation to generate H 2 and metallic Zr. Subsequently, the newly formed Zr and H 2 participate in the combustion and, especially, Zr melts and then combusts on the burning surface which favors the heat feedback to the propellant. This phenomenon is completely different from the combustion behavior of the traditional fuel Al, where the Al particles are ejected off the burning surface of the propellant to get into the luminous flame zone to burn. The findings in this work validate the potential of ZrH 2 as a hydrogen-supplying fuel for double-base propellants.

  11. Empirically based device modeling of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Adrien; Lu, Shaofeng; Howard, Ian A.; Facchetti, Antonio; Arias, Ana Claudia

    2013-10-01

    An empirically based, open source, optoelectronic model is constructed to accurately simulate organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Bulk heterojunction OPV devices based on a new low band gap dithienothiophene- diketopyrrolopyrrole donor polymer (P(TBT-DPP)) are blended with PC70BM and processed under various conditions, with efficiencies up to 4.7%. The mobilities of electrons and holes, bimolecular recombination coefficients, exciton quenching efficiencies in donor and acceptor domains and optical constants of these devices are measured and input into the simulator to yield photocurrent with less than 7% error. The results from this model not only show carrier activity in the active layer but also elucidate new routes of device optimization by varying donor-acceptor composition as a function of position. Sets of high and low performance devices are investigated and compared side-by-side.

  12. On the Potential of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Dental Implantology: Case Study on Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14.

    PubMed

    Liens, Alethea; Etiemble, Aurélien; Rivory, Pascaline; Balvay, Sandra; Pelletier, Jean-Marc; Cardinal, Sandrine; Fabrègue, Damien; Kato, Hidemi; Steyer, Philippe; Munhoz, Tais; Adrien, Jerome; Courtois, Nicolas; Hartmann, Daniel J; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2018-02-06

    Ti 40 Zr 10 Cu 36 Pd 14 Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) appears very attractive for future biomedical applications thanks to its high glass forming ability, the absence of toxic elements such as Ni, Al or Be and its good mechanical properties. For the first time, a complete and exhaustive characterization of a unique batch of this glassy alloy was performed, together with ISO standard mechanical tests on machined implant-abutment assemblies. The results were compared to the benchmark Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra-Low-Interstitial) to assess its potential in dental implantology. The thermal stability, corrosion and sterilization resistance, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties were measured on samples with a simple geometry, but also on implant-abutment assemblies' prototypes. Results show that the glassy alloy exhibits a quite high thermal stability, with a temperature range of 38 °C between the glass transition and crystallization, a compressive strength of 2 GPa, a certain plastic deformation (0.7%), a hardness of 5.5 GPa and a toughness of 56 MPa.√m. Moreover, the alloy shows a relatively lower Young's modulus (96 GPa) than the Ti-6Al-4V alloy (110-115 GPa), which is beneficial to limit bone stress shielding. The BMG shows a satisfactory cytocompatibility, a high resistance to sterilization and a good corrosion resistance (corrosion potential of -0.07 V/SCE and corrosion current density of 6.0 nA/cm²), which may ensure its use as a biomaterial. Tests on dental implants reveal a load to failure 1.5-times higher than that of Ti-6Al-4V and a comparable fatigue limit. Moreover, implants could be machined and sandblasted by methods usually conducted for titanium implants, without significant degradation of their amorphous nature. All these properties place this metallic glass among a promising class of materials for mechanically-challenging applications such as dental implants.

  13. On the Potential of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Dental Implantology: Case Study on Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14

    PubMed Central

    Liens, Alethea; Etiemble, Aurélien; Rivory, Pascaline; Balvay, Sandra; Pelletier, Jean-Marc; Cardinal, Sandrine; Fabrègue, Damien; Kato, Hidemi; Munhoz, Tais; Adrien, Jerome; Courtois, Nicolas; Hartmann, Daniel J.; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14 Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) appears very attractive for future biomedical applications thanks to its high glass forming ability, the absence of toxic elements such as Ni, Al or Be and its good mechanical properties. For the first time, a complete and exhaustive characterization of a unique batch of this glassy alloy was performed, together with ISO standard mechanical tests on machined implant-abutment assemblies. The results were compared to the benchmark Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra-Low-Interstitial) to assess its potential in dental implantology. The thermal stability, corrosion and sterilization resistance, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties were measured on samples with a simple geometry, but also on implant-abutment assemblies’ prototypes. Results show that the glassy alloy exhibits a quite high thermal stability, with a temperature range of 38 °C between the glass transition and crystallization, a compressive strength of 2 GPa, a certain plastic deformation (0.7%), a hardness of 5.5 GPa and a toughness of 56 MPa.√m. Moreover, the alloy shows a relatively lower Young’s modulus (96 GPa) than the Ti-6Al-4V alloy (110–115 GPa), which is beneficial to limit bone stress shielding. The BMG shows a satisfactory cytocompatibility, a high resistance to sterilization and a good corrosion resistance (corrosion potential of −0.07 V/SCE and corrosion current density of 6.0 nA/cm2), which may ensure its use as a biomaterial. Tests on dental implants reveal a load to failure 1.5-times higher than that of Ti-6Al-4V and a comparable fatigue limit. Moreover, implants could be machined and sandblasted by methods usually conducted for titanium implants, without significant degradation of their amorphous nature. All these properties place this metallic glass among a promising class of materials for mechanically-challenging applications such as dental implants. PMID:29415490

  14. Microbial BOD sensors based on Zr (IV)-loaded collagen fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; He, Li; Chen, Shujuan; Zou, Likou; Zhou, Kang; Ao, Xiaolin; Liu, Shuliang; Hu, Xinjie; Han, Guoquan

    2017-03-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensors based on Zr (IV)-loaded collagen fiber (ZrCF), a novel material with great porous structure, were developed. This novel material shows adsorbability by microorganisms. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli were used for the construction of BOD sensors. Factors affecting BOD sensor performance were examined. The ZrCF-based BOD sensor showed different sensitivities and linear response ranges with different biofilm densities. The amount of microorganisms strongly affected the performance of the BOD sensor. Poor permeability of previously reported immobilization carriers were greatly circumvented by ZrCF. The service life of the ZrCF-based BOD sensor was more than 42 days. The immobilized microorganisms can be stored for more than 6 months under 4°C in PB solution. There was good correlation between the results of the sensor method and the standard 5-day BOD method in the determination of pure organic substrates and real water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wear resistance of CuZr-based amorphous-forming alloys against bearing steel in 3.5% NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiulin; Wang, Hui; Bao, Yayun; Zheng, Dingcong

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the amorphous-crystalline microstructure on the tribocorrosion of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), 6 mm diameter rods of Cu46-xZr47Al7Agx (x = 0, 2, 4) amorphous-forming alloys with in situ crystalline and amorphous phases were fabricated by arc-melting and Cu-mould casting. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer, the tribo-pair composed by CuZr-based amorphous-forming alloys and AISI 52100 steel were studied in 3.5% NaCl solution. With the increase of Ag content from 0 to 4 at.%, the compressive fracture strength and the average hardness decrease firstly and then increase. Moreover, 4 at.% Ag addition increases the amount of amorphous phase obviously and inhibits the formation of brittle crystalline phase, resulting in the improvement of corrosion resistance and the corrosive wear resistance. The primary wear mechanism of the BMG composites is abrasive wear accompanying with corrosive wear. The tribocorrosion mass loss of Cu42Zr47Al7Ag4 composite is 1.5 mg after 816.8 m sliding distance at 0.75 m s-1 sliding velocity under 10 N load in NaCl solution. And the volume loss evaluated from the mass loss is about 20 times lower than that of AISI 304 SS. Thus, Cu42Zr47Al7Ag4 composite may be a good candidate in the tribology application under marine environment.

  16. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass composites.

    PubMed

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Dolors Baró, Maria; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr 48 Cu 48 -  x Al 4 M x (M ≡ Fe or Co, x  = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr 48 Cu 48 Al 4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x  = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr 48 Cu 47.5 Al 4 Co 0.5 and 6.2% in Zr 48 Cu 47.5 Al 4 Fe 0.5 ) is considerably larger than for Zr 48 Cu 48 Al 4 or the alloys with x  = 1. Slight variations in the Young's modulus (around 5-10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite-martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr-Cu-Al-(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications.

  17. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr48Cu48 - x Al4M x (M ≡ Fe or Co, x = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr48Cu48Al4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Co0.5 and 6.2% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Fe0.5) is considerably larger than for Zr48Cu48Al4 or the alloys with x = 1. Slight variations in the Young’s modulus (around 5-10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite-martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr-Cu-Al-(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications.

  18. Study of Adsorption and Desorption Performances of Zr-Based Metal–Organic Frameworks Using Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoting; Chen, Ying; Zheng, Yajun

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic pore systems and high surface areas of flexible metal–organic framework materials make them excellent candidates to be used in different kinds of adsorption processes. However, the adsorption and desorption behaviors of therapeutic drugs on metal–organic frameworks in solution are not fully developed. Here, we systematically investigated the adsorption and desorption behaviors of a typical therapeutic drug, verapamil, over several Zr-based metal–organic frameworks [e.g., Zr-FUM, UiO-66(Zr), UiO-66(Zr)-NH2 and UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH] as well as ZrO2 in an acetonitrile solution by using paper spray mass spectrometry. In contrast to other materials, UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH demonstrated a superior adsorption performance to verapamil due to their strong acid-base and/or hydrogen-bond interactions, and the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. As verapamil-adsorbed materials were used for desorption experiments, ZrO2 demonstrated the most favorable desorption performance, whereas UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH yielded the poorest desorption capability. These Zr-based materials had also been coated at the surface with filter papers for the analysis of various drugs and proteins in the process of paper spray mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that among the studied materials, ZrO2-coated paper gave the most favorable desorption performance as a pure drug solution, whereas the paper from UiO-66(Zr) demonstrated the optimal capability in the analyses of therapeutic drugs in a complex matrix (e.g., blood) and a protein (e.g., myoglobin). PMID:28773131

  19. Study of Adsorption and Desorption Performances of Zr-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoting; Chen, Ying; Zheng, Yajun; Zhang, Zhiping

    2017-07-08

    The dynamic pore systems and high surface areas of flexible metal-organic framework materials make them excellent candidates to be used in different kinds of adsorption processes. However, the adsorption and desorption behaviors of therapeutic drugs on metal-organic frameworks in solution are not fully developed. Here, we systematically investigated the adsorption and desorption behaviors of a typical therapeutic drug, verapamil, over several Zr-based metal-organic frameworks [e.g., Zr-FUM, UiO-66(Zr), UiO-66(Zr)-NH₂ and UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH] as well as ZrO₂ in an acetonitrile solution by using paper spray mass spectrometry. In contrast to other materials, UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH demonstrated a superior adsorption performance to verapamil due to their strong acid-base and/or hydrogen-bond interactions, and the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. As verapamil-adsorbed materials were used for desorption experiments, ZrO₂ demonstrated the most favorable desorption performance, whereas UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH yielded the poorest desorption capability. These Zr-based materials had also been coated at the surface with filter papers for the analysis of various drugs and proteins in the process of paper spray mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that among the studied materials, ZrO₂-coated paper gave the most favorable desorption performance as a pure drug solution, whereas the paper from UiO-66(Zr) demonstrated the optimal capability in the analyses of therapeutic drugs in a complex matrix (e.g., blood) and a protein (e.g., myoglobin).

  20. Breakaway phenomenon of Zr-based alloys during a high-temperature oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The breakaway oxidation phenomena in Zr-based alloys were studied in the temperature range of 950-1200 °C for up to 36 000 s by using a modified thermo-gravimetric analyzer. After the oxidation tests, the oxidation behaviors, breakaway oxidation time, hydrogen pick-up contents, and oxidation rate constants of the alloys were systematically evaluated in this study. The breakaway oxidation time was shortened with an increase of the Sn content in the Zr alloys. A breakaway oxidation phenomenon could be caused by the transition of a tetragonal oxide phase into a monoclinic one, and the oxide transition could lead to form the oxide cracks in both the lateral and radial directions. The cracks within the oxide layer could result in catastrophic increase in the weight gain rates and rapid increase the hydrogen pick-up within the oxygen-stabilized α-Zr and prior β-Zr layers. The oxidation rate constants calculated from the post-breakaway data in the Zr alloys with breakaway oxidation behaviors matched well with the values from both the Baker-Just and Cathcart-Pawel correlations.

  1. EHR-based phenotyping: Bulk learning and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Po-Hsiang; Hripcsak, George

    2017-06-01

    In data-driven phenotyping, a core computational task is to identify medical concepts and their variations from sources of electronic health records (EHR) to stratify phenotypic cohorts. A conventional analytic framework for phenotyping largely uses a manual knowledge engineering approach or a supervised learning approach where clinical cases are represented by variables encompassing diagnoses, medicinal treatments and laboratory tests, among others. In such a framework, tasks associated with feature engineering and data annotation remain a tedious and expensive exercise, resulting in poor scalability. In addition, certain clinical conditions, such as those that are rare and acute in nature, may never accumulate sufficient data over time, which poses a challenge to establishing accurate and informative statistical models. In this paper, we use infectious diseases as the domain of study to demonstrate a hierarchical learning method based on ensemble learning that attempts to address these issues through feature abstraction. We use a sparse annotation set to train and evaluate many phenotypes at once, which we call bulk learning. In this batch-phenotyping framework, disease cohort definitions can be learned from within the abstract feature space established by using multiple diseases as a substrate and diagnostic codes as surrogates. In particular, using surrogate labels for model training renders possible its subsequent evaluation using only a sparse annotated sample. Moreover, statistical models can be trained and evaluated, using the same sparse annotation, from within the abstract feature space of low dimensionality that encapsulates the shared clinical traits of these target diseases, collectively referred to as the bulk learning set. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-phase quasi-equilibrium in β-type Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Pauly, S.; Tang, M. Q.; Eckert, J.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of cast Ti/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) containing β-Ti still remains ambiguous. This is why to date the strategies and alloys suitable for producing such BMGCs with precisely controllable volume fractions and crystallite sizes are still rather limited. In this work, a Ti-based BMGC containing β-Ti was developed in the Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Be system. The glassy matrix of this BMGC possesses an exceptional glass-forming ability and as a consequence, the volume fractions as well as the composition of the β-Ti dendrites remain constant over a wide range of cooling rates. This finding can be explained in terms of a two-phase quasi-equilibrium between the supercooled liquid and β-Ti, which the system attains on cooling. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium allows predicting the crystalline and glassy volume fractions by means of the lever rule and we succeeded in reproducing these values by slight variations in the alloy composition at a fixed cooling rate. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium could be of critical importance for understanding and designing the microstructures of BMGCs containing the β-phase. Its implications on the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase are elaborated. PMID:26754315

  3. Crystal Nucleation and Growth in Undercooled Melts of Pure Zr, Binary Zr-Based and Ternary Zr-Ni-Cu Glass-Forming Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlach, Dieter M.; Kobold, Raphael; Klein, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Glass formation of a liquid undercooled below its melting temperature requires the complete avoidance of crystal nucleation and subsequent crystal growth. Even though they are not part of the glass formation process, a detailed knowledge of both processes involved in crystallization is mandatory to determine the glass-forming ability of metals and metallic alloys. In the present work, methods of containerless processing of drops by electrostatic and electromagnetic levitation are applied to undercool metallic melts prior to solidification. Heterogeneous nucleation on crucible walls is completely avoided giving access to large undercoolings. A freely suspended drop offers the additional benefit of showing the rapid crystallization process of an undercooled melt in situ by proper diagnostic means. As a reference, crystal nucleation and dendrite growth in the undercooled melt of pure Zr are experimentally investigated. Equivalently, binary Zr-Cu, Zr-Ni and Zr-Pd and ternary Zr-Ni-Cu alloys are studied, whose glass-forming abilities differ. The experimental results are analyzed within classical nucleation theory and models of dendrite growth. The findings give detailed knowledge about the nucleation-undercooling statistics and the growth kinetics over a large range of undercooling.

  4. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang

    2016-10-01

    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN.

  5. Low Young's modulus Ti-based porous bulk glassy alloy without cytotoxic elements.

    PubMed

    Nicoara, M; Raduta, A; Parthiban, R; Locovei, C; Eckert, J; Stoica, M

    2016-05-01

    A new a biocompatible Ti42Zr40Ta3Si15 (atomic %) porous bulk glassy alloy was produced by combination of rapid solidification and powder metallurgy techniques. Amorphous alloy ribbons were fabricated by melt spinning, i.e. extremely fast quenching the molten alloy with 10(6)K/s from T=1973K down to room temperature. The ribbons were then cryo-milled at liquid nitrogen temperature in order to produce powder, which was subsequently hot pressed. The resulting thick pellets have a porosity of about 14vol%, a high compression strength of 337MPa and a Young's modulus of about E=52GPa, values very close to those characteristic of cortical bone. Moreover, the morphology of the samples is very similar to that of cortical bone. The biocompatibility, which is due to the absence of any toxic element in the chemical composition, together with the suitable mechanical behavior, make these samples promising for orthopedic and dentistry applications. Ti-based alloys are nowadays the standard solution for biomedical implants. However, both the conventional crystalline and amorphous alloys have higher rigidity as the human bone, leading to the damage of the bone at the interface, and contains harmful elements like vanadium, aluminum, nickel or beryllium. The hierarchical porous structures based on glassy alloys with biocompatible elements is a much better alternative. This work presents for the first time the manufacturing of such porous bodies starting from Ti-based amorphous alloy ribbons, which contains only non-harmful elements. The morphology and the compressive mechanical properties of these new products are analyzed in regard with those characteristic to the cortical bone. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of vacuum and ageing on Zr4/Cr3 based conversion coatings on aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirupathi, Kalaivanan; Bárczy, Pál; Vad, Kálmán; Csik, Attila; Somosvári, Béla Márton

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of ageing and high vacuum on existing environmentally friendly Zr4/Cr3-based conversion coatings. The freshly formed coating undergoes several changes during ageing and exposure to high vacuum. Based on the present data, we propose that the coating formed over AA6082 and AA7075 alloys is sol-gel in nature, confirmed by secondary neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS) using the depth profiling technique. Our findings reveal that there are elemental level changes that result in shrinkage of the coating. Most Zr ions in the coating are in the solute form, with lesser number of Cr and Al ions that disappear under high vacuum over a certain period of time. The remaining Cr, Zr and O atoms exist in a gelatinous state. During ageing, there is a continuous transition of ions from solute to gelatinous state. In addition, the deposition of coating ions is directly influenced by the substrates and their constituents. The extent of dissolution of aluminium in the conversion bath determines both Zr and Cr ion deposition. For a highly alloyed metal like AA7075, the dissolution rate is disturbed by copper and zinc.

  7. Shear band evolution in zirconium/hafnium-based bulk metallic glasses under static and dynamic indentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongwen

    In this thesis, a detailed investigation of thermal stability and mechanical deformation behavior of Zr/Hf-based Bulk Metallic Glasses is conducted. First, systematic studies had been implemented to understand the influence of relative compositions of Zr and Hf on thermal stability and mechanical property evolution. Second, shear band evolution under indentations were investigated experimentally and theoretically. It was found in the present work that gradually replacing Zr by Hf remarkably increases the density and improves the mechanical properties. However, a slight decrease in glass forming ability with increasing Hf content has also been identified through thermodynamic analysis although all the materials in the current study were still found to be amorphous. Many indentation studies have revealed only a few shear bands surrounding the indent on the top surface of the specimen. This small number of shear bands cannot account for the large plastic deformation beneath the indentations. Therefore, a bonded interface technique has been used to observe the slip-steps due to shear band evolution. Vickers indentations were performed along the interface of the bonded split specimen at increasing loads. At small indentation loads, the plastic deformation was primarily accommodated by semi-circular primary shear bands surrounding the indentation. At higher loads, secondary and tertiary shear bands were formed inside this plastic zone. A modified expanding cavity model was then used to predict the plastic zone size characterized by the shear bands and to identify the stress components responsible for the evolution of the various types of shear bands. The applicability of various hardness - yield-strength (H-sigma y) relationships currently available in the literature for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is also investigated. Experimental data generated on ZrHf-based BMGs in the current study and those available elsewhere on other BMG compositions were used to validate the

  8. Empirically based device modeling of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Adrien; Lu, Shaofeng; Howard, Ian A.; Facchetti, Antonio; Arias, Ana Claudia

    2013-04-01

    We develop an empirically based optoelectronic model to accurately simulate the photocurrent in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with novel materials including bulk heterojunction OPV devices based on a new low band gap dithienothiophene-DPP donor polymer, P(TBT-DPP), blended with PC70BM at various donor-acceptor weight ratios and solvent compositions. Our devices exhibit power conversion efficiencies ranging from 1.8% to 4.7% at AM 1.5G. Electron and hole mobilities are determined using space-charge limited current measurements. Bimolecular recombination coefficients are both analytically calculated using slowest-carrier limited Langevin recombination and measured using an electro-optical pump-probe technique. Exciton quenching efficiencies in the donor and acceptor domains are determined from photoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, dielectric and optical constants are experimentally determined. The photocurrent and its bias-dependence that we simulate using the optoelectronic model we develop, which takes into account these physically measured parameters, shows less than 7% error with respect to the experimental photocurrent (when both experimentally and semi-analytically determined recombination coefficient is used). Free carrier generation and recombination rates of the photocurrent are modeled as a function of the position in the active layer at various applied biases. These results show that while free carrier generation is maximized in the center of the device, free carrier recombination is most dominant near the electrodes even in high performance devices. Such knowledge of carrier activity is essential for the optimization of the active layer by enhancing light trapping and minimizing recombination. Our simulation program is intended to be freely distributed for use in laboratories fabricating OPV devices.

  9. Systems and Methods for Implementing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Macroscale Compliant Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Agnes, Gregory (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement bulk metallic glass-based macroscale compliant mechanisms. In one embodiment, a bulk metallic glass-based macroscale compliant mechanism includes: a flexible member that is strained during the normal operation of the compliant mechanism; where the flexible member has a thickness of 0.5 mm; where the flexible member comprises a bulk metallic glass-based material; and where the bulk metallic glass-based material can survive a fatigue test that includes 1000 cycles under a bending loading mode at an applied stress to ultimate strength ratio of 0.25.

  10. Afterglow based detection and dosimetry of beta particle irradiated ZrO2.

    PubMed

    Salas-Juárez, Ch J; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Avilés-Monreal, R; Bernal, R

    2018-08-01

    In this work, we report on the afterglow (AG) response characterization of commercially available ZrO 2 . Pellet shaped samples previously annealed in air at 1000°C during 24h were exposed to beta particle irradiation in the dose range from 0.5 up to 128Gy and their AG decay curves recorded during 600s after irradiation exposure. The characteristic glow curves of beta particle irradiated ZrO 2 show two maxima located around 80°C and 150°C. The first one rapidly vanishes at room temperature, giving rise to AG. The integrated AG signal increases as dose increases from 0.5 to 128Gy, with a linear dependence from 0.5 up to ca. 32Gy. Excellent reproducibility of the AG response was observed in 10 irradiation - AG readout cycles, showing that the studied ZrO 2 samples are reusable. The results here presented show that ZrO 2 is a promising material for use as a radiation dosimeter based on the AG phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Cu Clad Cu-Zr Based Metallic Glass and Its Solderability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terajima, Takeshi; Kimura, Hisamichi; Inoue, Akihisa

    Soldering is a candidate technique for joining metallic glasses. It can be processed far below the crystallization temperatures of the various metallic glasses so that there is no possibility of crystallization. However, wettability of Cu-Zr based metallic glass by Pb free solder is poor because a strong surface oxide film interferes direct contact between them. To overcome the problem, Cu thin film clad metallic glass was developed. It was preliminary produced by casting a melt of Cu36Zr48Al8Ag8 pre-alloy into Cu mold cavity, inside which Cu thin film with 2 mm in thickness was set on the wall. Cu36Zr48Al8Ag8 metallic glass, whose surface Cu thin film was welded to, was successfully produced. From the microstructure analyses, it was found that reaction layer was formed at the interface between Cu and Cu36Zr48Al8Ag8 metallic glass, however, there was no oxide in the Cu clad layer. Solderability to the metallic glass was drastically increased. The Cu clad layer played an important role to prevent the formation of surface oxide film and consequently improved the solderability.

  12. The Vitrification and Determination of the Crystallization Time Scales of a Zr58.5Nb2.8Cu15.6Ni12.8Al10.3 Bulk Metallic Glass Forming Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, C. C.; Schroers, J.; Johnson, W. L.; Rathz, T. J.; Hyers, R. W.; Rogers, J. R.; Robinson, M. B.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Zr58.5Nb2.8Cul5.6Nil2.8All0.3 is the first bulk glass forming liquid that does not contain beryllium to be vitrified by purely radiative cooling in the containerless electrostatic levitation process. The measured critical cooling rate is 1.75 K/s. The sluggish crystallization kinetics enable the determination of the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram between the liquidus and the glass transition temperatures. At the nose of the TTT diagram, the shortest time to reach crystallization in an isothermal experiment is 32 seconds. In contrast to other bulk metallic glasses the scatter in the crystallization onset times are small at both high and low temperatures.

  13. Combinatorial Investigation of ZrO2-Based Dielectric Materials for Dynamic Random-Access Memory Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, Yuji; Itaka, Kenji; Iwashita, Yuta; Adachi, Tetsuya; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Ogura, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    We investigated zirconia (ZrO2)-based material libraries in search of new dielectric materials for dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) by combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition (combi-PLD). We found that the substitution of yttrium (Y) to Zr sites in the ZrO2 system suppressed the leakage current effectively. The metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor property of this system showed a leakage current density of less than 5×10-7 A/cm2 and the dielectric constant was 20. Moreover, the addition of titanium (Ti) or tantalum (Ta) to this system caused the dielectric constant to increase to ˜25 within the allowed leakage level of 5×10-7 A/cm2. Therefore, Zr-Y-Ti-O and Zr-Y-Ta-O systems have good potentials for use as new materials with high dielectric constants of DRAM capacitors instead of silicon dioxides (SiO2).

  14. Effect of Surface Modifications of Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 Bulk Metallic Glass and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy on Human Osteoblasts In Vitro Biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Blanquer, Andreu; Hynowska, Anna; Nogués, Carme; Ibáñez, Elena; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Özkale, Berna; Pané, Salvador; Pellicer, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The use of biocompatible materials, including bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), for tissue regeneration and transplantation is increasing. The good mechanical and corrosion properties of Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG and its previously described biocompatibility makes it a potential candidate for medical applications. However, it is known that surface properties like topography might play an important role in regulating cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Thus, in the present study, Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG and Ti6-Al-4V alloy were surface-modified electrochemically (nanomesh) or physically (microscratched) to investigate the effect of material topography on human osteoblasts cells (Saos-2) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. For comparative purposes, the effect of mirror-like polished surfaces was also studied. Electrochemical treatments led to a highly interconnected hierarchical porous structure rich in oxides, which have been described to improve corrosion resistance, whereas microscratched surfaces showed a groove pattern with parallel trenches. Cell viability was higher than 96% for the three topographies tested and for both alloy compositions. In all cases, cells were able to adhere, proliferate and differentiate on the alloys, hence indicating that surface topography plays a minor role on these processes, although a clear cell orientation was observed on microscratched surfaces. Overall, our results provide further evidence that Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG is an excellent candidate, in the present two topographies, for bone repair purposes. PMID:27243628

  15. Processing and characterization of Zr-based metallic glass by laser direct deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Heehun

    Bulk Metallic Glass has become famous for its exceptional mechanical and corrosion properties. Especially, Zirconium has been the prominent constituent in Bulk Metallic Glass due to its superior glass forming ability, the ability to form amorphous phase with low cooling rate, thereby giving advantages in structural applications. In this study, Zirconium powder was alloyed with Aluminum, Nickel and Copper powder at an atomic ratio of 65:10:10:15, respectively. Using the ball milling process to mix the powders, Zr65Al10Ni 10Cu15 amorphous structure was manufactured by laser direct deposition. Laser power and laser scanning speed were optimized to increase the fraction of amorphous phase. X-ray Diffraction confirmed the existence of both amorphous and crystalline phase by having a wide halo peak and sharp intense peak in the spectrum. Differential Scanning Calorimetry proved the presence of amorphous phase and glass transition was observed to be around 655 K. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of the deposited sample to have repetitive amorphous and crystalline phase as XRD examined. Crystalline phase resulted from the laser reheating and remelting process due to subsequent laser scan. Laser direct deposited amorphous/crystalline composite showed Vickers Hardness of 670 Hv and exhibited improved corrosion resistance in comparison to fully-crystallized sample. The compression test showed that, due to the existence of crystalline phase, fracture strain of Zr65Al10Ni10Cu 15 amorphous composites was enhanced from less than 2% to as high as 5.7%, compared with fully amorphous metallic glass.

  16. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-01

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (–PO32−–Zr4+–) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A520nm/A650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP. PMID:27754349

  17. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV).

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-10-12

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (-PO₃ 2- -Zr 4+ -) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A 520nm / A 650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP.

  18. (89)Zr-Oxine Complex PET Cell Imaging in Monitoring Cell-based Therapies.

    PubMed

    Sato, Noriko; Wu, Haitao; Asiedu, Kingsley O; Szajek, Lawrence P; Griffiths, Gary L; Choyke, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    To develop a clinically translatable method of cell labeling with zirconium 89 ((89)Zr) and oxine to track cells with positron emission tomography (PET) in mouse models of cell-based therapy. This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. (89)Zr-oxine complex was synthesized in an aqueous solution. Cell labeling conditions were optimized by using EL4 mouse lymphoma cells, and labeling efficiency was examined by using dendritic cells (DCs) (n = 4), naïve (n = 3) and activated (n = 3) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), and natural killer (NK) (n = 4), bone marrow (n = 4), and EL4 (n = 4) cells. The effect of (89)Zr labeling on cell survival, proliferation, and function were evaluated by using DCs (n = 3) and CTLs (n = 3). Labeled DCs (444-555 kBq/[5 × 10(6)] cells, n = 5) and CTLs (185 kBq/[5 × 10(6)] cells, n = 3) transferred to mice were tracked with microPET/CT. In a melanoma immunotherapy model, tumor targeting and cytotoxic function of labeled CTLs were evaluated with imaging (248.5 kBq/[7.7 × 10(6)] cells, n = 4) and by measuring the tumor size (n = 6). Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare labeling conditions, the Wilcoxon test was used to assess cell survival and proliferation, and Holm-Sidak multiple tests were used to assess tumor growth and perform biodistribution analyses. (89)Zr-oxine complex was synthesized at a mean yield of 97.3% ± 2.8 (standard deviation). It readily labeled cells at room temperature or 4°C in phosphate-buffered saline (labeling efficiency range, 13.0%-43.9%) and was stably retained (83.5% ± 1.8 retention on day 5 in DCs). Labeling did not affect the viability of DCs and CTLs when compared with nonlabeled control mice (P > .05), nor did it affect functionality. (89)Zr-oxine complex enabled extended cell tracking for 7 days. Labeled tumor-specific CTLs accumulated in the tumor (4.6% on day 7) and induced tumor regression (P < .05 on day 7). We have developed a (89)Zr-oxine complex cell tracking technique

  19. 89Zr-Oxine Complex PET Cell Imaging in Monitoring Cell-based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haitao; Asiedu, Kingsley O.; Szajek, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Gary L.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a clinically translatable method of cell labeling with zirconium 89 (89Zr) and oxine to track cells with positron emission tomography (PET) in mouse models of cell-based therapy. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. 89Zr-oxine complex was synthesized in an aqueous solution. Cell labeling conditions were optimized by using EL4 mouse lymphoma cells, and labeling efficiency was examined by using dendritic cells (DCs) (n = 4), naïve (n = 3) and activated (n = 3) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), and natural killer (NK) (n = 4), bone marrow (n = 4), and EL4 (n = 4) cells. The effect of 89Zr labeling on cell survival, proliferation, and function were evaluated by using DCs (n = 3) and CTLs (n = 3). Labeled DCs (444–555 kBq/[5 × 106] cells, n = 5) and CTLs (185 kBq/[5 × 106] cells, n = 3) transferred to mice were tracked with microPET/CT. In a melanoma immunotherapy model, tumor targeting and cytotoxic function of labeled CTLs were evaluated with imaging (248.5 kBq/[7.7 × 106] cells, n = 4) and by measuring the tumor size (n = 6). Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare labeling conditions, the Wilcoxon test was used to assess cell survival and proliferation, and Holm-Sidak multiple tests were used to assess tumor growth and perform biodistribution analyses. Results 89Zr-oxine complex was synthesized at a mean yield of 97.3% ± 2.8 (standard deviation). It readily labeled cells at room temperature or 4°C in phosphate-buffered saline (labeling efficiency range, 13.0%–43.9%) and was stably retained (83.5% ± 1.8 retention on day 5 in DCs). Labeling did not affect the viability of DCs and CTLs when compared with nonlabeled control mice (P > .05), nor did it affect functionality. 89Zr-oxine complex enabled extended cell tracking for 7 days. Labeled tumor-specific CTLs accumulated in the tumor (4.6% on day 7) and induced tumor regression (P < .05 on day 7). Conclusion We have developed a 89Zr

  20. Computer simulation of the matrix-inclusion interphase in bulk metallic glass based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokotin, V.; Hermann, H.; Eckert, J.

    2011-10-01

    Atomistic models for matrix-inclusion systems are generated. Analyses of the systems show that interphase layers of finite thickness appear interlinking the surface of the nanocrystalline inclusion and the embedding amorphous matrix. In a first approximation, the interphase is characterized as an amorphous structure with a density slightly reduced compared to that of the matrix. This result holds for both monatomic hard sphere systems and a Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 alloy simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). The elastic shear and bulk modulus of the interphase are calculated by simulated deformation of the MD systems. Both moduli diminish with decreasing density but the shear modulus is more sensitive against density reduction by one order of magnitude. This result explains recent observations of shear band initiation at the amorphous-crystalline interface during plastic deformation.

  1. Effects of chemical composition and test conditions on the dynamic tensile response of Zr-based metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Laws, K.; Martinez, D.; Trujillo, C. P.; Brown, A. D.; Cerreta, E. K.; Hazell, P. J.; Ferry, M.; Quadir, M. Z.; Jiang, J.; Escobedo, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of impact velocity and temperature on the dynamic mechanical behavior of two bulk metallic (BMG) alloys with slightly different elemental compositions (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al30 and Zr46Cu38Ag8Al38) have been investigated. Bullet-shaped samples were accelerated by a gas gun to speeds in the 400˜600m/s range and tested at both room temperature and 250°C. The samples impacted steel extrusion dies which subjected the bullets to high strains at relatively high strain-rates. The extruded fragments were subsequently soft recovered by using low density foams and examined by means of optical/scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that shear banding was the dictating mechanism responsible for the fracture of all BMGs. At room temperature, the Zr55Cu30Ni5Al30 alloy exhibited a higher resistance to fragmentation than the Zr46Cu38Ag8Al38 alloy. At 250°C, significant melting was observed in the recovered fragments of both alloys, which indicates that the BMG glassy structure undergoes a melting process and deformation likely occurs homogeneously.

  2. Nanopatterned bulk metallic glass-based biomaterials modulate macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Mahdis; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Morris, Aaron H; Cheung, Bettina; Smith, Ryan; Schroers, Jan; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2018-06-01

    Polarization of macrophages by chemical, topographical and mechanical cues presents a robust strategy for designing immunomodulatory biomaterials. Here, we studied the ability of nanopatterned bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a new class of metallic biomaterials, to modulate murine macrophage polarization. Cytokine/chemokine analysis of IL-4 or IFNγ/LPS-stimulated macrophages showed that the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-12, CCL-2 and CXCL1 was significantly reduced after 24-hour culture on BMGs with 55 nm nanorod arrays (BMG-55). Additionally, under these conditions, macrophages increased phagocytic potential and exhibited decreased cell area with multiple actin protrusions. These in vitro findings suggest that nanopatterning can modulate biochemical cues such as IFNγ/LPS. In vivo evaluation of the subcutaneous host response at 2 weeks demonstrated that the ratio of Arg-1 to iNOS increased in macrophages adjacent to BMG-55 implants, suggesting modulation of polarization. In addition, macrophage fusion and fibrous capsule thickness decreased and the number and size of blood vessels increased, which is consistent with changes in macrophage responses. Our study demonstrates that nanopatterning of BMG implants is a promising technique to selectively polarize macrophages to modulate the immune response, and also presents an effective tool to study mechanisms of macrophage polarization and function. Implanted biomaterials elicit a complex series of tissue and cellular responses, termed the foreign body response (FBR), that can be influenced by the polarization state of macrophages. Surface topography can influence polarization, which is broadly characterized as either inflammatory or repair-like. The latter has been linked to improved outcomes of the FBR. However, the impact of topography on macrophage polarization is not fully understood, in part, due to a lack of high moduli biomaterials that can be reproducibly processed at the nanoscale. Here, we studied

  3. Light transmittance and micro-mechanical properties of bulk fill vs. conventional resin based composites.

    PubMed

    Bucuta, Stefan; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the blue light that passes through different incremental thicknesses of bulk fill in comparison to conventional resin-based composites (RBCs) and to relate it to the induced mechanical properties. Seven bulk fill, five nanohybrid and two flowable RBCs were analysed. Specimens (n = 5) of three incremental thicknesses (2, 4 and 6 mm) were cured from the top for 20 s, while at the bottom, a spectrometer monitored in real time the transmitted irradiance. Micro-mechanical properties (Vickers hardness, HV, and indentation modulus, E) were measured at the top and bottom after 24 h of storage in distilled water at 37 °C. Electron microscope images were taken for assessing the filler distribution and size. Bulk fill RBCs (except SonicFill) were more translucent than conventional RBCs. Low-viscosity bulk fill materials showed the lowest mechanical properties. HV depends highly on the following parameters: material (ηp (2) = 0.952), incremental thickness (0.826), filler volume (0.747), filler weight (0.746) and transmitted irradiance (0.491). The bottom-to-top HV ratio (HVbt) was higher than 80 % in all materials in 2- and 4-mm increments (except for Premise), whereas in 6-mm increments, this is valid only in four bulk fill materials (Venus Bulk Fill, SDR, x-tra fil, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill). The depth of cure is dependent on the RBC's translucency. Low-viscosity bulk fill RBCs have lower mechanical properties than all other types of analysed materials. All bulk fill RBCs (except SonicFill) are more translucent for blue light than conventional RBCs. Although bulk fill RBCs are generally more translucent, the practitioner has to follow the manufacturer's recommendations on curing technique and maximum incremental thickness.

  4. Thermal stability and specular reflection behaviour of CoNbZr-based bottom spin valves with nano-oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Lee, Seong-Rae

    2004-06-01

    The thermal stability and specularity aspects of a CoNbZr-based bottom spin valve (SV) employing a nano-oxide layer (NOL) were investigated. The magnetoresistance (MR) ratio of the as-deposited CoNbZr-based bottom SV increased by 62% (from 6.3 to 10.2%) with incorporation of the NOL. The enhancement of the MR ratio was considered to be due to the specular effect ( increased from 0.722 to 1.363 cm) of the NOL. The MR ratio of a Ta-based bottom SV decreased by about 45% (from 6.9 to 3.8%) when the samples were annealed at 300 °C for 240 min. By contrast, the MR ratio of the CoNbZr-based bottom SV with NOL increase d by 14 % (from 10.2 to 11.7%). The root mean square roughness value of the CoNbZr layer (0.07 nm) was superior to that of the Ta layer (0.43 nm). Although Mn in IrMn diffused out to the surface through the active layers resulting in the formation of Mn oxide at the surface in the CoNbZr-based bottom SV, no trace of Mn was found in the active layers and no significant degradation occurred.

  5. Role of ZrO 2 in Promoting the Activity and Selectivity of Co-Based Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts

    SciT

    Johnson, Gregory R.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-11-17

    The effects of Zr promotion on the structure and performance of Co-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were investigated. Inclusion of Zr in the catalysts was found to increase the FTS turnover frequency and the selectivity to C 5+ hydrocarbons and to decrease the selectivity to methane under most operating conditions. These improvements to the catalytic performance are a function of Zr loading up to an atomic ratio of Zr/Co = 1.0, above which the product selectivity is insensitive to higher concentrations of the promoter. Characterization of the Co nanoparticles by different methods demonstrated that the optimal Zr loading corresponds tomore » half monolayer coverage of the Co surface by the promoter. Measurements of the rate of FTS at different pressures and temperatures established that the kinetics data for both the Zr-promoted and unpromoted catalysts are described by a two-parameter Langmuir-Hinshelwood expression. The parameters used to fit this rate law to the experimental data indicate that the apparent rate coefficient and the CO adsorption constant for the Zr-promoted catalysts are higher than those for the unpromoted catalyst. Elemental mapping by means of STEM-EDS provided evidence that Zr is highly dispersed over the catalyst surface and has limited preference for association with the Co nanoparticles. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the absence of mixing between the Zr and Co in the nanoparticles. Here, these results suggest that Zr exists as a partial layer of ZrO 2 on the surface of the Co metal nanoparticles. Accordingly, it is proposed that Zr promotion effects originate from sites of enhanced activity at the interface between Co and ZrO 2. The possibility that ZrO 2 acts as a Lewis acid to assist in CO dissociation as well as to increase the ratio of CO to H adsorbed on the catalyst surface is discussed.« less

  6. Optimizing bulk milk dioxin monitoring based on costs and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lascano-Alcoser, V H; Velthuis, A G J; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Hoogenboom, L A P; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2013-07-01

    Dioxins are environmental pollutants, potentially present in milk products, which have negative consequences for human health and for the firms and farms involved in the dairy chain. Dioxin monitoring in feed and food has been implemented to detect their presence and estimate their levels in food chains. However, the costs and effectiveness of such programs have not been evaluated. In this study, the costs and effectiveness of bulk milk dioxin monitoring in milk trucks were estimated to optimize the sampling and pooling monitoring strategies aimed at detecting at least 1 contaminated dairy farm out of 20,000 at a target dioxin concentration level. Incidents of different proportions, in terms of the number of contaminated farms, and concentrations were simulated. A combined testing strategy, consisting of screening and confirmatory methods, was assumed as well as testing of pooled samples. Two optimization models were built using linear programming. The first model aimed to minimize monitoring costs subject to a minimum required effectiveness of finding an incident, whereas the second model aimed to maximize the effectiveness for a given monitoring budget. Our results show that a high level of effectiveness is possible, but at high costs. Given specific assumptions, monitoring with 95% effectiveness to detect an incident of 1 contaminated farm at a dioxin concentration of 2 pg of toxic equivalents/g of fat [European Commission's (EC) action level] costs €2.6 million per month. At the same level of effectiveness, a 73% cost reduction is possible when aiming to detect an incident where 2 farms are contaminated at a dioxin concentration of 3 pg of toxic equivalents/g of fat (EC maximum level). With a fixed budget of €40,000 per month, the probability of detecting an incident with a single contaminated farm at a dioxin concentration equal to the EC action level is 4.4%. This probability almost doubled (8.0%) when aiming to detect the same incident but with a dioxin

  7. Penny-shaped crack propagation in spallation of Zr-BMGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Z.; Huang, X.; Dai, L. H.

    2015-09-01

    Typical penny-shaped microcracks at their propagating in spallation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass (Zr-BMG) samples were captured by a specially designed plate impact technique. Based on the morphology and stress environment of the microcrack, a damaged zone or propagation zone around the crack tips, similar to the cohesive zone in classical fracture theories, is applied. Especially the scale of such a damaged zone represents a scale of the crack propagation. Its fast propagation would quickly bring a longer crack or cause cracks coalesce to form another longer one. The estimated propagation scales of microcracks are reasonable compared with what occurred in the Zr-BMG samples.

  8. Mechanism-based modeling of solute strengthening: application to thermal creep in Zr alloy

    SciT

    Tome, Carlos; Wen, Wei; Capolungo, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    This report focuses on the development of a physics-based thermal creep model aiming to predict the behavior of Zr alloy under reactor accident condition. The current models used for this kind of simulations are mostly empirical in nature, based generally on fits to the experimental steady-state creep rates under different temperature and stress conditions, which has the following limitations. First, reactor accident conditions, such as RIA and LOCA, usually take place in short times and involve only the primary, not the steady-state creep behavior stage. Moreover, the empirical models cannot cover the conditions from normal operation to accident environments. Formore » example, Kombaiah and Murty [1,2] recently reported a transition between the low (n~4) and high (n~9) power law creep regimes in Zr alloys depending on the applied stress. Capturing such a behavior requires an accurate description of the mechanisms involved in the process. Therefore, a mechanism-based model that accounts for the evolution with time of microstructure is more appropriate and reliable for this kind of simulation.« less

  9. Hafnium-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Kinetic Energy Penetrators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    uranium -based (DU) and tungsten- nickel -iron (W-Ni-Fe) composite kinetic energy (KE) munitions is primarily ascribed to their high densities (U: ρ...based on an invariant point identified in the hafnium- copper- nickel ternary system. They are denser than zirconium-based glass-forming compositions...depleted- uranium penetrators. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Criterion for Effective Kinetic Energy Penetrator Performance The lethality of depleted

  10. Effect of SiC Content on the Ablation and Oxidation Behavior of ZrB2-Based Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Gui, Kaixuan; Yang, Yang; Dong, Shun; Zhang, Xinghong

    2013-01-01

    The ablation and oxidation of ZrB2-based ultra high temperature ceramic (UHTC) composites containing 10%, 15% and 30% v/v SiC were tested under different heat fluxes in a high frequency plasma wind tunnel. Performance was significantly affected by the surface temperature, which was strongly dependent on the composition. Composites containing 10% SiC showed the highest surface temperature (>2300 °C) and underwent a marked degradation under both conditions. In contrast, composites with 30% SiC exhibited the lowest surface temperature (<2000 °C) and demonstrated excellent ablation resistance. The surface temperature of UHTCs in aerothermal testing was closely associated with the dynamic evolution of the surface and bulk oxide properties, especially for the change in chemical composition on the exposed surface, which was strongly dependent on the material composition and testing parameters (i.e., heat flux, enthalpy, pressure and test time), and in turn affected its oxidation performance. PMID:28809239

  11. Effect of SiC Content on the Ablation and Oxidation Behavior of ZrB₂-Based Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Composites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Gui, Kaixuan; Yang, Yang; Dong, Shun; Zhang, Xinghong

    2013-04-29

    The ablation and oxidation of ZrB₂-based ultra high temperature ceramic (UHTC) composites containing 10%, 15% and 30% v/v SiC were tested under different heat fluxes in a high frequency plasma wind tunnel. Performance was significantly affected by the surface temperature, which was strongly dependent on the composition. Composites containing 10% SiC showed the highest surface temperature (>2300 °C) and underwent a marked degradation under both conditions. In contrast, composites with 30% SiC exhibited the lowest surface temperature (<2000 °C) and demonstrated excellent ablation resistance. The surface temperature of UHTCs in aerothermal testing was closely associated with the dynamic evolution of the surface and bulk oxide properties, especially for the change in chemical composition on the exposed surface, which was strongly dependent on the material composition and testing parameters ( i.e. , heat flux, enthalpy, pressure and test time), and in turn affected its oxidation performance.

  12. A new (Ba, Ca) (Ti, Zr)O3 based multiferroic composite with large magnetoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed-Ul-Haq, M.; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Salamon, Soma; Wende, Heiko; Trivedi, Harsh; Mumtaz, Arif; Lupascu, Doru C.

    2016-08-01

    The lead-free ferroelectric 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 - 0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT) is a promising component for multifunctional multiferroics due to its excellent room temperature piezoelectric properties. Having a composition close to the polymorphic phase boundary between the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases, it deserves a case study for analysis of its potential for modern electronics applications. To obtain magnetoelectric coupling, the piezoelectric phase needs to be combined with a suitable magnetostrictive phase. In the current article, we report on the synthesis, dielectric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric characterization of a new magnetoelectric multiferroic composite consisting of BCZT as a piezoelectric phase and CoFe2O4 (CFO) as the magnetostrictive phase. We found that this material is multiferroic at room temperature and manifests a magnetoelectric effect larger than that of BaTiO3 -CoFe2O4 bulk composites with similar content of the ferrite phase.

  13. A new (Ba, Ca) (Ti, Zr)O3 based multiferroic composite with large magnetoelectric effect

    PubMed Central

    Naveed-Ul-Haq, M.; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Salamon, Soma; Wende, Heiko; Trivedi, Harsh; Mumtaz, Arif; Lupascu, Doru C.

    2016-01-01

    The lead-free ferroelectric 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 − 0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT) is a promising component for multifunctional multiferroics due to its excellent room temperature piezoelectric properties. Having a composition close to the polymorphic phase boundary between the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases, it deserves a case study for analysis of its potential for modern electronics applications. To obtain magnetoelectric coupling, the piezoelectric phase needs to be combined with a suitable magnetostrictive phase. In the current article, we report on the synthesis, dielectric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric characterization of a new magnetoelectric multiferroic composite consisting of BCZT as a piezoelectric phase and CoFe2O4 (CFO) as the magnetostrictive phase. We found that this material is multiferroic at room temperature and manifests a magnetoelectric effect larger than that of BaTiO3 −CoFe2O4 bulk composites with similar content of the ferrite phase. PMID:27555563

  14. Microstructure and hydrogenation properties of a melt-spun non-stoichiometric Zr-based Laves phase alloy

    SciT

    Zhang, Tiebang, E-mail: tiebangzhang@nwpu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yunlong; Li, Jinshan

    2016-01-15

    Alloy with composition of Zr{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}V{sub 1.7} off normal stoichiometric proportion is selected to investigate the effect of defects introduced by non-stoichiometry on hydrogenation kinetics of Zr–Ti–V Laves phase alloys. Microstructure and phase constituent of melt-spun ribbons have been investigated in this work. The activation process, hydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamics characteristics and hydride phase constituent of as-cast alloy and melt-spun ribbons are also compared. Comparing with the as-cast alloy, the dominant Laves phase ZrV{sub 2} is preserved, V-BCC phase is reduced and α-Zr phase is replaced by a small amount of Zr{sub 3}V{sub 3}O phase in melt-spun ribbons. Melt-spun ribbonsmore » exhibit easy activation and fast initial hydrogen absorption on account of the increased specific surface area. However, the decrease in unit cell volume of the dominant phase leads to the decrease in hydrogen absorption capacity. Melt-spinning technique raises the equilibrium pressure and decreases the stability of hydride due to the decrease of unit cell volume and the elimination of α-Zr phase, respectively. Melt-spun ribbons with fine grains show improved hydrogen absorption kinetics comparing with that of the as-cast alloy. Meanwhile, the prevalent micro twins observed within melt-spun ribbons are believed to account for the improved hydrogen absorption kinetics. - Highlights: • Role of defects on hydrogenation kinetics of Zr-based alloys is proposed. • Microstructure and hydrogenation properties of as-cast/melt-spun alloy are compared. • Melt-spinning technique improves the hydrogenation kinetics of Zr{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}V{sub 1.7} alloy. • Refined grains and twin defects account for improved hydrogen absorption kinetics.« less

  15. DFT-based ab initio MD simulation of the ionic conduction in doped ZrO₂ systems under epitaxial strain.

    PubMed

    Oka, M; Kamisaka, H; Fukumura, T; Hasegawa, T

    2015-11-21

    The oxygen ionic conduction in ZrO2 systems under tensile epitaxial strain was investigated by performing ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to elucidate the essential factors in the colossal ionic conductivity observed in the yttria stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ)/SrTiO3 heterostructure. Three factors were evaluated: lattice strain, oxygen vacancies, and dopants. Phonon calculations based on density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) were used to obtain the most stable structure for nondoped ZrO2 under 7% tensile strain along the a- and b-axes. This structure has the space group Pbcn, which is entirely different from that of cubic ZrO2, suggesting that previous ab initio MD calculations assuming cubic ZrO2 may have overestimated the ionic conductivity due to relaxation from the initial structure to the stable structure (Pbcn). Our MD calculations revealed that the ionic conductivity is enhanced only when tensile strain and oxygen vacancies are incorporated, although the presently obtained diffusion constant is far below the range for the colossal ionic conduction experimentally observed. The enhanced ionic conductivity is due to the combined effects of oxygen sublattice formation induced by strain and deformation of this sublattice by oxygen vacancies.

  16. Influence of incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the repair strength of polymethyl methacrylate denture bases

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Mohammed M; Rahoma, Ahmed; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; ArRejaie, Aws S

    2016-01-01

    Background Repeated fracture of the denture base is a common problem in prosthodontics, and it represents a nuisance and a time sink for the clinician. Therefore, the possibility of increasing repair strength using new reinforcement materials is of great interest to prosthodontists. Aim of the study This study aimed to evaluate the effects of incorporation of zirconia nanoparticles (nano-ZrO2) on the flexural strength and impact strength of repaired polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture bases. Materials and methods One hundred eighty specimens of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated (90 for each test) and divided into three main groups: one control group (intact specimens) and two groups divided according to surface design (45° bevels and butt joints), in which specimens were prepared in pairs to create 2.5 mm gaps. Nano-ZrO2 was added to repair resin in 2.5 wt%, 5 wt%, and 7.5 wt% concentrations of acrylic powder. A three-point bending test was used to measure flexural strength, and a Charpy-type test was used to measure impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the fracture surfaces and nano-ZrO2 distribution. The results were analyzed with a paired sample t-test and an unpaired t-test, with a P-value of ≤0.05 being significant. Results Incorporation of nano-ZrO2 into the repair resin significantly increased flexural strength (P<0.05). The highest value was found in the bevel group reinforced with 7.5% nano-ZrO2, whereas the lowest value was found in the butt group reinforced with 2.5% nano-ZrO2. The impact strength values of all repaired groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05). Among repaired groups, the higher impact strength value was seen in the butt group reinforced with 2.5% nano-ZrO2. The bevel joint demonstrated mainly cohesive failure, whereas the butt joint demonstrated mainly adhesive failure. Conclusion Incorporation of nano-ZrO2 into the repair resin improved the flexural strength

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Zr-BASED Amorphous and Crystalline Composite Coating on Ti Substrate by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, D. M.; Zhang, D. C.; Peng, W.; Luo, Z. C.; Wu, X. Q.; Wang, Y. M.; Lin, J. G.

    2014-02-01

    A thin strip of a Zr-based alloy with a composition of Zr60Cu25Fe5Al10 (in atom percent) was used as a raw material, and the composite coatings containing Zr-based amorphous phase and crystallites on Ti substrate were fabricated by a one-step laser cladding method without protection. The microstructure, phase constitution, microhardness and wear properties of the coatings were investigated. The results indicate that the microstructure of the coatings is strongly dependent on the laser scanning speed under the conditions of the laser power of 1300 W and laser beam diameter of 6 mm, and the composite coating mainly containing amorphous phase with a small amount of the crystallites can be obtained at the laser scanning speed of 10 mm/s. The composite coating exhibits much higher microhardness than the pure Ti substrate, and thus it behaves superior wear resistance in comparison with the substrate.

  18. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr 2 Co 11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr 2Co 11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr 16Co 84-xMo x( x = 0 , 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content ( x ≤ 1.5 ). he maximum energy product ( B H ) max increases with increasing x from 0.5 MGOe for x = 0 to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe for x = 1.5 . he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shift Φ rms value of 0.66° are observed for the x = 1.5 . he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  19. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr 2 Co 11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    SciT

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr 2Co 11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr 16Co 84-xMo x( x = 0 , 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content ( x ≤ 1.5 ). he maximum energy product ( B H ) max increases with increasing x from 0.5 MGOe for x = 0 to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe for x = 1.5 . he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shift Φ rms value of 0.66° are observed for the x = 1.5 . he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  20. Solidification kinetics of a Cu-Zr alloy: ground-based and microgravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galenko, P. K.; Hanke, R.; Paul, P.; Koch, S.; Rettenmayr, M.; Gegner, J.; Herlach, D. M.; Dreier, W.; Kharanzhevski, E. V.

    2017-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical results obtained in the MULTIPHAS-project (ESA-European Space Agency and DLR-German Aerospace Center) are critically discussed regarding solidification kinetics of congruently melting and glass forming Cu50Zr50 alloy samples. The samples are investigated during solidification using a containerless technique in the Electromagnetic Levitation Facility [1]. Applying elaborated methodologies for ground-based and microgravity experimental investigations [2], the kinetics of primary dendritic solidification is quantitatively evaluated. Electromagnetic Levitator in microgravity (parabolic flights and on board of the International Space Station) and Electrostatic Levitator on Ground are employed. The solidification kinetics is determined using a high-speed camera and applying two evaluation methods: “Frame by Frame” (FFM) and “First Frame - Last Frame” (FLM). In the theoretical interpretation of the solidification experiments, special attention is given to the behavior of the cluster structure in Cu50Zr50 samples with the increase of undercooling. Experimental results on solidification kinetics are interpreted using a theoretical model of diffusion controlled dendrite growth.

  1. Effect of Applied Stress on the Mechanical Properties of a Zr-Cu-Ag-Al Bulk Metallic Glass with Two Different Structure States

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heng; Zhang, Taihua; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of applied stress on mechanical properties in metallic glasses, nanoindentation tests were conducted on elastically bent Zr-Cu-Ag-Al metallic glasses with two different structure states. From spherical P-h curves, elastic modulus was found to be independent on applied stress. Hardness decreased by ~8% and ~14% with the application of 1.5% tensile strain for as-cast and 650 K annealed specimens, while it was slightly increased at the compressive side. Yield stress could be obtained from the contact pressure at first pop-in position with a conversion coefficient. The experimental result showed a symmetrical effect of applied stress on strengthening and a reduction of the contact pressure at compressive and tensile sides. It was observed that the applied stress plays a negligible effect on creep deformation in as-cast specimen. While for the annealed specimen, creep deformation was facilitated by applied tensile stress and suppressed by applied compressive stress. Strain rate sensitivities (SRS) were calculated from steady-state creep, which were constant for as-cast specimen and strongly correlated with applied stress for the annealed one. The more pronounced effect of applied stress in the 650 K annealed metallic glass could be qualitatively explained through the variation of the shear transformation zone (STZ) size. PMID:28773065

  2. The adhesion performance of epoxy coating on AA6063 treated in Ti/Zr/V based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Wenfang; Mu, Songlin; Yang, Yunyu; Zuo, Xi

    2016-10-01

    An environment-friendly titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating was prepared on aluminum alloy 6063 (AA6063). The epoxy powder coatings were applied on the AA6063 samples with/without Ti/Zr/V conversion coatings via electrostatic spraying. The morphology and composition of the conversion coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface free energy components of AA6063 samples were measured by a static contact angle measuring device with Owens method. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on AA6063 treated with different conversion times were evaluated using a pull-off tester. The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating was mainly composed of metal oxide (TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5, Al2O3, etc.), metal fluoride (ZrF4, AlF3, etc.) and metal organic complex. The formation time of this conversion coating was reduced to 50 s. After such surface treatment, the samples' surface roughness was increased and the contact angle with water was decreased. Both the surface free energy and the work of adhesion were increased. The adhesion strength between the epoxy coating and AA6063 was enhanced significantly.

  3. Enhancing low-temperature activity and durability of Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts using ZrO 2 supports

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Mi -Young; Kyriakidou, Eleni A.; Choi, Jae -Soon; ...

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we investigated the impact of ZrO 2 on the performance of palladium-based oxidation catalysts with respect to low-temperature activity, hydrothermal stability, and sulfur tolerance. Pd supported on ZrO 2 and SiO 2 were synthesized for a comparative study. Additionally, in an attempt to maximize the ZrO 2 surface area and improve sulfur tolerance, a Pd support with ZrO 2-dispersed onto SiO 2 was studied. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were examined using ICP, N 2 sorption, XRD, SEM, TEM, and NH 3-, CO 2-, and NO x-TPD. The activity of the Pd catalysts were measured frommore » 60 to 600 °C in a flow of 4000 ppm CO, 500 ppm NO, 1000 ppm C 3H 6, 4% O 2, 5% H 2O, and Ar balance. The Pd catalysts were evaluated in fresh, sulfated, and hydrothermally aged states. Overall, the ZrO 2-containing catalysts showed considerably higher CO and C 3H 6 oxidation activity than Pd/SiO 2 under the reaction conditions studied.« less

  4. Pressure Induced Liquid-to-Liquid Transition in Zr-based Supercooled Melts and Pressure Quenched Glasses.

    PubMed

    Dmowski, W; Gierlotka, S; Wang, Z; Yokoyama, Y; Palosz, B; Egami, T

    2017-07-26

    Through high-energy x-ray diffraction and atomic pair density function analysis we find that Zr-based metallic alloy, heated to the supercooled liquid state under hydrostatic pressure and then quenched to room temperature, exhibits a distinct glassy structure. The PDF indicates that the Zr-Zr distances in this glass are significantly reduced compared to those quenched without pressure. Annealing at the glass transition temperature at ambient pressure reverses structural changes and the initial glassy state is recovered. This result suggests that pressure causes a liquid-to-liquid phase transition in this metallic alloy supercooled melt. Such a pressure induced transition is known for covalent liquids, but has not been observed for metallic liquids. The High Pressure Quenched glasses are stable in ambient conditions after decompression.

  5. Pressure Induced Liquid-to-Liquid Transition in Zr-based Supercooled Melts and Pressure Quenched Glasses

    SciT

    Dmowski, W.; Gierlotka, S.; Wang, Z.

    Through high-energy x-ray diffraction and atomic pair density function analysis we find that Zr-based metallic alloy, heated to the supercooled liquid state under hydrostatic pressure and then quenched to room temperature, exhibits a distinct glassy structure. The PDF indicates that the Zr-Zr distances in this glass are significantly reduced compared to those quenched without pressure. Annealing at the glass transition temperature at ambient pressure reverses structural changes and the initial glassy state is recovered. This result suggests that pressure causes a liquid-to-liquid phase transition in this metallic alloy supercooled melt. Such a pressure induced transition is known for covalent liquids,more » but has not been observed for metallic liquids. The High Pressure Quenched glasses are stable in ambient conditions after decompression.« less

  6. Fast and robust standard-deviation-based method for bulk motion compensation in phase-based functional OCT.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang; Camino, Acner; Pi, Shaohua; Cepurna, William; Huang, David; Morrison, John C; Jia, Yali

    2018-05-01

    Phase-based optical coherence tomography (OCT), such as OCT angiography (OCTA) and Doppler OCT, is sensitive to the confounding phase shift introduced by subject bulk motion. Traditional bulk motion compensation methods are limited by their accuracy and computing cost-effectiveness. In this Letter, to the best of our knowledge, we present a novel bulk motion compensation method for phase-based functional OCT. Bulk motion associated phase shift can be directly derived by solving its equation using a standard deviation of phase-based OCTA and Doppler OCT flow signals. This method was evaluated on rodent retinal images acquired by a prototype visible light OCT and human retinal images acquired by a commercial system. The image quality and computational speed were significantly improved, compared to two conventional phase compensation methods.

  7. Characterization of the interface between the bulk glass forming alloy Zr{sub 41}Ti{sub 14}Cu{sub 12}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 23} with pure metals and ceramics

    SciT

    Schroers, Jan; Samwer, Konrad; Szuecs, Frigyes

    The reaction of the bulk glass forming alloy Zr{sub 41}Ti{sub 14}Cu{sub 12}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 23} (Vit 1) with W, Ta, Mo, AlN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Si, graphite, and amorphous carbon was investigated. Vit 1 samples were melted and subsequently solidified after different processing times on discs of the different materials. Sessile drop examinations of the macroscopic wetting of Vit 1 on the discs as a function of temperature were carried out in situ with a digital optical camera. The reactions at the interfaces between the Vit 1 sample and the different disc materials were investigated with an electron microprobe. The structuremore » and thermal stability of the processed Vit 1 samples were examined by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results are discussed in terms of possible applications for composite materials. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society.« less

  8. Estimating canopy bulk density and canopy base height for interior western US conifer stands

    Seth A. Ex; Frederick W. Smith; Tara L. Keyser; Stephanie A. Rebain

    2016-01-01

    Crown fire hazard is often quantified using effective canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH). When CBD and CBH are estimated using nonlocal crown fuel biomass allometries and uniform crown fuel distribution assumptions, as is common practice, values may differ from estimates made using local allometries and nonuniform...

  9. Synthesis and characterisation of ionic liquids based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and MCl(4), M = Hf and Zr.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Paul S; Santini, Catherine C; Bouchu, Denis; Fenet, Bernard; Rycerz, Leszek; Chauvin, Yves; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle; Bessada, Catherine; Rollet, Anne-Laure

    2010-02-07

    Dialkylimidazolium chlorometallate molten salts resulting from the combination of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C(1)C(4)Im][Cl], have been prepared with a molar fraction of MCl(4), R = n(MCl4)/n(MCl4) + n([C1C4IM][Cl]) equal to 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.33, 0.5, 0.67. The structure and composition were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), (35)Cl (263 to 333 K), (1)H and (13)C solid state and solution NMR spectroscopy, and electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry. The primary anions of the MCl(4)-based ILs were [MCl(5)], [MCl(6)] and [M(2)Cl(9)], whose relative abundances varied with R. For R = 0.33, pure solid [C(1)C(4)Im](2)[MCl(6)], for both M = Zr and Hf are formed (m.p. = 366 and 385 K, respectively). For R = 0.67 pure ionic liquids [C(1)C(4)Im][M(2)Cl(9)] for both M = Zr and Hf are formed (T(g) = 224 and 220 K, respectively). The thermal dissociation has been attempted of [C(1)C(4)Im](2)[HfCl(6)], and [C(1)C(4)Im](2)[ZrCl(6)] monitored by (35)Cl and (91)Zr solid NMR (high temperature up to 551 K).

  10. The Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Zr-Based Metallic Glass under Different Strain Rate Compressions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao-Hsing; Tsai, Chih-Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the high strain rate deformation behavior and the microstructure evolution of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under various strain rates were investigated. The influence of strain and strain rate on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior, as well as microstructural properties was also investigated. Before mechanical testing, the structure and thermal stability of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter. The mechanical property experiments and microstructural observations of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under different strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 5.1 × 103 s−1 and at temperatures of 25 °C were investigated using compressive split-Hopkinson bar (SHPB) and an MTS tester. An in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanoindenter was used to carry out compression tests and investigate the deformation behavior arising at nanopillars of the Zr-based metallic glass. The formation and interaction of shear band during the plastic deformation were investigated. Moreover, it was clearly apparent that the mechanical strength and ductility could be enhanced by impeding the penetration of shear bands with reinforced particles. PMID:28788034

  11. Graphene-based topological insulator with an intrinsic bulk band gap above room temperature.

    PubMed

    Kou, Liangzhi; Yan, Binghai; Hu, Feiming; Wu, Shu-Chun; Wehling, Tim O; Felser, Claudia; Chen, Changfeng; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) represent a new quantum state of matter characterized by robust gapless states inside the insulating bulk gap. The metallic edge states of a two-dimensional (2D) TI, known as the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, are immune to backscattering and carry fully spin-polarized dissipationless currents. However, existing 2D TIs realized in HgTe and InAs/GaSb suffer from small bulk gaps (<10 meV) well below room temperature, thus limiting their application in electronic and spintronic devices. Here, we report a new 2D TI comprising a graphene layer sandwiched between two Bi2Se3 slabs that exhibits a large intrinsic bulk band gap of 30-50 meV, making it viable for room-temperature applications. Distinct from previous strategies for enhancing the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling effect of the graphene lattice, the present graphene-based TI operates on a new mechanism of strong inversion between graphene Dirac bands and Bi2Se3 conduction bands. Strain engineering leads to effective control and substantial enhancement of the bulk gap. Recently reported synthesis of smooth graphene/Bi2Se3 interfaces demonstrates the feasibility of experimental realization of this new 2D TI structure, which holds great promise for nanoscale device applications.

  12. Tensile testing method for rare earth based bulk superconductors at liquid nitrogen temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, K.; Katagiri, K.; Murakami, A.; Sato, G.; Sato, T.; Murakami, M.; Sakai, N.; Teshima, H.; Sawamura, M.

    2005-10-01

    Bending tests have been commonly carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of melt-processed rare earth based bulk superconductors. Tensile tests by using small specimen, however, are preferable to evaluate the detailed distribution of the mechanical properties and the intrinsic elastic modulus because no stress distributions exist in the cross-section. In this study, the tensile test method at low temperature by using specimens with the dimensions of 3 × 3 × 4 mm from Y123 and Gd123 bulks was examined. They were glued to Al alloy rods at 400 K by using epoxy resin. Tests were carried out at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) by using the immersion type jig. Although the bending strength in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis of the bulks at LNT is higher than that at room temperature (RT), the tensile strength at LNT was lower than that at RT. Many of specimens fractured near the interface between the specimen and the Al alloy rod at LNT. According to the finite element method analysis, it was shown that there was a peak thermal stress in the loading direction near the interface and it was significantly higher at LNT than that at RT. It was also shown that the replacement of the Al alloy rod to Ti rod of which the coefficient of thermal expansion is close to that of bulks significantly increased the tensile strength.

  13. Boundary Engineering for the Thermoelectric Performance of Bulk Alloys Based on Bismuth Telluride.

    PubMed

    Mun, Hyeona; Choi, Soon-Mok; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Kim, Sung Wng

    2015-07-20

    Thermoelectrics, which transports heat for refrigeration or converts heat into electricity directly, is a key technology for renewable energy harvesting and solid-state refrigeration. Despite its importance, the widespread use of thermoelectric devices is constrained because of the low efficiency of thermoelectric bulk alloys. However, boundary engineering has been demonstrated as one of the most effective ways to enhance the thermoelectric performance of conventional thermoelectric materials such as Bi2 Te3 , PbTe, and SiGe alloys because their thermal and electronic transport properties can be manipulated separately by this approach. We review our recent progress on the enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit through boundary engineering together with the processing technologies for boundary engineering developed most recently using Bi2 Te3 -based bulk alloys. A brief discussion of the principles and current status of boundary-engineered bulk alloys for the enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit is presented. We focus mainly on (1) the reduction of the thermal conductivity by grain boundary engineering and (2) the reduction of thermal conductivity without deterioration of the electrical conductivity by phase boundary engineering. We also discuss the next potential approach using two boundary engineering strategies for a breakthrough in the area of bulk thermoelectric alloys. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Cascade Reductive Etherification of Bioderived Aldehydes over Zr-Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Suhas; Rode, Chandrashekhar

    2017-10-23

    An efficient one-pot catalytic cascade sequence has been developed for the production of value-added ethers from bioderived aldehydes. Etherification of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural with different aliphatic alcohols over acidic Zr-montmorillonite (Zr-Mont) catalyst produced a mixture of 5-(alkoxymethyl)furfural and 2-(dialkoxymethyl)-5-(alkoxymethyl)furan. The latter was selectively converted back into 5-(alkoxymethyl)furfural by treating it with water over the same catalyst. The synthesis of 2,5-bis(alkoxymethyl)furan was achieved through a cascade sequence involving etherification, transfer hydrogenation, and re-etherification over a combination of acidic Zr-Mont and the charge-transfer hydrogenation catalyst [ZrO(OH) 2 ]. This catalyst combination was further explored for the cascade conversion of 2-furfuraldehyde into 2-(alkoxymethyl)furan. The scope of this strategy was then extended for the reductive etherification of lignin-derived arylaldehydes to obtain the respective benzyl ethers in >80 % yield. Additionally, the mixture of Zr-Mont and ZrO(OH) 2 does not undergo mutual destruction, which was proved by recycling experiments and XRD analysis. Both the catalysts were thoroughly characterized using BET, temperature-programmed desorption of NH 3 and CO 2 , pyridine-FTIR, XRD, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Activation characteristics of multiphase Zr-based hydrogen storage alloys for Ni/MH rechargeable batteries

    SciT

    Lee, H.; Lee, S.M.; Lee, J.Y.

    1999-10-01

    AB{sub 2} type Zr-based Laves phase alloys have been studied for possible use as negative electrodes of Ni/MH batteries with high hydrogen storage capacity. However, these alloys have the serious problem of slow activation owing to the formation of surface oxide films. To overcome this problem, alloys with multiphase microstructures have been developed. These alloys become electrochemically active via the creation of micropores by the dissolution of soluble oxide components such as vanadium oxide. However, this phenomenon has been described based only on changes in the chemical composition of the oxide layer. In the present study, this phenomenon is approachedmore » with respect to interactions between the constituent phases. An electrochemical analysis of constituent phases showed that the second phase, resulting in localized Ni-rich pits on the alloy surface. The presence of microcracks at the periphery of the Ni-rich pits after 30 h exposure to KOH electrolyte implies that hydrogen is absorbed preferentially at Ni-rich pits, thereby forming a large active surface area. However, such multiphase alloys have poor cycle durability due to the persistent dissolution of components in the second phase. Through Cr substitution, the authors have developed a family of durable alloys to prevent this unwanted dissolution from the second phase.« less

  16. Damage formation, fatigue behavior and strength properties of ZrO{sub 2}-based ceramics

    SciT

    Kozulin, A. A., E-mail: kozulyn@ftf.tsu.ru; Kulkov, S. S.; Narikovich, A. S.

    It is suggested that a non-destructive testing technique using a three-dimensional X-ray tomography be applied to detecting internal structural defects and monitoring damage formation in a ceramic composite structure subjected to a bending load. Three-point bending tests are used to investigate the fatigue behavior and mechanical and physical properties of medical-grade ZrO{sub 2}-based ceramics. The bending strength and flexural modulus are derived under static conditions at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The fatigue strength and fatigue limit under dynamic loading are investigated at a frequency of 10 Hz in three stress ranges: 0.91–0.98, 0.8–0.83, and 0.73–0.77 MPa of themore » static bending strength. The average values of the bending strength and flexural modulus of sintered specimens are 43 MPa and 22 GPa, respectively. The mechanical properties of the ceramics are found to be similar to those of bone tissues. The testing results lead us to conclude that the fatigue limit obtained from 10{sup 5} stress cycles is in the range 33–34 MPa, i.e. it accounts for about 75% of the static bending strength for the test material.« less

  17. Immobilization of silver nanoparticles in Zr-based MOFs: induction of apoptosis in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Congcong; Yang, Jian; Gu, Jinlou

    2018-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a potential class of nanomaterial for antibiosis and chemotherapeutic effects against human carcinoma cells. However, the DNA-damaging ability of free AgNPs pose the critical issues in their biomedical applications. Herein, we demonstrated a facile method to capture Ag+ ions and reduce them into active AgNPs within Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of UiO-66 with a mild reductant of DMF (AgNPs@UiO-66(DMF)). The average diameters of UiO-66 carriers and AgNPs were facilely controlled to be 140 and 10 nm, respectively. The obtained UiO-66 nanocarriers exhibited excellent biocompatibility and could be effectively endocytosed by cancer cells. Additionally, the AgNPs@UiO-66(DMF) could rapidly release Ag+ ions and efficiently inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the encapsulated AgNPs were calculated to be 2.7 and 2.45 μg mL-1 for SMMC-7721 and HeLa cells, respectively, which were much lower than those of free AgNPs in the reported works. Therefore, the developed AgNPs@UiO-66(DMF) not only maintained the therapeutic effect against cancer cells but also reduced the dosage of free AgNPs in chemotherapy treatment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Methane Adsorption in Zr-Based MOFs: Comparison and Critical Evaluation of Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The search for nanoporous materials that are highly performing for gas storage and separation is one of the contemporary challenges in material design. The computational tools to aid these experimental efforts are widely available, and adsorption isotherms are routinely computed for huge sets of (hypothetical) frameworks. Clearly the computational results depend on the interactions between the adsorbed species and the adsorbent, which are commonly described using force fields. In this paper, an extensive comparison and in-depth investigation of several force fields from literature is reported for the case of methane adsorption in the Zr-based Metal–Organic Frameworks UiO-66, UiO-67, DUT-52, NU-1000, and MOF-808. Significant quantitative differences in the computed uptake are observed when comparing different force fields, but most qualitative features are common which suggests some predictive power of the simulations when it comes to these properties. More insight into the host–guest interactions is obtained by benchmarking the force fields with an extensive number of ab initio computed single molecule interaction energies. This analysis at the molecular level reveals that especially ab initio derived force fields perform well in reproducing the ab initio interaction energies. Finally, the high sensitivity of uptake predictions on the underlying potential energy surface is explored. PMID:29170687

  19. Oxidation of ZrB2-and HfB2-Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics: Effects of Ta Additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth; Levine, Stanley; Lorinez, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Several compositions of ZrB2- and HfB2-based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) were oxidized in stagnant air at 1627 C in ten minute cycles for times up to 100 minutes. These compositions include: ZrB2 - 20v% SiC, HfB2 - 20v% SiC, ZrB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaSi2, ZrB2 - 33v% SiC, HfB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaSi2, and ZrB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaC. The weight change due to oxidation was recorded. The ZrB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaSi2 composition was also oxidized in stagnant air at 1927 C and in an arc jet atmosphere. Samples were analyzed after oxidation by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy to determine the reaction products and to observe the microstructure. The ZrB2 - 20v% SiC - 20v% TaSi2 showed the lowest oxidation rate at 1627 C, but performed poorly under the more extreme tests due to liquid phase formation. Effects of Ta-additions on the oxidation of the diboride-based UHTC are discussed.

  20. Zr diffusion in titanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-11-01

    Chemical diffusion of Zr under anhydrous, pO2-buffered conditions has been measured in natural titanite. The source of diffusant was either zircon powder or a ZrO2-Al2O3-titanite mixture. Experiments were run in sealed silica glass capsules with solid buffers (to buffer at NNO or QFM). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to measure diffusion profiles. The following Arrhenius parameters were obtained for Zr diffusion parallel to c over the temperature range 753-1,100°C under NNO-buffered conditions: D Zr = 5.33 × 10-7 exp(-325 ± 30 kJ mol-1/RT) m2 s-1 Diffusivities are similar for experiments buffered at QFM. These data suggest that titanite should be moderately retentive of Zr chemical signatures, with diffusivities slower than those for O and Pb in titanite, but faster than those for Sr and the REE. When applied in evaluation of the relative robustness of the recently developed Zr-in-titanite geothermometer (Hayden and Watson, Abstract, 16th V.M. Goldschmidt Conference 2006), these findings suggest that Zr concentrations in titanite will be less likely to be affected by later thermal disturbance than the geothermometer based on Zr concentrations in rutile (Zack et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:471-488, 2004; Watson et al. in Contrib Mineral. Petrol, 2006), but much less resistant to diffusional alteration subsequent to crystallization than the Ti-in-Zircon geothermometer (Watson and Harrison in Science 308:841-844, 2005).

  1. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciT

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.

    Recently, Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. Here, we report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination ofmore » DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. Our experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.« less

  2. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciT

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.

    Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recently shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. We report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination ofmore » DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. These experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.« less

  3. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.; ...

    2016-12-30

    Recently, Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. Here, we report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination ofmore » DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. Our experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.« less

  4. The preparation and activity of Cu-Fe-Zr-Ce based catalysts for water gas shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. D.; Liu, T. S.; Liu, H. Z.

    2018-01-01

    CeO2-ZrO2 composite oxide was synthesized with precipitation method as support and CuaFeb(ZrCe4)8Ox catalysts were prepared by impregnation; X-ray diffraction, H2 temperature program reduction, and scanning electron microscope techniques were jointly used to characterize the crystal phases and reduction properties of catalysts. Then the activity of catalysts in water gas shift was studied, thus investigated how catalyst composition impacted the water gas shift. Conclusions drew from the results can be briefly stated. CuaFeb(ZrCe4)8Ox was provided with stable cubic crystalline framework and Cu and Fe, as the active components, was highly dispersed on the surface of supports in the form of CuO and Fe2O3 respectively. The strong interactions between copper and iron component enhanced the reducing capacity of CuO and Fe2O3. CuaFeb(ZrCe4)8Ox catalysts exhibited high catalytic activity and selectivity while the main active components were Cu and Fe3O4. The CO conversion rate reached 96% when Cu7Fe3(ZrCe4)8Ox catalysts was used in water gas shift at 623K and the only products were H2 and CO2. The activity was still desirable even the catalysts was applied at 723K.

  5. Glass Formation, Chemical Properties and Surface Analysis of Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chunling; Zhao, Weimin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of alloying elements Mo, Nb, Ta and Ni on glass formation and corrosion resistance of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In order to obtain basic knowledge for application to the industry, corrosion resistance of the Cu–Hf–Ti–(Mo, Nb, Ta, Ni) and Cu–Zr–Ag–Al–(Nb) bulk glassy alloy systems in various solutions are reported in this work. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is performed to clarify the surface-related chemical characteristics of the alloy before and after immersion in the solutions; this has lead to a better understanding of the correlation between the surface composition and the corrosion resistance. PMID:21731441

  6. Calm water resistance prediction of a bulk carrier using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes based solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Islam, Hafizul; Islam, Md. Tariqul; Khondoker, Md. Reaz Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Maneuverability and resistance prediction with suitable accuracy is essential for optimum ship design and propulsion power prediction. This paper aims at providing some of the maneuverability characteristics of a Japanese bulk carrier model, JBC in calm water using a computational fluid dynamics solver named SHIP Motion and OpenFOAM. The solvers are based on the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes method (RaNS) and solves structured grid using the Finite Volume Method (FVM). This paper comprises the numerical results of calm water test for the JBC model with available experimental results. The calm water test results include the total drag co-efficient, average sinkage, and trim data. Visualization data for pressure distribution on the hull surface and free water surface have also been included. The paper concludes that the presented solvers predict the resistance and maneuverability characteristics of the bulk carrier with reasonable accuracy utilizing minimum computational resources.

  7. Bulk Fe-based metallic glass with extremely soft ferromagnetic properties

    SciT

    Shen, T. D.; Harms, U. S.; Schwarz, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have investigated the DC and AC magnetic properties of a bulk glassy Fe{sub 65.5}Cr{sub 4}Mo{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}P{sub 12}B{sub 5.5}C{sub 5} alloy. In the annealed state the alloy has coercivity H{sub C} and maximum DC permeability {mu}{sub m} of approximately 0.4 A/m (5 mOe) and 2.8 x 10{sup 5}, comparable to those found in annealed zero-magnetostriction Co-based alloys. The low H{sub C} found in the bulk glassy alloy is attributed to the low ratio of surface-roughness to sample thickness, and low residual internal-stress. The total power loss in the annealed bulk glass is about one order of magnitude lowermore » than that of rapidly quenched Fe-based glassy ribbons. This is attributed to a low anomalous eddy-current loss.« less

  8. Studies on the effect of dispersoid(ZrO2) in PVdF-co-HFP based gel polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, M.; Subadevi, R.; Muthupradeepa, R.

    2013-06-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes containing poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) / Lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfon)imide (LiTFSI) / mixture of ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate (EC+PC) with different concendration of ZrO2 has been prepared using the solution casting technique. The conductivity of the prepared electrolyte sample has been determined by AC impedance technique in the range 303-353K. The temperature dependent ionic conductivity plot seems to obey VTF relation. The maximum ionic conductivity value of 4.46 × 10-3S/cm has been obtained for PVdF-co-HFP(32%) - LiTFSI(8%) - EC+PC (60%) + ZrO2(6wt%) based polymer electrolyte. The surface morphology of the prepared electrolyte sample has been studied using SEM.

  9. A nitride-based epitaxial surface layer formed by ammonia treatment of silicene-terminated ZrB{sub 2}

    SciT

    Wiggers, F. B., E-mail: F.B.Wiggers@utwente.nl; Van Bui, H.; Schmitz, J.

    We present a method for the formation of an epitaxial  surface layer involving B, N, and Si atoms on a ZrB{sub 2}(0001) thin film on Si(111). It has the potential to be an insulating growth template for 2D semiconductors. The chemical reaction of NH{sub 3} molecules with the silicene-terminated ZrB{sub 2}  surface was characterized by synchrotron-based, high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. In particular, the dissociative chemisorption of NH{sub 3} at 400 °C leads to surface  nitridation, and subsequent annealing up to 830 °C results in a solid phase reaction with the ZrB{sub 2} subsurface layers. In this way, amore » new nitride-based epitaxial  surface layer is formed with hexagonal symmetry and a single in-plane crystal orientation.« less

  10. Effect of light curing units on the polymerization of bulk fill resin-based composites.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Giannini, Marcelo; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero; Price, Richard Bengt

    2018-05-22

    To determine the potential effect of four different light curing units (LCUs) on the curing profile of two bulk fill resin-based composites (RBCs). Four LCUs (Bluephase 20i, Celalux 3, Elipar DeepCure-S and Valo Grand) were used to light cure two RBCs (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill). The effective tip diameter, radiant power, radiant emittance, emission spectrum and light beam profile of the LCUs were measured. Knoop microhardness was measured at the top and bottom surfaces of RBC specimens that were 12-mm in diameter and 4-mm deep (n=5). The distribution of the spectral radiant power that was delivered to the surface of the specimen and the light transmission through the 4-mm thick specimens was measured using an integrating sphere. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05) were applied. The Valo Grand produced the most homogeneous microhardness across the surfaces of the RBCs (p>0.05). When the Celalux 3, Bluephase 20i and Elipar DeepCure-S lights were used, the center of the specimens achieved greater hardness values compared to their outer regions (p<0.05). Approximately 10% of the radiant power delivered to the top reached the bottom of the specimen, although almost no violet light passed through 4mm of either RBC. A positive correlation was observed between the radiant exposure and microhardness. The characteristics of the LCUs influenced the photoactivation of the RBCs. The use of a wide tip with a homogeneous light distribution is preferred when light curing RBCs using a bulk curing technique. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Corrosion behavior in high-temperature pressurized water of Zircaloy-4 joints brazed with Zr-Cu-based amorphous filler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung Gu; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Jin-Ju; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-05-01

    The compositional effects of ternary Zr-Cu-X (X: Al, Fe) amorphous filler alloys on galvanic corrosion susceptibility in high-temperature pressurized water were investigated for Zircaloy-4 brazed joints. Through an Al-induced microgalvanic reaction that deteriorated the overall nobility of the joint, application of the Zr-Cu-Al filler alloy caused galvanic coupling to develop readily between the Al-bearing joint and the Al-free base metal, finally leading to massive localized corrosion of the joint. Contrastingly, joints prepared with a Zr-Cu-Fe filler alloy showed excellent corrosion resistance comparable to that of the Zircaloy-4 base metal, since the Cu and Fe elements forming fine intermetallic particles with Zr did not influence the electrochemical stability of the resultant joints. The present results demonstrate that Fe is a more suitable alloying element than Al for brazing filler alloys subjected to high-temperature corrosive environments.

  12. A high surface area Zr(IV)-based metal–organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake

    SciT

    Lv, Xiu-Liang; Tong, Minman; Huang, Hongliang

    2015-03-15

    Exploitation of new metal–organic framework (MOF) materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. In this work, a new Zr(IV)-based MOF, [Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(eddb){sub 6}] (BUT-30, H{sub 2}eddb=4,4′-(ethyne-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid) has been solvothermally synthesized, characterized, and explored for gases and dyes adsorptions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates a three-dimensional cubic framework structure of this MOF, in which each Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} building unit is linked by 12 linear eddb ligands. BUT-30 has been found stable up to 400 °C and has a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area asmore » high as 3940.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (based on the N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K) and total pore volume of 1.55 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. It is more interesting that this MOF exhibits stepwise adsorption behaviors for Ar, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} at low temperatures, and selective uptakes towards different ionic dyes. - Graphical abstract: A new Zr(IV)-based MOF with high surface area has been synthesized and structurally characterized, which shows stepwise gas adsorption at low temperature and selective dye uptake from solution. - Highlights: • A new Zr-based MOF was synthesized and structurally characterized. • This MOF shows a higher surface area compared with its analogous UiO-67 and 68. • This MOF shows a rare stepwise adsorption towards light gases at low temperature. • This MOF performs selective uptakes towards cationic dyes over anionic ones. • Using triple-bond spacer is confirmed feasible in enhancing MOF surface areas.« less

  13. A High Strain-Rate Investigation of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass and an HTPB Polymer Composite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    95 8. Lankford J. (1977) Compressive strength and microplasticity in polycrystalline alumina. Journal of Materials Science 12, 791-796. 9...Letters 45, 615-616. 59. Lankford J. (1977) Compressive strength and microplasticity in polycrystalline alumina. Journal of Materials Science 12, 791

  14. Efficient light harvesting within a C153@Zr-based MOF embedded in a polymeric film: spectral and dynamical characterization.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M; López-González, M; Sánchez, F; Douhal, A

    2017-07-21

    Light harvesting is a natural phenomenon that scientists try to mimic in artificial systems. Having this in mind, attention has been focused on using new smart-materials for photonics. Herein, we report on the photobehaviour of a Zr-NDC MOF (NDC = dimethyl 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate) and its composite material, Coumarin153@Zr-NDC, embedded within a polymeric membrane of poly[bisphenol A carbonate-co-4,4'-(3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexylidene)diphenol carbonate] (PC). For the mixed matrix membrane (MMM) Zr-NDC/PC, we observed interparticle excimer-like formation, taking place in times shorter than 15 ps and giving rise to a red-shifted broad emission band. The interparticle interactions are supported by the SEM images, as they reflect the contact between the MOF crystals. The C153@Zr-NDC/PC material presents an energy transfer (ET) process from the excited MOF to the trapped C153 molecules in 820 ps, with a 35 nm red-shifted emission band corresponding to C153 in PC. The fluorescence quantum yield, as a result of this ET from the MOF, is high enough (25%) to explore the possibility of using this new composite material in a LED device. To elucidate the observed photobehavior, we compared it with those of C153/PC and (2,6-NDC + C153)/PC films. These results shed light on the spectroscopic and dynamical properties of these new composite materials formed by a highly fluorescent molecule, and easily synthesized MOFs and polymeric matrices, opening the way for more research based on these mixed inorganic and organic compounds for possible applications in the fields of luminescence sensing and emitting devices.

  15. Nanostructured microtubes based on TiO2 doped by Zr and Hf oxides with the anatase structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznov, VV; Voit, EI; Sushkov, YV; Sarin, SA; Kuryavyi, VG; Opra, DP; Gnedenkov, SV; Sinebryukhov, SL; Sokolov, AA

    2016-01-01

    The nanostructured microtubes based on TiO2 have been prepared on the carbon fiber template using the sol-gel method. The microtubes consist of nanoparticles of metal oxides: TiO2/ZrO2 and TiO2/HfO2. The dependence of microtubes morphology and nanoparticles structure on the synthesis conditions has been studied using the methods of SEM, SAXS, and Raman spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that at the stoichiometric ratio of up to 0.04 for Zr/Ti and up to 0.06 for Hf/Ti microtubes consist of uniform nanoparticles with the anatase structure. Along with further increase of the dopants content in the microtubes composition, nanoparticles acquire the core-shell structure. It has been suggested that nanoparticles have a core composed of the solid solutions Ti1-xZrxO2 or Ti1-xHfxO2 and a shell consisting of zirconium or hafnium titanate. The fabricated Zr- and Hf-doped TiO2 materials were investigated in view of their possible use as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Charge- discharge measurements showed that the doped samples manifested significantly higher reversibility in comparison with the undoped TiO2. The method opens new prospects in synthesis of nanostructured materials for Li-ion batteries application.

  16. Electronic evidence of temperature-induced Lifshitz transition and topological nature in ZrTe5

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chenlu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Liang, Aiji; Huang, Jianwei; Nie, Simin; Sun, Xuan; Zhang, Yuxiao; Shen, Bing; Liu, Jing; Weng, Hongming; Zhao, Lingxiao; Chen, Genfu; Jia, Xiaowen; Hu, Cheng; Ding, Ying; Zhao, Wenjuan; Gao, Qiang; Li, Cong; He, Shaolong; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Shenjin; Yang, Feng; Wang, Zhimin; Peng, Qinjun; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Chuangtian; Zhou, X. J.

    2017-01-01

    The topological materials have attracted much attention for their unique electronic structure and peculiar physical properties. ZrTe5 has host a long-standing puzzle on its anomalous transport properties manifested by its unusual resistivity peak and the reversal of the charge carrier type. It is also predicted that single-layer ZrTe5 is a two-dimensional topological insulator and there is possibly a topological phase transition in bulk ZrTe5. Here we report high-resolution laser-based angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the electronic structure and its detailed temperature evolution of ZrTe5. Our results provide direct electronic evidence on the temperature-induced Lifshitz transition, which gives a natural understanding on underlying origin of the resistivity anomaly in ZrTe5. In addition, we observe one-dimensional-like electronic features from the edges of the cracked ZrTe5 samples. Our observations indicate that ZrTe5 is a weak topological insulator and it exhibits a tendency to become a strong topological insulator when the layer distance is reduced. PMID:28534501

  17. Mechanism-based modeling of solute strengthening: Application to thermal creep in Zr alloy

    SciT

    Wen, Wei; Capolungo, Laurent; Tome, Carlos N.

    In this paper, a crystallographic thermal creep model is proposed for Zr alloys that accounts for the hardening contribution of solutes via their time-dependent pinning effect on dislocations. The core-diffusion model proposed by Soare and Curtin (2008a) is coupled with a recently proposed constitutive modeling framework (Wang et al., 2017, 2016) accounting for the heterogeneous distribution of internal stresses within grains. The Coble creep mechanism is also included. This model is, in turn, embedded in the effective medium crystallographic VPSC framework and used to predict creep strain evolution of polycrystals under different temperature and stress conditions. The simulation results reproducemore » the experimental creep data for Zircaloy-4 and the transition between the low (n~1), intermediate (n~4) and high (n~9) power law creep regimes. This is achieved through the dependence on local aging time of the solute-dislocation binding energy. The anomalies in strain rate sensitivity (SRS) are discussed in terms of core-diffusion effects on dislocation junction strength. The mechanism-based model captures the primary and secondary creep regimes results reported by Kombaiah and Murty (2015a, 2015b) for a comprehensive set of testing conditions covering the 500–600 °C interval, stresses spanning 14–156 MPa, and steady state creep rates varying between 1.5·10 -9s -1 to 2·10 -3s -1. There are two major advantages to this model with respect to more empirical ones used as constitutive laws for describing thermal creep of cladding: 1) specific dependences on the nature of solutes and their concentrations are explicitly accounted for; 2) accident conditions in reactors, such as RIA and LOCA, usually take place in short times, and deformation takes place in the primary, not the steady-state creep stage. Finally, as a consequence, a model that accounts for the evolution with time of microstructure is more reliable for this kind of simulation.« less

  18. Mechanism-based modeling of solute strengthening: Application to thermal creep in Zr alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Wen, Wei; Capolungo, Laurent; Tome, Carlos N.

    2018-03-11

    In this paper, a crystallographic thermal creep model is proposed for Zr alloys that accounts for the hardening contribution of solutes via their time-dependent pinning effect on dislocations. The core-diffusion model proposed by Soare and Curtin (2008a) is coupled with a recently proposed constitutive modeling framework (Wang et al., 2017, 2016) accounting for the heterogeneous distribution of internal stresses within grains. The Coble creep mechanism is also included. This model is, in turn, embedded in the effective medium crystallographic VPSC framework and used to predict creep strain evolution of polycrystals under different temperature and stress conditions. The simulation results reproducemore » the experimental creep data for Zircaloy-4 and the transition between the low (n~1), intermediate (n~4) and high (n~9) power law creep regimes. This is achieved through the dependence on local aging time of the solute-dislocation binding energy. The anomalies in strain rate sensitivity (SRS) are discussed in terms of core-diffusion effects on dislocation junction strength. The mechanism-based model captures the primary and secondary creep regimes results reported by Kombaiah and Murty (2015a, 2015b) for a comprehensive set of testing conditions covering the 500–600 °C interval, stresses spanning 14–156 MPa, and steady state creep rates varying between 1.5·10 -9s -1 to 2·10 -3s -1. There are two major advantages to this model with respect to more empirical ones used as constitutive laws for describing thermal creep of cladding: 1) specific dependences on the nature of solutes and their concentrations are explicitly accounted for; 2) accident conditions in reactors, such as RIA and LOCA, usually take place in short times, and deformation takes place in the primary, not the steady-state creep stage. Finally, as a consequence, a model that accounts for the evolution with time of microstructure is more reliable for this kind of simulation.« less

  19. Mat-like flexible thermoelectric system based on rigid inorganic bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hwanjoo; Kim, Donggyu; Eom, Yoomin; Wijethunge, Dimuthu; Hwang, Junphil; Kim, Hoon; Kim, Woochul

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on a mat-like flexible thermoelectric system (FTES) based on rigid inorganic bulk materials, i.e. Bi-Te compounds. Inorganic bulk materials exhibit higher thermoelectric performance and can create a larger temperature drop due to their considerable height compared with organics and printable inorganics, meaning the FTES can produce an impressive power output. We show that the FTES, wherein both a thermoelectric module and a heat sink are integrated, is flexible enough to be adapted to any irregularly shaped surface. In the FTES, p- and n-type legs composed of a thermoelectric module are placed inside holders, which are connected to one another using flexible wires. Powered by a portable battery, the FTES was used to refrigerate human skin. As a result, a temperature drop of approximately 4 K was experimentally demonstrated, which humans felt as ‘cold’ or ‘very cold’, based on analysis. This indicates the feasibility of using the proposed FTES to control the temperature of the human body, even when using a portable battery. This was also applied to body heat harvesting. The FTES generated approximately 88 µW of power, which is sufficient to operate most wearable and/or implantable sensors. Our analysis based on human thermoregulatory modeling indicates that both refrigeration and power generation capacity can be further enhanced by improving the thermal contact between the FTES and human skin. The FTES shows potential for wearable refrigeration and body heat harvesting.

  20. Densification behavior, nanocrystallization, and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar

    Fe-based amorphous alloys are gaining increasing attention due to their exceptional wear and corrosion resistance for potential structural applications. Two major challenges that are hindering the commercialization of these amorphous alloys are difficulty in processing of bulk shapes (diameter > 10 mm) and lack of ductility. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as a promising technique for processing bulk shapes of amorphous and nanocrystalline materials. The objective of this work is to investigate densification behavior, nanocrystallization, and mechanical properties of SPS sintered Fe-based amorphous alloys of composition Fe48Cr15Mo14Y2C15B6. SPS processing was performed in three distinct temperature ranges of amorphous alloys: (a) below glass transition temperature (Tg), (b) between Tg and crystallization temperature (Tx), and (c) above Tx. Punch displacement data obtained during SPS sintering was correlated with the SPS processing parameters such as temperature, pressure, and sintering time. Powder rearrangement, plastic deformation below T g, and viscous flow of the material between Tg and Tx were observed as the main densification stages during SPS sintering. Micro-scale temperature distributions at the point of contact and macro-scale temperature distribution throughout the sample during SPS of amorphous alloys were modeled. The bulk amorphous alloys are expected to undergo structural relaxation and nanocrystallization during SPS sintering. X-ray diffraction (XRD), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to investigate the evolution of nanocrystallites in SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS analysis showed significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural and compositional changes with the profuse nucleation of nano-clusters (~4 nm). Compression tests and microhardness were performed on the samples sintered at different

  1. Systems and Methods for Implementing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Strain Wave Gears and Strain Wave Gear Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass-based strain wave gears and strain wave gear components. In one embodiment, a strain wave gear includes: a wave generator; a flexspline that itself includes a first set of gear teeth; and a circular spline that itself includes a second set of gear teeth; where at least one of the wave generator, the flexspline, and the circular spline, includes a bulk metallic glass-based material.

  2. Microstructure and thermal stability of Cu/Zr0.3Al0.7N/Zr0.2Al0.8N/Al34O60N6 cermet-based solar selective absorbing coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jian-ping; Guo, Rui-rui; Li, Hu; Zhao, Lu-ming; Liu, Xiao-peng; Li, Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Solar selective absorbing coatings play a valuable role in photo-thermal conversion for high efficiency concentrating solar power systems (CSP). In this paper, a novel Cu/Zr0.3Al0.7N/Zr0.2Al0.8N/Al34O60N6 cermet-based solar selective absorbing coating was successfully deposited by ion beam assisted deposition. The optical properties, microstructure and element distribution in depth were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), respectively. A high absorptance of 0.953 and a low thermal emittance of 0.079 at 400 °C are obtained by the integral computation according to the whole reflectance from 300 nm to 28,800 nm. After annealing treatment at 400 °C (in vacuum) for 192 h, the deposited coating exhibits the high thermal stability. Whereas, the photothermal conversion efficiency decreases from 12.10 to 6.86 due to the emittance increase after annealing at 600 °C for 192 h. Meanwhile, the nitrogen atom in the Zr0.3Al0.7N sub-layer diffuses toward the adjacent sub-layer due to the spinodal decomposition of metastable c-ZrAlN and the phase transition from c-AlN to h-AlN, which leads to the composition of the Zr0.3Al0.7N sub-layer deviates the initial design. This phenomenon has a guide effect for the thermal-stability improvement of cermet coatings. Additionally, a serious diffusion between copper and silicon substrate also contributes to the emittance increase.

  3. Method for Manufacturing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Strain Wave Gear Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement bulk metallic glass-based strain wave gears and strain wave gear components. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating a strain wave gear includes: shaping a BMG-based material using a mold in conjunction with one of a thermoplastic forming technique and a casting technique; where the BMG-based material is shaped into one of: a wave generator plug, an inner race, an outer race, a rolling element, a flexspline, a flexspline without a set of gear teeth, a circular spline, a circular spline without a set of gear teeth, a set of gear teeth to be incorporated within a flexspline, and a set of gear teeth to be incorporated within a circular spline.

  4. Application of thin layer activation technique for surface wear studies in Zr based materials using charged particle induced nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, D. P.; Pal, Sujit; Parthasarathy, R.; Mathur, P. K.; Kohli, A. K.; Limaye, P. K.

    1998-09-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) technique has been developed in Zr based alloy materials, e.g., zircaloy II, using 40 MeV α-particles from Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre at Calcutta. A brief description of the methodology of TLA technique is presented to determine the surface wear. The sensitivity of the measurement of surface wear in zircaloy material is found to be 0.22±0.05 μm. The surface wear is determined by TLA technique in zircaloy material which is used in pressurised heavy water reactor and the values have been compared with that obtained by conventional technique for the analytical validation of the TLA technique.

  5. Elastic and transport properties of topological semimetal ZrTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, San-Dong; Wang, Yue-Hua; Lu, Wan-Li

    2017-11-01

    Topological semimetals may have substantial applications in electronics, spintronics, and quantum computation. Recently, ZrTe was predicted as a new type of topological semimetal due to the coexistence of Weyl fermions and massless triply degenerate nodal points. In this work, the elastic and transport properties of ZrTe are investigated by combining the first-principles calculations and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Calculated elastic constants prove the mechanical stability of ZrTe, and the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio also are calculated. It is found that spin-orbit coupling (SOC) has slightly enhanced effects on the Seebeck coefficient, which along the a(b) and c directions for pristine ZrTe at 300 K is 46.26 μVK-1 and 80.20 μVK-1, respectively. By comparing the experimental electrical conductivity of ZrTe (300 K) with the calculated value, the scattering time is determined as 1.59 × 10-14 s. The predicted room-temperature electronic thermal conductivity along the a(b) and c directions is 2.37 {{Wm}}-1{{{K}}}-1 and 2.90 {{Wm}}-1{{{K}}}-1, respectively. The room-temperature lattice thermal conductivity is predicted as 17.56 {{Wm}}-1{{{K}}}-1 and 43.08 {{Wm}}-1{{{K}}}-1 along the a(b) and c directions, showing very strong anisotropy. Calculated results show that isotope scattering produces an observable effect on lattice thermal conductivity. To observably reduce lattice thermal conductivity by nanostructures, the characteristic length should be smaller than 70 nm, based on cumulative lattice thermal conductivity with respect to the phonon mean free path (MFP) at 300 K. It is noted that the average room-temperature lattice thermal conductivity of ZrTe is slightly higher than that of isostructural MoP, which is due to larger phonon lifetimes and smaller Grüneisen parameters. Finally, the total thermal conductivity as a function of temperature is predicted for pristine ZrTe. Our works provide valuable

  6. Bulk and Thin film Properties of Nanoparticle-based Ionic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jason

    2008-03-01

    Nanoparticle-based ionic materials (NIMS) offer exciting opportunities for research at the forefront of science and engineering. NIMS are hybrid particles comprised of a charged oligomeric corona attached to hard, inorganic nanoparticle cores. Because of their hybrid nature, physical properties --rheological, optical, electrical, thermal - of NIMS can be tailored over an unusually wide range by varying geometric and chemical characteristics of the core and canopy and thermodynamic variables such as temperature and volume fraction. On one end of the spectrum are materials with a high core content, which display properties similar to crystalline solids, stiff waxes, and gels. At the opposite extreme are systems that spontaneously form particle-based fluids characterized by transport properties remarkably similar to simple liquids. In this poster I will present our efforts to synthesize NIMS and discuss their bulk and surface properties. In particular I will discuss our work on preparing smart surfaces using NIMS.

  7. Recent advances in bulk metallic glasses for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Zheng, Y F

    2016-05-01

    With a continuously increasing aging population and the improvement of living standards, large demands of biomaterials are expected for a long time to come. Further development of novel biomaterials, that are much safer and of much higher quality, in terms of both biomedical and mechanical properties, are therefore of great interest for both the research scientists and clinical surgeons. Compared with the conventional crystalline metallic counterparts, bulk metallic glasses have unique amorphous structures, and thus exhibit higher strength, lower Young's modulus, improved wear resistance, good fatigue endurance, and excellent corrosion resistance. For this purpose, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have recently attracted much attention for biomedical applications. This review discusses and summarizes the recent developments and advances of bulk metallic glasses, including Ti-based, Zr-based, Fe-based, Mg-based, Zn-based, Ca-based and Sr-based alloying systems for biomedical applications. Future research directions will move towards overcoming the brittleness, increasing the glass forming ability (GFA) thus obtaining corresponding bulk metallic glasses with larger sizes, removing/reducing toxic elements, and surface modifications. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), also known as amorphous alloys or liquid metals, are relative newcomers in the field of biomaterials. They have gained increasing attention during the past decades, as they exhibit an excellent combination of properties and processing capabilities desired for versatile biomedical implant applications. The present work reviewed the recent developments and advances of biomedical BMGs, including Ti-based, Zr-based, Fe-based, Mg-based, Zn-based, Ca-based and Sr-based BMG alloying systems. Besides, the critical analysis and in-depth discussion on the current status, challenge and future development of biomedical BMGs are included. The possible solution to the BMG size limitation, the brittleness of BMGs has been

  8. Increasing Ti-6Al-4V brazed joint strength equal to the base metal by Ti and Zr amorphous filler alloys

    SciT

    Ganjeh, E., E-mail: navidganjehie@sina.kntu.ac.ir; Sarkhosh, H.; Bajgholi, M.E.

    Microstructural features developed along with mechanical properties in furnace brazing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using STEMET 1228 (Ti-26.8Zr-13Ni-13.9Cu, wt.%) and STEMET 1406 (Zr-9.7Ti-12.4Ni-11.2Cu, wt.%) amorphous filler alloys. Brazing temperatures employed were 900-950 Degree-Sign C for the titanium-based filler and 900-990 Degree-Sign C for the zirconium-based filler alloys, respectively. The brazing time durations were 600, 1200 and 1800 s. The brazed joints were evaluated by ultrasonic test, and their microstructures and phase constitutions analyzed by metallography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since microstructural evolution across the furnace brazed joints primarily depends on their alloying elements such as Cu, Ni andmore » Zr along the joint. Accordingly, existence of Zr{sub 2}Cu, Ti{sub 2}Cu and (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni intermetallic compounds was identified in the brazed joints. The chemical composition of segregation region in the center of brazed joints was identical to virgin filler alloy content which greatly deteriorated the shear strength of the joints. Adequate brazing time (1800 s) and/or temperature (950 Degree-Sign C for Ti-based and 990 Degree-Sign C for Zr-based) resulted in an acicular Widmanstaetten microstructure throughout the entire joint section due to eutectoid reaction. This microstructure increased the shear strength of the brazed joints up to the Ti-6Al-4V tensile strength level. Consequently, Ti-6Al-4V can be furnace brazed by Ti and Zr base foils produced excellent joint strengths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature or time was the main factors of controlling braze joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing a Widmanstaetten microstructure generates equal strength to base metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brittle intermetallic compounds like (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni/Cu deteriorate shear strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti and Zr base filler alloys were the best choice for

  9. Method Using Water-Based Solvent to Prepare Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Lu, Yang; Jin, Jun; Gu, Sui; Xiu, Tongping; Song, Zhen; Badding, Michael E; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2018-05-09

    Li-garnet Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZO) is a promising candidate of solid electrolytes for high-safety solid-state Li + ion batteries. However, because of its high reactivity to water, the preparation of LLZO powders and ceramics is not easy for large-scale amounts. Herein, a method applying water-based solvent is proposed to demonstrate a possible solution. Ta-doped LLZO, that is, Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 (LLZTO), and its LLZTO/MgO composite ceramics are made by attrition milling, followed by a spray-drying process using water-based slurries. The impacts of parameters of the method on the structure and properties of green and sintered pellets are studied. A relative density of ∼95%, a Li-ion conductivity of ∼3.5 × 10 -4 S/cm, and uniform grain size LLZTO/MgO garnet composite ceramics are obtained with an attrition-milled LLZTO/MgO slurry that contains 40 wt % solids and 2 wt % polyvinyl alcohol binder. Li-sulfur batteries based on these ceramics are fabricated and work under 25 °C for 20 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 100%. This research demonstrates a promising mass production method for the preparation of Li-garnet ceramics.

  10. Growth of an Ultrathin Zirconia Film on Pt3Zr Examined by High-Resolution X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Temperature-Programmed Desorption, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, and Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Choi, Joong-Il Jake; Mayr-Schmölzer, Wernfried; Weilach, Christian; Rameshan, Christoph; Mittendorfer, Florian; Redinger, Josef; Schmid, Michael; Rupprechter, Günther

    2015-02-05

    Ultrathin (∼3 Å) zirconium oxide films were grown on a single-crystalline Pt 3 Zr(0001) substrate by oxidation in 1 × 10 -7 mbar of O 2 at 673 K, followed by annealing at temperatures up to 1023 K. The ZrO 2 films are intended to serve as model supports for reforming catalysts and fuel cell anodes. The atomic and electronic structure and composition of the ZrO 2 films were determined by synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) (including depth profiling), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Oxidation mainly leads to ultrathin trilayer (O-Zr-O) films on the alloy; only a small area fraction (10-15%) is covered by ZrO 2 clusters (thickness ∼0.5-10 nm). The amount of clusters decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO was utilized to confirm complete coverage of the Pt 3 Zr substrate by ZrO 2 , that is, formation of a closed oxide overlayer. Experiments and DFT calculations show that the core level shifts of Zr in the trilayer ZrO 2 films are between those of metallic Zr and thick (bulklike) ZrO 2 . Therefore, the assignment of such XPS core level shifts to substoichiometric ZrO x is not necessarily correct, because these XPS signals may equally well arise from ultrathin ZrO 2 films or metal/ZrO 2 interfaces. Furthermore, our results indicate that the common approach of calculating core level shifts by DFT including final-state effects should be taken with care for thicker insulating films, clusters, and bulk insulators.

  11. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  12. In Vivo Evaluation of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Osteosynthesis Devices

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Hiromoto, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) show higher strength and lower Young’s modulus than Ti-6Al-4V alloy and SUS 316L stainless steel. This study aimed to perform in vivo evaluations of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs for osteosynthesis devices. In the study for intramedullary implants, osteotomies of the femoral bones were performed in male Wistar rats and were stabilized with Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or 316L stainless steel intramedullary nails for 12 weeks. In the study for bone surface implants, Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs ribbons were implanted on the femur surface for 6 weeks. Local effects on the surrounding soft tissues of the implanted BMGs were assessed by histological observation. Implanted materials’ surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). In the study for intramedullary implants, bone healing after osteotomy was assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and mechanical tests. Histological observation showed no findings of the biological effects. SEM-EDS showed no noticeable change on the surface of BMGs, while Ca and P deposition was seen on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface, and irregularities were seen on the 316L stainless steel surface. Mechanical test and peripheral QCT showed that, although there was no significant difference, bone healing of BMGs was more than that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The results indicated that Zr-based BMGs can lead to bone healing equal to or greater than Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Zr-based BMGs exhibited the advantage of less bone bonding and easier implant removal compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In conclusion, Zr-based BMGs are promising for osteosynthesis devices that are eventually removed. PMID:28773792

  13. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; ...

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the abilitymore » of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.« less

  14. Schottky x-ray detectors based on a bulk β-Ga2O3 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xing; Zhou, Leidang; Chen, Liang; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Liu, Bo; Xu, Jun; Tang, Huili

    2018-03-01

    β-Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have been fabricated on a bulk (100) β-Ga2O3 substrate and tested as X-ray detectors in this study. The devices exhibited good rectification properties, such as a high rectification ratio and a close-to-unity ideality factor. A high photo-to-dark current ratio exceeding 800 was achieved for X-ray detection, which was mainly attributed to the low reverse leakage current in the β-Ga2O3 SBDs. Furthermore, transient response of the β-Ga2O3 X-ray detectors was investigated, and two different detection mechanisms, photovoltaic and photoconductive, were identified. The results imply the great potential of β-Ga2O3 based devices for X-ray detection.

  15. Bulk transmission system component outage data base. Research project 1283-1. Final report

    SciT

    Albrecht, P.F.; Heising, C.R.; Patton, A.D.

    1981-04-01

    This project is responsive to the premise that the successful analysis of equipment reliability and system adequacy in bulk transmission system planning and system operations requires data on equipment failure rates, maintenance outage rates and repair times. The objective of the project is to develop a system of consistent definitions, formats and procedures which can be used in the collection of such data in a well designed outage data bank. The project consisted of four interrelated phases, beginning with a review of related work and problem definition and ending with a discussion of data base organization and management. The reviewmore » of related work quickly pointed out that two schools of thought exist on data collection. One group contends that data should be collected on bulk transmission system physical equipments, such as transformers, circuit breakers, etc., and the other group supports data collection on functional transmission lines, including the terminal equipment, which have been defined as transmission units in this report. A compromise between these two approaches was imperative for successful completion of the work. The second phase investigated the data needed for reliability evaluation. The applications of the data bank were enumerated leading to a list of basic data needed when recording an incident. Phase 3 concentrated on developing procedures for data collection using forms to collect data both on outages and on the equipment design. Finally, the aspects of data base organization and management were explored and general recommendations made appropriate to this specific application. The project did not succeed in completely defining the procedures, particularly for multiple outages, but the ground work has been laid for a pilot data collection effort to refine the procedures before wide scale implementation by the utility industry.« less

  16. Calculations of hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys: Influence of alloying elements and effect of stress

    SciT

    Yu, J.; Jiang, C.; Zhang, Y.

    This report summarizes the progress on modeling hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys. The presence of hydrogen (H) can detrimentally affect the mechanical properties of many metals and alloys. To mitigate these detrimental effects requires fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics governing H pickup and hydride formation. In this work, we focus on H diffusion in Zr-based alloys by studying the effects of alloying elements and stress, factors that have been shown to strongly affect H pickup and hydride formation in nuclear fuel claddings. A recently developed accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method is used for the study. It is foundmore » that for the alloys considered here, H diffusivity depends weakly on composition, with negligible effect at high temperatures in the range of 600-1200 K. Therefore, the small variation in compositions of these alloys is likely not a major cause of the very different H pickup rates. In contrast, stress strongly affects H diffusivity. This effect needs to be considered for studying hydride formation and delayed hydride cracking.« less

  17. Effective, Facile, and Selective Hydrolysis of the Chemical Warfare Agent VX Using Zr6-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Moon, Su-Young; Wagner, George W; Mondloch, Joseph E; Peterson, Gregory W; DeCoste, Jared B; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-11-16

    The nerve agent VX is among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind, and robust solutions are needed to rapidly and selectively deactivate it. Herein, we demonstrate that three Zr6-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, UiO-67, UiO-67-NH2, and UiO-67-N(Me)2, are selective and highly active catalysts for the hydrolysis of VX. Utilizing UiO-67, UiO-67-NH2, and UiO-67-N(Me)2 in a pH 10 buffered solution of N-ethylmorpholine, selective hydrolysis of the P-S bond in VX was observed. In addition, UiO-67-N(Me)2 was found to catalyze VX hydrolysis with an initial half-life of 1.8 min. This half-life is nearly 3 orders of magnitude shorter than that of the only other MOF tested to date for hydrolysis of VX and rivals the activity of the best nonenzymatic materials. Hydrolysis utilizing Zr-based MOFs is also selective and facile in the absence of pH 10 buffer (just water) and for the destruction of the toxic byproduct EA-2192.

  18. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Damage during Compressive Deformation of Amorphous Zr-Based Foams with Aligned, Elongated Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Marie E.; Dunand, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Acoustic emission methods are used to investigate the evolution of internal microfractural damage during uniaxial compression of amorphous Zr-based foams with aligned, elongated pores. The foams are fabricated by means of densifying a blend of crystalline W powders and amorphous Zr-based powders with two oxygen contents (0.078 and 0.144 wt pct) by warm equal channel angular extrusion, followed by dissolution of the elongated W phase from the fully densified amorphous matrix. For the high-oxygen foams, prior powder boundaries in the amorphous struts promote damage that accumulates during compression, resulting in energy-absorbing properties comparable with the low-oxygen foams without stress-concentrating powder boundaries. The influence of pore orientation on the evolution of microfracture damage and the ability of the foams to accumulate damage without catastrophic failure is also investigated: pores oriented from 24 to 68 deg to the loading direction promote wall bending, resulting in foams with more diffuse damage and better energy-absorbing properties.

  19. Thermoelectric and Structural Properties of Zr-/Hf-Based Half-Heusler Compounds Produced at a Large Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillmann, D.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.; Feyand, M.-H.; Wolyniec, A.

    2018-02-01

    The half-Heusler (HH) systems are promising candidates for thermoelectric (TE) applications since they have shown high figures of merit ( zT) of ˜ 1, which are directly related to the energy conversion efficiency. To use HH compounds for TE devices, the materials must be phase-stable at operating temperatures up to 600°C. Currently, only a few HH compositions are available in large quantities. Hence, we focus on the TE and structural properties of three commercially available Zr-/Hf-based HH compounds in this publication. In particular, we evaluate the thermal conductivities and the figures of merit and critically discuss uncertainties and propagation error in the measurements. We find thermal conductivities of less than 6.0 W K^{-1}m^{-1} for all investigated materials and notably high figures of merit of 0.93 and 0.60 for n- and p-type compounds, respectively, at 600°C. Additionally, our investigations reveal that the grain structures of all materials also contain secondary phases like HfO2, Sn-Ni and Ti-Zr-Sn rich phases while an additional SnO_2 phase was found following several hours of harsh heat treatment at 800°C.

  20. Kinetics of nitric oxide and oxygen gases on porous Y-stabilized ZrO2-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Killa, Sajin; Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P; Mainardi, Daniela S

    2013-08-16

    Using impedance spectroscopy the electrical response of sensors with various porous Y-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) microstructures was measured for gas concentrations containing 0-100 ppm NO with 10.5%O2 at temperatures ranging from 600-700 °C. The impedance response increased substantially as the sensor porosity increased from 46%-50%. Activation energies calculated based on data from the impedance measurements increased in magnitude (97.4-104.9 kJ/mol for 100 ppm NO) with respect to increasing YSZ porosity. Analysis of the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the sensors suggested that dissociative adsorption was the dominant rate limiting. The PWC/DNP theory level was used to investigate the gas-phase energy barrier of the 2NO+O2 → 2NO2 reaction on a 56-atom YSZ/Au model cluster using Density Functional Theory and Linear Synchronous Transit/Quadratic Synchronous Transit calculations. The reaction path shows oxygen surface reactions that begin with NO association with adsorbed O2 on a Zr surface site, followed by O2 dissociative adsorption, atomic oxygen diffusion, and further NO2 formation. The free energy barrier was calculated to be 181.7 kJ/mol at PWC/DNP. A qualitative comparison with the extrapolated data at 62% ± 2% porosity representing the YSZ model cluster indicates that the calculated barriers are in reasonable agreement with experiments, especially when the RPBE functional is used.

  1. Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys with iron contents as high as 82 at%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Ding, Hong-Yu; Yao, Ke-Fu

    2015-07-01

    Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs) with high Fe contents are advantageous due to their high saturation magnetization and low cost. However, preparing Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents higher than 80 at% is difficult due to their poor glass forming abilities (GFA). In this study, an Fe81P8.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA with a diameter of 1 mm and a saturation magnetization of 1.56 T was successfully prepared using the fluxing and copper mold casting methods. In addition, by introducing a small amount of elemental Mo to the alloy, an Fe82Mo1P6.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA rod with a diameter of 1 mm, a high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T, a high yield stress of 3265 MPa, and a clear plasticity of 1.3% was prepared in the same way. The cost effectiveness and good magnetic properties of these newly-developed Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents as high as 82 at% would be advantageous and promising for industrial applications.

  2. High-Efficiency Small Molecule-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells Enhanced by Additive Annealing.

    PubMed

    Li, Lisheng; Xiao, Liangang; Qin, Hongmei; Gao, Ke; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Peng, Xiaobin

    2015-09-30

    Solvent additive processing is important in optimizing an active layer's morphology and thus improving the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs). In this study, we find that how 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) additive is removed plays a critical role in determining the film morphology of the bulk heterojunction OSCs in inverted structure based on a porphyrin small molecule. Different from the cases reported for polymer-based OSCs in conventional structures, the inverted OSCs upon the quick removal of the additive either by quick vacuuming or methanol washing exhibit poorer performance. In contrast, the devices after keeping the active layers in ambient pressure with additive dwelling for about 1 h (namely, additive annealing) show an enhanced power conversion efficiency up to 7.78% with a large short circuit current of 19.25 mA/cm(2), which are among the best in small molecule-based solar cells. The detailed morphology analyses using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, resonant soft X-ray scattering, and atomic force microscopy demonstrate that the active layer shows smaller-sized phase separation but improved structure order upon additive annealing. On the contrary, the quick removal of the additive either by quick vacuuming or methanol washing keeps the active layers in an earlier stage of large scaled phase separation.

  3. Mechanical properties and structural features of novel Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with unprecedented plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiming; Liu, Haishun; Zhao, Yucheng; Inoue, Akihisa; Jiang, Kemin; Huo, Juntao; Ling, Haibo; Li, Qiang; Shen, Baolong

    2014-01-01

    Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have attracted great attention due to their unique magnetic and mechanical properties, but few applications have been materialized because of their brittleness at room temperature. Here we report a new Fe50Ni30P13C7 BMG which exhibits unprecedented compressive plasticity (>20%) at room temperature without final fracture. The mechanism of unprecedented plasticity for this new Fe-based BMG was also investigated. It was discovered that the ductile Fe50Ni30P13C7 BMG is composed of unique clusters mainly linked by less directional metal-metal bonds which are inclined to accommodate shear strain and absorbed energy in the front of crack tip. This conclusion was further verified by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy experiments of Fe80-xNixP13C7 (x = 0, 10, 20, 30) and Fe72-xNixB20Si4Nb4 (x = 0, 7.2, 14.4, 21.6, 28.8) glassy systems. The results also indicate a strong correlation between the p-d hybridization and plasticity, verifying that the transition from brittle to ductile induced by Ni addition is due to the change of bonding characteristics in atomic configurations. Thus, we can design the plasticity of Fe-based BMGs and open up a new possible pathway for manufacturing BMGs with high strength and plasticity. PMID:25167887

  4. Effects of Zr on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu base ribbons spun by planar flow casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. M.; Hong, C. P.

    1998-04-01

    The effects of the Zr addition on the solidification behavior and mechanical properties of the AI-Cu alloy ribbon have been investigated. Zr addition reduced the average grain size of the ribbon at the wheel-side surface, and promoted the microstructural transition into cellular/dendritic structure. Another noteworthy effect of Zr was the homogenization of the microstructure. The addition of Zr up to 0.5 wt.% in the /U-4.3 wt.% Cu ribbon resulted in a considerable increase in hardness at both the wheel-side and the air-side surfaces. The yield strength increased with the addition of Zr due to the grain refincment and more homogeneous distribution of ZrAI, particles. despite no noticeable improvement of the ductility.

  5. Correlative characterization of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    SciT

    Li, J.H., E-mail: jie-hua.li@hotmail.com; Wiessner, M.; Albu, M.

    2015-04-15

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases.more » Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr)« less

  6. Complex superconductivity in the noncentrosymmetric compound Re 6Zr

    DOE PAGES

    Khan, Mojammel A.; Karki, A. B.; Samanta, T.; ...

    2016-10-24

    Here, we report the electronic structure, synthesis, and measurements of the magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of the polycrystalline noncentrosymmetric compound Re 6Zr . We observed a bulk superconducting transition at temperature T c ~ 6.7 K, and measured the resistivity, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and the London penetration depth below the transition, as well as performed doping and pressure studies. From these measurements we extracted the critical field and the superconducting parameters of Re 6Zr. Lastly, our measurements indicate a relatively weak to moderate contribution from a triplet component to the order parameter, and favor a full superconducting gap,more » although we cannot exclude the existence of point nodes based on our data.« less

  7. Nanofiber/ZrO2-based mixed matrix separator for high safety/high-rate lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Chuanwei

    2017-10-01

    A novel asymmetric separator based on a thin bacterial cellulose nanofiber (BCF)/nano-ZrO2 composite layer and a non-woven support was prepared by paper-making method. Owing to the relatively polar constituents and well-developed, gradient porous structure, the separator exhibited the advantages of higher thermal resistance, electrolyte wettability, and ionic conductivity in comparison to polyethylene separator. Based on these advantages, the Li/LiFePO4 cells assembled from this composite separator showed excellent performance characteristics, including outstanding C-rate capability, high capacity and cycling performance. Production of the composite separator is simple, environmentally benign and economically viable. Therefore, it's a good candidate for creating improved lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Influence of Asymmetric Cyclic Loading on Structural Evolution and Deformation Behavior of Cu-5 at.% Zr Alloy: An Atomistic Simulation-Based Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meraj, Md.; Dutta, Krishna; Bhardwaj, Ravindra; Yedla, Natraj; Karthik, V.; Pal, Snehanshu

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation-based studies of tensile test and structural evolution of Cu-5 at.% Zr alloy under asymmetric cyclic loading (i.e., ratcheting behavior) considering various stress ratios such as - 0.2, - 0.4 and - 0.6 for different temperatures, viz.≈ 100, 300 and 500 K have been performed using embedded atom model Finnis-Sinclair potential. According to obtained stress-strain response from MD calculation, Cu-5 at.% Zr alloy specimen is pristine in nature as sudden drop in stress just after yield stress and subsequent elastic type deformation are observed for this alloy. Predicted ratcheting strain by MD simulation for Cu-5 at.% Zr alloy varies from 4.5 to 5%. Significant increase in ratcheting strain has been observed with the increase in temperature. Slight reduction in crystallinity is identified at the middle of the each loading cycle from the performed radial distribution function analysis and cluster analysis.

  9. Long-term efficient organic photovoltaics based on quaternary bulk heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Minwoo; Cha, Minjeong; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Hur, Kahyun; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Yoo, Jaehong; Han, Il Ki; Kwon, S. Joon; Ko, Doo-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A major impediment to the commercialization of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is attaining long-term morphological stability of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer. To secure the stability while pursuing optimized performance, multi-component BHJ-based OPVs have been strategically explored. Here we demonstrate the use of quaternary BHJs (q-BHJs) composed of two conjugated polymer donors and two fullerene acceptors as a novel platform to produce high-efficiency and long-term durable OPVs. A q-BHJ OPV (q-OPV) with an experimentally optimized composition exhibits an enhanced efficiency and extended operational lifetime than does the binary reference OPV. The q-OPV would retain more than 72% of its initial efficiency (for example, 8.42-6.06%) after a 1-year operation at an elevated temperature of 65 °C. This is superior to those of the state-of-the-art BHJ-based OPVs. We attribute the enhanced stability to the significant suppression of domain growth and phase separation between the components via kinetic trapping effect.

  10. Mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces based on hydrophilic bulk metals for oil/water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huadong; Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Weng, Zhankun

    2018-04-01

    Despite the success of previous methods for fabricating underwater superoleophobic surfaces, most of the surfaces based on soft materials are prone to collapse and deformation due to their mechanically fragile nature, and they fail to perform their designed functions after the surface materials are damaged in water. In this work, the nanosecond laser-induced oxide coatings on hydrophilic bulk metals are reported which overcomes the limitation and shows the robust underwater superoleophobicity to a mechanical challenge encountered by surfaces deployed in water environment. The results show that the surface materials have the advantage that the underwater superoleophobicity is still preserved after the surfaces are scratched by knife or sandpaper and even completely destroyed because of the hydrophilic property of damaged materials in water. It is important that the results provide a guide for the design of durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and the development of superoleophobic materials in many potential applications such as the oil-repellent and the oil/water separation. Additionally, the nanosecond laser technology is simple, cost-effective and suitable for the large-area and mass fabrication of mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic metal materials.

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Rifampicin in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Formulations Based on Redox and Complexation Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2017-09-01

    Two spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the determination of rifampicin (RIF) in bulk form, formulations, and spiked human urine. The first method is based on the reduction of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent by RIF to form a blue colored chromogen with λmax at 760 nm (the FCR method). In the second method, iron(III) is reduced by RIF in a neutral medium, and the resulting iron(II) is complexed with ferricyanide to form a Prussian blue peaking at 750 nm (the FFC method). Under optimum conditions, Beer's law enabled the determination of the drug in the concentration ranges 1-35 and 2.5-50 μg/mL with apparent molar absorptivities of 2.72 × 104 and 1.63×104 L/(mol × cm) for the FCR and FFC methods, respectively. The Sandell sensitivity, limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) values were also reported for both methods. The precision of the methods, with % RSD of < 2%, was satisfactory, and the accuracy was higher than 2% (RE). The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of drug in capsules without interference from common additives and spiked human urine without interference from endogenous substances. A statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the results obtained by the developed methods and the official method.

  12. Thermoplastic deformation of ferromagnetic CoFe-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenguang; Hu, Renchao; Man, Qikui; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2017-12-01

    The superplastic deformation behavior of the ferromagnetic Co31Fe31Nb8B30 bulk metallic glass (BMG) in the supercooled liquid region was investigated. At a given temperature, the BMG exhibits a Newtonian behavior at low strain rates but a non-Newtonian behavior at high strain rates. The high thermal stability of this glassy alloy system offers an enough processing window to thermoplastic forming (TPF), and the strong processing ability was examined by simple micro-replication experiments. It is demonstrated that the TPF formability on length scales ranging down to nanometers can be achieved in the selected experimental condition. Based on the analysis of deformation behavior, the nearly full density sample (i.e. nearly 100%), was produced from water-atomized glassy powders and consolidated by the hot-pressing technique. The sample exhibits good soft-magnetic and mechanical properties, i.e., low coercive force of 0.43 Oe, high initial permeability of 4100 and high Vickers hardness 1398. These results suggest that the hot-pressing process opens up possibilities for the commercial exploitation of BMGs in engineering applications.

  13. Detoxification of Chemical Warfare Agents Using a Zr6 -Based Metal-Organic Framework/Polymer Mixture.

    PubMed

    Moon, Su-Young; Proussaloglou, Emmanuel; Peterson, Gregory W; DeCoste, Jared B; Hall, Morgan G; Howarth, Ashlee J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2016-10-10

    Owing to their high surface area, periodic distribution of metal sites, and water stability, zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks (Zr 6 -MOFs) have shown promising activity for the hydrolysis of nerve agents GD and VX, as well as the simulant, dimethyl 4-nitrophenylphosphate (DMNP), in buffered solutions. A hurdle to using MOFs for this application is the current need for a buffer solution. Here the destruction of the simulant DMNP, as well as the chemical warfare agents (GD and VX) through hydrolysis using a MOF catalyst mixed with a non-volatile, water-insoluble, heterogeneous buffer is reported. The hydrolysis of the simulant and nerve agents in the presence of the heterogeneous buffer was fast and effective. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Capture of Hydrogen Using ZrNi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Lisa; Wales, Joshua; Lynch, David; Parrish, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    Water, as ice, is thought to reside in craters at the lunar poles along with CH4 and H2 . A proposed robotic mission for 2012 will utilize metal/metal hydrides for H2 recovery. Specifications are 99% capture of H2 initially at 5 bar and 100C (or greater), and degassing completely at 300C. Of 47-systems examined using the van't Hoff equation, 4 systems, Mg/MgH2, Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4, ZrNi/ZrNiH2.8, and Pd/PdH0.77, were considered likely candidates for further examination. It is essential, when selecting a system, to also examine questions regarding activation, kinetics, cyclic stability, and gas impurity effects. After considering those issues, ZrN1 was selected as the most promising candidate, as it is easily activated and rapidly forms ZrNiH 2.8 . In addition, it resists oxide poisoning by CO2, and H2O, while some oxidation by O2 is recommended for improved activation . The presence of hydrogen in the as received Zr-Ni alloy from Alfa Aesar posed additional technical problems. X-ray diffraction of the Zr-Ni powder (-325 mesh), with a Zr:Ni wt% ratio of 70:30, was found to consist of ZrH2, ZrNiH2.8, and ZrNi. ZrH2 in the alloy presented the risk that after degassing that both Zr and ZrNi would be present, and thus lead to erroneous results regarding the reactivity of ZrNi with H2 . Fortunately, ZrH2 is a highly stable hydride that does not degas H2 to any significant extent at temperatures below 300C. Based on equilibrium calculations for the decomposition of ZrH2, only 1 millionth of the hydride decomposed at 300C under a N2 atmosphere flowing at 25 ccm for 64 hours, the longest time for pretreatment employed in the investigation. It was possible, from the X-ray results and knowledge of the Zr:Ni ratio, to compute the composition of a pretreated specimen as being 76 wt% ZrNi and the balance ZrH2.

  15. Porous 3D graphene-based bulk materials with exceptional high surface area and excellent conductivity for supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Zhang, Fan; Yang, Xi; Long, Guankui; Wu, Yingpeng; Zhang, Tengfei; Leng, Kai; Huang, Yi; Ma, Yanfeng; Yu, Ao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Until now, few sp2 carbon materials simultaneously exhibit superior performance for specific surface area (SSA) and electrical conductivity at bulk state. Thus, it is extremely important to make such materials at bulk scale with those two outstanding properties combined together. Here, we present a simple and green but very efficient approach using two standard and simple industry steps to make such three-dimensional graphene-based porous materials at the bulk scale, with ultrahigh SSA (3523 m2/g) and excellent bulk conductivity. We conclude that these materials consist of mainly defected/wrinkled single layer graphene sheets in the dimensional size of a few nanometers, with at least some covalent bond between each other. The outstanding properties of these materials are demonstrated by their superior supercapacitor performance in ionic liquid with specific capacitance and energy density of 231 F/g and 98 Wh/kg, respectively, so far the best reported capacitance performance for all bulk carbon materials. PMID:23474952

  16. The Effect of ZrO₂ Nanoparticles on the Microstructure and Properties of Sintered WC-Bronze-Based Diamond Composites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Youhong; Wu, Haidong; Li, Meng; Meng, Qingnan; Gao, Ke; Lü, Xiaoshu; Liu, Baochang

    2016-05-06

    Metal matrix-impregnated diamond composites are widely used in diamond tool manufacturing. In order to satisfy the increasing engineering requirements, researchers have paid more and more attention to enhancing conventional metal matrices by applying novel methods. In this work, ZrO₂ nanoparticles were introduced into the WC-bronze matrix with and without diamond grits via hot pressing to improve the performance of conventional diamond composites. The effects of ZrO₂ nanoparticles on the microstructure, density, hardness, bending strength, and wear resistance of diamond composites were investigated. The results indicated that the hardness and relative density increased, while the bending strength decreased when the content of ZrO₂ nanoparticles increased. The grinding ratio of diamond composites increased significantly by 60% as a result of nano-ZrO₂ addition. The enhancement mechanism was discussed. Diamond composites showed the best overall properties with the addition of 1 wt % ZrO₂ nanoparticles, thus paving the way for further applications.

  17. Bulk heterojunction perovskite solar cells based on room temperature deposited hole-blocking layer: Suppressed hysteresis and flexible photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiliang; Yang, Guang; Zheng, Xiaolu; Lei, Hongwei; Chen, Cong; Ma, Junjie; Wang, Hao; Fang, Guojia

    2017-05-01

    Perovskite solar cells have developed rapidly in recent years as the third generation solar cells. In spite of the great improvement achieved, there still exist some issues such as undesired hysteresis and indispensable high temperature process. In this work, bulk heterojunction perovskite-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester solar cells have been prepared to diminish hysteresis using a facile two step spin-coating method. Furthermore, high quality tin oxide films are fabricated using pulse laser deposition technique at room temperature without any annealing procedure. The as fabricated tin oxide film is successfully applied in bulk heterojunction perovskite solar cells as a hole blocking layer. Bulk heterojunction devices based on room temperature tin oxide exhibit almost hysteresis-free characteristics with power conversion efficiency of 17.29% and 14.0% on rigid and flexible substrates, respectively.

  18. Development of Co-based bulk metallic glasses as potential biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zeyan; Wei, Qin; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Bingliang; Chen, You; Sun, Yanfei

    2016-12-01

    A new series of Co80-x-yCrxMoyP14B6 (x=5 y=5; x=5 y=10; x=10 y=10, all values in at.%) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with a maximum diameter of 1.5mm has been developed for using them as potential bio-implant materials by a combination of fluxing treatment and J-quenching technique. The performance of the present Co-based BMGs in biomedical implant applications was investigated as compared to the CoCrMo biomedical alloy (ASTM F75) and 316L stainless steel (316L SS). The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated in both Hank's solution (pH=7.4) and artificial saliva solution (pH=6.3) at 37°C employing electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that the Co-based BMGs exhibit much higher corrosion resistance in the simulated body solutions than that of 316L SS. Compared with the corrosion resistance of ASTM F75, that of Co70Cr5Mo5P14B6 and Co65Cr5Mo10P14B6 BMGs is found to be lower and that of Co60Cr10Mo10P14B6 BMG is higher. The concentrations of Co, Cr, and Mo ions released into the simulated body solutions from our Co-based BMGs after potentiodynamic polarization are significantly lower than that released from ASTM F75. The biocompatibility of the specimens was evaluated using an in vitro test of NIH3T3 cell culture in the specimen extraction media for 1, 3, 5, and 7days, revealing the non-cytotoxicity of the Co-based BMGs towards NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, examinations on the cell adhesion and growth on the surface of the specimens indicate that the Co-based BMGs exhibit better cell viability compared to ASTM F75 and 316L SS biomedical alloys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation on Mechanical and Fatigue behaviour of Aluminium Based SiC/ZrO2 Particle Reinforced MMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, S.; Govindaraju, N.; Suryanarayan, C. P.

    2018-04-01

    The study is the work on Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites (MMC’s), which have wider applications in automobile, aerospace and defense industries, hi-tech engineering and power transmission due to their lightweight, high strength and other unique properties. The Aluminium Matrix Composites (AMC’s) refer to a kind of light weight high performance Aluminium centric material system. AMC’s consist of a non-metallic reinforcement which when included into aluminium matrix offers an advantage over the base material. Reinforcements like SiC, B4C, Al2O3, TiC, TiB2, TiO2 are normally preferred to improve mechanical properties of such composites. Here Aluminium 6061 is preferred as matrix material, while silicon carbide (SiC) and Zirconium di-oxide (ZrO2) is selected as reinforcement compounds. Conventional Stir casting procedure is employed to fabricate the necessary composites compositions, which are I. Al:SiC::100:5 and II. Al:ZrO2:SiC::100:3:2. Experimental results depict that the composition II provides higher hardness of 53.6 RHN as opposed to 45.8 RHN of composition I. In tensile strength composition II demonstrates 96.43 N/mm2 as opposed to 67.229 N/mm2 tensile strength of composition II. The fatigue test indicate a expected number of life cycles to failure of 105 cycles for composition II and over 104 cycles for composition I, at stress ranges of 79.062 MPa and 150.651 MPa respectively.

  20. Oxidation feature and diffusion mechanism of Zr-based metallic glasses near the glass transition point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Lei, Xianqi; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Kun

    2018-03-01

    The oxidation behaviors of as-cast, pre-deformed, and crystallized Zr47.9Ti0.3Ni3.1Cu39.3Al9.4 metallic glasses (MGs) were studied near the glass transition point. The oxidation kinetics of the crystallized MGs followed a parabolic-rate law, and the as-cast and pre-deformed MGs exerted a typical two-stage behavior above the glass transition temperature (T g). Most interesting, pre-deformed treatment can significantly improve the oxidation rate of MGs, as the initial oxidation appeared earlier than for the as-cast MGs, and was accompanied by much thicker oxide scale. The EDS and XPS results showed that the metal Al acted as the preferred scavenger that absorbed intrinsic oxygen in the near-surface region of as-cast MGs. However, a homogeneous mixed layer without Al was observed in the pre-deformed MGs. We speculated the accelerated diffusion of other elements in the MGs was due to the local increase in the free volume and significant shear-induced dilation of the local structure. The results from this study demonstrate that MGs exhibit controllable atomic diffusion during the oxidation process, which can facilitate use in super-cooled liquid region applications.

  1. The modulator driven polymorphism of Zr(IV) based metal–organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Drache, Franziska; Bon, Volodymyr; Getzschmann, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The reaction of ZrCl4 and 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (Htfa) as modulator results in the formation of the new metal–organic framework (MOF) named DUT-126 (DUT = Dresden University of Technology). The nature and concentration of modulators are found to be decisive synthetic parameters affecting the topology of the formed product. DUT-126 (hbr) extends the series of polymorphs differing in topology, namely DUT-67 (reo), DUT-68 (bon) and DUT-69 (bct) to four, where DUT-67 and DUT-68 show the same eight-connected secondary building units as in DUT-126. In DUT-126, linker molecules have a peculiar orientation, resulting in hbr topology, which is described for the first time in this work for MOFs. DUT-126 contains three pore types, including two micropores surrounding mesoporous channels. DUT-126 is stable against hydrolysis and features permanent porosity with a specific surface area of 1297 m2 g−1 and a total pore volume of 0.48 cm3 g−1, calculated from the nitrogen physisorption isotherm measured at 77 K. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks: materials by design’. PMID:27895257

  2. Reproducibility of ZrO2-based freeze casting for biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Naleway, Steven E; Fickas, Kate C; Maker, Yajur N; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    The processing technique of freeze casting has been intensely researched for its potential to create porous scaffold and infiltrated composite materials for biomedical implants and structural materials. However, in order for this technique to be employed medically or commercially, it must be able to reliably produce materials in great quantities with similar microstructures and properties. Here we investigate the reproducibility of the freeze casting process by independently fabricating three sets of eight ZrO2-epoxy composite scaffolds with the same processing conditions but varying solid loading (10, 15 and 20 vol.%). Statistical analyses (One-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests) run upon measurements of the microstructural dimensions of these composite scaffold sets show that, while the majority of microstructures are similar, in all cases the composite scaffolds display statistically significant variability. In addition, composite scaffolds where mechanically compressed and statistically analyzed. Similar to the microstructures, almost all of their resultant properties displayed significant variability though most composite scaffolds were similar. These results suggest that additional research to improve control of the freeze casting technique is required before scaffolds and composite scaffolds can reliably be reproduced for commercial or medical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Serration Behavior of a Zr-Based Metallic Glass Under Different Constrained Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. N.; Gu, J. L.; Chen, S. Q.; Shao, Y.; Wang, H.; Yao, K. F.

    2016-11-01

    To understand the plastic behavior and shear band dynamics of metallic glasses (MGs) being tuned by the external constraint, uniaxial compression tests were performed on Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 MG samples with aspect ratios of 0.5:1, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, and 3:1. Better plasticity was observed for the samples with smaller aspect ratio (under higher constraint degree). In the beginning of yielding, increasing serration (jerky stress drop) size on the loading curves was noticed for all samples. Statistical analysis of the serration patterns indicated that the small stress-drop serrations and large stress-drop serrations follow self-organized critical and chaotic dynamics, respectively. Under constrained loading, the large stress-drop serrations are depressed, while the small stress-drop serrations are less affected. When changing the external constraint level by varying the sample aspect ratio, the serration pattern, shear band dynamics, and plastic behavior will change accordingly. This study provides a perspective from tuning shear band dynamics to understand the plastic behavior of MGs under different external constraint.

  4. The modulator driven polymorphism of Zr(IV) based metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drache, Franziska; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Getzschmann, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The reaction of ZrCl4 and 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (Htfa) as modulator results in the formation of the new metal-organic framework (MOF) named DUT-126 (DUT = Dresden University of Technology). The nature and concentration of modulators are found to be decisive synthetic parameters affecting the topology of the formed product. DUT-126 (hbr) extends the series of polymorphs differing in topology, namely DUT-67 (reo), DUT-68 (bon) and DUT-69 (bct) to four, where DUT-67 and DUT-68 show the same eight-connected secondary building units as in DUT-126. In DUT-126, linker molecules have a peculiar orientation, resulting in hbr topology, which is described for the first time in this work for MOFs. DUT-126 contains three pore types, including two micropores surrounding mesoporous channels. DUT-126 is stable against hydrolysis and features permanent porosity with a specific surface area of 1297 m2 g-1 and a total pore volume of 0.48 cm3 g-1, calculated from the nitrogen physisorption isotherm measured at 77 K. This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  5. Effects of Zr and Si on the Glass Forming Ability and Compressive Properties of Ti-Cu-Co-Sn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tan; Wu, Yidong; Si, Jiajia; Hui, Xidong

    2015-06-01

    To succeed in finding novel Ti-based bulk metallic glasses, which are free from Be, Ni, and noble metallic elements, a comprehensive study was performed on the effects of Zr and Si on the microstructural evolution, glass-forming ability (GFA), and mechanical properties of Ti46Cu44- x Zr x Co7Sn3 ( x = 0, 5, 10, 12.5, and 16 at. pct) and Ti46Cu31.5Zr12.5- x Co7Sn3Si x ( x = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 at. pct) alloys. It is shown that with the increase of Zr, the sequence of phase formation is β-Ti + α-Ti + (Ti, Zr)3Cu4 ⇒ β-Ti + α-Ti + TiCu ⇒ β-Ti + Ti2Cu + glass ⇒ glass ⇒ β-Ti + Ti2Cu + TiCuSn. The quinary Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Sn alloy with 12.5 pct Zr exhibits the best GFA. The addition of 1 pct Si results in the improvement of the critical size of glassy rods up to 3 mm in diameter. The yield stress and Young's modulus of Z-series alloys increases, and the plastic strain decreases with the addition of Zr. The yield stress and ultimate compression stress of Ti46Zr11.5Cu31.5Co7Sn3Si1 glassy alloy reach 2477.9 and 2623.3 MPa, respectively. It was found that the addition of Si promotes the generation and multiplication of shear bands, resulting in certain plasticity in these kinds of glassy alloys.

  6. Bulk magnetic terahertz metamaterial based on TiO2 microresonators(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, Christelle; Sindler, Michal; Dominec, Filip; Němec, Hynek; Elissalde, Catherine; Mounaix, Patrick; Kuzel, Petr

    2017-05-01

    Dielectric spheres with high permittivity represent a Mie resonance-based metamaterial. Owing to its high far-infrared permittivity and low dielectric losses, TiO2 is a suitable material for the realization of magnetic metamaterials based on micro-resonators for the terahertz (THz) range. In a previous work, we experimentally demonstrated the magnetic effective response of TiO 2 microspheres dispersed in air, forming nearly a single-layer sample enclosed between two sapphire wafers [1]. Here we embedded the polycrystalline TiO2 microparticles into a polyethylene matrix, which enabled us to prepare a rigid bulk metamaterial with a controllable concentration of micro- resonators. TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of a few tens of micrometers were prepared by a bottom up approach. A liquid suspension of TiO2 nanoparticles was first spray-dried producing fragile TiO2 microspheres. These were subsequently sintered in a furnace at 1200° C for two hours, in order to consolidate individually each sphere. The particles show polycrystalline rutile structure with a porosity of 15%. The microspheres were finally sieved and sorted along their diameters in order to obtain a narrow size distribution. They were mixed with polyethylene powder and a pressure of 14 MPa was used to prepare rigid pellets with random spatial distribution of the TiO2 microspheres. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations, we investigated how the filling fraction and the ratio between the permittivities of the microspheres and the host matrix affect the position and the strength of the magnetic response associated with the lowest Mie mode. We found that a range of negative effective magnetic permeability can be achieved for sufficiently high filling factors and contrasts between the permittivities of the resonators and the embedding medium. Using time-domain THz spectroscopy we experimentally characterized the response of the realized structures and confirmed the magnetic character of their

  7. Fabrication and RF characterization of zinc oxide based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raju; Bansal, Deepak; Agrawal, Vimal Kumar; Rangra, Kamaljit; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2018-06-01

    This work reports fabrication and characterization of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) to improve the performance characteristics for RF filter and sensing application. Zinc oxide as a piezoelectric (PZE) material was deposited on an aluminum bottom electrode using an RF magnetron sputtering, at room temperature, and gold as top electrode for the resonator. Tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) setup was used for bulk silicon etching to make back side cavity to confine the acoustic signals. The transmission characteristics show that the FBARs have a central frequency at 1.77 GHz with a return loss of -10.7 dB.

  8. Microstructures, magnetic properties and coercivity mechanisms of Nd-Ce-Fe-B based alloys by Zr substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Quan, Qichen; Zhang, Lili; Hu, Xianjun; Ur Rehman, Sajjad; Jiang, Qingzheng; Du, Junfeng; Zhong, Zhenchen

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of Zr addition on microstructures, magnetic properties, exchange coupling, and coercivity mechanisms of Nd-Ce-Fe-B alloys fabricated by melt-spinning technique are investigated. It is found that the coercivity Hcj is enhanced significantly by Zr substitution in the (Nd0.8Ce0.2)13Fe82-xZrxB5 alloys, while the remanence Jr is reduced slightly. The Hcj increases from 12.2 to 13.7 kOe by adding Zr up to 1.5 at. %, whereas Hcj is decreased with a further increase in Zr content. The larger lattice constants and unit cell volumes of the matrix phase indicate that Zr atoms enter into the hard magnetic phase by substituting Fe sites. The reduction of Tc implies the attenuation of the exchange interaction in the 2:14:1 phase with Zr occupying the Fe sites. The weakened intergranular exchange coupling of the Zr added alloy may be attributed to the formation of a non-magnetic intergranular phase. It is worth noting that the coercivity is dominated by the pinning of domain walls at defect positions even though the nucleation of reversal domains still exists. The synergistic function between the pinning effect and the exchange coupling leads to improved magnetic properties.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Eu{sup 3+}-doped CaZrO{sub 3}-based perovskite-type phosphors. Part I: Determination of the Eu{sup 3+} occupied site using the ALCHEMI technique

    SciT

    Sakaida, Satoshi; Shimokawa, Yohei; Asaka, Toru

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+}-doped CaZrO{sub 3}-based compounds were synthesized by the solid state reaction. • PL emission intensity at 614 nm was changed by the second dopant cations. • The site substituted by Eu{sup 3+} cations was investigated by using XRD and ALCHEMI technique. • The dominant Eu{sup 3+} substitution site was found as the B site (Zr{sup 4+}) in the CaZrO{sub {sup 3}}. • The dominant Eu{sup 3+} substitution site could be strongly influenced by the co-dopants. - Abstract: Eu{sup 3+}-doped CaZrO{sub 3}, SrZrO{sub 3}, and Mg{sup 2+}- or Sr{sup 2+}-co-doped CaZrO{sub 3} were synthesized by conventional solid statemore » reaction and their photoluminescence (PL) properties were characterized. The Eu{sup 3+}-doped CaZrO{sub 3}-based compounds exhibited characteristic emissions of Eu{sup 3+} (f–f transition). The intensity of the main PL emission peak at 614 nm increased with Mg{sup 2+} co-doping, while it decreased with the amount of co-doped Sr{sup 2+}. The site substituted by Eu{sup 3+} cations in the CaZrO{sub 3}-based compounds was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis based on the electron channeling effects in transmission electron microscopy. The Eu{sup 3+} cations were determined to occupy mainly the B site (Zr{sup 4+}) in CaZrO{sub 3}. The dominant Eu{sup 3+} substitution site was also strongly influenced by the co-dopant, and the ionic radius of the co-dopant was identified as an important factor that determines the dominant Eu{sup 3+} substitution site.« less

  10. Mechanical rejuvenation in bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep

    SciT

    Tong, Yang; Dmowski, W.; Bei, Hongbin

    Using high energy X-ray diffraction we studied the temperature, stress, and time effect on structural changes in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep. Pair distribution functions obtained from two-dimensional diffraction patterns show that thermo-mechanical creep induces structural disordering, but only when the stress beyond a threshold is applied. A similar threshold behavior was observed for anelastic strain. We conclude that anelastic creep strain induces rejuvenation, whereas plastic strain does not.

  11. Mechanical rejuvenation in bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep

    DOE PAGES

    Tong, Yang; Dmowski, W.; Bei, Hongbin; ...

    2018-02-16

    Using high energy X-ray diffraction we studied the temperature, stress, and time effect on structural changes in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep. Pair distribution functions obtained from two-dimensional diffraction patterns show that thermo-mechanical creep induces structural disordering, but only when the stress beyond a threshold is applied. A similar threshold behavior was observed for anelastic strain. We conclude that anelastic creep strain induces rejuvenation, whereas plastic strain does not.

  12. Amorphization of nanocrystalline monoclinic ZrO2 by swift heavy ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fengyuan; Wang, Jianwei; Lang, Maik; Toulemonde, Marcel; Namavar, Fereydoon; Trautmann, Christina; Zhang, Jiaming; Ewing, Rodney C; Lian, Jie

    2012-09-21

    Bulk ZrO(2) polymorphs generally have an extremely high amorphization tolerance upon low energy ion and swift heavy ion irradiation in which ballistic interaction and ionization radiation dominate the ion-solid interaction, respectively. However, under very high-energy irradiation by 1.33 GeV U-238, nanocrystalline (40-50 nm) monoclinic ZrO(2) can be amorphized. A computational simulation based on a thermal spike model reveals that the strong ionizing radiation from swift heavy ions with a very high electronic energy loss of 52.2 keV nm(-1) can induce transient zones with temperatures well above the ZrO(2) melting point. The extreme electronic energy loss, coupled with the high energy state of the nanostructured materials and a high thermal confinement due to the less effective heat transport within the transient hot zone, may eventually be responsible for the ionizing radiation-induced amorphization without transforming to the tetragonal polymorph. The amorphization of nanocrystalline zirconia was also confirmed by 1.69 GeV Au ion irradiation with the electronic energy loss of 40 keV nm(-1). These results suggest that highly radiation tolerant materials in bulk forms, such as ZrO(2), may be radiation sensitive with the reduced length scale down to the nano-metered regime upon irradiation above a threshold value of electronic energy loss.

  13. Electronegativity calculation of bulk modulus and band gap of ternary ZnO-based alloys

    SciT

    Li, Keyan; Kang, Congying; Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciac.jl.cn

    2012-10-15

    In this work, the bulk moduli and band gaps of M{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Cd) alloys in the whole composition range were quantitatively calculated by using the electronegativity-related models for bulk modulus and band gap, respectively. We found that the change trends of bulk modulus and band gap with an increase of M concentration x are same for Be{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O and Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O, while the change trends are reverse for Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O and Ca{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O. It was revealed that the bulk modulus is related to the valence electron density of atoms whereasmore » the band gap is strongly influenced by the detailed chemical bonding behaviors of constituent atoms. The current work provides us a useful guide to compositionally design advanced alloy materials with both good mechanical and optoelectronic properties.« less

  14. Elastic Anomaly and Polyamorphic Transition in (La, Ce)-based Bulk Metallic Glass under Pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Qi, Xintong; Zou, Yongtao; Wang, Xuebing; ...

    2017-04-07

    In this paper, we discovered that in association with the polyamorphism of La 32Ce 32Al 16Ni 5Cu 15 bulk metallic glass, the acoustic velocities, measured up to 12.3 GPa using ultrasonic interferometry, exhibit velocity minima at 1.8 GPa for P wave and 3.2 GPa for S wave. The low and high density amorphous states are distinguished by their distinct pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli. The elasticity, permanent densification, and polyamorphic transition are interpreted by the topological rearrangement of solute-centered clusters in medium-range order (MRO) mediated by the 4f electron delocalization of Ce under pressure. The precisely measuredmore » acoustic wave travel times which were used to derive the velocities and densities provided unprecedented data to document the evolution of the bulk and shear elastic moduli associated with a polyamorphic transition in La 32Ce 32Al 16Ni 5Cu 15 bulk metallic glass and can shed new light on the mechanisms of polyamorphism and structural evolution in metallic glasses under pressure.« less

  15. Dimensional stability and electrochemical behaviour of ZrO2 incorporated electrospun PVdF-HFP based nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolyte for Li-ion capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Solarajan, Arun Kumar; Murugadoss, Vignesh; Angaiah, Subramania

    2017-01-01

    Different weight percentages of ZrO2 (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) incorporated electrospun PVDF-HFP nanocomposite polymer membranes (esCPMs) were prepared by electrospinning technique. They were activated by soaking in 1 M LiPF6 containing 1:1 volume ratio of EC : DMC (ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate) to get electrospun nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolytes (esCPMEs). The influence of ZrO2 on the physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of esCPM was studied in detail. Finally, coin type Li-ion capacitor cell was assembled using LiCo0.2Mn1.8O4 as the cathode, Activated carbon as the anode and the esCPME containing 7 wt% of ZrO2 as the separator, which delivered a discharge capacitance of 182.5 Fg−1 at the current density of 1Ag−1 and retained 92% of its initial discharge capacitance even after 2,000 cycles. It revealed that the electrospun PVdF-HFP/ZrO2 based nanocomposite membrane electrolyte could be used as a good candidate for high performance Li-ion capacitors. PMID:28397783

  16. Dimensional stability and electrochemical behaviour of ZrO2 incorporated electrospun PVdF-HFP based nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolyte for Li-ion capacitors.

    PubMed

    Solarajan, Arun Kumar; Murugadoss, Vignesh; Angaiah, Subramania

    2017-04-11

    Different weight percentages of ZrO 2 (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) incorporated electrospun PVDF-HFP nanocomposite polymer membranes (esCPMs) were prepared by electrospinning technique. They were activated by soaking in 1 M LiPF 6 containing 1:1 volume ratio of EC : DMC (ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate) to get electrospun nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolytes (esCPMEs). The influence of ZrO 2 on the physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of esCPM was studied in detail. Finally, coin type Li-ion capacitor cell was assembled using LiCo 0.2 Mn 1.8 O 4 as the cathode, Activated carbon as the anode and the esCPME containing 7 wt% of ZrO 2 as the separator, which delivered a discharge capacitance of 182.5 Fg -1 at the current density of 1Ag -1 and retained 92% of its initial discharge capacitance even after 2,000 cycles. It revealed that the electrospun PVdF-HFP/ZrO 2 based nanocomposite membrane electrolyte could be used as a good candidate for high performance Li-ion capacitors.

  17. Structure and Infrared Emissivity Properties of the MAO Coatings Formed on TC4 Alloys in K2ZrF6-Based Solution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Hu, Dan; Xi, Zhengping

    2018-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) ceramic coatings were formed on TC4 alloy surface in silicate and metaphosphate electrolytes based with K2ZrF6 for various concentrations. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the phase composition, microstructure and chemical compositions of the coatings. The infrared emissivity of the coatings was measured at 50 °C in a wavelength range of 8–20 µm. The microstructural observations all revealed the typical porousstructures. Moreover, adecline in roughness and thickness of the prepared coatings can be observed when the concentration of K2ZrF6 increases. Combined with the results of XRD and XPS, it was found that all the oxides existed as the amorphous form in the coatings except the TiO2 phase. The coatings exhibited the highest infrared emissivity value (about 0.89) when the concentration of K2ZrF6 was 6 g/L, which was possibly attributed to the defect microstructure and the optimal role of ZrO2. PMID:29414841

  18. Structure and properties of solid polymer electrolyte based on chitosan and ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticle for lithium ion battery

    SciT

    Sudaryanto,, E-mail: dryanto@batan.go.id; Yulianti, Evi, E-mail: yulianti@batan.go.id; Patimatuzzohrah, E-mail: pzohrah@yahoo.com

    In order to develop all solid lithium ion battery, study on the structure and properties of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on chitosan has been done. The SPE were prepared by adding Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) nanoparticle and LiClO{sub 4} as lithium salt into the chitosan solution followed by casting method. Effect of the ZrO{sub 2} and salt concentration to the structure and properties of SPE were elaborated using several methods. The structure of the SPE cast film, were characterized mainly by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). While the electrical properties of SPE were studied by electrochemical impedance spectrometer (EIS) and ionmore » transference number measurement. XRD profiles show that the addition of ZrO{sub 2} and LiClO{sub 4} disrupts the crystality of chitosan. The decrease in sample crytalinity with the nanoparticle and salt addition may increase the molecular mobility result in the increasing sample conductivity and cathionic transference number as determined by EIS and ion transference number measurement, respectively. The highest ionic conductivity (3.58×10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}) was obtained when 4 wt% of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticle and 40 wt% of LiClO{sub 4} salt were added to the chitosan. The ion transference number with that composition was 0.55. It is high enough to be used as SPE for lithium ion battery.« less

  19. Ferroelectric HfZrOx-based MoS2 negative capacitance transistor with ITO capping layers for steep-slope device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Jiang, Shu-Ye; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Hao; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-03-01

    A negative capacitance field-effect transistor (NCFET) built with hafnium-based oxide is one of the most promising candidates for low power-density devices due to the extremely steep subthreshold swing (SS) and high on-state current induced by incorporating the ferroelectric material in the gate stack. Here, we demonstrated a two-dimensional (2D) back-gate NCFET with the integration of ferroelectric HfZrOx in the gate stack and few-layer MoS2 as the channel. Instead of using the conventional TiN capping metal to form ferroelectricity in HfZrOx, the NCFET was fabricated on a thickness-optimized Al2O3/indium tin oxide (ITO)/HfZrOx/ITO/SiO2/Si stack, in which the two ITO layers sandwiching the HfZrOx film acted as the control back gate and ferroelectric gate, respectively. The thickness of each layer in the stack was engineered for distinguishable optical identification of the exfoliated 2D flakes on the surface. The NCFET exhibited small off-state current and steep switching behavior with minimum SS as low as 47 mV/dec. Such a steep-slope transistor is compatible with the standard CMOS fabrication process and is very attractive for 2D logic and sensor applications and future energy-efficient nanoelectronic devices with scaling power supply.

  20. Radar-based rainfall estimation: Improving Z/R relations through comparison of drop size distributions, rainfall rates and radar reflectivity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuper, Malte; Ehret, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The relation between the measured radar reflectivity factor Z and surface rainfall intensity R - the Z/R relation - is profoundly complex, so that in general one speaks about radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) rather than exact measurement. Like in Plato's Allegory of the Cave, what we observe in the end is only the 'shadow' of the true rainfall field through a very small backscatter of an electromagnetic signal emitted by the radar, which we hope has been actually reflected by hydrometeors. The meteorological relevant and valuable Information is gained only indirectly by more or less justified assumptions. One of these assumptions concerns the drop size distribution, through which the rain intensity is finally associated with the measured radar reflectivity factor Z. The real drop size distribution is however subject to large spatial and temporal variability, and consequently so is the true Z/R relation. Better knowledge of the true spatio-temporal Z/R structure therefore has the potential to improve radar-based QPE compared to the common practice of applying a single or a few standard Z/R relations. To this end, we use observations from six laser-optic disdrometers, two vertically pointing micro rain radars, 205 rain gauges, one rawindsonde station and two C-band Doppler radars installed or operated in and near the Attert catchment (Luxembourg). The C-band radars and the rawindsonde station are operated by the Belgian and German Weather Services, the rain gauge data was partly provided by the French, Dutch, Belgian, German Weather Services and the Ministry of Agriculture of Luxembourg and the other equipment was installed as part of the interdisciplinary DFG research project CAOS (Catchment as Organized Systems). With the various data sets correlation analyzes were executed. In order to get a notion on the different appearance of the reflectivity patterns in the radar image, first of all various simple distribution indices (for example the

  1. Design, fabrication, and characterization of polymer based bulk heterojunction solar cells with enhanced efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haiwei

    Polymer based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells offer promising technological advantages for actualization of low-cost and large-area fabrication on flexible substrates. To reach the envisaged market entry figure of 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE), it is crucial that more solar energy is utilized in the active layer, requiring both higher energy conversion efficiency and expansion of the absorption spectrum of the active layer to near infrared (NIR) region. The research introduced in this dissertation is an effort to increase PCE of solar cells from the aforementioned two directions. In the first method, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into polymer-fullerene BHJ solar cells to increase the hole-collection efficiency. Devices with CNT monolayer networks placed at different positions were fabricated, and the impact of CNTs on device performance was studied. It was demonstrated that CNTs placed on the hole-collection side of the device resulted in optimized performance, with PCE increased from 4% to 4.9%. To realize the controlled deposition of a uniform layer of CNTs on different positions, a mild plasma treatment of the active-layer was employed, and the influence of plasma treatment on device performance was also studied. In the second strategy, I developed an approach to expand the absorption spectrum to NIR region. In this case, hybrid polymer based BHJ solar cells composed of pyridine-capped PbS (PbS-py) quantum dots (QDs) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) were proposed. With pyridines as capping ligands, devices showed superior performance compared to with conventionally used oleate agents. PbS QDs with bandgaps of ˜1.13-1.38 eV offered the advantage of energetically favorable charge separation between P3HT and PbS QDs for photoexcitons in both visible and NIR regions. It was also found that thermal annealing leads to the removal of excess and interfacial pyridine ligands in polymer/QDs composites, and thus provides intimate electrical

  2. Quinacridone-based molecular donors for solution processed bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, John Jun-An; Chen, Teresa L; Kim, BongSoo; Poulsen, Daniel A; Mynar, Justin L; Fréchet, Jean M J; Ma, Biwu

    2010-09-01

    New soluble quinacridone-based molecules have been developed as electron donor materials for solution-processed organic solar cells. By functionalizing the pristine pigment core of quinacridone with solubilizing alkyl chains and light absorbing/charge transporting thiophene units, i.e., bithiophene (BT) and thienylbenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazolethienyl (BTD), we prepared a series of multifunctional quinacridone-based molecules. These molecular donors show intense absorption in the visible spectral region, and the absorption range and intensity are well-tuned by the interaction between the quinacridone core and the incorporated thiophene units. The thin film absorption edge extends with the expansion of molecular conjugation, i.e., 552 nm for N,N'-di(2-ethylhexyl)quinacridone (QA), 592 nm for 2,9-Bis(5'-hexyl-2,2'-bithiophene)-N,N'-di(2-ethylhexyl)quinacridone (QA-BT), and 637 nm for 4-(5-hexylthiophen-2-yl)-7-(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (QA-BTD). The change of molecular structure also influences the electrochemical properties. Observed from cyclic voltammetry measurements, the oxidation and reduction potentials (vs ferrocene) are 0.7 and -1.83 V for QA, 0.54 and -1.76 V for QA-BT, and 0.45 and -1.68 V for QA-BTD. Uniform thin films can be generated from both single component molecular solutions and blend solutions of these molecules with [6,6]-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). The blend films exhibit space-charge limited current (SCLC) hole mobilities on the order of 1×10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) S(-1). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using these soluble molecules as donors and PC70BM as the acceptor were fabricated. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 2.22% under AM 1.5 G simulated 1 sun solar illumination have been achieved and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) reach as high as ∼45%.

  3. Oxide-Based Composite Electrolytes Using Na3Zr2Si2PO12/Na3PS4 Interfacial Ion Transfer.

    PubMed

    Noi, Kousuke; Nagata, Yuka; Hakari, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenji; Yubuchi, So; Ito, Yusuke; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2018-05-31

    All-solid-state sodium batteries using Na 3 Zr 2 Si 2 PO 12 (NASICON) solid electrolytes are promising candidates for safe and low-cost advanced rechargeable battery systems. Although NASICON electrolytes have intrinsically high sodium-ion conductivities, their high sintering temperatures interfere with the immediate development of high-performance batteries. In this work, sintering-free NASICON-based composites with Na 3 PS 4 (NPS) glass ceramics were prepared to combine the high grain-bulk conductivity of NASICON and the interfacial formation ability of NPS. Before the composite preparation, the NASICON/NPS interfacial resistance was investigated by modeling the interface between the NASICON sintered ceramic and the NPS glass thin film. The interfacial ion-transfer resistance was very small above room temperature; the area-specific resistances at 25 and 100 °C were 15.8 and 0.40 Ω cm 2 , respectively. On the basis of this smooth ion transfer, NASICON-rich (70-90 wt %) NASICON-NPS composite powders were prepared by ball-milling fine powders of each component. The composite powders were well-densified by pressing at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed highly dispersed sub-micrometer NASICON grains in a dense NPS matrix to form closed interfaces between the oxide and sulfide solid electrolytes. The composite green (unfired) compacts with 70 and 80 wt % NASICON exhibited high total conductivities at 100 °C of 1.1 × 10 -3 and 6.8 × 10 -4 S cm -1 , respectively. An all-solid-state Na 15 Sn 4 /TiS 2 cell was constructed using the 70 wt % NASICON composite electrolyte by the uniaxial pressing of the powder materials, and its discharge properties were evaluated at 100 °C. The cell showed the reversible capacities of about 120 mAh g -1 under the current density of 640 μA cm -2 . The prepared oxide-based composite electrolytes were thus successfully applied in all-solid-state sodium rechargeable batteries without sintering.

  4. Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 and Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, N.; Fink, C. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Nickels, J.; Torsteinsen, T.

    1972-01-01

    The structures of Zr-93 and Zr-91 were studied by the stripping reaction Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 and the pick-up reaction Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91 using 13 MeV incident deuterons. The reaction product particles were detected by counter telescope. Typical spectra from the reactions were analyzed by a nonlinear least squares peak fitting program which included a background search. Spin and parity assignments to observed excited levels were made by comparing experimental angular distributions with distorted wave Born approximation calculations.

  5. Low-power chip-level optical interconnects based on bulk-silicon single-chip photonic transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Hyundai; Joo, Jiho; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kwack, Myung-Joon; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Park, Jaegyu; Kim, Sanggi

    2016-03-01

    We present new scheme for chip-level photonic I/Os, based on monolithically integrated vertical photonic devices on bulk silicon, which increases the integration level of PICs to a complete photonic transceiver (TRx) including chip-level light source. A prototype of the single-chip photonic TRx based on a bulk silicon substrate demonstrated 20 Gb/s low power chip-level optical interconnects between fabricated chips, proving that this scheme can offer compact low-cost chip-level I/O solutions and have a significant impact on practical electronic-photonic integration in high performance computers (HPC), cpu-memory interface, 3D-IC, and LAN/SAN/data-center and network applications.

  6. Characteristics of low polymerization shrinkage flowable resin composites in newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Keiko; Nomoto, Rie; Tsubota, Yuji; Tsuchikawa, Masuji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-11-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS). Polymerization shrinkage was measured according to ISO/FDIS 17304. BBS showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and significantly higher depth of cure than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). The Knoop hardness, flexural strength and elastic modulus of that were significantly lower than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). BBS had the significantly greatest filler content (p<0.05). SEM images of the surface showed failure of fillers. The lowest polymerization shrinkage was due to the incorporation of a new type of low shrinkage monomer, which has urethane moieties. There were no clear correlations between inorganic filler contents and polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and elastic modulus. In conclusion, the low polymerization shrinkage of BBS will be useful for cavity treatment in dental clinics.

  7. Doping effects of Yb 3+ on the crystal structures, nanoparticle properties and electrical behaviors of ZrO 2 derived from a facile urea-based hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya-Wen; Sun, Xiao; Xu, Gang; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2004-06-01

    Weakly-agglomerated nanocrystalline (ZrO 2) 1- x(Yb 2O 3) x ( x=0.02-0.2) powders with high surface area (109-151 m 2 g -1) were synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal process in the presence of urea: a stock solution of metal nitrates and urea was heated at 80 °C for 24 h and then at 180 °C for 48 h. For x=0.04-0.2, the as-derived powders were an assembly of uniform nanoparticles with well-defined edges in the size between 6.1-8.4 nm. Before and after calcination at 800 °C, the lattice parameters, microstrain and surface area of the (ZrO 2) 1- x(Yb 2O 3) x samples tended to increase with Yb 3+ concentration; while, the average crystallite size decreased correspondingly. In the Arrhenius plots over the measurement temperature range of 400-800 °C, the bulk ionic conductivity of the compacts sintered at 1400 °C for 24 h showed a maximum value at the composition of x=0.08 in cubic structure, with an activation energy of 0.89 eV. At 800 °C, σb=0.049 S cm -1 for x=0.08.

  8. Delayed Instantiation Bulk Operations for Management of Distributed, Object-Based Storage Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    source and destination object sets, while they have attribute pages to indicate that history . Fourth, we allow for operations to occur on any objects...client dialogue to the PostgreSQL database where server-side functions implement the service logic for the requests. The translation is done...to satisfy client requests, and performs delayed instantiation bulk operations. It is built around a PostgreSQL database with tables for storing

  9. A comparative study of the mechanical and thermal properties of defective ZrC, TiC and SiC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M; Zheng, J W; Xiao, H Y; Liu, Z J; Zu, X T

    2017-08-24

    ZrC and TiC have been proposed to be alternatives to SiC as fuel-cladding and structural materials in nuclear reactors due to their strong radiation tolerance and high thermal conductivity at high temperatures. To unravel how the presence of defects affects the thermo-physical properties under irradiation, first-principles calculations based on density function theory were carried out to investigate the mechanical and thermal properties of defective ZrC, TiC and SiC. As compared with the defective SiC, the ZrC and TiC always exhibit larger bulk modulus, smaller changes in the Young's and shear moduli, as well as better ductility. The total thermal conductivity of ZrC and TiC are much larger than that of SiC, implying that under radiation environment the ZrC and TiC will exhibit superior heat conduction ability than the SiC. One disadvantage for ZrC and TiC is that their Debye temperatures are generally lower than that of SiC. These results suggest that further improving the Debye temperature of ZrC and TiC will be more beneficial for their applications as fuel-cladding and structural materials in nuclear reactors.

  10. Growth and microstructure formation of isothermally-solidified Zircaloy-4 joints brazed by a Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni amorphous alloy ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, J. G.; Lee, M. K.; Rhee, C. K.

    2013-10-01

    The microstructure and growth characteristics of Zircaloy-4 joints brazed by a Zr48Ti16Cu17Ni19 (at.%) amorphous filler metal have been investigated with regard to the controlled isothermal solidification and intermetallic formation. Two typical joints were produced depending on the isothermal brazing temperature: (1) a dendritic growth structure including bulky segregation in the central zone (at 850 °C), and (2) a homogeneous dendritic structure throughout the joint without segregation (at 890 °C). The primary α-Zr phase was solidified isothermally, nucleating to grow into a joint with a cellular or dendritic structure. Also, the continuous Zr2Ni and particulate Zr2Cu phases were formed in the segregated center zone and at the intercellular region, respectively, owing to the different solubility and atomic mobility of the solute elements (Ti, Cu, and Ni) in the α-Zr matrix. A disappearance of the central Zr2Ni phase was also rate-controlled by the outward diffusion of the Cu and Ni elements. When the detrimental Zr2Ni intermetallic phase was eliminated by a complete isothermal solidification at 890 °C, the strengths of the joints were high enough to cause yielding and fracture in the base metal, exceeding those of the bulk Zircaloy-4, at room temperature as well as at elevated temperatures (up to 400 °C).

  11. The performances of proto-type Ni/MH secondary batteries using Zr-based hydrogen storage alloys and filamentary type Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, Ho; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Paul S.; Lee, Jai-Young

    2001-04-01

    For the purpose of developing a Zr-based Laves phase alloy with higher capacity and better performance for electrochemical application, extensive work has been carried out. After careful alloy design of ZrMn2-based hydrogen storage alloys through varying their stoichiometry by means of substituting or adding alloying elements, the Zr0.9Ti0.1(Mn0.7V0.5Ni1.4)0.92 with high capacity (392 mAh/g at the 0.25C) and improved performance (comparable to that of commercialized AB5 type alloy) was developed. Another endeavor was made to improve the poor activation property and the low rate capability of the developed Zr-based Laves phase alloy for commercialization. The combination method of hot-immersion and slow-charging was introduced. It was found that electrode activation was greatly improved after hot immersion at 80°C for 12h followed by charging at 0.05C. The effects of this method are discussed in comparison with other activation methods. The combination method was successfully applied to the formation process of 80 Ah Ni/MH cells. A series of systematic investigations has been rendered to analyze the inner cell pressure characteristics of a sealed type Ni-MH battery. It was found that the increase of inner cell pressure in the sealed type Ni/MH battery of the above-mentioned Zr-Ti-Mn-V-Ni alloy was mainly due to the accumulation of oxygen gas during charge/discharge cycling. The fact identified that the surface catalytic activity was affected more dominantly by the oxygen recombination reaction than the reaction surface area was also identified. In order to improve the surface catalytic activity of a Zr-Ti-Mn-V-Ni alloy, which is closely related to the inner pressure behavior in a sealed cell, the electrode was fabricated by mixing the alloy with Cu powder and a filamentary type of Ni and replacing 75% of the carbon black with them; thus, the inner cell pressure rarely increases with cycles due to the active gas recombination reaction. Measurements of the surface

  12. A nanoscale Zr-based fluorescent metal-organic framework for selective and sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanping; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Ke; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been commonly viewed as a gas signaling molecule in various physiological and pathological processes. However, the highly efficient H2S detection still remains challenging. Herein, we designed a new robust nano metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66-CH=CH2 as a fluorescent probe for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of biological H2S. UiO-66-CH=CH2 was prepared by heating ZrCl4 and 2-vinylterephthalic acid via a simple method. UiO-66-CH=CH2 displayed fluorescence quenching to H2S and kept excellent selectivity in the presence of biological relevant analytes especially the cysteine and glutathione. This MOF-based probe also exhibited fast response (10 s) and high sensitivity with a detection limit of 6.46 μM which was within the concentration range of biological H2S in living system. Moreover, this constructed MOF featured water-stability, nanoscale (20-30 nm) and low toxicity, which made it a promising candidate for biological H2S sensing.

  13. Adsorption Behavior of High Stable Zr-Based MOFs for the Removal of Acid Organic Dye from Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke-Deng; Tsai, Fang-Chang; Ma, Ning; Xia, Yue; Liu, Huan-Li; Zhan, Xue-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Yan; Zeng, Xiang-Zhe; Jiang, Tao; Shi, Dean; Chang, Chang-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Zirconium based metal organic frameworks (Zr-MOFs) have become popular in engineering studies due to their high mechanical stability, thermostability and chemical stability. In our work, by using a theoretical kinetic adsorption isotherm, we can exert MOFs to an acid dye adsorption process, experimentally exploring the adsorption of MOFs, their external behavior and internal mechanism. The results indicate their spontaneous and endothermic nature, and the maximum adsorption capacity of this material for acid orange 7 (AO7) could be up to 358 mg·g−1 at 318 K, estimated by the Langmuir isotherm model. This is ascribed to the presence of an open active metal site that significantly intensified the adsorption, by majorly increasing the interaction strength with the adsorbates. Additionally, the enhanced π delocalization and suitable pore size of UiO-66 gave rise to the highest host–guest interaction, which further improves both the adsorption capacity and separation selectivity at low concentrations. Furthermore, the stability of UiO-66 was actually verified for the first time, through comparing the structure of the samples before and after adsorption mainly by Powder X-ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis. PMID:28772564

  14. Study of low-modulus biomedical β Ti-Nb-Zr alloys based on single-crystal elastic constants modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Zhang, Ligang; Guo, Ziyi; Jiang, Yun; Tao, Xiaoma; Liu, Libin

    2016-09-01

    CALPHAD-type modeling was used to describe the single-crystal elastic constants of the bcc solution phase in the ternary Ti-Nb-Zr system. The parameters in the model were evaluated based on the available experimental data and first-principle calculations. The composition-elastic properties of the full compositions were predicted and the results were in good agreement with the experimental data. It is found that the β phase can be divided into two regions which are separated by a critical dynamical stability composition line. The corresponding valence electron number per atom and the polycrystalline Young׳s modulus of the critical compositions are 4.04-4.17 and 30-40GPa respectively. Orientation dependencies of single-crystal Young׳s modulus show strong elastic anisotropy on the Ti-rich side. Alloys compositions with a Young׳s modulus along the <100> direction matching that of bone were found. The current results present an effective strategy for designing low modulus biomedical alloys using computational modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Speciation and distribution of copper in a mining soil using multiple synchrotron-based bulk and microscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Liu, Jin; Dynes, James J; Peak, Derek; Regier, Tom; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Shenhai; Shi, Jiyan; Tse, John S

    2014-02-01

    Molecular-level understanding of soil Cu speciation and distribution assists in management of Cu contamination in mining sites. In this study, one soil sample, collected from a mining site contaminated since 1950s, was characterized complementarily by multiple synchrotron-based bulk and spatially resolved techniques for the speciation and distribution of Cu as well as other related elements (Fe, Ca, Mn, K, Al, and Si). Bulk X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that soil Cu was predominantly associated with Fe oxides instead of soil organic matter. This agreed with the closest association of Cu to Fe by microscopic X-ray fluorescence (U-XRF) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) nanoanalysis, along with the non-occurrence of photoreduction of soil Cu(II) by quick Cu L3,2-edge XANES spectroscopy (Q-XANES) which often occurs when Cu organic complexes are present. Furthermore, bulk-EXAFS and STXM-coupled Fe L3,2-edge nano-XANES analysis revealed soil Cu adsorbed primarily to Fe(III) oxides by inner-sphere complexation. Additionally, Cu K-edge μ-XANES, L3,2-edge bulk-XANES, and successive Q-XANES results identified the presence of Cu2S rather than radiation-damage artifacts dominant in certain microsites of the mining soil. This study demonstrates the great benefits in use of multiple combined synchrotron-based techniques for comprehensive understanding of Cu speciation in heterogeneous soil matrix, which facilitates our prediction of Cu reactivity and environmental fate in the mining site.

  16. Parallel bulk heterojunction photovoltaics based on all-conjugated block copolymer additives

    DOE PAGES

    Mok, Jorge W.; Kipp, Dylan; Hasbun, Luis R.; ...

    2016-08-23

    We demonstrated that the addition of block copolymers to binary donor–acceptor blends represents an effective approach to target equilibrium, co-continuous morphologies of interpenetrating donors and acceptors in our recent study. We report a study of the impact of all-conjugated poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene)-b-polynaphthalene diimide (PTB7-b-PNDI) block copolymer additives on the electronic properties and photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic active layers comprised of a PTB7 donor and a phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM61) acceptor. We find that small amounts of BCP additives lead to improved performance due to a large increase in the device open-circuit voltage (VOC), and the VOC is pinnedmore » to this higher value for higher BCP additive loadings. Such results contrast prior studies of ternary blend OPVs where either a continuous change in VOC or a value of VOC pinned to the lowest value is observed. We hypothesize and provide evidence in the form of device and morphology analyses that the impact of VOC is likely due to the formation of a parallel bulk heterojunction made up of isolated PCBM and PNDI acceptor domains separated by intermediate PTB7 donor domains. Our work demonstrates that all-conjugated block copolymers can be utilized as additives to both dictate morphology and modulate the electronic properties of the active layer.« less

  17. A study of preparation techniques and properties of bulk nanocomposites based on aqueous albumin dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimenko, A. Yu.; Dedkova, A. A.; Ichkitidze, L. P.; Podgaetskii, V. M.; Selishchev, S. V.

    2013-08-01

    Bulk nanocomposites prepared from an aqueous albumin dispersion with carbon nanotubes by removing the liquid component from the dispersion have been investigated. The composites were obtained by thermostating and exposure to LED and IR diode laser radiation. The nanocomposites obtained under laser irradiation retain their shape and properties for several years, in contrast to the composites fabricated in different ways (which decompose into small fragments immediately after preparation). The low density of the composites under study (˜1200 kg/m3), which is close to the density of water, is due to their high porosity. The hardness of stable nanocomposites (˜300 MPa) was found to be at the same level as the hardness of polymethylmethacrylate, aluminum, and iron and close to the hardness of human bone tissue. The cluster quasiordering of the inner structure of nanocomposites revealed by atomic force microscopy indicates the possibility of forming a bulk nanotube framework in them, which can be caused by the effect of the electric field of laser radiation and ensure their stability and hardness. The presence of a framework in nanocomposites provides conditions for self-assembly of biological tissues and makes it possible to apply laser-prepared nanocomposites as a component of surgical implants.

  18. Disulphide linkage: To get cleaved or not? Bulk and nano copper based SERS of cystine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P. J., Arathi; Seemesh, Bhaskar; Rajendra Kumar Reddy, G.; Suresh Kumar, P.; Ramanathan, V.

    2018-05-01

    Different nano-structures of noble metals have been the conventional substrates for carrying out Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). In this paper we examine electrodeposited copper (Cu) nano-structures on pencil graphite as novel substrate to carry out SERS measurements by considering L-cystine (Cys-Cys) (dimer of the amino acid cysteine) as the probe. The formation of monolayer of the probe molecule on the substrates was confirmed using cyclic voltammetric measurements. Mode of adsorption of Cys-Cys was observed to be different on bulk Cu (taken in the wire form) and nano-structured Cu on pencil graphite. Whereas in the former the disulphide bond of Cys-Cys remained intact, it got cleaved when Cys-Cys was adsorbed on electrodeposited copper indicating the activated nature of the nano-structure compared to bulk copper. Csbnd S stretching mode of vibration underwent blue shift in Cys-Cys adsorbed on Cu on pencil graphite vis-à-vis Cys-Cys adsorbed on Cu wire. Further evidence on the cleavage of the Csbnd S bond on an activated substrate was obtained by considering a bimetallic substrate comprising of silver on copper which was electrodeposited on pencil graphite. Our studies have demonstrated that nano-copper surface is an excellent substrate for SERS giving 200 μM as lower detection limit for Cys-Cys.

  19. Parallel bulk heterojunction photovoltaics based on all-conjugated block copolymer additives

    SciT

    Mok, Jorge W.; Kipp, Dylan; Hasbun, Luis R.

    We demonstrated that the addition of block copolymers to binary donor–acceptor blends represents an effective approach to target equilibrium, co-continuous morphologies of interpenetrating donors and acceptors in our recent study. We report a study of the impact of all-conjugated poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene)-b-polynaphthalene diimide (PTB7-b-PNDI) block copolymer additives on the electronic properties and photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic active layers comprised of a PTB7 donor and a phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM61) acceptor. We find that small amounts of BCP additives lead to improved performance due to a large increase in the device open-circuit voltage (VOC), and the VOC is pinnedmore » to this higher value for higher BCP additive loadings. Such results contrast prior studies of ternary blend OPVs where either a continuous change in VOC or a value of VOC pinned to the lowest value is observed. We hypothesize and provide evidence in the form of device and morphology analyses that the impact of VOC is likely due to the formation of a parallel bulk heterojunction made up of isolated PCBM and PNDI acceptor domains separated by intermediate PTB7 donor domains. Our work demonstrates that all-conjugated block copolymers can be utilized as additives to both dictate morphology and modulate the electronic properties of the active layer.« less

  20. Separation of actinides from irradiated An-Zr based fuel by electrorefining on solid aluminium cathodes in molten LiCl-KCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, P.; Murakami, T.; Claux, B.; Meier, R.; Malmbeck, R.; Tsukada, T.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2015-04-01

    An electrorefining process for metallic spent nuclear fuel treatment is being investigated in ITU. Solid aluminium cathodes are used for homogeneous recovery of all actinides within the process carried out in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at a temperature of 500 °C. As the selectivity, efficiency and performance of solid Al has been already shown using un-irradiated An-Zr alloy based test fuels, the present work was focused on laboratory-scale demonstration of the process using irradiated METAPHIX-1 fuel composed of U67-Pu19-Zr10-MA2-RE2 (wt.%, MA = Np, Am, Cm, RE = Nd, Ce, Gd, Y). Different electrorefining techniques, conditions and cathode geometries were used during the experiment yielding evaluation of separation factors, kinetic parameters of actinide-aluminium alloy formation, process efficiency and macro-structure characterisation of the deposits. The results confirmed an excellent separation and very high efficiency of the electrorefining process using solid Al cathodes.

  1. A new activation process for a Zr-based alloy as a negative electrode for Ni/MH electric vehicle batteries

    SciT

    Yu, J.S.; Lee, H.; Lee, S.M.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of a combination hot-immersion and slow-charging method on the activation of a Zr-based alloy were investigated. A Zr{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3}Cr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.3}V{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 1.0} alloy electrode was treated with two steps: alloy electrodes were immersed at 80 C for 12 h in a KOH solution and then charged at a low current density for one cycle. It was found that the alloy electrode activation was greatly improved after this hot-immersion and slow-charging treatment, and furthermore the treated electrodes were fully activated at the first normal cycle. The effects of this treatment are discussed on the basis of resultsmore » obtained by scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. The hot-immersion and slow-charging method was successfully applied to the formation process of 80 Ah Ni/MH cells using this Zr-based alloy.« less

  2. Synthesis of Metal-organic Frameworks Based on Zr4+ and Benzene 1,3,5-Tricarboxylate Linker as Heterogeneous Catalyst in the Esterification Reaction of Palmitic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larasati, I.; Winarni, D.; Putri, F. R.; Hanif, Q. A.; Lestari, W. W.

    2017-07-01

    The conversion of the biomass into biodiesels via catalytic esterification and trans-esterification became an interesting topic due to the depletion of fossil-based energy. Homogenous catalysts such as HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH commonly used as catalyst, however, the use of this kind of catalyst causes more problems, such as the difficulties on the separation from the product and the pollution effect on the environment. Heterogeneous catalysts, such as Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) give an alternative promising way to substitute these limitations due to their strong catalytic site, porosity, high specific surface area, and easy-separation and reusable properties. Herein, we reported the synthesis of MOFs based on zirconium(IV) and H3BTC linker (H3BTC = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) by solvothermal and reflux method. Solvothermal reaction at 120 °C was found to be the optimum method, that was indicated by most crystalline product compared to the simulated pattern in XRD analysis. The formation of the framework was characterized by FTIR analysis, which showed a significant shift from 1722 cm-1 to 1620 cm-1. The synthesized Zr(IV)-BTC was thermally stable up to 322°C as shown by TG/DTA analysis. This high thermal stability was related to the high oxidation state of Zr(IV), which give a significant covalent character to the Zr-O bond.

  3. Effects of inoculum type and bulk dissolved oxygen concentration on achieving partial nitrification by entrapped-cell-based reactors.

    PubMed

    Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Khan, Eakalak

    2014-07-01

    An entrapment of nitrifiers into gel matrix is employed as a tool to fulfill partial nitrification under non-limiting dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in bulk solutions. This study aims to clarify which of these two attributes, inoculum type and DO concentration in bulk solutions, is the decisive factor for partial nitrification in an entrapped-cell based system. Four polyvinyl alcohol entrapped inocula were prepared to have different proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and nitrite-oxidizing activity. At a DO concentration of 3 mg l(-1), the number of active NOB cells in an inoculum was the decisive factor for partial nitrification enhancement. However, when the DO concentration was reduced to 2 mg l(-1), all entrapped cell inocula showed similar degrees of partial nitrification. The results suggested that with the lower bulk DO concentration, the preparation of entrapped cell inocula is not useful as the DO level becomes the decisive factor for achieving partial nitrification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermal activation in Au-based bulk metallic glass characterized by high-temperature nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bing; Wadsworth, Jeffrey; Nieh, Tai-Gang

    2007-02-01

    High-temperature nanoindentation experiments have been conducted on a Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 bulk metallic glass from 30to140°C, utilizing loading rates ranging from 0.1to100mN/s. Generally, the hardness decreased with increasing temperature. An inhomogeneous-to-homogeneous flow transition was clearly observed when the test temperature approached the glass transition temperature. Analyses of the pop-in pattern and hardness variation showed that the inhomogeneous-to-homogeneous transition temperature was loading-rate dependent. Using a free-volume model, the authors deduced the size of the basic flow units and the activation energy for the homogeneous flow. In addition, the strain rate dependency of the transition temperature was predicted.

  5. A Three-Dimensional Microdisplacement Sensing System Based on MEMS Bulk-Silicon Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junjie; Lei, Lihua; Chen, Xin; Cai, Xiaoyu; Li, Yuan; Han, Tao

    2014-01-01

    For the dimensional measurement and characterization of microsized and nanosized components, a three-dimensional microdisplacement sensing system was developed using the piezoresistive effect in silicon. The sensor was fabricated using microelectromechanical system bulk-silicon technology, and it was validated using the finite element method. A precise data acquisition circuit with an accuracy of 20 μV was designed to obtain weak voltage signals. By calibration, the sensing system was shown to have a sensitivity of 17.29 mV/μm and 4.59 mV/μm in the axial and lateral directions, respectively; the nonlinearity in these directions was 0.8% and 1.0% full scale, respectively. A full range of 4.6 μm was achieved in the axial direction. Results of a resolution test indicated that the sensing system had a resolution of 5 nm in the axial direction and 10 nm in the lateral direction. PMID:25360581

  6. Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Field in a New Bulk Tobacco Curing Barn Based on CFD.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhipeng; Guo, Duoduo; Li, Shoucang; Hu, Yaohua

    2017-01-31

    A new structure bulk tobacco curing barn was presented. To study the temperature and humidity field in the new structure tobacco curing barn, a 3D transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed using porous medium, species transport, κ-ε turbulence and discrete phase models. The CFD results demonstrated that (1) the temperature and relative humidity predictions were validated by the experimental results, and comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed a fairly close agreement; (2) the temperature of the bottom and inlet area was higher than the top and outlet area, and water vapor concentrated on the top and outlet area in the barn; (3) tobacco loading density and thickness of tobacco leaves had an explicit effect on the temperature distributions in the barn.

  7. Magnetic levitation and its application for education devices based on YBCO bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. M.; Chao, X. X.; Guo, F. X.; Li, J. W.; Chen, S. L.

    2013-10-01

    A small superconducting maglev propeller system, a small spacecraft model suspending and moving around a terrestrial globe, several small maglev vehicle models and a magnetic circuit converter have been designed and constructed. The track was paved by NdFeB magnets, the arrangement of the magnets made us easy to get a uniform distribution of magnetic field along the length direction of the track and a high magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the YBCO bulks mounted inside the vehicle models or spacecraft model was field cooled to LN2 temperature at a certain distance away from the track, they could be automatically floating over and moving along the track without any obvious friction. The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications.

  8. Numerical Study of Electrostatic Field Distortion on LPTPC End-Plates based on Bulk Micromegas Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Colas, Paul; Attié, David

    2018-02-01

    The R&D activities for the linear collider TPC (LC-TPC) are currently working on the adoption of the micro pattern devices for the gaseous amplification stage. Several beam tests have been carried out at DESY with a 5 GeV electron beam in a 1 T superconducting magnet. We worked on a large prototype TPC with an end-plate that was built, for the first time, using seven resistive bulk Micromegas modules. During experiments, reduced signal sensitivity was observed at the boundary of these modules. Electrostatic field distortion near the module boundaries was considered to be the possible major reason behind these observations. In the present work, we will explore this hypothesis through numerical simulation. Our aim has been to understand the origin of distortions observed close to the edges of the test beam modules and to explore the possibility of using the Garfield simulation framework for investigating a phenomenon as complex as distortion.

  9. Hybrid phototransistors based on bulk heterojunction films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and zinc oxide nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Park, Soohyeong; Lee, Sooyong; Jeong, Jaehoon; Lee, Hyena; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2013-02-01

    Hybrid phototransistors (HPTRs) were fabricated on glass substrates using organic/inorganic hybrid bulk heterojunction films of p-type poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and n-type zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO(NP)). The content of ZnO(NP) was varied up to 50 wt % in order to understand the composition effect of ZnO(NP) on the performance of HPTRs. The morphology and nanostructure of the P3HT:ZnO(NP) films was examined by employing high resolution electron microscopes and synchrotron radiation grazing angle X-ray diffraction system. The incident light intensity (P(IN)) was varied up to 43.6 μW/cm², whereas three major wavelengths (525 nm, 555 nm, 605 nm) corresponded to the optical absorption of P3HT were applied. Results showed that the present HPTRs showed typical p-type transistor performance even though the n-type ZnO(NP) content increased up to 50 wt %. The highest transistor performance was obtained at 50 wt %, whereas the lowest performance was measured at 23 wt % because of the immature bulk heterojunction morphology. The drain current (I(D)) was proportionally increased with P(IN) due to the photocurrent generation in addition to the field-effect current. The highest apparent and corrected responsivities (R(A) = 4.7 A/W and R(C) = 2.07 A/W) were achieved for the HPTR with the P3HT:ZnO(NP) film (50 wt % ZnO(NP)) at P(IN) = 0.27 μW/cm² (555 nm).

  10. Switchable and Tunable Bulk Acoustic Wave Devices Based on Ferroelectric Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Almonir

    The explosive development of personal communications systems, navigation, satellite communications as well as personal computer and data processing systems together with the constant demand for higher speeds and larger bandwidths has driven fabrication technology to its limits. This, in turn, necessitates the development of novel functional materials for the fabrication of devices with superior performance and higher capacity at reduced manufacturing costs. Ferroelectric materials such as barium strontium titanate (BST) and strontium titanium oxide (STO) have received more attention by researchers and industry because of their field-induced piezoelectric property. This property gives these types of ferroelectric materials the ability to be switchable and tunable in the presence of an electric field. These features have allowed the ferroelectric materials to be used in many applications such as non-volatile memory and DRAMs, sensors, pyroelectric detectors, and tunable microwave devices. Therefore, with the ever increasing complexity in RF front-end receivers, and the demand for services (which in turn requires more functionalities), ferroelectric bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators and filters that are intrinsically switchable and tunable promise to reduce the size and complexity of component parts. In this work, we present the design, fabrication and experimental evaluation of switchable and tunable thin film bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators, filters and duplexers for radio frequency (RF) applications. The switchability and tunability of these devices come from utilizing the electrostrictive effect of ferroelectric materials such as barium strontium titanate (BST) with the application of an external DC-bias voltage. The BAW resonators, filters and duplexers in this work were fabricated on different substrates as solidly mounted resonator (SMR) structure with number of periodic layers of silicon dioxide and tantalum oxide as a Bragg reflector in order to

  11. Bulk undercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  12. Hole and electron extraction layers based on graphene oxide derivatives for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Xue, Yuhua; Gao, Yunxiang; Yu, Dingshan; Durstock, Michael; Dai, Liming

    2012-05-02

    By charge neutralization of carboxylic acid groups in graphene oxide (GO) with Cs(2)CO(3) to afford Cesium-neutralized GO (GO-Cs), GO derivatives with appropriate modification are used as both hole- and electron-extraction layers for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The normal and inverted devices based on GO hole- and GO-Cs electron-extraction layers both outperform the corresponding standard BHJ solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Microstructural characterization of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Mn-V-Cr based AB 2-type battery alloy

    SciT

    Shi, Zhan

    1999-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), combined with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was employed to investigate a proprietary and multicomponent AB 2 type Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery alloy. This material was prepared by High Pressure Gas Atomization (HPGA) and examined in both the as-atomized and heat treated condition. TEM examination showed a heavily faulted dendritic growth structure in as-atomized powder. Selected Area Diffraction (SAD) showed that this region consisted of both a cubic C15 structure with lattice constant a=7.03 and a hexagonal C14 structure with lattice parameter a=4.97 Å, c=8.11 Å. The Orientation Relationship (OR) between the C14 and C15 structures was determined to be (111)[1more » $$\\bar{1}$$0] C15//(0001)[11$$\\bar{2}$$0] C14. An interdendritic phase possessing the C14 structure was also seen. There was also a very fine grain region consisting of the C14 structure. Upon heat treatment, the faulted structure became more defined and appeared as intercalation layers within the grains. Spherical particles rich in Zr and Ni appeared scattered at the grain boundaries instead of the C14 interdendritic phase. The polycrystalline region also changed to a mixture of C14 and C15 structures. These results as well as phase stability of the C15 and C14 structures based on a consideration of atomic size factor and the average electron concentration are discussed.« less

  14. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence of a Zr-based metal–organic framework

    DOE PAGES

    Mieno, H.; Kabe, R.; Allendorf, M. D.; ...

    2017-12-22

    Here, the first metal–organic framework exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) was developed. The zirconium-based framework (UiO-68-dpa) uses a newly designed linker composed of a terphenyl backbone, an electron-accepting carboxyl group, and an electron-donating diphenylamine and exhibits green TADF emission with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 30% and high thermal stability.

  15. Overcoming the efficiency limitations of SnS2 nanoparticle-based bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam Nguyen Truong, Nguyen; Kieu Trinh, Thanh; Thanh Hau Pham, Viet; Smith, Ryan P.; Park, Chinho

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the effects of heat treatment, the electron transport layer, and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) incorporation on the performance of hybrid bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells composed of tin disulfide (SnS2) nanoparticles (NPs) and low band gap energy polymers poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b3,4-b‧]dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PBT7). Inserting an electron transport layer (ETL) (i.e., ZnO) on the top of the photoactive layer improved the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, which led to an improvement in charge transport. Moreover, adding a suitable amount of PCBM to the SnS2/polymer active layer enhanced the device performance, such as short circuit current density (J sc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE). In particular, adding 0.5 mg of PCBM to the composite solution led to a 25% and 1.5% improvement in the J sc value and PCE, respectively. The enhanced performance was due mainly to the improvements in the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, charge carrier mobility within the donor-acceptor interface, and carrier collection efficiency at the cathode.

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymer-based bulk optode for the determination of itopride hydrochloride in physiological fluids.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haleem, F M; Madbouly, Adel; El Nashar, R M; Abdel-Ghani, N T

    2016-11-15

    We report here for the first time on the use of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers as modifiers in bulk optodes, Miptode, for the determination of a pharmaceutical compound, itopride hydrochloride as an example in a concentration range of 1×10(-1)-1×10(-4)molL(-1). In comparison to the optode containing the ion exchanger only (Miptode 3), the optode containing the ion exchanger and the MIP particles (Miptode 2) showed improved selectivity over the most lipophilic species, Na(+) and K(+), by more than two orders of magnitude. For instance, the optical selectivity coefficients using Miptode 2, [Formula: see text] , were as follow: NH4(+)˂-6; Na(+)=-4.0, which were greatly enhanced in comparison with that obtained by Miptode 3. This work opens a new avenue for using miptodes for the determination of all the pharmaceutical preparations without the need for the development of new ionophores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. (Zr,Ti)O2 interface structure in ZrO2-TiO2 nanolaminates with ultrathin periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, C. R.; DeLoach, J. D.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2002-07-01

    A mixed cation interfacial structure in ZrO2-TiO2 nanolaminate films with ultrathin bilayer periodicity grown by sputter deposition at 297 K was identified by x-ray diffraction and nonresonant Raman spectroscopy. This structure consists of an amorphous phase at a ZrO2-on-TiO2 bilayer interface, followed by an extensive crystalline monoclinic (Zr,Ti)O2 solid solution predicted by Vegard's law. Monoclinic (Zr,Ti)O2 has previously been reported only once, in bulk powder of a single composition (ZrTiO4) at high pressure. Its stabilization in the nanolaminates is explained by the Gibbs-Thomson effect. This complex interfacial structure is shown to be a means of accommodating chemical mixing in the absence of a driving force for heteroepitaxy.

  18. Magnetocaloric effect in heavy rare-earth elements doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with tunable Curie temperature

    SciT

    Li, Jiawei; Huo, Juntao; Chang, Chuntao, E-mail: ctchang@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: dujun@nimte.ac.cn

    2014-08-14

    The effects of heavy rare earth (RE) additions on the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and magnetocaloric effect of the Fe-RE-B-Nb (RE = Gd, Dy and Ho) bulk metallic glasses were studied. The type of dopping RE element and its concentration can easily tune T{sub C} in a large temperature range of 120 K without significantly decreasing the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the alloys. The observed values of ΔS{sub M} and RC of these alloys compare favorably with those of recently reported Fe-based metallic glasses with enhanced RC compared to Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 1.9}Si{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.1}. The tunable T{submore » C} and large glass-forming ability of these RE doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses can be used in a wide temperature range with the final required shapes.« less

  19. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa Coloma, P.; Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J. B.; Cano, F. J.; Lapeña, N.

    2015-08-01

    Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an oxidation process occurred in the vicinity of the alloy's intermetallic particles. The amount of the Zr deposits at these locations increased with coating's formulations without Ti, which provided the best corrosion resistance. The Cr-free conversion coatings developed in this study for the AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys do not meet yet the strict requirements of the aircraft industry. However, they significantly improved the corrosion

  20. (abstract) Undercooling Studies of the Bulk Metallic Glass Forming Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) Alloy During Containerless Electrostatic Levitation Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Busch, R.; Johnson, W. L.; Rulison, A. J.; Rhim, W. K.

    1995-01-01

    Bulk glass forming metallic alloys have long been desired for technological applications and for investigation into liquid undercooling, solidification processes, and thermophysical properties. A glass forming alloy Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) was used to investigate the thermal treatments affecting undercooling and vitrification. The experiments were performed using the high temperature high vacuum electrostatic levitator at JPL. A sample approximately 3 mm in diameter was melted, superheated, undercooled, and solidified while levitated in high vacuum. The results show that when the sample was held above its melting temperature for a sufficient period of time to dissolve oxides and then cooled faster than a critical cooling rate, it undercooled to the glass transition temperature, T(sub g), and formed a glassy alloy. The required critical cooling rate for metallic glass formation was obtained to be between 0.9 K per second and 1.2 K per second for the 42.4 mg sample.

  1. Acquisition of a Modified Suction Casting Instrument for the Fabrication of Radiation Tolerant Bulk nNanostructured Metallic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    Cu/ Nb films”, Philos. Mag., 84, 1021-1028, (2004). [23] D. H. Ryan, J. M. D. Coey, “Magnetic properties of iron-rich Fe- Zr glasses”, Phys. Rev. B...2226, (1982). [26] K. Fukamichi, R. J. Gambino, T. R. McGuire, “ Electrical resistivity and Hall effect in FeZr amorphous sputtered films”, J. Appl...fabricate several bulk nanostructured metallic materials. In particular we fabricated bulk nanostructured Fe- Zr alloys via suction casting technique. The as

  2. Crystal genes in a marginal glass-forming system of Ni 50Zr 50

    DOE PAGES

    Wen, T. Q.; Tang, L.; Sun, Y.; ...

    2017-10-17

    Glass-forming motifs with B2 traits are found. A perfect Ni-centered B33 motif deteriorates the glass-forming ability of Ni 50Zr 50. The marginal glass-forming ability (GFA) of binary Ni-Zr system is an issue to be explained considering the numerous bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) found in the Cu-Zr system. Using molecular dynamics, the structures and dynamics of Ni 50Zr 50 metallic liquid and glass are investigated at the atomistic level. To achieve a well-relaxed glassy sample, sub-T g annealing method is applied and the final sample is closer to the experiments than the models prepared by continuous cooling. With the state-of-the-art structuralmore » analysis tools such as cluster alignment and pair-wise alignment methods, two glass-forming motifs with some mixed traits of the metastable B2 crystalline phase and the crystalline Ni-centered B33 motif are found to be dominant in the undercooled liquid and glass samples. A new chemical order characterization on each short-range order (SRO) structure is accomplished based on the cluster alignment method. The significant amount of the crystalline motif and the few icosahedra in the glassy sample deteriorate the GFA.« less

  3. Crystal genes in a marginal glass-forming system of Ni 50Zr 50

    SciT

    Wen, T. Q.; Tang, L.; Sun, Y.

    Glass-forming motifs with B2 traits are found. A perfect Ni-centered B33 motif deteriorates the glass-forming ability of Ni 50Zr 50. The marginal glass-forming ability (GFA) of binary Ni-Zr system is an issue to be explained considering the numerous bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) found in the Cu-Zr system. Using molecular dynamics, the structures and dynamics of Ni 50Zr 50 metallic liquid and glass are investigated at the atomistic level. To achieve a well-relaxed glassy sample, sub-T g annealing method is applied and the final sample is closer to the experiments than the models prepared by continuous cooling. With the state-of-the-art structuralmore » analysis tools such as cluster alignment and pair-wise alignment methods, two glass-forming motifs with some mixed traits of the metastable B2 crystalline phase and the crystalline Ni-centered B33 motif are found to be dominant in the undercooled liquid and glass samples. A new chemical order characterization on each short-range order (SRO) structure is accomplished based on the cluster alignment method. The significant amount of the crystalline motif and the few icosahedra in the glassy sample deteriorate the GFA.« less

  4. Technical Note: Is bulk electron density assignment appropriate for MRI-only based treatment planning for lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Prior, Phil; Chen, Xinfeng; Gore, Elizabeth; Johnstone, Candice; Li, X Allen

    2017-07-01

    MRI-based treatment planning in radiation therapy (RT) is prohibitive, in part, due to the lack of electron density (ED) information within the image. The dosimetric differences between MRI- and CT-based planning for intensity modulated RT (IMRT) of lung cancer were investigated to assess the appropriateness of bulk ED assignment. Planning CTs acquired for six representative lung cancer patients were used to generate bulk ED IMRT plans. To avoid the effect of anatomic differences between CT and MRI, "simulated MRI-based plans" were generated by forcing the relative ED (rED) to water on CT-delineated structures using organ specific values from the ICRU Report 46 and using the mean rED value of the internal target volume (ITV) from the planning CT. The "simulated MRI-based plans" were generated using a research planning system (Monaco v5.09.07a, Elekta, AB) and employing Monte Carlo dose calculation. The following dose-volume-parameters (DVPs) were collected from both the "simulated MRI-based plans" and the original planning CT: D 95 , the dose delivered to 95% of the ITV & planning target volume (PTV), D 5 and V 5 , the volume of normal lung irradiated ≥5 Gy. The percent point difference and relative dose difference were used for comparison with the CT based plan for V 5 and D 95 respectively. A total of five plans per patient were generated; three with the ITV rED (rED ITV ) = 1.06, 1.0 and the mean value from the planning CT while the lung rED (rED lung ) was fixed at the ICRU value of 0.26 and two with rED lung = 0.1 and 0.5 while the rED ITV was fixed to the mean value from the planning CT. Noticeable differences in the ITV and PTV DVPs were observed. Variations of the normal lung V 5 can be as large as 9.6%. In some instances, varying the rED ITV between rED mean and 1.06 resulted in D 95 increases ranging from 3.9% to 6.3%. Bulk rED assignment on normal lung affected the DVPs of the ITV and PTV by 4.0-9.8% and 0.3-19.6% respectively. Dose volume histograms

  5. Super-microporous solid base MgO-ZrO2 composite and their application in biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jiaojiao; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Huigang; Yan, Xiaoliang; Pan, Dahai; Fan, Binbin; Li, Ruifeng

    2016-10-01

    The super-microporous microcrystalline MgO-ZrO2 nanomaterials (pore size 1-2 nm) was prepared successfully via a facile one-pot evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method and employed in the transesterification of soybean oil and methanol. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, temperature programmed desorption of CO2, and N2 adsorption porosimetry were employed to characterize the nanocomposites. Nitrogen sorption isotherms revealed that these materials had large surface areas of more than 200 m2/g. Moreover, the sample with a Mg/Zr molar ratio of 0.5 and calcined at 400 °C showed high biodiesel yield (around 99% at 150 °C).

  6. Novel Gas Sensor Arrays Based on High-Q SAM-Modified Piezotransduced Single-Crystal Silicon Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Qingrui; Chang, Ye; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xuexin

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel micro-size (120 μm × 200 μm) piezoelectric gas sensor based on a piezotransduced single-crystal silicon bulk acoustic resonator (PSBAR). The PSBARs operate at 102 MHz and possess high Q values (about 2000), ensuring the stability of the measurement. A corresponding gas sensor array is fabricated by integrating three different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified PSBARs. The limit of detection (LOD) for ethanol vapor is demonstrated to be as low as 25 ppm with a sensitivity of about 1.5 Hz/ppm. Two sets of identification code bars based on the sensitivities and the adsorption energy constants are utilized to successfully discriminate isopropanol (IPA), ethanol, hexane and heptane vapors at low and high gas partial pressures, respectively. The proposed sensor array shows the potential to form a portable electronic nose system for volatile organic compound (VOC) differentiation. PMID:28672852

  7. Novel Gas Sensor Arrays Based on High-Q SAM-Modified Piezotransduced Single-Crystal Silicon Bulk Acoustic Resonators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Qingrui; Chang, Ye; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xuexin

    2017-06-26

    This paper demonstrates a novel micro-size (120 μm × 200 μm) piezoelectric gas sensor based on a piezotransduced single-crystal silicon bulk acoustic resonator (PSBAR). The PSBARs operate at 102 MHz and possess high Q values (about 2000), ensuring the stability of the measurement. A corresponding gas sensor array is fabricated by integrating three different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified PSBARs. The limit of detection (LOD) for ethanol vapor is demonstrated to be as low as 25 ppm with a sensitivity of about 1.5 Hz/ppm. Two sets of identification code bars based on the sensitivities and the adsorption energy constants are utilized to successfully discriminate isopropanol (IPA), ethanol, hexane and heptane vapors at low and high gas partial pressures, respectively. The proposed sensor array shows the potential to form a portable electronic nose system for volatile organic compound (VOC) differentiation.

  8. A novel in situ device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator to study tensile and fatigue properties of bulk materials

    SciT

    Wang, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhihui, E-mail: zhzh@jlu.edu.cn; Ren, Luquan

    2014-06-15

    In this work, a miniaturized device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator was developed to investigate the static tensile and dynamic fatigue properties of bulk materials. The device mainly consists of a bionic stepping piezoelectric actuator based on wedge block clamping, a pair of grippers, and a set of precise signal test system. Tensile and fatigue examinations share a set of driving system and a set of signal test system. In situ tensile and fatigue examinations under scanning electron microscope or metallographic microscope could be carried out due to the miniaturized dimensions of the device. The structure and working principlemore » of the device were discussed and the effects of output difference between two piezoelectric stacks on the device were theoretically analyzed. The tensile and fatigue examinations on ordinary copper were carried out using this device and its feasibility was verified through the comparison tests with a commercial tensile examination instrument.« less

  9. Nanoindentation study on the characteristic of shear transformation zone in a Pd-based bulk metallic glass during serrated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, G. K.; Long, Z. L.; Zhao, M. S. Z.; Peng, L.; Chai, W.; Ping, Z. H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the research on the evolution of shear transformation zone (STZ) in a Pd-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) during serrated flow under nanoindentation. A novel method of estimating the STZ volume through statistical analysis of the serrated flow behavior was proposed for the first time. Based on the proposed method, the STZ volume of the studied BMG at various peak loads have been systematically investigated. The results indicate that the measured STZ volumes are in good agreement with that documented in literature, and the STZ size exhibits an increasing trend during indentation. Moreover, the correlation between the serrated flow dynamics and the STZ activation has also been evaluated. It is found that the STZ activation can promote the formation of self-organized critical (SOC) state during serrated flow.

  10. A novel in situ device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator to study tensile and fatigue properties of bulk materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan; Zhao, Hongwei; Liang, Yunhong; Zhu, Bing

    2014-06-01

    In this work, a miniaturized device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator was developed to investigate the static tensile and dynamic fatigue properties of bulk materials. The device mainly consists of a bionic stepping piezoelectric actuator based on wedge block clamping, a pair of grippers, and a set of precise signal test system. Tensile and fatigue examinations share a set of driving system and a set of signal test system. In situ tensile and fatigue examinations under scanning electron microscope or metallographic microscope could be carried out due to the miniaturized dimensions of the device. The structure and working principle of the device were discussed and the effects of output difference between two piezoelectric stacks on the device were theoretically analyzed. The tensile and fatigue examinations on ordinary copper were carried out using this device and its feasibility was verified through the comparison tests with a commercial tensile examination instrument.

  11. Strength design of Zr(x)Ti(x)Hf(x)Nb(x)Mo(x) alloys based on empirical electron theory of solids and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. K.; Chen, Y. W.; Cheng, X. W.; Wu, C.; Cheng, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the valence electron structure parameters of Zr(x)Ti(x)Hf(x)Nb(x)Mo(x) alloys were calculated based on the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), and their performance through these parameters were predicted. Subsequently, the alloys with special valence electron structure parameters were prepared byarc melting. The hardness and high-temperature mechanical properties were analyzed to verify the prediction. Research shows that the influence of shared electron number nA on the strongest bond determines the strength of these alloys and the experiments are consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  12. Bulk deposition of base cationic nutrients in China's forests: Annual rates and spatial characteristics

    Enzai Du; Wim de Vries; Steven McNulty; Mark E. Fenn

    2018-01-01

    Base cations, such as potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), are essential nutrients for plant growth and their atmospheric inputs can buffer the effect of acid deposition by nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds. However, the spatial variation in atmospheric deposition of these base...

  13. Estimating canopy bulk density and canopy base height for conifer stands in the interior Western United States using the Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension.

    Seth Ex; Frederick Smith; Tara Keyser; Stephanie Rebain

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE-FVS) is often used to estimate canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH), which are key indicators of crown fire hazard for conifer stands in the Western United States. Estimated CBD from FFE-FVS is calculated as the maximum 4 m running mean bulk density of predefined 0.3 m thick canopy layers (...

  14. James C. McGroddy Prize Talk: Development and Applications of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-03-01

    We realized, through detailed amorphous material investigations in the 1980's, that a number of metallic glassy alloys of multi-component La-, Mg- and Zr-based systems exhibit a large supercooled-liquid region prior to crystallization. The stabilization phenomenon of these supercooled liquid should enable us to fabricate, by slow cooling processes, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with critical diameters larger than several millimeters. Caltech's group also succeeded the fabrication of BMG in Zr-based alloy system in 1993. Since then, much attention has been paid to BMGs because of their novel characteristics in basic science and engineering aspects and new materials science and engineering fields have emerged for BMGs. Based on knowledge obtained thus far, we have successfully developed new BMGs with technologically-important transition metals, such as Zr-, Ti-, Fe-, Co-, Ni- and Cu-based alloys. Currently, the maximum diameter for glass formation reaches 30 mm for Zr- and Cu-based systems, 12 mm for Ti-based system, 18 mm for Fe-Co-based system and 20 mm for Ni-based system, even employing the copper mold casting technique. These large size BMGs possess nearly the same fundamental properties as those of the BMGs with smaller diameters. BMGs with diameters above 10 mm can be formed in Zr-Al-Ni-Cu system with Zr compositions higher than 65 at% and they exhibit excellent properties, such as high Poisson's ratio, high ductility, high fracture toughness, high fatigue strength and high stability of mechanical properties to annealing-induced embrittlement. The new Ti-based BMGs without allergic and toxic elements should exhibit good compatibility to bio-tissues. Applications of BMGs in Fe-, Co-, Ti- and Zr-based systems have advanced many devices including the following; choke coil, power inductor, electro magnetic shielding, magnetic and position sensors, micro-geared motor, pressure sensor, Coriolis flowmeter, surface coating layer, precise polishing medium, magnetic and

  15. Interdiffusion and reaction between U and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Newell, R.; Mehta, A.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructural development and diffusion kinetics were examined for the binary U vs. Zr system using solid-to-solid diffusion couples, U vs. Zr, annealed at 580 °C for 960 h, 650 °C for 480 h, 680 °C for 240 h, and 710 °C for 96 h. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed for detailed microstructural and compositional analyses. Interdiffusion and reaction in U vs. Zr diffusion couples primarily produced: δ-UZr2 solid solution (hP3) and α‧-U at 580 °C; and (γU,βZr) solid solution (cI2) and α‧-U at 650°, 680° and 710 °C. The α‧-phase was confirmed as a reduced variant of the α-U orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters, a × b × c = 2.65 × 5.40 × 4.75 (Å) with a negligible solubility for Zr at room temperature. Concentration profiles were examined to determine interdiffusion coefficients, integrated interdiffusion coefficients, and intrinsic diffusion coefficients using Boltzmann-Matano, Wagner, and Heumann analyses, respectively. Composition-dependence of interdiffusion coefficients were documented for α-U, δ-UZr2 (at 580 °C) and (γU,βZr) solid solution (at 650°, 680° and 710 °C). U was determined to intrinsically diffuse faster than Zr, approximately by an order of magnitude, in the δ-UZr2 at 580 °C, and (γU,βZr) phases at 650°, 680° and 710 °C. Based on Darken's approach, thermodynamic data available in literature were coupled to estimate the tracer diffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities of U and Zr.

  16. Innovative and water based stripping approach for thick and bulk photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Schumann, Dirk; Thrun, Xaver; Esche, Silvio; Hohle, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    The usage of phase fluid based stripping agents to remove photoresists from silicon substrates was studied. Photoresists are required for many silicon based technologies such as MEMS patterning, 3D-Integration or frontend and backend of line semiconductor applications [1]. Although the use of resists is very common, their successful integration often depends on the ability to remove the resist after certain processing steps. On the one hand the resist is changing during subsequent process steps that can cause a thermally activated cross-linking which increases the stripping complexity. Resist removal is also challenging after the formation of a hard polymer surface layer during plasma or implant processes which is called skin or crust [2]. On the other hand the choice of stripping chemistry is often limited due to the presence of functional materials such as metals which can be damaged by aggressive stripping chemistries [3].

  17. Enhanced thermoelectric properties in bulk nanowire heterostructure-based nanocomposites through minority carrier blocking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haoran; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Day, Tristan; Mohammed, Amr M S; Snyder, G Jeffrey; Shakouri, Ali; Wu, Yue

    2015-02-11

    To design superior thermoelectric materials the minority carrier blocking effect in which the unwanted bipolar transport is prevented by the interfacial energy barriers in the heterogeneous nanostructures has been theoretically proposed recently. The theory predicts an enhanced power factor and a reduced bipolar thermal conductivity for materials with a relatively low doping level, which could lead to an improvement in the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). Here we show the first experimental demonstration of the minority carrier blocking in lead telluride-silver telluride (PbTe-Ag2Te) nanowire heterostructure-based nanocomposites. The nanocomposites are made by sintering PbTe-Ag2Te nanowire heterostructures produced in a highly scalable solution-phase synthesis. Compared with Ag2Te nanowire-based nanocomposite produced in similar method, the PbTe-Ag2Te nanocomposite containing ∼5 atomic % PbTe exhibits enhanced Seebeck coefficient, reduced thermal conductivity, and ∼40% improved ZT, which can be well explained by the theoretical modeling based on the Boltzmann transport equations when energy barriers for both electrons and holes at the heterostructure interfaces are considered in the calculations. For this p-type PbTe-Ag2Te nanocomposite, the barriers for electrons, that is, minority carriers, are primarily responsible for the ZT enhancement. By extending this approach to other nanostructured systems, it represents a key step toward low-cost solution-processable nanomaterials without heavy doping level for high-performance thermoelectric energy harvesting.

  18. Fracture behaviors under pure shear loading in bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cen; Gao, Meng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-12-23

    Pure shear fracture test, as a special mechanical means, had been carried out extensively to obtain the critical information for traditional metallic crystalline materials and rocks, such as the intrinsic deformation behavior and fracture mechanism. However, for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the pure shear fracture behaviors have not been investigated systematically due to the lack of a suitable test method. Here, we specially introduce a unique antisymmetrical four-point bend shear test method to realize a uniform pure shear stress field and study the pure shear fracture behaviors of two kinds of BMGs, Zr-based and La-based BMGs. All kinds of fracture behaviors, the pure shear fracture strength, fracture angle and fracture surface morphology, are systematically analyzed and compared with those of the conventional compressive and tensile fracture. Our results indicate that both the Zr-based and La-based BMGs follow the same fracture mechanism under pure shear loading, which is significantly different from the situation of some previous research results. Our results might offer new enlightenment on the intrinsic deformation and fracture mechanism of BMGs and other amorphous materials.

  19. Fracture behaviors under pure shear loading in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cen; Gao, Meng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-12-01

    Pure shear fracture test, as a special mechanical means, had been carried out extensively to obtain the critical information for traditional metallic crystalline materials and rocks, such as the intrinsic deformation behavior and fracture mechanism. However, for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the pure shear fracture behaviors have not been investigated systematically due to the lack of a suitable test method. Here, we specially introduce a unique antisymmetrical four-point bend shear test method to realize a uniform pure shear stress field and study the pure shear fracture behaviors of two kinds of BMGs, Zr-based and La-based BMGs. All kinds of fracture behaviors, the pure shear fracture strength, fracture angle and fracture surface morphology, are systematically analyzed and compared with those of the conventional compressive and tensile fracture. Our results indicate that both the Zr-based and La-based BMGs follow the same fracture mechanism under pure shear loading, which is significantly different from the situation of some previous research results. Our results might offer new enlightenment on the intrinsic deformation and fracture mechanism of BMGs and other amorphous materials.

  20. The effect of surface pre-conditioning treatments on the local composition of Zr-based conversion coatings formed on aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerezo, J.; Vandendael, I.; Posner, R.; de Wit, J. H. W.; Mol, J. M. C.; Terryn, H.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of different alkaline, acidic and thermal pre-conditioning treatments applied to different Al alloy surfaces. The obtained results are compared to the characteristics of Zr-based conversion coatings that were subsequently generated on top of these substrates. Focus is laid on typical elemental distributions on the sample surfaces, in particular on the amount of precipitated functional additives such as Cu species that are present in the substrate matrix as well as in the conversion bath solutions. To this aim, Field Emission Auger Electron spectra, depth profiles and surface maps with superior local resolution were acquired and compared to scanning electron microscopy images of the sample. The results show how de-alloying processes, which occur at and around intermetallic particles in the Al matrix during typical industrial alkaline or acidic cleaning procedures, provide a significant source of crystallization cores for any following coating processes. This is in particular due for Cu-species, as the resulting local Cu structures on the surface strongly affect the film formation and compositions of state-of-the-art Zr-based films. The findings are highly relevant for industrial treatments of aluminium surfaces, especially for those that undergo corrosion protection and painting process steps prior to usage.

  1. Surface thermodynamic stability, electronic and magnetic properties in various (001) surfaces of Zr2CoSn Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan; Feng, Zhong-Ying; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2018-05-01

    The spin-polarized first-principles are used to study the surface thermodynamic stability, electronic and magnetic properties in various (001) surfaces of Zr2CoSn Heusler alloy, and the bulk Zr2CoSn Heusler alloy are also discussed to make comparison. The conduction band minimum (CBM) of half-metallic (HM) bulk Zr2CoSn alloy is contributed by ZrA, ZrB and Co atoms, while the valence band maximum (VBM) is contributed by ZrB and Co atoms. The SnSn termination is the most stable surface with the highest spin polarizations P = 77.1% among the CoCo, ZrCo, ZrZr, ZrSn and SnSn terminations of the Zr2CoSn (001) surface. In the SnSn termination of the Zr2CoSn (001) surface, the atomic partial density of states (APDOS) of atoms in the surface, subsurface and third layers are much influenced by the surface effect and the total magnetic moment (TMM) is mainly contributed by the atomic magnetic moments of atoms in fourth to ninth layers.

  2. Nickel speciation in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils via bulk synchrotron-based techniques

    SciT

    Siebecker, Matthew G.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2017-07-01

    Serpentine soils have elevated concentrations of trace metals including nickel, cobalt, and chromium compared to non-serpentine soils. Identifying the nickel bearing minerals allows for prediction of potential mobility of nickel. Synchrotron-based techniques can identify the solid-phase chemical forms of nickel with minimal sample treatment. Element concentrations are known to vary among soil particle sizes in serpentine soils. Sonication is a useful method to physically disperse sand, silt and clay particles in soils. Synchrotron-based techniques and sonication were employed to identify nickel species in discrete particle size fractions in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils to better understand solid-phase nickel geochemistry. Nickel commonlymore » resided in primary serpentine parent material such as layered-phyllosilicate and chain-inosilicate minerals and was associated with iron oxides. In the clay fractions, nickel was associated with iron oxides and primary serpentine minerals, such as lizardite. Linear combination fitting (LCF) was used to characterize nickel species. Total metal concentration did not correlate with nickel speciation and is not an indicator of the major nickel species in the soil. Differences in soil texture were related to different nickel speciation for several particle size fractionated samples. A discussion on LCF illustrates the importance of choosing standards based not only on statistical methods such as Target Transformation but also on sample mineralogy and particle size. Results from the F-test (Hamilton test), which is an underutilized tool in the literature for LCF in soils, highlight its usefulness to determine the appropriate number of standards to for LCF. EXAFS shell fitting illustrates that destructive interference commonly found for light and heavy elements in layered double hydroxides and in phyllosilicates also can occur in inosilicate minerals, causing similar structural features and leading to false positive

  3. Development of novel purifiers with appropriate functional groups based on solvent polarities at bulk filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Tetsu; Kaneko, Fumiya; Ly, Saksatha; Hamzik, James; Jaber, Jad; Yamada, Yoshiaki

    2017-03-01

    Weak-polar solvents like PGMEA (Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate) or CHN (Cyclohexanone) are used to dissolve hydrophobic photo-resist polymers, which are challenging for traditional cleaning methods such as distillation, ion-exchange resins service or water-washing processes. This paper investigated two novel surface modifications to see their effectiveness at metal removal and to understand the mechanism. The experiments yielded effective purification methods for metal reduction, focusing on solvent polarities based on HSP (Hansen Solubility Parameters), and developing optimal purification strategies.

  4. Bulk & Interfacial Contributions to the Adhesion of Acrylic Emulsion-Based Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qifeng

    The performance of pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) depends strongly on the viscoelastic properties of the adhesive material itself and the surface that it is placed into contact with. In this work we use a multiple- oscillatory test with microindentation apparatus that is able to quantify the mechanical response of adhesive materials in the linear regime, and also in the highly strained regime where the adhesive layer has cavitated to form mechanically isolated brils. The experiments involved the use of hemispherical indenters made of glass or polyethylene, brought into contact with a thin adhesive layer and then retracted, with comprehensive displacement history. A set of model acrylic emulsion-based PSAs were used in the experiments which show a suprising degree of elastic character at high strain. The experiment result suggest that an adhesive failure criterion based on the stored elastic energy is appropriate for these systems. The primary effect of the substrate is to modify the maximum strain where adhesive detachment from the indenter occurs.

  5. Effect of Carbon on the Electrical Properties of Copper Oxide-Based Bulk Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, Yu. E.; Kashirin, M. A.; Makagonov, V. A.; Pankov, S. Yu.; Sitnikov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of carbon filler on the electrical resistance and the thermopower of copper oxide-based composites produced by ceramic technology by hot pressing has been studied. It is found that the dependences of the electrical resistivity on the filler concentration are characteristic by S-like curves that are typical of percolation systems; in this case, the resistivity decreases more substantially as the carbon content increases as compared to the decrease in thermopower value, which is accompanied by the existence of the maximum of the factor of thermoelectric power near the percolation threshold. The studies of the temperature dependences of the resistivity and the thermopower at low temperatures show that, in the range 240-300 K, the predominant mechanism of the electrotransfer of all the composites under study is the hopping mechanism. At temperatures lower than 240 K, the composites with a nanocrystalline CuO matrix have a hopping conductivity with a variable hopping distance over localized states of the matrix near the Fermi level, which is related to the conductivity over intergrain CuO boundaries. A schematic model of the band structure of nanocrystalline CuO with carbon filler is proposed on the base of the analysis of the found experimental regularities of the electrotransfer.

  6. Microstructure Effects on Spall Strength of Titanium-based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Rene; Hofmann, Douglas; Thadhani, Naresh; Georgia Tech Team; GT-JPL Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    The spall strength of Ti-based metallic glass composites is investigated as a function of varying volume fractions (0-80%) of in-situ formed crystalline dendrites. With increasing dendrite content, the topology changes such that neither the harder glass nor the softer dendrites dominate the microstructure. Plate-impact experiments were performed using the 80-mm single-stage gas gun over impact stresses up to 18 GPa. VISAR interferometry was used to obtain rear free-surface velocity profiles revealing the velocity pullback spall failure signals. The spall strengths were higher than for Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and remained high up to impact stress. The influence of microstructure on the spall strength is indicated by the constants of the power law fit with the decompression strain rate. Differences in fracture behavior reveal void nucleation as a dominant mechanism affecting the spall strength. The microstructure with neither 100% glass nor with very high crystalline content, provides the most tortuous path for fracture and therefore highest spall strength. The results allow projection of spall strength predictions for design of in-situ formed metallic glass composites. ARO Grant # W911NF-09 ``1-0403 NASA JPL Contract # 1492033 ``Prime # NNN12AA01C; NSF GRFP Grant #DGE-1148903; and NDSE & G.

  7. Self-passivating bulk tungsten-based alloys manufactured by powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Lindig, S.; Koch, F.; Iturriza, I.; García-Rosales, C.

    2011-12-01

    Self-passivating tungsten-based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, which is at present the main candidate material for the first wall armour of future fusion reactors. WC10Si10 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) in a Planetary mill and subsequent hot isostatic pressing (HIP), achieving densities above 95%. Different MA conditions were studied. After MA under optimized conditions, a core with heterogeneous microstructure was found in larger powder particles, resulting in the presence of some large W grains after HIP. Nevertheless, the obtained microstructure is significantly refined compared to previous work. First MA trials were also performed on the Si-free system WCr12Ti2.5. In this case a very homogeneous structure inside the powder particles was obtained, and a majority ternary metastable bcc phase was found, indicating that almost complete alloying occurred. Therefore, a very fine and homogeneous microstructure can be expected after HIP in future work.

  8. Nanocomposite membranes based on polybenzimidazole and ZrO2 for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Nawn, Graeme; Pace, Giuseppe; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Bertasi, Federico; Polizzi, Stefano; Di Noto, Vito

    2015-04-24

    Owing to the numerous benefits obtained when operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells at elevated temperature (>100 °C), the development of thermally stable proton exchange membranes that demonstrate conductivity under anhydrous conditions remains a significant goal for fuel cell technology. This paper presents composite membranes consisting of poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI4N) impregnated with a ZrO2 nanofiller of varying content (ranging from 0 to 22 wt %). The structure-property relationships of the acid-doped and undoped composite membranes have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, wide-angle X-ray scattering, infrared spectroscopy, and broadband electrical spectroscopy. Results indicate that the level of nanofiller has a significant effect on the membrane properties. From 0 to 8 wt %, the acid uptake as well as the thermal and mechanical properties of the membrane increase. As the nanofiller level is increased from 8 to 22 wt % the opposite effect is observed. At 185 °C, the ionic conductivity of [PBI4N(ZrO2 )0.231 ](H3 PO4 )13 is found to be 1.04×10(-1)  S cm(-1) . This renders membranes of this type promising candidates for use in high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Zr doping dependence of structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by sol-gel based Pechini method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motavallian, Pourya; Abasht, Behzad; Abdollah-Pour, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystalline CoZrxFe2-xO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 in a step of 0.05) powders were synthesized by Pechini sol-gel method. The dry gel was grinded and calcined at 700 °C in a static air atmosphere for 1 h. Some tests such as thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) combined with differential analysis (DTA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were carried out to investigate the thermal behaviour, structural bonds identification, crystallographic properties, morphology and magnetic properties of the obtained powders. X-ray diffraction revealed a single-phase cubic spinel structure for all samples, where the crystallite size decreases; the lattice parameter simultaneously increases with substitution of Zr. The results of FE-SEM showed that the particle size is in the 20-70 nm range. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) were measured from the hysteresis loops. The greatest amount of saturation magnetization for CoZr0.05Fe1.95O4 sample was 67.9 emu·g-1.

  10. Effect of Multiple Alloying Elements on the Glass-Forming Ability, Thermal Stability, and Crystallization Behavior of Zr-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazlov, A. I.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Ketov, S. V.; Suryanarayana, C.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Effect of multiple alloying elements on the glass-forming ability, thermal stability, and crystallization behavior of Zr-based glass-forming alloys were studied in the present work. We investigated the effect of complete or partial substitution of Ti and Ni with similar early and late transition metals, respectively, on the glass-forming ability and crystallization behavior of the Zr50Ti10Cu20Ni10Al10 alloy. Poor correlation was observed between different parameters indicating the glass-forming ability and the critical size of the obtained glassy samples. Importance of the width of the crystallization interval is emphasized. The kinetics of primary crystallization, i.e., the rate of nucleation and rate of growth of the nuclei of primary crystals is very different from that of the eutectic alloys. Thus, it is difficult to estimate the glass-forming ability only on the basis of the empirical parameters not taking into account the crystallization behavior and the crystallization interval.

  11. Simplified ZrTiO x -based RRAM cell structure with rectifying characteristics by integrating Ni/n + -Si diode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Chang, You-Tai; Sun, Cherng-En

    2014-01-01

    A simplified one-diode one-resistor (1D1R) resistive switching memory cell that uses only four layers of TaN/ZrTiO x /Ni/n(+)-Si was proposed to suppress sneak current where TaN/ZrTiO x /Ni can be regarded as a resistive-switching random access memory (RRAM) device while Ni/n(+)-Si acts as an Schottky diode. This is the first RRAM cell structure that employs metal/semiconductor Schottky diode for current rectifying. The 1D1R cell exhibits bipolar switching behavior with SET/RESET voltage close to 1 V without requiring a forming process. More importantly, the cell shows tight resistance distribution for different states, significantly rectifying characteristics with forward/reverse current ratio higher than 10(3) and a resistance ratio larger than 10(3) between two states. Furthermore, the cell also displays desirable reliability performance in terms of long data retention time of up to 10(4) s and robust endurance of 10(5) cycles. Based on the promising characteristics, the four-layer 1D1R structure holds the great potential for next-generation nonvolatile memory technology.

  12. Simulation of Zr content in TiZrCuNi brazing filler metal for Ti6Al4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xishan; Xie, Zonghong; Jing, Yongjuan

    2017-07-01

    To optimize the Zr content in Ti-based filler metal, the covalent electron on the nearest atoms bond in unit cell ( n A u-v ) with Ti-based BCC structure was calculated, in which the brazing temperature was considered due to its influence on the lattice parameter. Based on EET theory (The Empirical Electron Theory for solid and molecules), n_{{A}}^{{u - v}} represents the strength of the unit cell with defined element composition and structure, which reflects the effect from solid solution strengthening on the strength of the unit cell. For Ti-Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% filler metal, it kept constant as 0.3476 with Zr as 37.5˜45 wt% and decreased to 0.333 with Zr decreasing from 37.5 to 25 wt%. Finally, it increased up to 0.3406 with Zr as 2˜10 wt%. Thus, Ti-based filler metal with Zr content being 2˜10 wt% is suggested based on the simulation results. Moreover, the calculated covalent electron of n A u-v showed good agreement with the hardness of the joint by filler 37.5Zr and 10Zr. The composition of Ti-10Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% was verified in this study with higher tensile strength of the brazing joint and uniform microstructure of the interface.

  13. Intrinsic nanostructure in Zr2-xFe4Si16-y(x = 0.81, y = 6.06)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. J.; Simonson, J. W.; Orvis, T.; Marques, C.; Grose, J. E.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Wu, L.; Cho, K.; Kim, H.; Tanatar, M. A.; Garlea, V. O.; Prozorov, R.; Zhu, Y.; Aronson, M. C.

    2014-09-01

    We present a study of the crystal structure and physical properties of single crystals of a new Fe-based ternary compound, Zr2-xFe4Si16-y(x = 0.81, y = 6.06). Zr1.19Fe4Si9.94 is a layered compound, where stoichiometric β-FeSi2-derived slabs are separated by Zr-Si planes with substantial numbers of vacancies. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) experiments show that these Zr-Si layers consist of 3.5 nm domains where the Zr and Si vacancies are ordered within a supercell sixteen times the volume of the stoichiometric cell. Within these domains, the occupancies of the Zr and Si sites obey symmetry rules that permit only certain compositions, none of which by themselves reproduce the average composition found in x-ray diffraction experiments. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements reveal a small but appreciable number of magnetic moments that remain freely fluctuating to 1.8 K, while neutron diffraction confirms the absence of bulk magnetic order with a moment of 0.2μB or larger down to 1.5 K. Electrical resistivity measurements find that Zr1.19Fe4Si9.94 is metallic, and the modest value of the Sommerfeld coefficient of the specific heat γ = C/T suggests that quasi-particle masses are not particularly strongly enhanced. The onset of superconductivity at Tc ≃ 6 K results in a partial resistive transition and a small Meissner signal, although a bulk-like transition is found in the specific heat. Sharp peaks in the ac susceptibility signal the interplay of the normal skin depth and the London penetration depth, typical of a system in which nano-sized superconducting grains are separated by a non-superconducting host. Ultra low field differential magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the presence of a surprisingly large number of trace magnetic and superconducting phases, suggesting that the Zr-Fe-Si ternary system could be a potentially rich source of new bulk superconductors.

  14. Reactive magnetron cosputtering of hard and conductive ternary nitride thin films: Ti-Zr-N and Ti-Ta-N

    SciT

    Abadias, G.; Koutsokeras, L. E.; Dub, S. N.

    2010-07-15

    Ternary transition metal nitride thin films, with thickness up to 300 nm, were deposited by dc reactive magnetron cosputtering in Ar-N{sub 2} plasma discharges at 300 deg. C on Si substrates. Two systems were comparatively studied, Ti-Zr-N and Ti-Ta-N, as representative of isostructural and nonisostructural prototypes, with the aim of characterizing their structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. While phase-separated TiN-ZrN and TiN-TaN are the bulk equilibrium states, Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N and Ti{sub 1-y}Ta{sub y}N solid solutions with the Na-Cl (B1-type) structure could be stabilized in a large compositional range (up to x=1 and y=0.75, respectively). Substituting Ti atoms by eithermore » Zr or Ta atoms led to significant changes in film texture, microstructure, grain size, and surface morphology, as evidenced by x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, and scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. The ternary Ti{sub 1-y}Ta{sub y}N films exhibited superior mechanical properties to Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N films as well as binary compounds, with hardness as high as 42 GPa for y=0.69. All films were metallic, the lowest electrical resistivity {rho}{approx}65 {mu}{Omega} cm being obtained for pure ZrN, while for Ti{sub 1-y}Ta{sub y}N films a minimum was observed at y{approx}0.3. The evolution of the different film properties is discussed based on microstructrural investigations.« less

  15. Comparison of wet-only and bulk deposition at Chiang Mai (Thailand) based on rainwater chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantara, Somporn; Chunsuk, Nawarut

    The chemical composition of 122 rainwater samples collected daily from bulk and wet-only collectors in a sub-urban area of Chiang Mai (Thailand) during August 2005-July 2006 has been analyzed and compared to assess usability of a cheaper and less complex bulk collector over a sophisticated wet-only collector. Statistical analysis was performed on log-transformed daily rain amount and depositions of major ions for each collector type. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test revealed that the amount of rainfall collected from a rain gauge, bulk collector and wet-only collector showed no significant difference ( ∝=0.05). The volume weight mean electro-conductivity (EC) values of bulk and wet-only samples were 0.69 and 0.65 mS/m, respectively. The average pH of the samples from both types of collectors was 5.5. Scatter plots between log-transformed depositions of specific ions obtained from bulk and wet-only samples showed high correlation ( r>0.91). Means of log-transformed bulk deposition were 14% (Na + and K +), 13% (Mg 2+), 7% (Ca 2+), 4% (NO 3-), 3% (SO 42- and Cl -) and 2% (NH 4+) higher than that of wet-only deposition. However, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that ion depositions obtained from bulk and wet-only collectors were not significantly different ( ∝=0.05). Therefore, it was concluded that a bulk collector can be used instead of a wet-only collector in a sub-urban area.

  16. ZrB₂-CNTs Nanocomposites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hua; Meng, Songhe; Xie, Weihua; Xu, Chenghai; Niu, Jiahong

    2016-11-29

    ZrB₂-based nanocomposites with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement were prepared at 1600 °C by spark plasma sintering. The effects of CNTs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-ZrB₂ matrix composites were studied. The results indicated that adding CNTs can inhibit the abnormal grain growth of ZrB₂ grains and improve the fracture toughness of the composites. The toughness mechanisms were crack deflection, crack bridging, debonding, and pull-out of CNTs. The experimental results of the nanograined ZrB₂-CNTs composites were compared with those of the micro-grained ZrB₂-CNTs composites. Due to the small size and surface effects, the nanograined ZrB₂-CNTs composites exhibited stronger mechanical properties: the hardness, flexural strength and fracture toughness were 18.7 ± 0.2 GPa, 1016 ± 75 MPa, and 8.5 ± 0.4 MPa·m 1/2 , respectively.

  17. Synthesis of a low-band-gap small molecule based on acenaphthoquinoxaline for efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mikroyannidis, J A; Kabanakis, A N; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, S S; Vijay, Y K; Sharma, G D

    2010-08-03

    A novel small molecule (SM) with a low-band-gap based on acenaphthoquinoxaline was synthesized and characterized. It was soluble in polar solvents such as N,N-dimethylformamide and dimethylacetamide. SM showed broad absorption curves in both solution and thin films with a long-wavelength maximum at 642 nm. The thin film absorption onset was located at 783 nm, which corresponds to an optical band gap of 1.59 eV. SM was blended with PCBM to study the donor-acceptor interactions in the blended film morphology and the photovoltaic response of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices. The cyclic voltammetry measurements of the materials revealed that the HOMO and LUMO levels of SM are well aligned with those of PCBM, allowing efficient photoinduced charge transfer and suitable open circuit voltage, leading to overall power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of approximately 2.21 and 3.23% for devices with the as-cast and thermally annealed blended layer, respectively. The increase in the PCE with the thermally annealed blend is mainly attributed to the improvement in incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) and short circuit photocurrent (J(sc)). Thermal annealing leads to an increase in both the crystallinity of the blend and hole mobility, which improves the PCE.

  18. Performances and impedance spectroscopy of Small-molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PtOEP: PCBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuelwafa, A. A.; Dongol, M.; El-Nahass, M. M.; Soga, T.

    2018-03-01

    Small-molecule bulk heterojunction (SBHJ) solar cells based on platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) as donor material and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the acceptor were fabricated using spin coating techniques with weight ratios from 1:0.1 to 1:9. The formation of charge transfer complex CTC in the PtOEP: PCBM blend was specified from the redshift of the PtOEP absorption peak after blending with PCBM. The photovoltaic performance for PtOEP: PCBM blends were investigated using the external quantum efficiency (EQE) besides the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics under illumination100 mW/cm2 (AM1.5G). The BHJ solar cell with PtOEP: PCBM ratio of 1:9 exhibited the best performance. The impedance spectroscopy (IS) was examined in the frequency range from 25 Hz to 1 MHz. The equivalent circuit model was evaluated in details to evaluate the impedance spectroscopy parameters. Dielectric constant {ɛ ^' }, dielectric loss {ɛ ^' ' }} and dielectric modulus were included and discussed in terms of dielectric polarization processes. Dielectric modulus displays the non-Debye relaxation in PtOEP: PCBM BHJ solar cells.

  19. UV sensing using film bulk acoustic resonators based on Au/n-ZnO/piezoelectric-ZnO/Al structure.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xiaolei; Jin, Hao; Wang, Xiaozhi; Dong, Shurong; Chen, Guohao; Luo, J K; Deen, M Jamal; Qi, Bensheng

    2015-03-16

    A new type of ultraviolet (UV) light sensor based on film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) is proposed. The new sensor uses gold and a thin n-type ZnO layer deposited on the top of piezoelectric layer of FBAR to form a Schottky barrier. The Schottky barrier's capacitance can be changed with UV light, resulting in an enhanced shift in the entire FBAR's resonant frequency. The fabricated UV sensor has a 50 nm thick n-ZnO semiconductor layer with a carrier concentration of ~ 10(17) cm(-3). A large frequency downshift is observed when UV light irradiates the FBAR. With 365 nm UV light of intensity 1.7 mW/cm(2), the FBAR with n-ZnO/Au Schottky diode has 250 kHz frequency downshift, much larger than the 60 kHz frequency downshift in a conventional FBAR without the n-ZnO layer. The shift in the new FBAR's resonant frequency is due to the junction formed between Au and n-ZnO semiconductor and its properties changes with UV light. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical analysis using an equivalent circuit model of the new FBAR structure.

  20. UV sensing using film bulk acoustic resonators based on Au/n-ZnO/piezoelectric-ZnO/Al structure

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Xiaolei; Jin, Hao; Wang, Xiaozhi; Dong, Shurong; Chen, Guohao; Luo, J. K.; Deen, M. Jamal; Qi, Bensheng

    2015-01-01

    A new type of ultraviolet (UV) light sensor based on film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) is proposed. The new sensor uses gold and a thin n-type ZnO layer deposited on the top of piezoelectric layer of FBAR to form a Schottky barrier. The Schottky barrier's capacitance can be changed with UV light, resulting in an enhanced shift in the entire FBAR's resonant frequency. The fabricated UV sensor has a 50 nm thick n-ZnO semiconductor layer with a carrier concentration of ~ 1017 cm−3. A large frequency downshift is observed when UV light irradiates the FBAR. With 365 nm UV light of intensity 1.7 mW/cm2, the FBAR with n-ZnO/Au Schottky diode has 250 kHz frequency downshift, much larger than the 60 kHz frequency downshift in a conventional FBAR without the n-ZnO layer. The shift in the new FBAR's resonant frequency is due to the junction formed between Au and n-ZnO semiconductor and its properties changes with UV light. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical analysis using an equivalent circuit model of the new FBAR structure. PMID:25773146

  1. Dynamic fracture instability of tough bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J. X.; Ling, Z.; Jiang, M. Q.; Zhang, H. S.; Dai, L. H.

    2008-04-01

    We report the observations of a clear fractographic evolution from vein pattern, dimple structure, and then to periodic corrugation structure, followed by microbranching pattern, along the crack propagation direction in the dynamic fracture of a tough Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (Vit.1) bulk metallic glass (BMGs) under high-velocity plate impact. A model based on fracture surface energy dissipation and void growth is proposed to characterize this fracture pattern transition. We find that once the dynamic crack propagation velocity reaches a critical fraction of Rayleigh wave speed, the crack instability occurs; hence, crack microbranching goes ahead. Furthermore, the correlation between the critical velocity of amorphous materials and their intrinsic strength such as Young's modulus is uncovered. The results may shed new insight into dynamic fracture instability for BMGs.

  2. Effect of sintering conditions on the electrical-transport properties of the SrZrO3-based protonic ceramic electrolyser membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heras-Juaristi, Gemma; Pérez-Coll, Domingo; Mather, Glenn C.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sintering temperature and addition of 4 mol.% ZnO as sintering additive on the crystal structure, microstructure and electrical properties of SrZr0.9Y0.1O3-δ are reported. The presence of ZnO as sintering aid brings about high densification at 1300 °C (relative density ∼97%); gas-tightness is not achieved for ZnO-free samples sintered below 1600 °C. Bulk conductivity (σB) is considerably higher in wet and dry O2 on doping with ZnO, but only slight variations of σB with sintering temperature are observed for the Zn-containing phases. Similarly, the apparent grain-boundary conductivities are much greater for the Zn-doped samples. The grain-boundary volume and accompanying resistances are much reduced on sintering at 1500 °C with ZnO addition in comparison to Zn-modified samples sintered below 1500 °C, with only minor changes in grain-boundary relaxation frequency observed. Conversely, in comparison to the undoped sample with sintering temperature of 1600 °C, there is an enormous improvement in the specific grain-boundary conductivity of two orders of magnitude for the ZnO-containing samples. Analysis on the basis of the core space-charge-layer model relates the enhancement of the grain-boundary transport to a higher concentration of charge carriers in the space-charge layer and associated lower potential barrier heights.

  3. Mechanical behavior, electronic and phonon properties of ZrB12 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Yong, Yong-Liang; Cui, Hong-Ling; Zhang, Rui-Zhou

    2018-06-01

    The mechanical, phonon and electronic properties of ZrB12 under pressure are investigated by first-principles calculations. The research shows that ZrB12 is mechanically and dynamically stable up to 100 GPa. The elastic constants, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, hardness Hv, B/G ratio, Debye temperature under different pressures are systematically investigated. The calculation of electronic properties shows that ZrB12 has metallic character. The Zr-d states dominate the DOS at the Fermi level, and the total DOS and PDOS change slightly with the increasing pressure. DOS (Ef) first decreases, then increases with the increasing pressure. At 50 GPa, ZrB12 has less electron carriers. The analysis of electron localization function shows that the strong B-B and Zr-B covalent bonds may be responsible for the high hardness and stability.

  4. Application of zone-folding approach to the first-principles estimation of thermodynamic properties of carbon and ZrS2 -based nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Andrei V; Porsev, Vitaly V; Evarestov, Robert A

    2016-03-15

    A zone-folding (ZF) approach is applied for the estimation of the phonon contributions to thermodynamic properties of carbon-and ZrS2 -based nanotubes (NTs) of hexagonal morphology with different chiralities. The results obtained are compared with those from the direct calculation of the thermodynamic properties of NTs using PBE0 hybrid exchange-correlation functional. The phonon contribution to the stability of NTs proved to be negligible for the internal energy and small for the Helmholtz free energy. It is found that the ZF approach allows us an accurate estimation of phonon contributions to internal energy, but slightly overestimates the phonon contributions to entropy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Drying-induced atomic structural rearrangements in sodium-based calcium-alumino-silicate-hydrate gel and the mitigating effects of ZrO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kengran; Özçelik, V. Ongun; Garg, Nishant; Gong, Kai; White, Claire E.

    Conventional drying of colloidal materials and gels (including cement) can lead to detrimental effects due to the buildup of internal stresses as water evaporates from the nano/microscopic pores. However, the underlying nanoscopic alterations in these gel materials that are, in part, responsible for macroscopically-measured strain values, especially at low relative humidity, remain a topic of open debate in the literature. In this study, sodium-based calcium-alumino-silicate-hydrate (C-(N)-A-S-H) gel, the major binding phase of silicate-activated blast furnace slag (one type of low-CO$_2$ cement), is investigated from a drying perspective, since it is known to suffer extensively from drying-induced microcracking. By employing in situ synchrotron X-ray total scattering measurements and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis we show that the significant contributing factor to the strain development in this material at extremely low relative humidity (0%) is the local atomic structural rearrangement of the C-(N)-A-S-H gel, including collapse of interlayer spacing and slight disintegration of the gel. Moreover, analysis of the medium range (1.0 - 2.2 nm) ordering in the PDF data reveals that the PDF-derived strain values are in much closer agreement (same order of magnitude) with the macroscopically measured strain data, compared to previous results based on reciprocal space X-ray diffraction data. From a mitigation standpoint, we show that small amounts of ZrO$_2$ nanoparticles are able to actively reinforce the structure of silicate-activated slag during drying, preventing atomic level strains from developing. Mechanistically, these nanoparticles induce growth of a silica-rich gel during drying, which, via density functional theory calculations, we show is attributed to the high surface reactivity of tetragonal ZrO$_2$.

  6. A study of stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy by in-situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Dongmei; Mu, Juan; Chen, Yan; ...

    2017-03-01

    The stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy were investigated by in-situ neutron diffraction. The pseudoelastic behavior with a pronounced strain-hardening effect is observed. The retained martensite nuclei and the residual stress obtained from the 1st cycle reduce the stress threshold for the martensitic transformation. A critical stress level is required for the reverse martensitic transformation from martensite to B2 phase. An increase of intensity for the B2 (110) plane in the 1st cycle is caused by the twinning along the {112}<111> twinning system. The convoluted stress partitioning influenced by the elastic and transformation anisotropy along with themore » newly formed martensite determines the microstress partitioning of the studied CuZr-based alloy. The reversible martensitic transformation is responsible for the pseudoelasticity. The macro mechanical behavior of the pure B2 phase can be divided into 3 stages, which are mediated by the evolvement of the martensitic transformation. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).« less

  7. A study of stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy by in-situ neutron diffraction

    SciT

    Wang, Dongmei; Mu, Juan; Chen, Yan

    The stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy were investigated by in-situ neutron diffraction. The pseudoelastic behavior with a pronounced strain-hardening effect is observed. The retained martensite nuclei and the residual stress obtained from the 1st cycle reduce the stress threshold for the martensitic transformation. A critical stress level is required for the reverse martensitic transformation from martensite to B2 phase. An increase of intensity for the B2 (110) plane in the 1st cycle is caused by the twinning along the {112}<111> twinning system. The convoluted stress partitioning influenced by the elastic and transformation anisotropy along with themore » newly formed martensite determines the microstress partitioning of the studied CuZr-based alloy. The reversible martensitic transformation is responsible for the pseudoelasticity. The macro mechanical behavior of the pure B2 phase can be divided into 3 stages, which are mediated by the evolvement of the martensitic transformation. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).« less

  8. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, K.

    1992-11-17

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

  9. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, Krishnamurti

    1992-01-01

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

  10. A study on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrO2-containing PEO coatings formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in phosphate-based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, J. J.; Guo, Y. Q.; Xiang, N.; Xiong, Y.; Hu, Q.; Song, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    ZrO2-containing ceramic coatings formed on the AZ31 Mg alloy were fabricated in an alkaline electrolyte containing sodium phosphate and potassium fluorozirconate (K2ZrF6) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to study the phase structure and composition of the coatings. It is indicated that the coatings formed in the K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte were composed of MgO, MgF2 and t-ZrO2. Morphological investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereoscopic microscopy, revealed that the uniformity of coatings increased and roughness of coatings decreased after the addition of K2ZrF6. Electrochemical investigation was achieved by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coating formed in K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte exhibited an improved corrosion resistance than that of the coating formed in K2ZrF6-free electrolyte. In addition, the polarization and EIS tests results both showed that the suitable concentration (2.5 g/l) of K2ZrF6 is of significant ability to improve the corrosion resistance of coatings. However, 5 g/l and 10 g/l K2ZrF6 has a negative effect on improving the corrosion resistance of PEO coatings compared with the coating formed in 2.5 g/l K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte.

  11. Complementary methods of study for Zr1-xCexO2 compounds for applications in medical prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Adriana; Craus, Mihail-Liviu; Turchenko, Vitalii; Bruma, Alina; Dubos, Pierre-Antoine; Malo, Sylvie; Konstantinova, Tatiana E.; Burkhovetsky, Valerii V.

    2017-08-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2)-based ceramics are preferred due to their advanced mechanical properties such as high-fracture toughness and bulk modulus, corrosion resistance, high dielectric constant, chemical inertness, low chemical conductivity and biocompatibility. The medical prosthesis components made from ZrO2 oxides present a very good biocompatibility as well as especially mechanical properties. In order to ensure implant safety of these prostheses, wide ranges of examinations based on nondestructive testing are imperative for these medical implants. In this study, we aim to emphasize the improvement of Zr-based ceramics properties as a function of addition of Ce ions in the structure of the original ceramics. The substitution of the Zr with Ce in the Zr1-xCexO2 compounds, where x = 0.0-0.17, leads to a change of the phase composition, a gradual transition from the monoclinic to tetragonal structure, at room temperature. The structural investigations proposed in this paper are based on X-ray and neutron diffraction in order to establish a first indication of the variation of the phase composition and the structural parameters, as well as micro-hardness measurements and nondestructive evaluations in order to establish a correlation between the structural parameters and mechanical properties of the samples. These ranges of tests are imperative in order to ensure the safety and reliability of these composite materials, which are widely used as hip-implants or dental implants/coatings. In combination of Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy, which makes use of the resonance frequencies corresponding to the normal vibrational modes of a solid in order to evaluate the elastic constants of the materials, we emphasize a unique approach on evaluating the physical properties of these ceramics, which could help in advancing the understanding of properties and applications in medical fields.

  12. Mechanical properties of ZrB2- and HfB2-based ultra-high temperature ceramics fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    SciT

    Zapata-Solvas, E.; Jayaseelan, D.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2013-01-01

    Flexural strengths at room temperature, at 1400 C in air and at room temperature after 1 h oxidation at 1400 C were determined for ZrB2- and HfB2-based ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs). Defects caused by electrical discharge machining (EDM) lowered measured strengths significantly and were used to calculate fracture toughness via a fracture mechanics approach. ZrB2 with 20 vol.% SiC had room temperature strength of 700 90 MPa, fracture toughness of 6.4 0.6 MPa, Vickers hardness at 9.8 N load of 21.1 0.6 GPa, 1400 C strength of 400 30 MPa and room temperature strength after 1 h oxidation at 1400more » C of 678 15 MPa with an oxide layer thickness of 45 5 m. HfB2 with 20 vol.% SiC showed room temperature strength of 620 50 MPa, fracture toughness of 5.0 0.4 MPa, Vickers hardness at 9.8 N load of 27.0 0.6 GPa, 1400 C strength of 590 150 MPa and room temperature strength after 1 h oxidation at 1400 C of 660 25 MPa with an oxide layer thickness of 12 1 m. 2 wt.% La2O3 addition to UHTCs slightly reduced mechanical performance while increasing tolerance to property degradation after oxidation and effectively aided internal stress relaxation during spark plasma sintering (SPS) cooling, as quantified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Slow crack growth was suggested as the failure mechanism at high temperatures as a consequence of sharp cracks formation during oxidation.« less

  13. Investigation of ZrO/sub 2//mullite solid solution by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction

    SciT

    Dinger, T.R.; Krishnam, K.M.; Moya, J.S.

    1984-10-01

    A mullite/15 vol.%ZrO/sub 2/ composite was analyzed using the techniques of microdiffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). The EDXS results indicate that there is a significantly high solid solubility of mullite in zirconia and zirconia in mullite; microdiffraction results suggest that ordering occurs in the ZrO/sub 2/(ss) phase based on the presence of forbidden reflections for the P 2/sub 1//c space group of monoclinic zirconia. The presence of a secondary phase at the grain boundaries, either amorphous or crystalline, has not been generally detected throughout the bulk. The results provide experimental evidence for the hypothesis of Moya and Osendimore » that the increased toughness and flexural strength of these composites are related to solid solution effects rather than to transformation or microcrack toughening mechanisms.« less

  14. Characterization of Plastic Flow Pertinent to the Evolution of Bulk Residual Stress in Powder-Metallurgy, Nickel-Base Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiatin, S. L.; Fagin, P. N.; Goetz, R. L.; Furrer, D. U.; Dutton, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    The plastic-flow behavior which controls the formation of bulk residual stresses during final heat treatment of powder-metallurgy (PM), nickel-base superalloys was quantified using conventional (isothermal) stress-relaxation (SR) tests and a novel approach which simulates concurrent temperature and strain transients during cooling following solution treatment. The concurrent cooling/straining test involves characterization of the thermal compliance of the test sample. In turn, this information is used to program the ram-displacement- vs-time profile to impose a constant plastic strain rate during cooling. To demonstrate the efficacy of the new approach, SR tests (in both tension and compression) and concurrent cooling/tension-straining experiments were performed on two PM superalloys, LSHR and IN-100. The isothermal SR experiments were conducted at a series of temperatures between 1144 K and 1436 K (871 °C and 1163 °C) on samples that had been supersolvus solution treated and cooled slowly or rapidly to produce starting microstructures comprising coarse gamma grains and coarse or fine secondary gamma-prime precipitates, respectively. The concurrent cooling/straining tests comprised supersolvus solution treatment and various combinations of subsequent cooling rate and plastic strain rate. Comparison of flow-stress data from the SR and concurrent cooling/straining tests showed some similarities and some differences which were explained in the context of the size of the gamma-prime precipitates and the evolution of dislocation substructure. The magnitude of the effect of concurrent deformation during cooling on gamma-prime precipitation was also quantified experimentally and theoretically.

  15. Effect of bulk-fill base material on fracture strength of root-filled teeth restored with laminate resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Taha, N A; Maghaireh, G A; Ghannam, A S; Palamara, J E

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of using a bulk-fill flowable base material on fracture strength and fracture patterns of root-filled maxillary premolars with MOD preparations restored with laminate restorations. Fifty extracted maxillary premolars were selected for the study. Standardized MOD cavities with endodontic treatment were prepared for all teeth, except for intact control. The teeth were divided randomly into five groups (n=10); (Group 1) sound teeth, (Group 2) unrestored teeth; (Group 3) MOD cavities with Vitrebond base and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal); (Group 4) MOD cavities with 2mm GIC base (Fuji IX GP) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal) open laminate, (Group 5) MOD cavities were restored with 4mm of bulk-fill flowable base material (SDR) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal). All teeth were thermocycled and subjected to a 45° ramped oblique load in a universal testing machine. Fracture load and fracture patterns were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test. Restoration in general increased the fracture strength compared to unrestored teeth. The fracture strength of group 5 (bulk-fill) was significantly higher than the fracture strength of the GIC laminate groups and not significantly different from the intact teeth (355±112N, P=0.118). The type of failure was unfavorable for most of the groups, with the majority being mixed failures. The use of a bulk-fill flowable base material significantly increased the fracture strength of extracted root-filled teeth with MOD cavities; however it did not improve fracture patterns to more favorable ones. Investigating restorative techniques that may improve the longevity of root-filled premolar teeth restored with direct resin restorations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eurpoean Union bulk tank SCC standards and proposed US standards: Compliance based on data from four Federal Milk Marketing Orders

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the percentage of US producers and milk not currently meeting the proposed bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) limits. Five different limits of BTSCC were evaluated for compliance: 750K, 600K, 500K, and 400K using the current US methods and 400K using th...

  17. The effect of high energy concentration source irradiation on structure and properties of Fe-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilarczyk, Wirginia

    2016-06-01

    Metallic glasses exhibit metastable structure and maintain this relatively stable amorphous state within certain temperature range. High intensity laser beam was used for the surface irradiation of Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb bulk metallic glasses. The variable parameter was laser beam pulse energy. For the analysis of structure and properties of bulk metallic glasses and their surface after laser remelting the X-ray analysis, microscopic observation and test of mechanical properties were carried out. Examination of the nanostructure of amorphous materials obtained by high pressure copper mold casting method and the irradiated with the use of TITAN 80-300 HRTEM was carried out. Nanohardness and reduced Young's modulus of particular amorphous and amorphous-crystalline material zone of the laser beam were examined with the use of Hysitron TI950 Triboindenter nanoindenter and with the use of Berkovich's indenter. The XRD and microscopic analysis showed that the test material is amorphous in its structure before irradiation. Microstructure observation with electron transmission microscopy gave information about alloy crystallization in the irradiated process. Identification of given crystal phases allows to determine the kind of crystal phases created in the first place and also further changes of phase composition of alloy. The main value of the nanohardness of the surface prepared by laser beam has the order of magnitude similar to bulk metallic glasses formed by casting process irrespective of the laser beam energy used. Research results analysis showed that the area between parent material and fusion zone is characterized by extraordinarily interesting structure which is and will be the subject of further analysis in the scope of bulk metallic glasses amorphous structure and high energy concentration source. The main goal of this work is the results' presentation of structure and chosen properties of the selected bulk metallic glasses after casting process and after irradiation

  18. Bulk crystalline optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renninger, W. H.; Kharel, P.; Behunin, R. O.; Rakich, P. T.

    2018-06-01

    Control of long-lived, high-frequency phonons using light offers a path towards creating robust quantum links, and could lead to tools for precision metrology with applications to quantum information processing. Optomechanical systems based on bulk acoustic-wave resonators are well suited for this goal in light of their high quality factors, and because they do not suffer from surface interactions as much as their microscale counterparts. However, so far these phonons have been accessible only electromechanically, using piezoelectric interactions. Here, we demonstrate customizable optomechanical coupling to macroscopic phonon modes of a bulk acoustic-wave resonator at cryogenic temperatures. These phonon modes, which are formed by shaping the surfaces of a crystal into a plano-convex phononic resonator, yield appreciable optomechanical coupling rates, providing access to high acoustic quality factors (4.2 × 107) at high phonon frequencies (13 GHz). This simple approach, which uses bulk properties rather than nanostructural control, is appealing for the ability to engineer optomechanical systems at high frequencies that are robust against thermal decoherence. Moreover, we show that this optomechanical system yields a unique form of dispersive symmetry-breaking that enables phonon heating or cooling without an optical cavity.

  19. Ceramic Coatings for Clad (The C 3 Project): Advanced Accident-Tolerant Ceramic Coatings for Zr-Alloy Cladding

    SciT

    Sickafus, Kurt E.; Wirth, Brian; Miller, Larry

    The goal of this NEUP-IRP project is to develop a fuel concept based on an advanced ceramic coating for Zr-alloy cladding. The coated cladding must exhibit demonstrably improved performance compared to conventional Zr-alloy clad in the following respects: During normal service, the ceramic coating should decrease cladding oxidation and hydrogen pickup (the latter leads to hydriding and embrittlement). During a reactor transient (e.g., a loss of coolant accident), the ceramic coating must minimize or at least significantly delay oxidation of the Zr-alloy cladding, thus reducing the amount of hydrogen generated and the oxygen ingress into the cladding. The specific objectivesmore » of this project are as follows: To produce durable ceramic coatings on Zr-alloy clad using two possible routes: (i) MAX phase ceramic coatings or similar nitride or carbide coatings; and (ii) graded interface architecture (multilayer) ceramic coatings, using, for instance, an oxide such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the outer protective layer. To characterize the structural and physical properties of the coated clad samples produced in 1. above, especially the corrosion properties under simulated normal and transient reactor operating conditions. To perform computational analyses to assess the effects of such coatings on fuel performance and reactor neutronics, and to perform fuel cycle analyses to assess the economic viability of modifying conventional Zr-alloy cladding with ceramic coatings. This project meets a number of the goals outlined in the NEUP-IRP call for proposals, including: Improve the fuel/cladding system through innovative designs (e.g. coatings/liners for zirconium-based cladding) Reduce or eliminate hydrogen generation Increase resistance to bulk steam oxidation Achievement of our goals and objectives, as defined above, will lead to safer light-water reactor (LWR) nuclear fuel assemblies, due to improved cladding properties and built-in accident resistance, as

  20. Influence of thin-film metallic glass coating on fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glass: Experiments and finite element modeling

    SciT

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Chu, Jinn P.; Jia, Haoling

    In this paper, a coating of the Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on the Zr 50Cu 30Al 10Ni 10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) to investigate shear-band evolution under four-point-bend fatigue testing. The fatigue endurance-limit of the TFMG-coated samples is ~ 33% higher than that of the BMG. The results of finite-element modeling (FEM) revealed a delay in the shear-band nucleation and propagation in TFMG-coated samples under applied cyclic-loading. The FEM study of spherical indentation showed that the redistribution of stress by the TFMG coating prevents localized shear-banding in the BMG substrate. Finally, the enhanced fatigue characteristics of themore » BMG substrates can be attributed to the TFMG coatings retarding shear-band initiation at defects on the surface of the BMG.« less

  1. Influence of thin-film metallic glass coating on fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glass: Experiments and finite element modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Chu, Jinn P.; Jia, Haoling; ...

    2017-03-21

    In this paper, a coating of the Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on the Zr 50Cu 30Al 10Ni 10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) to investigate shear-band evolution under four-point-bend fatigue testing. The fatigue endurance-limit of the TFMG-coated samples is ~ 33% higher than that of the BMG. The results of finite-element modeling (FEM) revealed a delay in the shear-band nucleation and propagation in TFMG-coated samples under applied cyclic-loading. The FEM study of spherical indentation showed that the redistribution of stress by the TFMG coating prevents localized shear-banding in the BMG substrate. Finally, the enhanced fatigue characteristics of themore » BMG substrates can be attributed to the TFMG coatings retarding shear-band initiation at defects on the surface of the BMG.« less

  2. Phosphate-based glass fiber vs. bulk glass: Change in fiber optical response to probe in vitro glass reactivity.

    PubMed

    Massera, J; Ahmed, I; Petit, L; Aallos, V; Hupa, L

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fiber drawing on the thermal and structural properties as well as on the glass reactivity of a phosphate glass in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered (TRIS) solution and simulated body fluid (SBF). The changes induced in the thermal properties suggest that the fiber drawing process leads to a weakening and probable re-orientation of the POP bonds. Whereas the fiber drawing did not significantly impact the release of P and Ca, an increase in the release of Na into the solution was noticed. This was probably due to small structural reorientations occurring during the fiber drawing process and to a slight diffusion of Na to the fiber surface. Both the powders from the bulk and the glass fibers formed a Ca-P surface layer when immersed in SBF and TRIS. The layer thickness was higher in the calcium and phosphate supersaturated SBF than in TRIS. This paper for the first time presents the in vitro reactivity and optical response of a phosphate-based bioactive glass (PBG) fiber when immersed in SBF. The light intensity remained constant for the first 48h after which a decrease with three distinct slopes was observed: the first decrease between 48 and 200h of immersion could be correlated to the formation of the Ca-P layer at the fiber surface. After this a faster decrease in light transmission was observed from 200 to ~425h in SBF. SEM analysis suggested that after 200h, the surface of the fiber was fully covered by a thin Ca-P layer which is likely to scatter light. For immersion times longer than ~425h, the thickness of the Ca-P layer increased and thus acted as a barrier to the dissolution process limiting further reduction in light transmission. The tracking of light transmission through the PBG fiber allowed monitoring of the fiber dissolution in vitro. These results are essential in developing new bioactive fiber sensors that can be used to monitor bioresponse in situ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and electrical properties of ZrO2-SnO2 based nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitha, V. S.; Lekshmy, S. Sujatha; Berlin, I. John; Joy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent nanocomposite ZrO2-SnO2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating technique. Films were annealed at 500°C, 800°C and 1200°C respectively. X-ray diffraction(XRD) spectra showed a mixture of three phases: tetragonal ZrO2 and SnO2 and orthorhombic ZrSnO4. The grain size of all the three phases' increased with annealing temperature. An average transmittance greater than 85%(in UV-Visible region) is observed for all the films. The band gap for the films decreased from 4.79 eV to 4.62 eV with increase in annealing temperature from 500 to 1200 °C. The electrical resistivity increased with increase in annealing temperature. Such composite ZrO2-SnO2 films can be used in many applications and in optoelectronic devices.

  4. Drying-induced atomic structural rearrangements in sodium-based calcium-alumino-silicate-hydrate gel and the mitigating effects of ZrO 2 nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Kengran; Özçelik, V. Ongun; Garg, Nishant; ...

    2018-01-01

    Drying-induced nanoscopic alterations to the local atomic structure of silicate-activated slag and the mitigated effects of nano-ZrO2 are elucidated using in situ X-ray pair distribution function analysis.

  5. Drying-induced atomic structural rearrangements in sodium-based calcium-alumino-silicate-hydrate gel and the mitigating effects of ZrO 2 nanoparticles

    SciT

    Yang, Kengran; Özçelik, V. Ongun; Garg, Nishant

    Drying-induced nanoscopic alterations to the local atomic structure of silicate-activated slag and the mitigated effects of nano-ZrO2 are elucidated using in situ X-ray pair distribution function analysis.

  6. Development of buffer layer structure for epitaxial growth of (100)/(001)Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based thin film on (111)Si wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Takeshi; Yoshida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports on the development of a novel buffer layer structure, (100)SrRuO3/(100)LaNiO3/(111)Pt/(111)CeO2, for the epitaxial growth of a (100)/(001)-oriented Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT)-based thin film on a (111)Si wafer. (111)Pt and (111)CeO2 were epitaxially grown on (111)Si straightforwardly. Then, the crystal orientation was forcibly changed from (111) to (100) at the LaNiO3 layer owing to its strong (100)-self-orientation property, which enabled the cube-on-cube epitaxial growth of the subsequent (100)SrRuO3 layer and preferentially (100)/(001)-oriented PZT-based thin film. The PZT-based epitaxial thin films were comprehensively characterized in terms of the crystallinity, in-plane epitaxial relationships, piezoelectricity, and so forth. This buffer layer structure for the epitaxial growth of PZT can be applied to piezoelectric micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibrating ring gyroscopes.

  7. Electrical properties and scaling behaviour of rare earth based Ho{sub 2}CoZrO{sub 6} double perovskite ceramics

    SciT

    Mahato, Dev K., E-mail: drdevkumar@yahoo.com; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T.P.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction analysis suggests that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic phase at room temperature with β = 108.51 ± 0.021° (a = 8.1858 ± 0.0023 Å, b = 5.2599 ± 0.0027 Å, c = 7.9874 ± 0.0031 Å) and cell volume = 324.17 Å{sup 3}. The SEM image indicates the uniformity of the grains in the samples. The grain size of the microstructure of HCZ is found to be ∼0.48 μm on average. Display Omitted Highlights: ► The conduction mechanism in HCZ may be due to hopping of small polaron. ► The material shows semiconducting behaviour. ►more » Conductivity obeys Jonscher's power law with high frequency dispersion. ► Both long-range and localized relaxation are present. -- Abstract: The Ho{sub 2}CoZrO{sub 6} (HCZ) double perovskite has been prepared in polycrystalline form by solid state reaction technique. The analysis of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern indicates that the crystal structure is monoclinic at room temperature with cell parameters a = 8.1858 ± 0.0023 Å, b = 5.2599 ± 0.0027 Å, c = 7.9874 ± 0.0031 Å and β = 108.51 ± 0.021°. The compound shows significant frequency dispersion in its dielectric properties. The Cole–Cole model is used to determine the polydispersive nature of dielectric relaxation. The scaling behaviour of dielectric loss and imaginary electric modulus suggest that the relaxation describe same mechanism at various temperatures. Impedance data presented in the Nyquist plot (Z″ versus Z′) are used to identify an equivalent circuit and to know the bulk and interface contributions. The complex impedance analysis of HCZ exhibits the appearance of both the grain and the grain-boundary contribution. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra follow the universal power law. The magnitude of the activation energy indicates that the carrier transport is due to the hopping conduction.« less

  8. Mechanical properties and bio-tribological behaviors of novel beta-Zr-type Zr-Al-Fe-Nb alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Nengbin; Chen, Wenzhe; Zhang, Lei; Li, Guanghui; Liao, Zhenlong; Lin, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The present study prepares novel Zr 70+x Al 5 Fe 15-x Nb 10 (x=0, 5) alloys by arc-melting for potential biomedical application. The mechanical properties and bio-tribological behaviors of the Zr-based alloys are evaluated and compared with biomedical pure Zr. The as-prepared alloys exhibit a microstructure containing a micrometer-sized dendritic beta-Zr phase dispersed in a Zr 2 Fe-typed matrix. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high compressive strength. The wear resistance of the Zr-Al-Fe-Nb alloys in air and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution is superior to that of pure Zr. The wear mechanism of Zr-based alloys sliding in air is controlled by oxidation and abrasive wear whereas that sliding in PBS is controlled by synergistic effects of the abrasive and corrosive wear. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based alloys are corrosion resistant in PBS. Their bio-corrosion resistance is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. The Zr 75 Al 5 Fe 10 Nb 10 exhibits the best corrosion resistance in PBS, which contributes to its superior wear resistance in a simulated body environment. The combination of good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biotribological behaviors of the Zr-Al-Fe-Nb alloys offers them potential advantages in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Band gap tuning of amorphous Al oxides by Zr alloying

    SciT

    Canulescu, S., E-mail: stec@fotonik.dtu.dk; Schou, J.; Jones, N. C.

    2016-08-29

    The optical band gap and electronic structure of amorphous Al-Zr mixed oxides with Zr content ranging from 4.8 to 21.9% were determined using vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The light scattering by the nano-porous structure of alumina at low wavelengths was estimated based on the Mie scattering theory. The dependence of the optical band gap of the Al-Zr mixed oxides on the Zr content deviates from linearity and decreases from 7.3 eV for pure anodized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to 6.45 eV for Al-Zr mixed oxides with a Zr content of 21.9%. With increasing Zr content, the conduction band minimum changes non-linearlymore » as well. Fitting of the energy band gap values resulted in a bowing parameter of ∼2 eV. The band gap bowing of the mixed oxides is assigned to the presence of the Zr d-electron states localized below the conduction band minimum of anodized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.« less

  10. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  11. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components. PMID:27471073

  12. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2016-07-29

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  13. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; ...

    2016-07-29

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr 51Ti 5Ni 10Cu 25Al 9 and Zr 50.7Cu 28Ni 9Al 12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. In conclusion, the liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  14. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L. H.; Huang, X.; Ling, Z.

    2015-09-01

    Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones) mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs) at atomic scale.

  15. Probing the bulk ionic conductivity by thin film hetero-epitaxial engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergolesi, Daniele; Roddatis, Vladimir; Fabbri, Emiliana; Schneider, Christof W.; Lippert, Thomas; Traversa, Enrico; Kilner, John A.

    2015-02-01

    Highly textured thin films with small grain boundary regions can be used as model systems to directly measure the bulk conductivity of oxygen ion conducting oxides. Ionic conducting thin films and epitaxial heterostructures are also widely used to probe the effect of strain on the oxygen ion migration in oxide materials. For the purpose of these investigations a good lattice matching between the film and the substrate is required to promote the ordered film growth. Moreover, the substrate should be a good electrical insulator at high temperature to allow a reliable electrical characterization of the deposited film. Here we report the fabrication of an epitaxial heterostructure made with a double buffer layer of BaZrO3 and SrTiO3 grown on MgO substrates that fulfills both requirements. Based on such template platform, highly ordered (001) epitaxially oriented thin films of 15% Sm-doped CeO2 and 8 mol% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 are grown. Bulk conductivities as well as activation energies are measured for both materials, confirming the success of the approach. The reported insulating template platform promises potential application also for the electrical characterization of other novel electrolyte materials that still need a thorough understanding of their ionic conductivity.

  16. Optimal allocation of bulk water supplies to competing use sectors based on economic criterion - An application to the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakar, L.; Babel, M. S.; Perret, S. R.; Gupta, A. Das

    2011-04-01

    SummaryThe study develops a model for optimal bulk allocations of limited available water based on an economic criterion to competing use sectors such as agriculture, domestic, industry and hydropower. The model comprises a reservoir operation module (ROM) and a water allocation module (WAM). ROM determines the amount of water available for allocation, which is used as an input to WAM with an objective function to maximize the net economic benefits of bulk allocations to different use sectors. The total net benefit functions for agriculture and hydropower sectors and the marginal net benefit from domestic and industrial sectors are established and are categorically taken as fixed in the present study. The developed model is applied to the Chao Phraya basin in Thailand. The case study results indicate that the WAM can improve net economic returns compared to the current water allocation practices.

  17. Bulk Bismuth as a High-Capacity and Ultralong Cycle-Life Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries by Coupling with Glyme-Based Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen; Wang, Liubin; Li, Fujun; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted great interest for large-scale electric energy storage in recent years. However, anodes with long cycle life and large reversible capacities are still lacking and therefore limiting the development of SIBs. Here, a bulk Bi anode with surprisingly high Na storage performance in combination with glyme-based electrolytes is reported. This study shows that the bulk Bi electrode is gradually developed into a porous integrity during initial cycling, which is totally different from that in carbonate-based electrolytes and ensures facile Na + transport and structural stability. The achievable capacity of bulk Bi in the NaPF 6 -diglyme electrolyte is high up to 400 mAh g -1 , and the capacity retention is 94.4% after 2000 cycles, corresponding to a capacity loss of 0.0028% per cycle. It exhibits two flat discharge/charge plateaus at 0.67/0.77 and 0.46/0.64 V, ascribed to the typical two-phase reactions of Bi ↔ NaBi and NaBi ↔ Na 3 Bi, respectively. The excellent performance is attributed to the unique porous integrity, stable solid electrolyte interface, and good electrode wettability of glymes. This interplay between electrolyte and electrode to boost Na storage performance will pave a new pathway for high-performance SIBs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  19. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  20. A low-frequency MEMS piezoelectric energy harvester with a rectangular hole based on bulk PZT film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yingwei; Li, Guimiao; Yi, Zhiran; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a high performance piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) with a rectangular hole to work at low-frequency. This PEH used thinned bulk PZT film on flexible phosphor bronze, and its structure included piezoelectric layer, supporting layer and proof mass to reduce the resonant frequency of the device. Here, thinned bulk PZT thick film was used as piezoelectric layer due to its high piezoelectric coefficient. A Phosphor bronze was deployed as supporting layer because it had better flexibility compared to silicon and could work under high acceleration ambient with good durability. The maximum open-circuit voltage of the PEH was 15.7 V at low resonant frequency of 34.3 Hz when the input vibration acceleration was 1.5 g (g = 9.81 m/s2). Moreover, the maximum output power, the output power density and the actually current at the same acceleration were 216.66 μW, 1713.58 μW/cm3 and 170 μA, respectively, when the optimal matched resistance of 60 kΩ was connected. The fabricated PEH scavenged the vibration energy of the vacuum compression pump and generated the maximum output voltage of 1.19 V.

  1. The Effect of ZrO2 Nanoparticles on the Microstructure and Properties of Sintered WC–Bronze-Based Diamond Composites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Youhong; Wu, Haidong; Li, Meng; Meng, Qingnan; Gao, Ke; Lü, Xiaoshu; Liu, Baochang

    2016-01-01

    Metal matrix-impregnated diamond composites are widely used in diamond tool manufacturing. In order to satisfy the increasing engineering requirements, researchers have paid more and more attention to enhancing conventional metal matrices by applying novel methods. In this work, ZrO2 nanoparticles were introduced into the WC–bronze matrix with and without diamond grits via hot pressing to improve the performance of conventional diamond composites. The effects of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the microstructure, density, hardness, bending strength, and wear resistance of diamond composites were investigated. The results indicated that the hardness and relative density increased, while the bending strength decreased when the content of ZrO2 nanoparticles increased. The grinding ratio of diamond composites increased significantly by 60% as a result of nano-ZrO2 addition. The enhancement mechanism was discussed. Diamond composites showed the best overall properties with the addition of 1 wt % ZrO2 nanoparticles, thus paving the way for further applications. PMID:28773469

  2. Large enhancement of superconductivity in Zr point contacts.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammad; Singh, Chandan; Das, Shekhar; Kumar, Ritesh; Datta, Soumya; Halder, Soumyadip; Gayen, Sirshendu; Kabir, Mukul; Sheet, Goutam

    2018-04-30

    For certain complex superconducting systems, the superconducting properties get enhanced under mesoscopic point contacts made of elemental non-superconducting metals. However, understanding of the mechanism through which such contact induced local enhancement of superconductivity happens has been limited due to the complex nature of such compounds. In this paper we present a large enhancement of superconducting transition temperature (T<sub>c</sub>) and superconducting energy gap (Δ) in a simple elemental superconductor Zr. While bulk Zr shows a critical temperature around 0.6K, superconductivity survives at Ag/Zr and Pt/Zr point contacts up to 3K with a corresponding five-fold enhancement of Δ. Further, the first-principles calculations on a model system provide useful insights. We show that the enhancement in superconducting properties can be attributed to a modification in the electron-phonon coupling accompanied by an enhancement of the density of states which involves the appearance of a new electron band at the Ag/Zr interfaces. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Alloying effects on structural and thermal behavior of Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}C: A first principles study

    SciT

    Chauhan, Mamta, E-mail: mamta-physics@yahoo.co.in; Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    The formation energy, equilibrium lattice parameter, bulk modulus, Debye temperature and heat capacity at constant volume have been calculated for TiC, ZrC, and their intermediate alloys (Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}C, x = 0,0.25.0.5,0.75,1) using first principles approach. The calculated values of lattice parameter and bulk modulus agree well with the available experimental and earlier theoretical reports. The variation of lattice parameter and bulk modulus with the change in concentration of Zr atom in Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}C has also been reported. The heat capacities of TiC, ZrC, and their intermediate alloys have been calculated by considering both vibrational and electronic contributions.

  4. Effect of the ZrCl4 concentration in the (NaCl-KCl)eqiv-UO2Cl2-ZrCl4 melt and the electrolysis current density on the quantitative composition of UO2-ZrO2 cathode deposits. Calculation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, V. E.; Filatov, E. C.

    2014-08-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the ZrO2 content in the (NaCl-KCl)eqiv-UO2Cl2-ZrCl4 melt. Based on the known composition of a UO2-ZrO2 cathode deposit, the content is calculated at current densities of 0.08-0.63 A/cm2 and ZrCl4 concentrations of 0-12.3 wt %. The calculated and experimental ZrO2 contents in UO2-ZrO2 cathode deposits are in qualitative and adequate quantitative agreement.

  5. Direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene on nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides with balanced acid-base sites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles H F; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-27

    We report the design and synthesis of nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides for direct and high-yield conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene (~83%). ZnO is addded to ZrO(2) to selectively passivate zirconia's strong Lewis acidic sites and weaken Brönsted acidic sites, while simultaneously introducing basicity. As a result, the undesired reactions of bio-ethanol dehydration and acetone polymerization/coking are suppressed. Instead, a surface basic site-catalyzed ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde to acetone conversion via a complex pathway including aldol-condensation/dehydrogenation, and a Brönsted acidic site-catalyzed acetone-to-isobutene reaction pathway dominates on the nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxide catalyst, leading to a highly selective process for direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene.

  6. Novel ZrO2 based ceramics stabilized by Fe2O3, SiO2 and Y2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rada, S.; Culea, E.; Rada, M.

    2018-03-01

    Samples in the 5Fe2O3·10SiO2·xY2O3·(85-x)ZrO2 composition where x = 5, 10 and 15 mol% Y2O3 were synthesized and investigated by XRD, SEM, density measurements, FTIR, UV-Vis, EPR and PL spectroscopies. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the presence of the tetragonal and cubic ZrO2 crystalline phases in all samples. The IR data show the overlaps of absorption bands assigned to Zrsbnd Osbnd Zr and Sisbnd Osbnd linkages in samples. UV-Vis and PL data indicate higher concentrations of intrinsic defects by doping with Y2O3 concentrations. The EPR spectra are characterized by two resonance lines situated at about g ∼ 4.3 and g ∼ 2 for lower Y2O3 contents.

  7. Single layer of MX3(M = Ti, Zr; X = S, Se, Te): a new platform for nano-electronics and optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yingdi; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong

    A serial of two dimensional titanium and zirconium trichalcogenides nanosheets MX3 (M=Ti, Zr; X=S, Se, Te) are investigated based on first-principles calculations. The evaluated low cleavage energy indicates that stable two dimensional monolayers can be exfoliated from their bulk crystals in experiment. Electronic studies reveal very rich electronic properties in these monolayers, including metallic TiTe3 and ZrTe3, direct band gap semiconductor TiS3 and indirect band gap semiconductors TiSe3, ZrS3 and ZrSe3. The band gaps of all the semiconductors are between 0.57~1.90 eV, which implies their potential applications in nano-electronics. And the calculated effective masses demonstrate highly anisotropic conduction properties for all the semiconductors. Optically, TiS3 and TiSe3 monolayers exhibit good light absorption in the visible and near-infrared region respectively, indicating their potential applications in optical devices. In particular, the highly anisotropic optical absorption of TiS3 monolayer suggests it could be used in designing nano optical waveguide polarizers.

  8. Bulk Heterojunction versus Diffused Bilayer: The Role of Device Geometry in Solution p-Doped Polymer-Based Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Loiudice, Anna; Rizzo, Aurora; Biasiucci, Mariano; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2012-07-19

    We exploit the effect of molecular p-type doping of P3HT in diffused bilayer (DB) polymer solar cells. In this alternative device geometry, the p-doping is accomplished in solution by blending the F4-TCNQ with P3HT. The p-doping both increases the film conductivity and reduces the potential barrier at the interface with the electrode. This results in an excellent power conversion efficiency of 4.02%, which is an improvement of ∼48% over the p-doped standard bulk heterojunction (BHJ) device. Combined VOC-light intensity dependence measurements and Kelvin probe force microscopy reveal that the DB device configuration is particularly advantageous, if compared to the conventional BHJ, because it enables optimization of the donor and acceptor layers independently to minimize the effect of trapping and to fully exploit the improved transport properties.

  9. Ab-initio study of electronic structure and elastic properties of ZrC

    SciT

    Mund, H. S., E-mail: hmoond@gmail.com; Ahuja, B. L.

    2016-05-23

    The electronic and elastic properties of ZrC have been investigated using the linear combination of atomic orbitals method within the framework of density functional theory. Different exchange-correlation functionals are taken into account within generalized gradient approximation. We have computed energy bands, density of states, elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, lattice parameters and pressure derivative of the bulk modulus by calculating ground state energy of the rock salt structure type ZrC.

  10. Application of computational thermodynamics in the study of magnsium alloys and bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongbo

    In this thesis, the application of the computational thermodynamics has been explored on two subjects, the study of magnesium alloys (Chapter 1-5) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) (Chapter 6-9). For the former case, a strategy of experiments coupled with the CALPHAD approach was employed to establish a thermodynamic description of the quaternary system Mg-Al-Ca-Sr focusing on the Mg-rich phase equilibria. Multicomponent Mg-rich alloys based on the MgAl-Ca-Sr system are one of the most promising candidates for the high temperature applications in the transportation industry. The Mg-Al-Ca-Sr quaternary consists of four ternaries and six binaries. Thermodynamic descriptions of all constituent binaries are available in the literature. Thermodynamic descriptions of the two key ternaries, Mg-Al-Sr and Mg-Al-Ca, were obtained by an efficient and reliable methodology, combining computational thermodynamics with key experiments. The obtained thermodynamic descriptions were validated by performing extensive comparisons between the calculations and experimental information. Thermodynamic descriptions of the other two ternaries, MgCa-Sr and Al-Ca-Sr, were obtained by extrapolation. For the later case, a computational thermodynamic strategy was formulated to obtain a minor but optimum amount of additional element into a base alloy to improve its glass forming ability (GFA). This was done through thermodynamically calculating the maximum liquidus depressions caused by various alloying addition (or replacement) schemes. The success of this approach has been examined in two multicomponent systems, Zr-based Zr-Cu-Ni-Al-Ti and Cu-rich Cu-Zr-Ti-Y. For both cases, experimental results showed conclusively that the GFA increases more than 100% from the base alloy to the one with minor but optimal elemental addition. Furthermore, a thermodynamic computational approach was employed to identify the compositions of Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Al alloys exhibiting low-lying liquidus surfaces, which tend to

  11. Composition formulas of Fe-based transition metals-metalloid bulk metallic glasses derived from dual-cluster model of binary eutectics.

    PubMed

    Naz, Gul Jabeen; Dong, Dandan; Geng, Yaoxiang; Wang, Yingmin; Dong, Chuang

    2017-08-22

    It is known that bulk metallic glasses follow simple composition formulas [cluster](glue atom) 1 or 3 with 24 valence electrons within the framework of the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. Though the relevant nearest-neighbor cluster can be readily identified from a devitrification phase, the glue atoms remains poorly defined. The present work is devoted to understanding the composition rule of Fe-(B,P,C) based multi-component bulk metallic glasses, by introducing a cluster-based eutectic liquid model. This model regards a eutectic liquid to be composed of two stable liquids formulated respectively by cluster formulas for ideal metallic glasses from the two eutectic phases. The dual cluster formulas are first established for binary Fe-(B,C,P) eutectics: [Fe-Fe 14 ]B 2 Fe + [B-B 2 Fe 8 ]Fe ≈ Fe 83.3 B 16.7 for eutectic Fe 83 B 17 , [P-Fe 14 ]P + [P-Fe 9 ]P 2 Fe≈Fe 82.8 P 17.2 for Fe 83 P 17 , and [C-Fe 6 ]Fe 3  + [C-Fe 9 ]C 2 Fe ≈ Fe 82.6 C 17.4 for Fe 82.7 C 17.3 . The second formulas in these dual-cluster formulas, being respectively relevant to devitrification phases Fe 2 B, Fe 3 P, and Fe 3 C, well explain the compositions of existing Fe-based transition metals-metalloid bulk metallic glasses. These formulas also satisfy the 24-electron rule. The proposition of the composition formulas for good glass formers, directly from known eutectic points, constitutes a new route towards understanding and eventual designing metallic glasses of high glass forming abilities.

  12. Modification of the restoration protocol for resin-based composite (RBC) restoratives (conventional and bulk fill) on cuspal movement and microleakage score in molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Politi, I; McHugh, L E J; Al-Fodeh, R S; Fleming, G J P

    2018-05-29

    To modify the resin-based composite (RBC) restoration protocol for standardised Class II cavities in third molar teeth restored using conventional RBCs or their bulk fill restorative counterparts. Employing cuspal deflection using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge (during) and microleakage to determine marginal integrity (following) RBC restoration, the modified restoration protocol results were compared with traditional (oblique) restoration of Class II cavities. Thirty-two sound third molar teeth, standardised by size and morphology, were subjected to standardised Class II cavity preparations and randomly allocated to four groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a light-emitting-diode light-curing-unit. The cumulative buccal and palatal cuspal movements from a twin channel deflection measuring gauge were summed, the restored teeth fatigued thermally prior to immersion in 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, before sectioning and examination for microleakage. Teeth restored using conventional RBC materials had significantly higher mean total cuspal movement values compared with bulk fill resin restorative restoration (all p<0.0001). Teeth restored with Admira Fusion and Admira Fusion x-tra had significantly the lowest microleakage scores (all p<0.001) compared with Tetric EvoCeram and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill restored teeth. The microleakage scores for the range of RBC materials tested were significantly reduced (all p<0.001) when the modified RBC restoration protocol was employed compared with the traditional Class II restoration technique. Modification of the RBC restoration protocol of some conventional RBCs and bulk fill resin restoratives significantly improve bond integrity and could be translated as a validation of the limited clinical studies available on bulk fill materials in the dental literature where Class II cavities perform less well than Class I

  13. Selection by current compliance of negative and positive bipolar resistive switching behaviour in ZrO2-x /ZrO2 bilayer memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ruomeng; Yan, Xingzhao; Morgan, Katrina A.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; (Kees de Groot, C. H.

    2017-05-01

    We report here a ZrO2-x /ZrO2-based bilayer resistive switching memory with unique properties that enables the selection of the switching mode by applying different electroforming current compliances. Two opposite polarity modes, positive bipolar and negative bipolar, correspond to the switching in the ZrO2 and ZrO2-x layer, respectively. The ZrO2 layer is proved to be responsible for the negative bipolar mode which is also observed in a ZrO2 single layer device. The oxygen deficient ZrO2-x layer plays the dominant role in the positive bipolar mode, which is exclusive to the bilayer memory. A systematic investigation of the ZrO2-x composition in the bilayer memory suggests that ZrO1.8 layer demonstrates optimum switching performance with low switching voltage, narrow switching voltage distribution and good cycling endurance. An excess of oxygen vacancies, beyond this composition, leads to a deterioration of switching properties. The formation and dissolution of the oxygen vacancy filament model has been proposed to explain both polarity switching behaviours and the improved properties in the bilayer positive bipolar mode are attributed to the confined oxygen vacancy filament size within the ZrO2-x layer.

  14. Irreversible phase transitions due to laser-based T-jump heating of precursor Eu:ZrO{sub 2}/Tb:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} core/shell nanoparticles

    SciT

    Gunawidjaja, Ray; Diez-y-Riega, Helena; Eilers, Hergen, E-mail: eilers@wsu.edu

    2015-09-15

    Amorphous precursors of Eu-doped-ZrO{sub 2}/Tb-doped-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (p-Eu:ZrO{sub 2}/p-Tb:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) core/shell nanoparticles are rapidly heated to temperatures between 200 °C and 950 °C for periods between 2 s and 60 s using a CO{sub 2} laser. During this heating process the nanoparticles undergo irreversible phase changes. The fluorescence spectra due to Eu{sup 3+} dopants in the core and Tb{sup 3+} dopants in the shell are used to identify distinct phases within the material and to generate time/temperature phase diagrams. Such phase diagrams can potentially help to determine unknown time/temperature histories in thermosensor applications. - Graphical abstract: A CO{sub 2}more » laser is used for rapid heating of p-Eu:ZrO{sub 2}/p-Tb:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} core/shell nanoparticles. Optical spectra are used to identify distinct phases and to determine its thermal history. - Highlights: • Synthesized oxide precursors of lanthanide doped core/shell nanoparticles. • Heated core/shell nanoparticles via laser-based T-jump technique. • Observed time- and temperature-dependent irreversible phase transition.« less

  15. Structure and properties of ZrB2, ZrSiB and ZrAlSiB cathode materials and coatings obtained by their magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatsyuk, I. V.; Lemesheva, M. V.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph V.; Levashov, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    The ceramic ZrB2, ZrSiB, and ZrAlSiB cathodes were manufactured by means of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The parameters of SHS process including dependence of the combustion temperature and rate on the initial temperature of the reaction mixtures, as well as values of effective activation energy were estimated. Cathodes were subjected to the magnetron sputtering in the argon atmosphere. The structure and properties of cathodes and coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. Bulk ceramic samples and coatings were characterised in terms of their hardness, elastic modulus, elastic recovery, density, and residual porosity. Results obtained shows that cathodes posses homogeneous structure with low porosity level in range 2-6% and hardness between 10 and 17 GPa. Coatings demonstrate dense defect-free structure and contain nanocrystallites of h-ZrB2 phase. The grain size and hardness decrease from 8 down to 2 nm and from 37 down to 16 GPa with the addition of the silicon and aluminum dopes.

  16. Perovskite Solar Cells with Near 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency Based on Large Single Crystalline Grains and Vertical Bulk Heterojunctions

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; ...

    2015-07-09

    Grain boundaries (GBs) as defects in the crystal lattice detrimentally impact the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polycrystalline solar cells, particularly in recently emerging hybrid perovskites where non-radiative recombination processes lead to significant carrier losses. Here, the beneficial effects of activated vertical GBs are demonstrated by first growing large, vertically-oriented methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH 3NH 3PbI 3) single-crystalline grains. We show that infiltration of p-type doped 2 -7,7 -tetrakis(N,Ndi-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) into CH 3NH 3PbI 3 films along the GBs creates space charge regions to suppress non-radiative recombination and enhance carrier collection efficiency. Solar cells with such activated GBs yielded averagemore » PCE of 16.3 ± 0.9%, which are among the best solution-processed perovskite devices. As an important alternative to growing ideal CH 3NH 3PbI 3 single crystal films, which is difficult to achieve for such fast-crystallizing perovskites, activating GBs paves a way to design a new type of bulk heterojunction hybrid perovskite photovoltaics toward theoretical maximum PCE.« less

  17. Zr and Hf diffusion in rutile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Manchester, J.; Watson, E. B.

    2007-09-01

    Chemical diffusion of Zr and Hf under anhydrous conditions has been measured in synthetic and natural rutile. The sources of diffusant used were hafnon or zircon powders or a hafnon-rutile mixture. Experiments were run in crimped Pt capsules in air, or in sealed silica glass capsules with solid buffers (to buffer at NNO or QFM). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to measure Zr and Hf diffusion profiles. From these measurements, the following Arrhenius relations were obtained: For Zr diffusion parallel to c, over the temperature range 750-1100 °C DZr¦c = 9.8 × 10 - 15 exp(- 170 ± 30 kJ mol - 1 /RT) m 2 s - 1 For Hf diffusion parallel to c, over the temperature range 800-1000 °C DHf¦c = 9.1 × 10 - 15 exp(- 169 ± 36 kJ mol - 1 /RT) m 2 s - 1 For Hf diffusion normal to c, over the temperature range 750-1050 °C DHf⊥c = 2.5 × 10 - 12 exp(- 227 ± 62 kJ mol - 1 /RT) m 2 s - 1 . Diffusivities for experiments buffered at QFM and NNO are similar to those run in air. Diffusivities in synthetic and natural rutile are likewise similar, indicating that these findings can be applied directly in determining Zr diffusivities in rutile in natural systems. These data indicate that rutile should be moderately retentive of Zr chemical signatures, with Zr diffusivities within an order of magnitude of those for Pb in rutile over most geologic conditions. When applied in evaluation of the relative robustness of the recently developed Zr-in-rutile geothermometer [T. Zack, R. Moraes, A. Kronz, Temperature dependence of Zr in rutile: empirical calibration of a rutile thermometer, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 148 (2004) 471-488., E.B. Watson, D.A. Wark, J.B. Thomas, Crystallization thermometers for zircon and rutile, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 151 (2006) 413-433.], these findings suggest that Zr concentrations in rutile will be somewhat more likely to be affected by later thermal disturbance than the geothermometer based on Zr

  18. Effect of zirconia morphology on sulfur-resistant methanation performance of MoO3/ZrO2 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Weihan; Xu, Yan; Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Baowei; Ma, Xinbin

    2018-05-01

    Two kinds of ZrO2 support with different morphologies were prepared by facile solvothermal method in different solvents. The obtained two supports showed monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2) and tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) phase with similar crystalline size. Their supported Mo-based catalysts were prepared by impregnation method and the effect of zirconia morphology on the performance of sulfur-resistant methanation was examined. The results indicated that the MoO3/m-ZrO2 has higher CO conversion than the MoO3/t-ZrO2 catalyst. Characterizations by XRD, Raman, H2-TPR and IR confirmed that the m-ZrO2 is superior to t-ZrO2 for dispersing molybdenum species. In addition, the MoO3/m-ZrO2 catalyst has weaker interaction between support and active Mo speices than the MoO3/t-ZrO2 catalyst, which facilitates to forming active species of nanocrystalline MoS2 layers for sulfur-resistant methanation. The weaker interaction of molybdenum species with m-ZrO2 is related with the more covalent character of the Zrsbnd O bond and more oxygen defective structure of m-ZrO2. A larger number of Lewis acid centers appear on the surface of m-ZrO2, which verified the substantial vacancies on m-ZrO2 exposing coordinately unsaturated Zr3+ and Zr4+ cations. Meanwhile, the less Lewis acid of t-ZrO2 result in stronger interaction between support and molybdenum species and trigger crystalline phase MoO3 and Mosbnd Osbnd Zr linkages.

  19. Naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-based bulk heterojunction solar cells: how molecular structure influences nanoscale morphology and photovoltaic properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Cheon, Ye Rim; Back, Jang Yeol; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung; Park, Chan Eon

    2014-11-10

    Organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on a series of three naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (NDT) derivatives blended with phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester were studied. These three derivatives, which have NDT units with various thiophene-chain lengths, were employed as the donor polymers. The influence of their molecular structures on the correlation between their solar-cell performances and their degree of crystallization was assessed. The grazing-incidence angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy results showed that the three derivatives exhibit three distinct nanoscale morphologies. We correlated these morphologies with the device physics by determining the J-V characteristics and the hole and electron mobilities of the devices. On the basis of our results, we propose new rules for the design of future generations of NDT-based polymers for use in bulk heterojunction solar cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Single-chip photonic transceiver based on bulk-silicon, as a chip-level photonic I/O platform for optical interconnects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Hyundai; Joo, Jiho; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kwack, Myung-Joon; Kim, Sanghoon; Gyoo Kim, In; Hyuk Oh, Jin; Ae Kim, Sun; Park, Jaegyu; Kim, Sanggi

    2015-01-01

    When silicon photonic integrated circuits (PICs), defined for transmitting and receiving optical data, are successfully monolithic-integrated into major silicon electronic chips as chip-level optical I/Os (inputs/outputs), it will bring innovative changes in data computing and communications. Here, we propose new photonic integration scheme, a single-chip optical transceiver based on a monolithic-integrated vertical photonic I/O device set including light source on bulk-silicon. This scheme can solve the major issues which impede practical implementation of silicon-based chip-level optical interconnects. We demonstrated a prototype of a single-chip photonic transceiver with monolithic-integrated vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors and VCSELs-on-Si on the same bulk-silicon substrate operating up to 50 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s, respectively. The prototype realized 20 Gb/s low-power chip-level optical interconnects for λ ~ 850 nm between fabricated chips. This approach can have a significant impact on practical electronic-photonic integration in high performance computers (HPC), cpu-memory interface, hybrid memory cube, and LAN, SAN, data center and network applications. PMID:26061463

  1. Single-chip photonic transceiver based on bulk-silicon, as a chip-level photonic I/O platform for optical interconnects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Hyundai; Joo, Jiho; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kwack, Myung-Joon; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, In Gyoo; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Sun Ae; Park, Jaegyu; Kim, Sanggi

    2015-06-10

    When silicon photonic integrated circuits (PICs), defined for transmitting and receiving optical data, are successfully monolithic-integrated into major silicon electronic chips as chip-level optical I/Os (inputs/outputs), it will bring innovative changes in data computing and communications. Here, we propose new photonic integration scheme, a single-chip optical transceiver based on a monolithic-integrated vertical photonic I/O device set including light source on bulk-silicon. This scheme can solve the major issues which impede practical implementation of silicon-based chip-level optical interconnects. We demonstrated a prototype of a single-chip photonic transceiver with monolithic-integrated vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetectors and VCSELs-on-Si on the same bulk-silicon substrate operating up to 50 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s, respectively. The prototype realized 20 Gb/s low-power chip-level optical interconnects for λ ~ 850 nm between fabricated chips. This approach can have a significant impact on practical electronic-photonic integration in high performance computers (HPC), cpu-memory interface, hybrid memory cube, and LAN, SAN, data center and network applications.

  2. Hydrogen absorption of Pd/ZrO2 composites prepared from Zr65Pd35 and Zr60Pd35Pt5 amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Katsuragawa, Naoya; Hattori, Masatomo; Yogo, Toshinobu; Yamamura, Shin-ichi

    2018-01-01

    Metal-dispersed composites were derived from amorphous Zr65Pd35 and Zr65Pd30Pt5 alloys and their hydrogen absorption behavior was studied. X-ray diffractograms and scanning electron micrographs indicated that mixtures containing ZrO2, the metallic phase of Pd, and PdO were formed for both amorphous alloys heat-treated in air. In the composites, micron-sized Pd-based metal precipitates were embedded in a ZrO2 matrix after heat treatment at 800 °C in air. The hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction was applied to study the reactivity of hydrogen gas with the oxidized Zr65Pd35 and Zr65Pd30Pt5 materials. Rapid hydrogen absorption and release were observed on the composite derived from the amorphous alloy below 100 °C. The hydrogen pressure-concentration isotherm showed that the absorbed amount of hydrogen in materials depended on the formation of the Pd or Pt-doped Pd phase and its large interface area to the matrix in the nanocomposites. The results indicate the importance of the composite structure for the fabrication of a new type of hydrogen storage material prepared from amorphous alloys.

  3. Electron-stimulated desorption from polished and vacuum fired 316LN stainless steel coated with Ti-Zr-Hf-V

    SciT

    Malyshev, Oleg B., E-mail: oleg.malyshev@stfc.ac.uk; Valizadeh, Reza; Hogan, Benjamin T.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, two identical 316LN stainless steel tubular samples, which had previously been polished and vacuum-fired and then used for the electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) experiments, were coated with Ti-Zr-Hf-V with different morphologies: columnar and dense. ESD measurement results after nonevaporable getter (NEG) activation to 150, 180, 250, and 350 °C indicated that the values for the ESD yields are significantly (2–20 times) lower than the data from our previous study with similar coatings on nonvacuum-fired samples. Based on these results, the lowest pressure and best long-term performance in particle accelerators will be achieved with a vacuum-fired vacuum chamber coated withmore » dense Ti-Zr-Hf-V coating activated at 180 °C. This is likely due to the following facts: after NEG activation, the hydrogen concentration inside the NEG was lower than in the bulk stainless steel substrate; the NEG coating created a barrier for gas diffusion from the sample bulk to vacuum; the dense NEG coating performed better as a barrier than the columnar NEG coating.« less

  4. Local corrugation and persistent charge density wave in ZrTe 3 with Ni intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganose, Alex M.; Gannon, Liam; Fabrizi, Federica; Nowell, Hariott; Barnett, Sarah A.; Lei, Hechang; Zhu, Xiangde; Petrovic, Cedomir; Scanlon, David O.; Hoesch, Moritz

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of emergent bulk superconductivity in transition-metal intercalated ZrTe3 is investigated by studying the effect of Ni doping on the band structure and charge density wave (CDW). The study reports theoretical and experimental results in the range of Ni0.01ZrTe3 to Ni0.05ZrTe3 . In the highest doped samples, bulk superconductivity with TcZrTe3. Relativistic ab initio calculations reveal that Ni incorporation occurs preferentially through intercalation in the van der Waals gap. Analysis of the structural and electronic effects of intercalation indicate buckling of the Te sheets adjacent to the Ni site akin to a locally stabilized CDW-like lattice distortion. In contrast to the changes of TCDW observed in resistivity, experiments with low-temperature x-ray diffraction, angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy, as well as temperature-dependent resistivity reveal the nearly unchanged persistence of the CDW into the regime of bulk superconductivity. The CDW gap is found to be unchanged in its extent in momentum space, with the gap size also unchanged or possibly slightly reduced upon Ni intercalation. Both experimental observations suggest that superconductivity coexists with the CDW in NixZrTe3 .

  5. Local corrugation and persistent charge density wave in ZrTe 3 with Ni intercalation

    DOE PAGES

    Ganose, Alex M.; Gannon, Liam; Fabrizi, Federica; ...

    2018-04-03

    Here, the mechanism of emergent bulk superconductivity in transition-metal intercalated ZrTe 3 is investigated by studying the effect of Ni doping on the band structure and charge density wave (CDW). The study reports theoretical and experimental results in the range of Ni 0.01ZrTe 3 to Ni 0.05ZrTe 3. In the highest doped samples, bulk superconductivity with T c < T CDW is observed, with a reduced T CDW compared with pure ZrTe 3. Relativistic ab initio calculations reveal that Ni incorporation occurs preferentially through intercalation in the van der Waals gap. Analysis of the structural and electronic effects of intercalationmore » indicate buckling of the Te sheets adjacent to the Ni site akin to a locally stabilized CDW-like lattice distortion. In contrast to the changes of T CDW observed in resistivity, experiments with low-temperature x-ray diffraction, angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy, as well as temperature-dependent resistivity reveal the nearly unchanged persistence of the CDW into the regime of bulk superconductivity. The CDW gap is found to be unchanged in its extent in momentum space, with the gap size also unchanged or possibly slightly reduced upon Ni intercalation. Both experimental observations suggest that superconductivity coexists with the CDW in Ni xZrTe 3.« less

  6. Local corrugation and persistent charge density wave in ZrTe 3 with Ni intercalation

    SciT

    Ganose, Alex M.; Gannon, Liam; Fabrizi, Federica

    Here, the mechanism of emergent bulk superconductivity in transition-metal intercalated ZrTe 3 is investigated by studying the effect of Ni doping on the band structure and charge density wave (CDW). The study reports theoretical and experimental results in the range of Ni 0.01ZrTe 3 to Ni 0.05ZrTe 3. In the highest doped samples, bulk superconductivity with T c < T CDW is observed, with a reduced T CDW compared with pure ZrTe 3. Relativistic ab initio calculations reveal that Ni incorporation occurs preferentially through intercalation in the van der Waals gap. Analysis of the structural and electronic effects of intercalationmore » indicate buckling of the Te sheets adjacent to the Ni site akin to a locally stabilized CDW-like lattice distortion. In contrast to the changes of T CDW observed in resistivity, experiments with low-temperature x-ray diffraction, angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy, as well as temperature-dependent resistivity reveal the nearly unchanged persistence of the CDW into the regime of bulk superconductivity. The CDW gap is found to be unchanged in its extent in momentum space, with the gap size also unchanged or possibly slightly reduced upon Ni intercalation. Both experimental observations suggest that superconductivity coexists with the CDW in Ni xZrTe 3.« less

  7. How does spallation microdamage nucleate in bulk amorphous alloys under shock loading?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Ling, Z.; Zhang, H. S.; Ma, J.; Dai, L. H.

    2011-11-01

    Specially designed plate-impact experiments have been conducted on a Zr-based amorphous alloy using a single-stage light gas gun. To understand the microdamage nucleation process in the material, the samples are subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude (˜ 3.18 GPa) but with different durations (83-201 ns). A cellular pattern with an equiaxed shape is observed on the spallation surface, which shows that spallation in the tested amorphous alloy is a typical ductile fracture and that microvoids have been nucleated during the process. Based on the observed fracture morphologies of the spallation surface and free-volume theory, we propose a microvoid nucleation model of bulk amorphous alloys. It is found that nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in amorphous alloys results from diffusion and coalescence of free volume, and that high mean tensile stress plays a dominant role in microvoid nucleation.

  8. Ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with half-Heusler structure: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Gregor; Kratzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with C 1b crystal structure are introduced by calculating their basic structural, electronic, and phononic properties using density functional theory. Both the gradient-corrected PBE functional and the hybrid functional HSE06 are employed. While NiZrSn is found to be a small-band-gap semiconductor (Eg=0.46 eV in PBE and 0.60 eV in HSE06), CoZrBi has a band gap of 1.01 eV in PBE (1.34 eV in HSE06). Moreover, effective masses and deformation potentials are reported. In both materials A B C , the intrinsic point defects introduced by species A (Ni or Co) are calculated. The Co-induced defects in CoZrBi are found to have a higher formation energy compared to Ni-induced defects in NiZrSn. The interstitial Ni atom (Nii) as well as the VNiNii complex introduce defect states in the band gap, whereas the Ni vacancy (VNi) only reduces the size of the band gap. While Nii is electrically active and may act as a donor, the other two types of defects may compensate extrinsic doping. In CoZrBi, only the VCoCoi complex introduces a defect state in the band gap. Motivated by the reported use of NiZrSn for thermoelectric applications, the Seebeck coefficient of both materials, both in the p -type and the n -type regimes, is calculated. We find that CoZrBi displays a rather large thermopower of up to 500 μ V /K when p doped, whereas NiZrSn possesses its maximum thermopower in the n -type regime. The reported difficulties in achieving p -type doping in NiZrSn could be rationalized by the unintended formation of Nii2 + in conjunction with extrinsic acceptors, resulting in their compensation. Moreover, it is found that all types of defects considered, when present in concentrations as large as 3%, tend to reduce the thermopower compared to ideal bulk crystals at T =600 K. For NiZrSn, the calculated thermodynamic data suggest that additional Ni impurities could be removed by annealing, leading to precipitation of a metallic Ni2ZrSn phase.

  9. Quasiparticle interference mapping of ZrSiS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Michael; Hosen, Md Mofazzle; Neupane, Madhab; Ishigami, Masa; Chang, Guoqing; Singh, Bahadur; Lin, Hsin; Weber, Bent; Hellerstedt, Jack; Edmonds, Mark; Fuhrer, Michael; Kaczorowski, Dariusz

    The emergent class of 3D Dirac semimetals presents intriguing new systems in which to study the rich physics of the robust, topologically-protected quasiparticles hosted within their bulk. For example, in nodal-line Dirac semimetals, the conductance and valence bands meet along a closed loop in momentum space and disperse linearly in the vicinity of the resultant line node. This results in novel scattering phenomena, owing to the unique Fermi surfaces and scattering selection rules of these systems. Here, we have performed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of ZrSiS, one such nodal-line Dirac semimetal,at 4.5 K. We have visualized quasiparticle scattering using differential conductance mapping. In conjunction with numerical modeling, we identify at least six allowed scattering vectors in the material, which gives insight into the scattering selection rules of these novel materials. This work is based upon research supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0955625 (MSL and MI) and Fellowship No. 1614303 (MSL), and by the Australian Research Council under DECRA Fellowship No. DE160101334 (BW).

  10. Arsenic and fluoride removal from contaminated drinking water with Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Debra H; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Sen Gupta, Arup K

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the study was to carry-out batch tests to examine the effectiveness of Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads in the removal of As(III), As(V) and F - from groundwater with a similar geochemistry to a site where a community-based drinking water plant has been installed in West Bengal, India. The groundwater was spiked separately with ∼200 μg/L As(III) and As(V) and 5 mg/L F - . Haix-Zr resin beads were more effective than Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads in removing As(III) and As(V). Haix-Zr resin beads showed higher removal of As(V) compared to As(III). Haix-Zr resin beads removed As(V) below the WHO (10 μg/L) drinking water standards at 8.79 μg/L after 4 h of shaking, while As(III) was reduced to 7.72 μg/L after 8 h of shaking. Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads were more effective in removing F - from the spiked groundwater compared to Haix-Zr resin beads. Concentrations of F - decreased from 6.27 mg/L to 1.26 mg/L, which is below the WHO drinking water standards (1.5 mg/L) for F - , after 15 min of shaking with Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads. After 20 min of shaking in groundwater treated with Haix-Zr resin beads, F - concentrations decreased from 6.27 mg/L to 1.43 mg/L. In the removal of As(III), As(V), and F - from the groundwater, Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads fit the parabolic diffusion equation (PDE) suggesting that adsorption of these contaminants was consistent with inter-particle diffusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (p<0.05) by formulation and cooking procedure. Compared with raw products, cooked samples had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of MUFAs and PUFAs (both n-3 and n-6); the difference was greater (p<0.05) in the pan-fried patties. Fatty acid retention was generally better in pan-fried than in grilled samples. When cooked, the PUFA levels in the medium-fat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Fabrication and Mechanical Behavior of Ex Situ Mg-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite Reinforced with Electroless Cu-Coated SiC Particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Lichen; Hu, Ximei; Cheng, Yongjian; Liu, Shuiqing; Chen, Peng; Cui, Chunxiang

    2017-11-30

    Magnesium-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) have better plasticity than the corresponding bulk metallic glasses (BMGs); however, their strength and density are often compromised due to the fact that the effective reinforcement phase is mostly plastic heavy metal. For lightweight SiC-particle reinforced BMGMCs, interface wettability and the sharpness of the particles often reduce the strengthening effect. In this work, SiC particles were coated with a thin Cu coating by electroless plating, and added to Mg 54 Cu 26.5 Ag 8.5 Gd 11 melt in an amount of 5 wt % to prepare a BMGMC. The microstructure of the interface, mechanical behavior and fracture morphology of the BMGMC were studied by scanning electron microscopy and quasi-static compression testing. The results showed that the Cu coating improved the wettability between SiC and the matrix alloy without obvious interfacial reactions, leading to the dispersion of SiC particles in the matrix. The addition of Cu-coated SiC particles improved the plastic deformation ability of Mg 54 Cu 26.5 Ag 8.5 Gd 11 BMG, proving that electroless plating was an effective method for controlling the interface microstructure and mechanical behavior of BMGMCs.

  13. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Optimization of a solar-blind and middle infrared two-colour photodetector using GaN-based bulk material and quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Long-Bin; Shen, Bo; Qin, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Guo-Yi

    2009-12-01

    This paper calculates the wavelengths of the interband transitions as a function of the Al mole fraction of A1xGa1-xN bulk material. It is finds that when the Al mole fraction is between 0.456 and 0.639, the wavelengths correspond to the solar-blind (250 nm to 280 nm). The influence of the structure parameters of A1yGa1-yN/GaN quantum wells on the wavelength and absorption coefficient of intersubband transitions has been investigated by solving the Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. The A1 mole fraction of the A1yGa1-yN barrier changes from 0.30 to 0.46, meanwhile the width of the well changes from 2.9 nm to 2.2 nm, for maximal intersubband absorption in the window of the air (3 μm < λ < 5 μm). The absorption coefficient of the intersubband transition between the ground state and the first excited state decreases with the increase of the wavelength. The results are finally used to discuss the prospects of GaN-based bulk material and quantum wells for a solar-blind and middle infrared two-colour photodetector.

  14. Studies on corrosion resistance and bio-activity of plasma spray deposited hydroxylapatite (HA) based TiO2 and ZrO2 dispersed composite coatings on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and the same after post spray heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of plasma spray deposited hydroxylapatite (HA) based TiO2 dispersed (HA + 50 wt.% TiO2), coating and post spray heat treatment to be referred as HA-TiO2 (heat treated at 650 °C for 2 h) and ZrO2 dispersed (HA + 10 wt.% ZrO2), to be referred as HA-ZrO2 coating (heat treated at 750 °C for 2 h) on corrosion resistance and bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4V substrate has been undertaken. There is partial decomposition of HA to tri-calcium-phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and formation of CaTiO3 phase in HA-TiO2 coating and CaZrO3 phase in the HA-ZrO2 coating. Corrosion study in Hank's solution shows that there is shifting of corrosion potential (Ecorr) towards active potential (-1.1 V(SCE) for as-sprayed and post spray heat treated HA-TiO2 coating, -1.1 V(SCE) for as-sprayed HA-ZrO2 coating and -1 V(SCE) for HA-ZO2 coating after post spray heat treatment), and deterioration in pitting corrosion (Epit) resistance in as-sprayed coatings and the same after heat treatment (-0.7 V(SCE) for both HA-TiO2 and HA-ZrO2 coating as compared to as received substrate (-0.3 V(SCE)). The corrosion rate was increased for both the coatings with a maximum increase in HA-ZrO2 coating. Bioactivity test shows a higher degree of apatite deposition in as-sprayed coating and the same after heat treatment as compared to as received Ti-6Al-4V though the as-sprayed one showed a superior behavior.

  15. TiS2 and ZrS2 single- and double-wall nanotubes: first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Andrei V; Evarestov, Robert A

    2014-02-15

    Hybrid density functional theory has been applied for investigations of the electronic and atomic structure of bulk phases, nanolayers, and nanotubes based on titanium and zirconium disulfides. Calculations have been performed on the basis of the localized atomic functions by means of the CRYSTAL-2009 computer code. The full optimization of all atomic positions in the regarded systems has been made to study the atomic relaxation and to determine the most favorable structures. The different layered and isotropic bulk phases have been considered as the possible precursors of the nanotubes. Calculations on single-walled TiS2 and ZrS2 nanotubes confirmed that the nanotubes obtained by rolling up the hexagonal crystalline layers with octahedral 1T morphology are the most stable. The strain energy of TiS2 and ZrS2 nanotubes is small, does not depend on the tube chirality, and approximately obeys to D(-2) law (D is nanotube diameter) of the classical elasticity theory. It is greater than the strain energy of the similar TiO2 and ZrO2 nanotubes; however, the formation energy of the disulfide nanotubes is considerably less than the formation energy of the dioxide nanotubes. The distance and interaction energy between the single-wall components of the double-wall nanotubes is proved to be close to the distance and interaction energy between layers in the layered crystals. Analysis of the relaxed nanotube shape using radial coordinate of the metal atoms demonstrates a small but noticeable deviation from completely cylindrical cross-section of the external walls in the armchair-like double-wall nanotubes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study on Dirac Nodal-line Semimetal ZrSiS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chih-Chuan; Guan, Syu-You; Wang, Tzu-Cheng; Sankar, Raman; Guo, Guang-Yu; Chou, Fangcheng; Chang, Chia-Seng; Chuang, Tien-Ming

    The discovery of 3D Dirac nodal-line protected by non-symmophic symmetry in ZrSiS family has been reported by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and quantum oscillation measurements. ZrSiS also exhibits a butterfly shaped titanic angular magnetoresistance and strong Zeeman splitting in quantum oscillation. These observations with its layered crystal structure make the ZrSiS family an interesting candidate to understand the novel properties of the nodal-line semimetals. Here, we study the electronic structures of the single crystal ZrSiS by using spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscope at T= 4.2K. Our quasiparticle scattering interference imaging reveals the characteristic wave vectors with linear dispersion from Dirac line nodes in the bulk and its surface states. Our results are in excellent agreement with the first principle calculation, and also in consistent with ARPES and quantum oscillation measurements.

  17. Origin of anomalous inverse notch effect in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Zhou, H. F.; Wang, Z. T.; Li, Y.; Gao, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding notch-related failure is crucial for the design of reliable engineering structures. However, substantial controversies exist in the literature on the notch effect in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), and the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the apparent confusion is still poorly understood. Here we investigate the physical origin of an inverse notch effect in a Zr-based metallic glass, where the tensile strength of the material is dramatically enhanced, rather than decreased (as expected from the stress concentration point of view), by introduction of a notch. Our experiments and molecular dynamics simulations show that the seemingly anomalous inverse notch effect is in fact caused by a transition in failure mechanism from shear banding at the notch tip to cavitation and void coalescence. Based on our theoretical analysis, the transition occurs as the stress triaxiality in the notched sample exceeds a material-dependent threshold value. Our results fill the gap in the current understanding of BMG strength and failure mechanism by resolving the conflicts on notch effects and may inspire re-interpretation of previous reports on BMG fracture toughness where pre-existing notches were routinely adopted.

  18. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  19. Method and Apparatus of Measuring Velocity and Sound Attenuation Coefficient in Bulk Materials Based on the Analysis of the Structure of Sound-Insulation Materials on the Basis of Perlite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapranov, B. I.; Mashanov, A. P.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the results of research and describes the apparatus for measuring the acoustic characteristics of bulk materials. Ultrasound, it has passed through a layer of bulk material, is further passes through an air gap. The presence of air gap prevents from measuring tract mechanical contacts, but complicates the measurement technology Studies were conducted on the example of measuring the acoustic characteristics of the widely used perlite-based sound-proofing material.

  20. Biocompatible Materials Based on Self-Assembling Peptides on Ti25Nb10Zr Alloy: Molecular Structure and Organization Investigated by Synchrotron Radiation Induced Techniques.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Valeria; Franchi, Stefano; Santi, Marta; Vladescu, Alina; Braic, Mariana; Skála, Tomáš; Nováková, Jaroslava; Dettin, Monica; Zamuner, Annj; Iucci, Giovanna; Battocchio, Chiara

    2018-03-07

    In this work, we applied advanced Synchrotron Radiation (SR) induced techniques to the study of the chemisorption of the Self Assembling Peptide EAbuK16, i.e., H-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-NH₂ that is able to spontaneously aggregate in anti-parallel β-sheet conformation, onto annealed Ti25Nb10Zr alloy surfaces. This synthetic amphiphilic oligopeptide is a good candidate to mimic extracellular matrix for bone prosthesis, since its β-sheets stack onto each other in a multilayer oriented nanostructure with internal pores of 5-200 nm size. To prepare the biomimetic material, Ti25Nb10Zr discs were treated with aqueous solutions of EAbuK16 at different pH values. Here we present the results achieved by performing SR-induced X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SR-XPS), angle-dependent Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, FESEM and AFM imaging on Ti25Nb10Zr discs after incubation with self-assembling peptide solution at five different pH values, selected deliberately to investigate the best conditions for peptide immobilization.

  1. Biocompatible Materials Based on Self-Assembling Peptides on Ti25Nb10Zr Alloy: Molecular Structure and Organization Investigated by Synchrotron Radiation Induced Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Stefano; Braic, Mariana; Skála, Tomáš; Nováková, Jaroslava; Zamuner, Annj

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we applied advanced Synchrotron Radiation (SR) induced techniques to the study of the chemisorption of the Self Assembling Peptide EAbuK16, i.e., H-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-NH2 that is able to spontaneously aggregate in anti-parallel β-sheet conformation, onto annealed Ti25Nb10Zr alloy surfaces. This synthetic amphiphilic oligopeptide is a good candidate to mimic extracellular matrix for bone prosthesis, since its β-sheets stack onto each other in a multilayer oriented nanostructure with internal pores of 5–200 nm size. To prepare the biomimetic material, Ti25Nb10Zr discs were treated with aqueous solutions of EAbuK16 at different pH values. Here we present the results achieved by performing SR-induced X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SR-XPS), angle-dependent Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, FESEM and AFM imaging on Ti25Nb10Zr discs after incubation with self-assembling peptide solution at five different pH values, selected deliberately to investigate the best conditions for peptide immobilization. PMID:29518968

  2. Superconducting state parameters of bulk amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Well recognized empty core pseudopotential of Ashcroft is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz; electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature T C , isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength N O V of some (Ni33Zr67)1- x V x ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15) bulk amorphous alloys. We have incorporated five different types of local field correction functions, proposed by Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F) and Sarkar et al. (S) to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The T C obtained from local field correction function proposed by Sarkar et al. (S) is in excellent agreement with available theoretical data. Quadratic T C equation has been proposed providing successfully the T C values of bulk amorphous alloys under consideration. Also, the present results are found in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirm the superconducting phase in the s bulk amorphous alloys.

  3. New results in low-energy fusion of 40Ca+Zr,9290

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Esbensen, H.; Čolović, P.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Galtarossa, F.; Goasduff, A.; Grebosz, J.; Haas, F.; Mazzocco, M.; Soić, N.; Strano, E.; Szilner, S.

    2017-07-01

    Background: Near- and sub-barrier fusion of various Ca + Zr isotopic combinations have been widely investigated. A recent analysis of 40Ca+96Zr data has highlighted the importance of couplings to multiphonon excitations and to both neutron and proton transfer channels. Analogous studies of 40Ca+90Zr tend to exclude any role of transfer couplings. However, the lowest measured cross section for this system is rather high (840 μ b ). A rather complete data set is available for 40Ca+94Zr , while no measurement of 40Ca+92Zr fusion has been performed in the past. Purpose: Our aim is to measure the full excitation function of 40Ca+92Zr near the barrier and to extend downward the existing data on 40Ca+90Zr , in order to estimate the transfer couplings that should be used in coupled-channels calculations of the fusion of these two systems and of 40Ca+94Zr . Methods: 40Ca beams from the XTU Tandem accelerator of INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro were used, bombarding thin metallic 90Zr (50 μ g /cm2 ) and 92ZrO2 targets (same thickness) enriched to 99.36 % and 98.06 % in masses 90 and 92, respectively. An electrostatic beam deflector allowed the detection of fusion evaporation residues (ER) at very forward angles, and angular distributions of ER were measured. Results: The excitation function of 40Ca+92Zr has been measured down to the level of ≃60 μ b . Coupled-channels (CC) calculations using a standard Woods-Saxon (WS) potential and following the line of a previous analysis of 40Ca+96Zr fusion data give a good account of the new data, as well as of the existing data for 40Ca+94Zr . The previous excitation function of 40Ca+90Zr has been extended down to 40 μ b . Conclusions: Transfer couplings play an important role in explaining the fusion data for 40Ca+92Zr and 40Ca+94Zr . The strength of the pair-transfer coupling is deduced by applying a simple recipe based on the value obtained for 40Ca+96Zr . The logarithmic slopes and the S factors for fusion are reproduced

  4. Local melting to design strong and plastically deformable bulk metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yue-Sheng; Han, Xiao-Liang; Song, Kai-Kai; Tian, Yu-Hao; Peng, Chuan-Xiao; Wang, Li; Sun, Bao-An; Wang, Gang; Kaban, Ivan; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Recently, CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites reinforced by the TRIP (transformation-induced plasticity) effect have been explored in attempt to accomplish an optimal of trade-off between strength and ductility. However, the design of such BMG composites with advanced mechanical properties still remains a big challenge for materials engineering. In this work, we proposed a technique of instantaneously and locally arc-melting BMG plate to artificially induce the precipitation of B2 crystals in the glassy matrix and then to tune mechanical properties. Through adjusting local melting process parameters (i.e. input powers, local melting positions, and distances between the electrode and amorphous plate), the size, volume fraction, and distribution of B2 crystals were well tailored and the corresponding formation mechanism was clearly clarified. The resultant BMG composites exhibit large compressive plasticity and high strength together with obvious work-hardening ability. This compelling approach could be of great significance for the steady development of metastable CuZr-based alloys with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:28211890

  5. Effects of Undercooling and Cooling Rate on Peritectic Phase Crystallization Within Ni-Zr Alloy Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, P.; Wang, H. P.

    2018-04-01

    The liquid Ni-16.75 at. pct Zr peritectic alloy was substantially undercooled and containerlessly solidified by an electromagnetic levitator and a drop tube. The dependence of the peritectic solidification mode on undercooling was established based on the results of the solidified microstructures, crystal growth velocity, as well as X-ray diffraction patterns. Below a critical undercooling of 124 K, the primary Ni7Zr2 phase preferentially nucleates and grows from the undercooled liquid, which is followed by a peritectic reaction of Ni7Zr2+L → Ni5Zr. The corresponding microstructure is composed of the Ni7Zr2 dendrites, peritectic Ni5Zr phase, and inter-dendritic eutectic. Nevertheless, once the liquid undercooling exceeds the critical undercooling, the peritectic Ni5Zr phase directly precipitates from this undercooled liquid. However, a negligible amount of residual Ni7Zr2 phase still appears in the microstructure, indicating that nucleation and growth of the Ni7Zr2 phase are not completely suppressed. The micromechanical property of the peritectic Ni5Zr phase in terms of the Vickers microhardness is enhanced, which is ascribed to the transition of the peritectic solidification mode. To suppress the formation of the primary phase completely, this alloy was also containerlessly solidified in free fall experiments. Typical peritectic solidified microstructure forms in large droplets, while only the peritectic Ni5Zr phase appears in smaller droplets, which gives an indication that the peritectic Ni5Zr phase directly precipitates from the undercooled liquid by completely suppressing the growth of the primary Ni7Zr2 phase and the peritectic reaction due to the combined effects of the large undercooling and high cooling rate.

  6. Effects of incorporation of HA/ZrO(2) into glass ionomer cement (GIC).

    PubMed

    Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Khor, K A

    2005-03-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a class of bioactive cements that bond directly to bone. In this paper, a new bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA)/zirconia (ZrO(2))-filled GIC composite was developed to improve the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the GICs with the surrounding bone and connective tissues. Nano-sized HA/30 wt% ZrO(2) powders were heat treated at 700 degrees Celsius and 800 degrees Celsius for 3 h to elucidate the influence of the crystallinity of composite powders on the performance of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs. The effects of different volume percentages of HA/ZrO(2) powders (4, 12, 28 and 40 vol%) substituted within GICs were investigated based on their microhardness, compressive strength and diametral tensile strength. The HA/ZrO(2)-GICs composite was soaked in distilled water for 1 day and 1 week before subjecting the samples to mechanical testing. Results showed that the glass and HA/ZrO(2) particles were distributed uniformly in the GIC matrix. The substitution of highly crystalline HA/ZrO(2) improved the mechanical properties of the HA/ZrO(2)-GICs due to the slow resorption rate for highly crystalline powders in distilled water. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs increased with increasing soak time due to the continuous formation of aluminium salt bridges, which improved the final strength of the cements. The compositions 4 and 12 vol% HA/ZrO(2)-GICs exhibited superior mechanical properties than the original GICs. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs were found to be much better than those of HA-GICs because ZrO(2) has the attributes of high strength, high modulus, and is significantly harder than glass and HA particles. Furthermore, ZrO(2) does not dissolve with increasing soaking time.

  7. Influence of thermal annealing-induced molecular aggregation on film properties and photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on a squaraine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Ling, Zhitian; Chen, Guo; Wei, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Squaraine (SQ) dyes have been considered as efficient photoactive materials for organic solar cells. In this work, we purposely controlled the molecular aggregation of an SQ dye, 2,4-bis[4-(N,N-dibutylamino)-2-dihydroxyphenyl] SQ (DBSQ-(OH)2) in the DBSQ(OH)2:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend film by using the thermal annealing method, to study the influence of the molecular aggregation on film properties as well as the photovoltaic performance of DBSQ(OH)2:PCBM-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Our results demonstrate that thermal annealing may change the aggregation behavior of DBSQ(OH)2 in the DBSQ(OH)2:PCBM film, and thus significantly influence the surface morphology, optical and electrical properties of the blend film, as well as the photovoltaic performance of DBSQ(OH)2:PCBM BHJ cells.

  8. Influence of thermal annealing-induced molecular aggregation on film properties and photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on a squaraine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Ling, Zhitian; Chen, Guo; Wei, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Squaraine (SQ) dyes have been considered as efficient photoactive materials for organic solar cells. In this work, we purposely controlled the molecular aggregation of an SQ dye, 2,4-bis[4-(N,N-dibutylamino)-2-dihydroxyphenyl] SQ (DBSQ-(OH)2) in the DBSQ(OH)2:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend film by using the thermal annealing method, to study the influence of the molecular aggregation on film properties as well as the photovoltaic performance of DBSQ(OH)2:PCBM-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Our results demonstrate that thermal annealing may change the aggregation behavior of DBSQ(OH)2 in the DBSQ(OH)2:PCBM film, and thus significantly influence the surface morphology, optical and electrical properties of the blend film, as well as the photovoltaic performance of DBSQ(OH)2:PCBM BHJ cells.

  9. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  10. Hole and Electron Extraction Layers Based on Graphene Oxide Derivatives for High-Performance Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Yuhua Xue , Yunxiang Gao , Dingshan Yu , Michael Durstock , and Liming Dai * Hole and Electron Extraction Layers Based on Graphene Oxide...H. Wu , L. Chen , S. Su , Y. Cao , Adv. Mater. 2011 , 23 , 4636 . [ 29 ] T.-Y. Chu , S.-W. Tsang , J. Zhou , P. G. Verly , J

  11. You save money when you buy in bulk: does volume-based pricing cause people to buy more beer?

    PubMed

    Bray, Jeremy W; Loomis, Brett R; Engelen, Mark

    2009-05-01

    This paper uses supermarket scanner data to estimate brand- and packaging-specific own- and cross-price elasticities for beer. We find that brand- and packaging-specific beer sales are highly price elastic. Cross-price elasticity estimates suggest that individuals are more likely to buy a higher-volume package of the same brand of beer than they are to switch brands. Policy simulations suggest that regulation of volume-based price discounts is potentially more effective than a tax increase at reducing beer consumption. Our results suggest that volume-based price discounting induces people to buy larger-volume packages of beer and may lead to an increased overall beer consumption. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Novel view on the mechanism of water-assisted proton transfer in the DNA bases: bulk water hydration.

    PubMed

    Furmanchuk, Al'ona; Isayev, Olexandr; Gorb, Leonid; Shishkin, Oleg V; Hovorun, Dmytro M; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2011-03-14

    In the present work, the conventional static ab initio picture of a water-assisted mechanism of the tautomerization of Nucleic Acid Bases (NABs) in an aqueous environment is enhanced by the classical and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. The inclusion of the dynamical contribution is vital because the formation and longevity of the NAB-water bridge complexes represent decisive factors for further tautomerization. The results of both molecular dynamic techniques indicate that the longest time when such complexes exist is significantly shorter than the time required for proton transfer suggested by the static ab initio level of theory. New rate constants of tautomerization corrected for the dynamic effect of environment are proposed based on the first principles molecular dynamics data. Those values are used for the evaluation of a water-assisted mechanism that is feasible in such biological systems as E. coli cell.

  13. Ground-based radar monitoring of volcanic ash: a novel approach for the estimation of the bulk microphysical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    The detection and quantitative retrieval of ash plumes is of significant interest due to the environmental, climatic, and socioeconomic effects of ash fallout which might cause hardship and damages in areas surrounding volcanoes, representing a serious hazard to aircrafts. Real-time monitoring of such phenomena is crucial for initializing ash dispersion models. Ground-based and space-borne remote sensing observations provide essential information for scientific and operational applications. Satellite visible-infrared radiometric observations from geostationary platforms are usually exploited for long-range trajectory tracking and for measuring low-level eruptions. Their imagery is available every 10-30 min and suffers from a relatively poor spatial resolution. Moreover, the field of view of geostationary radiometric measurements may be blocked by water and ice clouds at higher levels and the observations' overall utility is reduced at night. Ground-based microwave weather radars may represent an important tool for detecting and, to a certain extent, mitigating the hazards presented by ash clouds. The possibility of monitoring in all weather conditions at a fairly high spatial resolution (less than a few hundred meters) and every few minutes after the eruption is the major advantage of using ground-based microwave radar systems. Ground-based weather radar systems can also provide data for estimating the ash volume, total mass, and height of eruption clouds. Previous methodological studies have investigated the possibility of using ground-based single- and dual-polarization radar system for the remote sensing of volcanic ash cloud. In the present work, methodology was revised to overcome some limitations related to the assumed microphysics. New scattering simulations based on the T-matrix solution technique were used to set up the parametric algorithms adopted to estimate the mass concentration and ash mean diameter. Furthermore, because quantitative estimation of

  14. Atomistic simulations of thermal transport in Si and SiGe based materials: From bulk to nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savic, Ivana; Mingo, Natalio; Donadio, Davide; Galli, Giulia

    2010-03-01

    It has been recently proposed that Si and SiGe based nanostructured materials may exhibit low thermal conductivity and overall promising properties for thermoelectric applications. Hence there is a considerable interest in developing accurate theoretical and computational methods which can help interpret recent measurements, identify the physical origin of the reduced thermal conductivity, as well as shed light on the interplay between disorder and nanostructuring in determining a high figure of merit. In this work, we investigate the capability of an atomistic Green's function method [1] to describe phonon transport in several types of Si and SiGe based systems: amorphous Si, SiGe alloys, planar and nanodot Si/SiGe multilayers. We compare our results with experimental data [2,3], and with the findings of molecular dynamics simulations and calculations based on the Boltzmann transport equation. [1] I. Savic, N. Mingo, and D. A. Stewart, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 165502 (2008). [2] S.-M. Lee, D. G. Cahill, and R. Venkatasubramanian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2957 (1997). [3] G. Pernot et al., submitted.

  15. Towards the Better: Intrinsic Property Amelioration in Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, Baran; Zhang, Long; Kosiba, Konrad; Pauly, Simon; Stoica, Mihai; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Tailoring the intrinsic length-scale effects in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) via post-heat treatment necessitates a systematic analyzing strategy. Although various achievements were made in the past years to structurally enhance the properties of different BMG alloys, the influence of short-term sub-glass transition annealing on the relaxation kinetics is still not fully covered. Here, we aim for unraveling the connection between the physical, (thermo)mechanical and structural changes as a function of selected pre-annealing temperatures and time scales with an in-house developed Cu46Zr44Al8Hf2 based BMG alloy. The controlled formation of nanocrystals below 50 nm with homogenous distribution inside the matrix phase via thermal treatment increase the material’s resistance to strain softening by almost an order of magnitude. The present work determines the design aspects of metallic glasses with enhanced mechanical properties via nanostructural modifications, while postulating a counter-argument to the intrinsic property degradation accounted for long-term annealing.

  16. Tuned critical avalanche scaling in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Antonaglia, James; Xie, Xie; Schwarz, Gregory; ...

    2014-03-17

    In this study, ingots of the bulk metallic glass (BMG), Zr 64.13Cu 15.75Ni 10.12Al 10 in atomic percent (at. %), are compressed at slow strain rates. The deformation behavior is characterized by discrete, jerky stress-drop bursts (serrations). Here we present a quantitative theory for the serration behavior of BMGs, which is a critical issue for the understanding of the deformation characteristics of BMGs. The mean-field interaction model predicts the scaling behavior of the distribution, D(S), of avalanche sizes, S, in the experiments. D(S) follows a power law multiplied by an exponentially-decaying scaling function. The size of the largest observed avalanchemore » depends on experimental tuning-parameters, such as either imposed strain rate or stress. Similar to crystalline materials, the plasticity of BMGs reflects tuned criticality showing remarkable quantitative agreement with the slip statistics of slowly-compressed nanocrystals. The results imply that material-evaluation methods based on slip statistics apply to both crystalline and BMG materials.« less

  17. Investigation of ZrO x /ZrC-ZrN/Zr thin-film structural evolution and their degradation using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmani, B.; Vijay, V.; Chhibber, R.; Dixit, A.

    2016-11-01

    The thin-film structures of DC/FR magnetron-sputtered ZrO x /ZrC-ZrN/Zr tandem solar-selective coatings are investigated using X-ray diffraction and room-temperature Raman spectroscopic measurements. These studies suggest that the major contribution is coming from h-ZrN0.28, c-ZrC, h-Zr3C2 crystallographic phases in ZrN-ZrC absorber layer, in conjunction with mixed ZrO x crystallographic phases. The change in structure for thermally annealed samples has been examined and observed that cubic and hexagonal ZrO x phase converted partially into tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO x phases, whereas hexagonal and cubic ZrN phases, from absorber layer, have not been observed for these thermally treated samples in air. These studies suggest that thermal treatment may lead to the loss of ZrN phase in absorber, degrading the thermal response for the desired wavelength range in open ambient conditions in contrast to vacuum conditions.

  18. AC Calorimetry and Thermophysical Properties of Bulk Glass-Forming Metallic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William L.

    2000-01-01

    Thermo-physical properties of two bulk metallic glass forming alloys, Ti34Zr11Cu47Ni8 (VIT 101) and Zr57Nb5Ni12.6Al10CU15.4 (VIT 106), were investigated in the stable and undercooled melt. Our investigation focused on measurements of the specific heat in the stable and undercooled liquid using the method of AC modulation calorimetry. The VIT 106 exhibited a maximum undercooling of 140 K in free radiative cooling. Specific heat measurements could be performed in stable melt down to an undercooling of 80 K. Analysis of the specific heat data indicate an anomaly near the equilibrium liquidus temperature. This anomaly is also observed in y the temperature dependencies of the external relaxation time, the specific volume, and the surface tension; it is tentatively attributed to a phase separation in the liquid state. The VIT 101 specimen exhibited a small undercooling of about 50 K. Specific heat measurements were performed in the stable and undercooled melt. These various results will be combined with ground based work such as the measurement of T-T-T curves in the electrostatic levitator and low temperature viscosity and specific heat measurements for modeling the nucleation kinetics of these alloys.

  19. Multiple caloric effects in (Ba0.865Ca0.135Zr0.1089Ti0.8811Fe0.01)O3 ferroelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditya; Vaish, Rahul

    2015-07-01

    Multiple caloric effects have been investigated for Fe-doped bulk (Ba0.865Ca0.135Zr0.1089Ti0.8811Fe0.01)O3 (BCZTO-Fe) ferroelectric ceramic. Indirect predictions were made using Maxwell's relations in conjunction with data from experimental observations. It was revealed that bulk BCZTO-Fe has huge untapped potential for solid-state refrigeration. A peak electrocaloric effect of 0.45 K (347 K) was predicted for 0-3 kV.mm-1 electric field, significantly higher than other BCZTO based materials. A maximum elastocaloric cooling of 1.4 K (298 K) was achieved for applied stress of 0-200 MPa. Finally, an unforeseen component of electric field driven caloric effect has been reported as inverse piezocaloric effect, with a maximum temperature change of 0.28 K (298 K).

  20. Zr/ZrC modified layer formed on AISI 440B stainless steel by plasma Zr-alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, X. Z.; Guo, Q.; Meng, T. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Yang, H. J.; Liu, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    The surface Zr/ZrC gradient alloying layer was prepared by double glow plasma surface alloying technique to increase the surface hardness and wear resistance of AISI 440B stainless steel. The microstructure of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer formed at different alloying temperatures and times as well as its formation mechanism were discussed by using scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrum, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adhesive strength, hardness and tribological property of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer were also evaluated in the paper. The alloying surface consists of the Zr-top layer and ZrC-subsurface layer which adheres strongly to the AISI 440B steel substrate. The thickness of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer increases gradually from 16 μm to 23 μm with alloying temperature elevated from 900 °C to 1000 °C. With alloying time from 0.5 h to 4 h, the alloyed depth increases from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the ZrC-rich alloyed thickness vs time is basically parabola at temperature of 1000 °C. Both the hardness and wear resistance of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer obviously increase compared with untreated AISI 440B steel.

  1. Universal solvation model based on solute electron density and on a continuum model of the solvent defined by the bulk dielectric constant and atomic surface tensions.

    PubMed

    Marenich, Aleksandr V; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G

    2009-05-07

    We present a new continuum solvation model based on the quantum mechanical charge density of a solute molecule interacting with a continuum description of the solvent. The model is called SMD, where the "D" stands for "density" to denote that the full solute electron density is used without defining partial atomic charges. "Continuum" denotes that the solvent is not represented explicitly but rather as a dielectric medium with surface tension at the solute-solvent boundary. SMD is a universal solvation model, where "universal" denotes its applicability to any charged or uncharged solute in any solvent or liquid medium for which a few key descriptors are known (in particular, dielectric constant, refractive index, bulk surface tension, and acidity and basicity parameters). The model separates the observable solvation free energy into two main components. The first component is the bulk electrostatic contribution arising from a self-consistent reaction field treatment that involves the solution of the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation for electrostatics in terms of the integral-equation-formalism polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM). The cavities for the bulk electrostatic calculation are defined by superpositions of nuclear-centered spheres. The second component is called the cavity-dispersion-solvent-structure term and is the contribution arising from short-range interactions between the solute and solvent molecules in the first solvation shell. This contribution is a sum of terms that are proportional (with geometry-dependent proportionality constants called atomic surface tensions) to the solvent-accessible surface areas of the individual atoms of the solute. The SMD model has been parametrized with a training set of 2821 solvation data including 112 aqueous ionic solvation free energies, 220 solvation free energies for 166 ions in acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, 2346 solvation free energies for 318 neutral solutes in 91 solvents (90 nonaqueous

  2. Universal Solvation Model Based on Solute Electron Density and on a Continuum Model of the Solvent Defined by the Bulk Dielectric Constant and Atomic Surface Tensions

    SciT

    Marenich, Aleksandr; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G

    2009-04-30

    We present a new continuum solvation model based on the quantum mechanical charge density of a solute molecule interacting with a continuum description of the solvent. The model is called SMD, where the “D” stands for “density” to denote that the full solute electron density is used without defining partial atomic charges. “Continuum” denotes that the solvent is not represented explicitly but rather as a dielectric medium with surface tension at the solute-solvent boundary. SMD is a universal solvation model, where “universal” denotes its applicability to any charged or uncharged solute in any solvent or liquid medium for which amore » few key descriptors are known (in particular, dielectric constant, refractive index, bulk surface tension, and acidity and basicity parameters). The model separates the observable solvation free energy into two main components. The first component is the bulk electrostatic contribution arising from a self-consistent reaction field treatment that involves the solution of the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation for electrostatics in terms of the integral-equation-formalism polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM). The cavities for the bulk electrostatic calculation are defined by superpositions of nuclear-centered spheres. The second component is called the cavity-dispersion-solvent-structure term and is the contribution arising from short-range interactions between the solute and solvent molecules in the first solvation shell. This contribution is a sum of terms that are proportional (with geometry-dependent proportionality constants called atomic surface tensions) to the solvent-accessible surface areas of the individual atoms of the solute. The SMD model has been parametrized with a training set of 2821 solvation data including 112 aqueous ionic solvation free energies, 220 solvation free energies for 166 ions in acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, 2346 solvation free energies for 318 neutral solutes in 91

  3. A Systematic Approach to Solvent Selection Based on Cohesive Energy Densities in a Molecular Bulk Heterojunction System

    SciT

    Walker, Bright; Tamayo, Arnold; Duong, Duc T.

    The solubilities of 3,6-bis(5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (DPP(TBFu)₂) and [6,6]-phenyl-C₇₁-butyric acid methyl ester (PC₇₁BM) in a series of solvents are measured, and this data is used to calculate the Hansen solubility parameters of the two materials. The dispersion, polar, and H-bonding parameters of DPP(TBFu)₂ and PC₇₁BM were found to be (19.3, 4.8, 6.3) and (20.2, 5.4, 4.5) MPa{sup 1/2}, respectively, with an error of ± 0.8 MPa{sup 1/2}. Based on the solubility properties of the two materials, three new solvents (thiophene, trichloroethylene and carbon disulfide) were utilized for the DPP(TBFu)₂:PC₇₁BM system which, after device optimization, led to power conversion efficiencies up to 4.3%.

  4. The effect of various quantum mechanically derived partial atomic charges on the bulk properties of chloride-based ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolghadr, Amin Reza; Ghatee, Mohammad Hadi; Moosavi, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    Partial atomic charges using various quantum mechanical calculations for [Cnmim]Cl (n = 1, 4) ionic liquids (ILs) are obtained and used for development of molecular dynamics simulation (MD) force fields. The isolated ion pairs are optimized using HF, B3LYP, and MP2 methods for electronic structure with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Partial atomic charges are assigned to the atomic center with CHELPG and NBO methods. The effect of these sets of partial charges on the static and dynamic properties of ILs is evaluated by performing a series of MD simulations and comparing the essential thermodynamic properties with the available experimental data and available molecular dynamics simulation results. In contrast to the general trends reported for ionic liquids with BF4, PF6, and iodide anions (in which restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) charges are preferred), partial charges derived by B3LYP-NBO method are relatively good in prediction of the structural, dynamical, and thermodynamic energetic properties of the chloride based ILs.

  5. [INVITED] Recent advances in surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic chemical and biosensors utilizing bulk and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Banshi D.; Kant, Ravi

    2018-05-01

    Surface plasmon resonance has established itself as an immensely acclaimed and influential optical sensing tool with quintessential applications in life sciences, environmental monitoring, clinical diagnostics, pharmaceutical developments and ensuring food safety. The implementation of sensing principle of surface plasmon resonance employing an optical fiber as a substrate has concomitantly resulted in the evolution of fiber optic surface plasmon resonance as an exceptionally lucrative scaffold for chemical and biosensing applications. This perspective article outlines the contemporary studies on fiber optic sensors founded on the sensing architecture of propagating as well as localized surface plasmon resonance. An in-depth review of the prevalent analytical and surface chemical tactics involved in configuring the sensing layer over an optical fiber for the detection of various chemical and biological entities is presented. The involvement of nanomaterials as a strategic approach to enhance the sensor sensitivity is furnished concurrently providing an insight into the diverse geometrical blueprints for designing fiber optic sensing probes. Representative examples from the literature are discussed to appreciate the latest advancements in this potentially valuable research avenue. The article concludes by identifying some of the key challenges and exploring the opportunities for expanding the scope and impact of surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic sensors.

  6. The Experimental Study of Nuclear Astrophysics Reaction Rate of 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, L.; Li, Z. H.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Guo, B.; Du, X. C.; Wu, Z. D.; Zeng, S.; Jin, S. J.; Wang, Y. B.; Bai, X. X.; Zhang, W. J.; Sun, H. B.; Li, E. T.

    The slow neutron capture (s-) process plays a very important role in the nucleosynthesis, which produces about half of the elements heavier than iron. 94Zr is mainly from 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr in the s-process, and the direct component of the 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr capture reaction can be derived from the neutron spectroscopic factor of 94Zr. As the existing neutron spectroscopic factors of 94Zr vary from each other up to 60%, a new work should be adopted to measure it exactly. In the present work, the angular distributions of 94Zr(13C,13C)94Zr, 94Zr(12C,12C)94Zr and 94Zr(12C,13C)93Zr were obtained using the highprecision Q3D magnetic spectrograph. In addition, distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations of the transfer differential cross sections were performed. The calculated result displays a good agreement with the experiment data, and a value of 2.60±0.20 for the neutron spectroscopic factor of 94Zr was extracted, and the direct capture cross section versus neutron energy of 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr for the ground state of 94Zr was obtained too.

  7. Fiber-optic microsensor array based on fluorescent bulk optode microspheres for the trace analysis of silver ions.

    PubMed

    Wygladacz, Katarzyna; Radu, Aleksandar; Xu, Chao; Qin, Yu; Bakker, Eric

    2005-08-01

    An optical microsensor array is described for the rapid analysis of silver ions at low parts per trillion levels. Because the ionophore o-xylylenebis(N,N-diisobutyldithiocarbamate) (Cu-I) was reevaluated and shown to exhibit excellent selectivity for silver ions, ion-selective electrode (ISE) membranes were optimized and found to exhibit the lowest reported detection limit so far (3 x 10(-10) M). A corresponding Ag+-selective fluorescent optical microsensor array for the rapid sensing of trace level Ag+ was then developed. It was fabricated using plasticized PVC-based micrometer-scale fluorescent microspheres that were produced via a sonic particle casting device. They contained 156 mmol/kg Cu-I, 10 mmol/kg 9-(diethylamino)-5-[4-(15-butyl-1,13-dioxo-2,14-dioxanodecyl) phenylimino]benzo[a]phenoxazine (chromoionophore VII, ETH 5418), 2.3 mmol/kg 1,1' '-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (internal reference dye), and 14 mmol/kg sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate and were deposited onto the etched distal end of a 3200-microm-diameter optical fiber bundle. The microarray was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy in samples containing 10(-12)-10(-8) M AgNO3 at pH 7.4, with selectivity characteristics comparable to the corresponding ISEs. The response time of the microsensor array was found to be less than 15 min for 10(-9) M AgNO3, which is drastically shorter than earlier data on optode films (8 h) and corresponding ISEs (30 min). A detection limit of 4 x 10(-11) M for Ag+ was observed, lower than any previously reported optode or silver-selective ISE. The microsensor array was applied for measurement of free silver levels in buffered pond water samples.

  8. Molecular Dynamics-based Simulations of Bulk/Interfacial Structures and Diffusion Behaviors in Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciT

    Du, Jincheng; Rimsza, Jessica; Deng, Lu

    This NEUP Project aimed to generate accurate atomic structural models of nuclear waste glasses by using large-scale molecular dynamics-based computer simulations and to use these models to investigate self-diffusion behaviors, interfacial structures, and hydrated gel structures formed during dissolution of these glasses. The goal was to obtain realistic and accurate short and medium range structures of these complex oxide glasses, to provide a mechanistic understanding of the dissolution behaviors, and to generate reliable information with predictive power in designing nuclear waste glasses for long-term geological storage. Looking back of the research accomplishments of this project, most of the scientific goalsmore » initially proposed have been achieved through intensive research in the three and a half year period of the project. This project has also generated a wealth of scientific data and vibrant discussions with various groups through collaborations within and outside of this project. Throughout the project one book chapter and 14 peer reviewed journal publications have been generated (including one under review) and 16 presentations (including 8 invited talks) have been made to disseminate the results of this project in national and international conference. Furthermore, this project has trained several outstanding graduate students and young researchers for future workforce in nuclear related field, especially on nuclear waste immobilization. One postdoc and four PhD students have been fully or partially supported through the project with intensive training in the field material science and engineering with expertise on glass science and nuclear waste disposal« less

  9. Defect-related electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with ZrO2 films on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2016-11-01

    Defect-related electroluminescence (EL) from ZrO2 films annealed under different atmosphere has been realized by means of electrical pumping scheme of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. At the same injection current, the acquired EL from the MOS device with the vacuum-annealed ZrO2 film is much stronger than that from the counterpart with the oxygen-annealed ZrO2 film. This is because the vacuum-annealed ZrO2 film contains more oxygen vacancies and Zr3+ ions. Analysis on the current-voltage characteristic of the ZrO2-based MOS devices indicates the P-F conduction mechanism dominates the electron transportation at the EL-enabling voltages under forward bias. It is tentatively proposed that the recombination of the electrons trapped in multiple oxygen-vacancy-related states with the holes in the defect level pertaining to Zr3+ ions brings about the EL emissions.

  10. Zircon solubility and of Zr species in subduction zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, M.; Schmidt, C.; Rickers, K.; Pascarelli, S.; Manning, C. E.; Stechern, A.

    2009-12-01

    . The XAFS results show clear differences between spectra of Zr in an HCl solution and in H2O-Na2Si2O5 (±Al2O3) aqueous fluid, implying considerable differences in Zr complexation. The latter spectra display similarities to spectra of Zr in Na2Si2O5 glass. This may indicate a similar structural environment for the two examined states, and thus point to Zr in (alumino)-silicate-based polymeric units in the aqueous solutions.

  11. Effects of TiO2 and ZrO2 nanofillers in LiBOB based PVdF/PVC composite polymer electrolytes (CPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravindan, V.; Vickraman, P.

    2007-11-01

    A novel type of lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) synthesized by the solid-state reaction method has been presented. LiBOB composite polymer electrolytes (CPE) prepared with dispersions of TIO2/ZrO2with various concentrations into the host blend matrices of poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVdF)-poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and ac impedance measurements. The plasticizing agent selected for the present study is a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) for the phase separated morphology of the studied polymers. The impedance studies on CPE membranes identify that membranes, with 2.5 wt% of fillers, have enhanced conductivities of 5.43 × 10-4 S cm-1 and 4.38 × 10-4 S cm-1, respectively, for TiO2 and ZrO2 at ambient temperature. The XRD investigations confirm that the membranes with filler levels exceeding the limit of 2.5 wt% show a gradual increase in the degree of crystallinity, rendering them less conducting. The activation energy calculations also highlight variations in conductivities of all the membranes.

  12. A new titanium based alloy Ti-27Nb-13Zr produced by powder metallurgy with biomimetic coating for use as a biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcio W D; Ágreda, Carola G; Bressiani, Ana H A; Bressiani, José C

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical applications due to their excellent properties such as high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Titanium alloys with alloying elements such as Nb and Zr are biocompatible and have Young's modulus close to that of human bone. To increase the bioactivity of titanium alloy surfaces is used chemical treatment with NaOH followed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The purpose of this study was to produce the alloy Ti-27Nb-13Zr with low Young's modulus by powder metallurgy using powders produced by the HDH process. The formation of biomimetic coatings on samples immersed in SBF for 3, 7, 11 and 15 days was evaluated. Characterization of the coating was performed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and scanning electron microscope. The microstructure and composition of the alloy were determined using SEM and XRD, while the mechanical properties were evaluated by determining the elastic modulus and the Vickers microhardness. The sintered alloys were composed of α and β phases, equiaxed grains and with density around 97.8% of its theoretical density. The Vickers microhardness and elasticity modulus of the alloy were determined and their values indicate that this alloy can be used as a biomaterial. Analysis of the coating revealed the presence of calcium phosphate layers on samples immersed for >3 days in the SBF solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Cyclic Lifetime of NiCoCrAlY/ZrO2-Based EB-PVD TBC Systems via Reactive Element Enrichment in the Mixed Zone of the TGO Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritscher, Klaus; Braue, Wolfgang; Schulz, Uwe

    2013-05-01

    The chemical composition of the alumina-zirconia mixed zone (MZ) of an electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coating (EB-PVD TBC) system is affected by service conditions and by the interdiffusion of elements from the substrate alloy below and the zirconia top coat. Three NiCoCrAlY bond-coated Ni-base substrates with YPSZ or CeSZ EB-PVD TBCs were subjected to a cyclic furnace oxidation test (FCT) at 1373 K (1100 °C) in order to provide experimental evidence of a link between chemistry of the MZ, the substrate alloy, the ceramic top coat, and the time in the FCT. Energy dispersive spectroscopy of the MZ revealed preferred accumulation of Cr, Zr, Y, and Ce. The concentration of the reactive elements (RE = Ce + Y + Zr) was related to the respective average lifetimes of the TBC systems at 1373 K (1100 °C). The RE content in the MZ turned out to be a life-limiting parameter for YPSZ and CeSZ TBC systems which can be utilized to predict their relative lifetimes on the individual substrates. Conversely, the TBC failure mechanisms of YPSZ and CeSZ TBC systems are dissimilar.

  14. Novel Bifunctional Cyclic Chelator for 89Zr Labeling–Radiolabeling and Targeting Properties of RGD Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Within the last years 89Zr has attracted considerable attention as long-lived radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. So far desferrioxamine B (DFO) has been mainly used as bifunctional chelating system. Fusarinine C (FSC), having complexing properties comparable to DFO, was expected to be an alternative with potentially higher stability due to its cyclic structure. In this study, as proof of principle, various FSC-RGD conjugates targeting αvß3 integrins were synthesized using different conjugation strategies and labeled with 89Zr. In vitro stability, biodistribution, and microPET/CT imaging were evaluated using [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates or [89Zr]triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC). Quantitative 89Zr labeling was achieved within 90 min at room temperature. The distribution coefficients of the different radioligands indicate hydrophilic character. Compared to [89Zr]DFO, [89Zr]FSC derivatives showed excellent in vitro stability and resistance against transchelation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution (EDTA), and human serum for up to 7 days. Cell binding studies and biodistribution as well as microPET/CT imaging experiments showed efficient receptor-specific targeting of [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates. No bone uptake was observed analyzing PET images indicating high in vivo stability. These findings indicate that FSC is a highly promising chelator for the development of 89Zr-based PET imaging agents. PMID:25941834

  15. Electronic structure and electron energy-loss spectroscopy of ZrO2 zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, L. K.; Vast, Nathalie; Baranek, Philippe; Cheynet, Marie-Claude; Reining, Lucia

    2004-12-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of zirconia are calculated within density functional theory, and their evolution is analyzed as the crystal-field symmetry changes from tetrahedral [cubic (c-ZrO2) and tetragonal (t-ZrO2) phases] to octahedral (hypothetical rutile ZrO2 ), to a mixing of these symmetries (monoclinic phase, m-ZrO2 ). We find that the theoretical bulk modulus in c-ZrO2 is 30% larger than the experimental value, showing that the introduction of yttria in zirconia has a significant effect. Electronic structure fingerprints which characterize each phase from their electronic spectra are identified. We have carried out electron energy-loss spectroscopy experiments at low momentum transfer and compared these results to the theoretical spectra calculated within the random phase approximation. We show a dependence of the valence and 4p ( N2,3 edge) plasmons on the crystal structure, the dependence of the latter being brought into the spectra by local-field effects. Last, we attribute low energy excitations observed in EELS of m-ZrO2 to defect states 2eV above the top of the intrinsic valence band, and the EELS fundamental band gap value is reconciled with the 5.2 or 5.8eV gaps determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  16. Month-wise variation and prediction of bulk tank somatic cell count in Brazilian dairy herds and its impact on payment based on milk quality.

    PubMed

    Busanello, Marcos; de Freitas, Larissa Nazareth; Winckler, João Pedro Pereira; Farias, Hiron Pereira; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Machado, Paulo Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Payment programs based on milk quality (PPBMQ) are used in several countries around the world as an incentive to improve milk quality. One of the principal milk parameters used in such programs is the bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC). In this study, using data from an average of 37,000 farms per month in Brazil where milk was analyzed, BTSCC data were divided into different payment classes based on milk quality. Then, descriptive and graphical analyses were performed. The probability of a change to a worse payment class was calculated, future BTSCC values were predicted using time series models, and financial losses due to the failure to reach the maximum bonus for the payment based on milk quality were simulated. In Brazil, the mean BTSCC has remained high in recent years, without a tendency to improve. The probability of changing to a worse payment class was strongly affected by both the BTSCC average and BTSCC standard deviation for classes 1 and 2 (1000-200,000 and 201,000-400,000 cells/mL, respectively) and only by the BTSCC average for classes 3 and 4 (401,000-500,000 and 501,000-800,000 cells/mL, respectively). The time series models indicated that at some point in the year, farms would not remain in their current class and would accrue financial losses due to payments based on milk quality. The BTSCC for Brazilian dairy farms has not recently improved. The probability of a class change to a worse class is a metric that can aid in decision-making and stimulate farmers to improve milk quality. A time series model can be used to predict the future value of the BTSCC, making it possible to estimate financial losses and to show, moreover, that financial losses occur in all classes of the PPBMQ because the farmers do not remain in the best payment class in all months.

  17. Deformation Mechanisms in Tube Billets from Zr-1%Nb Alloy under Radial Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovich, Yuriy; Isaenkova, Margarita; Fesenko, Vladimir; Krymskaya, Olga; Zavodchikov, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Features of the deformation process by cold radial forging of tube billets from Zr-1%Nb alloy were reconstructed on the basis of X-ray data concerning their structure and texture. The cold radial forging intensifies grain fragmentation in the bulk of billet and increases significantly the latent hardening of potentially active slip systems, so that operation only of the single slip system becomes possible. As a result, in radially-forged billets unusual deformation and recrystallization textures arise. These textures differ from usual textures of α-Zr by the mutual inversion of crystallographic axes, aligned along the axis of tube.

  18. The Effect of 24c-site (A) Cation Substitution on the Tetragonal-Cubic Phase Transition in Li7-xLa3-xAxZr2O12 Garnet-Based Ceramic Electrolyte

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-27

    Another super-valent substitution scheme involves either Nb (5þ) or Ta (5þ) on the 16a site ( Zr 4þ), that reduces the Li content and/or increases Li...substitution for Zr are as follows [20,22,23]: Ta$ Zr ¼ V0Li (3) Nb $ Zr ¼ V0Li (4) Likewise, super-valent substitution on the 24c (La 3þ) is...Substitution of La with Ce stabilizes the cubic LLZO garnet phase. < CeO2 precipitation at grain boundaries increases grain boundary resistance . < Super

  19. Improved Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon (a-C) Coating by ZrO₂ Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinzhu; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Songwei; Wu, Guizhi; Hu, Litian

    2016-09-22

    Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS₂ nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO₂ nanoparticles (ZrO₂-NPs) in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C contacts was investigated in boundary lubrication regime. The results showed that 13% less friction and 50% less wear compared to the base oil were achieved by employing ZrO₂-NPs in the base oil in self-mated a-C contacts. Via analyzing the ZrO₂-NPs and the worn a-C surface after tests, it was found that the improved lubrication by ZrO₂-NPs was based on "polishing effects", which is a new phenomenon observed between a-C and nanoparticles. Under the "polishing effect", micro-plateaus with extremely smooth surface and uniform height were produced on the analyzed a-C surface. The resulting topography of the a-C coating is suitable for ZrO₂-NPs to act as nano-bearings between rubbing surfaces. Especially, the ZrO₂-NPs exhibited excellent mechanical and chemical stability, even under the severe service condition, suggesting that the combination of nonhydrogenated a-C coating with ZrO₂-NPs is an effective, long lasting and environment-friendly lubrication solution.

  20. Improved Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon (a-C) Coating by ZrO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jinzhu; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Songwei; Wu, Guizhi; Hu, Litian

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS2 nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2-NPs) in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C contacts was investigated in boundary lubrication regime. The results showed that 13% less friction and 50% less wear compared to the base oil were achieved by employing ZrO2-NPs in the base oil in self-mated a-C contacts. Via analyzing the ZrO2-NPs and the worn a-C surface after tests, it was found that the improved lubrication by ZrO2-NPs was based on “polishing effects”, which is a new phenomenon observed between a-C and nanoparticles. Under the “polishing effect”, micro-plateaus with extremely smooth surface and uniform height were produced on the analyzed a-C surface. The resulting topography of the a-C coating is suitable for ZrO2-NPs to act as nano-bearings between rubbing surfaces. Especially, the ZrO2-NPs exhibited excellent mechanical and chemical stability, even under the severe service condition, suggesting that the combination of nonhydrogenated a-C coating with ZrO2-NPs is an effective, long lasting and environment-friendly lubrication solution. PMID:28773916

  1. Effect of cooling rates on the structure, density and micro-indentation behavior of the Fe, Co-based bulk metallic glass

    SciT

    Lesz, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.lesz@polsl.pl

    The experiments demonstrate that ductility of the samples of bulk metallic glass (BMG) with the same chemical composition increased with decreasing sample size. It is shown that microhardness and density increases with decreasing the cooling rate. The fracture morphology of rods after compressive fracture were different on the cross section. Two characteristic features of the compressive fracture morphologies of metallic glasses (MGs) were observed in samples: smooth region and the vein pattern. Many parallel shear bands were observed on the deformed specimen with ϕ = 2 mm in diameter. The results provide more understanding on the relationship among the coolingmore » rate, structure and micro-indentation behavior of the Fe-Co-based BMGs. - Highlights: •Fracture morphology and micro-indentation behavior is studied. •The smaller BMG sample exhibits the larger plasticity. •Microhardness and density increase with decreasing the cooling rate. •Formation of shear bands has been reported in deformed specimens. •Structure and mechanical properties of BMGs can be controlled by the cooling rate.« less

  2. Characterisation of radiation damage in W and W-based alloys from 2MeV self-ion near-bulk implantations

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, Xiaoou; Culham Science Centre, Abingdon; Jenkins, Michael L.; ...

    2015-04-21

    The displacement damage induced in bulk W and W-5 wt.% Re and W-5 wt.% Ta alloys by 2 MeV W + irradiation to doses 3.3×10 17 - 2.5×10 19 W +/m 2 at temperatures ranging from 300 to750°C has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy. An automated sizing and counting approach based on Image J has been proposed and performed for all irradiation data. In all cases the damage comprised dislocation loops, mostly of interstitial type, with Burgers vectors b = ½<111> (> 60%) and b = <100>. The diameters of loops did not exceed 20 nm, with the majoritymore » being ≤ 6 nm. The loop number density varied between 10 22 and 10 23 loops/m 3 . With increasing irradiation temperature, the loop size distributions shifted towards larger sizes, and there was a substantial decrease in loop number densities. The damage microstructure was less sensitive to dose than to temperature. Under the same irradiation conditions, loop number densities in the alloys were higher than in pure W but loops were smaller. In grains with normals close to z = <001>, loop strings developed in W at temperatures ≥ 500°C and doses ≥ 1.2 dpa, but such strings were not observed in the W-Re or W-Ta alloys. However, in other grain orientations complex structures appeared in all materials and dense dislocation networks formed at higher doses.« less

  3. Carbon diffusion in bulk hcp zirconium: A multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Roques, J.; Domain, C.; Simoni, E.

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the geological repository of the used fuel claddings of pressurized water reactor, carbon behavior in bulk zirconium is studied by periodic Density Functional Theory calculations. The C interstitial sites were investigated and it was found that there are two possible carbon interstitial sites: a distorted basal tetragonal site and an octahedral site. There are four types of possible atomic jumps between them. After calculating the migration energies, the attempt frequencies and the jump probabilities for each possible migration path, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were performed to simulate carbon diffusion at the macroscopic scale. The results show that carbon diffusion in pure Zr bulk is extremely limited at the storage temperature (50 °C). Since there are defects in Zr bulk, in a second step, the effect of atomic vacancy was studied and it was proved that vacancies cannot increase carbon diffusion.

  4. Polaron-electron assisted giant dielectric dispersion in SrZrO{sub 3} high-k dielectric

    SciT

    Borkar, Hitesh; Barvat, Arun; Pal, Prabir

    2016-06-07

    The SrZrO{sub 3} is a well known high-k dielectric constant (∼22) and high optical bandgap (∼5.8 eV) material and one of the potential candidates for future generation nanoelectronic logic elements (8 nm node technology) beyond silicon. Its dielectric behavior is fairly robust and frequency independent till 470 K; however, it suffers a strong small-polaron based electronic phase transition (T{sub e}) linking 650 to 750 K. The impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed the presence of conducting grains and grain boundaries at elevated temperature which provide energetic mobile charge carriers with activation energy in the range of 0.7 to 1.2 eV supporting the oxygen ions and proton conduction.more » X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements suggest the presence of weak non-stoichiometric O{sup 2−} anions and hydroxyl species bound to different sites at the surface and bulk. These thermally activated charge carriers at elevated temperature significantly contribute to the polaronic based dielectric anomaly and conductivity. Our dielectric anomaly supports pseudo phase transition due to high degree of change in ZrO{sub 6} octahedral angle in the temperature range of 650–750 K, where electron density and phonon vibration affect the dielectric and conductivity properties.« less

  5. Bulk density of small meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  6. Raman Spectrum of Er-Y-codoped ZrO2 and Fluorescence Properties of Er3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Luo, Meng-fei; Jin, Ling-yun; He, Mai; Fang, Ping; Xie, Yun-long

    2007-02-01

    Er-Y-codoped ZrO2 mixed oxides with monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic structures were prepared by a sol-gel method. The crystal structure of ZrO2 matrix and the effect of the ZrO2 phases on the fluorescence properties of Er3+ were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated that the fluorescence properties of Er3+ depend on its local ZrO2 crystal structures. As ZrO2 matrix transferred from monoclinic to tetragonal and cubic phase, the Raman and fluorescence bands of Er3+ decreased in intensities and tended to form a single peak. With 632.8 nm excitation, the bands between 640 and 680 nm were attributed to the fluorescence of Er3+ in the ZrO2 environment. However, only the fluorescence was observed and no Raman spectra were seen under 514.5 nm excitation, while only Raman spectra were observed under 325 nm excitation. UV Raman spectroscopy was found to be more sensitive in the surface region while the information provided by XRD mainly came from the bulk. The phase with lower symmetry forms more easily on the surface than in the bulk.

  7. Alternative Chelator for 89Zr Radiopharmaceuticals: Radiolabeling and Evaluation of 3,4,3-(LI-1,2-HOPO)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium-89 is an effective radionuclide for antibody-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging because its physical half-life (78.41 h) matches the biological half-life of IgG antibodies. Desferrioxamine (DFO) is currently the preferred chelator for 89Zr4+; however, accumulation of 89Zr in the bones of mice suggests that 89Zr4+ is released from DFO in vivo. An improved chelator for 89Zr4+ could eliminate the release of osteophilic 89Zr4+ and lead to a safer PET tracer with reduced background radiation dose. Herein, we present an octadentate chelator 3,4,3-(LI-1,2-HOPO) (or HOPO) as a potentially superior alternative to DFO. The HOPO ligand formed a 1:1 Zr-HOPO complex that was evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The stability of 89Zr-HOPO matched or surpassed that of 89Zr-DFO in every experiment. In healthy mice, 89Zr-HOPO cleared the body rapidly with no signs of demetalation. Ultimately, HOPO has the potential to replace DFO as the chelator of choice for 89Zr-based PET imaging agents. PMID:24814511

  8. Ca2+-exchange in layered zirconium orthophosphate, α-ZrP: Chemical study and potential application for zinc corrosion inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouali, Imane; Rocca, Emmanuel; Veys-Renaux, Delphine; Rhouta, Benaissa; Khalil, Aziza; Aït Aghzzaf, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    The control of the corrosion phenomenon occurring at the metal interface requires the development of new non-toxic anticorrosion additives. For this purpose, zirconium orthophosphate compounds (Zr(HPO4)2,H2O noted α-ZrP) were synthesized by both hydrothermal and refluxing methods The Ca2+-cationic exchange in the layered structure is kinetically favoured by low crystallinity of α-ZrP synthesized by refluxing process, and leads to the formation of CaZr(PO4)2,4H2O, noted Ca2+-ZrP. The H+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism is mainly triggered by acid-base considerations, and especially the pKa of α-ZrP/Ca2+-ZrP acid-base couple (evaluated to 2.5). Both compounds are acidic compounds by internal exchangeable H+ for α-ZrP and surface protons for Ca2+-ZrP, and can be used as potential inhibitors of zinc corrosion. Electrochemical measurements show that Ca2+-ZrP compounds dispersed in the NaCl electrolyte buffer the pH value over a long time and therefore allow controlling the corrosion rate of zinc.

  9. A high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    SciT

    Daugey, Thomas; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles

    2015-11-15

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24 000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2–4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be −23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is −105 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 kHz offset and −150 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100more » kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10{sup −9} at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10{sup −11} τ{sup −1/2} up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance.« less

  10. A high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock.

    PubMed

    Daugey, Thomas; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-11-01

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24,000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2-4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be -23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is -105 dB rad(2)/Hz at 1 kHz offset and -150 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10(-9) at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10(-11) τ(-1/2) up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance.

  11. A high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugey, Thomas; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-11-01

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24 000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2-4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be -23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is -105 dB rad2/Hz at 1 kHz offset and -150 dB rad2/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10-9 at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10-11 τ-1/2 up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance.

  12. First principle study of structural, elastic and electronic properties of APt3 (A=Mg, Sc, Y and Zr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamer, A.; Roumili, A.; Medkour, Y.; Charifi, Z.

    2018-02-01

    We report results obtained from first principle calculations on APt3 compounds with A=Mg, Sc, Y and Zr. Our results of the lattice parameter a are in good agreement with experimental data, with deviations less than 0.8%. Single crystal elastic constants are calculated, then polycrystalline elastic moduli (bulk, shear and Young moduli, Poisson ration, anisotropy factor) are presented. Based on Debye model, Debye temperature ϴD is calculated from the sound velocities Vl, Vt and Vm. Band structure results show that the studied compounds are electrical conductors, the conduction mechanism is assured by Pt-d electrons. Different hybridisation states are observed between Pt-d and A-d orbitals. The study of the charge density distribution and the population analysis shows the coexistence of ionic, covalent and metallic bonds.

  13. Flexible tensile strain sensor based on lead-free 0.5Ba (Ti0.8Zr0.2) O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3) TiO3 piezoelectric nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Lindong; Zhu, Ruijian; Wang, Zengmei; Wang, Fengxia; Kimura, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Here, we report our study results of a flexible piezoelectric tensile strain sensor which is fabricated by synthesizing 0.5Ba (Zr0.2Ti0.8) O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3) TiO3 (0.5BZT-0.5BCT) nanofibers via an electrospinning process. Our nanofibers show an ultrahigh d33 of 275 pm V-1. 0.5BZT-0.5BCT nanofibers and MW-CNTs are dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to fabricate a highly stretchable and flexible tensile sensor, and the multiple roles of the MW-CNTs are probed and demonstrated. This nanofiber-based piezoelectric tensile strain sensor shows great resolution and sensitivity under external mechanical deformation. It is suitable for applications in complex environments.

  14. A combined experimental and theoretical study on ethanol conversion to propylene over Y/ZrO2 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fangfang; Xia, Wei; Mu, Xichuan; Chen, Kun; Si, Huimin; Li, Zhihao

    2018-05-01

    ZrO2-based catalysts doped with Y were prepared by co-precipitation method. The effect of yttrium modification on the selective conversion of bio-ethanol to propylene over ZrO2 catalysts was investigated. The physical and chemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption method, temperature programmed desorption and X-ray diffraction. The maximum yield of propylene reached 44.0% over 0.03Y/ZrO2 catalyst. A coordination of acid-base properties accounts for the remarkable improvement of reaction activities over Y-doped ZrO2 catalysts in this investigation. On the basis of calculation results, it can be concluded that significant charge transfer occurs as a result of introduction of Y or O-vacancy. The adsorption of ethanol and propylene on perfect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1), defect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1) and Y/ZrO2 (1 0 1) surfaces were investigated with density functional theory (DFT). The adsorption for ethanol on Y/ZrO2 (1 0 1) and defect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1) surfaces are more stable than that on perfect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1). On the defect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1) surface, ethanol dominantly absorbs at the O-vacancy site, indicating that O-vacancy becomes the favorable adsorption site. On the Y/ZrO2 (1 0 1) and defect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1) surfaces, the adsorption energy of propylene decreases, which makes propylene desorb quickly after formation.

  15. A combined arc-melting and tilt-casting furnace for the manufacture of high-purity bulk metallic glass materials.

    PubMed

    Soinila, E; Pihlajamäki, T; Bossuyt, S; Hänninen, H

    2011-07-01

    An arc-melting furnace which includes a tilt-casting facility was designed and built, for the purpose of producing bulk metallic glass specimens. Tilt-casting was chosen because reportedly, in combination with high-purity processing, it produces the best fatigue endurance in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Incorporating the alloying and casting facilities in a single piece of equipment reduces the amount of laboratory space and capital investment needed. Eliminating the sample transfer step from the production process also saves time and reduces sample contamination. This is important because the glass forming ability in many alloy systems, such as Zr-based glass-forming alloys, deteriorates rapidly with increasing oxygen content of the specimen. The challenge was to create a versatile instrument, in which high purity conditions can be maintained throughout the process, even when melting alloys with high affinity for oxygen. Therefore, the design provides a high-vacuum chamber to be filled with a low-oxygen inert atmosphere, and takes special care to keep the system hermetically sealed throughout the process. In particular, movements of the arc-melting electrode and sample manipulator arm are accommodated by deformable metal bellows, rather than sliding O-ring seals, and the whole furnace is tilted for tilt-casting. This performance of the furnace is demonstrated by alloying and casting Zr(55)Cu(30)Al(10)Ni(5) directly into rods up to ø 10 mm which are verified to be amorphous by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and to exhibit locally ductile fracture at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  16. Self-consistent full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave local-density electronic-structure studies of magnetism and superconductivity in C15 compounds: ZrZn2 and ZrV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mei-Chun; Jansen, H. J. F.; Freeman, A. J.

    1988-03-01

    The electronic structure and properties of the cubic Laves phase (C15) compounds ZrZn2 and ZrV2 have been determined using our all-electron full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) method for bulk solids. The computations were performed in two stages: (i) self-consistent warped muffin tin and (ii) self-consistent full potential. Spin-orbit coupling was included after either stage. The effects of the inclusion of the nonspherical terms inside the muffin tins on the eigenvalues is found to be small (of order 1 mRy). However, due to the fact that some of the bands near the Fermi level are flat, this effect leads to a much higher value of the density of states at EF in ZnZr2. The most important difference between the materials ZrZn2 and ZrV2 is the position of the d bands derived from the Zr and V atoms. Consequently, these materials have completely different Fermi surfaces. We have investigated the magnetic properties of these compounds by evaluating their generalized Stoner factors and found agreement with experiment. Our results for the superconducting transition temperature for these materials is found to be strongly dependent on the spin fluctuation parameter μsp. Of course, because of the magnetic transition, superconductivity cannot be observed in ZnZr2.

  17. Self-consistent full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave local-density electronic-structure studies of magnetism and superconductivity in C15 compounds: ZrZn/sub 2/ and ZrV/sub 2/

    SciT

    Huang, M.; Jansen, H.J.F.; Freeman, A.J.

    The electronic structure and properties of the cubic Laves phase (C15) compounds ZrZn/sub 2/ and ZrV/sub 2/ have been determined using our all-electron full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) method for bulk solids. The computations were performed in two stages: (i) self-consistent warped muffin tin and (ii) self-consistent full potential. Spin-orbit coupling was included after either stage. The effects of the inclusion of the nonspherical terms inside the muffin tins on the eigenvalues is found to be small (of order 1 mRy). However, due to the fact that some of the bands near the Fermi level are flat, this effect leads to amore » much higher value of the density of states at E/sub F/ in ZnZr/sub 2/. The most important difference between the materials ZrZn/sub 2/ and ZrV/sub 2/ is the position of the d bands derived from the Zr and V atoms. Consequently, these materials have completely different Fermi surfaces. We have investigated the magnetic properties of these compounds by evaluating their generalized Stoner factors and found agreement with experiment. Our results for the superconducting transition temperature for these materials is found to be strongly dependent on the spin fluctuation parameter ..mu../sub sp/. Of course, because of the magnetic transition, superconductivity cannot be observed in ZnZr/sub 2/.« less

  18. High-Temperature Stability and Grain Boundary Complexion Formation in a Nanocrystalline Cu-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2015-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Cu-3 at.% Zr powders with ~20 nm average grain size were created with mechanical alloying and their thermal stability was studied from 550-950°C. Annealing drove Zr segregation to the grain boundaries, which led to the formation of amorphous intergranular complexions at higher temperatures. Grain growth was retarded significantly, with 1 week of annealing at 950°C, or 98% of the solidus temperature, only leading to coarsening of the average grain size to 54 nm. The enhanced thermal stability can be connected to both a reduction in grain boundary energy with doping as well as the precipitation of ZrC particles. High mechanical strength is retained even after these aggressive heat treatments, showing that complexion engineering may be a viable path toward the fabrication of bulk nanostructured materials with excellent properties.

  19. Faecal bulking efficacy of Australasian breakfast cereals.

    PubMed

    Monro, John A

    2002-01-01

    Faecal bulk may play an important role in preventing a range of disorders of the large bowel, but as yet there is little information available on the relative faecal bulking capacities of various foods. Breakfast cereals are often promoted as a good source of potential bulk for 'inner health' because they provide dietary fibre, but their relative abilities to provide faecal bulk per se have not been described. The faecal bulking efficacy of 28 representative Australasian breakfast cereals was therefore measured. A rat model developed for the purpose, and shown to give similar responses as humans to cereal fibres, was used to measure faecal bulking efficacy as increases in fully hydrated faecal weight/100 g diet, based on precise measurements of food intake, faecal dry matter output and faecal water-holding capacity (g water held without stress/g faecal dry matter). Compared to a baseline diet containing 50% sucrose, increments in hydrated faecal weight due to 50% breakfast cereal ranged from slightly negative (Cornflakes, -2 g/100 g diet) to about 80 g/100 g diet (San Bran). Most breakfast cereals increased hydrated faecal weight by between 10 and 20 g/100 g diet from a baseline of 21 +/- 1.5 g/100 g diet, but four products containing high levels of wheat bran had an exceptionally large impact on hydrated faecal weight (increment > 20 g/100 g diet), and the changes resulted more from relative changes in dry matter output than in faecal water retention/gram. However, as faecal water retention was about 2.5 g water/g faecal dry matter on average, increases in dry matter represented large increases in faecal water load. Faecal bulking indices (FBI) for most of the breakfast cereals were less than 20 (wheat bran = 100). The content of wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulk (WBE(fb)) in the breakfast cereals was calculated from FBI. Most breakfast cereals contributed, per serve, less than 10% of a theoretical daily reference value for faecal bulk (DRV(fb) = 63 WBE

  20. Distribution of Trace Metals in a Tanzanian Andosol: A Combined Bulk and Leach Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    Here is presented data from a sequential extraction scheme based on the Bureau Commun de Reference (BCR) applied to an andosol from Mt. Meru in northern Tanzania. This is a study into the origins, fractionation, and fate of 'potentially toxic elements' (PTE) and other trace elements. The elemental composition of four extracts, water soluble (WAT), carbonate and exchangeable (CARB), reducible oxides (OX), and organic (ORG), and the bulk soil were determined via ICP-MS and corrected for loss on ignition. We calculated the net elemental mass change using Zr and Hf as immobile elements. This calculated mass change was compared to the sum of all four leaches. Co, Mg, Ni, Zn, Cd, Tl are the only elements that show a positive correlation between the calculated net change based on Zr/Hf and the sum of all four leaches. Of these elements, Zn shows its greatest bulk enrichment at the surface and declines with depth. Conversely, Tl is enriched throughout the soil column, but increases in concentration in both the bulk and CARB fraction with depth. The other elements, Co, Ni, and Cd, are most enriched in the 80-120cm depth range where P and Fe are at their highest concentrations. These observations suggest that additional Co, Mg, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Tl were incorporated into the soil after initial weathering of the bedrock protolith; however, these elements redistributed themselves non-uniformly throughout the soil column. Sc and the REE's show increases in the CARB fraction with depth and Sc, Co, and the REE's show a clear increase in the OX fractions with depth. As much as 25% of the REE's and Co below 120 cm is in the OX leach. Additionally, Sr/Ca ratios in the CARB leach suggest that the source material for the carbonate soil fraction is the bedrock above 140cm and a different, high Sr/Ca source below 140 cm. Therefore, it is likely that exogenous material was added throughout the soil column, but from different sources above and below 120-140 cm depth.

  1. Study the structural and optical behaviour of polyaniline/ZrO2 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Gaganpreet Kaur; Kumar, Naresh; Kumar, Rajesh

    2018-05-01

    In nanoscience, hybrid material based on polymer and nanoparticles are of great interest because of much improved properties of components. Polymers are of enormous interest because of their various properties like flexibility, low weight and easy processing. Here, we studied the influence of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the structural and optical properties of Polyaniline (PANI). ZrO2 mixed with PANI, improve its structural and optical properties. XRD studies reveal that ZrO2 nanoparticles exist in the tetragonal phase in ZrO2/PANI nanocomposites. UV-Vis spectroscopic studies have been carried out to understand the presence of various energy levels and their involvement in absorbance of light. In PANI nanocomposites, aniline monomer attach with ZrO2 nanoparticles through p-p stacking interaction, Vander waal force and hydrogen bonding interaction.

  2. Design and investigation of potential Sn-Te-P and Zr-Te-P class of Dirac materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Sarkar, Sayan; Free, Michael

    A motivation of new Dirac materials design and synthesis by perturbing the symmetry, was explored by substitution of a Sn vacancy by P that maintains the intrinsic band inversion at the L point but also the direct bandgap shrinkage upon the incorporation of spin-orbit coupling. In a similar line of investigation, Zr-Te-P was also systematically studied. The synthesis of both Sn-Te-P and Zr-Te-P system of compounds resulted in the formation of long needles type crystals and the bulk porous deposits. The exotic morphology of the P-doped SnTe needles possesses the pierced surface throughout its extension. First principle based calculations were also carried out for these sets of compounds using General Gradient Approximation (GGA) with Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional. In order to ensure structural optimization, a limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (LBFGS) algorithm was employed and the total energy in PBE exchange-correlation functional was considered for the calculation of the formation energy per atom. The new modifications have a potential to establish the new class of Dirac materials ushering upon new frontiers of interest.

  3. ZrO2-Nanoparticle-Modified Graphite Felt: Bifunctional Effects on Vanadium Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haipeng; Shen, Yi; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2016-06-22

    To improve the electrochemical performance of graphite felt (GF) electrodes in vanadium flow batteries (VFBs), we synthesize a series of ZrO2-modified GF (ZrO2/GF) electrodes with varying ZrO2 contents via a facile immersion-precipitation approach. It is found that the uniform immobilization of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the GF not only significantly promotes the accessibility of vanadium electrolyte, but also provides more active sites for the redox reactions, thereby resulting in better electrochemical activity and reversibility toward the VO(2+)/VO2(+) and V(2+)/V(3+) redox reactions as compared with those of GF. In particular, The ZrO2/GF composite with 0.3 wt % ZrO2 displays the best electrochemical performance with voltage and energy efficiencies of 71.9% and 67.4%, respectively, which are much higher than those of 57.3% and 53.8% as obtained from the GF electrode at 200 mA cm(-2). The cycle life tests demonstrate that the ZrO2/GF electrodes exhibit outstanding stability. The ZrO2/GF-based VFB battery shows negligible activity decay after 200 cycles.

  4. Mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of newly developed biodegradable Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Mg-Zr-Sr alloys can be anticipated as excellent biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications. In general, rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in magnesium (Mg) alloys with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties of Mg-based alloys. In this study, the REE holmium (Ho) was added to an Mg-1Zr-2Sr alloy at different concentrations of Mg1Zr2SrxHo alloys (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 wt. %) and the microstructure, mechanical properties, degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the alloys were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Ho to Mg1Zr2Sr led to the formation of the intermetallic phases MgHo3, Mg2Ho and Mg17Sr2 which resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased degradation rates of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. Furthermore, Ho addition (≤5 wt. %) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. The in vitro biodegradation and the biocompatibility of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys were both influenced by the Ho concentration in the Mg alloys; Mg1Zr2Sr3Ho exhibited lower degradation rates than Mg1Zr2Sr and displayed the best biocompatibility compared with the other alloys. PMID:27553403

  5. Effect of Thickness on Light Transmission and Vickers Hardness of Five Bulk-fill Resin-based Composites Using Polywave and Single-peak Light-emitting Diode Curing Lights.

    PubMed

    Maghaireh, G A; Price, R B; Abdo, N; Taha, N A; Alzraikat, H

    2018-06-28

    This study compared light transmission through different thicknesses of bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) using a polywave and a single-peak light-emitting diode light-curing unit (LCU). The effect on the surface hardness was also evaluated. Five bulk-fill RBCs were tested. Specimens (n=5) of 1-, 2-, 4-, or 6-mm thickness were photopolymerized for 10 seconds from the top using a polywave (Bluephase Style) or single-peak (Elipar S10) LCU, while a spectrophotometer monitored in real time the transmitted irradiance and radiant exposure reaching the bottom of the specimen. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the Vickers microhardness (VH) was measured at top and bottom. Results were analyzed using multiple-way analysis of variance, Tukey post hoc tests, and multivariate analysis (α=0.05). The choice of LCU had no significant effect on the total amount of light transmitted through the five bulk-fill RBCs at each thickness. There was a significant decrease in the amount of light transmitted as the thickness increased for all RBCs tested with both LCUs ( p<0.001). Effect of LCU on VH was minimal (η p 2 =0.010). The 1-, 2-, and 4-mm-thick specimens of SDR, X-tra Fill, and Filtek Bulk Restorative achieved a VH bottom/top ratio of approximately 80% when either LCU was used. The total amount of light transmitted through the five bulk-fill RBCs was similar at the different thicknesses using either LCU. The polywave LCU used in this study did not enhance the polymerization of the tested bulk-fill RBCs when compared with the single-peak LCU.

  6. Characterization of Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics via Transmission Electron Microscopy Relevant ZrB2-based Composites, TaC-based Composites and Oxides Containing SiC Chopped Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-06

    was formed by ZrO2 rounded grains containing W traces and covered by H3BO3 acicular crystals deriving from hydration of B2O3 after exposure to...TaSi2 grains tended to form large pockets as wide as 3-8 m. Other spurious phases formed upon decomposition of the additive, were identified as SiC

  7. Synthesis of Copper-Based Nanostructured Catalysts on SiO2-Al2O3, SiO2-TiO2, and SiO2-ZrO2 Supports for NO Reduction.

    PubMed

    Namkhang, Pornpan; Kongkachuichay, Paisan

    2015-07-01

    The selective catalytic reduction of NO over a series of Cu-based catalysts supported on modified silica including SiO2-Al2O3, SiO2-TiO2, and SiO2-ZrO2 prepared via a sol-gel process and a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) was studied. The prepared catalysts were characterized by means of TEM, XRD, XRF, TPR, and nitrogen physisorption measurement techniques, to determine particle diameter, morphology, crystallinity, phase composition, copper reducibility, surface area, and pore size of catalysts. The particles obtained from sol-gel method were almost spherical while the particles obtained from the FSP were clearly spherical and non-porous nanosized particles. The effects of Si:Al, Si:Ti, and Si:Zr molar ratio of precursor were identified as the domain for different crystalline phase of materials. It was clearly seen that a high SiO2 content inhibited the crystallization of materials. The BET surface area of catalysts obtained from sol-gel method was higher than that from the FSP and it shows that surface area increased with increasing SiO2 molar ratio due to high surface area from SiO2. The catalyst performances were tested for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with H2. It was found that the catalyst prepared over 7 wt% Cu on Si02-Al2O3 support was the most active compared with the others which converted NO as more than 70%. Moreover, the excess copper decreased the performance of NO reduction, due to the formation of CuO agglomeration covered on the porous silica as well as the alumina surface, preventing the direct contact of CO2 and AL2O3.

  8. Influence of PCL on mechanical properties and bioactivity of ZrO2-based hybrid coatings synthesized by sol-gel dip coating technique.

    PubMed

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Veronesi, Paolo; Lamanna, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    The biological properties of medical implants can be enhanced through surface modifications such as to provide a firm attachment of the implant. In this study, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings have been synthesized via sol-gel dip coating. They consist of an inorganic ZrO2 matrix in which different amounts of poly(ε-caprolactone) have been entrapped to improve the mechanical properties of the films. The influence of the PCL amount on the microstructural, biological and mechanical properties of the coating has been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses have shown that the hybrids used for the coating are homogenous and totally amorphous materials; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has demonstrated that hydrogen bonds arise between the organic and inorganic phases. SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have highlighted the nanostructured nature of the film. SEM and EDS analyses, after soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF), have pointed out the apatite formation on the coating surface, which proves the bone-bonding ability of the nanocomposite bioactive films. Scratch and nano-indentation tests have shown that the coating hardness, stiffness and Young's modulus decrease in the presence of large amounts of the organic phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Studies of behavior of the fuel compound based on the U-Zr micro-heterogeneous quasialloy during cyclic thermal tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, D. A.; Repnikov, V. M.; Soldatkin, D. M.; Solntsev, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides the description of temperature cycle testing of U-Zr heterogeneous fuel composition. The composition is essentially a niobium-doped zirconium matrix with metallic uranium filaments evenly distributed over the cross section. The test samples 150 mm long had been fabricated using a fiber-filament technology. The samples were essentially two-bladed spiral mandrel fuel elements parts. In the course of experiments the following temperatures were applied: 350, 675, 780 and 1140 °C with total exposure periods equal to 200, 30, 30 and 6 hours respectively. The fuel element samples underwent post-exposure material science examination including: geometry measurements, metallographic analysis, X-ray phase analysis and electron-microscopic analysis as well as micro-hardness measurement. It has been found that no significant thermal swelling of the samples occurs throughout the whole temperature range from 350 °C up to 1140 °C. The paper presents the structural changes and redistribution of the fuel component over the fuel element cross section with rising temperature.

  10. Tunneling current in HfO2 and Hf0.5Zr0.5O2-based ferroelectric tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhipeng; Cao, Xi; Wu, Tong; Guo, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) have been intensively explored for future low power data storage and information processing applications. Among various ferroelectric (FE) materials studied, HfO2 and H0.5Zr0.5O2 (HZO) have the advantage of CMOS process compatibility. The validity of the simple effective mass approximation, for describing the tunneling process in these materials, is examined by computing the complex band structure from ab initio simulations. The results show that the simple effective mass approximation is insufficient to describe the tunneling current in HfO2 and HZO materials, and quantitative accurate descriptions of the complex band structures are indispensable for calculation of the tunneling current. A compact k . p Hamiltonian is parameterized to and validated by ab initio complex band structures, which provides a method for efficiently and accurately computing the tunneling current in HfO2 and HZO. The device characteristics of a metal/FE/metal structure and a metal/FE/semiconductor (M-F-S) structure are investigated by using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism with the parameterized effective Hamiltonian. The result shows that the M-F-S structure offers a larger resistance window due to an extra barrier in the semiconductor region at off-state. A FTJ utilizing M-F-S structure is beneficial for memory design.

  11. Note: All solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator based on bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switches.

    PubMed

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Fan, Yajun; Liu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    An all solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator featuring low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switches and a step-type transmission line is presented. The step-type transmission line with two stages is charged to a potential of 5.0 kV also biasing at the switches. The bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch closes within sub-nanosecond range when illuminated with approximately 87 nJ of laser energy at 905 nm in a single pulse. An asymmetric dipolar pulse with peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.6 kV and risetime of 0.65 ns is produced on a resistive load of 50 Ω. A technique that allows for repetition-rate multiplication of pulse trains experimentally demonstrated that the parallel-connected bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switches are triggered in sequence. The highest repetition rate is decided by recovery time of the bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch, and the operating result of 100 kHz of the generator is discussed.

  12. Current level of compliance with EU bulk tank SCC standards and proposed US standards based on data from four Federal Milk Marketing Orders

    Milk quality in the United States is evaluated annually using bulk-tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) data provided by 4 of the Nation's 10 Federal Milk Marketing Orders. The data represents more than 30,000 producers and 50% of milk produced in the US. The reported BTSCC is used for regulatory purpose...

  13. Bulk viscous quintessential inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    In a spatially-flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, the incorporation of bulk viscous process in general relativity leads to an appearance of a nonsingular background of the universe that both at early and late times depicts an accelerated universe. These early and late scenarios of the universe can be analytically calculated and mimicked, in the context of general relativity, by a single scalar field whose potential could also be obtained analytically where the early inflationary phase is described by a one-dimensional Higgs potential and the current acceleration is realized by an exponential potential. We show that the early inflationary universe leads to a power spectrum of the cosmological perturbations which match with current observational data, and after leaving the inflationary phase, the universe suffers a phase transition needed to explain the reheating of the universe via gravitational particle production. Furthermore, we find that at late times, the universe enters into the de Sitter phase that can explain the current cosmic acceleration. Finally, we also find that such bulk viscous-dominated universe attains the thermodynamical equilibrium, but in an asymptotic manner.

  14. Excellent glass forming ability and plasticity in high entropy Zr20Ti20Hf20M20Be20 (M = Cu, Ni, Co) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Haitao; Geng, Chenchen; Kang, Chaoyang; Cao, Guohua; Bian, Linyan; Li, Lixin; Zhang, Baoqing; Li, Ming

    2018-03-01

    We reported here the studies of a series of Zr20Ti20Hf20M20Be20 (M = Cu, Ni and Co) quinary high entropy bulk metallic glasses. Glasses with critical diameters (Dc) of 3 mm, 8 mm and 5 mm, respectively has been successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. Strikingly, a plastic strain of 11.6% is achieved in the Zr20Ti20Hf20Cu20Be20 metallic glass. The dynamic fragility the Zr20Ti20Hf20Cu20Be20 alloy is determined from calorimetric measurements. The excellent plasticity is explained to be attributed to relatively higher fragility.

  15. A brief review of Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3-(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics: Past, present and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Huajun; Chen, Wen

    2018-03-01

    As one kind of most crucial and emerging lead-free piezoelectric systems, Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3-(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT) based lead-free piezoceramics have attracted worldwide attention in recent years. Much progress has been made, however, a summary which covers both the recent progress and the remained problems is urgently needed to further push this field forward. In this review, a brief background of the development of BCZT based lead-free piezoceramics was illustrated firstly. Then, the internal mechanism for the high piezoelectric response would be elaborated. Current research status was discussed in detail in the third section. Various strategies including: (1) Using distinct synthesis routes, (2) adopting different sintering techniques, (3) doping with foreign ions and/or second components, (4) grain size control, were exploited to improve the comprehensive performance and in turn broaden their application areas. In this part, some recently representative works were touched in detail and several existing problems were pointed out. Last, some critical comments (some thoughts related to the potential and future development of BCZT system) were given based on the current research status and existing problems. All in all, this review is devoted to summarizing the milestones in the past, classifying selected recent works and analyzing the prospects of BCZT based ceramics. It can be expected that, this first review that concentrates on BCZT based ceramics obviously would provide useful guidance for the research community.

  16. Effects of oxygen chemical potential on the anisotropy of the adsorption properties of Zr surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Hui; Xie, Yao-Ping; Yao, Mei-Yi; Xu, Jing-Xiang; Zhang, Jin-Long; Hu, Li-Juan

    2018-05-30

    The anisotropy of metal oxidation is a fundamental issue, and the oxidation of Zr surfaces also attracts much attention due to the application of Zr alloys as cladding materials for nuclear fuels in nuclear power plants. In this study, we systematically investigate the diagram of O adsorption on low Miller index Zr surfaces by using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory calculations. We find that O adsorption on the basal surface, Zr(0001), is more favourable than that on the prism surfaces, Zr(112[combining macron]0) and Zr(101[combining macron]0), under strong O-reducing conditions, while O adsorption on the prism surface is more favourable than that of the basal surface under weak O-reducing conditions and the O-rich conditions. Our findings reveal that the anisotropy of adsorption properties of O on the Zr surfaces is dependent on the O chemical potential in the environment. Furthermore, the ability of the prism for O adsorption is stronger than that of the basal surface under the O-rich condition, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the oxidation of the prism Zr surface is easier than that of the basal surface. Systematic surveys show the adsorption ability of the surface under strong O-reducing conditions is determined by the low coordination numbers of surface atoms and surface geometrical structures, while the adsorption ability of the surface under weak O-reducing conditions and O-rich conditions is only determined by the low coordination number of surface atoms. These results can provide an atomic scale understanding of the initial oxidation of Zr surfaces, which inevitably affects the growth of protective passivation layers that play critical roles in the corrosion resistance of Zr cladding materials.

  17. Thermal stability of the microstructure of an aged Nb-Zr-C alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uz, Mehmet; Titran, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of thermal aging with and without an applied stress on the microstructure of a Nb-Zr-C alloy containing 0.9 wt percent Zr and 0.06 wt percent C were studied. Chemical analysis, metallographic examination, energy dispersive x-ray spectra of the bulk material, and chemical and x-ray analyses of the phase-extracted residue were used to characterize the microstructure. The samples examined were from a creep strength study involving hot and cold working, and various combinations of exposure to temperatures ranging from 1350 to 1755 K with and without applied load for times as long as 34,000 plus hours. The results showed that the initial microstructure consisted primarily of orthorombic precipitates of Nb sub 2 C which were partially or completely transformed to face-centered cubic carbides of nb and Zr, (Zr, Nb)C, upon prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. Furthermore, it was found that the microstructure of the alloy is extremely stable owing to the very finely distributed precipitates throughout its matrix and along the grain boundaries. The lattice parameters of the cubic carbides were determed to vary from 0.458 to 0.465 nm as the Zr/Nb ratio varied from 38/62 to 75/25.

  18. Interpreting the Combustion Process for High-Performance ZrNiSn Thermoelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tiezheng; Yang, Dongwang; Su, Xianli; Yan, Yonggao; You, Yonghui; Liu, Wei; Uher, Ctirad; Tang, Xinfeng

    2018-01-10

    The ZrNiSn alloy, a member of the half-Heusler family of thermoelectric materials, shows great potential for mid-to-high-temperature power generation applications due to its excellent thermoelectric properties, robust mechanical properties, and good thermal stability. The existing synthesis processes of half-Heusler alloys are, however, rather time and energy intensive. In this study, single-phase ZrNiSn bulk materials were prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) combined with spark plasma sintering (SPS) for the first time. The analysis of thermodynamic and kinetic processes shows that the SHS reaction in the ternary ZrNiSn alloy is different from the more usual binary systems. It consists of a series of SHS reactions and mass transfers triggered by the SHS fusion of the binary Ni-Sn system that eventually culminates in the formation of single-phase ternary ZrNiSn in a very short time, which reduced the synthesis period from few days to less than an hour. Moreover, the nonequilibrium feature induces Ni interstitials in the structure, which simultaneously enhances the electrical conductivity and decreases the thermal conductivity, which is favorable for thermoelectric properties. The maximum thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of the SHS + SPS-processed ZrNiSn 1-x Sb x alloy reached 0.7 at 870 K. This study opens a new avenue for the fast and low-cost fabrication of half-Heusler thermoelectric materials.

  19. Flexoelectricity as a bulk property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resta, Raffaele

    2010-03-01

    Piezoelectric composites can be created using nonpiezoelectric materials, by exploiting flexoelectricity. This is by definition the linear response of polarization to strain gradient, and is symmetry-allowed even in elemental crystals. However, the basic issue whether flexoelectricity is a bulk or a surface material property is open. We mention that the analogous issue about piezoelectricity is nontrivial either.^1 In this first attempt towards a full theory of flexoelectricity we prove that, for a simple class of strain and strain gradients, flexoelectricity is indeed a bulk effect. The key ingredients of the present theory are the long-range perturbations linearly induced by a unit displacement of a single nucleus in an otherwise perfect crystal: to leading order these are dipolar, quadrupolar, and octupolar. The corresponding tensors have rank 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Whereas dipoles and quadrupoles provide the piezoelectric response,^1 we show that dipoles and octupoles provide the flexoelectric response in nonpiezoelectric crystals. We conjecture that the full dipole and octupole tensors provide the flexoelectric response to the most general form of strain gradient. Our problem has a close relationship to the one of the ``absolute'' deformation potentials, which is based on a similar kind of dipolar and octupolar tensors.^2 ^1 R. M. Martin, Phys. Rev. B 5, 1607 (1972). ^2 R. Resta, L. Colombo and S. Baroni, Phys. Rev. B 41, 12538 (1990).

  20. Electrochemical characterization of bulk and thin film copper in ammonia- and nitric acid-based slurries for chemical mechanical planarization of interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainio, Carlyn Anne

    Copper will be replacing aluminum as the interconnect material in silicon integrated circuits. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) in combination with an inlaid metal interconnection scheme has been utilized to pattern copper interconnects. The thesis describes an attempt to understand the electrochemistry of copper in slurries used for CMP. Steady-state electrochemical potential measurements, linear polarization resistance determinations, and potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization scans have been used in order to characterize the mechanism by which copper is removed during CMP. Electrochemical measurements were implemented on a rotating disk assembly to simulate conditions during CMP. Experiments were performed on both bulk copper samples and blanket copper thin films sputter deposited onto silicon wafers. Electrochemical potential measurements have been used in conjunction with potential-pH diagrams to determine the possible copper species which are stable during CMP. Electrochemical results were correlated to CMP experiments to determine slurry compositions with optimum potential-pH ranges for copper planarization. The results indicate that such studies present an opportunity to isolate the electrochemical and chemical effects from the mechanical effects in the CMP of metals and to determine the dependencies of each of these effects on the other. CMP of copper was controlled by the removal of native or non-native surface films. High CMP rates were achieved by matching the rates of film formation and copper and film dissolution. During CMP, surface films are abraded, allowing increased dissolution of copper until the surface film reforms. When the surface was indented by abrasive particles, the corrosion rate of the exposed copper increased by two orders of magnitude. Etchants (i.e. ammonia or nitric acid) were necessary for high CMP rates (120-240 nm/min) and to minimize scratching. CMP rates of copper in 1 volume percent NHsb4OH and 0.7 volume

  1. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  2. Bulk muscles, loose cables

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  3. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  5. Effect of structural defects on electronic and magnetic properties of ZrS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyang; Zhao, Xu; Gao, Yonghui; Wang, Tianxing; Wei, Shuyi

    2018-04-01

    We aimed at ten configurations of vacancy defects and used the first-principles methods based on density functional theory to research electronic and magnetic properties of ZrS2 monolayer. Results show that the system of two-zirconium vacancy (V2zr) and one Zr atom + one S atom vacancy (V1Zr+1S) can induce to total spin magnetic moment of 0.245μB and 0.196μB, respectively. In addition, three and six S atoms vacancy can induce corresponding system to manifest spin magnetic moment of 0.728μB and 3.311μB, respectively. In S atom vacancy defects, vacancy defects can transform the system from semiconductor to metal, several of the Zr atoms and adjacent S atoms display antiferromagnetism coupling in three apart S atom vacancy defects. Vacancy defects can make the intrisic monolayer ZrS2 transform semiconductor into metal. These results are important for the achievement of spin devices based on ZrS2 semiconductor.

  6. Trade-off between Zr Passivation and Sn Doping on Hematite Nanorod Photoanodes for Efficient Solar Water Oxidation: Effects of a ZrO2 Underlayer and FTO Deformation.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Arunprabaharan; Annamalai, Alagappan; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Choi, Sun Hee; Ryu, Jungho; Park, Jung Hee; Jang, Jum Suk

    2016-08-03

    Herein we report the influence of a ZrO2 underlayer on the PEC (photoelectrochemical) behavior of hematite nanorod photoanodes for efficient solar water splitting. Particular attention was given to the cathodic shift in onset potential and photocurrent enhancement. Akaganite (β-FeOOH) nanorods were grown on ZrO2-coated FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates. Sintering at 800 °C transformed akaganite to the hematite (α-Fe2O3) phase and induced Sn diffusion into the crystal structure of hematite nanorods from the FTO substrates and surface migration, shallow doping of Zr atoms from the ZrO2 underlayer. The ZrO2 underlayer-treated photoanode showed better water oxidation performance compared to the pristine (α-Fe2O3) photoanode. A cathodic shift in the onset potential and photocurrent enhancement was achieved by surface passivation and shallow doping of Zr from the ZrO2 underlayer, along with Sn doping from the FTO substrate to the crystal lattice of hematite nanorods. The Zr based hematite nanorod photoanode achieved 1 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE with a low turn-on voltage of 0.80 VRHE. Sn doping and Zr passivation, as well as shallow doping, were confirmed by XPS, Iph, and M-S plot analyses. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the presence of a ZrO2 underlayer decreased the deformation of FTO substrate, improved electron transfer at the hematite/FTO interface and increased charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/hematite interface. This is the first systematic investigation of the effects of Zr passivation, shallow doping, and Sn doping on hematite nanorod photoanodes through application of a ZrO2 underlayer on the FTO substrate.

  7. The Effect of 24c-Site (A) Cation Substitution on the Tetragonal-Cubic Phase Transition in Li7-xLa3-xAxZr2O12 Garnet-Based Ceramic Electrolyte

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    with Al [16,20]. In KrogereVink notation, the relationships for Ta and Nb substitution for Zr are as follows [20,22,23]: Ta$ Zr ¼ V0Li (3) Nb ...garnet phase. < CeO2 precipitation at grain boundaries increases grain boundary resistance . < Super-valent cation substitution likely stabilizes the...Introduction Li-ion batteries have played a vital role in the development of current generation mobile devices, microelectronics and electric vehicles [1]. Due

  8. Structural and electrical properties of atomic layer deposited Al-doped ZrO2 films and of the interface with TaN electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, S.; Rao, R.; Lamagna, L.; Wiemer, C.; Congedo, G.; Lamperti, A.; Molle, A.; Fanciulli, M.; Palma, F.; Irrera, F.

    2012-07-01

    Al-doped ZrO2 (Al-ZrO2) films deposited by atomic layer deposition onto silicon substrates and the interface with the TaN metal gate are investigated. In particular, structural properties of as-grown and annealed films in the 6-26 nm thickness range, as well as leakage and capacitive behavior of metal-oxide-semiconductor stacks are characterized. As-deposited Al-ZrO2 films in the mentioned thickness range are amorphous and crystallize in the ZrO2 cubic phase after thermal treatment at 900 °C. Correspondingly, the dielectric constant (k) value increases from 20 ± 1 to 27 ± 2. The Al-ZrO2 layers exhibit uniform composition through the film thickness and are thermally stable on Si, whereas chemical reactions take place at the TaN/Al-ZrO2 interface. A transient capacitance technique is adopted for monitoring charge trapping and flat band instability at short and long time scales. The role of traps nearby the TaN/Al-ZrO2 interface is discussed and compared with other metal/high-k oxide films. Further, analytical modeling of the flat band voltage shift with a power-law dependence on time allows extracting features of bulk traps close to the silicon/oxide interface, which exhibit energy levels in the 1.4-1.9 eV range above the valence band of the Al-ZrO2.

  9. Surface Modification of Solution-Processed ZrO2 Films through Double Coating for Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jin-Hyuk; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Lee, Hyeonju; Park, Jaehoon

    2018-03-01

    We report the modification of surface properties of solution-processed zirconium oxide (ZrO2) dielectric films achieved by using double-coating process. It is proven that the surface properties of the ZrO2 film are modified through the double-coating process; the surface roughness decreases and the surface energy increases. The present surface modification of the ZrO2 film contributes to an increase in grain size of the pentacene film, thereby increasing the field-effect mobility and decreasing the threshold voltage of the pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) having the ZrO2 gate dielectric. Herein, the molecular orientation of pentacene film is also studied based on the results of contact angle and X-ray diffraction measurements. Pentacene molecules on the double-coated ZrO2 film are found to be more tilted than those on the single-coated ZrO2 film, which is attributed to the surface modification of the ZrO2 film. However, no significant differences are observed in insulating properties between the single-and the double-coated ZrO2 dielectric films. Consequently, the characteristic improvements of the pentacene TFTs with the double-coated ZrO2 gate dielectric film can be understood through the increase in pentacene grain size and the reduction in grain boundary density.

  10. Low temperature and high pressure thermoelastic and crystallographic properties of SrZrO3 perovskite in the Pbnm phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Kevin S.; Bull, Craig L.

    2016-12-01

    The thermoelastic and structural properties of SrZrO3 perovskite in the Pnma (Pbnm) phase have been studied using neutron powder diffraction at 82 temperatures between 11 K and 406 K at ambient pressure, and at sixteen pressures between 0.07 and 6.7 GPa at ambient temperature. The bulk modulus, derived by fitting the equation of state to a second order Birch-Murnaghan equation-of-state, 157(5) GPa, is in excellent agreement with that deduced in a recent resonant ultrasound investigation. Experimental axial compressional moduli are in agreement with those calculated from the elastic stiffness coefficients derived by ab-initio calculation, although the experimental bulk modulus is significantly softer than that calculated. Following low temperature saturation for temperatures less than 40 K, the unit cell monotonically increases with a predicted high temperature limit in the volume expansivity of ∼2.65 × 10-5 K-1. Axial linear thermal expansion coefficients are found to be in the order αb < αc < αa for all temperatures greater than 20 K with the b axis indicating a weak, low temperature negative expansion coefficient at low temperatures. The thermoelastic properties of SrZrO3 can be approximated by a two-term Debye model for the phonon density of states with Debye temperatures of 238(4) K and 713(6) K derived in a self-consistent manner by simultaneously fitting the isochoric heat capacity and the unit cell volume. Atomic displacement parameters have been fitted to a modified Debye model in which the zero-point term is an additional refinable variable and shows the cations and anions have well separated Debye temperatures, mirroring the need for two Debye-like distributions in the vibrational density of states. The temperature dependence of the crystal structure is presented in terms of the amplitudes of the seven symmetry-adapted basis vectors of the aristotype phase that are consistent with space group Pbnm, thus permitting a direct measure of the order

  11. Phase Competition Induced Bio-Electrochemical Resistance and Bio-Compatibility Effect in Nanocrystalline Zr x -Cu100-x Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Badhirappan, Geetha Priyadarshini; Nallasivam, Vignesh; Varadarajan, Madhuri; Leobeemrao, Vasantha Priya; Bose, Sivakumar; Venugopal, Elakkiya; Rajendran, Selvakumar; Angleo, Peter Chrysologue

    2018-07-01

    Nano-crystalline Zrx-Cu100-x (x = 20-100 at.%) thin films with thickness ranging from 50 to 185 nm were deposited by magnetron co-sputtering with individual Zr and Cu targets. The as-sputtered thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Glancing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) for structural and morphological properties. The crystallite size was found to decrease from 57 nm to 37 nm upon increasing the Zr content from 20 to 30 at.% with slight increase in the lattice strain from 0.17 to 0.33%. Further, increase in Zr content to 40 at.% leads to increase in the crystallite size to 57 nm due to stabilization of C10Zr7 phase along with the presence of nanocrystalline Cu-Zr phase. A bimodal distribution of grain size was observed from FE-SEM micrograph was attributed to the highest surface roughness in Zr30Cu70 thin films comprised of Cu10Zr7, Cu9Zr2, Cu-Zr intermetallic phases. In-vitro electrochemical behaviors of nano-crystalline Zrx-Cu100-x thin films in simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization studies. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data fitting by equivalent electrical circuit fit model suggests that inner bulk layer contributes to high bio-corrosion resistance in Zrx-Cu100-x thin films with increase in Zr content. The results of cyto-compatibility assay suggested that Zr-Cu thin film did not introduce cytotoxicity to osteoblast cells, indicating its suitability as a bio-coating for minimally invasive medical devices.

  12. Microstructural analysis of as-processed U-10 wt.%Mo monolithic fuel plate in AA6061 matrix with Zr diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, E.; Yao, B.; Keiser, D. D., Jr.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2010-07-01

    For higher U-loading in low-enriched U-10 wt.%Mo fuels, monolithic fuel plate clad in AA6061 is being developed as a part of Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program. This paper reports the first characterization results from a monolithic U-10 wt.%Mo fuel plate with a Zr diffusion barrier that was fabricated as part of a plate fabrication campaign for irradiation testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were employed for analysis. At the interface between the Zr barrier and U-10 wt.%Mo, going from Zr to U(Mo), UZr 2, γ-UZr, Zr solid-solution and Mo 2Zr phases were observed. The interface between AA6061 cladding and Zr barrier plate consisted of four layers, going from Al to Zr, (Al, Si) 2Zr, (Al, Si)Zr 3 (Al, Si) 3Zr, and AlSi 4Zr 5. Irradiation behavior of these intermetallic phases is discussed based on their constituents. Characterization of as-fabricated phase constituents and microstructure would help understand the irradiation behavior of these fuel plates, interpret post-irradiation examination, and optimize the processing parameters of monolithic fuel system.

  13. Electronic structure in 1T-ZrS2 monolayer by strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qianqian; Zhao, Xu; Ma, Xu; Wu, Ninghua; Liu, Xiaomeng; Wei, Shuyi

    2017-09-01

    We report electronic structure of 1T-ZrS2 monolayer with biaxial strain from -10% to 15%, basing the first principles calculations. Our calculation results indicate that the band structure of ZrS2 monolayer was changed clearly. The location of conduction band minimum (CBM) and valence band maximum (VBM) changed with the variation of isotropic strain. At compressive strain, the location of CBM and VBM retains at M and Γ point, respectively. The band gap of ZrS2 monolayer decreases from 1.111 eV to 0 eV when compressive strain increases from 0% to -8%, which means that the ZrS2 monolayer turns to metal at -8% compressive strain. Under the tensile strain, the ZrS2 monolayer also retains be an indirect band gap semiconductor. The location of CBM moves from M to Γ point and the location of VBM moves along Γ-A-K-Γ direction. The band gap of ZrS2 monolayer firstly increases and then decreases and the biggest band gap is 1.577 eV at tensile strain 6%. We can see the compression strain is more effective than tensile strain in modulating band gap of 1T-ZrS2 monolayer.

  14. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of Photosensitive ZrO2 array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhu, R.; Kou, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Based on organic zirconium source as the starting material, by adding chemical modifiers which are made up with photosensitive ZrO2 sol. A uniformed ZrO2 array dot was fabricated with a mean diameter of around 800 nm. By us