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Sample records for zr mo pd

  1. Constitution and thermodynamics of the Mo-Ru, Mo-Pd, Ru-Pd and Mo-Ru-Pd systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    1989-09-01

    The constitution of the Mo-Ru, Mo-Pd and Ru-Pd systems was reinvestigated between 800 and 2000°C. The Mo-Ru system is of the eutectic type, a σ-phase Mo 5Ru 3 exists between 1915 and 1143°C. The Mo-Pd system is characterized by an hcp phase Mo 9Pd 11 and by two peritectic reactions, β- Mo( Pd) + L = Mo9Pd11andMo9Pd11 + L = α- Pd( Mo). Mo 9Pd 11 decomposes eutectoidally at 1370°C. The Ru-Pd system is simple peritectic. The continuous series of the hcp solid solutions between Mo 9Pd 11 and ɛ-Ru(Mo, Pd) in the ternary Mo-Ru-Pd system observed at 1700°C are suppressed below 1370°C near the Mo-Pd boundary system by the formation of a narrow α + β + ɛ three-phase field. Relative partial molar Gibbs energies of Mo, Mo and Ru in the respective binary systems and of Mo in the ternary system were measured by the EMF method with a Zr(Ca)O 2 electrolyte. xsΔ ḠMo∞ quantities were evaluated at 1200 K which give -43 kJ/mol Mo in Ru and -94 kJ/mol Mo in Pd at infinite dilution. Gibbs energies of formation of the Mo-Ru and Mo-Pd systems were calculated.

  2. Hydrogen absorption of Pd/ZrO2 composites prepared from Zr65Pd35 and Zr60Pd35Pt5 amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Katsuragawa, Naoya; Hattori, Masatomo; Yogo, Toshinobu; Yamamura, Shin-ichi

    2018-01-01

    Metal-dispersed composites were derived from amorphous Zr65Pd35 and Zr65Pd30Pt5 alloys and their hydrogen absorption behavior was studied. X-ray diffractograms and scanning electron micrographs indicated that mixtures containing ZrO2, the metallic phase of Pd, and PdO were formed for both amorphous alloys heat-treated in air. In the composites, micron-sized Pd-based metal precipitates were embedded in a ZrO2 matrix after heat treatment at 800 °C in air. The hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction was applied to study the reactivity of hydrogen gas with the oxidized Zr65Pd35 and Zr65Pd30Pt5 materials. Rapid hydrogen absorption and release were observed on the composite derived from the amorphous alloy below 100 °C. The hydrogen pressure-concentration isotherm showed that the absorbed amount of hydrogen in materials depended on the formation of the Pd or Pt-doped Pd phase and its large interface area to the matrix in the nanocomposites. The results indicate the importance of the composite structure for the fabrication of a new type of hydrogen storage material prepared from amorphous alloys.

  3. Irradiation induced structural change in Mo 2Zr intermetallic phase

    DOE PAGES

    Gan, J.; Keiser, Jr., D. D.; Miller, B. D.; ...

    2016-05-14

    The Mo 2Zr phase has been identified as a major interaction product at the interface of U-10Mo and Zr. Transmission electron microscopy in-situ irradiation with Kr ions at 200 °C with doses up to 2.0E+16 ions/cm 2 was carried out to investigate the radiation stability of the Mo 2Zr. The Mo 2Zr undergoes a radiation-induced structural change, from a large cubic (cF24) to a small cubic (cI2), along with an estimated 11.2% volume contraction without changing its composition. The structural change begins at irradiation dose below 1.0E+14 ions/cm 2. Furthermore, the transformed Mo 2Zr phase demonstrates exceptional radiation tolerance withmore » the development of dislocations without bubble formation.« less

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic application of Pd/ZrO2 and Pt/ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Khalid; Sadiq, Mohammad; Khan, Idrees; Ullah, Saleem; Ali, Nauman; Khan, Adnan

    2018-05-01

    Zirconia-supported palladium (Pd/ZrO2) and Zirconia-supported platinum (Pt/ZrO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized from their precursors via impregnation technique. The Pd/ZrO2 and Pt/ZrO2 NPs were analyzed via SEM and EDX, while the study of indigo disulfonate dye degradation was carried out by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The SEM micrographs illustrated that the Pd and Pt NPs were well placed on ZrO2 surface. The Pd/ZrO2 and Pt/ZrO2 NPs were also employed as photocatalysts for the photodegradation of indigo disulfonate in an aqueous medium under UV-light irradiation. The photodegradation study presented that Pd/ZrO2 and Pt/ZrO2 NPs degraded 96 and 94% of indigo disulfonate in 14 h, respectively. The effect of pH of medium and catalyst dosage and efficiency of recovered Pd/ZrO2 and Pt/ZrO2 NPs on the photocatalytic degradation were also studied. It was also found that the maximum degradation of dye was found at pH 10 (95-97%) and at 0.02 g weight (40.28%).

  5. Identification of phases in the interaction layer between U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si

    SciT

    Varela, C.L. Komar; Arico, S.F.; Mirandou, M.

    Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1wt.% Si) at 550 deg. C. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layer are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al, Si) with 25at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This lastmore » phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with XRD Synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brasil. (author)« less

  6. Aqueous phase hydrogenation of phenol catalyzed by Pd and PdAg on ZrO 2

    SciT

    Resende, Karen A.; Hori, Carla E.; Noronha, Fabio B.

    Hydrogenation of phenol in aqueous phase was studied over a series of ZrO2-supported Pd catalysts in order to explore the effects of particle size and of Ag addition on the activity of Pd. Kinetic assessments were performed in a batch reactor, on monometallic Pd/ZrO2 samples with different Pd loadings (0.5%, 1% and 2%), as well as on a 1% PdAg/ZrO2 sample. The turnover frequency (TOF) increases with the Pd particle size. The reaction orders in phenol and H2 indicate that the surface coverages by phenol, H2 and their derived intermediates are higher on 0.5% Pd/ZrO2 than on other samples. Themore » activation energy was the lowest on the least active sample (0.5% Pd/ZrO2), while being identical on 1% and 2% Pd/ZrO2 catalysts. Thus, the significantly lower activity of the small Pd particles (1-2 nm on average) in 0.5%Pd/ZrO2 is explained by the unfavorable activation entropies for the strongly bound species. The presence of Ag increases considerably the TOF of the reaction by decreasing the Ea and increasing the coverages of phenol and H2.« less

  7. Microstructural characterization of annealed U-12Zr-4Pd and U-12Zr-4Pd-5Ln: Investigating Pd as a metallic fuel additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Michael T.; He, Lingfeng; King, James A.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2018-04-01

    Palladium is being investigated as a potential additive to metallic fuel to control fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). A primary cause of FCCI is the lanthanide fission products moving to the fuel periphery and interacting with the cladding. This interaction will lead to wastage of the cladding and, given enough time or burn-up, eventually to a cladding breach. The current study is a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of annealed U-12Zr-4Pd and U-12Zr-4Pd-5Ln, where Ln = 53Nd-25Ce-16Pr-6La. The present study shows that Pd preferentially binds the lanthanides over other fuel constituents, which may prevent lanthanide migration and interaction with the cladding during irradiation. The SEM analysis indicates the 1:1 Pd-Ln compound is being formed, while the TEM analysis, due to higher resolution, found the 1:1 compound, as well as Pd-rich compounds Pd2Ln and Pd3Ln2.

  8. NMR studies of electronic structure in crystalline and amorphous Zr2PdH/x/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Johnson, W. L.; Maeland, A. J.; Rhim, W.-K.

    1983-01-01

    The proton Knight shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times have been measured in crystalline and amorphous Ze2PdH(x). Core polarization from the Zr d-band dominates the proton hyperfine interactions. The density of Fermi level d-electron states is reduced in the amorphous phase relative to the electron density in crystalline Zr2PdH(x).

  9. Electrodeposition and characterization of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszczyńska, A.; Winiarski, J.; Szczygieł, B.; Szczygieł, I.

    2016-04-01

    Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite coatings were produced by electrodeposition technique from citrate electrolytes containing dispersed ZrO2 nanopowder. The influence of deposition parameters i.e. concentration of molybdate and ZrO2 nanoparticles in the electrolyte, bath pH and deposition current density on the composition and surface morphology of the coating has been investigated. The structure, microhardness and corrosion properties of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composites with different molybdenum and ZrO2 content have been also examined. It was found that ZrO2 content in the deposit is increased by rising the nanoparticles concentration in the plating solution up to 20 g dm-3. An increase in molybdate concentration in the electrolyte affects negatively the amount of codeposited ZrO2 nanoparticles. The correlation between the deposition current efficiency and ZrO2 content in the composite coating has been also observed. A decrease in deposition current efficiency leads to deposition of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite with low nanoparticles content. This may be explained by formation of higher amounts of gas bubbles on the cathode surface, which prevent the adsorption of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the growing deposit. The XRD analysis revealed that all the studied Ni-Mo-ZrO2 coatings were composed of a single, nanocrystalline phase with FCC structure. It was found that the incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles into Ni-Mo alloy matrix affects positively the microhardness and also slightly improves the corrosion properties of Ni-Mo alloy coating.

  10. Solution treatment-delayed zirconium-strengthening behavior in Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey; Fu, Yen-Han; Chen, Yen-Chun; Peng, Yu-Po; Ju, Chien-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The present study was devoted to investigate and compare the Zr-strengthening behavior in as-cast (AC) and solution-treated (ST) Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. The experimental results indicated that AC Ti-7.5Mo and AC Ti-7.5Mo-1Zr alloys substantially had an orthorhombic {α }\\prime\\prime phase with a fine, acicular morphology. The content of equi-axed β phase continued to increase with increased Zr content at the expense of {α }\\prime\\prime phase. The threshold Zr content for the formation of β phase in the ST Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys was apparently higher than that in the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. The β granular structure was revealed in ST Ti-7.5Mo-5Zr alloy, which increased with increased Zr content. Unlike AC Ti-7.5Mo-9Zr alloy, within each grain of ST Ti-7.5Mo-9Zr alloy were still observed a significant portion of {α }\\prime\\prime morphology. AC Ti-7.5Mo alloy had the lowest YS, lowest tensile modulus and highest elongation among all AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. When Zr content increased, both YS and modulus significantly increased while the elongation significantly decreased. Compared to AC Ti-7.5Mo alloy, AC Ti-7.5Mo-9Zr alloy had almost double YS, indicating the effectiveness of Zr-induced strengthening in the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. Compared to AC Ti-7.5Mo, ST Ti-7.5Mo alloys had lower YS, UTS and tensile modulus with almost the same elongation. All the XRD, metallography and tensile test results consistently indicated that the presence of Zr could accelerate the formation of β phase and effectively strengthen the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. A phenomenon of delayed β formation and delayed strengthening was noted in the ST Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys, compared to the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys.

  11. Aqueous phase hydrogenation of phenol catalyzed by Pd and PdAg on ZrO 2

    SciT

    Resende, Karen A.; Hori, Carla E.; Noronha, Fabio B.

    The impact of particle size of ZrO 2-supported Pd and of alloying with Ag was explored for hydrogenation of phenol in aqueous phase. Kinetic assessments were performed in a batch reactor, on monometallic Pd/ZrO 2 samples with different Pd loadings (0.5%, 1% and 2%), as well as on a 1% PdAg/ZrO 2 sample. The catalytic activity normalized to accessible Pd (turnover frequency, TOF) increased with the particle size of Pd. Reaction orders in phenol and H 2 and lower activation energies suggest that smaller particles bind the reacting substrates more strongly, leading to higher surface coverages by phenol. But, surprisingly,more » smaller Pd particles exhibited lower TOFs. The lower activity of the small Pd particles is attributed to lower activation entropies for the strongly bound species. Furthermore, the presence of Ag increased the catalyst activity by decreasing the apparent energy of activation and increasing the coverages of phenol and H 2, without negatively affecting the activation entropy.« less

  12. Aqueous phase hydrogenation of phenol catalyzed by Pd and PdAg on ZrO 2

    DOE PAGES

    Resende, Karen A.; Hori, Carla E.; Noronha, Fabio B.; ...

    2017-08-05

    The impact of particle size of ZrO 2-supported Pd and of alloying with Ag was explored for hydrogenation of phenol in aqueous phase. Kinetic assessments were performed in a batch reactor, on monometallic Pd/ZrO 2 samples with different Pd loadings (0.5%, 1% and 2%), as well as on a 1% PdAg/ZrO 2 sample. The catalytic activity normalized to accessible Pd (turnover frequency, TOF) increased with the particle size of Pd. Reaction orders in phenol and H 2 and lower activation energies suggest that smaller particles bind the reacting substrates more strongly, leading to higher surface coverages by phenol. But, surprisingly,more » smaller Pd particles exhibited lower TOFs. The lower activity of the small Pd particles is attributed to lower activation entropies for the strongly bound species. Furthermore, the presence of Ag increased the catalyst activity by decreasing the apparent energy of activation and increasing the coverages of phenol and H 2, without negatively affecting the activation entropy.« less

  13. Effect of zirconia morphology on sulfur-resistant methanation performance of MoO3/ZrO2 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Weihan; Xu, Yan; Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Baowei; Ma, Xinbin

    2018-05-01

    Two kinds of ZrO2 support with different morphologies were prepared by facile solvothermal method in different solvents. The obtained two supports showed monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2) and tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) phase with similar crystalline size. Their supported Mo-based catalysts were prepared by impregnation method and the effect of zirconia morphology on the performance of sulfur-resistant methanation was examined. The results indicated that the MoO3/m-ZrO2 has higher CO conversion than the MoO3/t-ZrO2 catalyst. Characterizations by XRD, Raman, H2-TPR and IR confirmed that the m-ZrO2 is superior to t-ZrO2 for dispersing molybdenum species. In addition, the MoO3/m-ZrO2 catalyst has weaker interaction between support and active Mo speices than the MoO3/t-ZrO2 catalyst, which facilitates to forming active species of nanocrystalline MoS2 layers for sulfur-resistant methanation. The weaker interaction of molybdenum species with m-ZrO2 is related with the more covalent character of the Zrsbnd O bond and more oxygen defective structure of m-ZrO2. A larger number of Lewis acid centers appear on the surface of m-ZrO2, which verified the substantial vacancies on m-ZrO2 exposing coordinately unsaturated Zr3+ and Zr4+ cations. Meanwhile, the less Lewis acid of t-ZrO2 result in stronger interaction between support and molybdenum species and trigger crystalline phase MoO3 and Mosbnd Osbnd Zr linkages.

  14. Diffusion Barrier Selection from Refractory Metals (Zr, Mo and Nb) via Interdiffusion Investigation for U-Mo RERTR Fuel Alloy

    SciT

    K. Huang; C. Kammerer; D. D. Keiser, Jr.

    2014-04-01

    U-Mo alloys are being developed as low enrichment monolithic fuel under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. Diffusional interactions between the U-Mo fuel alloy and Al-alloy cladding within the monolithic fuel plate construct necessitate incorporation of a barrier layer. Fundamentally, a diffusion barrier candidate must have good thermal conductivity, high melting point, minimal metallurgical interaction, and good irradiation performance. Refractory metals, Zr, Mo, and Nb are considered based on their physical properties, and the diffusion behavior must be carefully examined first with U-Mo fuel alloy. Solid-to-solid U-10wt.%Mo vs. Mo, Zr, or Nb diffusion couples were assembledmore » and annealed at 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C for various times. The interdiffusion microstructures and chemical composition were examined via scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. For all three systems, the growth rate of interdiffusion zone were calculated at 1000, 900 and 800 degrees C under the assumption of parabolic growth, and calculated for lower temperature of 700, 600 and 500 degrees C according to Arrhenius relationship. The growth rate was determined to be about 10 3 times slower for Zr, 10 5 times slower for Mo and 10 6 times slower for Nb, than the growth rates reported for the interaction between the U-Mo fuel alloy and pure Al or Al-Si cladding alloys. Zr, however was selected as the barrier metal due to a concern for thermo- mechanical behavior of UMo/Nb interface observed from diffusion couples, and for ductile-to-brittle transition of Mo near room temperature.« less

  15. Nanostructured Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) bulk metallic composites: Novel biocompatible materials with superior mechanical strength and elastic recovery.

    PubMed

    Hynowska, A; Blanquer, A; Pellicer, E; Fornell, J; Suriñach, S; Baró, M D; Gebert, A; Calin, M; Eckert, J; Nogués, C; Ibáñez, E; Barrios, L; Sort, J

    2015-11-01

    The microstructure, mechanical behaviour, and biocompatibility (cell culture, morphology, and cell adhesion) of nanostructured Ti45 Zr15 Pd35- x Si5 Nbx with x = 0, 5 (at. %) alloys, synthesized by arc melting and subsequent Cu mould suction casting, in the form of rods with 3 mm in diameter, are investigated. Both Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) materials show a multi-phase (composite-like) microstructure. The main phase is cubic β-Ti phase (Im3m) but hexagonal α-Ti (P63/mmc), cubic TiPd (Pm3m), cubic PdZr (Fm3m), and hexagonal (Ti, Zr)5 Si3 (P63/mmc) phases are also present. Nanoindentation experiments show that the Ti45 Zr15 Pd30 Si5 Nb5 sample exhibits lower Young's modulus than Ti45 Zr15 Pd35 Si5 . Conversely, Ti45 Zr15 Pd35 Si5 is mechanically harder. Actually, both alloys exhibit larger values of hardness when compared with commercial Ti-40Nb, (HTi-Zr-Pd-Si ≈ 14 GPa, HTi-Zr-Pd-Si-Nb ≈ 10 GPa and HTi-40Nb ≈ 2.7 GPa). Concerning the biological behaviour, preliminary results of cell viability performed on several Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) discs indicate that the number of live cells is superior to 94% in both cases. The studied Ti-Zr-Pd-Si-(Nb) bulk metallic system is thus interesting for biomedical applications because of the outstanding mechanical properties (relatively low Young's modulus combined with large hardness), together with the excellent biocompatibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Modification of PdO/CeZrO2 doped with transition metals (Y and Fe) for reducibility properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M. Nazri Abu; Jai, Junaidah; Faeqah, Nor; Ismail, Kamariah Noor; Hadi, Abdul

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of modified nanocatalysts of PdO/CeZrYO2(PdO/CZY), PdO/CeZrFeO2(PdO/CZF) and PdO/CeZrO2(PdO/CZ) via microemulsion followed by deposition - precipitation method. The structural, textural and redox properties of the synthesized nanocatalysts were investigated. The diffractogram of XRD showed that all the synthesized nanocatalysts indicate a symmetrical pattern of cubic phase crystallinity. The amount of PdO was detected using EDX analysis and PdO/CZF portrayed the highest Pd contents of about 4.63 %. Therefore it shows a good potential to have reducibility properties and can be manifested active at low temperature reduction.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Zr substrates coated with FeCrAl and Mo by cold-spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2018-06-01

    FeCrAl and Mo layers were cold-sprayed onto a Zr surface, with the Mo layer introduced between the FeCrAl coating and the Zr matrix preventing high-temperature interdiffusion. Microstructural characterization of the first-deposited Mo layer and the Zr matrix immediately below the Mo/Zr interface was performed using transmission electron microscopy, and near-interface elemental distributions were obtained using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The deformation of the coated Mo powder induced the formation of microbands and mechanically interlocked nanoscale structures. The mechanical behavior of Zr with a coating layer was compared with those characteristic of conventional Zr samples. The coated sample showed smaller strength reduction in the test conducted at elevated temperature. The hardness and fracture morphology of the Zr matrix near the interface region were investigated to determine the effect of impacting Mo particles on the matrix microstructure. The enhanced hardness and cleavage fracture morphology of the Zr matrix immediately below the Mo/Zr interface indicated the occurrence of localized deformation owing to Mo particle impact.

  18. Preparation of Zr(Mo,W)2O8 with a larger negative thermal expansion by controlling the thermal decomposition of Zr(Mo,W)2(OH,Cl)2∙2H2O.

    PubMed

    Petrushina, Mariya Yu; Dedova, Elena S; Filatov, Eugeny Yu; Plyusnin, Pavel E; Korenev, Sergei V; Kulkov, Sergei N; Derevyannikova, Elizaveta A; Sharafutdinov, Marat R; Gubanov, Alexander I

    2018-03-28

    Solid solutions of Zr(Mo,W) 2 O 7 (OH,Cl) 2 ∙2H 2 O with a preset ratio of components were prepared by a hydrothermal method. The chemical composition of the solutions was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). For all the samples of ZrMo x W 2-x O 7 (OH,Cl) 2 ∙2H 2 O (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0), TGA and in situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies (300-1100 K) were conducted. For each case, the boundaries of the transformations were determined: Zr(Mo,W) 2 O 7 (OH,Cl) 2 ∙2H 2 O → orthorhombic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8 (425-525 K), orthorhombic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8  → cubic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8 (700-850 K), cubic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8  → trigonal-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8 (800-1050 K for x > 1) and cubic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8  → oxides (1000-1075 K for x ≤ 1). The cell parameters of the disordered cubic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8 (space group Pa-3) were measured within 300-900 K, and the thermal expansion coefficients were calculated: -3.5∙10 -6  - -4.5∙10 -6  K -1 . For the ordered ZrMo 1.8 W 0.2 O 8 (space group P2 1 3), a negative thermal expansion (NTE) coefficient -9.6∙10 -6  K -1 (300-400 K) was calculated. Orthorhombic-ZrW2O 8 is formed upon the decomposition of ZrW 2 O 7 (OH,Cl) 2 ∙2H 2 O within 500-800 K.

  19. Interdiffusion and reactions between U-Mo and Zr at 650 °C as a function of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Development of monolithic U-Mo alloy fuel (typically U-10 wt.%Mo) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program entails a use of Zr diffusion barrier to eliminate the interdiffusion-reactions between the fuel alloy and Al-alloy cladding. The application of Zr barrier to the U-Mo fuel system requires a co-rolling process that utilizes a soaking temperature of 650 °C, which represents the highest temperature the fuel system is exposed to during both fuel manufacturing and reactor application. Therefore, in this study, development of phase constituents, microstructure and diffusion kinetics of U-10 wt.%Mo and Zr was examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed at 650 °C for 240, 480 and 720 h. Phase constituents and microstructural development were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Concentration profiles were mapped as diffusion paths on the isothermal ternary phase diagram. Within the diffusion zone, single-phase layers of β-Zr and β-U were observed along with a discontinuous layer of Mo2Zr between the β-Zr and β-U layers. In the vicinity of Mo2Zr phase, islands of α-Zr phases were also found. In addition, acicular α-Zr and U6Zr3Mo phases were observed within the γ-U(Mo) terminal alloy. Growth rate of the interdiffusion-reaction zone was determined to be 7.75 (± 5.84) × 10-16 m2/s at 650 °C, however with an assumption of a certain incubation period.

  20. Annealing of (DU-10Mo)-Zr Co-Rolled Foils

    SciT

    Pacheco, Robin Montoya; Alexander, David John; Mccabe, Rodney James

    2017-01-20

    Producing uranium-10wt% molybdenum (DU-10Mo) foils to clad with Al first requires initial bonding of the DU-10Mo foil to zirconium (Zr) by hot rolling, followed by cold rolling to final thickness. Rolling often produces wavy (DU-10Mo)-Zr foils that should be flattened before further processing, as any distortions could affect the final alignment and bonding of the Al cladding to the Zr co-rolled surface layer; this bonding is achieved by a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. Distortions in the (DU-10Mo)-Zr foil may cause the fuel foil to press against the Al cladding and thus create thinner or thicker areas in the Almore » cladding layer during the HIP cycle. Post machining is difficult and risky at this stage in the process since there is a chance of hitting the DU-10Mo. Therefore, it is very important to establish a process to flatten and remove any waviness. This study was conducted to determine if a simple annealing treatment could flatten wavy foils. Using the same starting material (i.e. DU-10Mo coupons of the same thickness), five different levels of hot rolling and cold rolling, combined with five different annealing treatments, were performed to determine the effect of these processing variables on flatness, bonding of layers, annealing response, microstructure, and hardness. The same final thickness was reached in all cases. Micrographs, textures, and hardness measurements were obtained for the various processing combinations. Based on these results, it was concluded that annealing at 650°C or higher is an effective treatment to appreciably reduce foil waviness.« less

  1. Zr, Hf, Mo and W-containing oxide phases as pinning additives in Bi-2212 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, M. V.; Kazin, P. E.; Tretyakov, Yu. D.; Jansen, M.; Reissner, M.; Steiner, W.

    2005-02-01

    Phase formation was investigated in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-M-O (M = Mo, W) systems at 850-900 °C. It was found that Sr 2CaMO 6 phases were chemically compatible with Bi-2212. The composites Bi-2212-Sr 2CaMO 6 and Bi-2212-SrAO 3 (A = Zr, Hf) were obtained from a sol-gel precursor using crystallisation from the melt. The materials consisted of Bi-2212 matrix and submicron or micron grains of the corresponding dispersed phase. Tc was equal or exceeded that for undoped Bi-2212, reaching Tc = 97 K in the Mo-containing composite. The composites exhibited enhanced pinning in comparison with similar prepared pure Bi-2212, especially at T = 60 K. The best pinning parameters were observed for the Bi-2212-Sr 2CaWO 6 composite.

  2. The photoelectronic behaviors of MoO3-loaded ZrO2/carbon cluster nanocomposite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Ishiko, A.; Karuppuchamy, S.; Hassan, M. A.; Yoshihara, M.

    2012-03-01

    A novel nano-sized ZrO2/carbon cluster composite materials (Ic's) were successfully obtained by the calcination of ZrCl4/starch complexes I's under an argon atmosphere. Pt- and/or MoO3-loaded ZrO2/carbon clusters composite materials were also prepared by doping Pt and/or MoO3 particles on the surface of Ic's. The surface characterization of the composite materials was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM observation of the materials showed the presence of particles with the diameters of a few nanometers, possibly Pt particles, and of 50-100 nm, possibly MoO3 particles, in the matrix. Pt- and/or MoO3-loaded ZrO2/carbon cluster composite materials show the efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

  3. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr 2 Co 11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr 2Co 11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr 16Co 84-xMo x( x = 0 , 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content ( x ≤ 1.5 ). he maximum energy product ( B H ) max increases with increasing x from 0.5 MGOe for x = 0 to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe for x = 1.5 . he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shift Φ rms value of 0.66° are observed for the x = 1.5 . he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  4. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr 2 Co 11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    SciT

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr 2Co 11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr 16Co 84-xMo x( x = 0 , 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content ( x ≤ 1.5 ). he maximum energy product ( B H ) max increases with increasing x from 0.5 MGOe for x = 0 to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe for x = 1.5 . he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shift Φ rms value of 0.66° are observed for the x = 1.5 . he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  5. Preliminary Tests for Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta Alloys as Potential Biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălţatu, M. S.; Vizureanu, P.; Bălan, T.; Lohan, M.; Ţugui, C. A.

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, there is a continuing concern for the research and development of alloys for medical and biomedical applications. In order to check the biocompatible character of a new Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta alloys, it is necessary to carry out preliminary laboratory tests to follow how a biomaterial surface would interact with the host. The paper presents tests for Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta alloys like contact angle and DSC test to identify biocompatible character. Contact angle measurement is an experimental technique used to assess the hydrophilic or hydrophobic character of surfaces by reference to the 90º contact angle value and to characterize the thermal behavior, for temperature range between 36.5-37.2ºC, interval which a biomaterial works inside the healthy human body, was used DSC test.

  6. High strength Sn-Mo-Nb-Zr alloy tubes and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Cheadle, Brian A.

    1977-01-01

    Tubes for use in nuclear reactors fabricated from a quaternary alloy comprising 2.5-4.0 wt% Sn, 0.5-1.5 wt% Mo, 0.5-1.5 wt% Nb, balance essentially Zr. The tubes are fabricated by a process of hot extrusion, heat treatment, cold working to size and age hardening, so as to produce a microstructure comprising elongated .alpha. grains with an acicular transformed .beta. grain boundary phase.

  7. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Ti-12Mo-6Zr Biomaterials Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoush, Walid Mohamed Rashad Mohamed; Park, Hee Sup; Inam, Fawad; Lim, Byung Kyu; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2015-03-01

    Ti-12Mo-6Zr/Al2O3 (titanium biomaterial) was prepared by a powder metallurgy route using Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Ti, Mo, and Zr powders were mixed by wet milling with different content of alumina nanoparticles (up to 5 wt pct) as an oxide dispersion strengthening phase. Composite powder mixtures were SPSed at 1273 K (1000 °C) followed by heat treatment and quenching. Composite powders, sintered materials, and heat-treated materials were examined using optical and high-resolution electronic microscopy (scanning and transmission) and X-ray diffraction to characterize particle size, surface morphology, and phase identifications for each composition. All sintered materials were evaluated by measuring density, Vickers hardness, and tensile properties. Fully dense sintered materials were produced by SPS and mechanical properties were found to be improved by subsequent heat treatment. The tensile properties as well as the hardness were increased by increasing the content of Al2O3 nanoparticles in the Ti-12Mo-6Zr matrix.

  8. ZrO2/MoS2 heterojunction photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar Vattikuti, Surya Veerendra; Byon, Chan; Reddy, Chandragiri Venkata

    2016-10-01

    We report a simple solution-chemistry approach for the synthesis of ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid photocatalysts, which contain MoS2 as a cocatalyst. The material is usually obtained by a wet chemical method using ZrO(NO3)2 or (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O and C8H6S as precursors. The structural features of obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (TG-DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption, and photoluminescence (PL). The influence on the photocatalytic activity of the MoS2 cocatalyst concentration with ZrO2 nanoparticles was studied. The MZr-2 hybrid sample had the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), which was 8.45 times higher than that of pristine ZrO2 ascribed to high specific surface area and absorbance efficiency. Recycling experiments revealed that the reusability of the MZr-2 hybrid was due to the low photocorrosive effect and good catalytic stability. PL spectra confirmed the electronic interaction between ZrO2 and MoS2. The photoinduced electrons could be easily transferred from CB of ZrO2 to the MoS2 cocatalyst, which facilitate effective charge separation and enhanced the photocatalytic degradation in the UV region. A photocatalytic mechanism is proposed. It is believed that the ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid structure has promise as a photocatalyst with low cost and high efficiency for photoreactions.

  9. Enhancing low-temperature activity and durability of Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts using ZrO 2 supports

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Mi -Young; Kyriakidou, Eleni A.; Choi, Jae -Soon; ...

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we investigated the impact of ZrO 2 on the performance of palladium-based oxidation catalysts with respect to low-temperature activity, hydrothermal stability, and sulfur tolerance. Pd supported on ZrO 2 and SiO 2 were synthesized for a comparative study. Additionally, in an attempt to maximize the ZrO 2 surface area and improve sulfur tolerance, a Pd support with ZrO 2-dispersed onto SiO 2 was studied. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were examined using ICP, N 2 sorption, XRD, SEM, TEM, and NH 3-, CO 2-, and NO x-TPD. The activity of the Pd catalysts were measured frommore » 60 to 600 °C in a flow of 4000 ppm CO, 500 ppm NO, 1000 ppm C 3H 6, 4% O 2, 5% H 2O, and Ar balance. The Pd catalysts were evaluated in fresh, sulfated, and hydrothermally aged states. Overall, the ZrO 2-containing catalysts showed considerably higher CO and C 3H 6 oxidation activity than Pd/SiO 2 under the reaction conditions studied.« less

  10. Friction and wear behaviors of MoS2/Zr coated HSS in sliding wear and in drilling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jianxin; Yan, Pei; Wu, Ze

    2012-11-01

    MoS2 metal composite coatings have been successful used in dry turning, but its suitability for dry drilling has not been yet established. Therefore, it is necessary to study the friction and wear behaviors of MoS2/Zr coated HSS in sliding wear and in drilling processes. In the present study, MoS2/Zr composite coatings are deposited on the surface of W6Mo5Cr4V2 high speed steel(HSS). Microstructural and fundamental properties of these coatings are examined. Ball-on-disc sliding wear tests on the coated discs are carried out, and the drilling performance of the coated drills is tested. Test results show that the MoS2/Zr composite coatings exhibit decreases friction coefficient to that of the uncoated HSS in sliding wear tests. Energy dispersive X-ray(EDX) analysis on the wear surface indicates that there is a transfer layer formed on the counterpart ball during sliding wear processes, which contributes to the decreasing of the friction coefficient between the sliding couple. Drilling tests indicate that the MoS2/Zr coated drills show better cutting performance compared to the uncoated HSS drills, coating delamination and abrasive are found to be the main flank and rake wear mode of the coated drills. The proposed research founds the base of the application of MoS2 metal composite coatings on dry drilling.

  11. Obtaining and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălţatu, M. S.; Vizureanu, P.; Geantă, V.; Nejneru, C.; Țugui, C. A.; Focşăneanu, S. C.

    2017-06-01

    Ti-based alloys are successfully used in the area of orthopedic biomaterials for their enhanced biocompatibility, good corrosion and mechanical properties. The most suitable metals as an alloying element for orthopedic biomaterials are zirconium, molybdenum and tantalum because are non toxic and have good properties. The paper purpose development of two alloys of Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta (TMZT) prepared by arc-melting with several mechanical properties determined by microindentation. The mechanical properties analyzed was Vickers hardness and dynamic elasticity modulus. The investigated alloys presents a low Young’s modulus, an important condition of biomaterials for preventing stress shielding phenomenon.

  12. Microstructural analysis of as-processed U-10 wt.%Mo monolithic fuel plate in AA6061 matrix with Zr diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, E.; Yao, B.; Keiser, D. D., Jr.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2010-07-01

    For higher U-loading in low-enriched U-10 wt.%Mo fuels, monolithic fuel plate clad in AA6061 is being developed as a part of Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program. This paper reports the first characterization results from a monolithic U-10 wt.%Mo fuel plate with a Zr diffusion barrier that was fabricated as part of a plate fabrication campaign for irradiation testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were employed for analysis. At the interface between the Zr barrier and U-10 wt.%Mo, going from Zr to U(Mo), UZr 2, γ-UZr, Zr solid-solution and Mo 2Zr phases were observed. The interface between AA6061 cladding and Zr barrier plate consisted of four layers, going from Al to Zr, (Al, Si) 2Zr, (Al, Si)Zr 3 (Al, Si) 3Zr, and AlSi 4Zr 5. Irradiation behavior of these intermetallic phases is discussed based on their constituents. Characterization of as-fabricated phase constituents and microstructure would help understand the irradiation behavior of these fuel plates, interpret post-irradiation examination, and optimize the processing parameters of monolithic fuel system.

  13. Microstructure and Properties of a Refractory NbCrMo0.5Ta0.5ZrTi Alloy (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    slightly enriched with Nb , Mo and Ta and depleted with Zr and Cr, and its lattice parameter after HIP was a = 324.76 ± 0.16 pm. The BCC2 phase was...FCC phase was highly enriched with Cr and it was identified as a Laves C15 phase, ( Zr ,Ta)(Cr,Mo, Nb )2, with the lattice parameter a = 733.38 ± 0.18 pm...with Nb , Mo and Ta and depleted with Zr and Cr, and its lattice parameter after HIP was a = 324.76 ± 0.16 pm. The BCC2 phase was enriched with Zr and Ti

  14. Schottky Barrier Height of Pd/MoS2 Contact by Large Area Photoemission Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong; Gong, Cheng; Addou, Rafik; McDonnell, Stephen; Azcatl, Angelica; Qin, Xiaoye; Wang, Weichao; Wang, Weihua; Hinkle, Christopher L; Wallace, Robert M

    2017-11-08

    MoS 2 , as a model transition metal dichalcogenide, is viewed as a potential channel material in future nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Minimizing the contact resistance of the metal/MoS 2 junction is critical to realizing the potential of MoS 2 -based devices. In this work, the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the band structure of high work function Pd metal on MoS 2 have been studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The analytical spot diameter of the XPS spectrometer is about 400 μm, and the XPS signal is proportional to the detection area, so the influence of defect-mediated parallel conduction paths on the SBH does not affect the measurement. The charge redistribution by Pd on MoS 2 is detected by XPS characterization, which gives insight into metal contact physics to MoS 2 and suggests that interface engineering is necessary to lower the contact resistance for the future generation electronic applications.

  15. SEM in situ MiniCantilever Beam Bending of U-10Mo/Zr/Al Fuel Elements

    SciT

    Mook, William; Baldwin, Jon K.; Martinez, Ricardo M.

    2014-06-16

    In this work, the fracture behavior of Al/Zr and Zr/dU-10Mo interfaces was measured via the minicantilever bend technique. The energy dissipation rates were found to be approximately 3.7-5 mj/mm 2 and 5.9 mj/mm 2 for each interface, respectively. It was found that in order to test the Zr/U-10Mo interface, location of the hinge of the cantilever was a key parameter. While this test could be adapted to hot cell use through careful alignment fixturing and measurement of crack lengths with an optical microscope (as opposed to SEM, which was used here out of convenience), machining of the cantilevers via MiniMillmore » in such a way as to locate the interfaces at the cantilever hinge, as well as proper placement of a femtosecond laser notch will continue to be key challenges in a hot cell environment.« less

  16. Composition-controlled active-passive transition and corrosion behavior of Fe-Cr(Mo)-Zr-B bulk amorphous steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Jiajia; Wu, Yidong; Wang, Tan; Liu, Yanhui; Hui, Xidong

    2018-07-01

    Various corrosive environments in daily life and industry have put forward high requirement on corrosion resistance of metals, especially steels. Unlike the strict demand in Cr content of crystalline stainless steels, amorphous steels (ASs) with lower Cr content can be endowed with outstanding corrosion resistance, while the intrinsic mechanism is not fully understood. Herein, we present a novel Fe92-x-y-zCrxMoyZr8Bz (6 ≤ x ≤ 40, 0 ≤ y ≤ 22, and 12 ≤ z ≤ 18) bulk amorphous steel (BAS) forming system and reveal the synergistic effect of Cr and Mo in determining the chemical stability of oxide films. It has been found the Fe92-x-zCrxZr8Bz BASs with 1 mm in diameter display a Cr-controlling active-passive transition at the Cr threshold of ∼25% in 1 M hydrochloric acid. When adding minor Mo into the BASs, the Cr threshold can be remarkably reduced by forming favorable hexavalent Mo oxides. The generation of Mo6+ is facilitated by atomic selective dissolution at the interface and can promote the passivation. In contrast, when the Cr content of the Mo-doped glasses exceeds 25%, few Mo6+ oxides would produce as the prior formation of protective passive films inhibits the further oxidation of Mo. Therefore, manipulating the active-passive transition properly is crucial to designing ASs with high stainlessness.

  17. Comparative study on cubic and tetragonal CexZr1-xO2 supported MoO3-catalysts for sulfur-resistant methanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaopeng; Xu, Yan; Cheng, Jiaming; Wang, Weihan; Wang, Baowei; Li, Zhenhua; Ma, Xinbin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, two kinds of CexZr1-xO2 solid solution carriers with different Ce/Zr ratio were prepared by one-step co-precipitation method: the cubic Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 and the tetragonal Ce0.2Zr0.8O2 support. The MoO3/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 and MoO3/Ce0.2Zr0.8O2 catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method for comparative study on sulfur-resistant methanation reaction. The N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray photoelectron (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature-programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2-TPR) were undertaken to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the samples. The results indicated that the prepared MoO3/CexZr1-xO2 catalysts have a mesoporous structure with high surface area and uniform pore size distribution, achieving good MoO3 dispersion on CexZr1-xO2 supports. As for the catalytic performance of sulfur-resistant methanation, the cubic MoO3/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 exhibited better than the tetragonal MoO3/Ce0.2Zr0.8O2 catalyst at reaction temperature 400 °C and 450 °C. CO conversion on the cubic MoO3/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalyst was 50.1% at 400 °C and 75.5% at 450 °C, which is respectively 7% and 20% higher than that on the tetragonal MoO3/Ce0.2Zr0.8O2 catalyst. These were mainly attributed to higher content of active MoS2 on the surface of catalyst, the enhanced oxygen mobility, increased Mo-species dispersion as well as the excellent reducibility resulted from the increased amount of the reducible Ce3+ on the cubic MoO3/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalyst.

  18. LANL Experience Rolling Zr-Clad LEU-10Mo Foils for AFIP-7

    SciT

    Hammon, Duncan L.; Clarke, Kester D.; Alexander, David J.

    2015-05-29

    The cleaning, canning, rolling and final trimming of Low Enriched Uranium-10 wt. pct. Molybdenum (LEU-10Mo) foils for ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) fuel plates to be used in the AFIP-7 (ATR Full Size Plate In Center Flux Trap Position) experiments are summarized. Six Zr-clad foils were produced from two LEU-10Mo castings supplied to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Y-12 National Security Complex. Details of cleaning and canning procedures are provided. Hot- and cold-rolling results are presented, including rolling schedules, images of foils in-process, metallography and local compositions of regions of interest, and details of final foil dimensions and process yield.more » This report was compiled from the slides for the presentation of the same name given by Duncan Hammon on May 12, 2011 at the AFIP-7 Lessons Learned meeting in Salt Lake City, UT, with Los Alamos National Laboratory document number LA-UR 11-02898.« less

  19. Summary Abstract: Growth and Alloying of Pd Films on Mo(110) Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Ch. E.; Poppa, H.; Bauer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Alloying in small metal particles and in very thin films has recently received considerable attention. In the past it has been generally assumed that alloying is insignificant up to temperatures. Thus many epitaxy experiments of metals on metals with complete miscibility were performed at temperatures between 200 and 400 C and analyzed assuming no alloying. In particular, alloying was not suspected if the film material was not soluble in the substrate. In the present study, which was stimulated by annealing-induced CO adsorption anomalies on thin film surfaces, it has become evident that low temperature alloying can occur in thin films on a metal substrate which is refractory and has very strong interatomic bonds (as evidenced by a high sublimation energy) provided that the substrate is soluble in the film material. A good example of such a film-substrate combination is Pd on Mo. The solubility of Pd in Mo is very at temperatures below 1000 K but Pd can dissolve slightly more than 40 at. % Mo even at low temperatures.

  20. The role of dispersed particles in strengthening and fracture mechanisms in a Mo-ZrC alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    SciT

    Takida, T.; Mabuchi, M.; Nakamura, M.

    2000-03-01

    The tensile properties of a ZrC particle-dispersed Mo, which was processed by spark plasma sintering with mechanically alloyed powder, were investigated at room temperature and at elevated temperatures of 1,170 to 1,970 K. The Mo-ZrC alloy showed much higher strength at room temperature than a fully recrystallized pure Mo. The high strength of Mo-ZrC is mainly attributed to a very small grain size (about 3 {micro}m). The main role of the ZrC particle is not to increase strength due to the particle-dislocation interaction, but to limit grain growth during sintering and to attain the very small grain size. The elongationmore » at room temperature of No-ZrC was much lower than that of pure Mo. This is probably related to the higher interstitial contents. However, Mo-ZrC showed a large elongation of 180 pct at 1,970 K and 6.7 x 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}. It was suggested that the ZrC particles stabilized the fine-grained microstructure yet provided no cavitation sites at 1,970 K; as a result, the large elongation was attained.« less

  1. Growth kinetics and microstructural evolution during hot isostatic pressing of U-10 wt.% Mo monolithic fuel plate in AA6061 cladding with Zr diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Yoo, J.; Huang, K.; Keiser, D. D.; Jue, J. F.; Rabin, B.; Moore, G.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2014-04-01

    Phase constituents and microstructure changes in RERTR fuel plate assemblies as functions of temperature and duration of hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) during fabrication were examined. The HIP process was carried out as functions of temperature (520, 540, 560 and 580 °C for 90 min) and time (45-345 min at 560 °C) to bond 6061 Al-alloy to the Zr diffusion barrier that had been co-rolled with U-10 wt.% Mo (U10Mo) fuel monolith prior to the HIP process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were employed to examine the phase constituents, microstructure and layer thickness of interaction products from interdiffusion. At the interface between the U10Mo and Zr, following the co-rolling, the UZr2 phase was observed to develop adjacent to Zr, and the α-U phase was found between the UZr2 and U10Mo, while the Mo2Zr was found as precipitates mostly within the α-U phase. The phase constituents and thickness of the interaction layer at the U10Mo-Zr interface remained unchanged regardless of HIP processing variation. Observable growth due to HIP was only observed for the (Al,Si)3Zr phase found at the Zr/AA6061 interface, however, with a large activation energy of 457 ± 28 kJ/mole. Thus, HIP can be carried to improve the adhesion quality of fuel plate without concern for the excessive growth of the interaction layer, particularly at the U10Mo-Zr interface with the α-U, Mo2Zr, and UZr2 phases.

  2. Growth kinetics and microstructural evolution during hot isostatic pressing of U-10 wt.% Mo monolithic fuel plate in AA6061 cladding with Zr diffusion barrier

    SciT

    Y. Park; J. Yoo; K. Huang

    2014-04-01

    Phase constituents and microstructure changes in RERTR fuel plate assemblies as functions of temperature and duration of hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) during fabrication were examined. The HIP process was carried out as functions of temperature (520, 540, 560 and 580 °C for 90 min) and time (45–345 min at 560 °C) to bond 6061 Al-alloy to the Zr diffusion barrier that had been co-rolled with U-10 wt.% Mo (U10Mo) fuel monolith prior to the HIP process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were employed to examine the phase constituents, microstructure and layer thickness of interaction products from interdiffusion. At the interface betweenmore » the U10Mo and Zr, following the co-rolling, the UZr2 phase was observed to develop adjacent to Zr, and the a-U phase was found between the UZr2 and U10Mo, while the Mo2Zr was found as precipitates mostly within the a-U phase. The phase constituents and thickness of the interaction layer at the U10Mo-Zr interface remained unchanged regardless of HIP processing variation. Observable growth due to HIP was only observed for the (Al,Si)3Zr phase found at the Zr/AA6061 interface, however, with a large activation energy of 457 ± 28 kJ/mole. Thus, HIP can be carried to improve the adhesion quality of fuel plate without concern for the excessive growth of the interaction layer, particularly at the U10Mo-Zr interface with the a-U, Mo2Zr, and UZr2 phases.« less

  3. Determination of the direct double- β -decay Q value of Zr 96 and atomic masses of Zr 90 - 92 , 94 , 96 and Mo 92 , 94 - 98 , 100

    DOE PAGES

    Gulyuz, K.; Ariche, J.; Bollen, G.; ...

    2015-05-06

    Experimental searches for neutrinoless double-β decay offer one of the best opportunities to look for physics beyond the standard model. Detecting this decay would confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino, and a measurement of its half-life can be used to determine the absolute neutrino mass scale. Important to both tasks is an accurate knowledge of the Q value of the double-β decay. The LEBIT Penning trap mass spectrometer was used for the first direct experimental determination of the ⁹⁶Zr double-β decay Q value: Q ββ=3355.85(15) keV. This value is nearly 7 keV larger than the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluationmore » [M. Wang et al., Chin. Phys. C 36, 1603 (2012)] value and one order of magnitude more precise. The 3-σ shift is primarily due to a more accurate measurement of the ⁹⁶Zr atomic mass: m(⁹⁶Zr)=95.90827735(17) u. Using the new Q value, the 2νββ-decay matrix element, |M 2ν|, is calculated. Improved determinations of the atomic masses of all other zirconium ( 90-92,94,96Zr) and molybdenum ( 92,94-98,100Mo) isotopes using both ¹²C₈ and ⁸⁷Rb as references are also reported.« less

  4. Increasing the Aromatic Selectivity of Quinoline Hydrogenolysis Using Pd/MO x–Al 2O 3

    SciT

    Bachrach, Mark; Morlanes-Sanchez, Natalia; Canlas, Christian P.

    2014-09-11

    Catalysts consisting of Pd nanoparticles supported on highly dispersed TiO x–Al 2O 3, TaO x–Al 2O 3, and MoO x–Al 2O 3 are studied for catalytic quinoline hydrogenation and selective C–N bond cleavage at 275 °C and 20 bar H 2. Lastly, the Pd/MO x–Al 2O 3 materials exhibit significantly greater aromatic product selectivity and thus 10–15 % less required H 2 for a given level of denitrogenation relative to an unmodified Pd/Al 2O 3 catalyst.

  5. Effect of MoSi2 Content on Dry Sliding Tribological Properties of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longfei; Yang, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass and its composites were prepared by suction casting into a copper mold. The effect of MoSi2 content on the tribological behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG was studied by using a high-speed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The results indicate that the friction coefficient and wear resistance of the BMGs can be improved by a certain amount of crystalline phase induced by MoSi2 content from 1 to 3% and deteriorated with MoSi2 content of 4%. The wear mechanism of both the metallic glass and its composite is abrasive wear. The mechanism of crystalline phase-dependent tribological properties of the composite was discussed based on the wear track and mechanical properties in the present work. The wear behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG and its composite indicates that a good combination of the toughness and the hardness can make the composite be well wear resistant.

  6. Report on the Synchrotron Characterization of U-Mo and U-Zr Alloys and the Modeling Results

    SciT

    Okuniewski, Maria A.; Ganapathy, Varsha; Hamilton, Brenden

    2016-09-01

    ABSTRACT Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) and uranium-zirconium (U-Zr) are two promising fuel candidates for nuclear transmutation reactors which burn long-lived minor actinides and fission products within fast spectrum reactors. The objectives of this research are centered on understanding the early stages of fuel performance through the examination of the irradiation induced microstructural changes in U-Zr and U-Mo alloys subjected to low neutron fluences. Specimens that were analyzed include those that were previously irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL. This most recent work has focused on a sub-set of the irradiated specimens, specifically U-Zr and U-Mo alloys that were irradiated tomore » 0.01 dpa at temperatures ranging from (150-800oC). These specimens were analyzed with two types of synchrotron techniques, including X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction. These techniques provide non-destructive microstructural analysis, including phase identification and quantitation, lattice parameters, crystallite sizes, as well as bonding, structure, and chemistry. Preliminary research has shown changes in the phase fractions, crystallite sizes, and lattice parameters as a function of irradiation and temperature. Future data analyses will continue to explore these microstructural changes.« less

  7. Solvent-free Hydrodeoxygenation of Bio-oil Model Compounds Cyclopentanone and Acetophenone over Flame-made Bimetallic Pt-Pd/ZrO2 Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yijiao; Büchel, Robert; Huang, Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Baiker, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Pd/ZrO2 catalysts with different Pt/Pd atomic ratio and homogeneous dispersion of the metal nanoparticles were prepared in a single step by flame-spray pyrolysis. The catalysts show high activity and tuneable product selectivity for the solvent-free hydrodeoxygenation of the bio-oil model compounds cyclopentanone and acetophenone. PMID:22674738

  8. Vanadium Oxide Thin Films Alloyed with Ti, Zr, Nb, and Mo for Uncooled Infrared Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcelik, Adem; Cabarcos, Orlando; Allara, David L.; Horn, Mark W.

    2013-05-01

    Microbolometer-grade vanadium oxide (VO x ) thin films with 1.3 < x < 2.0 were prepared by pulsed direct-current (DC) sputtering using substrate bias in a controlled oxygen and argon environment. These films were systematically alloyed with Ti, Nb, Mo, and Zr using a second gun and radiofrequency (RF) reactive co-sputtering to probe the effects of the transition metals on the film charge transport characteristics. The results reveal that the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and resistivity are unexpectedly similar for alloyed and unalloyed films up to alloy compositions in the ˜20 at.% range. Analysis of the film structures for the case of the 17% Nb-alloyed film by glancing-angle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy shows that the microstructure remains even with the addition of high concentrations of alloy metal, demonstrating the robust character of the VO x films to maintain favorable electrical transport properties for bolometer applications. Postdeposition thermal annealing of the alloyed VO x films further reveals improvement of electrical properties compared with unalloyed films, indicating a direction for further improvements in the materials.

  9. New limits for the 2 νββ decay of 96Zr to excited nuclear states of 96Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean; Tornow, Werner

    2015-10-01

    The final results from our search for the 2 νββ decay of 96Zr to excited 0+ and 2+ states of 96Mo are presented. Such measurements provide valuable test cases for 2 νββ -decay nuclear matrix element calculations, which in turn are used to tune 0 νββ -decay nuclear matrix element calculations. After undergoing double- β decay to an excited state, the excited daughter nucleus decays to the ground state, emitting two coincident γ rays. These two γ rays are detected in coincidence by two HPGe detectors sandwiching the 96Zr sample, with a NaI veto in anti-coincidence. This experimental apparatus, located at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), has previously measured the 2 νββ decay of 100Mo and 150Nd to excited nuclear states. Experimental limits on the T1 / 2 and corresponding nuclear matrix element are presented for each of these decays. As a byproduct of this experiment, limits were also set on the single- β decay of 96Zr. Supported by DOE Grant: DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  10. Reducing the Ideal Shear Strengths of ZrB2 by High Efficient Alloying Elements (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2017-02-01

    Activating the plasticity of ZrB2 is a promising approach to improve its key properties for applications in hypersonic vehicles, including high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance. The present work demonstrates that ideal shear strength of ZrB2, which is a good indicator of the critical stress for dislocation nucleation, can be significantly reduced by dissolving of appropriate alloying elements. Analyzing on the bonding nature of ZrB2 reveals that choosing alloying elements with low energy valence electrons will prevent electron transferring from alloying element to the electron deficient B-B π orbits, which will reduce the local stability of the region surrounding the alloying element. Under the criterion, elements with d electrons tending to be full-filled (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt, the full-filled state is associated with low energy level) are selected as promising candidates with their prominent efficiency in reducing ideal shear strengths verified by first-principles calculations. The results provide useful guidelines for further designs of ZrB2 based materials, especially for improving their mechanical properties.

  11. Reducing the Ideal Shear Strengths of ZrB2 by High Efficient Alloying Elements (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2017-01-01

    Activating the plasticity of ZrB2 is a promising approach to improve its key properties for applications in hypersonic vehicles, including high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance. The present work demonstrates that ideal shear strength of ZrB2, which is a good indicator of the critical stress for dislocation nucleation, can be significantly reduced by dissolving of appropriate alloying elements. Analyzing on the bonding nature of ZrB2 reveals that choosing alloying elements with low energy valence electrons will prevent electron transferring from alloying element to the electron deficient B-B π orbits, which will reduce the local stability of the region surrounding the alloying element. Under the criterion, elements with d electrons tending to be full-filled (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt, the full-filled state is associated with low energy level) are selected as promising candidates with their prominent efficiency in reducing ideal shear strengths verified by first-principles calculations. The results provide useful guidelines for further designs of ZrB2 based materials, especially for improving their mechanical properties. PMID:28233838

  12. Reducing the Ideal Shear Strengths of ZrB2 by High Efficient Alloying Elements (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt).

    PubMed

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2017-02-24

    Activating the plasticity of ZrB 2 is a promising approach to improve its key properties for applications in hypersonic vehicles, including high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance. The present work demonstrates that ideal shear strength of ZrB 2 , which is a good indicator of the critical stress for dislocation nucleation, can be significantly reduced by dissolving of appropriate alloying elements. Analyzing on the bonding nature of ZrB 2 reveals that choosing alloying elements with low energy valence electrons will prevent electron transferring from alloying element to the electron deficient B-B π orbits, which will reduce the local stability of the region surrounding the alloying element. Under the criterion, elements with d electrons tending to be full-filled (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt, the full-filled state is associated with low energy level) are selected as promising candidates with their prominent efficiency in reducing ideal shear strengths verified by first-principles calculations. The results provide useful guidelines for further designs of ZrB 2 based materials, especially for improving their mechanical properties.

  13. Site preference of ternary alloying additions to NiTi: Fe, Pt, Pd, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of Pd in NiTi (J. Alloys and Comp. (2004), in press) has been extended to examine the behavior of several other alloying additions, namely, Fe, Pt, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf in this important shape memory alloy. It was found that all elements, to a varying degree, displayed absolute preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. How- ever, the energetics of the different substitutional schemes, coupled with large scale simulations indicate that the general trend in all cases is for the ternary addition to want to form stronger ordered structures with Ti.

  14. Microstructural characterization of a thin film ZrN diffusion barrier in an As-fabricated U-7Mo/Al matrix dispersion fuel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Perez, Emmanuel; Wiencek, Tom; Leenaers, Ann; Van den Berghe, Sven

    2015-03-01

    The United States High Performance Research Reactor Fuel Development program is developing low enriched uranium fuels for application in research and test reactors. One concept utilizes U-7 wt.% Mo (U-7Mo) fuel particles dispersed in Al matrix, where the fuel particles are coated with a 1 μm-thick ZrN coating. The ZrN serves as a diffusion barrier to eliminate a deleterious reaction that can occur between U-7Mo and Al when a dispersion fuel is irradiated under aggressive reactor conditions. To investigate the final microstructure of a physically-vapor-deposited ZrN coating in a dispersion fuel plate after it was fabricated using a rolling process, characterization samples were taken from a fuel plate that was fabricated at 500 °C using ZrN-coated U-7Mo particles, Al matrix and AA6061 cladding. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy analysis were performed. Data from these analyses will be used to support future microstructural examinations of irradiated fuel plates, in terms of understanding the effects of irradiation on the ZrN microstructure, and to determine the role of diffusion barrier microstructure in eliminating fuel/matrix interactions during irradiation. The as-fabricated coating was determined to be cubic-ZrN (cF8) phase. It exhibited a columnar microstructure comprised of nanometer-sized grains and a region of relatively high porosity, mainly near the Al matrix. Small impurity-containing phases were observed at the U-7Mo/ZrN interface, and no interaction zone was observed at the ZrN/Al interface. The bonding between the U-7Mo and ZrN appeared to be mechanical in nature. A relatively high level of oxygen was observed in the ZrN coating, extending from the Al matrix in the ZrN coating in decreasing concentration. The above microstructural characteristics are discussed in terms of what may be most optimal for a diffusion barrier in a dispersion fuel plate application.

  15. Improvement of sulfur resistance of Pd/Ce-Zr-Al-O catalysts for CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Haebin; Baek, Minsung; Ro, Youngsoo; Song, Changyeol; Lee, Kwan-Young; Song, In Kyu

    2018-01-01

    Two kinds of mesoporous ceria-zirconia-alumina supports were prepared by a single-step epoxide-driven sol-gel method (SGCZA) and by a co-precipitation method (PCZA). Palladium catalysts supported on these materials were then prepared by a wet impregnation method (Pd/SGCZA and Pd/PCZA). The prepared catalysts were applied to the CO oxidation reaction before and after sulfur aging. XRD and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses revealed that these two catalysts retained different physicochemical properties. Pd/SGCZA had higher surface area and larger pore volume than Pd/PCZA before and after sulfur aging. TPR (Temperature-programmed reduction), CO chemisorption, FT-IR, and XPS analyses showed that the catalysts were differently influenced by sulfur species. Pd/SGCZA formed less sulfate and retained higher palladium dispersion than Pd/PCZA after sulfur aging. In the CO oxidation, Pd/PCZA showed better activity than Pd/SGCZA before sulfur aging. However, Pd/SGCZA showed higher CO conversion than Pd/PCZA after sulfur aging. We concluded that Pd/SGCZA was less poisoned by sulfur species than Pd/PCZA.

  16. Palladium (Pd) sensitized molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanobelts for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, A. A.; Moholkar, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The MoO3 nanobelts have been grown onto the glass substrates using chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) deposition technique at optimized substrate temperature of 400 °C. XRD study shows that the film is polycrystalline in nature and possesses an orthorhombic crystal structure. The FE-SEM micrographs show the formation of nanobelts-like morphology of MoO3. The presence of Pd and its oxidation states in Pd-sensitized MoO3 film is confirmed using EDAX and XPS study, respectively. The percentage gas response is defined as |Rg -Ra|/Ra × 100 % where, Ra and Rg are the film resistances in presence of air and analyte gas, respectively. Before Pd sensitization, MoO3 nanobelts show NO2 gas response of 68% for 100 ppm concentration at operating temperature of 200 °C with response and recovery times of 15 s and 150 s, respectively. Selectivity coefficient study shows that the Pd-sensitized MoO3 nanobelts are more sensitive and selective towards NO2 gas among various gases such as NH3, H2S, CO, CO2 and SO2. The Pd-sensitized MoO3 nanobelts shows the enhanced response of 95.3% towards 100 ppm NO2 gas concentration with response and recovery times of 74 s and 297 s, respectively. The lower detection limit is found to be 5 ppm which is four times less than immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) value of 20 ppm. Finally, the proposed NO2 gas sensing mechanism based on chemisorption model is discussed.

  17. Effects of long-term aging on ductility of the columbium alloys C-103, Cb-1Zr, and Cb-752 and the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine if aging embrittlement occurs in the columbium alloys C-103, CB-1Zr, and Cb-752 or in the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM. Results showed that aging embrittlement does not occur in C-103, Cb-1Zr, or Mo-TZM during long-term (1000 hr) aging at temperatures in the range 700 to 1025 C. In contrast, aging embrittlement did occur in the Cb-752 alloy after similar aging at 900 C. A critical combination of the solute additions W and Zr in Cb-752 led to Zr segregation at grain boundaries during long-term aging. This segregation subsequently resulted in embrittlement as indicated by an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature from below -1960 C to about -150 C.

  18. Pd surface functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy metallic nanofoams for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petica, A.; Brincoveanu, O.; Golgovici, F.; Manea, A. C.; Enachescu, M.; Anicai, L.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents some experimental results regarding the functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy nanofoams with Pd nanoclusters, as potential cathodic materials suitable for HER during seawater electrolysis. The electrodeposition from aqueous electrolytes containing NiCl2 and NH4Cl has been applied to prepare the 3D Ni nanofoams. Ni-Mo alloys have been electrodeposited involving aqueous ammonium citrate type electrolytes. Pd surface functionalization has been performed using both electroless and electrochemical procedures. Pd content varied in the range of 0.5 – 8 wt.%, depending on the applied procedure and the operation conditions. The use of a porous structure associated with alloying element (i.e. Mo) and Pd surface functionalization facilitated enhanced performances from HER view point in seawater electrolyte (lower Tafel slopes). The determined Tafel slope values ranged from 123 to 105 mV.dec-1, suggesting the Volmer step as rate determining step. The improvement of the HER catalytic activity may be ascribed to a synergistic effect between the high real active area of the 3D electroformed metallic substrate, Ni alloying with a left transition metal and surface modification using Pd noble metal.

  19. Phase Transformation and Shape Memory Effect of Ti-Pd-Pt-Zr High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko; Takebe, Wataru; Shimojo, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    To understand the potential of high-temperature shape memory alloys, we have investigated the phase transformation and shape memory effect of Ti-(50 - x)Pt- xPd-5Zr alloys ( x = 0, 5, and 15 at.%), which present the B2 structure in the austenite phase and B19 structure in the martensite phase. Their phase transformation temperatures are very high; A f and M f of Ti-50Pt are 1066 and 1012 °C, respectively. By adding Zr and Pd, the phase transition temperatures decrease, ranging between 804 and 994 °C for A f and 590 and 865 °C for M f. Even at the high phase transformation temperature, a maximum recovery ratio of 70% was obtained for one cycle in a thermal cyclic test. A work output of 1.2 J/cm3 was also obtained. The recovery ratio obtained by the thermal cyclic test was less than 70% because the recovery strain was < 1% and a large irrecoverable strain was obtained. The shape recovery was explained by the austenite strength. The training effect was also investigated.

  20. Improving tribological properties of Ti-5Zr-3Sn-5Mo-15Nb alloy by double glow plasma surface alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lili; Qin, Lin; Kong, Fanyou; Yi, Hong; Tang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum, an alloying element, was deposited and diffused on Ti-5Zr-3Sn-5Mo-15Nb (TLM) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technology at 900, 950 and 1000 °C. The microstructure, composition distribution and micro-hardness of the Mo modified layers were analyzed. Contact angles on deionized water and wear behaviors of the samples against corundum balls in simulated human body fluids were investigated. Results show that the surface microhardness is significantly enhanced after alloying and increases with treated temperature rising, and the contact angles are lowered to some extent. More importantly, compared to as-received TLM alloy, the Mo modified samples, especially the one treated at 1000 °C, exhibit the significant improvement of tribological properties in reciprocating wear tests, with lower specific wear rate and friction coefficient. To conclude, Mo alloying treatment is an effective approach to obtain excellent comprehensive properties including optimal wear resistance and improved wettability, which ensure the lasting and safety application for titanium alloys as the biomedical implants.

  1. New intermetallic MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) and MgRuP compounds related with MoM'P (M'=Ni and Ru) superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kito, Hijiri; Iyo, Akira; Wada, Toshimi

    2011-01-01

    Using a cubic-anvil high-pressure apparatus, ternary iridium phosphides MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) and MgRuP have been prepared by reaction of stoichiometric amounts of each metal and phosphide powders at around 2 Gpa and above 1523 K for the first time. The structure of these compounds prepared at high-pressure has been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Diffraction lines of these compounds are assigned by the index of the Co2Si-type structure. The electrical resistivity and the d.c magnetic susceptibility of MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) have measured at low temperatures. Unfortunately, no superconducting transition for MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) and MgRuP are observed down to 2 K.

  2. Incorporating Small Fatigue Crack Growth in Probabilistic Life Prediction: Effect of Stress Ratio in Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6-Mo (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    growth rates as well as the variability in the same, in the + titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo (Ti- 6 -2- 4 - 6 ) was studied at 260°C. A probabilistic...were obtained in a separate study on the effect of R on the small-crack growth regime in another + titanium alloy, Ti- 6 - 4 [32]. Given that crack...microstructure of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo (Ti- 6 -2- 4 - 6 ) at 260°C with particular emphasis on incorporating small-crack data into probabilistic life prediction

  3. Short-range order of undercooled melts of PdZr2 intermetallic compound studied by X-ray and neutron scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, S.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Herlach, D. M.; Mauro, N. A.; Kelton, K. F.

    2013-05-01

    The short-range order in undercooled melts of the intermetallic Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy is investigated by combining electrostatic levitation (ESL) with high-energy X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. Experimentally determined structure factors are measured and analyzed with respect to various structures of short-range order. The comparative X-ray and neutron scattering experiments allow for investigations of topological and chemical short-range order. Based on these studies, no preference of a specific short-range order is found for the liquid Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy, even in the metastable state of the deeply undercooled melt. This is in agreement with an earlier report from X-ray diffraction and molecular-dynamics studies of a Zr75.5Pd24.5 liquid, which showed a broad distribution of cluster types. The results for the Zr2Pd liquid are discussed with respect to the glass-forming ability of this melt.

  4. Solid state amorphization of metastable Al 0.5TiZrPdCuNi high entropy alloy investigated by high voltage electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Nagase, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Akira; Amiya, Kenji; ...

    2017-07-18

    Here, the phase stability of high entropy alloy (HEA), Al 0.5TiZrPdCuNi, under fast electron irradiation was studied by in-situ high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). The initial phase of this alloy quenched from the melt was dependent on cooling rate. At high cooling rates an amorphous phase was obtained, whereas a body-centered cubic ( b.c.c.) phase were obtained at low cooling rates. By thermal crystallization of the amorphous phase b.c.c. phase nano-crystals were formed. Upon fast electron irradiation solid state amorphization (SSA) was observed in b.c.c. phase regardless of the initial microstructure (i.e., “coarse crystalline structure” or “nano-crystalline structure with grainmore » boundaries as a sink for point defects”). SSA behavior in the Al 0.5TiZrPdCuNi HEAs was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy observations. Because the amorphization is very rarely achieved in a solid solution phase under fast electron irradiation in common metallic materials, this result suggests that the Al 0.5TiZrPdCuNi HEA from other common alloys and the other HEAs. The differences in phase stability against the irradiation between the Al 0.5TiZrPdCuNi HEA and the other HEAs were discussed. This is the first experimental evidence of SSA in HEAs stimulated by fast electron irradiation.« less

  5. Chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS2 top-gate MOSFET with atomic-layer-deposited ZrO2 as gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaoqiao; Jiang, Huaxing; Lau, Kei May; Li, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, ZrO2 dielectric deposition on pristine monolayer MoS2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is demonstrated and ZrO2/MoS2 top-gate MOSFETs have been fabricated. ALD ZrO2 overcoat, like other high-k oxides such as HfO2 and Al2O3, was shown to enhance the MoS2 channel mobility. As a result, an on/off current ratio of over 107, a subthreshold slope of 276 mV dec-1, and a field-effect electron mobility of 12.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 have been achieved. The maximum drain current of the MOSFET with a top-gate length of 4 μm and a source/drain spacing of 9 μm is measured to be 1.4 μA μm-1 at V DS = 5 V. The gate leakage current is below 10-2 A cm-2 under a gate bias of 10 V. A high dielectric breakdown field of 4.9 MV cm-1 is obtained. Gate hysteresis and frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage measurements were also performed to characterize the ZrO2/MoS2 interface quality, which yielded an interface state density of ˜3 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1.

  6. A study of Pd/SO4/ZrO2/Al2O3 catalysts in n-hexane isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhikiya, O. V.; Smolikov, M. D.; Kazantsev, K. V.; Yablokova, S. S.; Kireeva, T. V.; Paukshtis, E. A.; Gulyaeva, T. I.; Belyi, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of palladium concentration in a range from 0.02 to 1.6 wt.% on characteristics of n-hexane isomerization was studied. The (O2-Hchem) titration and O2 chemisorption study revealed that palladium in Pd/SO4/ZrO2/Al2O3 systems adsorbs hydrogen in a ratio H/Pds = 1.13-1.65 at./at. Investigation of the charge state of the metal by IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO showed the presence of both the metallic (Pd0) and charged palladium species. Pd/SO4/ZrO2/Al2O3 catalysts with charged palladium atoms exhibit high activity and selectivity in n-hexane isomerization.

  7. Highly Enhanced H2 Sensing Performance of Few-Layer MoS2/SiO2/Si Heterojunctions by Surface Decoration of Pd Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lanzhong; Liu, Yunjie; Du, Yongjun; Chen, Zhaoyang; Han, Zhide; Xu, Zhijie; Zhu, Jun

    2017-10-17

    A novel few-layer MoS 2 /SiO 2 /Si heterojunction is fabricated via DC magnetron sputtering technique, and Pd nanoparticles are further synthesized on the device surface. The results demonstrate that the fabricated sensor exhibits highly enhanced responses to H 2 at room temperature due to the decoration of Pd nanoparticles. For example, the Pd-decorated MoS 2 /SiO 2 /Si heterojunction shows an excellent response of 9.2 × 10 3 % to H 2 , which is much higher than the values for the Pd/SiO 2 /Si and MoS 2 /SiO 2 /Si heterojunctions. In addition, the H 2 sensing properties of the fabricated heterojunction are dependent largely on the thickness of the Pd-nanoparticle layer and there is an optimized Pd thickness for the device to achieve the best sensing characteristics. Based on the microstructure characterization and electrical measurements, the sensing mechanisms of the Pd-decorated MoS 2 /SiO 2 /Si heterojunction are proposed. These results indicate that the Pd decoration of few-layer MoS 2 /SiO 2 /Si heterojunctions presents an effective strategy for the scalable fabrication of high-performance H 2 sensors.

  8. Relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. Y.; Wu, G. Q.; Huang, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Through a statistical, quantitative analysis on microstructure of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr (Ti55531) alloy, the relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties and heat treatment temperatures were investigated. The results show that in Widmanstätten structure, the size of β grain is greatly increased with increasing annealing temperature. Static toughness is related to grain boundary alpha phase discontinuity, the tensile strength is related to acicular alpha phase interface length and acicular alpha phase proportion. In duplex microstructure, the tensile strength is related to the equiaxed alpha proportion. Elongation, static toughness and crack forming work are related to the equiaxed alpha proportion and negatively related to secondary phase proportion. The microstructure can be described quantitatively and the mechanical properties can be predicted by analysis of microstructure.

  9. Mass Measurements of Proton-Rich Isotopes between Mo and Pd using the Canadian Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallis, J.; Sharma, K. S.; Sharma, H.; Savard, G.; Levand, A. F.; Sun, T.; Clark, J. A.; Deibel, C.; Parikh, A.; Wrede, C.; Lascar, D.; Segel, R.; Caldwell, S.; Sternberg, M.; van Schelt, J.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J. E.; Gulick, S.; Lee, J. K. P.; Li, G.; Scielzo, N. D.; Hecht, A. A.

    2008-04-01

    In our understanding of the origin of elemental abundances the means of producing the observed abundances of ^92Mo and ^94Mo have long been unknown. These ``light p'' nuclei cannot be adequately produced by the classic p-process alone. The νp-process however, which occurs due to the neutrino wind in core collapse supernovae explosions, involves both proton-capture and neutron-capture reactions and can produce ^92Mo and ^94Mo. The final abundances of these isotopes depend directly on the values of the proton separation energies, Sp, along the reaction path of this process. Recent mass measurements performed with the Canadian Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer have dramatically reduced the uncertainties of Sp values of proton-rich nuclei between Mo and Pd. These measurements and the resulting implications for both the νp-process path and the ^92Mo/^94Mo abundance ratio will be discussed. This work was supported by grants from NSERC, Canada and the U.S. DOE, Nucl. Phys. Div.,under Contract W-31-109-ENG-38

  10. Bio-Diesel Production from Deoxygenation Reaction Over Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 Supported Transition Metal (Ni, Cu, Co, and Mo) Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Oh; Jeong, Dae-Woon; Jang, Won-Jun; Jeon, Kyung-Won; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Kim, Seong-Heon; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Na, Jeong-Geol; Han, Sang Sup; Ko, Chang Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 supported transition metal (Me = Ni, Cu, Co, and Mo) catalysts have been investigated to screen for the catalytic activity and selectivity for deoxygenation reaction of oleic acid. Me-Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 catalysts were prepared by a co-precipitation method. Ni-Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 catalyst exhibited much higher oleic acid conversion, selectivity for C9 to C17 compounds, and oxygen removal efficiency than the others. This is mainly ascribed to the presence of free Ni species, synergy effects between Ni and Ce0.6Zr0.4O2, and the highest BET surface area.

  11. Adsorption and diffusion of Au atoms on the (001) surface of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, and Mo carbides.

    PubMed

    Florez, Elizabeth; Viñes, Francesc; Rodriguez, Jose A; Illas, Francesc

    2009-06-28

    The adsorption of atomic Au on the (001) surface of TiC, ZrC, HfC, VC, NbC, TaC, and delta-MoC and the mechanism of diffusion of this adatom through the surface have been studied in terms of a periodic density functional theory based approach. In all the cases, the Au adsorption energies are in the range of 1.90-2.35 eV. The moderately large adsorption energies allow the Au diffusion before desorption could take place. For TiC(001), ZrC(001), and HfC(001), atomic Au is adsorbed directly on top of C atoms and diffusion takes place along the diagonal of the squares formed by M-C-M-C atoms with the transition state located above the hollow sites. For the rest of transition metal carbides the situation is less simple with the appearance of more than one stable adsorption site, as for NbC and TaC, of a small energy barrier for diffusion around the most stable adsorption site and of a more complex diffusion pathway. The small energy barrier for diffusion around the most stable site will result in a highly mobile Au species which could be observed in scanning tunnel microscope experiments. After depositing Au on metal-carbide surfaces, there is a noticeable charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbed Au atom. The electronic perturbations on Au increase when going from TiC to ZrC or TaC. Our results indicate that metal carbides should be better supports for the chemical activation of Au than metal oxides.

  12. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and superelastic properties of a Ti-18Zr-4.5Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    In this study a new superelastic Ti-18Zr-4.5Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy was prepared by adding 2at% of Mo as a substitute for Nb to the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy, and heat treatment at different temperatures was conducted. The temperature dependence of superelasticity and annealing texture was investigated. Texture showed a dependence of annealing temperature: the specimen annealed at 923K for 0.3ks exhibited {113} β <47¯1> β type texture which was similar to the deformation texture, while specimens annealed at 973, 1073K, and 1173K showed {001} β <110> β type recrystallization texture which was preferable for recovery strain. The largest recovery strain of 6.2%, which is the same level as that of the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy, was obtained in the specimen annealed at 1173K for 0.3ks due to the well-developed {001} β <110> β type recrystallization texture. The Ti-18Zr-3Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy presented a higher tensile strength compared with the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy when heat treated at 1173K for 0.3ks, which was due to the solid solution strengthening effect of Mo. Annealing at 923K for 0.3ks was effective in obtaining a good combination of a high strength as 865MPa and a large recovery strain as 5.6%. The high recovery strain was due to the high stress at which the maximum recovery stain was obtained which was attributed to the small grain size formed at low annealing temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acetylene adsorption on δ-MoC(001), TiC(001) and ZrC(001) surfaces: A comprehensive periodic DFT study

    DOE PAGES

    Jimenez-Orozco, Carlos; Florez, Elizabeth; Moreno, Andres; ...

    2016-12-06

    A comprehensive study of acetylene adsorption on δ-MoC(001), TiC(001) and ZrC(001) surfaces was carried out by means of calculations based on periodic density functional theory, using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof exchange–correlation functional. It was found that the bonding of acetylene was significantly affected by the electronic and structural properties of the carbide surfaces. The adsorbate interacted with metal and/or carbon sites of the carbide. The interaction of acetylene with the TiC(001) and ZrC(001) surfaces was strong (binding energies higher than $-$3.5 eV), while moderate acetylene adsorption energies were observed on δ-MoC(001) ($-$1.78 eV to –0.66 eV). Adsorption energies, charge density difference plotsmore » and Mulliken charges suggested that the binding of the hydrocarbon to the surface had both ionic and covalent contributions. According to the C–C bond lengths obtained, the adsorbed molecule was modified from acetylene-like into ethylene-like on the δ-MoC(001) surface (desired behavior for hydrogenation reactions) but into ethane-like on TiC(001) and ZrC(001). The obtained results suggest that the δ-MoC(001) surface is expected to have the best performance in selective hydrogenation reactions to convert alkynes into alkenes. Another advantage of δ-MoC(001) is that, after C 2H 2 adsorption, surface carbon sites remain available, which are necessary for H 2 dissociation. Furthermore, these sites were occupied when C 2H 2 was adsorbed on TiC(001) and ZrC(001), limiting their application in the hydrogenation of alkynes.« less

  14. [Selective catalytic reduction of NOx over Pd/CeZr/TiO2/Al2O3 wire-mesh honeycomb catalysts].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Yao-bin; Zhao, Ya-zhi

    2008-06-01

    Pd/CeZr/TiO2/Al2O3 wire-mesh honeycomb catalyst was prepared by sol-gel and impregnation. Furthermore, selective catalytic reduction of NOx over Pd/CeZr/TiO2/Al2O3 wire-mesh honeycomb catalyst with propylene under lean burn condition was studied. The effects of the concentration of tetra-n-butyl titanate and dipcoat cycles on TiO2 washcoat were studied by SEM, and the effects of Pd concentration, O2 concentration and gas velocity on catalytic activity were investigated. The experimental results showed that the TiO2 washcoat on wire-mesh support is even and crack-free when the support is impregnated in 20.0% tetra- n-butyl titanate sol for 2 cycles. The NOx conversion decreases with Pd concentration increase. When Pd concentration is 0.23%, NOx conversion is highest. NOx conversion increases with oxygen concentration increase in the range of 1.5%-6.0%. However, when oxygen concentration is higher than 6.0%, NOx conversion decreases with increasing oxygen concentration. The NOx conversion decreases with gas velocity increase and its effect is severer at high temperature than low temperature.

  15. Post Irradiation TEM Investigation of ZrN Coated U(Mo) Particles Prepared with FIB

    SciT

    Van Renterghem, W.; Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.

    2015-10-01

    In the framework of the Selenium project, two dispersion fuel plates were fabricated with Si and ZrN coated fuel particles and irradiated in the Br2 reactor of SCK•CEN to high burn-up. The first analysis of the irradiated plate proved the reduced swelling of the fuel plate and interaction layer growth up to 70% burn-up. The question was raised how the structure of the interaction layer had been affected by the irradiation and how the structure of the fuel particles had evolved. Hereto, samples from the ZrN coated UMo particles were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using focused ion beammore » milling (FIB) at INL. The FIB technique allowed to precisely select the area of the interaction layer and/or fuel to produce a sample that is TEM transparent over an area of 20 by 20 µm. In this contribution, the first TEM results will be presented from the 66% burn-up sample.« less

  16. Effect of Ni and noble metals (Ru, Pd and Pt) on performance of bifunctional MoP/SiO2 for hydroconversion of methyl laurate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ziyang; Zhang, Zhena; Chen, Jixiang

    2017-10-01

    SiO2 supported bifunctional MoP catalysts modified with different metal promoters (Ni, Ru, Pd, Pt), where Mo/Ni and Mo/M(M = Ru, Pd and Pt) atomic ratios was respectively 10 and 40, were prepared by TPR method from the phosphate precursors. It was found that the introduction of metal promoters facilitated the reduction of phosphate precursor and enhanced the dispersion of MoP. However, the MoP catalyst acidity was scarcely influenced by the small amount of metal promoters. In the hydroconversion of methyl laurate, the promoters enhanced the MoP catalyst activity for conversion of methyl laurate and hydrogenation of alkenes (intermediate), but reduced isomerization ability. Among the promoters, Ru was an optimum to decrease selectivity to alkenes while maintain high selectivity to iso-alkanes, and Mo40RuP showed better stability than MoP. At 380 °C and 3.0 MPa, the conversion of methyl laurate, the total selectivity to C11 and C12 hydrocarbons and the selectivity to iso-alkanes maintained at 100%, ∼94% and ∼30% on Mo40RuP during 102 h, respectively. The good stability of Mo40RuP is ascribed to that the presence of Ru prevented the sintering of MoP particles and suppressed carbon deposition.

  17. Biocompatible low Young's modulus achieved by strong crystallographic elastic anisotropy in Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al alloy single crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-H; Todai, M; Tane, M; Hagihara, K; Nakajima, H; Nakano, T

    2012-10-01

    The elastic anisotropy of the Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al (mass%) β-Ti alloy, an ISO certified biomedical material, was investigated using its single crystal. It was revealed that the Young's modulus exhibited pronounced anisotropy. The Young's modulus was reduced to 44.4GPa along the 〈100〉 direction in the Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al single crystal, that is comparable to that of human cortical bones. We determined the strategy that β-Ti alloys with extremely low moduli can be developed by reducing the electron-atom (e/a) ratio in alloys, and by suppressing the formation of the ω-phase at the same time. This new knowledge must lead to the development of "single crystalline β-Ti implant materials" as hard tissue replacements for reducing the stress shielding effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of a biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in simulated physiological fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Yan; Huang, Weijiu; Chen, Xiaoli; He, Haoran

    2016-10-01

    The micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in Hank׳s solution with protein has been investigated using electrochemical measurements, tribological tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion potential (Ecorr) exhibits the maximum value at the abrasive concentration of 0.05gcm(-3) despite of the load level. The tribological results indicated that the total material loss of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy during micro-abrasion increased with the increasing abrasive concentration at a certain applied load. When the abrasive concentration is no more than 0.15gcm(-3), the total material loss increases with increasing load, while the total material loss exhibits the maximum value at a moderate load in case of higher abrasive concentration levels. This was ascribed to the three-body or two-body micro-abrasion-corrosion at different abrasive concentration levels. The wastage map, abrasion mode map and synergy map associated with the applied load and the abrasive concentration were constructed to evaluate the micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in potential biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-section measurements of the 94Mo(γ,n) and 90Zr(γ,n) reactions using real photons at the HIγS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banu, Adriana; Silano, Jack; Karwowski, Hugon; Meekins, Evan; Bhike, Megha; Tornow, Werner; McCleskey, Mathew

    2018-05-01

    The photodisintegration reaction cross-sections for 94Mo(γ,n) and 90Zr(γ,n) have been experimentally investigated with quasi-monochromatic photon beams at the High Intensity γ-Ray Source (HIγS) facility, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). The measurements were focused primarily on studying the energy dependence of the photoneutron cross sections, which is the most direct way of testing statistical models, and were performed close to the respective neutron thresholds and above up to 20 MeV. Neutrons from the (γ,n) reactions were detected using a 4π assembly of 3He proportional counters developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and presently available at TUNL. While the 94Mo(γ,n) cross section measurement aims to contribute to a broader investigation for understanding the γ-process (the mechanism responsible for the nucleosynthesis of the so-called p-nuclei), the information from the 90Zr(γ,n) data is relevant to constrain QRPA calculations of γ-ray strength functions in this mass region. In this contribution, we will present our preliminary results of the total (γ,n) excitation functions for the two photoneutron reactions on 94Mo and 90Zr.

  20. Search for two-neutrino double-β decay of 96Zr to excited states of 96Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, S. W.; Tornow, W.

    2015-10-01

    Background: Double-β decay is a rare second-order nuclear decay. The importance of this decay stems from the possibility of neutrinoless double-β decay and its applications to neutrino physics. Purpose: A search was conducted for the 2 ν β β decay of 96Zr to excited final states of the daughter nucleus, 96Mo. Measurements of this decay are important to test nuclear matrix element calculations, which are necessary to extract the neutrino mass from a measurement of the neutrinoless double-β decay half-life. Method: Two coaxial high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to detect γ rays produced by the daughter nucleus as it de-excited to the ground state. The experiment was carried out at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility and produced 685.7 d of data with a 17.91 g enriched sample. Results: No counts were seen above background. For the decay to the first excited 0+ state, a limit of T1 /2>3.1 ×1020 yr was produced. Limits to higher excited states are also reported. Conclusion: The new limits on double-β decay are an improvement over previous experiments by a factor of 2 to 5 for the various excited states. The nuclear matrix element for the double-β decay to the first excited 0+ state is found to be <0.13 .

  1. Corrosion and wear properties of laser surface modified NiTi with Mo and ZrO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, K. W.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.

    2008-08-01

    Because of its biocompatibility, superelasticity and shape memory characteristics, NiTi alloys have been gaining immense interest in the medical field. However, there is still concern on the corrosion resistance of this alloy if it is going to be implanted in the human body for a long time. Titanium is not toxic but nickel is carcinogenic and is implicated in various reactions including allergic response and degeneration of muscle tissue. Debris from wear and the subsequent release of Ni + ions due to corrosion in the body system are fatal issues for long-term application of this alloy in the human body. This paper reports the corrosion and wear properties of laser surface modified NiTi using Mo and ZrO 2 as surface alloying elements, respectively. The modified layers which are free from microcracks and porosity, act as both physical barrier to nickel release and enhance the bulk properties, such as hardness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. The electrochemical performance of the surface modified alloy was studied in Hanks' solution. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was measured.

  2. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V.; Detavernier, C.

    2015-03-01

    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK•CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% 235U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL-matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium-Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)-matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced.

  3. Systematic theoretical study of ethylene adsorption on δ-MoC(001), TiC(001), and ZrC(001) surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Jimenez-Orozco, Carlos; Florez, Elizabeth; Moreno, Andres; ...

    2016-05-31

    A systematic study of ethylene adsorption over δ-MoC(001), TiC(001), and ZrC(001) surfaces was conducted by means of calculations based on periodic density functional theory. The structure and electronic properties of each carbide pristine surface had a strong influence in the bonding of ethylene. It was found that the metal and carbon sites of the carbide could participate in the adsorption process. As a consequence of this, very different bonding mechanisms were seen on δ-MoC(001) and TiC(001). The bonding of the molecule on the TMC(001) systems showed only minor similarities to the type of bonding found on a typical metal likemore » Pt(111). In general, the ethylene binding energy follow the trend in stability: ZrC(001) < TiC(001) < δ-MoC(001) < Pt(111). The van der Waals correction to the energy produces large binding energy values, modifies the stability orders and drives the ethylene closer to the surface but the adsorbate geometry parameters remain unchanged. Ethylene was activated on clearly defined binding geometries, changing its hybridization from sp 2 to sp 3 with an elongation (0.16–0.31 Å) of the C=C bond. As a result, on the basis of this theoretical study, δ-MoC(001) is proposed as a potential catalyst for the hydrogenation of olefins, whereas TiC(001) could be useful for their hydrogenolysis.« less

  4. Fabrication and characterization of {110}-oriented Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films on Pt/SiO2/Si substrates using PdO//Pd buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Naoya; Uchiyama, Kiyoshi; Ehara, Yoshitaka; Oikawa, Takahiro; Ichinose, Daichi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sato, Tomoya; Uchida, Hiroshi; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    A strongly {110}-oriented perovskite-type thin film of tetragonal Pb(Zr0.4Ti0.6)O3 (PZT) was successfully obtained on a (100)Si substrate using a {101}PdO//{111}Pd thin film as a buffer layer. The {101}PdO//{111}Pd thin film buffer layer was obtained by oxidizing {111}Pd after depositing {111}Pd on a {111}Pt/TiO x /SiO2/{100}Si substrate. Using this buffer layer, a {110} c -oriented SrRuO3 (SRO) thin film was deposited by sputtering as a bottom electrode of PZT thin films. Subsequently, the {110}-oriented PZT thin film can be deposited on a (110) c SRO thin film by metal-organic chemical deposition (MOCVD) and its properties can be compared with those of PZT thin films with other orientations of {100} and {111}. Among the {100}, {110}, {111}-oriented PZT films, the {100}-oriented one showed the largest remnant polarization, which is in good agreement with those of the PZTs epitaxially grown in the 〈100〉, 〈110〉, and 〈111〉 directions. The other properties, i.e., piezoelectricity and dielectric constants, also showed similar anisotropic tendencies, which is in good agreement with the data reported in the epitaxially grown PZTs.

  5. Determination of the direct double-β -decay Q value of 96Zr and atomic masses of Zr 90 -92 ,94 ,96 and Mo 92 ,94 -98 ,100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyuz, K.; Ariche, J.; Bollen, G.; Bustabad, S.; Eibach, M.; Izzo, C.; Novario, S. J.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Sandler, R.; Schwarz, S.; Valverde, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental searches for neutrinoless double-β decay offer one of the best opportunities to look for physics beyond the standard model. Detecting this decay would confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino, and a measurement of its half-life can be used to determine the absolute neutrino mass scale. Important to both tasks is an accurate knowledge of the Q value of the double-β decay. The LEBIT Penning trap mass spectrometer was used for the first direct experimental determination of the 96Zr double-β decay Q value: Qβ β=3355.85 (15 ) keV. This value is nearly 7 keV larger than the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation [M. Wang et al., Chin. Phys. C 36, 1603 (2012), 10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003] value and one order of magnitude more precise. The 3-σ shift is primarily due to a more accurate measurement of the 96Zr atomic mass: m (96Zr ) =95.908 277 35 (17 ) u. Using the new Q value, the 2 ν β β -decay matrix element, | M2 ν| , is calculated. Improved determinations of the atomic masses of all other zirconium (Zr 90 -92 ,94 ,96 ) and molybdenum (92 ,94 -98 ,100Mo ) isotopes using both 12C8 and 87Rb as references are also reported.

  6. Experimental Verification of the Individual Energy Dependencies of the Partial L-Shell Photoionization Cross Sections of Pd and Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönicke, Philipp; Kolbe, Michael; Müller, Matthias; Mantler, Michael; Krämer, Markus; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2014-10-01

    An experimental method for the verification of the individually different energy dependencies of L1-, L2-, and L3- subshell photoionization cross sections is described. The results obtained for Pd and Mo are well in line with theory regarding both energy dependency and absolute values, and confirm the theoretically calculated cross sections by Scofield from the early 1970 s and, partially, more recent data by Trzhaskovskaya, Nefedov, and Yarzhemsky. The data also demonstrate the questionability of quantitative x-ray spectroscopical results based on the widely used fixed jump ratio approximated cross sections with energy independent ratios. The experiments are carried out by employing the radiometrically calibrated instrumentation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin; the obtained fluorescent intensities are thereby calibrated at an absolute level in reference to the International System of Units. Experimentally determined fixed fluorescence line ratios for each subshell are used for a reliable deconvolution of overlapping fluorescence lines. The relevant fundamental parameters of Mo and Pd are also determined experimentally in order to calculate the subshell photoionization cross sections independently of any database.

  7. Catalysts based on PdO_ZrO2 in the hydrodechlorination reaction of chlorobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otroshchenko, T. P.; Turakulova, A. O.; Lokteva, E. S.; Golubina, E. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The possibility of using mixed oxides of palladium and zirconium obtained with biotemplates (cellulose and wood pulp) as the precursor of catalysts for the hydrodechlorination of chlorobenzene is analyzed. The properties of the samples are studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). They are then compared to the properties of a supported analogue. The biomorphic precursors are characterized by high porosity and include micropores, mesopores, and macropores; the results from TPR reveal the presence in the precursors of several forms of PdO that differ by reduction temperature. It is shown that the distribution of palladium in the catalysts obtained by reducing the precursors with hydrogen depends on the method used in synthesizing the precursor. It is shown that the studied catalysts ensure 100% conversion of chlorobenzene at temperatures of 100 to 250°C. It is established that cyclohexane is the principal product in the presence of the supported catalyst across the range of temperatures, while cyclohexane and benzene are detected among the products in the presence of biomorphous samples at temperatures above 130°C. The effect the presence of an admixture of alkaline and alkaline-earth metals in the catalyst has on the selectivity of the process is noted. It is established that the catalysts operate in a stable manner for at least 27 h of use under experimental conditions.

  8. Ferroelectric HfZrOx-based MoS2 negative capacitance transistor with ITO capping layers for steep-slope device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Jiang, Shu-Ye; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Hao; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-03-01

    A negative capacitance field-effect transistor (NCFET) built with hafnium-based oxide is one of the most promising candidates for low power-density devices due to the extremely steep subthreshold swing (SS) and high on-state current induced by incorporating the ferroelectric material in the gate stack. Here, we demonstrated a two-dimensional (2D) back-gate NCFET with the integration of ferroelectric HfZrOx in the gate stack and few-layer MoS2 as the channel. Instead of using the conventional TiN capping metal to form ferroelectricity in HfZrOx, the NCFET was fabricated on a thickness-optimized Al2O3/indium tin oxide (ITO)/HfZrOx/ITO/SiO2/Si stack, in which the two ITO layers sandwiching the HfZrOx film acted as the control back gate and ferroelectric gate, respectively. The thickness of each layer in the stack was engineered for distinguishable optical identification of the exfoliated 2D flakes on the surface. The NCFET exhibited small off-state current and steep switching behavior with minimum SS as low as 47 mV/dec. Such a steep-slope transistor is compatible with the standard CMOS fabrication process and is very attractive for 2D logic and sensor applications and future energy-efficient nanoelectronic devices with scaling power supply.

  9. Cross Section Measurement for the 95Mo(n, {alpha})92Zr Reaction at 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 MeV

    SciT

    Zhang, Guohui; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jiaguo

    2011-01-01

    For the {sup 95}Mo(n, {alpha}){sup 92}Zr reaction cross section, there is only one experimental datum in the MeV neutron energy region with large uncertainty. As a result, very large deviations exist in different evaluated nuclear data libraries. This paper report the measurement of cross sections of the {sup 95}Mo(n, {alpha}){sup 92}Zr reaction at En = 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 MeV. Experiments were performed at the 4.5 MV Van de Graaff of Peking University, China. A twin gridded ionization chamber was used as alpha particle detector and two large area {sup 95}Mo samples placed back to back were adopted. Fast neutronsmore » were produced through the D(d, n){sup 3}He reaction by using a deuterium gas target. A small {sup 238}U fission chamber was adopted for absolute neutron flux determination and a BF{sub 3} long counter was used for neutron flux monitor. Present experimental data are compared with existing evaluations and measurement.« less

  10. Strength design of Zr(x)Ti(x)Hf(x)Nb(x)Mo(x) alloys based on empirical electron theory of solids and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. K.; Chen, Y. W.; Cheng, X. W.; Wu, C.; Cheng, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the valence electron structure parameters of Zr(x)Ti(x)Hf(x)Nb(x)Mo(x) alloys were calculated based on the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), and their performance through these parameters were predicted. Subsequently, the alloys with special valence electron structure parameters were prepared byarc melting. The hardness and high-temperature mechanical properties were analyzed to verify the prediction. Research shows that the influence of shared electron number nA on the strongest bond determines the strength of these alloys and the experiments are consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  11. 94 Mo(γ,n) and 90Zr(γ,n) cross-section measurements towards understanding the origin of p-nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meekins, E.; Banu, A.; Karwowski, H.; Silano, J.; Zimmerman, W.; Muller, J.; Rich, G.; Bhike, M.; Tornow, W.; McClesky, M.; Travaglio, C.

    2014-09-01

    The nucleosynthesis beyond iron of the rarest stable isotopes in the cosmos, the so-called p-nuclei, is one of the forefront topics in nuclear astrophysics. Recently, a stellar source was found that, for the first time, was able to produce both light and heavy p-nuclei almost at the same level as 56Fe, including the most debated 92,94Mo and 96,98Ru; it was also found that there is an important contribution from the p-process nucleosynthesis to the neutron magic nucleus 90Zr. We focus here on constraining the origin of p-nuclei through nuclear physics by studying two key astrophysical photoneutron reaction cross sections for 94Mo(γ,n) and 90Zr(γ,n). Their energy dependencies were measured using quasi-monochromatic photon beams from Duke University's High Intensity Gamma-ray Source facility at the respective neutron threshold energies up to 18 MeV. Preliminary results of these experimental cross sections will be presented along with their comparison to predictions by a statistical model based on the Hauser-Feshbach formalism implemented in codes like TALYS and SMARAGD. The nucleosynthesis beyond iron of the rarest stable isotopes in the cosmos, the so-called p-nuclei, is one of the forefront topics in nuclear astrophysics. Recently, a stellar source was found that, for the first time, was able to produce both light and heavy p-nuclei almost at the same level as 56Fe, including the most debated 92,94Mo and 96,98Ru; it was also found that there is an important contribution from the p-process nucleosynthesis to the neutron magic nucleus 90Zr. We focus here on constraining the origin of p-nuclei through nuclear physics by studying two key astrophysical photoneutron reaction cross sections for 94Mo(γ,n) and 90Zr(γ,n). Their energy dependencies were measured using quasi-monochromatic photon beams from Duke University's High Intensity Gamma-ray Source facility at the respective neutron threshold energies up to 18 MeV. Preliminary results of these experimental cross

  12. TEM analysis of irradiation-induced interaction layers in coated UMo/X/Al trilayer systems (X= Ti, Nb, Zr, and Mo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, H.-Y.; Wiss, T.; Park, S.-H.; Dieste-Blanco, O.; Petry, W.

    2018-02-01

    Uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy powder embedded in an Al matrix is considered as a promising candidate for fuel conversion of research reactors. A modified system with a diffusion barrier X as coating, UMo/X/Al trilayer (X = Ti, Zr, Nb, and Mo), has been investigated to suppress interdiffusion between UMo and the Al matrix. The trilayer systems were tested by swift heavy ion irradiation, the thereby created interaction zone has been analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Detailed structural characterization are presented and compared to earlier μ-XRD analysis.

  13. Nominal Versus Local Shot-Peening Effects on Fatigue Lifetime in Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo at Elevated Temperature (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    this study was the α+β titanium alloy, Ti- 6 -2- 4 - 6 , in the duplex microstructural condition. Two variants of the microstructure, which differed...condition, at a given stress level and temperature in the turbine engine alloy, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo (Ti- 6 -2- 4 - 6 ). The experimental conditions were chosen to...LSG surface. Fig. 1: Microstructures of the Ti- 6 -2- 4 - 6 alloy considered in the study; (a) Microstructure A and (b) Microstructure

  14. Nominal vs Local Shot-Peening Effects on Fatigue Lifetime in Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo at Elevated Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    PROCEDURE A. Material The materia l in this study was tbe IX + /1 titanium aUoy. Ti- 6 -2- 4 - 6 . in the duplex microstructural condition. Two y,;riants of the...ress level and temperature in the turbine engine alloy Ti-6AI-2Sn-4Zr- 6Mo (Ti- 6 -2- 4 - 6 ). The experimental conditions were chosen to target a regime...defects. which are produced during SP by thermally activated pro- cesses.II~.~1J A detailed discussion of these relaxation elTects in Ti- 6 -2- 4 - 6 is

  15. The new insight into the structure-activity relation of Pd/CeO2-ZrO2-Nd2O3 catalysts by Raman, in situ DRIFTS and XRD Rietveld analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Yang, L; Lin, J; Zhou, R

    2016-01-28

    Pd/CeO2-ZrO2-Nd2O3 (CZN) catalysts with different CeO2/ZrO2 molar ratios were synthesized and have been characterized by multiple techniques, e.g. XRD in combination with Rietveld refinement, UV-Raman, XPS and in situ DRIFTS. The XRD pattern of CZN with CeO2/ZrO2 molar ratios ≥1/2 can be indexed satisfactorily to the fluorite structure with a space group Fm3̄m, while the XRD patterns of CZ12 only display diffraction peaks of the tetragonal phase (S.G. P42/nmc). Nd addition can effectively stabilize the cubic structure of the CZN support and increase the enrichment of defect sites on the surface, which may be related to the better catalytic activity of Pd/CZN12 catalysts compared with Pd/CZ12. The presence of moderate ZrO2 can increase the concentration of O* active species, leading to accelerate the formation of nitrate species and thus enhance the catalytic activity of NOx and HC elimination. The Pd-dispersion decreases with the increasing Zr content, leading to the decreased CO catalytic activity, especially for the aged catalysts. The change regularity of the OSC value is almost the same with the in situ dynamic operational window, demonstrating that the in situ dynamic operational window is basically affected by the OSC value.

  16. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Formation of α Precipitates in β-Type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gwanghyo; Lee, Kwangmin

    2018-05-01

    The microstructural evolution of a novel β-type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr (wt%) alloy subjected to different aging treatments was investigated. The normalized intensity of the α precipitates reached a peak value at 450 °C. A nanoscale orthorhombic phase was observed to coexist with α precipitates in the β matrix, which followed the Burgers orientation relation of <1120>α//<111>β and {0001}α//{110}β. Fine α precipitates were formed with metastable O and β' phases, and the β phase was spinodally decomposed to β and β' phases. The maximum hardness value of the specimen was obtained after aging at 450 °C. Compositional partitioning of Mo, V, and Cr elements occurred with the depletion of fine acicular α precipitates upon aging 450 °C.

  17. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Formation of α Precipitates in β-Type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gwanghyo; Lee, Kwangmin

    2018-02-01

    The microstructural evolution of a novel β-type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr (wt%) alloy subjected to different aging treatments was investigated. The normalized intensity of the α precipitates reached a peak value at 450 °C. A nanoscale orthorhombic phase was observed to coexist with α precipitates in the β matrix, which followed the Burgers orientation relation of <1120 >α//<111>β and {0001}α//{110}β. Fine α precipitates were formed with metastable O and β' phases, and the β phase was spinodally decomposed to β and β' phases. The maximum hardness value of the specimen was obtained after aging at 450 °C. Compositional partitioning of Mo, V, and Cr elements occurred with the depletion of fine acicular α precipitates upon aging 450 °C.

  18. Crystallographic study of Si and ZrN coated U-Mo atomised particles and of their interaction with al under thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweifel, T.; Palancher, H.; Leenaers, A.; Bonnin, A.; Honkimaki, V.; Tucoulou, R.; Van Den Berghe, S.; Jungwirth, R.; Charollais, F.; Petry, W.

    2013-11-01

    A new type of high density fuel is needed for the conversion of research and test reactors from high to lower enriched uranium. The most promising one is a dispersion of atomized uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) particles in an Al matrix. However, during in-pile irradiation the growth of an interaction layer between the U-Mo and the Al matrix strongly limits the fuel's performance. To improve the in-pile behaviour, the U-Mo particles can be coated with protective layers. The SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium-Molybdenum) fuel development project consists of the production, irradiation and post-irradiation examination of 2 flat, full-size dispersion fuel plates containing respectively Si and ZrN coated U-Mo atomized powder dispersed in a pure Al matrix. In this paper X-ray diffraction analyses of the Si and ZrN layers after deposition, fuel plate manufacturing and thermal annealing are reported. It was found for the U-Mo particles coated with ZrN (thickness 1 μm), that the layer is crystalline, and exhibits lower density than the theoretical one. Fuel plate manufacturing does not strongly influence these crystallographic features. For the U-Mo particles coated with Si (thickness 0.6 μm), the measurements of the as received material suggest an amorphous state of the deposited layer. Fuel plate manufacturing strongly modifies its composition: Si reacts with the U-Mo particles and the Al matrix to grow U(Al, Si)3 and U3Si5 phases. Finally both coatings have shown excellent performances under thermal treatment by limiting drastically the U-Mo/Al interdiffusion. U(Al,Si)3 with two lattice parameters (4.16 Å and 4.21 Å), A distorted U3Si5 phase. Note that these phases were not present in the U-Mo(Si) powders. These phases are usually found in the Silicon rich diffusion layer (SiRDL) obtained in dispersed fuels (as-manufactured U-Mo/Al(Si) fuel plates [12,3] or annealed UMo(Si)/Al fuel rods [40]) as well as in diffusion couples (U-Mo/Al(Si7) [37-39] or U-Mo

  19. DFT investigation of electronic structures and magnetic properties of halides family MeHal3 (Me=Ti, Mo,Zr,Nb, Ru, Hal=Cl,Br,I) one dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzubov, A. A.; Kovaleva, E. A.; Popova, M. I.; Kholtobina, A. S.; Mikhaleva, N. S.; Visotin, M. A.; Fedorov, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    Using DFT GGA calculations, electronic structure and magnetic properties of wide family of transition metal trihalides (TMHal3) (Zr, Ti and Nb iodides, Mo, Ru, Ti and Zr bromides and Ti or Zr chlorides) are investigated. These structures consist of transition metal atoms chains surrounded by halides atoms. Chains are connected to each other by weak interactions. All TMHal3 compounds were found to be conductive along chain axis except of MoBr3 which is indirect gap semiconductor. It was shown that NbI3 and MoBr3 have large magnetic moments on metal atoms (1.17 and 1.81 μB, respectively) but other TMHal3 materials have small or zero magnetic moments. For all structures ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic phases have almost the same energies. The causes of these properties are debated.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic H2 production of Mn0.5Cd0.5S solid solution through loading transition metal sulfides XS (X = Mo, Cu, Pd) cocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Huishan; Liu, Xiaolei; Wang, Peng; Huang, Baibiao; Zhang, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    Development of highly efficient cocatalyst is important towards photocatalytic H2 production. Herein, a series of transition metal sulfides XS (X = Mo, Cu, Pd) as cocatalysts have been successfully grown on Mn0.5Cd0.5S photocatalyst through photo-reduction or in-situ deposition method, respectively. Among them, the maximum production of H2 obtained from MoS2/Mn0.5Cd0.5S, CuxS/Mn0.5Cd0.5S (1 ≤ x ≤ 2) and PdS/Mn0.5Cd0.5S samples were 197, 347 and 614 μmol/h, which were around 6.5, 11.5 and 20.3 times than pristine Mn0.5Cd0.5S. MoS2/Mn0.5Cd0.5S heterostructure can facilitate electron transfer from Mn0.5Cd0.5S to MoS2 and MoS2 as active site for H2 production, p-n junction constructed between Mn0.5Cd0.5S and CuxS can efficiently separate the photo-generated carriers and PdS as a hole acceptor can accelerate the consume of photo-generated holes to enhance the photocatalytic H2 production. The effective charge transfer was further proved by the weaker PL intensity and stronger photocurrent density relative to that of Mn0.5Cd0.5S alone. This work demonstrated that transition metal sulfides XS (X = Mo, Cu, Pd) are efficient cocatalysts to improve the H2 production performance of Mn0.5Cd0.5S photocatalyst.

  1. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa Coloma, P.; Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J. B.; Cano, F. J.; Lapeña, N.

    2015-08-01

    Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an oxidation process occurred in the vicinity of the alloy's intermetallic particles. The amount of the Zr deposits at these locations increased with coating's formulations without Ti, which provided the best corrosion resistance. The Cr-free conversion coatings developed in this study for the AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys do not meet yet the strict requirements of the aircraft industry. However, they significantly improved the corrosion

  2. Distribution trends and influence of 4d transition metal elements (Ru, Rh and Pd) doping on mechanical properties and martensitic transformation temperature of B2-ZrCu phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fuda; Zhan, Yongzhong

    2017-12-01

    The prediction for distribution trends and effect of three 4d transition metal elements (Ru, Rh and Pd) on mechanical properties and martensitic transformation temperature of B2-ZrCu phase were investigated by first-principles calculations. The convex surface of formation energy suggests that the alloying elements prefer to occupy the Cu sites in B2-ZrCu phase and the dopants studied in present are able to strengthen the phase stability. The calculated results of substitutional formation energy suggest that the distribution trend of dopants in B2-ZrCu phase is Ru > Rh > Pd below the dopant concentration 9 at. %, and the distribution trend is Rh > Pd > Ru from 9 at. % to 12.5 at. %. The elastic constants and mechanical properties including bulk modulus and shear modulus were calculated and discussed. The brittleness/ductility characteristic was investigated using the B/G ratio, Poisson's ratio v and Cauchy pressure Cp. The martensitic transformation temperature (Ms) and melting point (Tm) were predicted by using two cubic elastic moduli (C‧ and C44). The prediction results suggest that only the Ms of Zr8Cu7Pd is higher than the parent. The martensitic transformation temperatures of other compounds decrease with the addition of 4d transition metal dopants. Finally, the electronic structures and electron density different were discussed to reveal the bonding characteristics.

  3. Corrosion-wear of β-Ti alloy TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe) in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueyuan; Hutchinson, Christopher R

    2016-09-15

    Titanium alloys are popular metallic implant materials for use in total hip replacements. Although, α+β titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V have been the most commonly used alloys, the high Young's modulus (∼110GPa) leads to an undesirable stress shielding effect. An alternative is to use β titanium alloys that exhibit a significantly lower Young's modulus (∼70GPa). Femoral stems made of a β titanium alloy known as TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe (wt.%)) have been used as part of modular hip replacements since the early 2000's but these were recalled in 2011 by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) due to unacceptable levels of 'wear debris'. The wear was caused by small relative movement of the stem and neck at the junction where they fit together in the modular hip replacement design. In this study, the corrosion and wear properties of the TMZF alloy were investigated in simulated body fluid to identify the reason for the wear debris generation. Ti64 was used as a control for comparison. It is shown that the interaction between the surfaces of Ti64 and TMZF with simulated body fluid is very similar, both from the point of view of the products formed and the kinetics of the reaction. The dry wear behaviour of TMZF is also close to that of Ti64 and consistent with expectations based on Archard's law for abrasive wear. However, wear of Ti64 and TMZF in simulated body fluid show contrasting behaviours. A type of time-dependent wear test is used to examine the synergy between corrosion and wear of TMZF and Ti64. It is shown that the wear of TMZF accelerated rapidly in SBF whereas that of Ti64 is reduced. The critical role of the strain hardening capacity of the two materials and its role in helping the surface resist abrasion by hydroxyapatite particles formed as a result of the reaction with the SBF is discussed and recommendations are made for modifications that could be made to the TMZF alloy to improve the corrosion-wear response. TMZF is a low modulus β-Ti alloy

  4. Laser Direct Writing Process for Making Electrodes and High-k Sol-Gel ZrO2 for Boosting Performances of MoS2 Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Jang, Jaewon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2016-04-13

    A series of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), including molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), can be attractive materials for photonic and electronic applications due to their exceptional properties. Among these unique properties, high mobility of 2D TMDCs enables realization of high-performance nanoelectronics based on a thin film transistor (TFT) platform. In this contribution, we report highly enhanced field effect mobility (μ(eff) = 50.1 cm(2)/(V s), ∼2.5 times) of MoS2 TFTs through the sol-gel processed high-k ZrO2 (∼22.0) insulator, compared to those of typical MoS2/SiO2/Si structures (μ(eff) = 19.4 cm(2)/(V s)) because a high-k dielectric layer can suppress Coulomb electron scattering and reduce interface trap concentration. Additionally, in order to avoid costly conventional mask based photolithography and define the patterns, we employ a simple laser direct writing (LDW) process. This process allows precise and flexible control with reasonable resolution (up to ∼10 nm), depending on the system, and enables fabrication of arbitrarily patterned devices. Taking advantage of continuing developments in laser technology offers a substantial cost decrease, and LDW may emerge as a promising technology.

  5. The Microstructural Evolution and Special Flow Behavior of Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr During Isothermal Compression at a Low Strain Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. Z.; Li, M. Q.; Li, H.

    2017-09-01

    The microstructural evolution and special flow behavior of Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr during isothermal compression at a strain rate of 0.0001 s-1 were investigated. The dislocation climbs in elongated α grains resulted in the formation of low-angle boundaries that transform into high-angle boundaries with greater deformation, and the elongated α grains subsequently separated into homogenous globular α grains with the penetration of the β phase. The simultaneous occurrence of discontinuous dynamic recrystallization and continuous dynamic recrystallization in the primary β grains resulted in a trimode grain distribution. The β grains surrounded by dislocations presented an equilateral-hexagonal morphology, which suggests that grain boundary sliding through dislocation climbs was the main deformation mechanism. The true stress-strain curves for 1073 and 1113 K abnormally intersect at a strain of 0.35, related to the α → β phase transformation and distinct growth of the β grain size.

  6. Microhardness and lattice parameter calibrations of the oxygen solid solutions of unalloyed alpha-titanium and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemann, K. E.; Shenoy, R. N.; Unnam, J.

    1987-01-01

    Standards were prepared for calibrating microanalyses of dissolved oxygen in unalloyed alpha-Ti and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo. Foils of both of these materials were homogenized for 120 hours in vacuum at 871 C following short exposures to the ambient atmosphere at 854 C that had partially oxidized the foils. The variation of Knoop microhardness with oxygen content was calibrated for both materials using 15-g and 5-g indentor loads. The unit-cell lattice parameters were calibrated for the unalloyed alpha-Ti. Example analyses demonstrate the usefulness of these calibrations and support an explanation of an anomaly in the lattice parameter variation. The results of the calibrations have been tabulated and summarized using predictive equations.

  7. Valence-Band Electronic Structures of High-Pressure-Phase PdF2-type Platinum-Group Metal Dioxides MO2 (M = Ru, Rh, Ir, and Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soda, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Daichi; Mizui, Tatsuya; Kato, Masahiko; Shirako, Yuichi; Niwa, Ken; Hasegawa, Masashi; Akaogi, Masaki; Kojitani, Hiroshi; Ikenaga, Eiji; Muro, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    The valence-band electronic structures of high-pressure-phase PdF2-type (HP-PdF2-type) platinum-group metal dioxides MO2 (M = Ru, Rh, Ir, and Pt) were studied by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. The obtained photoelectron spectra for HP-PdF2-type RuO2, RhO2, and IrO2 agree well with the calculated valence-band densities of states (DOSs) for these compounds, indicating their metallic properties, whereas the DOS of HP-PdF2-type PtO2 (calculated in the presence and absence of spin-orbit interactions) predicts that this material may be metallic or semimetallic, which is inconsistent with the electric conductivity reported to date and the charging effect observed in current photoelectron measurements. Compared with the calculated results, the valence-band spectrum of PtO2 appears to have shifted toward the high-binding-energy side and reveals a gradual intensity decrease toward the Fermi energy EF, implying a semiconductor-like electronic structure. Spin-dependent calculations predict a ferromagnetic ground state with a magnetization of 0.475 μB per formula unit for HP-PdF2-type RhO2.

  8. Characterization of a High Strength, Refractory High Entropy Alloy, AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jacob

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) are a relatively new class of materials that have garnered significant interest over the last decade due to their intriguing balance of properties including high strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance. In contrast to conventional alloy systems, HEAs are based on four or more principal elements with near equimolar concentrations and tend to have simple microstructures due to the preferential formation of solid solution phases. HEAs appear to offer new pathways to lightweighting in structural applications, new alloys for elevated temperature components, and new magnetic materials, but more thorough characterization studies are needed to assess the viability of the recently developed multicomponent materials. One such HEA, AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr, was selected to be the basis for this characterization study in part due to its strength at elevated temperatures (sigma0.2 = 1600 MPa at T = 800 °C) and low density compared with commercially available Ni-based superalloys. The refractory element containing HEA composition was developed in order to balance the high temperature strength of the refractory elements with the desirable properties achieved by the high entropy alloying design approach for potential use in aerospace thermal protection and structural applications. Ingots of AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr were cast by vacuum arc melting followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and homogenization at 1400 °C for 24 hrs with a furnace cool of 10 °C/min. The resulting microstructure was characterized at multiple length scales using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM), conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM and STEM), and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The microstructure was found to consist of a periodic, coherent two phase mixture, where a disordered bcc phase is aligned orthogonally in an ordered B2 phase. Through microstructural evolution heat treatment studies, the

  9. Effect of Surface Modifications of Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 Bulk Metallic Glass and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy on Human Osteoblasts In Vitro Biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Blanquer, Andreu; Hynowska, Anna; Nogués, Carme; Ibáñez, Elena; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Özkale, Berna; Pané, Salvador; Pellicer, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The use of biocompatible materials, including bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), for tissue regeneration and transplantation is increasing. The good mechanical and corrosion properties of Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG and its previously described biocompatibility makes it a potential candidate for medical applications. However, it is known that surface properties like topography might play an important role in regulating cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Thus, in the present study, Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG and Ti6-Al-4V alloy were surface-modified electrochemically (nanomesh) or physically (microscratched) to investigate the effect of material topography on human osteoblasts cells (Saos-2) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. For comparative purposes, the effect of mirror-like polished surfaces was also studied. Electrochemical treatments led to a highly interconnected hierarchical porous structure rich in oxides, which have been described to improve corrosion resistance, whereas microscratched surfaces showed a groove pattern with parallel trenches. Cell viability was higher than 96% for the three topographies tested and for both alloy compositions. In all cases, cells were able to adhere, proliferate and differentiate on the alloys, hence indicating that surface topography plays a minor role on these processes, although a clear cell orientation was observed on microscratched surfaces. Overall, our results provide further evidence that Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG is an excellent candidate, in the present two topographies, for bone repair purposes. PMID:27243628

  10. Synthesis, structural, optical and anti-rheumatic activity of metal complexes derived from (E)-2-amino-N-(1-(2-aminophenyl)ethylidene)benzohydrazide (2-AAB) with Ru(III), Pd(II) and Zr(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Nasser Mohammed; Sherif, Yousery E.

    2015-02-01

    Three new metal complexes derived from Pd(II), Ru(III) and Zr(IV) with (E)-2-amino-N-(1-(2-aminophenyl)ethylidene)benzohydrazide (2-AAB) have been synthesized. The isolated complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, UV-Vis, ES-MS, 1H NMR, XRD, thermal analyses (TGA and DTA) and conductance. The morphology and the particle size were determined by transmittance electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that, the ligand coordinates to Pd(II) in the enol form, while it coordinates to Ru(III) and Zr(IV) in the keto form. A square planar geometry is suggested for Pd(II) complex and octahedral geometries are suggested for Ru(III) and Zr(IV) complexes. The optical band gaps of the isolated complexes were measured and indicated the semi-conductivity nature of the complexes. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ligand and its complexes showed that, Ru(III) complex has higher effect than the well known drug "meloxicam".

  11. Oxygen ionic conductivity of NTE materials of cubic Zr 1- xLn xW 2- yMo yO 8- x/2 (Ln = Er, Yb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Hua; Xia, Hai-Ting; Jing, Xi-Ping; Zhao, Xin-Hua

    2008-08-01

    Cubic Zr 1- xLn xW 2- yMo yO 8- x/2 (Ln = Er: x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03; y = 0; Ln = Yb: x = 0.02, 0.03; y = 0.4) solid solutions, well-known negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials were prepared by using conventional solid state reactions. The morphology and the composition of the fracture surfaces of the ceramic pellets were determined by SEM and EDX technology. The conductance properties of the pellets, such as conductivity and conductance activation energy, were studied by AC impedance spectroscopy and the materials perform clearly oxygen ionic conduction with the conductivity of about 10 -4 S cm -1 at 673 K, a comparable value to that of ceria based solid electrolytes. The substitution of Mo for W enhanced the thermal stability of ZrW 2O 8, so that the conductivity of Zr 0.98Yb 0.02W 1.6Mo 0.4O 7.99 ceramic can be measured up to 873 K, which is about 5.9 × 10 -4 S cm -1.

  12. Tribological Performance of Duplex-Annealed Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Titanium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures Under Dry Sliding Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilig, Sebastian; Ramezani, Maziar; Neitzert, Thomas; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-03-01

    Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6-2-4-2) is a typical near-α titanium alloy developed for high-temperature applications. It offers numerous enhanced properties like an outstanding strength-to-weight ratio, a low Young's modulus and exceptional creep and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, titanium alloys are known for their weak resistance to wear. Ti-6-2-4-2 is mainly applied in aero engine component parts, which are exposed to temperatures up to 565 °C. Through an increasing demand on efficiency, engine components are exposed to higher combustion pressures and temperatures. Elevated temperature tribology tests were conducted on a pin-on-disk tribometer equipped with a heating chamber. The tests were carried out under dry conditions with a constant sliding distance of 600 m with a speed of 0.16 m/s at the ball point. The sliding partner was AISI E52100 steel ball with the hardness of 58HRC. The varied input variables are normal load and temperature. It can be concluded that the coefficient of friction (CoF) increases with increasing temperature, while the wear rate decreases to its minimum at 600 °C due to increasing adhesion and oxidation mechanisms. Wear track observations using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) including energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine the occurring wear mechanisms.

  13. Flow Behavior and Constitutive Equation of Ti-6.5Al-2Sn-4Zr-4Mo-1W-0.2Si Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuemei; Guo, Hongzhen; Liang, Houquan; Yao, Zekun; Yuan, Shichong

    2016-04-01

    In order to get a reliable constitutive equation for the finite element simulation, flow behavior of Ti-6.5Al-2Sn-4Zr-4Mo-1W-0.2Si alloy under high temperature was investigated by carrying a series of isothermal compression tests at temperatures of 1153-1293 K and strain rates of 0.01-10.0 s-1 on the Gleeble-1500 simulator. Results showed that the true stress-strain curves exhibited peaks at small strains, after which the flow stress decreased monotonically. Ultimately, the flow curves reached steady state at the strain of 0.6, showing a dynamic flow softening phenomenon. The effects of strain rate, temperature, and strain on the flow behavior were researched by establishing a constitutive equation. The relations among stress exponent, deformation activation energy, and strain were preliminarily discussed by using strain rate sensitivity exponent and dynamic recrystallization kinetics curve. Stress values predicted by the modified constitutive equation showed a good agreement with the experimental ones. The correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE) were 98.2% and 4.88%, respectively, which confirmed that the modified constitutive equation could give an accurate estimation of the flow stress for BT25y titanium alloy.

  14. Adsorption behavior of glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxy-silane on titanium alloy Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-hua; Zhan, Zhong-wei; Yu, Mei; Li, Song-mei

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxy-silane (GTMS) on titanium alloy Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Tafel polarization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the XPS results, it was found that the silane coverage on the titanium surface generally increased with GTMS concentration, with a slight decrease at concentration of 0.1%. Based on the relationship between isoelectronic point (IEP) of titanium surface and the pH values of silane solutions, adsorption mechanisms at different concentrations were proposed. The surface coverage data of GTMS on titanium surface was also derived from electrochemical measurements. By linear fitting the coverage data, it revealed that the adsorption of GTMS on the titanium alloy surface at 30 °C was of a physisorption-based mechanism, and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption equilibrium constant (Kads) and free energy of adsorption process (ΔGads) were calculated to elaborate the mechanism of GTMS adsorption.

  15. Micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of medical implant material Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy on various friction pairs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Weijiu; Ma, Yanlong

    2014-09-01

    The micro-scale abrasion behaviors of surgical implant materials have often been reported in the literature. However, little work has been reported on the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn (TLM) titanium alloy in simulated body fluids, especially with respect to friction pairs. Therefore, a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester was used to study the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of the TLM alloy. This study covers the friction coefficient and wear loss of the TLM alloy induced by various friction pairs. Different friction pairs comprised of ZrO2, Si3N4 and Al2O3 ceramic balls with 25.4mm diameters were employed. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanisms and synergistic effect between corrosion and micro-abrasion of the TLM alloy were investigated under various wear-corrosion conditions employing an abrasive, comprised of SiC (3.5 ± 0.5 μm), in two test solutions, Hanks' solution and distilled water. Before the test, the specimens were heat treated at 760°C/1.0/AC+550°C/6.0/AC. It was discovered that the friction coefficient values of the TLM alloy are larger than those in distilled water regardless of friction pairs used, because of the corrosive Hanks' solution. It was also found that the value of the friction coefficient was volatile at the beginning of wear testing, and it became more stable with further experiments. Because the ceramic balls have different properties, especially with respect to the Vickers hardness (Hv), the wear loss of the TLM alloy increased as the ball hardness increased. In addition, the wear loss of the TLM alloy in Hanks' solution was greater than that in distilled water, and this was due to the synergistic effect of micro-abrasion and corrosion, and this micro-abrasion played a leading role in the wear process. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanism of the TLM alloy gradually changed from two-body to mixed abrasion and then to three-body abrasion as the Vickers hardness of the balls increased. Copyright

  16. Interference-free determination of sub ng kg-1 levels of long-lived 93Zr in the presence of high concentrations (μg kg-1) of 93Mo and 93Nb using ICP-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Panayot; Russell, Ben; Douglas, David N; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Long-lived high abundance radionuclides are of increasing interest with regard to decommissioning of nuclear sites and longer term nuclear waste storage and disposal. In many cases, no routine technique is available for their measurement in nuclear waste and low-level (ng kg -1 ) environmental samples. Recent advances in ICP-MS technology offer attractive features for the selective and sensitive determination of a wide range of long-lived radionuclides. In this work, inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS)-based methodology, suitable for accurate routine determinations of 93 Zr at very low (ng kg -1 ) levels in the presence of high levels (μg kg -1 ) of the isobaric interferents 93 Nb and 93 Mo (often present in nuclear waste samples), is reported for the first time. Additionally, a novel and systematic strategy for method development based on the use of non-radioactive isotopes is proposed. It relies on gas-phase chemical reactions for different molecular ion formation to achieve isobaric interference removal. Using cell gas mixtures of NH 3 /He/H 2 or H 2 /O 2 , and suitable mass shifts, the signal from the 93 Nb and 93 Mo isobaric interferences on 93 Zr were suppressed by up to 5 orders of magnitude. The achieved limit of detection for 93 Zr was 1.3 × 10 -5  Bq g -1 (equivalent to 0.14 ng kg -1 ). The sample analysis time is 2 min, which represents a significant improvement in terms of sample throughput, compared to liquid scintillation counting methods. The method described here can be used for routine measurements of 93 Zr at environmentally relevant levels. It can also be combined with radiometric techniques for use towards the standardisation of 93 Zr measurements. Graphical abstract Interference-free determination of 93 Zr in the presence of high concentrations of isobaric 93 Mo and 93 Nb by ICP-MS/MS.

  17. Interference removals on Pd, Ru and Au with ICP-QQQ-MS in PGE RM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem Hussain Bokhari, Syed; Meisel, Thomas; Walkner, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Gold and platinum group elements (PGE) are essential industrial precious metals with high world demand due to their unique properties. Struggle for natural exploration of PGE is on great pace and recycling from industrial wastes, electronics and catalytic convertor is on the rise for PGE supply chain. Along with these developments it is becoming more challenging for analytical chemists to determine gold and PGE out of complex matrix which causes severe interferences. The current state of art is online analysis coupled with chromatographic separation of interferences. The ICP-QQQ-MS Agilent 8800 has the capability of using multi tunes and mass shifts. We aim to remove interferences on Pd+ (for direct and isotope dilution analysis) Au+ and Ru+ in lieu of chemical separations. YO+, SrOH+, ZnAr+, NiAr+, ZrO+, CuAr+, MoO+ , Ru+and Cd+ are expected interferences on Pd+ while Au+ is interfered by TaO+, HfOH+, GdAr+ and 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ by 102Pd+ ,104Pd+ etc. Initial test were performed on pure solutions of 1mg/l (interfering elements): 1 ng/l (Pd, Ru & Au) respectively. The outcomes of initial tests were applied on PGE reference material (RM) WMG-1 and SARM-7 (digested with Na2O2 sintering). The results obtained show that YO+, SrOH+ interfere (104Pd,105Pd), 104 Ru+ on (104Pd), ZnAr+ has slight interference on (104Pd and106Pd), ZrO+, NiAr+, CuAr+ interferences are negligible, MoO+ has severe interference on (108Pd, 110Pd) and that Cd+ has severe isobaric interference on (106Pd,108Pd, 110Pd). These interference have been removed by formation of Pd(NH3)3+complex. The TaO+, HfOH+ and GdAr+ interferences on Au+ are best removed by formation of Au(NH3)+ and Au(NH3)2+ complexes. 102Pd+,104Pd+interference on 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ can be removed by formation of Ru(NH3)4+ and RuO+ compounds. The results obtained comply with certified values of RM. The developed method is being tested on low concentration PGE reference materials. References: Sugiyama, N. " Removal of complex spectral

  18. Metallic glassy Zr70Ni20Pd10 powders for improving the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behavior of MgH2

    PubMed Central

    El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif

    2016-01-01

    Because of its low density, storage of hydrogen in the gaseous and liquids states possess technical and economic challenges. One practical solution for utilizing hydrogen in vehicles with proton-exchange fuel cells membranes is storing hydrogen in metal hydrides. Magnesium hydride (MgH2) remains the best hydrogen storage material due to its high hydrogen capacity and low cost of production. Due to its high activation energy and poor hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics at moderate temperatures, the pure form of MgH2 is usually mechanically treated by high-energy ball mills and catalyzed with different types of catalysts. These steps are necessary for destabilizing MgH2 to enhance its kinetics behaviors. In the present work, we used a small mole fractions (5 wt.%) of metallic glassy of Zr70Ni20Pd10 powders as a new enhancement agent to improve its hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behaviors of MgH2. This short-range ordered material led to lower the decomposition temperature of MgH2 and its activation energy by about 121 °C and 51 kJ/mol, respectively. Complete hydrogenation/dehydrogenation processes were successfully achieved to charge/discharge about 6 wt.%H2 at 100 °C/200 °C within 1.18 min/3.8 min, respectively. In addition, this new nanocomposite system shows high performance of achieving continuous 100 hydrogen charging/discharging cycles without degradation. PMID:27220994

  19. On the Potential of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Dental Implantology: Case Study on Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14.

    PubMed

    Liens, Alethea; Etiemble, Aurélien; Rivory, Pascaline; Balvay, Sandra; Pelletier, Jean-Marc; Cardinal, Sandrine; Fabrègue, Damien; Kato, Hidemi; Steyer, Philippe; Munhoz, Tais; Adrien, Jerome; Courtois, Nicolas; Hartmann, Daniel J; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2018-02-06

    Ti 40 Zr 10 Cu 36 Pd 14 Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) appears very attractive for future biomedical applications thanks to its high glass forming ability, the absence of toxic elements such as Ni, Al or Be and its good mechanical properties. For the first time, a complete and exhaustive characterization of a unique batch of this glassy alloy was performed, together with ISO standard mechanical tests on machined implant-abutment assemblies. The results were compared to the benchmark Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra-Low-Interstitial) to assess its potential in dental implantology. The thermal stability, corrosion and sterilization resistance, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties were measured on samples with a simple geometry, but also on implant-abutment assemblies' prototypes. Results show that the glassy alloy exhibits a quite high thermal stability, with a temperature range of 38 °C between the glass transition and crystallization, a compressive strength of 2 GPa, a certain plastic deformation (0.7%), a hardness of 5.5 GPa and a toughness of 56 MPa.√m. Moreover, the alloy shows a relatively lower Young's modulus (96 GPa) than the Ti-6Al-4V alloy (110-115 GPa), which is beneficial to limit bone stress shielding. The BMG shows a satisfactory cytocompatibility, a high resistance to sterilization and a good corrosion resistance (corrosion potential of -0.07 V/SCE and corrosion current density of 6.0 nA/cm²), which may ensure its use as a biomaterial. Tests on dental implants reveal a load to failure 1.5-times higher than that of Ti-6Al-4V and a comparable fatigue limit. Moreover, implants could be machined and sandblasted by methods usually conducted for titanium implants, without significant degradation of their amorphous nature. All these properties place this metallic glass among a promising class of materials for mechanically-challenging applications such as dental implants.

  20. On the Potential of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Dental Implantology: Case Study on Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14

    PubMed Central

    Liens, Alethea; Etiemble, Aurélien; Rivory, Pascaline; Balvay, Sandra; Pelletier, Jean-Marc; Cardinal, Sandrine; Fabrègue, Damien; Kato, Hidemi; Munhoz, Tais; Adrien, Jerome; Courtois, Nicolas; Hartmann, Daniel J.; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    Ti40Zr10Cu36Pd14 Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) appears very attractive for future biomedical applications thanks to its high glass forming ability, the absence of toxic elements such as Ni, Al or Be and its good mechanical properties. For the first time, a complete and exhaustive characterization of a unique batch of this glassy alloy was performed, together with ISO standard mechanical tests on machined implant-abutment assemblies. The results were compared to the benchmark Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra-Low-Interstitial) to assess its potential in dental implantology. The thermal stability, corrosion and sterilization resistance, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties were measured on samples with a simple geometry, but also on implant-abutment assemblies’ prototypes. Results show that the glassy alloy exhibits a quite high thermal stability, with a temperature range of 38 °C between the glass transition and crystallization, a compressive strength of 2 GPa, a certain plastic deformation (0.7%), a hardness of 5.5 GPa and a toughness of 56 MPa.√m. Moreover, the alloy shows a relatively lower Young’s modulus (96 GPa) than the Ti-6Al-4V alloy (110–115 GPa), which is beneficial to limit bone stress shielding. The BMG shows a satisfactory cytocompatibility, a high resistance to sterilization and a good corrosion resistance (corrosion potential of −0.07 V/SCE and corrosion current density of 6.0 nA/cm2), which may ensure its use as a biomaterial. Tests on dental implants reveal a load to failure 1.5-times higher than that of Ti-6Al-4V and a comparable fatigue limit. Moreover, implants could be machined and sandblasted by methods usually conducted for titanium implants, without significant degradation of their amorphous nature. All these properties place this metallic glass among a promising class of materials for mechanically-challenging applications such as dental implants. PMID:29415490

  1. The stability of thermodynamically metastable phases in a Zr-Sn-Nb-Mo alloy: Effects of alloying elements, morphology and applied stress/strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbing; Yao, Zhongwen; Daymond, Mark R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a dual phase Zr-Sn-Nb-Mb alloy was studied with TEM after thermal treatment and high-temperature tensile deformation. Plate and pressure tube material, manufactured through different processing routes, were used in this study. The overall average concentrations of Mo and Nb in the β phase are higher in the pressure tube than in the plate. It was revealed that these concentrations have significant effects on the subsequent stability of the β and ω phases as well as on the precipitation behavior of the α phase from the β phase. That is, the higher the concentrations, the more stable the β and ω phases are, and hence there is a reduced tendency for precipitation of α phase. Aging treatments cause the transformation of athermal ω to isothermal ω, as expected. The most striking finding is the product of the decomposition of the isothermal ω particles during aging treatment is determined as not being α phase, even though the structure of it is, as-yet, not fully determined. The non-uniform morphology of the β grains in the plate material provides us a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of morphology on the aging response of the β phase. It was found that thin β filaments suppress the precipitation of isothermal ω particles but enhance the precipitation of α phase at α/β interfaces. The effect of the Burgers orientation relationship between α and β grains on the precipitation of the α phase at the α/β interface is discussed. Applied high-temperature stress/strain has been found to enhance the decomposition of isothermal ω phase but suppress α precipitation inside the β grains. The suppression of α precipitation by applied stress/strain is discussed in terms of the ω assisted α precipitation. Implications of these findings for the in-service application of the alloy are discussed.

  2. A comparison of the fatigue behavior of cast Ti-7.5Mo with c.p. titanium, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Ju, Chien-Ping; Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the high-cycle fatigue behavior of newly developed Ti-7.5Mo alloy with that of c.p. Ti, Ti-13Nb-13Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in their as-cast state. Experimental results indicate that Ti-6Al-4V and c.p. Ti have higher stress-controlled fatigue resistance but lower strain-controlled fatigue resistance than Ti-7.5Mo and Ti-13Nb-13Zr. Among four materials Ti-7.5Mo demonstrates the best strain-controlled fatigue performance. The fracture surfaces of the present materials are comprised of three morphologically distinct zones: crack initiation zone, crack propagation zone, and the final-stage overload zone. The fatigue cracks almost always initiate from casting-induced surface/subsurface pores. A river pattern is observed in the propagation zone. In the overload zone dimples are typically observed. Three factors most significantly affecting the fatigue performance of the present materials are the presence of the casting-induced surface/subsurface pores; the location of the pores; and the inherent mechanical properties of the materials.

  3. Residual Stresses in Ta, Mo, Al and Pd Thin Films Deposited by E-Beam Evaporation Process on Si and Si/SiO2 Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisbiers, G.; Strehle, S.; Van Overschelde, O.; Wautelet, M.

    2006-02-01

    Residual stresses are commonly generated during the deposition process of thin films and can influence the reliability of the deposited systems e.g. due to fatigue, aging effects or debonding. Therefore, an evaluation of such stresses in thin films is of crucial importance for metallization of microelectronic devices and MEMS. Residual stresses can be determined experimentally by substrate curvature or X-ray diffraction measurements. The modeling of residual stresses generally deals with the calculation of the thermal ones alone. In the present work, a model is proposed, where intrinsic stresses are calculated explicitly based on the Tsui-Clyne model. The aim of this model, called self-consistent model, is to predict residual stresses in thin films independent on measurements. The simulated values are compared with experimental results for the following systems: Ta/Si, Mo/Si, Al/SiO2/Si and Pd/SiO2/Si.

  4. Electrical and mechanical properties of ZrO{sub 2} (2 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3})/MoSi{sub 2} composites and their laminated materials

    SciT

    Muraoka, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Fumihito; Hirota, Ken

    1996-04-01

    Well-densified composites with the compositions ZrO{sub 2} (2Y)/MoSi{sub 2} = 60/40 and 80/20 mol% have been fabricated by hot isostatic pressing for 2 h at 1,400 C and 196 MPa. Electric resistivities ({rho}) of the two composites are very different; the former and latter composites correspond to metallic and insulating materials, respectively. The properties are strongly dependent on the textures. Laminated materials with the compositions ZrO{sub 2} (2Y)/MoSi{sub 2} = (60/40)/(80/20)/(60/40) mol% have been prepared by the same technique. Overall electric resistivities in directions perpendicular and parallel to the interfaces have been determined to be {rho}{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} 1 {times}more » 10{sup 11} {Omega} {center_dot} cm and {rho}{sub {parallel}} {approx} 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} {Omega} {center_dot} cm, respectively. Residual stress as much as {approx} 150 MPa is induced in the interfaces. The fracture toughness (K{sub Ic}) is greatly affected by the residual stress.« less

  5. Interface Engineering with MoS2 -Pd Nanoparticles Hybrid Structure for a Low Voltage Resistive Switching Memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Tian, He; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Mao, Wei-Quan; Qiao, Yan-Cong; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted a lot of attention for its scalability, temperature robustness, and potential to achieve machine learning. However, a thick oxide layer results in relatively high program voltage while a thin one causes large leakage current and a small window. Owing to these fundamental limitations, by optimizing the oxide layer itself a novel interface engineering idea is proposed to reduce the programming voltage, increase the uniformity and on/off ratio. According to this idea, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 )-palladium nanoparticles hybrid structure is used to engineer the oxide/electrode interface of hafnium oxide (HfO x )-based RRAM. Through its interface engineering, the set voltage can be greatly lowered (from -3.5 to -0.8 V) with better uniformity under a relatively thick HfO x layer (≈15 nm), and a 30 times improvement of the memory window can be obtained. Moreover, due to the atomic thickness of MoS 2 film and high transmittance of ITO, the proposed RRAM exhibits high transparency in visible light. As the proposed interface-engineering RRAM exhibits good transparency, low SET voltage, and a large resistive switching window, it has huge potential in data storage in transparent circuits and wearable electronics with relatively low supply voltage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to alkanes using a highly dispersed Pd-Mo catalyst.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haohong; Dong, Juncai; Gu, Xianrui; Peng, Yung-Kang; Chen, Wenxing; Issariyakul, Titipong; Myers, William K; Li, Meng-Jung; Yi, Ni; Kilpatrick, Alexander F R; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xusheng; Ji, Shufang; Wang, Qian; Feng, Junting; Chen, Dongliang; Li, Yadong; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Liu, Haichao; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman; O'Hare, Dermot

    2017-09-19

    Bio-oil, produced by the destructive distillation of cheap and renewable lignocellulosic biomass, contains high energy density oligomers in the water-insoluble fraction that can be utilized for diesel and valuable fine chemicals productions. Here, we show an efficient hydrodeoxygenation catalyst that combines highly dispersed palladium and ultrafine molybdenum phosphate nanoparticles on silica. Using phenol as a model substrate this catalyst is 100% effective and 97.5% selective for hydrodeoxygenation to cyclohexane under mild conditions in a batch reaction; this catalyst also demonstrates regeneration ability in long-term continuous flow tests. Detailed investigations into the nature of the catalyst show that it combines hydrogenation activity of Pd and high density of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; we believe these are key features for efficient catalytic hydrodeoxygenation behavior. Using a wood and bark-derived feedstock, this catalyst performs hydrodeoxygenation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose-derived oligomers into liquid alkanes with high efficiency and yield.Bio-oil is a potential major source of renewable fuels and chemicals. Here, the authors report a palladium-molybdenum mixed catalyst for the selective hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to mixtures of alkanes with high carbon yield.

  7. Polarization effects produced as a result of inelastic scattering of protons near 20 MeV with excitation of the different 2/sup +/, 4/sup +/ and 6/sup +/ states in /sup 90,92/Zr and /sup 92,94/Mo nuclei

    SciT

    Plavko, A.V.; Kudryashov, V.I.; Lombar, R.M.

    1979-11-20

    On the basis of experiments on inelastic scattering of polarized protons with energy of about 20 MeV, we show that the analyzing power of A(theta) is sensitive to the excited states in /sup 90,92/Zr and /sup 92,94/Mo nuclei.

  8. Effect of LID (Registered) processing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo titanium foil-gauge materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balckburn, Linda B.

    1987-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the mechanical properties and microstructures resulting from Liquid Interface Diffusion (LID -Registered) processing of foil-gauge specimens of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo coated with varying amounts of LID material. In addition, the effects of various elevated temperature exposures on the concentration profiles of the LID alloying elements were investigated, using specimens with a narrow strip of LID material applied to the surface. Room and elevated temperature tensile properties were determined for both coated and uncoated specimens. Optical microscopy was used to examine alloy microstructures, and scanning electron microscopy to examine fracture surface morphologies. The chemical concentration profiles of the strip-coated specimens were determined with an electron microprobe.

  9. Microstructure and Properties of a Refractory NbCrMo0.5Ta0.5TiZr Alloy (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    vacuum arc melting. To close shrinkage porosity, it was hot isostatically pressed (HIPd) at T = 1723K and P = 207MPa for 3 h. In both as-solidified and...and 1473 K in a computer-controlled Instron (Instron, Norwood, MA) mechanical testing machine out- fitted with a Brew vacuum furnace and silicon...temperature. For Zr and Ti, the parameter a was extrapolated from elevated temperatures [8]. The calculated ( Calc ) values of the lattice parameter of

  10. Highly enantioselective synthesis of γ-, δ-, and ε-chiral 1-alkanols via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA)–Cu- or Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shiqing; Oda, Akimichi; Kamada, Hirofumi; Negishi, Ei-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances of asymmetric synthesis, the preparation of enantiomerically pure (≥99% ee) compounds remains a challenge in modern organic chemistry. We report here a strategy for a highly enantioselective (≥99% ee) and catalytic synthesis of various γ- and more-remotely chiral alcohols from terminal alkenes via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA reaction)–Cu- or Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling. ZACA–in situ oxidation of tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBS)-protected ω-alkene-1-ols produced both (R)- and (S)-α,ω-dioxyfunctional intermediates (3) in 80–88% ee, which were readily purified to the ≥99% ee level by lipase-catalyzed acetylation through exploitation of their high selectivity factors. These α,ω-dioxyfunctional intermediates serve as versatile synthons for the construction of various chiral compounds. Their subsequent Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling with various alkyl (primary, secondary, tertiary, cyclic) Grignard reagents and Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling with aryl and alkenyl halides proceeded smoothly with essentially complete retention of stereochemical configuration to produce a wide variety of γ-, δ-, and ε-chiral 1-alkanols of ≥99% ee. The MαNP ester analysis has been applied to the determination of the enantiomeric purities of δ- and ε-chiral primary alkanols, which sheds light on the relatively undeveloped area of determination of enantiomeric purity and/or absolute configuration of remotely chiral primary alcohols. PMID:24912191

  11. A Comparative Study on Dwell Fatigue of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr- xMo ( x = 2 to 6) Alloys on a Microstructure-Normalized Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianke; Ma, Yingjie; Lei, Jiafeng; Liu, Yuyin; Huang, Aijun; Rugg, David; Yang, Rui

    2014-12-01

    The dwell effects of Ti624 x ( x = 2 to 6) alloys, including dwell fatigue life debit, fracture mode and strain accumulation, were characterized and compared. With increasing Mo content, the dwell fatigue life debit decreases quickly, and dwell fatigue fracture exhibits a transition from subsurface to surface initiation. Accompanying these changes, the accumulated strain decreases, and the pattern of secondary cracks loses morphological features typical of dwell cracks. These variations in the fatigue behavior of Ti624 x were attributed on the fundamental level to the dual effects of Mo: It decreases the β transus of titanium and, as a slow diffuser, reduces the rate of phase transformation from β to α. A higher Mo content encourages nucleation of multiple variants of α laths and promotes the transition from aligned colonies to basketweave microstructure during cooling after β forging. As a result both the grain size and microtexture intensity of α grains in the two-phase processed and heat treated microstructure are reduced. Smaller grain size of the alloys with higher Mo content produces smaller slip band spacing and reduces accumulated strain during dwell fatigue, thus reducing propensity for crack initiation. Microtexture was shown to be the direct cause of dwell sensitivity, and their relationship was described with the aid of a two-region redistribution model based on a previous two-element redistribution model proposed by Bache.

  12. Capture of Hydrogen Using ZrNi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Lisa; Wales, Joshua; Lynch, David; Parrish, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    Water, as ice, is thought to reside in craters at the lunar poles along with CH4 and H2 . A proposed robotic mission for 2012 will utilize metal/metal hydrides for H2 recovery. Specifications are 99% capture of H2 initially at 5 bar and 100C (or greater), and degassing completely at 300C. Of 47-systems examined using the van't Hoff equation, 4 systems, Mg/MgH2, Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4, ZrNi/ZrNiH2.8, and Pd/PdH0.77, were considered likely candidates for further examination. It is essential, when selecting a system, to also examine questions regarding activation, kinetics, cyclic stability, and gas impurity effects. After considering those issues, ZrN1 was selected as the most promising candidate, as it is easily activated and rapidly forms ZrNiH 2.8 . In addition, it resists oxide poisoning by CO2, and H2O, while some oxidation by O2 is recommended for improved activation . The presence of hydrogen in the as received Zr-Ni alloy from Alfa Aesar posed additional technical problems. X-ray diffraction of the Zr-Ni powder (-325 mesh), with a Zr:Ni wt% ratio of 70:30, was found to consist of ZrH2, ZrNiH2.8, and ZrNi. ZrH2 in the alloy presented the risk that after degassing that both Zr and ZrNi would be present, and thus lead to erroneous results regarding the reactivity of ZrNi with H2 . Fortunately, ZrH2 is a highly stable hydride that does not degas H2 to any significant extent at temperatures below 300C. Based on equilibrium calculations for the decomposition of ZrH2, only 1 millionth of the hydride decomposed at 300C under a N2 atmosphere flowing at 25 ccm for 64 hours, the longest time for pretreatment employed in the investigation. It was possible, from the X-ray results and knowledge of the Zr:Ni ratio, to compute the composition of a pretreated specimen as being 76 wt% ZrNi and the balance ZrH2.

  13. Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses, dislocation density and texture in Zr-bonded U-10Mo “mini” fuel foils and plates

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Donald William; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Sisneros, Thomas A.; ...

    2016-12-01

    Here, Al clad U-10Mo fuel plates are being considered for conversion of several research reactors from high-enriched to low-enriched U fuel. Neutron diffraction measurements of the textures, residual phase stresses, and dislocation densities in the individual phases of the mini-foils throughout several processing steps and following hot-isostatic pressing to the Al cladding, have been completed. Recovery and recrystallization of the bare U-10Mo fuel foil, as indicated by the dislocation density and texture, are observed depending on the state of the material prior to annealing and the duration and temperature of the annealing process. In general, the cladding procedure significantly reducesmore » the dislocation density, but the final state of the clad plate, both texture and dislocation density, depends strongly on the final processing step of the fuel foil. In contrast, the residual stress state of the final plate is dominated by the thermal expansion mismatch of the constituent materials.« less

  14. Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses, dislocation density and texture in Zr-bonded U-10Mo “mini” fuel foils and plates

    SciT

    Brown, Donald William; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Sisneros, Thomas A.

    Here, Al clad U-10Mo fuel plates are being considered for conversion of several research reactors from high-enriched to low-enriched U fuel. Neutron diffraction measurements of the textures, residual phase stresses, and dislocation densities in the individual phases of the mini-foils throughout several processing steps and following hot-isostatic pressing to the Al cladding, have been completed. Recovery and recrystallization of the bare U-10Mo fuel foil, as indicated by the dislocation density and texture, are observed depending on the state of the material prior to annealing and the duration and temperature of the annealing process. In general, the cladding procedure significantly reducesmore » the dislocation density, but the final state of the clad plate, both texture and dislocation density, depends strongly on the final processing step of the fuel foil. In contrast, the residual stress state of the final plate is dominated by the thermal expansion mismatch of the constituent materials.« less

  15. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-x nanocomposite films and coated conductors from BaMO3 (M = Zr, Hf) colloidal solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradors, X.; Puig, T.; Li, Z.; Pop, C.; Mundet, B.; Chamorro, N.; Vallés, F.; Coll, M.; Ricart, S.; Vallejo, B.; Pino, F.; Palau, A.; Gázquez, J.; Ros, J.; Usoskin, A.

    2018-04-01

    Superconducting nanocomposites are the best material choice to address the performance required in power applications and magnets working under high magnetic fields. However, it is still challenging to sort out how to achieve the highest superconducting performance using attractive and competitive manufacturing processes. Colloidal solutions have been recently developed as a novel and very promising low cost route to manufacture nanocomposite coated conductors. Well dispersed and stabilized preformance nanoparticle solutions are first prepared with high concentrations and then mixed with the YBa2Cu3O7 metalorganic precursor solutions to generate colloidal solutions to grow the nanocomposite films. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that non-reactive BaZrO3 and BaHfO3 perovskite preformed nanoparticles are suitable for growing high quality thin and thick films, and coated conductors with a homogeneous distribution and controlled particle size using this fabrication method. Additionally, we extend the nanoparticle content of the nanocomposites up to 20%-25% mol without any degradation of the superconducting properties. Thick nanocomposite films, up to 0.8 μm, have been prepared with a single deposition of low-fluorine solutions using an ink jet printing dispenser and we demonstrate that the preformed nanoparticles display only a very limited coarsening during the growth process and so high critical current densities J c (B) under high magnetic fields. These films show the highest critical currents achieved so far based on the colloidal solution approach, I c = 220 A/cm-w at 77 K and self-field, and they still have a high potential for further increase in the film thickness. Finally, we also show that nanocomposite YBa2Cu3O7-BaZrO3 coated conductors based on an alternating beam assisted deposited YSZ buffer layer on stainless steel metallic substrates can be developed based on these novel colloidal solutions. Non-reactive preformed oxide perovskite

  16. L-shell x-ray production cross sections of Ni, Cu, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Pd by (0. 25--2. 5)-MeV protons

    SciT

    Duggan, J.L.; Kocur, P.M.; Price, J.L.

    1985-10-01

    L-shell x-ray production cross sections by /sub 1//sup 1/H/sup +/ ions are reported. The data are compared to the first Born approximation (plane-wave Born approximation for direct ionization and Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers approximation for electron capture) and to the ECPSSR (energy-loss and Coulomb-deflection effects, perturbed stationary-state approximation with relativistic correction) theory. The energy of the protons ranged from 0.25 to 2.5 MeV in steps of 0.25 MeV. The targets used in these measurements were /sub 28/Ni, /sub 29/Cu, /sub 32/Ge, /sub 33/As, /sub 37/Rb, /sub 38/Sr, /sub 39/Y, /sub 40/Zr, and /sub 46/Pd. The first Born theory generally agrees with the datamore » found in the literature at high energies and overpredicts them below 1.5 MeV. The ECPSSR predictions are in better agreement with experimental cross sections. At 0.25 MeV our data, however, are underestimated by this theory and tend to agree with the first Born approximation.« less

  17. Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in the Br-like ions Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII, and Mo VIII

    SciT

    Aggarwal, Kanti M., E-mail: K.Aggarwal@qub.ac.uk; Keenan, Francis P.

    Energies and lifetimes are reported for the lowest 375 levels of five Br-like ions, namely Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII, and Mo VIII, mostly belonging to the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 5}, 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}4ℓ, 4s4p{sup 6}, 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}5ℓ, 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 3}4d{sup 2}, 4s4p{sup 5}4ℓ, and 4s4p{sup 5}5ℓ configurations. Extensive configuration interaction has been included and the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP) has been adopted for the calculations. Additionally, radiative rates are listed among these levels for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions. From a comparison with the measurements, the majority of our energy levels are assessed to be accurate tomore » better than 2%, although discrepancies between theory and experiment for a few are up to 6%. An accuracy assessment of the calculated radiative rates (and lifetimes) is more difficult, because no prior results exist for these ions.« less

  18. Catalytic Conversion of Short-Chain Alcohols on Atomically Dispersed Au and Pd Supported on Nanoscale Metal Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chongyang

    With the development of technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals, bio-alcohols are among the main alternative feedstocks to fossil fuels. The research pursued in my thesis was the investigation of gold and palladium as catalysts for the application of short aliphatic alcohols to hydrogen generation and value-added chemicals production. Specifically, selective methanol steam reforming and non-oxidative ethanol dehydrogenation to hydrogen and acetaldehyde were investigated in this thesis work. A major aim of the thesis was to develop atomically efficient catalysts with tuned surface chemistry for the desired reactions, using suitable synthesis methods. Methanol steam reforming (SRM) for hydrogen production has recently been investigated on gold catalysts to overcome the drawbacks of copper catalysts (deactivation, pyrophoricity). Previous work at Tufts University has shown that both CeO2 and ZnO are suitable supports for gold. In this thesis, nanoscale composite oxides ZnZrOx were prepared by a carbon hard-template method, which resulted in homogeneous distribution of Zn species in the matrix of ZrO2. Tunable surface chemistry of ZnZrO x was demonstrated by varying the Zn/Zr ratio to suppress the strong Lewis acidity of ZrO2, which leads to undesired production of CO through methanol decomposition. With atomic dispersion of gold, Au/ZnZrO x catalyzes the SRM reaction exclusively via the methanol self-coupling pathway up to 375°C. The activity of Au/ZnZrOx catalysts was compared to Au/TiO2, which is another catalyst system demonstrating atomic dispersion of gold. Similarity in the apparent activation energy of SRM on all the supported gold catalysts studied in this thesis and in the literature further confirms the same single-site Au-Ox-MO centers as active sites for SRM with indirect effects of the supports exploited. With this fundamental understanding of gold-catalyzed C1 alcohol reforming, the Au/ZnZrOx catalyst was evaluated for the

  19. Modeling and Finite Element Analysis for the Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr Near β Titanium Alloy During Hot Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ya-ping; Li, Shao-jun; Zhang, Xiao-yong; Li, Zhi-you; Zhou, Ke-chao

    2018-04-01

    Evolution for the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) volume fraction of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr near β titanium alloy during hot deformation was characterized by using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. To determine the equation parameters, a series of thermal simulation experiments at the temperature of 1023-1098 K and strain rate of 0.001-1 s‒1 to the true strain of 0.7 were conducted to obtain the essential data about stress σ and strain ɛ. By further transforming the relationship of σ versus ɛ into the relationship of strain hardening rate dσ/dɛ versus σ, two characteristic strains at the beginning of DRX (critical strain ɛc) and at the peak stress (peak strain ɛp) were identified from the dσ/dɛ-σ curves. Sequentially, the parameters in the JMAK equation were determined from the linear fitting of the different relationships among critical strain ɛc, peak strain ɛp and deformation conditions (including temperature T, strain rate \\dot ɛ and strain ɛ). The as-obtained JMAK equation was expressed as XDRX=1-exp[-0.0053((ɛ-ɛc)/ɛc)2.1], where ɛc=0.6053ɛp and ɛp=0.0031 \\dot ɛ .0081exp(28,781/RT). Finally, the JMAK equation was implanted into finite element program to simulate the hot compression of thermal simulation experiments. The simulation predictions and experimental results about the DRX volume fraction distribution showed a good consistency.

  20. Hydrodeoxygenation of phenol over zirconia supported Pd bimetallic catalysts. The effect of second metal on catalyst performance

    SciT

    Resende, Karen A.; Teles, Camila A.; Jacobs, Gary

    Here, this work investigated the effect of the addition of a second metal (Cu, Ag, Zn, Sn) on the performance of Pd/ZrO 2 catalyst for HDO of phenol at 573 K in the gas phase. The incorporation of dopants resulted in the formation of Pd–X (Cu, Ag, Zn) alloys, which reduced the reaction rate for HDO and increased the selectivity to hydrogenation products (cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol). The lower activity of the bimetallic catalysts was due to the segregation of the second metal on the surface of the Pd particle. For PdSn/ZrO 2, alloying was also observed but tin oxide wasmore » still present on the surface after reduction at 773 K. For Pd and PdSn/ZrO 2, the oxophilic sites represented by Zr and Sn cations promotes the hydrogenation of the carbonyl group of the keto-tautomer intermediate formed, producing benzene as the main product. All catalysts significantly deactivated during the reaction but the deactivation degree depended on the type of the metal. Pd/ZrO 2 and PdZn/ZrO 2 and PdAg/ZrO 2 exhibited approximately the same deactivation degree. However, the loss of activity was less pronounced for PdSn/ZrO2 catalyst. Finally, Pd dispersion significantly decreased during the reaction, indicating that the sintering of Pd particles is one of the causes for catalyst deactivation.« less

  1. Hydrodeoxygenation of phenol over zirconia supported Pd bimetallic catalysts. The effect of second metal on catalyst performance

    DOE PAGES

    Resende, Karen A.; Teles, Camila A.; Jacobs, Gary; ...

    2018-03-21

    Here, this work investigated the effect of the addition of a second metal (Cu, Ag, Zn, Sn) on the performance of Pd/ZrO 2 catalyst for HDO of phenol at 573 K in the gas phase. The incorporation of dopants resulted in the formation of Pd–X (Cu, Ag, Zn) alloys, which reduced the reaction rate for HDO and increased the selectivity to hydrogenation products (cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol). The lower activity of the bimetallic catalysts was due to the segregation of the second metal on the surface of the Pd particle. For PdSn/ZrO 2, alloying was also observed but tin oxide wasmore » still present on the surface after reduction at 773 K. For Pd and PdSn/ZrO 2, the oxophilic sites represented by Zr and Sn cations promotes the hydrogenation of the carbonyl group of the keto-tautomer intermediate formed, producing benzene as the main product. All catalysts significantly deactivated during the reaction but the deactivation degree depended on the type of the metal. Pd/ZrO 2 and PdZn/ZrO 2 and PdAg/ZrO 2 exhibited approximately the same deactivation degree. However, the loss of activity was less pronounced for PdSn/ZrO2 catalyst. Finally, Pd dispersion significantly decreased during the reaction, indicating that the sintering of Pd particles is one of the causes for catalyst deactivation.« less

  2. E 2 / M 1 Mixing Ratios in Transitions From the Gamma-Vibrational-Bands to the Ground-State-Rotational-Bands of 102 , 104 , 106 , 108Mo, 108 , 110 , 112Ru, and 112 , 114 , 116Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, Jonathan M.; Fenker, B.; Goodin, C.; Hamilton, J. H.; Wang, E. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Daniel, A. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Oganesson, Yu. Ts.; Zhu, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    E 2 / M 1 mixing ratios have been measured for transitions from states in the γ-vibrational-bands (Iγ+) to states in the ground-state-bands (Ig+ or [I- 1 ] g +) of the neutron rich, deformed isotopes, 102 , 104 , 106 , 108Mo, 108 , 110 , 112Ru, and 112 , 114 , 116Pd, including from states as high as 9γ+. These measurements were done using the GAMMASPHERE detector array, which, at the time of the experiment, had 101 working HPGe detectors, arranged at 64 different angles. A 62 μCi source of 252Cf was placed inside GAMMASPHERE yielding 5.7 ×1011 γ - γ - γ and higher coincidence events. The angular correlation between the transitions from the γ-band to the ground band, and the pure E2 transitions within the ground band were then measured. These angular correlations yielded the mixing ratios, demonstrating that these transitions are all pure or nearly pure E2, in agreement with theory. In order to correct for possible attenuation due to the lifetime of the intermediate state in these correlations, the g-factors of the intermediate states needed to be known. Therefore, the g-factors of the 2g+ states in the ground state band have been measured. Supported by the US Department of Energy; Grant No. DE-FG0588ER40407, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  3. E2/M1 mixing ratios in transitions from the gamma vibrational bands to the ground state rotational bands of 102, 104, 106, 108Mo, 108, 110, 112Ru, and 112, 114, 116Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, J. M.; Fenker, B.; Hamilton, J. H.; Goodin, C.; Zachary, C. J.; Wang, E.; Ramayya, A. V.; Daniel, A. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Zhu, S. J.

    2018-02-01

    E2/ M1 mixing ratios have been measured for transitions from states in the γ vibrational bands ( I+_{γ}) to states in the ground state bands (I+ or [I-1]+) of the neutron rich, even-even, deformed isotopes, 102, 104, 106, 108Mo, 108, 110, 112Ru, and 112, 114, 116Pd, including from states as high as 9+_{γ}. These measurements were done using the GAMMASPHERE detector array, which, at the time of the experiment, had 101 working HPGe detectors, arranged at 64 different angles. A 62 μCi source of 252Cf was placed inside GAMMASPHERE yielding 5.7× 10^{11} γ-γ-γ and higher coincidence events. The angular correlations between the transitions from the γ-bands to the ground bands, and the pure E2 transitions within the ground band were then measured. These angular correlations yielded the mixing ratios, demonstrating that these transitions are pure or nearly pure E2, in agreement with theory. In order to correct for possible attenuation due to the lifetime of the intermediate state in these correlations, the g-factors of the intermediate states needed to be known. Therefore, the g-factors of the 2+ states in the ground state band have been measured.

  4. Palladium-doped-ZrO2-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite: an advanced photocatalyst for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anku, William Wilson; Oppong, Samuel Osei-Bonsu; Shukla, Sudheesh Kumar; Agorku, Eric Selorm; Govender, Poomani Penny

    2016-06-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants from water using palladium-doped-zirconium oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd-ZrO2-MWCNTs) nanocomposites is presented. A series of Pd doped-ZrO2-MWCNTs nanocomposites with varying percentage compositions of Pd were prepared by the homogenous co-precipitation method. The photocatalytic applicability of the materials was investigated by the degradation of acid blue 40 dye in water under simulated solar light. The optical, morphological and structural properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis and (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The Pd-ZrO2-MWCNTs nanocomposites showed enhanced photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of the acid blue 40 dye under visible light compared with bare ZrO2 and ZrO2-MWCNTs alone. The remarkable photocatalytic activity of Pd-ZrO2-MWCNTs nanocomposites in the visible light makes it an ideal photocatalyst for the removal of organic pollutants in water. The 0.5 % Pd-ZrO2-MWCNT was the most efficient photocatalyst with 98 % degradation after 3 h with corresponding K a and band gap values of 16.8 × 10-3 m-1 and 2.79 eV, respectively.

  5. Electrochemical performance and carbon deposition resistance of M-BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ (M = Pd, Cu, Ni or NiCu) anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Hua, Bin; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Jian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Pd-, Cu-, Ni- and NiCu-BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ anodes, designated as M-BZCYYb, were prepared by impregnating M-containing solution into BZCYYb scaffold, and investigated in the aspects of electrocatalytic activity for the reactions of H2 and CH4 oxidation and the resistance to carbon deposition. Impregnation of Pd, Ni or NiCu significantly reduced both the ohmic (RΩ) and polarization (RP) losses of BZCYYb anode exposed to H2 or CH4, while Cu impregnation decreased only RΩ in H2 and the both in CH4. Pd-, Ni- and NiCu-BZCYYb anodes were resistant to carbon deposition in wet (3 mol. % H2O) CH4 at 750°C. Deposited carbon fibers were observed in Pd- and Ni-BZCYYb anodes exposed to dry CH4 at 750°C for 12 h, and not observed in NiCu-BZCYYb exposed to dry CH4 at 750°C for 24 h. The performance of a full cell with NiCu-BZCYYb anode, YSZ electrolyte and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ-Gd doped CeO2 (LSCF-GDC) cathode was stable at 750°C in wet CH4 for 130 h, indicating that NiCu-BZCYYb is a promising anode for direct CH4 solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). PMID:25563843

  6. Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 and Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, N.; Fink, C. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Nickels, J.; Torsteinsen, T.

    1972-01-01

    The structures of Zr-93 and Zr-91 were studied by the stripping reaction Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 and the pick-up reaction Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91 using 13 MeV incident deuterons. The reaction product particles were detected by counter telescope. Typical spectra from the reactions were analyzed by a nonlinear least squares peak fitting program which included a background search. Spin and parity assignments to observed excited levels were made by comparing experimental angular distributions with distorted wave Born approximation calculations.

  7. Trace- and rare-earth element geochemistry and Pb-Pb dating of black shales and intercalated Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores in Lower Cambrian strata, Yangtze Platform, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chen, Yong-Quan; Ling, Hong-Fei; Yang, Jing-Hong; Feng, Hong-Zhen; Ni, Pei

    2006-08-01

    The Lower Cambrian black shale sequence of the Niutitang Formation in the Yangtze Platform, South China, hosts an extreme metal-enriched sulfide ore bed that shows >10,000 times enrichment in Mo, Ni, Se, Re, Os, As, Hg, and Sb and >1,000 times enrichment in Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd, when compared to average upper continental crust. We report in this paper trace- and rare-earth-element concentrations and Pb-Pb isotope dating for the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores and their host black shales. Both the sulfide ores and their host black shales show similar trace-element distribution patterns with pronounced depletion in Th, Nb, Hf, Zr, and Ti, and extreme enrichment in U, Ni, Mo, and V compared to average upper crust. The high-field-strength elements, such as Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sc, Th, rare-earth elements, Rb, and Ga, show significant inter-element correlations and may have been derived mainly from terrigenous sources. The redox sensitive elements, such as V, Ni, Mo, U, and Mn; base metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb; and Sr and Ba may have been derived from mixing of seawater and venting hydrothermal sources. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns, positive Eu and Y anomalies, and high Y/Ho ratios for the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores are also suggestive for their submarine hydrothermal-exhalative origin. A stepwise acid-leaching Pb-Pb isotope analytical technique has been employed for the Niutitang black shales and the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores, and two Pb-Pb isochron ages have been obtained for the black shales (531±24 Ma) and for the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores (521±54 Ma), respectively, which are identical and overlap within uncertainty, and are in good agreement with previously obtained ages for presumed age-equivalent strata.

  8. Spin differences in the Zr 90 compound nucleus induced by ( p , p ' ) , ( p , d ) , and ( p , t ) surrogate reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Ota, S.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; ...

    2015-11-04

    Here, the effect of the production mechanism on the decay of a compound nucleus is investigated. The nucleus 90Zr was produced by three different reactions, namely 90Zr (p,p') 90Zr, 91Zr (p,d) 90Zr, and 92Zr (p,t) 90Zr , which served as surrogate reactions for 89Zr (n,γ). The spin-parity (J π) distributions of the states populated by these reactions were studied to investigate the surrogate reaction approach, which aims at indirectly determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets such as 89Zr. Discrete γ rays, associated with transitions in 90Zr and 89Zr, were measured in coincidence with light ions for scatteringmore » angles of 25°–60° and 90Zr excitation energies extending above the neutron separation energy. The measured transition systematics were used to gain insights into the J π distributions of 90Zr. The 90Zr (p,p') reaction was found to produce fewer γ rays associated with transitions involving high spin states (J = 6–8 ℏ) than the other two reactions, suggesting that inelastic scattering preferentially populates states in 90Zr that have lower spins than those populated in the transfer reactions investigated. The γ-ray production was also observed to vary by factors of 2–3 with the angle at which the outgoing particle was detected. These findings are relevant to the application of the surrogate reaction approach.« less

  9. Experimental Determination of Impurity and Interdiffusion Coefficients in Seven Ti and Zr Binary Systems Using Diffusion Multiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhangqi; Liu, Zi-Kui; Zhao, Ji-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion coefficients of seven binary systems (Ti-Mo, Ti-Nb, Ti-Ta, Ti-Zr, Zr-Mo, Zr-Nb, and Zr-Ta) at 1200 °C, 1000 °C, and 800 °C were experimentally determined using three Ti-Mo-Nb-Ta-Zr diffusion multiples. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was performed to collect concentration profiles at the binary diffusion regions. Forward simulation analysis (FSA) was then applied to extract both impurity and interdiffusion coefficients in Ti-rich and Zr-rich part of the bcc phase. Excellent agreements between our results and most of the literature data validate the high-throughput approach combining FSA with diffusion multiples to obtain a large amount of systematic diffusion data, which will help establish the diffusion (mobility) databases for the design and development of biomedical and structural Ti alloys.

  10. Experimental Determination of Impurity and Interdiffusion Coefficients in Seven Ti and Zr Binary Systems Using Diffusion Multiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhangqi; Liu, Zi-Kui; Zhao, Ji-Cheng

    2018-07-01

    Diffusion coefficients of seven binary systems (Ti-Mo, Ti-Nb, Ti-Ta, Ti-Zr, Zr-Mo, Zr-Nb, and Zr-Ta) at 1200 °C, 1000 °C, and 800 °C were experimentally determined using three Ti-Mo-Nb-Ta-Zr diffusion multiples. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was performed to collect concentration profiles at the binary diffusion regions. Forward simulation analysis (FSA) was then applied to extract both impurity and interdiffusion coefficients in Ti-rich and Zr-rich part of the bcc phase. Excellent agreements between our results and most of the literature data validate the high-throughput approach combining FSA with diffusion multiples to obtain a large amount of systematic diffusion data, which will help establish the diffusion (mobility) databases for the design and development of biomedical and structural Ti alloys.

  11. Nb and Pd co-doped La0.57Sr0.38Co0.19Fe0.665Nb0.095Pd0.05O3-δ as a stable, high performance electrode for barrier-layer-free Y2O3-ZrO2 electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kongfa; He, Shuai; Li, Na; Cheng, Yi; Ai, Na; Chen, Minle; Rickard, William D. A.; Zhang, Teng; Jiang, San Ping

    2018-02-01

    La0.6Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) is the most intensively investigated high performance cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs), but strontium segregation and migration at the electrode/electrolyte interface is a critical issue limiting the electrocatalytic activity and stability of LSCF based cathodes. Herein, we report a Nb and Pd co-doped LSCF (La0.57Sr0.38Co0.19Fe0.665Nb0.095Pd0.05O3-δ, LSCFNPd) perovskite as stable and active cathode on a barrier-layer-free anode-supported yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte cell using direct assembly method without pre-sintering at high temperatures. The cell exhibits a peak power density of 1.3 W cm-2 at 750 °C and excellent stability with no degradation during polarization at 500 mA cm-2 and 750 °C for 175 h. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis show that the electrochemical polarization promotes the formation of electrode/electrolyte interface in operando and exsolution of Pd/PdO nanoparticles. The Nb doping in the B-site of LSCF significantly reduces the Sr surface segregation, enhancing the stability of the cathode, while the exsoluted Pd/PdO nanoparticles increases the electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. The present study opens up a new route for the development of cobaltite-based perovskite cathodes with high activity and stability for barrier-layer-free YSZ electrolyte based IT-SOFCs.

  12. Investigations of systems ThO 2-MO 2-P 2O 5 (M=U, Ce, Zr, Pu). Solid solutions of thorium-uranium (IV) and thorium-plutonium (IV) phosphate-diphosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacheux, N.; Podor, R.; Brandel, V.; Genet, M.

    1998-02-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste management aiming at the research of a storage matrix, the chemistry of thorium phosphates has been completely re-examined. In the ThO 2-P 2O 5 system a new compound thorium phosphate-diphosphate Th 4(PO 4) 4P 2O 7 has been synthesized. The replacement of Th 4+ by a smaller cation like U 4+ and Pu 4+ in the thorium phosphate-diphosphate (TPD) lattice has been achieved. Th 4- xU x(PO 4) 4P 2O 7 and Th 4- xPu x(PO 4) 4P 2O 7 solid solutions have been synthesized through wet and dry processes with 0< x<3.0 for uranium and 0< x<1.0 for plutonium. From the variation of the unit cell parameters, an upper x value equal to 1.67 has been estimated for the thorium-plutonium (IV) phosphate-diphosphate solid solutions. Two other tetravalent cations, Ce 4+ and Zr 4+, cannot be incorporated in the TPD lattice: cerium (IV) because of its reduction into Ce (III) at high temperature, and zirconium probably because of its too small radius compared to thorium.

  13. The evolution of helium from aged Zr tritides: A thermal helium desorption spectrometry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G. J.; Huang, G.; Chen, M.; Zhou, X. S.; Liu, J. H.; Peng, S. M.; Ding, W.; Wang, H. F.; Shi, L. Q.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of He from Zr-tritides was investigated for aging times up to about 6.5 years using analytical thermal helium desorption spectrometry (THDS). Zr films were deposited onto Mo substrates and then converted into Zr-tritides (ZrT1.70∼1.95) inside a tritiding apparatus loaded with pure tritium gas. During aging, there are at least five forms of He in Zr-tritides, and more than 99% of He atoms are in the form of He bubbles. The isolated He bubbles in lattices begin to link with each other when the He/Zr atom ratio reaches about 0.21, and are connected to grain boundaries or dislocation networks at He concentration of He/Zr ≈ 0.26. An interconnected system of channels decorated by bubbles evolves from the network dislocations, dislocation loops and internal boundaries. These He filled networks are formed completely when the He/Zr atom ratio is about 0.38. Once the He/Zr reached about 0.45, the networks of He bubble penetrate to the film surface and He begins an "accelerated release". This critical ratio of He to Zr for He accelerated release is much greater than that found previously for Ti-tritides (0.23-0.30). The difference of He retention in Zr-tritides and Ti-tritides was also discussed in this paper.

  14. Enrichment Of Volcanogenic Trace Elements, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mo And Zr In A Continuous Subsurface Eagle Ford Core In South Texas And Origin Of The Oceanic Anoxic Event II At The Cenomanian-Turonian (C/T) Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, D.; Basu, A. R.; Loocke, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Eagle Ford Formation containing the Cenomanian-Turonian (C/T) boundary continues to be studied globally not only for its economic potential and analog for `frack-able' unconventional organic-rich formations, but it is of particular interest to researchers because it was deposited across the C/T boundary recording an Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE2). OAEs are short lived episodes (< 1Ma) of widespread marine anoxia during which large amounts of organic carbon were buried on the ocean floor under oxygen-deficient bottom waters. The exact trigger for the increased deposition of organic matter into the sedimentary record remains enigmatic. Geochemical and geochronological analysis of a subsurface 300ft long continuous core of the Eagle Ford Formation of South Texas shows evidence for volcanism throughout. This is confirmed by multiple thin intermittent bentonite beds. The whole rock black shale (marl) shows elevated concentrations of volcanogenic trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mo and Zn) throughout the core. By sampling bentonite bed zircons near the inferred C/T boundary, U-Pb age of 93.2 ±1.7 Ma for the Eagle Ford is established. Using this horizon, the onset of OAE2 is constrained and well-correlated with the positive δ13C excursion. For the trace element analysis, the core was sampled at 10ft intervals for ICP-MS. The analytical results show significantly increased volcanogenic trace metal input correlating with increased Total Organic Carbon and positive δ13C values at the C/T dated zircon horizon. OAE2, defined by the positive δ13C excursion, was found to span over an interval of 85ft. With a definitive constraint for OAE2 established, this well-defined interval was analyzed at a much higher resolution using ED-XRF. The core was then sampled at 6' intervals throughout the C/T boundary at OAE2. The high-resolution sampling of the core shows 80-99% increase in abundance of Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mo, Zn over the average Post Australian Archean Shale

  15. Effects of heat treatment on U–Mo fuel foils with a zirconium diffusion barrier

    SciT

    Jue, Jan-Fong; Trowbridge, Tammy L.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.

    A monolith fuel design based on U–Mo alloy has been selected as the fuel type for conversion of the United States’ high performance research reactors (HPRRs) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). In this fuel design, a thin layer of zirconium is used to eliminate the direct interaction between the U–Mo fuel meat and the aluminum-alloy cladding during irradiation. The co-rolling process used to bond the Zr barrier layer to the U–Mo foil during fabrication alters the microstructure of both the U–10Mo fuel meat and the U–Mo/Zr interface. This work studied the effects of post-rolling annealing treatmentmore » on the microstructure of the co-rolled U–Mo fuel meat and the U–Mo/Zr interaction layer. Microscopic characterization shows that the grain size of U–Mo fuel meat increases with the annealing temperature, as expected. The grain sizes were ~9, ~13, and ~20 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, and 850 °C, respectively. No abnormal grain growth was observed. The U–Mo/Zr interaction-layer thickness increased with the annealing temperature with an Arrhenius constant for growth of 184 kJ/mole, consistent with a previous diffusion-couple study. The interaction layer thickness was 3.2 ± 0.5 μm, 11.1 ± 2.1 μm, 27.1 ± 0.9 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, to 850 °C, respectively. The homogeneity of Mo improves with post rolling annealing temperature and with U–Mo coupon homogenization. The phases in the Zr/U–Mo interaction layer produced by co-rolling, however, differ from those reported in the previous diffusion couple studies.« less

  16. Effects of heat treatment on U-Mo fuel foils with a zirconium diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jue, Jan-Fong; Trowbridge, Tammy L.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.; Moore, Glenn A.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Keiser, Dennis D.

    2015-05-01

    A monolith fuel design based on U-Mo alloy has been selected as the fuel type for conversion of the United States' high performance research reactors (HPRRs) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). In this fuel design, a thin layer of zirconium is used to eliminate the direct interaction between the U-Mo fuel meat and the aluminum-alloy cladding during irradiation. The co-rolling process used to bond the Zr barrier layer to the U-Mo foil during fabrication alters the microstructure of both the U-10Mo fuel meat and the U-Mo/Zr interface. This work studied the effects of post-rolling annealing treatment on the microstructure of the co-rolled U-Mo fuel meat and the U-Mo/Zr interaction layer. Microscopic characterization shows that the grain size of U-Mo fuel meat increases with the annealing temperature, as expected. The grain sizes were ∼9, ∼13, and ∼20 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, and 850 °C, respectively. No abnormal grain growth was observed. The U-Mo/Zr interaction-layer thickness increased with the annealing temperature with an Arrhenius constant for growth of 184 kJ/mole, consistent with a previous diffusion-couple study. The interaction layer thickness was 3.2 ± 0.5 μm, 11.1 ± 2.1 μm, 27.1 ± 0.9 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, to 850 °C, respectively. The homogeneity of Mo improves with post rolling annealing temperature and with U-Mo coupon homogenization. The phases in the Zr/U-Mo interaction layer produced by co-rolling, however, differ from those reported in the previous diffusion couple studies.

  17. Phase Structure and Site Preference Behavior of Ternary Alloying Additions to PdTi and PtTi Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    The phasc structure and concentration dependence of the lattice parameter and energy of formation of ternary Pd-'I-X and Pt-Ti-X alloys for a large number of ternary alloying additions X (X = Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir) are investigated with an atomistic modeling approach. In addition, a detailed description of the site preference behavior of such additions showing that the elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice is provided.

  18. Zr diffusion in titanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-11-01

    Chemical diffusion of Zr under anhydrous, pO2-buffered conditions has been measured in natural titanite. The source of diffusant was either zircon powder or a ZrO2-Al2O3-titanite mixture. Experiments were run in sealed silica glass capsules with solid buffers (to buffer at NNO or QFM). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to measure diffusion profiles. The following Arrhenius parameters were obtained for Zr diffusion parallel to c over the temperature range 753-1,100°C under NNO-buffered conditions: D Zr = 5.33 × 10-7 exp(-325 ± 30 kJ mol-1/RT) m2 s-1 Diffusivities are similar for experiments buffered at QFM. These data suggest that titanite should be moderately retentive of Zr chemical signatures, with diffusivities slower than those for O and Pb in titanite, but faster than those for Sr and the REE. When applied in evaluation of the relative robustness of the recently developed Zr-in-titanite geothermometer (Hayden and Watson, Abstract, 16th V.M. Goldschmidt Conference 2006), these findings suggest that Zr concentrations in titanite will be less likely to be affected by later thermal disturbance than the geothermometer based on Zr concentrations in rutile (Zack et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:471-488, 2004; Watson et al. in Contrib Mineral. Petrol, 2006), but much less resistant to diffusional alteration subsequent to crystallization than the Ti-in-Zircon geothermometer (Watson and Harrison in Science 308:841-844, 2005).

  19. Crystal Nucleation and Growth in Undercooled Melts of Pure Zr, Binary Zr-Based and Ternary Zr-Ni-Cu Glass-Forming Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlach, Dieter M.; Kobold, Raphael; Klein, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Glass formation of a liquid undercooled below its melting temperature requires the complete avoidance of crystal nucleation and subsequent crystal growth. Even though they are not part of the glass formation process, a detailed knowledge of both processes involved in crystallization is mandatory to determine the glass-forming ability of metals and metallic alloys. In the present work, methods of containerless processing of drops by electrostatic and electromagnetic levitation are applied to undercool metallic melts prior to solidification. Heterogeneous nucleation on crucible walls is completely avoided giving access to large undercoolings. A freely suspended drop offers the additional benefit of showing the rapid crystallization process of an undercooled melt in situ by proper diagnostic means. As a reference, crystal nucleation and dendrite growth in the undercooled melt of pure Zr are experimentally investigated. Equivalently, binary Zr-Cu, Zr-Ni and Zr-Pd and ternary Zr-Ni-Cu alloys are studied, whose glass-forming abilities differ. The experimental results are analyzed within classical nucleation theory and models of dendrite growth. The findings give detailed knowledge about the nucleation-undercooling statistics and the growth kinetics over a large range of undercooling.

  20. Improved Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon (a-C) Coating by ZrO₂ Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinzhu; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Songwei; Wu, Guizhi; Hu, Litian

    2016-09-22

    Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS₂ nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO₂ nanoparticles (ZrO₂-NPs) in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C contacts was investigated in boundary lubrication regime. The results showed that 13% less friction and 50% less wear compared to the base oil were achieved by employing ZrO₂-NPs in the base oil in self-mated a-C contacts. Via analyzing the ZrO₂-NPs and the worn a-C surface after tests, it was found that the improved lubrication by ZrO₂-NPs was based on "polishing effects", which is a new phenomenon observed between a-C and nanoparticles. Under the "polishing effect", micro-plateaus with extremely smooth surface and uniform height were produced on the analyzed a-C surface. The resulting topography of the a-C coating is suitable for ZrO₂-NPs to act as nano-bearings between rubbing surfaces. Especially, the ZrO₂-NPs exhibited excellent mechanical and chemical stability, even under the severe service condition, suggesting that the combination of nonhydrogenated a-C coating with ZrO₂-NPs is an effective, long lasting and environment-friendly lubrication solution.

  1. Improved Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon (a-C) Coating by ZrO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jinzhu; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Songwei; Wu, Guizhi; Hu, Litian

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS2 nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2-NPs) in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C contacts was investigated in boundary lubrication regime. The results showed that 13% less friction and 50% less wear compared to the base oil were achieved by employing ZrO2-NPs in the base oil in self-mated a-C contacts. Via analyzing the ZrO2-NPs and the worn a-C surface after tests, it was found that the improved lubrication by ZrO2-NPs was based on “polishing effects”, which is a new phenomenon observed between a-C and nanoparticles. Under the “polishing effect”, micro-plateaus with extremely smooth surface and uniform height were produced on the analyzed a-C surface. The resulting topography of the a-C coating is suitable for ZrO2-NPs to act as nano-bearings between rubbing surfaces. Especially, the ZrO2-NPs exhibited excellent mechanical and chemical stability, even under the severe service condition, suggesting that the combination of nonhydrogenated a-C coating with ZrO2-NPs is an effective, long lasting and environment-friendly lubrication solution. PMID:28773916

  2. Mechanism of abnormally slow crystal growth of CuZr alloy

    SciT

    Yan, X. Q.; Lü, Y. J., E-mail: yongjunlv@bit.edu.cn; State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027

    2015-10-28

    Crystal growth of the glass-forming CuZr alloy is shown to be abnormally slow, which suggests a new method to identify the good glass-forming alloys. The crystal growth of elemental Cu, Pd and binary NiAl, CuZr alloys is systematically studied with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the growth velocity indicates the different growth mechanisms between the elemental and the alloy systems. The high-speed growth featuring the elemental metals is dominated by the non-activated collision between liquid-like atoms and interface, and the low-speed growth for NiAl and CuZr is determined by the diffusion across the interface. Wemore » find that, in contrast to Cu, Pd, and NiAl, a strong stress layering arisen from the density and the local order layering forms in front of the liquid-crystal interface of CuZr alloy, which causes a slow diffusion zone. The formation of the slow diffusion zone suppresses the interface moving, resulting in much small growth velocity of CuZr alloy. We provide a direct evidence of this explanation by applying the compressive stress normal to the interface. The compression is shown to boost the stress layering in CuZr significantly, correspondingly enhancing the slow diffusion zone, and eventually slowing down the crystal growth of CuZr alloy immediately. In contrast, the growth of Cu, Pd, and NiAl is increased by the compression because the low diffusion zones in them are never well developed.« less

  3. Elastic and transport properties of topological semimetal ZrTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, San-Dong; Wang, Yue-Hua; Lu, Wan-Li

    2017-11-01

    Topological semimetals may have substantial applications in electronics, spintronics, and quantum computation. Recently, ZrTe was predicted as a new type of topological semimetal due to the coexistence of Weyl fermions and massless triply degenerate nodal points. In this work, the elastic and transport properties of ZrTe are investigated by combining the first-principles calculations and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Calculated elastic constants prove the mechanical stability of ZrTe, and the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio also are calculated. It is found that spin-orbit coupling (SOC) has slightly enhanced effects on the Seebeck coefficient, which along the a(b) and c directions for pristine ZrTe at 300 K is 46.26 μVK-1 and 80.20 μVK-1, respectively. By comparing the experimental electrical conductivity of ZrTe (300 K) with the calculated value, the scattering time is determined as 1.59 × 10-14 s. The predicted room-temperature electronic thermal conductivity along the a(b) and c directions is 2.37 {{Wm}}-1{{{K}}}-1 and 2.90 {{Wm}}-1{{{K}}}-1, respectively. The room-temperature lattice thermal conductivity is predicted as 17.56 {{Wm}}-1{{{K}}}-1 and 43.08 {{Wm}}-1{{{K}}}-1 along the a(b) and c directions, showing very strong anisotropy. Calculated results show that isotope scattering produces an observable effect on lattice thermal conductivity. To observably reduce lattice thermal conductivity by nanostructures, the characteristic length should be smaller than 70 nm, based on cumulative lattice thermal conductivity with respect to the phonon mean free path (MFP) at 300 K. It is noted that the average room-temperature lattice thermal conductivity of ZrTe is slightly higher than that of isostructural MoP, which is due to larger phonon lifetimes and smaller Grüneisen parameters. Finally, the total thermal conductivity as a function of temperature is predicted for pristine ZrTe. Our works provide valuable

  4. A New Superhard Phase and Physical Properties of ZrB₃ from First-Principles Calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gangtai; Bai, Tingting; Zhao, Yaru; Hu, Yanfei

    2016-08-22

    Using the first-principles particle swarm optimization algorithm for crystal structural prediction, we have predicted a novel monoclinic C 2/ m structure for ZrB₃, which is more energetically favorable than the previously proposed FeB₃-, TcP₃-, MoB₃-, WB₃-, and OsB₃-type structures in the considered pressure range. The new phase is mechanically and dynamically stable, as confirmed by the calculations of its elastic constants and phonon dispersion curve. The calculated large shear modulus (227 GPa) and high hardness (42.2 GPa) show that ZrB₃ within the monoclinic phase is a potentially superhard material. The analyses of the electronic density of states and chemical bonding reveal that the strong B-B and B-Zr covalent bonds are attributed to its high hardness. By the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient and Grüneisen parameter of ZrB₃ are also systemically investigated.

  5. Sc–Zr–Nb–Rh–Pd and Sc–Zr–Nb–Ta–Rh–Pd High-Entropy Alloy Superconductors on a CsCl-Type Lattice

    SciT

    Stolze, Karoline; Tao, Jing; von Rohr, Fabian O.

    We have synthesized previously unreported High-Entropy Alloys (HEAs) in the pentanary (ScZrNb) 1-x[RhPd] x and hexanary (ScZrNbTa) 1-x[RhPd] x systems. The materials have CsCl-type structures and mixed site occupancies. Both HEAs are type-II superconductors with strongly varying critical temperatures (T cs) depending on the valence electron count (VEC); the T cs increase monotonically with decreasing VEC within each series, and do not follow the trends seen for either crystalline or amorphous transition metal superconductors. The (ScZrNb) 0.65[RhPd] 0.35 HEA with the highest T c, ~9.3 K, also exhibits the largest µ 0H c2(0) = 10.7 T. The pentanary and hexanarymore » HEAs have higher superconducting transition tempera-tures than their simple binary intermetallic relatives with the CsCl-type structure and a surprisingly ductile mechanical behavior. The presence of niobium, even at the 20% level, has a positive impact on the T c. Nevertheless, niobium-free (ScZr) 0.50[RhPd] 0.50, as mother-compound of both superconducting HEAs found here, is itself superconducting, proving that superconductivity is an intrinsic feature of the bulk material.« less

  6. Sc–Zr–Nb–Rh–Pd and Sc–Zr–Nb–Ta–Rh–Pd High-Entropy Alloy Superconductors on a CsCl-Type Lattice

    DOE PAGES

    Stolze, Karoline; Tao, Jing; von Rohr, Fabian O.; ...

    2018-01-17

    We have synthesized previously unreported High-Entropy Alloys (HEAs) in the pentanary (ScZrNb) 1-x[RhPd] x and hexanary (ScZrNbTa) 1-x[RhPd] x systems. The materials have CsCl-type structures and mixed site occupancies. Both HEAs are type-II superconductors with strongly varying critical temperatures (T cs) depending on the valence electron count (VEC); the T cs increase monotonically with decreasing VEC within each series, and do not follow the trends seen for either crystalline or amorphous transition metal superconductors. The (ScZrNb) 0.65[RhPd] 0.35 HEA with the highest T c, ~9.3 K, also exhibits the largest µ 0H c2(0) = 10.7 T. The pentanary and hexanarymore » HEAs have higher superconducting transition tempera-tures than their simple binary intermetallic relatives with the CsCl-type structure and a surprisingly ductile mechanical behavior. The presence of niobium, even at the 20% level, has a positive impact on the T c. Nevertheless, niobium-free (ScZr) 0.50[RhPd] 0.50, as mother-compound of both superconducting HEAs found here, is itself superconducting, proving that superconductivity is an intrinsic feature of the bulk material.« less

  7. Compatibility studies on Mo-coating systems for nuclear fuel cladding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Huan Chin; Hosemann, Peter; Glaeser, Andreas M.; Cionea, Cristian

    2017-12-01

    To improve the safety factor of nuclear power plants in accident scenarios, molybdenum (Mo), with its high-temperature strength, is proposed as a potential fuel-cladding candidate. However, Mo undergoes rapid oxidation and sublimation at elevated temperatures in oxygen-rich environments. Thus, it is necessary to coat Mo with a protective layer. The diffusional interactions in two systems, namely, Zircaloy-2 (Zr2) on a Mo tube, and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) on a Mo rod, were studied by aging coated Mo substrates in high vacuum at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 1000° for 1000 h. The specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and nanoindentation. In both systems, pores in the coating increased in size and number with increasing temperature over time, and cracks were also observed; intermetallic phases formed between the Mo and its coatings.

  8. High-temperature Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of ZrTiHfNbMox (x=0.5, 1.0, 1.5) Refractory High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. W.; Li, Y. K.; Cheng, X. W.; Wu, C.; Cheng, B.

    2018-05-01

    Refractory high entropy alloys (RHEAs), with excellent properties at high temperature, have several applications. In this work, the ZrTiHfNbMox (x=0.5, 1.0, 1.5) alloys were prepared by arc melting. All these alloys form body centered cubic (BCC) structure without other intermediate phases. The Mo element contributes to the strength of alloys at high temperature, but too much of Mo decreases the plasticity severely and enhances the strength. The ZrTiHfNbMo alloy, whose compressive stress is 1099 MPa at 800° C, is a promising material for high-temperature applications.

  9. Irradiated microstructure of U-10Mo monolithic fuel plate at very high fission density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, J.; Miller, B. D.; Keiser, D. D.; Jue, J. F.; Madden, J. W.; Robinson, A. B.; Ozaltun, H.; Moore, G.; Meyer, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    Monolithic U-10Mo alloy fuel plates with Al-6061 cladding are being developed for use in research and test reactors as low enrichment fuel (<20% U-235 enrichment) as a result of its high uranium loading capacity compared to that of U-7Mo dispersion fuel. These fuel plates contain a Zr diffusion barrier between the U-10Mo fuel and Al-6061 cladding that suppresses the interaction between the U-Mo fuel foil and Al alloy cladding that is known to be problematic under irradiation. Different methods have been employed to fabricate monolithic fuel plates, including hot-rolling with no cold-rolling. L1P09T is a hot-rolled fuel plate irradiated to high fission density in the RERTR-9B experiment. This paper discusses the TEM characterization results for this U-10Mo/Zr/Al6061 monolithic fuel plate (∼59% U-235 enrichment) irradiated in Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory with an unprecedented high local fission density of 9.8E+21 fissions/cm3. The calculated fuel foil centerline temperature at the beginning of life and the end of life is 141 and 194 °C, respectively. TEM lamellas were prepared using focus ion beam lift-out technique. The estimated U-Mo fuel swelling, based on the fuel foil thickness change from SEM, is approximately 76%. Large bubbles (>1 μm) are distributed evenly in U-Mo and interlink of these bubbles is evident. The average size of subdivided grains at this fission density appears similar to that at 5.2E+21 fissions/cm3. The measured average Mo and Zr content in the fuel matrix is ∼30 at% and ∼7 at%, respectively, in general agreement with the calculated Mo and Zr from fission density.

  10. Irradiated microstructure of U-10Mo monolithic fuel plate at very high fission density

    SciT

    Gan, J.; Miller, B. D.; Keiser, D. D.

    Monolithic U-10Mo alloy fuel plates with Al-6061 cladding are being developed for use in research and test reactors as low enrichment fuel (< 20% U-235 enrichment) as a result of its high uranium loading capacity compared to that of U-7Mo dispersion fuel. These fuel plates contain a Zr diffusion barrier between the U-10Mo fuel and Al-6061 cladding that suppresses the interaction between the U-Mo fuel foil and Al alloy cladding that is known to be problematic under irradiation. This paper discusses the TEM results of the U-10Mo/Zr/Al6061 monolithic fuel plate (Plate ID: L1P09T, ~ 59% U-235 enrichment) irradiated in Advancedmore » Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory as part of RERTR-9B irradiation campaign with an unprecedented high local fission density of 9.8E+21 fissions/cm3. The calculated fuel foil centerline temperature at the beginning of life and the end of life is 141 and 194 C, respectively. A total of 5 TEM lamellas were prepared using focus ion beam lift-out technique. The estimated U-Mo fuel swelling, based on the fuel foil thickness change from SEM, is approximately 76%. Large bubbles (> 1 µm) are distributed evenly in U-Mo and interlink of these bubbles is evident. The average size of subdivided grains at this fission density appears similar to that at 5.2E+21 fissions/cm3. The measured average Mo and Zr content in the fuel matrix is ~ 30 at% and ~ 7 at%, respectively, in general agreement with the calculated Mo and Zr from fission density.« less

  11. How Deep and Hot was Earth's Magma Ocean? Combined Experimental Datasets for the Metal-silicate Partitioning of 11 Siderophile Elements - Ni, Co, Mo, W, P, Mn, V, Cr, Ga, Cu and Pd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    variable oxygen fugacity. Preliminary results confirm that D(Ni) and D(Co) converge at pressures near 25-30 GPa and approximately 2200 K, and show that D(Pd) and D(Cu) become too low at the PT conditions of the deepest models. Furthermore, models which force fit V and Cr mantle concentrations by metal-silicate equilibrium overlook the fact that at early Earth mantle fO2, these elements will be more compatible in Mg-perovskite and (Fe,Mg)O than in metal. Thus an intermediate depth magma ocean, at 25-30 GPa, 2200 K, and at IW-2, can explain more mantle siderophile element concentrations than other models.

  12. Chemical separation of Mo and W from terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples via anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yuichiro; Yokoyama, Tetsuya

    2014-05-20

    A new two-stage chemical separation method was established using an anion exchange resin, Eichrom 1 × 8, to separate Mo and W from four natural rock samples. First, the distribution coefficients of nine elements (Ti, Fe, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, and W) under various chemical conditions were determined using HCl, HNO3, and HF. On the basis of the obtained distribution coefficients, a new technique for the two-stage chemical separation of Mo and W, along with the group separation of Ti-Zr-Hf, was developed as follows: 0.4 M HCl-0.5 M HF (major elements), 9 M HCl-0.05 M HF (Ti-Zr-Hf), 9 M HCl-1 M HF (W), and 6 M HNO3-3 M HF (Mo). After the chemical procedure, Nb remaining in the W fraction was separated using 9 M HCl-3 M HF. On the other hand, Nb and Zn remaining in the Mo fraction were removed using 2 M HF and 6 M HCl-0.1 M HF. The performance of this technique was evaluated by separating these elements from two terrestrial and two extraterrestrial samples. The recovery yields for Mo, W, Zr, and Hf were nearly 100% for all of the examined samples. The total contents of the Zr, Hf, W, and Mo in the blanks used for the chemical separation procedure were 582, 9, 29, and 396 pg, respectively. Therefore, our new separation technique can be widely used in various fields of geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and environmental sciences and particularly for multi-isotope analysis of these elements from a single sample with significant internal isotope heterogeneities.

  13. Demonstration of resonant photopumping of Mo VII by Mo XII for a VUV laser near 600 {Angstrom}

    SciT

    Ilcisin, K.J.; Aumayr, F.; Schwob, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    We present data of experiments on the resonant photopumping of Mo VII by Mo XII as a method of generating a coherent VUV source near 600 {angstrom}. The experiment is based on a scheme proposed by Feldman and Reader in which the 4p{sup 6} -- 4p{sup 5}6s transition in Mo VII in resonantly photopumped by the 5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} -- 4p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} transition in Mo XII. Results of the laser produced plasma experiments show the successful enhancement of the population of the Mo VII 4p{sup 5}6s upper lasing level when pumped by an adjacent Mo VII plasma.more » No enhancement was seen in a control experiment where the Mo VII plasma was pumped by a Zr X plasma. Improvements of the intensity of the Mo XII pump source, achieved using an additional pump laser, lead to the generation of a population inversion for the VUV transition.« less

  14. Refining As-cast β-Ti Grains Through ZrN Inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Dong; Zhang, Duyao; Easton, Mark A.; St John, David H.; Gibson, Mark A.

    2018-03-01

    The columnar-to-equiaxed transition and remarkable refinement of β-Ti grains occur in an as-cast Ti-13Mo alloy when a new grain refiner, ZrN, was inoculated at a nitrogen level as low as 0.4 wt pct. The grain refining effect is attributed to in situ-formed TiN particles that provide active nucleation sites and solute Zr that promotes constitutional supercooling. Reproducible orientation relationships were identified between TiN nucleants and β-Ti matrix, and well explained by the edge-to-edge matching model.

  15. Microstructure and Elevated Temperature Properties of a Refractory TaNbHfZrTi Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-24

    composition of the TaNbHfZrTi alloy produced by vacuum arc melting Composition Ta Nb Hf Zr Ti at.% 19.68 18.93 20.46 21.23 19.7 wt. % 30.04 14.84 30.82 16.34...metallic materials with higher melting points, such as refractory molybdenum (Mo) and niobium ( Nb ) alloys, are examined as alternatives by academic and...creep resistance are the key properties of these alloys, since considerable alloy softening generally occurs at tempera- tures above *0.5 0.6 Tm

  16. Investigation of ZrO x /ZrC-ZrN/Zr thin-film structural evolution and their degradation using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmani, B.; Vijay, V.; Chhibber, R.; Dixit, A.

    2016-11-01

    The thin-film structures of DC/FR magnetron-sputtered ZrO x /ZrC-ZrN/Zr tandem solar-selective coatings are investigated using X-ray diffraction and room-temperature Raman spectroscopic measurements. These studies suggest that the major contribution is coming from h-ZrN0.28, c-ZrC, h-Zr3C2 crystallographic phases in ZrN-ZrC absorber layer, in conjunction with mixed ZrO x crystallographic phases. The change in structure for thermally annealed samples has been examined and observed that cubic and hexagonal ZrO x phase converted partially into tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO x phases, whereas hexagonal and cubic ZrN phases, from absorber layer, have not been observed for these thermally treated samples in air. These studies suggest that thermal treatment may lead to the loss of ZrN phase in absorber, degrading the thermal response for the desired wavelength range in open ambient conditions in contrast to vacuum conditions.

  17. Design of Heusler Precipitation Strengthened NiTi- and PdTi-Base SMAs for Cyclic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Dana J.; Olson, Gregory B.

    2015-06-01

    For a wide range of actuation applications, the performance of NiTi-based shape memory alloys is limited by cyclic instability associated with accommodation slip. For medical applications, low-Ni compositions are also desirable. Increasing yield strength via precipitation of a coherent nanoscale Ni2TiAl-type Heusler phase from a supersaturated B2 matrix is an effective approach for eliminating slip in order to improve the stability of the functional response and increase the structural fatigue life. Quaternary additions that partition into the L21 Heusler phase, such as Zr or Pd, are favorable for reducing interphase misfit and maintaining coherency during aging. Phase relations and precipitation kinetics in quaternary Ni(TiZrAl), low-Ni (PdNi)(TiAl), and Ni-free (PdFe)(TiAl) systems are summarized from TEM and atom probe tomography data in the literature. Strengthening behavior during isothermal aging is compared in the NiTiZrAl and PdNiTiAl systems, and recent work characterizing a high-strength, low-Ni "Hybrid" (PdNi)(TiZrAl) alloy is presented. A systems design approach is taken in which an optimal microstructure for peak strengthening is identified while other property objectives such as transformation temperature, misfit, radiopacity, and biocompatibility are satisfied.

  18. Influence of strain and metal thickness on metal-MoS₂ contacts.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Wissam A

    2014-09-07

    MoS2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides are considered as potential materials in many applications including future electronics. A prerequisite for these applications is to understand the nature of the MoS2 contact with different metals. We use semi-local density functional theory in conjunction with dispersion corrections to study the heterostructures composed of Pd and Pt monolayers with (111) orientation grown pseudomorphically on MoS2(001). The interface properties are mapped as a function of the number of deposited overlayers, as well as a function of tensile and compressive strains. Although we show that the dependence of the contacts on strain can be fully explained using the d-band model, we find that their evolution with the number of deposited metal layers is markedly different between Pd and Pt, and at variance with the d-band model. Specifically, the Pt/MoS2 heterostructures show an anomalous large stability with the deposition of two metal monolayers for all investigated strains, while Pd/MoS2 exhibits a similar behavior only for compressive strains. It is shown that the results can be rationalized by accounting for second-nearest-neighbor effect that couples MoS2 with the subsurface metal layers. The underpinnings of this behavior are attributed to the larger polarizability and cohesive energy of Pt compared to Pd, that leads to a larger charge-response in the subsurface layers.

  19. Properties of Superconducting Mo, Mo2n and Trilayer Mo2n-Mo-Mo2n Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrentine, E. M.; Stevenson, T. R.; Brown, A. D.; Lowitz, A. E.; Noroozian, O.; U-Yen, K.; Eshan, N.; Hsieh, W. T.; Moseley, S. H.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the properties of thin film superconducting Mo, Mo2N and Mo2N/Mo/Mo2N trilayers of interest for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) applications. Using microwave resonator devices, we investigate the transition temperature, energy gaps, kinetic inductance, and internal quality factors of these materials. We present an Usadel-based interpretation of the trilayer transition temperature as a function of trilayer thicknesses, and a 2-gap interpretation to understand the change in kinetic inductance and internal resonance quality factor (Q) as a function of temperature.

  20. Zr/ZrC modified layer formed on AISI 440B stainless steel by plasma Zr-alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, X. Z.; Guo, Q.; Meng, T. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Yang, H. J.; Liu, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    The surface Zr/ZrC gradient alloying layer was prepared by double glow plasma surface alloying technique to increase the surface hardness and wear resistance of AISI 440B stainless steel. The microstructure of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer formed at different alloying temperatures and times as well as its formation mechanism were discussed by using scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrum, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adhesive strength, hardness and tribological property of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer were also evaluated in the paper. The alloying surface consists of the Zr-top layer and ZrC-subsurface layer which adheres strongly to the AISI 440B steel substrate. The thickness of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer increases gradually from 16 μm to 23 μm with alloying temperature elevated from 900 °C to 1000 °C. With alloying time from 0.5 h to 4 h, the alloyed depth increases from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the ZrC-rich alloyed thickness vs time is basically parabola at temperature of 1000 °C. Both the hardness and wear resistance of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer obviously increase compared with untreated AISI 440B steel.

  1. The Experimental Study of Nuclear Astrophysics Reaction Rate of 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, L.; Li, Z. H.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Guo, B.; Du, X. C.; Wu, Z. D.; Zeng, S.; Jin, S. J.; Wang, Y. B.; Bai, X. X.; Zhang, W. J.; Sun, H. B.; Li, E. T.

    The slow neutron capture (s-) process plays a very important role in the nucleosynthesis, which produces about half of the elements heavier than iron. 94Zr is mainly from 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr in the s-process, and the direct component of the 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr capture reaction can be derived from the neutron spectroscopic factor of 94Zr. As the existing neutron spectroscopic factors of 94Zr vary from each other up to 60%, a new work should be adopted to measure it exactly. In the present work, the angular distributions of 94Zr(13C,13C)94Zr, 94Zr(12C,12C)94Zr and 94Zr(12C,13C)93Zr were obtained using the highprecision Q3D magnetic spectrograph. In addition, distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations of the transfer differential cross sections were performed. The calculated result displays a good agreement with the experiment data, and a value of 2.60±0.20 for the neutron spectroscopic factor of 94Zr was extracted, and the direct capture cross section versus neutron energy of 93Zr(n,γ)94Zr for the ground state of 94Zr was obtained too.

  2. Cognitive impairment and PD patients' capacity to consent to research

    PubMed Central

    Cary, Mark; Moelter, Stephen T.; Siderowf, Andrew; Sullo, Elizabeth; Xie, Sharon; Weintraub, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how cognitive impairment affects Parkinson disease (PD) patients' research consent capacity. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 90 patients with PD, divided using Mattis Dementia Rating Scale–2 scores into 3 groups of 30 (normal, borderline, and impaired), and 30 neurologically normal older adults completed 2 capacity interviews (an early-phase randomized and controlled drug trial and a sham-controlled surgical implantation of genetic tissue) using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research. Expert clinicians used the interviews to classify the patients as either capable or not capable of providing their own informed consent. These judgments were compared with performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results: Cognitively normal PD patients typically scored well on the capacity measures. In contrast, patients with impaired cognition were not capable of providing their own informed consent: 17% (5/30) on the drug trial and 3% (1/30) on the surgery trial were judged capable. Patients with borderline impairment showed adequate performance on measures of appreciation and reasoning, but impaired performance on understanding the drug trial compared with normal controls and normal PD patients, and on understanding the surgery trial compared with normal controls. Sixty-seven percent (20/30) on the drug trial and 57% (17/30) on the surgery trial were judged capable of consent. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the MMSE and MoCA could detect the likelihood of impaired capacity, with the MoCA demonstrating greater sensitivity. Conclusions: PD patients with borderline cognitive impairment have impairments in their decisional capacity. The MoCA may be useful to identify the patients at risk of impaired capacity. PMID:23892706

  3. Superconductivity and strong intrinsic defects in LaPd1-xBi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Malliakas, Christos D.; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Claus, Helmut; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-10-01

    Two new phases LaPd1-xBi2 and CePd1-xBi2 were obtained by growing single crystals in Bi flux. They adopt the tetragonal ZrCuSi2-type structure and feature Bi-square nets and PbO-type PdBi layers with significant partial Pd occupancy. Bulk superconductivity at 2.1 K and metallic behavior above Tc are observed in LaPd1-xBi2. A small residual resistance ratio (RRR) indicates a strong scattering effect induced by the Pd vacancies, which implies an s-wave pairing symmetry in LaPd1-xBi2. The broadening of the resistivity transition was measured under different magnetic fields demonstrating a high upper critical field of 3 T. Hall effect measurements reveal dominantly electron-like charge carriers and single-band transport behavior in LaPd1-xBi2. The paramagnetic CePd1-xBi2 is nonsuperconducting but shows antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K.

  4. PD-1/PD-L1 in disease.

    PubMed

    Kuol, Nyanbol; Stojanovska, Lily; Nurgali, Kulmira; Apostolopoulos, Vasso

    2018-02-01

    Expression of PD-1 on T/B cells regulates peripheral tolerance and autoimmunity. Binding of PD-1 to its ligand, PD-L1, leads to protection against self-reactivity. In contrary, tumor cells have evolved immune escape mechanisms whereby overexpression of PD-L1 induces anergy and/or apoptosis of PD-1 positive T cells by interfering with T cell receptor signal transduction. PD-L1 and PD-1 blockade using antibodies are in human clinical trials as an alternative cancer treatment modality. Areas covered: We describe the role of PD-1/PD-L1 in disease in the context of autoimmunity, neurological disorders, stroke and cancer. For immunotherapy/vaccines to be successful, the expression of PD-L1/PD-1 on immune cells should be considered, and the combination of checkpoint inhibitors and vaccines may pave the way for successful outcomes to disease.

  5. Plot Description (PD)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Plot Description (PD) form is used to describe general characteristics of the FIREMON macroplot to provide ecological context for data analyses. The PD data characterize the topographical setting, geographic reference point, general plant composition and cover, ground cover, fuels, and soils information. This method provides the general ecological data that can be...

  6. Tribological characterisation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass in simulated physiological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Chan, K. C.; Liu, L.

    2011-10-01

    Due to their excellent wear resistant properties and high strength, as well as a low Young's modulus, Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are potentially suitable biomaterials for low-friction arthroplasty. The wear characteristics of the Zr60.14Cu22.31Fe4.85Al9.7Ag3 bulk amorphous alloy against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) compared to a CoCrMo/UHMWPE combination were investigated in two different wear screening test devices, reciprocating and unidirectional. Hank's solution and sterile calf bovine serum were selected as the lubricant fluid media. It was found that different fluid media had insignificant effect on polyethylene wear against BMG counterfaces. The wear behaviour obtained on both test devices demonstrated that Zr-based BMG achieved UHMWPE counterface wear rates superior to conventional cast CoCrMo alloy, where the wear rate of UHMWPE is decreased by over 20 times. The tribological performance of these joints is superior to that of conventional metal-on-polymer designs. Contact angle measurements suggested that the advantage of BMG over a CoCrMo alloy counterface is attributed to its highly hydrophilic surfaces.

  7. Mo1-xWxSe2-Based Schottky Junction Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sum-Gyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Sungjin; Oh, Donggun; Choi, Hwan Young; Lee, Nara; Choi, Young Jai; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-12-14

    We developed Schottky junction photovoltaic cells based on multilayer Mo 1-x W x Se 2 with x = 0, 0.5, and 1. To generate built-in potentials, Pd and Al were used as the source and drain electrodes in a lateral structure, and Pd and graphene were used as the bottom and top electrodes in a vertical structure. These devices exhibited gate-tunable diode-like current rectification and photovoltaic responses. Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 Schottky diodes with Pd and Al electrodes exhibited higher photovoltaic efficiency than MoSe 2 and WSe 2 devices with Pd and Al electrodes, likely because of the greater adjusted band alignment in Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 devices. Furthermore, we showed that Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 -based vertical Schottky diodes yield a power conversion efficiency of ∼16% under 532 nm light and ∼13% under a standard air mass 1.5 spectrum, demonstrating their remarkable potential for photovoltaic applications.

  8. Functional clay supported bimetallic nZVI/Pd nanoparticles used for removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Su, Jin; Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2013-11-15

    Bentonite supported Fe/Pd nanoparticles (B/nZVI/Pd) were synthesized as composites that exhibit functionalities assisting in the removal of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution. The results showed that 91.87% of MO was removed using B/nZVI/Pd, while only 85% and 1.41% of MO were removed using nZVI/Pd and bentonite after 10 min, respectively. The new findings include that the presence of bentonite decreased the aggregation of nZVI/Pd and nZVI in the composite played its role as a reductant, while Pd(0) acted as the catalyst to enhance the degradation of MO, which were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis analysis and the batch experiments. The increase in B/nZVI/Pd loading led to greater removal efficiency, while decolorization efficiency declined in the presence of anions such as nitrate, sulfite and carbonate, especially nitrate, which decreased the apparent rate constant k(obs) almost 17.06-fold. The kinetics study indicated that the degradation of MO fitted well to the pseudo-first-order model, where the k(obs) was 0.0721 min(-1). Finally, the reactivity of aged B/nZVI/Pd was investigated, and the application of B/nZVI/Pd in wastewater indicated a removal efficiency higher than 93.75%. This provided a new environmental pollution management option for dyes-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mo 99 Draft Report.

    SciT

    Seestrom, Susan Joyce

    The Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) 99Molybdenum ( 99Mo) Subcommittee met December 14-15, 2017 to address the charge to NSAC requesting that a fourth annual review of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) 99Mo program be performed. The Subcommittee found that the NNSA has continued to make progress over the course of the year based on the specific American Medical Isotopes Production Act of 2012 (AMIPA) requirements.

  10. Increasing the Aromatic Selectivity of Quinoline Hydrogenolysis Using Pd/MOx–Al2O3

    SciT

    Bachrach, Mark; Morlanes-Sanchez, Natalia; Canlas, Christian P.

    2014-09-11

    Catalysts consisting of Pd nanoparticles supported on highly dispersed TiOx–Al2O3, TaOx–Al2O3, and MoOx–Al2O3 are studied for catalytic quinoline hydrogenation and selective C–N bond cleavage at 275 °C and 20 bar H2. The Pd/MOx–Al2O3 materials exhibit significantly greater aromatic product selectivity and thus 10–15 % less required H2 for a given level of denitrogenation relative to an unmodified Pd/Al2O3 catalyst.

  11. Effect of Pd substitution for Ni on magnetism in UNiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremov, R. V.; Andreev, A. V.; Šebek, J.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Goto, T.; Havela, L.; Sechovský, V.; Shiokawa, Y.; Homma, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Itinerant 5f-electron antiferromagnet UNiAl ( TN=19.3 K) undergoes a metamagnetic transition in fields ( Bc≈11 T) applied along the c-axis of the hexagonal ZrNiAl-type structure. The same structure is preserved in the UNi 1- xPd xAl solid solutions x⩽0.4 characterized by isotropic lattice expansion with increasing x. The gradual increase of Bc and TN due to the Pd doping can be tentatively attributed to enhancement of antiferromagnetic exchange interactions.

  12. PD-L2 expression in colorectal cancer: Independent prognostic effect and targetability by deglycosylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanbin; Yao, Han; Li, Chushu; Liang, Lunxi; Zhang, Yao; Shi, Hubing; Zhou, Chongzhi; Chen, Yingxuan; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Xu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and immune checkpoint blockade therapy provides an opportunity for improving the outcome of CRC patients. Recent studies suggest that programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is only expressed in 12% of CRCs. Here, we demonstrate that PD-L2 is expressed in approximately 40% CRCs, and its expression independently associates with poor survival of CRC patients. By detection of PD-L2 expression by immunofluorescence in 124 CRC cases with 10-y survival data, we found significant association between PD-L2 overexpression in cancer cells and worse overall survival (46.3 vs 69.1 mo; p = 0.0004). The association remained significant in multivariate COX regression analysis (hazard ratio = 2.778, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.668-4.627; p < 0.0001). In the validation CRC data set, significant association between PD-L2 overexpression and poor survival was supported by the univariate analysis (27.1 vs. 88.9 mo; p = 0.0002) and multivariate model (hazard ratio = 7.09, 95%CI 1.78-28.16; p = 0.005). Western Blot revealed strong induction of PD-L2 expression by interferon-γ (IFNγ) in CRC cells, and the mRNA levels of both genes were significantly correlated in CRC tissue samples. Suppression of glycosylation with tunicamycin caused a shift in molecular weight and significant decrease in the expression of PD-L2 protein. In conclusion, PD-L2 overexpression in CRC cells, under the regulation by IFNγ and glycosylation, associates with poor survival of patients with colorectal cancer. These findings highlight PD-L2 as a promising therapeutic target in CRC and suggest potential routes to control PD-L2 expression in CRC cells.

  13. PD-L2 expression in colorectal cancer: Independent prognostic effect and targetability by deglycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanbin; Yao, Han; Li, Chushu; Liang, Lunxi; Zhang, Yao; Shi, Hubing; Zhou, Chongzhi; Chen, Yingxuan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and immune checkpoint blockade therapy provides an opportunity for improving the outcome of CRC patients. Recent studies suggest that programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is only expressed in 12% of CRCs. Here, we demonstrate that PD-L2 is expressed in approximately 40% CRCs, and its expression independently associates with poor survival of CRC patients. By detection of PD-L2 expression by immunofluorescence in 124 CRC cases with 10-y survival data, we found significant association between PD-L2 overexpression in cancer cells and worse overall survival (46.3 vs 69.1 mo; p = 0.0004). The association remained significant in multivariate COX regression analysis (hazard ratio = 2.778, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.668–4.627; p < 0.0001). In the validation CRC data set, significant association between PD-L2 overexpression and poor survival was supported by the univariate analysis (27.1 vs. 88.9 mo; p = 0.0002) and multivariate model (hazard ratio = 7.09, 95%CI 1.78–28.16; p = 0.005). Western Blot revealed strong induction of PD-L2 expression by interferon-γ (IFNγ) in CRC cells, and the mRNA levels of both genes were significantly correlated in CRC tissue samples. Suppression of glycosylation with tunicamycin caused a shift in molecular weight and significant decrease in the expression of PD-L2 protein. In conclusion, PD-L2 overexpression in CRC cells, under the regulation by IFNγ and glycosylation, associates with poor survival of patients with colorectal cancer. These findings highlight PD-L2 as a promising therapeutic target in CRC and suggest potential routes to control PD-L2 expression in CRC cells. PMID:28811964

  14. Behavior of an improved Zr fuel cladding with oxidation resistant coating under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates protective coatings for improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of Zr fuel claddings for light water nuclear reactors. FeCrAl alloy and Cr layers were deposited onto Zr plates and tubes using cold spraying. For the FeCrAl/Zr system, a Mo layer was introduced between the FeCrAl coating and the Zr matrix to prevent inter-diffusion at high temperatures. Both the FeCrAl and Cr coatings improved the oxidation resistance compared to that of the uncoated Zr alloy when exposed to a steam environment at 1200 °C. The ballooning behavior and mechanical properties of the coated cladding samples were studied under simulated loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The coated samples showed higher burst temperatures, lower circumferential strain, and smaller rupture openings compared to the uncoated Zr. Although 4-point bend tests of the coated samples showed a small increase in the maximum load, ring compression tests of a sectioned sample showed increased ductility.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Pd(0), PdS, and Pd-PdO core-shell nanoparticles by solventless thermolysis of a Pd-thiolate cluster

    SciT

    Jose, Deepa; Jagirdar, Balaji R., E-mail: jagirdar@ipc.iisc.ernet.i

    2010-09-15

    Colloids of palladium nanoparticles have been prepared by the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) method. The as-prepared Pd colloid consists of particles with an average diameter of 2.8{+-}0.1 nm. Digestive ripening of the as-prepared Pd colloid, a process involving refluxing the as-prepared colloid at or near the boiling point of the solvent in the presence of a passivating agent, dodecanethiol resulted in a previously reported Pd-thiolate cluster, [Pd(SC{sub 12}H{sub 25}){sub 2}]{sub 6} but did not render the expected narrowing down of the particle size distribution. Solventless thermolysis of the Pd-thiolate complex resulted in various Pd systems such as Pd(0), PdS,more » and Pd-PdO core-shell nanoparticles thus demonstrating its versatility. These Pd nanostructures have been characterized using high-resolution electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. - Graphical abstract: Solventless thermolysis of a single palladium-thiolate cluster affords various Pd systems such as Pd(0), Pd-PdO core-shell, and PdS nanoparticles demonstrating the versatility of the precursor and the methodology.« less

  16. Dppm-Assisted synthesis and reactivity of bimetallic M-Mo, M-W, M-Co, and M-Mn (M = Pt, Pd) complexes. Crystal structure of [([eta][sup 2]-dppm)[ovr Pt([mu]-dppm)W](CO)[sub 2]Cp][PF[sub 6

    SciT

    Braunstein, P.; de Meric de Bellefon, C.; Oswald, B.

    1993-04-28

    Heterometallic carbonyl complexes and clusters were prepared by reaction of dppm (dppm = Ph[sub 2]PCH[sub 2]PPh[sub 2]) with linear trinuclear chain complexes trans-[Pt(or Pd)[l brace]m(CO)[r brace][sub 2](NCPh)[sub 2

  17. Effect of different Zr contents on properties and microstructure of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinshui, Chen; Bin, Yang; Junfeng, Wang; Xiangpeng, Xiao; Huiming, Chen; Hang, Wang

    2018-02-01

    The crystallography and morphology of precipitate particles of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys with varying Zr contents were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after solution treatments at 950 °C for 1 h and aging treatments at 500 °C for different times ranged from 0.5 h to 24 h. The microhardness and electrical conductivity of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys after various aging process were tested. The results show that the microhardness and electrical conductivity rapidly increased at first, then the microhardness decreased slowly after reaching the peak, while the conductivity continues to increase. Nano-scaled precipitates exhibit two kinds of morphology (coffee bean and ellipse shaped). With increasing Zr content, the Zr-containing precipitation sequence of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys at peak-ageing is Heusler CrCu2Zr → Cu5Zr → Cu4Zr. The Heusler CrCu2Zr phase decomposed into fine and homogeneous Cr and Cu4Zr, resulting in improved alloy properties.

  18. Synthesis of Zr2WP2O12/ZrO2 Composites with Adjustable Thermal Expansion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiping; Sun, Weikang; Liu, Hongfei; Xie, Guanhua; Chen, Xiaobing; Zeng, Xianghua

    2017-01-01

    Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 composites were fabricated by solid state reaction with the goal of tailoring the thermal expansion coefficient. XRD, SEM and TMA were used to investigate the composition, microstructure, and thermal expansion behavior of Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 composites with different mass ratio. Relative densities of all the resulting Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 samples were also tested by Archimedes' methods. The obtained Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 composites were comprised of orthorhombic Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 and monoclinic ZrO 2 . As the increase of the Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 , the relative densities of Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 ceramic composites increased gradually. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 composites can be tailored from 4.1 × 10 -6 K -1 to -3.3 × 10 -6 K -1 by changing the content of Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 . The 2:1 Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 specimen shows close to zero thermal expansion from 25 to 700°C with an average linear thermal expansion coefficient of -0.09 × 10 -6 K -1 . These adjustable and near zero expansion ceramic composites will have great potential application in many fields.

  19. PD-1/PD-L1, but not PD-1/PD-L2, interactions regulate the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Laura L; Leach, Michael W; Azoitei, Mihai L; Cui, Junqing; Pelker, Jeffrey W; Jussif, Jason; Benoit, Steve; Ireland, Gretchen; Luxenberg, Deborah; Askew, G Roger; Milarski, Kim L; Groves, Christopher; Brown, Tom; Carito, Brenda A; Percival, Karen; Carreno, Beatriz M; Collins, Mary; Marusic, Suzana

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between PD-1 and its two differentially expressed ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, attenuate T cell activation and effector function. To determine the role of these molecules in autoimmune disease of the CNS, PD-1-/-, PD-L1-/- and PD-L2-/- mice were generated and immunized to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). PD-1-/- and PD-L1-/- mice developed more severe EAE than wild type and PD-L2-/- mice. Consistent with this, PD-1-/- and PD-L1-/- cells produced elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-gamma, TNF, IL-6 and IL-17. These results demonstrate that interactions between PD-1/PD-L1, but not PD-1/PDL-2, are crucial in attenuating T cell responses in EAE.

  20. High radioactive concentration of 99mTc from a zirconium [99Mo]molybdate gel generator using an acidic alumina column for purification and concentration.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S K; Saraswathy, P; Arjun, G; Ramamoorthy, N

    2004-06-01

    Newer applications of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine require pertechnetate of moderate to high radioactive concentration. Hence there is a need to develop simple procedures for the concentration of pertechnetate, and such a procedure is given in this paper. Ten to 20 ml of sodium [Tc]pertechnetate eluted in de-ionized water from a zirconium [Mo]molybdate (ZrMo) gel column generator was passed through 2 g of an acidic alumina bed (35 x 8 mm) in order to remove the co-eluted traces of Mo and to retain the pertechnetate. The retained pertechnetate was then re-eluted, quantitatively, in 3 ml of normal saline, from the alumina column. About a 4-fold increase in radioactive concentration of Tc was obtained (cf. approximately 10-12 ml normal saline is required for the elution of Tc from the gel column). Generators containing up to 22.2 GBq (600 mCi) Mo in 6-7 g ZrMo gel column (35 x 13 mm) were prepared and a radioactive concentration of Tc up to 4 GBq x ml (110 mCi x ml) was obtained on the first day of use. The overall recovery of Tc was >90%, Mo breakthrough was 10 to 10% and the duration of concentration was 3-5 min. The chemical impurity in terms of Al, Mo and Zr was <10 ppm each. The same procedure for the concentration of pertechnetate was applied to generators with 12-15 g ZrMo gel beds to obtain a higher capacity Tc gel generator, with similar findings.

  1. Micro-structural study and Rietveld analysis of fast reactor fuels: U-Mo fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Choudhuri, G.; Banerjee, J.; Agarwal, Renu; Khan, K. B.; Kumar, Arun

    2015-12-01

    U-Mo alloys are the candidate fuels for both research reactors and fast breeder reactors. In-reactor performance of the fuel depends on the microstructural stability and thermal properties of the fuel. To improve the fuel performance, alloying elements viz. Zr, Mo, Nb, Ti and fissium are added in the fuel. The first reactor fuels are normally prepared by injection casting. The objective of this work is to compare microstructure, phase-fields and hardness of as-cast four different U-Mo alloy (2, 5, 10 and 33 at.% Mo) fuels with the equilibrium microstructure of the alloys. Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer and optical microscope have been used to characterize the morphology of the as-cast and annealed alloys. The monoclinic α'' phase in as-cast U-10 at.% Mo alloy has been characterized through Rietveld analysis. A comparison of metallographic and Rietveld analysis of as-cast (dendritic microstructure) and annealed U-33 at.% Mo alloy, corresponding to intermetallic compound, has been reported here for the first time. This study will provide in depth understanding of microstructural and phase evolution of U-Mo alloys as fast reactor fuel.

  2. Anisotropic lattice compression of α- and β-CePdZn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomi, Gendo; Eto, Tetsujiro; Okada, Taku; Uwatoko, Yoshiya

    2018-05-01

    The lattice constants of ZrNiAl type α-CePdZn and TiNiSi type β-CePdZn were measured at high pressure up to 14 GPa at room temperature using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a diamond anvil cell. The pressure dependence of lattice constants and volume of α-CePdZn were found to be smooth without any discontinuity, and having a bulk modulus, B0, and its pressure derivative, B0‧, of 67 GPa and 5.1, respectively. On the other hand, the a and b axes as well as volume of β-CePdZn were found to show anomalous pressure dependence at around 8 GPa. B0 and B0‧ of β-CePdZn were 90 GPa and 2.1, respectively. These results suggest that a crossover in the electronic states is induced by applying pressure to β-CePdZn. The origins of these anomalous behaviors are discussed in connection with crossover and change in the topology of Fermi surface.

  3. Fine Structure in Multi-Phase Zr8Ni21-Zr7Ni10-Zr2Ni7 Alloy Revealed by Transmission Electron Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haoting; Bendersky, Leonid A.; Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of an annealed alloy with a Zr8Ni21 composition was studied by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presence of three phases, Zr8Ni21, Zr2Ni7, and Zr7Ni10, was confirmed by SEM/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy compositional mapping and TEM electron diffraction. Distribution of the phases and their morphology can be linked to a multi-phase structure formed by a sequence of reactions: (1) L → Zr2Ni7 + L’; (2) peritectic Zr2Ni7 + L’ → Zr2Ni7 + Zr8Ni21 + L”; (3) eutectic L” → Zr8Ni21 + Zr7Ni10. The effect of annealing at 960 °C, which was intended to convert a cast structure into a single-phase Zr8Ni21 structure, was only moderate and the resulting alloy was still multi-phased. TEM and crystallographic analysis of the Zr2Ni7 phase show a high density of planar (001) defects that were explained as low-energy boundaries between rotational variants and stacking faults. The crystallographic features arise from the pseudo-hexagonal structure of Zr2Ni7. This highly defective Zr2Ni7 phase was identified as the source of the broad X-ray diffraction peaks at around 38.4° and 44.6° when a Cu-K was used as the radiation source. PMID:28793460

  4. Ca(5)Zr(3)F(22).

    PubMed

    Oudahmane, Abdelghani; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Avignant, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Single crystals of Ca(5)Zr(3)F(22), penta-calcium trizirconium docosafluoride, were obtained unexpectedly by solid-state reaction between CaF(2) and ZrF(4) in the presence of AgF. The structure of the title compound is isotypic with that of Sr(5)Zr(3)F(22) and can be described as being composed of layers with composition [Zr(3)F(20)](8-) made up from two different [ZrF(8)](4-) square anti-prisms (one with site symmetry 2) by corner-sharing. The layers extending parallel to the (001) plane are further linked by Ca(2+) cations, forming a three-dimensional network. Amongst the four crystallographically different Ca(2+) ions, three are located on twofold rotation axes. The Ca(2+) ions exhibit coordination numbers ranging from 8 to 12, depending on the cut off, with very distorted fluorine environments. Two of the Ca(2+) ions occupy inter-stices between the layers whereas the other two are located in void spaces of the [Zr(3)F(20)](8-) layer and alternate with the two Zr atoms along [010]. The crystal under investigation was an inversion twin.

  5. Processing of U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb alloys by sintering process

    SciT

    Dos Santos, A. M. M.; Ferraz, W. B.; Lameiras, F. S.

    2012-07-01

    To minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation, there is worldwide interest in reducing fuel enrichment of research and test reactors. To achieve this objective while still guaranteeing criticality and cycle length requirements, there is need of developing high density uranium metallic fuels. Alloying elements such as Zr, Nb and Mo are added to uranium to improve fuel performance in reactors. In this context, the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) is developing the U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb (weight %) alloys by the innovative process of sintering that utilizes raw materials in the form of powders. The powders were pressed atmore » 400 MPa and then sintered under a vacuum of about 1x10{sup -4} Torr at temperatures ranging from 1050 deg. to 1500 deg.C. The densities of the alloys were measured geometrically and by hydrostatic method and the phases identified by X ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructures of the pellets were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the alloying elements were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results obtained showed the fuel density to slightly increase with the sintering temperature. The highest density achieved was approximately 80% of theoretical density. It was observed in the pellets a superficial oxide layer formed during the sintering process. (authors)« less

  6. Interdiffusion and reaction between U and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Newell, R.; Mehta, A.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructural development and diffusion kinetics were examined for the binary U vs. Zr system using solid-to-solid diffusion couples, U vs. Zr, annealed at 580 °C for 960 h, 650 °C for 480 h, 680 °C for 240 h, and 710 °C for 96 h. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed for detailed microstructural and compositional analyses. Interdiffusion and reaction in U vs. Zr diffusion couples primarily produced: δ-UZr2 solid solution (hP3) and α‧-U at 580 °C; and (γU,βZr) solid solution (cI2) and α‧-U at 650°, 680° and 710 °C. The α‧-phase was confirmed as a reduced variant of the α-U orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters, a × b × c = 2.65 × 5.40 × 4.75 (Å) with a negligible solubility for Zr at room temperature. Concentration profiles were examined to determine interdiffusion coefficients, integrated interdiffusion coefficients, and intrinsic diffusion coefficients using Boltzmann-Matano, Wagner, and Heumann analyses, respectively. Composition-dependence of interdiffusion coefficients were documented for α-U, δ-UZr2 (at 580 °C) and (γU,βZr) solid solution (at 650°, 680° and 710 °C). U was determined to intrinsically diffuse faster than Zr, approximately by an order of magnitude, in the δ-UZr2 at 580 °C, and (γU,βZr) phases at 650°, 680° and 710 °C. Based on Darken's approach, thermodynamic data available in literature were coupled to estimate the tracer diffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities of U and Zr.

  7. High-affinity PD-1 molecules deliver improved interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Liang, Zhaoduan; Tian, Ye; Cai, Wenxuan; Weng, Zhiming; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Huanling; Bao, Yifeng; Zheng, Hongjun; Zeng, Sihai; Bei, Chunhua; Li, Yi

    2018-06-11

    The inhibitory checkpoint molecule programmed death (PD)-1 plays a vital role in maintaining immune homeostasis upon binding to its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Several recent studies have demonstrated that soluble PD-1 (sPD-1) can block the interaction between membrane PD-1 and PD-L1 to enhance the anti-tumor capability of T cells. However, the affinity of natural sPD-1 binding to PD-L1 is too low to permit therapeutic applications. Here a PD-1 variant with ~3,000-fold and ~70-fold affinity increase to bind PD-L1 and PD-L2, respectively, was generated through directed molecular evolution and phage display technology. Structural analysis showed that mutations at amino acid positions 124 and 132 of PD-1 played major roles in enhancing the affinity of PD-1 binding to its ligands. The high-affinity PD-1 mutant could compete with the binding of antibodies specific to PD-L1 or PD-L2 on cancer cells or dendritic cells (DCs), and it could enhance the proliferation and IFN-γ release of activated lymphocytes. These features potentially qualify the high-affinity PD-1 variant as a unique candidate for the development of a new class of PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade therapeutics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Orthorhombic Zr2Co11 phase revisited

    SciT

    Li, X. -Z.; Zhang, W. Y.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2014-10-01

    The structure of the orthorhombic Zr2Co11 phase was revisited in the present work. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) techniques were used to investigate the structure. They show the orthorhombic Zr2Co11 phase has a 1-D incommensurate modulated structure. The structure can be approximately described as a B-centered orthorhombic lattice. The lattice parameters of the orthorhombic Zr2Co11 phase have been determined by a tilt series of SAED patterns. A hexagonal network with a modulation wave has been observed in the HREM image and the hexagonal motif is considered as the basic structural unit.

  9. Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compound CePd 1 - x Bi 2 and comparison to the superconductor LaPd 1 - x Bi 2

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; ...

    2015-07-13

    ZrCuSi 2-type CePd 1-xBi 2 crystals were obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that CePd 1-xBi 2 is a highly anisotropic antiferromagnet with transition temperature at 6 K, and a magnetic-field-induced metamagnetic transition at 5 T. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient of γ of 0.199 J-mol-Ce -1K -2 obtained from specific heat measurements suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd 1-xBi 2. In addition to the antiferromagnetic peak the resistivity curve shows a shoulder-like behavior which could be attributed to the presence of Kondo effect and crystal-electric-field effects in this compound. Magnetoresistance and Hall effect measurements suggest anmore » interplay between Kondo and crystal-electric-field effects which reconstructs the Fermi surface topology of CePd 1-xBi 2 around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the crystal-electric-field effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.« less

  10. Durable pd-based alloy and hydrogen generation membrane thereof

    DOEpatents

    Benn, Raymond C.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry

    2010-02-02

    A durable Pd-based alloy is used for a H.sub.2-selective membrane in a hydrogen generator, as in the fuel processor of a fuel cell plant. The Pd-based alloy includes Cu as a binary element, and further includes "X", where "X" comprises at least one metal from group "M" that is BCC and acts to stabilize the .beta. BCC phase for stability during operating temperatures. The metal from group "M" is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Nb, Ta, V, Mo, and W, with Nb and Ta being most preferred. "X" may further comprise at least one metal from a group "N" that is non-BCC, preferably FCC, that enhances other properties of the membrane, such as ductility. The metal from group "N" is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Re, Ru, Rh, Y, Ce, Ni, Ir, Pt, Co, La and In. The at. % of Pd in the binary Pd--Cu alloy ranges from about 35 at. % to about 55 at. %, and the at. % of "X" in the higher order alloy, based on said binary alloy, is in the range of about 1 at. % to about 15 at. %. The metals are selected according to a novel process.

  11. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of neutron irradiated Si and ZrN coated UMo particles prepared using FIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Renterghem, W.; Miller, B. D.; Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Gan, J.; Madden, J. W.; Keiser, D. D.

    2018-01-01

    Two fuel plates, containing Si and ZrN coated U-Mo fuel particles dispersed in an Al matrix, were irradiated in the BR2 reactor of SCK•CEN to a burn-up of ∼70% 235U. Five samples were prepared by INL using focused ion beam milling and transported to SCK•CEN for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation. Two samples were taken from the Si coated U-Mo fuel particles at a burn-up of ∼42% and ∼66% 235U and three samples from the ZrN coated U-Mo at a burn-up of ∼42%, ∼52% and ∼66% 235U. The evolution of the coating, fuel structure, fission products and the formation of interaction layers are discussed. Both coatings appear to be an effective barrier against fuel matrix interaction and only on the samples having received the highest burn-up and power, the formation of an interaction between Al and U(Mo) can be observed on those locations where breaches in the coatings were formed during plate fabrication.

  12. Beta Decay Half-Life of 84Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, J. B.; Mantica, P. F.; Bazin, D.; Bickley, A.; Becerril, A.; Crawford, H.; Cruse, K.; Estrade, A.; Mosby, M.; Guess, C. J.; Hitt, G. W.; Lorusso, G.; Matos, M.; Meharchand, R.; Minamisono, K.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Perdikakis, G.; Pinter, J. S.; Schatz, H.; Vredevoogd, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2008-10-01

    The β-decay half-life ^84Mo governs leakage out of the Zr-Nb cycle, a high temperature rp-process endpoint in x-ray binaries [1]. Treatment of the background and the poor statistics accumulated during the previous half-life measurement leave questions about statistical and systematic errors. We have remeasured the half-life of ^84Mo using a concerted setup of the NSCL β-Counting System [3] and 16 detectors from the Segmented Germanium Array [4]. We will report the half-life for ^84Mo, deduced using 40 times the previous sample size. The application of the NSCL RF Fragment Separator to remove unwanted isotopes, and hence reduce background for the half-life measurement, will also be discussed. [1] H. Schatz et al., Phys. Rep. 294, 167 1998 [2] P. Kienle et al., Prog. Part. Nuc. Phys. 46, 73 2001 [3] J. Prisciandaro et al., NIM A 505, 140 2003 [4] W. Mueller et al., NIM A 466, 492 2001 [5] D. Gorelov et al. PAC 2005, Knoxville, TN, May 16-20

  13. Cerebral glucose metabolism and cognition in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: ICICLE-PD study.

    PubMed

    Firbank, M J; Yarnall, A J; Lawson, R A; Duncan, G W; Khoo, T K; Petrides, G S; O'Brien, J T; Barker, R A; Maxwell, R J; Brooks, D J; Burn, D J

    2017-04-01

    To assess reductions of cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and their associations with cognitive decline. FDG-PET was performed on a cohort of 79 patients with newly diagnosed PD (mean disease duration 8 months) and 20 unrelated controls. PD participants were scanned while on their usual dopaminergic medication. Cognitive testing was performed at baseline, and after 18 months using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) computerised batteries, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM V.12) software to compare groups and investigate voxelwise correlations between FDG metabolism and cognitive score at baseline. Linear regression was used to evaluate how levels of cortical FDG metabolism were predictive of subsequent cognitive decline rated with the MMSE and MoCA. PD participants showed reduced glucose metabolism in the occipital and inferior parietal lobes relative to controls. Low performance on memory-based tasks was associated with reduced FDG metabolism in posterior parietal and temporal regions, while attentional performance was associated with more frontal deficits. Baseline parietal to cerebellum FDG metabolism ratios predicted MMSE (β=0.38, p=0.001) and MoCA (β=0.3, p=0.002) at 18 months controlling for baseline score. Reductions in cortical FDG metabolism were present in newly diagnosed PD, and correlated with performance on neuropsychological tests. A reduced baseline parietal metabolism is associated with risk of cognitive decline and may represent a potential biomarker for this state and the development of PD dementia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Photoresponse properties of large area MoS2 metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Tsung-Shine; Huang, Yu-Jen; Lin, Der-Yuh; Lin, Chia-Feng; Hong, Bo-Syun; Chen, Hone-Zern

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a large-area molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film was obtained by low pressure thermal sulfurization. Raman scattering spectrum shows that the peaks at 374 and 403 cm‑1 are from the MoS2 thin film. XRD result reveals peaks at 33 and 58.5° indicating MoS2(100) and (110) crystal planes. By using gold (Au), silver (Ag), and aluminum (Al) as contact materials on the MoS2 thin film, photoresponsivity results indicate that Ag is a suitable material for obtaining a high responsivity for a high-performance photodetector (PD). Photocurrent mapping measurements also reveal that Ag contacts have the best carrier transport characteristic with carrier diffusion length of 101 µm among these contacts. Furthermore, we investigated metal–semiconductor–metal MoS2 thin film PDs with interdigitated fingers of 300, 400, 500, and 600 µm contact widths, which showed that the large contact widths could produce a high photoresponse for PD application owing to low resistance.

  15. Structural and compositional evolution of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) precipitates in Al-Zr-Y alloy

    SciT

    Gao, Haiyan, E-mail: gaohaiyan@sjtu.edu.cn

    Structural and compositional evolution of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) precipitates in aged Al-Zr-Y alloy was investigated through atom probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis and first principles calculations. The results show that short-bar-shaped D0{sub 19}-Al{sub 3}Y with some Zr atoms dissolved in precipitated at the very beginning of decomposition and worked as heterogeneous nuclei for L1{sub 2}-Al{sub 3}Zr with spherical morphology after being aged at 400 °C for 2 h. Quasi-static coarsening happened as the aging treatment lasted from 2 h to 200 h. However, distribution of Zr and Y atoms in Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) is nearly uniform and Al{submore » 3}(Zr,Y) do not have the typical “Al{sub 3}RE core-Al{sub 3}Zr shell” structure which observed in other RE containing Al-Zr-RE alloys with L1{sub 2}-Al{sub 3}RE as nuclei. First principles calculations revealed that binding energy between Y and Zr is strong during the growth of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y), which led to the co-precipitation of Y and Zr atoms and attribute to the evolution of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y). - Highlights: •Al{sub 3}Y precipitated firstly and then became nuclei for Al{sub 3}Zr during aging of Al-Zr-Y. •Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) precipitates do not have the typical “Al{sub 3}Y core-Al{sub 3}Zr shell” structure. •Strong binding between Y and Zr led to the co-precipitation of Y and Zr atoms.« less

  16. KSC-04pd1178

    2004-05-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Dr. Woodrow Whitlow, KSC deputy director, greets teachers at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools — Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan — are on a team taking part in NASA’s Explorer Schools program. Whitlow visited the school to share America’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. He is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  17. KSC-04pd1200

    2004-05-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie joins faculty members of Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo., for a photo. Students from three area schools — Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan — are on a team taking part in NASA’s Explorer Schools program. KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow and Gore are sharing America’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  18. KSC-04PD-1202

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow signs autographs for students at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Whitlow visited the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. He is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  19. KSC-04PD-1177

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Dr. Woodrow Whitlow, KSC deputy director, greets a student outside Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Whitlow visited the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. He is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  20. KSC-04PD-1188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie shares his experiences in space with the students and faculty at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Gorie is accompanying KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on the visit to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  1. KSC-04PD-1196

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A reporter from KREI radio interviews KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow after his presentation at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Whitlow is sharing Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  2. KSC-04PD-1204

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie signs autographs for students at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Gorie accompanied KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on a visit to the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program.

  3. KSC-04PD-1189

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie shares his experiences in space with the students and faculty at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Gorie is accompanying KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on the visit to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  4. KSC-04PD-1192

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie presents a photo montage to Jo Peukert, principal of Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Gorie accompanied KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on a visit to the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program.

  5. KSC-04PD-1203

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie joins students at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo., for a group photo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Gorie accompanied KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on a visit to the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  6. KSC-04PD-1198

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie signs autographs for students at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Gorie accompanied KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on a visit to the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program.

  7. KSC-04PD-1194

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie (left) and KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow (right) join students in the gymnasium stands at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Whitlow and astronaut Dom Gorie are sharing Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  8. KSC-04PD-1178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Dr. Woodrow Whitlow, KSC deputy director, greets teachers at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Whitlow visited the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. He is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  9. KSC-04PD-1181

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie (left) talks with KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow during a visit to Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Gorie accompanied Whitlow on a visit to the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  10. KSC-04PD-1199

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A reporter from KJFF radio interviews astronaut Dom Gorie after his presentation at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow and Gore are sharing Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  11. KSC-04PD-1179

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo., astronaut Dom Gorie talks to students and teachers. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Gorie accompanied KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on a visit to the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Whitlow and Gorie are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  12. Development of a novel immunoPET tracer to image human PD-1 checkpoint expression on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Arutselvan; Mayer, Aaron T; Reeves, Robert E; Nagamine, Claude M; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that cancers exploit immune checkpoints (programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1)) to evade anti-tumor immune responses. Although immune checkpoint (IC) blockade is a promising approach, not all patients respond. Hence, the purpose of this study is imaging of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), as they are known to express PD-1 during activation and subsequent exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment and are thought to be potentially predictive of therapeutic responses to IC blockade. Procedures We developed immunoPET tracers to image hPD-1 status of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) adoptively transferred to NOD-scid IL-2Rγnull (NSG) mice (hNSG) bearing A375 human skin melanoma tumors. The anti-PD-1 human antibody (IgG; keytruda) labeled with either [89Zr]- or [64Cu]- radiometals to image PD-1 expressing human TILs in vivo. Results [89Zr]keytruda (groups = 2; NSG-ctl [control] and hNSG-nblk [non-blocking], n=3-5, 3.2 ± 0.4 MBq/15-16 μg/200 μL, and [64Cu]keytruda (groups = 3; NSG-ctl, NSG-blk [blocking], and hNSG-nblk) n=4, 7.4 ± 0.4 MBq /20-25μg/200 μL) were administered in mice. PET-CT scans were performed over 1-144 h ([89Zr]keytruda) and 1-48 h ([64Cu]keytruda) on mice. hNSG mice exhibited a high tracer uptake in the spleen lymphoid organs and tumors. At 24h, human TILs homing into melanoma of hNSG-nblk mice exhibited high signal (mean %ID/g ± SD) of 3.8 ± 0.4 ([89Zr]keytruda), and 6.4 ± 0.7 ([64Cu]keytruda), which was 1.5- and 3-fold higher uptake compared to NSG-ctl mice (p = 0.01), respectively. Biodistribution measurements of hNSG-nblk mice performed at 144 h ([89Zr]keytruda), and 48 h ([64Cu]keytruda) p.i. revealed tumor to muscle ratios as high as 45 and 12-fold, respectively. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates specific imaging of human PD-1 expressing TILs within the tumor and lymphoid tissues. This suggests anti-human-PD-1 tracer could be clinically translatable to monitor

  13. Magnetic and electronic properties of the Cu-substituted Weyl semimetal candidate ZrCo2Sn.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, S K; Wang, Zhijun; Kong, Tai; Cava, Robert

    2018-01-04

    We report that the partial substitution of Cu for Co has a significant impact on the magnetic properties of the Heusler-phase Weyl fermion candidate ZrCo<sub>2</sub>Sn. Polycrystalline samples of ZrCo<sub>2-<i>x</i></sub>Cu<sub><i>x</i></sub>Sn (<i>x</i> = 0.0 to 1.0) exhibited a linearly decreasing ferromagnetic transition temperature and similarly decreasing saturated magnetic moment on increasing Cu substitution x. Materials with Cu contents near <i>x</i> = 1 and several other quaternary materials synthesized at the same <i>x</i> (ZrCo<i>T</i>'Sn (<i>T</i>' = Rh, Pd, Ni)) display what appears to be non-ferromagnetic magnetization behavior with spin glass characteristics. Electronic structure calculations suggest that the half-metallic nature of unsubstituted ZrCo<sub>2</sub>Sn is disrupted significantly by the Cu substitutions, leading to the breakdown of the magnetization vs. electron count guidelines usually followed by Heusler phases, and a more typical metallic non-spin-polarized electronic structure at high <i>x</i>. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Human papilloma virus load and PD-1/PD-L1, CD8+ and FOXP3 in anal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy: Rationale for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Balermpas, Panagiotis; Martin, Daniel; Wieland, Ulrike; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Strebhardt, Klaus; Rödel, Claus; Fokas, Emmanouil; Rödel, Franz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We examined the prognostic role of immune markers programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), FOXP3+ Tregs and phosphorylated Caspase-8 (T273) in patients with anal squamous cell cancer (ASCC) treated with standard chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The baseline immunohistochemical expression of immune markers was correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics, and cumulative incidence of local failure, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in 150 patients, also in the context of human papilloma virus 16 (HPV16) DNA load and p16INK4a expression. After a median follow-up of 40 mo (1–205 mo), the 5-y cumulative incidence of local failure and DFS was 19.4% and 67.2%, respectively. Strong immune marker expression was significantly more common in tumors with high HPV16 viral load. In multivariant analysis, high CD8+ and PD-1+ TILs expression predicted for improved local control (p = 0.023 and p = 0.007, respectively) and DFS (p = 0.020 and p = 0.014, respectively). Also, high p16INK4a (p = 0.011) and PD-L1 (p = 0.033) expression predicted for better local control, whereas high FOXP3+ Tregs (p = 0.050) and phosphorylated Caspase-8 (p = 0.031) expression correlated with superior DFS. Female sex and high HPV16 viral load correlated with favorable outcome for all three clinical endpoints. The present data provide, for the first time, robust explanation for the favorable clinical outcome of HPV16-positive ASCC patients harboring strong immune cell infiltration. Our findings are relevant for treatment stratification with immune PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors to complement CRT and should be explored in a clinical trial. PMID:28405521

  15. Zr-ZrO2 cermet solar coatings designed by modelling calculations and deposited by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi-Chu; Hadavi, M. S.; Lee, K.-D.; Shen, Y. G.

    2003-03-01

    High solar performance Zr-ZrO2 cermet solar coatings were designed using a numerical computer model and deposited experimentally. The layer thickness and Zr metal volume fraction for the Zr-ZrO2 cermet solar selective coatings on a Zr or Al reflector with a surface ZrO2 or Al2O3 anti-reflection layer were optimized to achieve maximum photo-thermal conversion efficiency at 80°C under concentration factors of 1-20 using the downhill simplex method in multi-dimensions in the numerical calculation. The dielectric function and the complex refractive index of Zr-ZrO2 cermet materials were calculated using Sheng's approximation. Optimization calculations show that Al2O3/Zr-ZrO2/Al solar coatings with two cermet layers and three cermet layers have nearly identical solar absorptance, emittance and photo-thermal conversion efficiency that are much better than those for films with one cermet layer. The optimized Al2O3/Zr-ZrO2/Al solar coating film with two cermet layers has a high solar absorptance value of 0.97 and low hemispherical emittance value of 0.05 at 80°C for a concentration factor of 2. The Al2O3/Zr-ZrO2/Al solar selective coatings with two cermet layers were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering technology. During the deposition of Zr-ZrO2 cermet layer, a Zr metallic target was run in a gas mixture of argon and oxygen. By control of oxygen flow rate the different metal volume fractions in the cermet layers were achieved using dc reactive sputtering. A solar absorptance of 0.96 and normal emittance of 0.05 at 80°C were achieved.

  16. The influence of cladding on fission gas release from irradiated U-Mo monolithic fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2017-04-01

    The monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy has been proposed as a fuel design capable of converting the world's highest power research reactors from use of high enriched uranium to low enriched uranium. However, a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier must be used to eliminate interactions that form between the U-Mo monolith and aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061) cladding during fabrication and are enhanced during irradiation. One aspect of fuel development and qualification is to demonstrate an appropriate understanding of the extent of fission product release from the fuel under anticipated service environments. An exothermic reaction has previously been observed between the AA6061 cladding and Zr diffusion layer. In this paper, two fuel segments with different irradiation history were subjected to specified thermal profiles under a controlled atmosphere using a thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer coupled with a mass spectrometer inside a hot cell. Samples from each segment were tested with cladding and without cladding to investigate the effect, if any, that the exothermic reaction has on fission gas release mechanisms. Measurements revealed there is an instantaneous effect of the cladding/Zr exothermic reaction, but not necessarily a cumulative effect above approximately 973 K (700 °C). The mechanisms responsible for fission gas release events are discussed.

  17. The influence of cladding on fission gas release from irradiated U-Mo monolithic fuel

    SciT

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2017-04-01

    The monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy has been proposed as a fuel design capable of converting the world’s highest power research reactors from use of high enriched uranium to low enriched uranium. However, a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier must be used to eliminate interactions that form during fabrication and are enhanced during irradiation between the U-Mo monolith and aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061) cladding. One aspect of fuel development and qualification is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of the extent of fission product release from the fuel under anticipated service environments. An exothermic reaction has previously been observed between the AA6061 cladding andmore » Zr diffusion layer. In this paper, two fuel segments with different irradiation history were subjected to specified thermal profiles under a controlled atmosphere using a thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer coupled with a mass spectrometer inside a hot cell. Samples from each segment were tested with cladding and without cladding to investigate the effect, if any, that the exothermic reaction has on fission gas release mechanisms. Measurements revealed there is an instantaneous effect of the cladding/Zr exothermic reaction, but not necessarily a cumulative effect above approximately 973 K (700 oC). The mechanisms responsible for fission gas release events are discussed.« less

  18. [PD-L1 expression and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Monneur, Audrey; Gonçalves, Anthony; Bertucci, François

    2018-03-01

    The development of immune checkpoints inhibitors represents one of the major recent advances in oncology. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) provides durable disease control, particularly in melanoma, lung, kidney, bladder and head and neck cancers. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current data on the expression of PD-L1 in breast cancer and on the preliminary clinical results of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in breast cancer patients. In breast cancer, PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous and is generally associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as well as the presence of poor-prognosis factors, such as young age, high grade, ER-negativity, PR-negativity, and HER-2 overexpression, high proliferative index, and aggressive molecular subtypes (triple negative, basal-like, HER-2-overexpressing). Its prognostic value remains controversial when assessed with immunohistochemistry, whereas it seems favorable in triple-negative cancers when assessed at the mRNA level. Early clinical trials with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in breast cancer have shown efficacy in terms of tumor response and/or disease control in refractory metastatic breast cancers, notably in the triple-negative subtype. Many trials are currently underway, both in the metastatic and neo-adjuvant setting. A crucial issue is identification of biomarkers predictive of response to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Yum, Youngjin; Aktaa, Jarir

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly solidified foil-type Ti-Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 °C was used to braze tungsten to Cu-Cr-Zr alloy for water cooled divertors and plasma facing components application. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. In order to release the residual stress caused by the mismatch, brazed joints of tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using different interlayers were studied. The shear strength tests of brazed W/Cu joints show that the average strength of the joint with a W70Cu30 composite plate interlayer reached 119.8 MPa, and the average strength of the joint with oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu)/Mo multi-interlayers reached 140.8 MPa, while the joint without interlayer was only 16.6 MPa. Finite element method (FEM) has been performed to investigate the stress distribution and effect of stress relief interlayers. FEM results show that the maximum von Mises stress occurs in the tungsten/filler interface and that the filler suffers the peak residual stresses and becomes the weakest zone. And the use of OFHC Cu/Mo multi-interlayers can reduce the residual stress significantly, which agrees with the mechanical experiment data.

  20. Isoelectronic substitutions and aluminium alloying in the Ta-Nb-Hf-Zr-Ti high-entropy alloy superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohr, Fabian O.; Cava, Robert J.

    2018-03-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are a new class of materials constructed from multiple principal elements statistically arranged on simple crystallographic lattices. Due to the large amount of disorder present, they are excellent model systems for investigating the properties of materials intermediate between crystalline and amorphous states. Here we report the effects of systematic isoelectronic replacements, using Mo-Y, Mo-Sc, and Cr-Sc mixtures, for the valence electron count 4 and 5 elements in the body-centered cubic (BCC) Ta-Nb-Zr-Hf-Ti high-entropy alloy (HEA) superconductor. We find that the superconducting transition temperature Tc strongly depends on the elemental makeup of the alloy, and not exclusively its electron count. The replacement of niobium or tantalum by an isoelectronic mixture lowers the transition temperature by more than 60%, while the isoelectronic replacement of hafnium, zirconium, or titanium has a limited impact on Tc. We further explore the alloying of aluminium into the nearly optimal electron count [TaNb] 0.67(ZrHfTi) 0.33 HEA superconductor. The electron count dependence of the superconducting Tc for (HEA)Al x is found to be more crystallinelike than for the [TaNb] 1 -x(ZrHfTi) x HEA solid solution. For an aluminum content of x =0.4 the high-entropy stabilization of the simple BCC lattice breaks down. This material crystallizes in the tetragonal β -uranium structure type and superconductivity is not observed above 1.8 K.

  1. Purification of nuclear grade Zr scrap as the high purity dense Zr deposits from Zirlo scrap by electrorefining in LiF-KF-ZrF4 molten fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoung Tae; Lee, Tae Hyuk; Jo, Nam Chan; Nersisyan, Hayk H.; Chun, Byong Sun; Lee, Hyuk Hee; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2013-05-01

    Zirconium (Zr) has commonly been used as a cladding material of nuclear fuel. Moreover, it is regarded as the only material that can be used for nuclear fuel cladding because it has the lowest neutron capture cross section of any metal element and because it has high corrosion resistance and size stability. In this study, Hf-free Zr tubes (Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe) were used as anode materials and electrorefining was performed in a LiF-KF eutectic 6 wt.% ZrF4 molten fluoride salt system. As a result of electrolysis, Zr scrap metal was recycled into pure Zr with low levels of impurities, and the size and density of the Zr deposit was controlled using applied current density.

  2. PD-1 /PD-L1 checkpoint in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Annibali, O; Crescenzi, A; Tomarchio, V; Pagano, A; Bianchi, A; Grifoni, A; Avvisati, G

    2018-04-01

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), is a cell surface receptor with an important role in down-regulating the immune system and promoting self-tolerance by suppressing T cell inflammatory activity. PD-1/PDL1 axis represents a checkpoint to control immune responses and it is often used as a mechanism of immune escaping by cancers and infectious diseases. Many data demonstrate its important role in solid tumors and report emerging evidences in lymphoproliferative disorders. In this review, we summarized the available data on the role of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint in lymphoproliferative diseases and the therapeutics use of monoclonal blocking antibodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel approach to Zr powder production by smooth ZrCl4 bubbling through molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Na; Choi, Mi-Seon; Lee, Go-Gi; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    A reduction process using ZrCl4 bubbles as a reactant was investigated to produce zirconium metals. ZrCl4 vapor was bubbled through the lance in the bath, in which Mg melt and MgCl2 salt were separated. Zr powder was formed by a reduction of ZrCl4 bubbles in magnesium layer. However, the lance was clogged by the aggregate of zirconium occurred during ZrCl4 vapor injecting leading to interruption of ZrCl4 supply into the bath. This phenomenon could be caused by the presence of magnesium at the lance tip, which passes through MgCl2 salt during bubbling, and then zirconium was formed in the forms of intermetallic compounds with aluminum. In this study, the effect of molten salt on the troubled phenomena was investigated and it was verified that CaCl2 with relatively low Weber number meaning relatively high surface tension as molten salt is effective in inhibiting the lance clogging phenomena. Then, a few micrometer-sized Zr powder with the high purity of 91.6 wt% was obtained smoothly without the formation of intermetallic compound.

  4. KSC-06pd2642

    2006-12-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The X-band radar array is being installed on the solid rocket booster retrieval ship Liberty before launch of Space Shuttle Discovery. It is one of two Weibel Continuous Pulse Doppler X-band radars located on each of the two SRB retrieval ships. This one will be located downrange of the launch site. Working with the land-based C-band radar, the X-band radars provide velocity and differential shuttle/debris mo¬tion information during launch. The radar data will be sent from the ships via satellite link and analyzed at the C-band radar site located on north Kennedy Space Center. Photo credit: NASA/George Shelton

  5. KSC-04pd1179

    2004-05-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo., astronaut Dom Gorie talks to students and teachers. Students from three area schools— Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan — are on a team taking part in NASA’s Explorer Schools program. Gorie accompanied KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on a visit to the school to share America’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Whitlow and Gorie are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  6. KSC-04pd1199

    2004-05-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A reporter from KJFF radio interviews astronaut Dom Gorie after his presentation at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools — Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan — are on a team taking part in NASA’s Explorer Schools program. KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow and Gore are sharing America’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  7. KSC-04PD-1180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo., astronaut Dom Gorie poses with two members of the school district. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Gorie accompanied KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on a visit to the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Whitlow and Gorie are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  8. KSC-04PD-1185

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the podium, KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow talks to students in the gymnasium at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. At left is Amber Marek, with the NASA News Center; at right is astronaut Dom Gorie. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Whitlow and Gorie are visiting the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  9. KSC-04PD-1182

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Astronaut Dom Gorie (left) talks with a faculty member during a visit to Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Gorie accompanied KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow on a visit to the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Whitlow and Gorie are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  10. KSC-04PD-1183

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Prior to a presentation at Trojan Intermediate School in Potosi, Mo., Amber Marek, KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow, astronaut Dom Gorie, Superintendent of Schools Randy Davis and Principal Jo Peukert salute the American flag. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program. Whitlow and Gorie are visiting the school to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  11. KSC-04PD-1195

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Mayor Wayne Malugen of Potosi, Mo., poses with astronaut Dom Gorie after a presentation by KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow and Gorie to students and faculty at Trojan Intermediate School. Whitlow and Gorie are sharing Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. They are talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space. Students from three area schools Potosi High School, John Evans Middle School and Trojan are on a team taking part in NASAs Explorer Schools program.

  12. Structure of zirconium-93 and zirconium-91 as shown by the reactions Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 and Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, N.; Leonard, R. F.; Stewart, W. M.; Fink, C. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Nickles, J.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.

    1972-01-01

    Deuterons of 13-MeV incident energy were scattered from Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93. The Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 data analysis resulted in the location of 47 levels up to an excitation energy of 4.84 MeV, and the spins of 43 of these levels were identified. Essentially all the strength of the 2d5/2, 3s1/2, 2d3/2, and 1g7/2 shells was observed; and the excitation energy of their centroids was computed to be 0.00, 1.21, 2.23, and 2.37 MeV, respectively. Also, 43 percent of the 1h11/2 strength, 21 percent of the 2f7/2 strength, and 3 percent of the 3p3/2 strength were observed. In addition, the Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91 data analysis resulted in the location of 26 levels up to an excitation energy of 4.01 MeV, and the spins of 21 of these levels were identified. Most of the expected strength of the 2d5/2 and 1g9/2 shells was obtained, and the excitation energy of their centroids was computed to be 0.31 and 3.19 MeV, respectively. In addition, six l=1 states are populated belonging to either the 2p1/2 or 2p3/2 shells.

  13. Arc melting and homogenization of ZrC and ZrC + B alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darolia, R.; Archbold, T. F.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used to arc-melt and to homogenize near-stoichiometric ZrC and ZrC-boron alloys, giving attention to the oxygen contamination problem. The starting material for the carbide preparation was ZrC powder with an average particle size of 4.6 micron. Pellets weighing approximately 3 g each were prepared at room temperature from the powder by the use of an isostatic press operated at 50,000 psi. These pellets were individually melted in an arc furnace containing a static atmosphere of purified argon. A graphite resistance furnace was used for the homogenization process.

  14. Research on self-propagating high temperature synthesis prepared ZrC-ZrB2 composite ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Cheng; Xunjia, Su; Genliang, Hou; YaKun, Xing

    2013-03-01

    ZrC-ZrB2 composite ceramic material is prepared by self-propagating high temperature synthesis, using Zr powders, CrO2 powders and Al powders as raw materials. Samples are studied by XRD and SEM, the results show that: ZrC-ZrB2 composite ceramic is attained after self-propagating high-temperature reaction, with Zr+ B4C as the main reactive system, and which is added respectively different content (CrO3 + Al) system. The study finds that the ceramic composite products are mainly composed of ZrC and ZrB2 phase, and other subphase. Compared to the main reactive system composite ceramic, composite ceramic grains grow up obviously, after introduction of the highly exothermic system (CrO3 + Al) in the main reactive system, and with the gradual increase of the content (CrO3 + Al).

  15. Improved Mo-Re VPS Alloys for High-Temperature Uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Martin, James; McKechnie, Timothy; O'Dell, John Scott

    2011-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened molybdenum- rhenium alloys for vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) fabrication of high-temperature-resistant components are undergoing development. In comparison with otherwise equivalent non-dispersion-strengthened Mo-Re alloys, these alloys have improved high-temperature properties. Examples of VPS-fabricated high-temperature-resistant components for which these alloys are expected to be suitable include parts of aircraft and spacecraft engines, furnaces, and nuclear power plants; wear coatings; sputtering targets; x-ray targets; heat pipes in which liquid metals are used as working fluids; and heat exchangers in general. These alloys could also be useful as coating materials in some biomedical applications. The alloys consist of 60 weight percent Mo with 40 weight percent Re made from (1) blends of elemental Mo and Re powders or (2) Re-coated Mo particles that have been subjected to a proprietary powder-alloying-and-spheroidization process. For most of the dispersion- strengthening experiments performed thus far in this development effort, 0.4 volume percent of transition-metal ceramic dispersoids were mixed into the feedstock powders. For one experiment, the proportion of dispersoid was 1 volume percent. In each case, the dispersoid consisted of either ZrN particles having sizes <45 m, ZrO2 particles having sizes of about 1 m, HfO2 particles having sizes <45 m, or HfN particles having sizes <1 m. These materials were chosen for evaluation on the basis of previously published thermodynamic stability data. For comparison, Mo-Re feedstock powders without dispersoids were also prepared.

  16. Drastic reduction of adsorption of CO and H2 on (111)-type Pd layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppa, H.; Soria, F.

    1983-01-01

    Clean surfaces of (111)-type Pd layers, grown from the vapor phase on Mo(110) at room temperature, were used to study the adsorption of CO and H2 by temperature-programmed desorption, Auger electron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. Mild annealing of the as-grown layers during a single desorption cycle (to about 600 K) drastically reduces the adsorption for both adsorbates. Low-dose argon-ion bombardment introduces surface imperfections which restore a high adsorption probability. The results are interpreted in terms of particular (111)-type surface structures that persist tp layer thicknesses of about four monolayers; the results raise questions with respect to the surface structure of supported thin epitaxial islands and particles of Pd and possibly also with respect to conventional methods of preparing bulk surfaces of Pd for adsorption studies.

  17. In-beam studies of sup 96 Zr and sup 98 Zr: Collective excitations

    SciT

    Henry, E.A.; Meyer, R.A.; Aprahamian, A.

    1988-04-18

    Nearly two decades ago signatures of deformation in the ground state bands of {sup 100}Zr and {sup 102}Zr were identified, and the rapid change in the deformation of heavy zirconium nuclei noted. It is now well accepted that the short-range proton-neutron interaction between the 1g{sub 9/2} and 1g{sub 7/2} spin-orbit partners plays an important role in producing ground state deformation in this region. Nevertheless, recent studies of zirconium nuclei, including those in the transition region, continue to refine our understanding of the interplay between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom. In this report we discuss some aspects of the levelmore » structures of {sup 96}Zr and {sup 98}Zr with emphasis on collective excitations. 18 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  18. Study on Tribological Properties of CoCrMo Alloys against Metals and Ceramics as Bearing Materials for Artificial Cervical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Dingding; Song, Jian; Wang, Song; Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Yuhong; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Liu, Weiqiang

    2018-02-01

    CoCrMo alloys are believed to be a kind of potential material for artificial cervical disc. However, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against different metals and ceramics are not systematically studied. In this study, the tribological behaviors of CoCrMo alloys against metals (316L, Ti6Al4V) and ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) were focused under dry friction and 25 wt.% newborn calf serum (NCS)-lubricated conditions using a ball-on-disc apparatus under reciprocating motion. The microstructure, composition and hardness of CoCrMo alloys were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness testers, respectively. The contact angles of the CoCrMo alloys with deionized water and 25 wt.% NCS were measured by the OCA contact angle measuring instrument. The maximum wear width, wear depth and wear volume were measured by three-dimensional white light interference. The morphology and the EDX analysis of the wear marks on CoCrMo alloys were examined by SEM to determine the basic mechanism of friction and wear. The dominant wear mechanism in dry friction for CoCrMo alloys against all pairings was severe abrasive wear, accompanied with a lot of material transfer. Under 25 wt.% NCS-lubricated condition, the wear mechanism for CoCrMo alloys against ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) was also mainly severe abrasive wear. However, severe abrasive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-316L pairing under lubrication. Severe abrasive wear, adhesive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-Ti6Al4V pairing under lubrication. According to the results, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against ceramics were better than those against metals. The CoCrMo-ZrO2 pairing displayed the best tribological behaviors and could be taken as a potential candidate bearing material for artificial cervical disc.

  19. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against canine PD-1 and PD-L1.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Yuki; Shosu, Kazuha; Okuda, Masaru; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Takuya

    2018-04-01

    Recent research has focused on immunotherapy, particularly with regard to cancer treatment. Programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway blockade is a central topic of the promising immunotherapy field. In veterinary medicine, observations of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway, including the relationship between immune cells and diseases, have increased. In this study, monoclonal antibodies specific to canine PD-1 and PD-L1 were developed, and the antibodies against PD-1 and PD-L1 bind to PD-1 and PD-L1 overexpressing cells, respectively. Additionally, each antibody interfered with the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1. The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was detected on activated T cells from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and, remarkably, was the first recorded instance of PD-L1 expression on canine immature dendritic cells. Production of IFN-γ by activated T cells increased significantly when incubated with anti-PD-1 antibody alone and with both anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies, revealing the functional effects of the antibodies. The antibodies will be useful for research on immune systems and may be the first passive immunotherapy approach in canine cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Materials Data on ZrMoP (SG:189) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth in Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    vii I. Introduction ................... ........ ........... 1 Overviev .................................... 1 Background...threshold region. 7. All experiments were conducted under fully automated I’ computer control using a laser interferometric displacement gage (IDG) to...reduction in the local driving force. This non-linear crack 0 appears to grow slower than a linear crack and therefore results in lover than actual computed

  2. Ultra-thin bimetallic alloy nanowires with porous architecture/monolayer MoS2 nanosheet as a highly sensitive platform for the electrochemical assay of hazardous omethoate pollutant.

    PubMed

    Song, Dandan; Li, Qian; Lu, Xiong; Li, Yanshan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yuanzhe; Gao, Faming

    2018-06-18

    A novel electrochemical biosensor was designed for sensitive detection of organophosphate pesticides based on three-dimensional porous bimetallic alloy architecture with ultrathin nanowires (PdCo NWs, PdCu NWs, PdNi NWs) and monolayer MoS 2 nanosheet (m-MoS 2 ). The bimetallic alloy NWs/m-MoS 2 nanomaterials were used as a sensing platform for electrochemical analysis of omethoate, a representative organophosphate pesticide, via acetylcholinesterase inhibition pathway. We demonstrated that all three bimetallic alloy NWs enhanced electrochemical responses of enzymatic biosensor, benefited from bimetallic synergistic action and porous structure. In particular, PdNi NWs outperformed other two bimetallic alloy. Moreover, PdNi NWs/m-MoS 2 as an electronic transducer is superior to the corresponding biosensor in the absence of monolayer MoS 2 nanosheet, which arise from synergistic signal amplification effect between different components. Under optimized conditions, the developed biosensor on the basis of PdNi NWs/m-MoS 2 shows outstanding performance for the electrochemical assay of omethoate, such as a wide linear range (10 -13 M∼10 -7 M), a low detection limit of 0.05 pM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, high sensitivity and long-time stability. The results demonstrate that bimetallic alloy NWs/m-MoS 2 nanocomposites could be excellent transducers to promote electron transfer for the electrochemical reactions, holding great potentials in the construction of current and future biosensing devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods

    SciT

    Lewis, Amanda; Zhao, Hongbin; Hopkins, Scott

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the work completed under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Award No.: DE-FE0001181 titled “Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods.” The project started in October 1, 2009 and was finished September 30, 2014. Pall Corporation worked with Cornell University to sputter and test palladium-based ternary alloys onto silicon wafers to examine many alloys at once. With the specialized equipment at Georgia Institute of Technology that analyzed the wafers for adsorbed carbon and sulfur species six compositions were identified to have resistancemore » to carbon and sulfur species. These compositions were deposited on Pall AccuSep® supports by Colorado School of Mines and then tested in simulated synthetic coal gas at the Pall Corporation. Two of the six alloys were chosen for further investigations based on their performance. Alloy reproducibility and long-term testing of PdAuAg and PdZrAu provided insight to the ability to manufacture these compositions for testing. PdAuAg is the most promising alloy found in this work based on the fabrication reproducibility and resistance to carbon and sulfur. Although PdZrAu had great initial resistance to carbon and sulfur species, the alloy composition has a very narrow range that hindered testing reproducibility.« less

  4. Recovery of Mo for Accelerator Production of Mo-99 Using (y,n) Reaction on Mo-100

    SciT

    Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.; Nunn, Stephen D.

    2013-09-30

    Technetium-99m is a widely used radiopharmaceutical. Its parent, Mo-99, is produced worldwide to supply this important isotope. One means to produce Mo-99 is by bombarding a Mo-100 target with an electron beam from a linear accelerator; the γ/n reaction on Mo-100 produces Mo-99. After dissolving Mo-100 enriched disks in hydrogen peroxide, the solution is converted to potassium molybdate (0.2 g-Mo/mL) in 5 M KOH. After milking the Tc-99m in the TechneGen generator over a period of 7-10 days, the molybdenum solution needs to be treated to recover valuable Mo-100 for production of sintered Mo disks. However, during the production ofmore » Mo-99 by (γ, n) reaction on the Mo-100 target, several byproducts are formed. Therefore, recycling Mo will require the conversion of K 2MoO 4 in 5 M KOH solution to MoO 3 powder, and purification from other metals present in the Mo solution. The starting Mo-100 enriched material contains less than 20 mg of potassium in 1 kg of molybdenum (<20 ppm). However, after dissolving the irradiated Mo-100 target in hydrogen peroxide and converting it to K 2MoO 4 in 5 M KOH (0.2 g-Mo/mL), the solution contains about 1.8 kg of potassium per kilogram of molybdenum. The most challenging separation for this recovery step is purifying molybdenum from potassium. One requirement to facilitate the acceptance of the recycled material by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is that the impurities in the recycled material need to be at or below the levels present in the starting material. Therefore, the amount of potassium (K) in purified MoO 3 powder should be below 20 ppm; this will require a decontamination factor for removal of K to be ~1 × 10 5. Such a low K-contamination level will also prevent the production of large amounts of K-42 during irradiation of Mo-100. Based on economic concerns (due to the significant cost of enriched Mo-100) recycling Mo requires the conversion of K 2MoO 4 in a 5 M KOH solution to MoO 3 powder with high Mo

  5. The preparation of Zr-deuteride and phase stability studies of the Zr-D system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimaitiyili, T.; Steuwer, A.; Bjerkén, C.; Blomqvist, J.; Hoelzel, M.; Ion, J. C.; Zanellato, O.

    2017-03-01

    Deuteride phases in the zirconium-deuterium system in the temperature range 25-286 °C have been studied in-situ by high resolution neutron diffraction. The study primarily focused on observations of δ→γ transformation at 180 °C, and the peritectoid reaction α + δ ↔ γ at 255 °C in commercial grade Zr powder that was deuterated to a deuterium/Zr ratio of one to one. A detailed description of the zirconium deuteride preparation route by high temperature gas loading is also described. The lattice parameters of α-Zr, δ-ZrDx and ε-ZrDx were determined by whole pattern crystal structure analysis, using Rietveld and Pawley refinements, and are in good agreement with values reported in the literature. The controversial γ-hydride phase was observed both in-situ and ex-situ in deuterated Zr powder after a heat treatment at 286 °C and slow cooling.

  6. The electrochemical Evaluation of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass in a Phosphate-Buffered Saline Electrolyte

    SciT

    Morrison, M. L.; Buchanan, R. A.; Leon, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials with an amorphous structure and a unique combination of properties. The objectives of this investigation were to define the electrochemical behavior of a specific Zr-based BMG alloy in a physiologically relevant environment and to compare these properties to standard, crystalline biomaterials as well as other Zr-based BMG compositions. Cyclic-anodic-polarization studies were conducted with a Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10.0}Ti{sub 5.0} (at %) BMG in a phosphate-buffered saline electrolyte with a physiologically relevant oxygen content at 37 C. The results were compared to three common, crystalline biomaterials: CoCrMo, 316L stainless steel,more » and Ti-6Al-4V. The BMG alloy was found to have a lower corrosion penetration rate (CPR), as compared to the 316L stainless steel, and an equivalent CPR, as compared to the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Furthermore, the BMG alloy demonstrated better localized corrosion resistance than the 316L stainless steel. However, the localized corrosion resistance of the BMG alloy was not as high as those of the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in the tested environment. The excellent electrochemical properties demonstrated by the BMG alloy are combined with a low modulus and unparalleled strength. This unique combination of properties dramatically demonstrates the potential for amorphous alloys as a new generation of biomaterials.« less

  7. Zr and Hf diffusion in rutile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Manchester, J.; Watson, E. B.

    2007-09-01

    Chemical diffusion of Zr and Hf under anhydrous conditions has been measured in synthetic and natural rutile. The sources of diffusant used were hafnon or zircon powders or a hafnon-rutile mixture. Experiments were run in crimped Pt capsules in air, or in sealed silica glass capsules with solid buffers (to buffer at NNO or QFM). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to measure Zr and Hf diffusion profiles. From these measurements, the following Arrhenius relations were obtained: For Zr diffusion parallel to c, over the temperature range 750-1100 °C DZr¦c = 9.8 × 10 - 15 exp(- 170 ± 30 kJ mol - 1 /RT) m 2 s - 1 For Hf diffusion parallel to c, over the temperature range 800-1000 °C DHf¦c = 9.1 × 10 - 15 exp(- 169 ± 36 kJ mol - 1 /RT) m 2 s - 1 For Hf diffusion normal to c, over the temperature range 750-1050 °C DHf⊥c = 2.5 × 10 - 12 exp(- 227 ± 62 kJ mol - 1 /RT) m 2 s - 1 . Diffusivities for experiments buffered at QFM and NNO are similar to those run in air. Diffusivities in synthetic and natural rutile are likewise similar, indicating that these findings can be applied directly in determining Zr diffusivities in rutile in natural systems. These data indicate that rutile should be moderately retentive of Zr chemical signatures, with Zr diffusivities within an order of magnitude of those for Pb in rutile over most geologic conditions. When applied in evaluation of the relative robustness of the recently developed Zr-in-rutile geothermometer [T. Zack, R. Moraes, A. Kronz, Temperature dependence of Zr in rutile: empirical calibration of a rutile thermometer, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 148 (2004) 471-488., E.B. Watson, D.A. Wark, J.B. Thomas, Crystallization thermometers for zircon and rutile, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 151 (2006) 413-433.], these findings suggest that Zr concentrations in rutile will be somewhat more likely to be affected by later thermal disturbance than the geothermometer based on Zr

  8. Molecular mechanism of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade via anti-PD-L1 antibodies atezolizumab and durvalumab.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Tae; Lee, Ju Yeon; Lim, Heejin; Lee, Sang Hyung; Moon, Yu Jeong; Pyo, Hyo Jeong; Ryu, Seong Eon; Shin, Woori; Heo, Yong-Seok

    2017-07-17

    In 2016 and 2017, monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-L1, including atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab, were approved by the FDA for the treatment of multiple advanced cancers. And many other anti-PD-L1 antibodies are under clinical trials. Recently, the crystal structures of PD-L1 in complex with BMS-936559 and avelumab have been determined, revealing details of the antigen-antibody interactions. However, it is still unknown how atezolizumab and durvalumab specifically recognize PD-L1, although this is important for investigating novel binding sites on PD-L1 targeted by other therapeutic antibodies for the design and improvement of anti-PD-L1 agents. Here, we report the crystal structures of PD-L1 in complex with atezolizumab and durvalumab to elucidate the precise epitopes involved and the structural basis for PD-1/PD-L1 blockade by these antibodies. A comprehensive comparison of PD-L1 interactions with anti-PD-L1 antibodies provides a better understanding of the mechanism of PD-L1 blockade as well as new insights into the rational design of improved anti-PD-L1 therapeutics.

  9. Basal cell carcinoma: PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint expression and tumor regression after PD-1 blockade.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Evan J; Lilo, Mohammed T; Ogurtsova, Aleksandra; Esandrio, Jessica; Xu, Haiying; Brothers, Patricia; Schollenberger, Megan; Sharfman, William H; Taube, Janis M

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that block immune regulatory proteins such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in controlling the growth of multiple tumor types. Unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, however, has largely gone untested. Because PD-Ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in other tumor types has been associated with response to anti-PD-1, we investigated the expression of PD-L1 and its association with PD-1 expression in the basal cell carcinoma tumor microenvironment. Among 40 basal cell carcinoma specimens, 9/40 (22%) demonstrated PD-L1 expression on tumor cells, and 33/40 (82%) demonstrated PD-L1 expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and associated macrophages. PD-L1 was observed in close geographic association to PD-1+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Additionally, we present, here, the first report of an objective anti-tumor response to pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in a patient with metastatic PD-L1 (+) basal cell carcinoma, whose disease had previously progressed through hedgehog pathway-directed therapy. The patient remains in a partial response 14 months after initiation of therapy. Taken together, our findings provide a rationale for testing anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma, either as initial treatment or after acquired resistance to hedgehog pathway inhibition.

  10. 99Mo Yield Using Large Sample Mass of MoO3 for Sustainable Production of 99Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Kazuaki; Nagai, Yasuki; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Kawabata, Masako; Minato, Futoshi; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2018-04-01

    A neutron source from the C(d,n) reaction has the unique capability of producing medical radioisotopes such as 99Mo with a minimum level of radioactive waste. Precise data on the neutron flux are crucial to determine the best conditions for obtaining the maximum yield of 99Mo. The measured yield of 99Mo produced by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction from a large sample mass of MoO3 agrees well with the numerical result estimated with the latest neutron data, which are a factor of two larger than the other existing data. This result establishes an important finding for the domestic production of 99Mo: approximately 50% of the demand for 99Mo in Japan could be met using a 100 g 100MoO3 sample mass with a single accelerator of 40 MeV, 2 mA deuteron beams.

  11. Observations of a Cast Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that Cu-Cr-Nb alloys have considerable advantages over the copper alloys currently used in regeneratively cooled rocket engine liners. Observations indicated that Zr and Nb have similar chemical properties and form very similar compounds. Glazov and Zakharov et al. reported the presence of Cr2Zr in Cu-Cr-Zr alloys with up to 3.5 wt% Cr and Zr though Zeng et al. calculated that Cr2Zr could not exist in a ternary Cu-Cr-Zr alloy. A cast Cu-6.15 wt% Cr-5.25 wt% Zr alloy was examined to determine if the microstructure developed would be similar to GRCop-84 (Cu-6.65 wt% Cr-5.85 wt% Nb). It was observed that the Cu-Cr-Zr system did not form any Cr2Zr even after a thermal exposure at 875 C for 176.5 h. Instead the alloy consisted of three phases: Cu, Cu5Zr, and Cr.

  12. Utilization of PD modalities: evolution.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Vijaya; Nolph, Karl D

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1960s, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was introduced as a form of long-term maintenance therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We have come a long way since. Increasing understanding of peritoneal kinetic behavior, its innovative manipulation to meet patient needs, critical monitoring of clinical outcomes, and parallel development in technology have all contributed to the worldwide success of the therapy over the past four decades. In this article we review the evolution of the various PD modalities in the context of these factors.

  13. Hydrolysis of ZrCl4 and HfCl4: The Initial Steps in the High-Temperature Oxidation of Metal Chlorides to Produce ZrO2 and HfO2

    SciT

    Fang, Zongtang; Dixon, David A.

    2013-03-08

    The gas-phase hydrolysis of MCl4 (M = Zr, Hf) to produce the initial particles on the way to zirconia and hafnia nanoparticles has been studied with electronic structure theory. The potential energy surfaces, the themochemistry of the reaction species, and the reaction paths for the initial steps of MCl4 reacting with H2O have been calculated. The hydrolysis of MCl4 at higher temperatures begins with the formation of oxychlorohydroxides followed by the elimination of HCl instead of the direct production of MOCl2 and HCl or MO2 and HCl due to the substantial endothermicities associated with the formation of gas-phase MO2. Themore » structural properties and heats of formation of the reactants and products are consistent with the available experimental results. A number of metal oxychlorides (oxychlorohydroxides) intermediate clusters have been studied to assess their role in the production of MO2 nanoparticles. The calculated clustering reaction energies of those intermediates are highly exothermic, so they could be readily formed in the hydrolysis process. These intermediate clusters can be formed exothermically from metal oxychlorohydroxides by the elimination of one HCl or H2O molecule. Our calculations show that the mechanisms leading to the formation of MO2 nanoparticles are complicated and are accompanied by the potential production of a wide range of intermediates, as found for the production of TiO2 particles from the high-temperature oxidation of TiCl4.« less

  14. ZrB₂-CNTs Nanocomposites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hua; Meng, Songhe; Xie, Weihua; Xu, Chenghai; Niu, Jiahong

    2016-11-29

    ZrB₂-based nanocomposites with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement were prepared at 1600 °C by spark plasma sintering. The effects of CNTs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-ZrB₂ matrix composites were studied. The results indicated that adding CNTs can inhibit the abnormal grain growth of ZrB₂ grains and improve the fracture toughness of the composites. The toughness mechanisms were crack deflection, crack bridging, debonding, and pull-out of CNTs. The experimental results of the nanograined ZrB₂-CNTs composites were compared with those of the micro-grained ZrB₂-CNTs composites. Due to the small size and surface effects, the nanograined ZrB₂-CNTs composites exhibited stronger mechanical properties: the hardness, flexural strength and fracture toughness were 18.7 ± 0.2 GPa, 1016 ± 75 MPa, and 8.5 ± 0.4 MPa·m 1/2 , respectively.

  15. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF Zr AND Hf HALIDES (in Rumanian)

    SciT

    Lungu, S.N.

    1962-01-01

    The following standard heats of formation were found: ZrCl/sub 3/, 178.6 plus or minus 3.2; ZrCl/sub 2/, 124.3 plus or minus 3; ZrBr/sub 3/, 151 plus or minus 7; Zr Br/sbu 2/, 100 plus or minus 6; ZrI/sub 3/, 103 plus or minus 6; ZrI/sub 2/, 68 plus or minus 4; and HfCl/sub 4/, 239.4 plus or minus 5.5; HfCl/sub 3/, 186.6; HfCl/sub 2/, 130; HfBr/sub 4/, 200; HfBr/sub 3/, 157; HfBr / sub 2/, 108; HfI/sub 4/, 140; HfI/sub 3/, 113; and HfI/sub 2/, 72 kcal/mole. (R.V.J.)

  16. Relationships between elastic anisotropy and thermal expansion in A 2Mo 3O 12 materials

    DOE PAGES

    Romao, Carl P.; Donegan, S. P.; Zwanziger, J. W.; ...

    2016-10-24

    Here, we report calculated elastic tensors, axial Grüneisen parameters, and thermal stress distributions in Al 2Mo 3O 12, ZrMgMo 3O 12, Sc 2Mo 3O 12, and Y 2Mo 3O 12, a series of isomorphic materials for which the coefficients of thermal expansion range from low-positive to negative. Thermal stress in polycrystalline materials arises from interactions between thermal expansion and mechanical properties, and both can be highly anisotropic. Thermal expansion anisotropy was found to be correlated with elastic anisotropy: axes with negative thermal expansion were less compliant. Calculations of axial Grüneisen parameters revealed that the thermal expansion anisotropy in these materialsmore » is in part due to the Poisson effect. Models of thermal stress due to thermal expansion anisotropy in polycrystals following cooling showed thermal stresses of sufficient magnitude to cause microcracking in all cases. The thermal expansion anisotropy was found to couple to elastic anisotropy, decreasing the bulk coefficient of thermal expansion and leading to lognormal extremes of the thermal stress distributions.« less

  17. Relationships between elastic anisotropy and thermal expansion in A 2Mo 3O 12 materials

    SciT

    Romao, Carl P.; Donegan, S. P.; Zwanziger, J. W.

    Here, we report calculated elastic tensors, axial Grüneisen parameters, and thermal stress distributions in Al 2Mo 3O 12, ZrMgMo 3O 12, Sc 2Mo 3O 12, and Y 2Mo 3O 12, a series of isomorphic materials for which the coefficients of thermal expansion range from low-positive to negative. Thermal stress in polycrystalline materials arises from interactions between thermal expansion and mechanical properties, and both can be highly anisotropic. Thermal expansion anisotropy was found to be correlated with elastic anisotropy: axes with negative thermal expansion were less compliant. Calculations of axial Grüneisen parameters revealed that the thermal expansion anisotropy in these materialsmore » is in part due to the Poisson effect. Models of thermal stress due to thermal expansion anisotropy in polycrystals following cooling showed thermal stresses of sufficient magnitude to cause microcracking in all cases. The thermal expansion anisotropy was found to couple to elastic anisotropy, decreasing the bulk coefficient of thermal expansion and leading to lognormal extremes of the thermal stress distributions.« less

  18. Fabrication of a Mo based high temperature TZM alloy by non-consumable arc melting technique

    SciT

    Chakraborty, S.P.; Krishnamurthy, N., E-mail: spc@barc.gov.in

    High temperature structural materials are in great demand for power, chemical and nuclear industries which can perform beyond 1000 °C as super alloys usually fail. In this regard, Mo based TZM alloy is capable of retaining strength up to 1500 °C with excellent corrosion compatibility against molten alkali metals. Hence, currently this alloy is considered an important candidate material for high temperature compact nuclear and fusion reactors. Due to reactive nature of Mo and having high melting point, manufacturing this alloy by conventional process is unsuitable. Powder metallurgy technique has limited success due to restriction in quantity and purity. Thismore » paper deals with fabrication of TZM alloy by nonconsumable tungsten arc melting technique. Initially a ternary master alloy of Mo-Ti-Zr was prepared which subsequently by dilution method, was converted into TZM alloy gradually by external addition of Mo and C in various proportions. A number of melting trials were conducted to optimize the process parameters like current, voltage and time to achieve desired alloy composition. The alloy was characterized with respect to composition, elemental distribution profile, microstructure, hardness profile and phase analysis. Well consolidated alloy button was obtained having desired composition, negligible material loss and having microstructure as comparable to standard TZM alloy. (author)« less

  19. Oxidation resistant Mo-Mo2B-silica and Mo-Mo2B-silicate composites for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. K.; Daloz, W. L.; Marshall, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Development of Mo composites based on the Mo-Si-B system has been demonstrated as a possible new route to achieving a high temperature Mobased material. In this new system, the silicide phases are replaced directly with silica or other silicate materials. These composites avoid the high ductile to brittle transition temperature observed for Mo-Si-B alloys by removing the Si that exists in solid solution in Mo at equilibrium with its silicides. A variety of compositions is tested for room temperature ductility and oxidation resistance. A system based upon Mo, Mo2B, and SrO·Al2O3·(SiO2)2 is shown to possess both ductility at 80 vol.% Mo and oxidation resistance at 60 vol.%. These composites can be produced using a powder processing approach and fired to greater than 95% theoretical density with a desirable microstructure of isolated boride and silicate phases within a ductile Mo matrix.

  20. Computer Series, 114: MO Theory Made Visible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealli, Carlo; Proserpio, Davide M.

    1990-01-01

    A collection of Molecular Orbital (MO) programs that have been integrated into routines and programs to illustrate MO theory are presented. Included are discussions of Computer Aided Composition of Atomic Orbitals (CACAO) and Walsh diagrams. (CW)

  1. A Simple MO Treatment of Metal Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahyun, M. R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how a qualitative description of the geometry and electronic characteristics of homogeneous metal clusters can be obtained using semiempirical MO (molecular orbital theory) methods. Computer applications of MO methods to inorganic systems are also described. (CS)

  2. A peristaltic pump driven 89Zr separation module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siikanen, J.; Peterson, M.; Tran, T. A.; Roos, P.; Ohlsson, T.; Sandell, A.

    2012-12-01

    To facilitate the separation of 89Zr produced in yttrium foils, an automated separation module was designed and assembled. The module separates more than 85% of produced 89Zr - activity in 3 g foils in less than 90 min. About 10 % remains in the dissolving vial. The quality of the separated 89Zr activity was investigated for labeling of the HER2-binding monoclonal antibody fragment, trastuzumab-Fab.

  3. Effects of interfacial layer on characteristics of TiN/ZrO2 structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younsoo; Kang, Sang Yeol; Choi, Jae Hyoung; Lim, Jae Soon; Park, Min Young; Chung, Suk-Jin; Chung, Jaegwan; Lee, Hyung Ik; Kim, Ki Hong; Kyoung, Yong Koo; Heo, Sung; Yoo, Cha Young; Kang, Ho-Kyu

    2011-09-01

    To minimize the formation of unwanted interfacial layers, thin interfacial layer (ZrCN layer) was deposited between TiN bottom electrode and ZrO2 dielectric in TiN/ZrO2/TiN capacitor. Carbon and nitrogen were also involved in the layer because ZrCN layer was thermally deposited using TEMAZ without any reactant. Electrical characteristics of TiN/ZrO2/TiN capacitor were improved by insertion of ZrCN layer. The oxidation of TiN bottom electrode was largely inhibited at TiN/ZrCN/ZrO2 structure compared to TiN/ZrO2 structure. While the sheet resistance of TiN/ZrCN/ZrO2 structure was constantly sustained with increasing ZrO2 thickness, the large increase of sheet resistance was observed in TiN/ZrO2 structure after 6 nm ZrO2 deposition. When ZrO2 films were deposited on ZrCN layer, the deposition rate of ZrO2 also increased. It is believed that ZrCN layer acted both as a protection layer of TiN oxidation and a seed layer of ZrO2 growth.

  4. Green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles at Apricot kernel shell substrate using Salvia hydrangea extract: Catalytic activity for reduction of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Bahar; Bordbar, Maryam; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-03-15

    For the first time the extract of the plant of Salvia hydrangea was used to green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Apricot kernel shell as an environmentally benign support. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell as an effective catalyst was prepared through reduction of Pd 2+ ions using Salvia hydrangea extract as the reducing and capping agent and Pd NPs immobilization on Apricot kernel shell surface in the absence of any stabilizer or surfactant. According to FT-IR analysis, the hydroxyl groups of phenolics in Salvia hydrangea extract as bioreductant agents are directly responsible for the reduction of Pd 2+ ions and formation of Pd NPs. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized catalyst was used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl Orange (MO), Methylene Blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB), and Congo Red (CR) at room temperature. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell showed excellent catalytic activity in the reduction of these organic dyes. In addition, it was found that Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An infrared band system of the ZrCl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. G.; Davis, S. P.; Galehouse, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A series of infrared bands in the 0.97-1.15 micron region which is attributed to ZrCl is analyzed in light of the possibility that the bands may be observable in stellar spectra. Spectra of ZrO and ZrCl were produced by microwave discharge through a mixture of He, O and ZrCl4 and observed by Fourier transform spectrometer, resulting in the observation of 10 bands of the ZrCl system. Rotational quantum number assignments to the lines of the P and R branches observed are obtained and used to derive effective rotational constants for each substate, as well as zero-rotation origins of each subband. Shifts in wave numbers of rotational lines of the isotopes (Zr-92)(Cl-35)(Zr-94)(Cl-35) and (Zr-90)(Cl-37) relative to the more abundant (Zr-90)(Cl-35) are also observed. The observed molecular constants are shown to be in good agreement with those calculated in previous theoretical estimates.

  6. Production of Zr-89 using sputtered yttrium coin targets 89Zr using sputtered yttrium coin targets.

    PubMed

    Queern, Stacy Lee; Aweda, Tolulope Aramide; Massicano, Adriana Vidal Fernandes; Clanton, Nicholas Ashby; El Sayed, Retta; Sader, Jayden Andrew; Zyuzin, Alexander; Lapi, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    An increasing interest in zirconium-89 ( 89 Zr) can be attributed to the isotope's half-life which is compatible with antibody imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The goal of this work was to develop an efficient means of production for 89 Zr that provides this isotope with high radionuclidic purity and specific activity. We investigated the irradiation of yttrium sputtered niobium coins and compared the yields and separation efficiency to solid yttrium coins. The sputtered coins were irradiated with an incident beam energy of 17.5MeV or 17.8MeV providing a degraded transmitted energy through an aluminum degrader of 12.5MeV or 12.8MeV, respectively, with various currents to determine optimal cyclotron conditions for 89 Zr production. Dissolution of the solid yttrium coin took 2h with 50mL of 2M HCl and dissolution of the sputtered coin took 15-30min with 4mL of 2M HCl. During the separation of 89 Zr from the solid yttrium coins, 77.9 ± 11.2% of the activity was eluted off in an average of 7.3mL of 1M oxalic acid whereas for the sputtered coins, 91 ± 6% was eluted off in an average of 1.2mL of 1M oxalic acid with 100% radionuclidic purity. The effective specific activity determined via DFO-SCN titration from the sputtered coins was 108±7mCi/μmol as compared to 20.3mCi/μmol for the solid yttrium coin production. ICP-MS analysis of the yttrium coin and the sputtered coins showed 99.99% yttrium removed with 178μg of yttrium in the final solution and 99.93-100% of yttrium removed with remaining range of 0-42μg of yttrium in the final solution, respectively. The specific activity calculated for the solid coin and 3 different sputtered coins using the concentration of Zr found via ICP-MS was 140±2mCi/μmol, 300±30mCi/μmol, 410±60mCi/μmol and 1719±5mCi/μmol, respectively. Labeling yields of the 89 Zr produced via sputtered targets for 89 Zr- DFO-trastuzumab were >98%. Overall, these results show the irradiation of yttrium sputtered niobium coins

  7. Non-destructive Quantitative Phase Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of Zirconium Coated U-10Mo Fuel Foils via Neutron Diffraction

    SciT

    Cummins, Dustin Ray; Vogel, Sven C.; Hollis, Kendall Jon

    2016-10-18

    This report uses neutron diffraction to investigate the crystal phase composition of uranium-molybdenum alloy foils (U-10Mo) for the CONVERT MP-1 Reactor Conversion Project, and determines the effect on alpha-uranium contamination following the deposition of a Zr metal diffusion layer by various methods: plasma spray deposition of Zr powders at LANL and hot co-rolling with Zr foils at BWXT. In summary, there is minimal decomposition of the gamma phase U-10Mo foil to alpha phase contamination following both plasma spraying and hot co-rolling. The average unit cell volume, i.e. lattice spacing, of the Zr layer can be mathematically extracted from the diffractionmore » data; co-rolled Zr matches well with literature values of bulk Zr, while plasma sprayed Zr shows a slight increase in the lattice spacing, indicative of interstitial oxygen in the lattice. Neutron diffraction is a beneficial alternative to conventional methods of phase composition, i.e. x ray diffraction (XRD) and destructive metallography. XRD has minimal penetration depth in high atomic number materials, particularly uranium, and can only probe the first few microns of the fuel plate; neutrons pass completely through the foil, allowing for bulk analysis of the foil composition and no issues with addition of cladding layers, as in the final, aluminum-clad reactor fuel plates. Destructive metallography requires skilled technicians, cutting of the foil into small sections, hazardous etching conditions, long polishing and microscopy times, etc.; the neutron diffraction system has an automated sample loader and can fit larger foils, so there is minimal analysis preparation; the total spectrum acquisition time is ~ 1 hour per sample. The neutron diffraction results are limited by spectra refinement/calculation times and the availability of the neutron beam source. In the case of LANSCE at Los Alamos, the beam operates ~50% of the year. Following the lessons learned from these preliminary results

  8. Measurement and Estimation of the 99Mo Production Yield by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Futoshi; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Sato, Nozomi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Saeki, Hideya; Kawabata, Masako; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Nagai, Yasuki

    2017-11-01

    We, for the first time, measured the yield of 99Mo, the mother nuclide of 99mTc used in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures, produced by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction with accelerator neutrons. The neutrons with a continuous energy spectrum from the thermal energy up to about 40 MeV were provided by the C(d,n) reaction with 40 MeV deuteron beams. It was proved that the 99Mo yield agrees with that estimated by using the latest data on neutrons from the C(d,n) reaction and the evaluated cross section of the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction given in the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library. On the basis of the agreement, a systematic calculation was carried out to search for an optimum condition that enables us to produce as much 99Mo as possible with a good 99Mo/100Mo value from an economical point of view. The calculated 99Mo yield from a 150 g 100MoO3 sample indicated that about 30% of the demand for 99Mo in Japan can be met with a single accelerator capable of 40 MeV, 2 mA deuteron beams. Here, by referring to an existing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution system we assumed that 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals formed after separating 99mTc from 99Mo can be delivered to hospitals from a radiopharmaceutical company within 6 h. The elution of 99mTc from 99Mo twice a day would meet about 50% of the demand for 99Mo.

  9. Methane Oxidation on Pd-Ceria. A DFT Study of the Combustion Mechanism over Pd, PdO and Pd-ceria Sites

    SciT

    Mayernick, Adam D.; Janik, Michael J.

    2010-12-24

    Palladium/ceria exhibits unique catalytic activity for hydrocarbon oxidation; however, the chemical and structural properties of active sites on the palladium–ceria surface are difficult to characterize. Strong interactions between palladium and the ceria support stabilize oxidized Pd δ+ species, which may contribute to the significant activity of Pd/ceria for methane oxidation. We present a density functional theory (DFT + U) investigation into methane oxidation over Pd/ceria and quantify the activity of the Pd xCe 1-xO 2(1 1 1) mixed oxide surface in comparison with the PdO(1 0 0) and Pd(1 1 1) surfaces. The methane activation barrier is lowest over themore » Pd xCe 1-xO 2(1 1 1) surface, even lower than over the Pd(1 1 1) surface or low coordinated stepped or kinked Pd sites. Subsequent reaction steps in complete oxidation, including product desorption and vacancy refilling, are considered to substantiate that methane activation remains the rate-limiting step despite the low barrier over Pd xCe 1-xO 2(1 1 1). The low barrier over the Pd xCe 1-xO 2(1 1 1) surface demonstrates that mixed ceria-noble metal oxides offer the potential for improved hydrocarbon oxidation performance with respect to dispersed noble metal particles on ceria.« less

  10. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Yuji; Kondo, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T.; Watanabe, Yuki; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2017-03-01

    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr1-xNix (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr0.77Cr0.23) using the electrostatic levitation technique.

  11. Mass transport and crystal growth of the mixed ZrS2-ZrSe2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, Heribert; Goldman, Howard

    1986-01-01

    The solid solubility of the ZrS2-ZrSe2 system was reinvestigated by annealing techniques to establish the relationship between composition and lattice parameters. Mixed crystals of ZrS(2x)Se2(1-x) for selected compositions of the source material were grown by chemical vapor transport and characterized by X-ray diffraction and microscopic methods. The mass transport rates and crystal growth of ZrSSe were investigated and compared with those of other compositions. The mass fluxes of the mixed system showed an increase with increasing selenium content. The transport products were richer in ZrSe2 than the residual source materials when the ZrSe2 content of the starting materials was greater than 50 mol.-pct. The mass transport rates revealed an increasing mass flux with pressure.

  12. Electrical Conductivities of Low-Temperature KCl-ZrCl4 and CsCl-ZrCl4 Molten Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M.

    2018-02-01

    The electrical conductivities of molten KCl-ZrCl4 and CsCl-ZrCl4 mixtures, including their heterogeneous (melt+crystals) ranges, were measured for the first time. The concentration ranges were 65-72 and 66-75 mol.% of ZrCl4, and the temperature ranges were 482-711 and 548-735 K, respectively. The measurements were carried out in cells of an original design.

  13. Promoting effect of alkaline earth metal doping on catalytic activity of HC and NOx conversion over Pd-only three-way catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linyan; Lin, Siyu; Yang, Xue; Fang, Weimin; Zhou, Renxian

    2014-08-30

    The influence of alkaline earth metal (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) promoter on the structural/textural properties of Ce0.67Zr0.33O2 (designated as CZ) and the catalytic behavior of its supported Pd-only three-way catalyst (Pd/CZM) have been investigated. The results show that the modification with alkaline earth metal obviously improves the catalytic activity for hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) conversion, especially the introduction of Ba. Furthermore, the operation window of the promoted catalysts has also been widened. The doping of alkaline earth metal leads to the formation of more homogeneous Ce-Zr-M ternary solid solution with higher surface area and smaller crystallite size, and the corresponding Pd/CZM catalysts present improved reducibility of PdO species. The modification with Ca, Sr and Ba improves the thermal aging resistance, especially Ba. DRIFTS results reveal that the doping of alkaline earth metal enhances the oxygen and electron transfer ability and favors the dissociation of NO, which promotes the activation and storage capacity of the acidic atoms like NOx, and leads to enhanced catalytic activity performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation of Zr content in TiZrCuNi brazing filler metal for Ti6Al4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xishan; Xie, Zonghong; Jing, Yongjuan

    2017-07-01

    To optimize the Zr content in Ti-based filler metal, the covalent electron on the nearest atoms bond in unit cell ( n A u-v ) with Ti-based BCC structure was calculated, in which the brazing temperature was considered due to its influence on the lattice parameter. Based on EET theory (The Empirical Electron Theory for solid and molecules), n_{{A}}^{{u - v}} represents the strength of the unit cell with defined element composition and structure, which reflects the effect from solid solution strengthening on the strength of the unit cell. For Ti-Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% filler metal, it kept constant as 0.3476 with Zr as 37.5˜45 wt% and decreased to 0.333 with Zr decreasing from 37.5 to 25 wt%. Finally, it increased up to 0.3406 with Zr as 2˜10 wt%. Thus, Ti-based filler metal with Zr content being 2˜10 wt% is suggested based on the simulation results. Moreover, the calculated covalent electron of n A u-v showed good agreement with the hardness of the joint by filler 37.5Zr and 10Zr. The composition of Ti-10Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% was verified in this study with higher tensile strength of the brazing joint and uniform microstructure of the interface.

  15. MoSi2-Base Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2003-01-01

    Addition of 30 to 50 vol% of Si3N4 particulate to MoSi2 eliminated its low temperature catastrophic failure, improved room temperature fracture toughness and the creep resistance. The hybrid composite SCS-6/MoSi2-Si3N4 did not show any matrix cracking and exhibited excellent mechanical and environmental properties. Hi-Nicalon continuous fiber reinforced MoSi2-Si3N4 also showed good strength and toughness. A new MoSi2-base composite containing in-situ whisker-type (Beta)Si3N4 grains in a MoSi2 matrix is also described.

  16. Optical Properties of Ar Ions Irradiated Nanocrystalline ZrC and ZrN Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C.; Miller, K. H.; Makino, H.; Craciun, D.; Simeone, D.; Craciun, V.

    2017-01-01

    Thin nanocrystalline ZrC and ZrN films (less than 400 nanometers), grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 degrees Centigrade by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, were irradiated by 800 kiloelectronvolts Ar ion irradiation with fluences from 1 times 10(sup 14) atoms per square centimeter up to 2 times 10(sup 15) atoms per square centimeter. Optical reflectance data, acquired from as-deposited and irradiated films, in the range of 500-50000 per centimeter (0.06–6 electronvolts), was used to assess the effect of irradiation on the optical and electronic properties. Both in ZrC and ZrN films we observed that irradiation affects the optical properties of the films mostly at low frequencies, which is dominated by the free carriers response. In both materials, we found a significant reduction in the free carriers scattering rate, i.e. possible increase in mobility, at higher irradiation flux. This is consistent with our previous findings that irradiation affects the crystallite size and the micro-strain, but it does not induce major structural changes.

  17. PD-1 expression and clinical PD-1 blockade in B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Zhou, Jianfeng; Young, Ken H

    2018-01-04

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade targeting the PD-1 immune checkpoint has demonstrated unprecedented clinical efficacy in the treatment of advanced cancers including hematologic malignancies. This article reviews the landscape of PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and current PD-1 blockade immunotherapy trials in B-cell lymphomas. Most notably, in relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma, which frequently has increased PD-1 + tumor-infiltrating T cells, 9p24.1 genetic alteration, and high PD-L1 expression, anti-PD-1 monotherapy has demonstrated remarkable objective response rates (ORRs) of 65% to 87% and durable disease control in phase 1/2 clinical trials. The median duration of response was 16 months in a phase 2 trial. PD-1 blockade has also shown promise in a phase 1 trial of nivolumab in relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including follicular lymphoma, which often displays abundant PD-1 expression on intratumoral T cells, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which variably expresses PD-1 and PD-L1. In primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, which frequently has 9p24.1 alterations, the ORR was 35% in a phase 2 trial of pembrolizumab. In contrast, the ORR with pembrolizumab was 0% in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 44% in CLL with Richter transformation in a phase 2 trial. T cells from CLL patients have elevated PD-1 expression; CLL PD-1 + T cells can exhibit a pseudo-exhaustion or a replicative senescence phenotype. PD-1 expression was also found in marginal zone lymphoma but not in mantle cell lymphoma, although currently anti-PD-1 clinical trial data are not available. Mechanisms and predictive biomarkers for PD-1 blockade immunotherapy, treatment-related adverse events, hyperprogression, and combination therapies are discussed in the context of B-cell lymphomas. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Interactions between EGFR and PD-1/PD-L1 pathway: Implications for treatment of NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Lian, Zhen; Wang, Shuai; Xing, Ligang; Yu, Jinming

    2018-04-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death receptor/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway displayed striking and durable clinical responses in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it is still undefined about the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in NSCLC patients with EGFR activating mutations. Preclinical studies indicate the immune modulatory effect of EGFR signaling by regulating expression of MHC I/II and PD-L1 on tumor cells and activity of lymphocytes. Thus, it might be practicable for the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as monotherapy or combined with EGFR-TKIs in patients with EGFR activating mutations. In this review, we discussed the regulation effect of EGFR signaling on PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and the potential mechanisms behind combing EGFR-TKIs with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. We also reviewed current available data on PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as monotherapy or combined with EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC with EGFR activating mutations, and explored possible factors influence its efficacy, which would be important considerations for future clinical trial designs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Band gap tuning of amorphous Al oxides by Zr alloying

    SciT

    Canulescu, S., E-mail: stec@fotonik.dtu.dk; Schou, J.; Jones, N. C.

    2016-08-29

    The optical band gap and electronic structure of amorphous Al-Zr mixed oxides with Zr content ranging from 4.8 to 21.9% were determined using vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The light scattering by the nano-porous structure of alumina at low wavelengths was estimated based on the Mie scattering theory. The dependence of the optical band gap of the Al-Zr mixed oxides on the Zr content deviates from linearity and decreases from 7.3 eV for pure anodized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to 6.45 eV for Al-Zr mixed oxides with a Zr content of 21.9%. With increasing Zr content, the conduction band minimum changes non-linearlymore » as well. Fitting of the energy band gap values resulted in a bowing parameter of ∼2 eV. The band gap bowing of the mixed oxides is assigned to the presence of the Zr d-electron states localized below the conduction band minimum of anodized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.« less

  20. Cladding of Mg alloy with Zr based BMG Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, A. K.; Oh, Y. S.; Faisal, M. K.; Kim, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to clad AZ31 magnesium alloy with Zr-based bulk metallic glassy alloy (Vit-1), by casting method. The interface studies conducted using SEM-EDS line scan indicate that a good bond is formed at the clad interface of Zr and Mg. And the mechanism involved is discussed herein.

  1. Acoustic Analysis of PD Speech

    PubMed Central

    Chenausky, Karen; MacAuslan, Joel; Goldhor, Richard

    2011-01-01

    According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, approximately 500,000 Americans have Parkinson's disease (PD), with roughly another 50,000 receiving new diagnoses each year. 70%–90% of these people also have the hypokinetic dysarthria associated with PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) substantially relieves motor symptoms in advanced-stage patients for whom medication produces disabling dyskinesias. This study investigated speech changes as a result of DBS settings chosen to maximize motor performance. The speech of 10 PD patients and 12 normal controls was analyzed for syllable rate and variability, syllable length patterning, vowel fraction, voice-onset time variability, and spirantization. These were normalized by the controls' standard deviation to represent distance from normal and combined into a composite measure. Results show that DBS settings relieving motor symptoms can improve speech, making it up to three standard deviations closer to normal. However, the clinically motivated settings evaluated here show greater capacity to impair, rather than improve, speech. A feedback device developed from these findings could be useful to clinicians adjusting DBS parameters, as a means for ensuring they do not unwittingly choose DBS settings which impair patients' communication. PMID:21977333

  2. PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade: Have We Found the Key to Unleash the Antitumor Immune Response?

    PubMed Central

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Zhang, Mingzhi; Li, Jianyong; Young, Ken H.

    2017-01-01

    PD-1–PD-L1 interaction is known to drive T cell dysfunction, which can be blocked by anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies. However, studies have also shown that the function of the PD-1–PD-L1 axis is affected by the complex immunologic regulation network, and some CD8+ T cells can enter an irreversible dysfunctional state that cannot be rescued by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. In most advanced cancers, except Hodgkin lymphoma (which has high PD-L1/L2 expression) and melanoma (which has high tumor mutational burden), the objective response rate with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy is only ~20%, and immune-related toxicities and hyperprogression can occur in a small subset of patients during PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy. The lack of efficacy in up to 80% of patients was not necessarily associated with negative PD-1 and PD-L1 expression, suggesting that the roles of PD-1/PD-L1 in immune suppression and the mechanisms of action of antibodies remain to be better defined. In addition, important immune regulatory mechanisms within or outside of the PD-1/PD-L1 network need to be discovered and targeted to increase the response rate and to reduce the toxicities of immune checkpoint blockade therapies. This paper reviews the major functional and clinical studies of PD-1/PD-L1, including those with discrepancies in the pathologic and biomarker role of PD-1 and PD-L1 and the effectiveness of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. The goal is to improve understanding of the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy, as well as enhance the development of therapeutic strategies to overcome the resistance mechanisms and unleash the antitumor immune response to combat cancer. PMID:29255458

  3. PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade: Have We Found the Key to Unleash the Antitumor Immune Response?

    PubMed

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Zhang, Mingzhi; Li, Jianyong; Young, Ken H

    2017-01-01

    PD-1-PD-L1 interaction is known to drive T cell dysfunction, which can be blocked by anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies. However, studies have also shown that the function of the PD-1-PD-L1 axis is affected by the complex immunologic regulation network, and some CD8 + T cells can enter an irreversible dysfunctional state that cannot be rescued by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. In most advanced cancers, except Hodgkin lymphoma (which has high PD-L1/L2 expression) and melanoma (which has high tumor mutational burden), the objective response rate with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy is only ~20%, and immune-related toxicities and hyperprogression can occur in a small subset of patients during PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy. The lack of efficacy in up to 80% of patients was not necessarily associated with negative PD-1 and PD-L1 expression, suggesting that the roles of PD-1/PD-L1 in immune suppression and the mechanisms of action of antibodies remain to be better defined. In addition, important immune regulatory mechanisms within or outside of the PD-1/PD-L1 network need to be discovered and targeted to increase the response rate and to reduce the toxicities of immune checkpoint blockade therapies. This paper reviews the major functional and clinical studies of PD-1/PD-L1, including those with discrepancies in the pathologic and biomarker role of PD-1 and PD-L1 and the effectiveness of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. The goal is to improve understanding of the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy, as well as enhance the development of therapeutic strategies to overcome the resistance mechanisms and unleash the antitumor immune response to combat cancer.

  4. Theoretical studies of chemisorption and dimer model systems: Moller-Plesset and configuration interaction calculations on PdH, PdC, PdO, PdF, Pd sub 2 , and PdCO

    SciT

    Schwerdtfeger, P.; McFeaters, J.S.; Moore, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio SCF studies have been performed to study the molecular properties of several single-bonded palladium compounds, PdH, PdC, PdO, PdF, Pd{sub 2}, and PdCO, which are important in surface and materials science. Electron correlation effects were evaluated by a second- and third-order Moller-Plesset (MP) perturbation theory and a size-consistency-corrected configuration interaction with single and double substitutions (CISC). Relativistic effects were investigated for PdH and PdF. The ground state of PdC has been calculated at the CISC level to be a {sup 3}{Pi} state which is only 0.26 eV below the {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup {minus}} state (previously assigned ground state) andmore » 0.51 eV below the {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} state. PdC is predicted to be stable in the gas phase, and the possibility of preparing this compound is investigated. The bonding in CO chemisorbed on palladium is studied by using the model Pd-CO system. The effect of d{sub {pi}}-{pi}{sup *} back-bonding, discussed at the Hartree-Fock and CI level, is compared with results from multiple-scattering {Chi}{alpha} calculations. The C-O stretching frequency shift for CO on palladium was analyzed at various levels of theory, and the results indicated that the decrease in the CO force constant associated with chemisorption is not solely the result of d{sub {pi}}-{pi}{sup *} back-bonding.« less

  5. Atomistic Modeling of Surface and Bulk Properties of Cu, Pd and the Cu-Pd System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Garces, Jorge E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Abel, Phillip; Mosca, Hugo O.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is applied to the study of the Cu-Pd system. A variety of issues are analyzed and discussed, including the properties of pure Cu or Pd crystals (surface energies, surface relaxations), Pd/Cu and Cu/Pd surface alloys, segregation of Pd (or Cu) in Cu (or Pd), concentration dependence of the lattice parameter of the high temperature fcc CuPd solid solution, the formation and properties of low temperature ordered phases, and order-disorder transition temperatures. Emphasis is made on the ability of the method to describe these properties on the basis of a minimum set of BFS universal parameters that uniquely characterize the Cu-Pd system.

  6. Thermophysicochemical Reaction of ZrCo-Hydrogen-Helium System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kwangjin; Kang, Hee-Seok; Yun, Sei-Hun; Chung, Hongsuk

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear fusion energy, which is clean and infinite, has been studied for more than half a century. Efforts are in progress worldwide for the demonstration and validation of nuclear fusion energy. Korea has been developing hydrogen isotope storage and delivery system (SDS) technologies including a basic scientific study on a hydrogen storage medium. An SDS bed, which is a key component of the SDS, is used for storing hydrogen isotopes in a metal hydride form and supplying them to a tokamak. Thermophysicochemical properties of the ZrCo-H2-He system are investigated for the practical utilization of a hydriding alloy system. The hydriding reaction, in which ZrCoHx is composed as ZrCo absorbing hydrogen, is exothermic. The dehydriding reaction, in which ZrCoHx decomposes into ZrCo and hydrogen, is endothermic. The heat generated through the hydriding reaction interrupts the hydriding progress. The heat loss by a dehydriding reaction impedes the dehydriding progress. The tritium decay product, helium-3, covers the ZrCo and keeps the hydrogen from contact with ZrCo in the SDS bed. In this study, we designed and fabricated a ZrCo bed and its performance test rig. The helium blanketing effect on a ZrCo hydrogen reaction with 0 % to 20 % helium content in a gaseous phase and a helium blanket removal method were studied experimentally. In addition, the volumetric flow rates and temperature at the beginning of a ZrCo hydrogen reaction in a hydrogen or helium atmosphere, and the cooling of the SDS bed by radiation only and by both radiation and natural convection related to the reuse cycle, were obtained.

  7. Effect of KOH added to ethylene glycol electrolyte on the self-organization of anodic ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes

    SciT

    Rozana, Monna; Soaid, Nurul Izza; Lockman, Zainovia, E-mail: zainovia@usm.my

    ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were formed by anodizing zirconium sheet in ethylene glycol (EG) and EG added to it KOH (EG/KOH) electrolytes. The effect of KOH addition into EG electrolyte to the morphology of nanotubes and their crystallinity was investigated. It was observed that the tubes with diameter of ∼80 nm were formed in EG electrolyte with <0.1 vol % water, but the wall smoothness is rather poor. When KOH was added into EG, the wall smoothness of the nanotubes improve, but the diameter of tubes is smaller (∼40 nm). Despite smoother wall and small tube diameter, the degradation ofmore » methyl orange (MO) on the tubes made in EG/KOH is less compared to the tubes made in EG only. This could be due to the less tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} presence in the tubes made in EG/KOH.« less

  8. PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors for Immuno-oncology: From Antibodies to Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiaohong; Jiao, Peifu; Jin, Peng; Su, Gaoxing; Dong, Jinlong; Yan, Bing

    2018-02-12

    The recent regulatory approvals of immune checkpoint protein inhibitors, such as ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab ushered a new era in cancer therapy. These inhibitors do not attack tumor cells directly but instead mobilize the immune system to re-recognize and eradicate tumors, which endows them with unique advantages including durable clinical responses and substantial clinical benefits. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, a pillar of immune checkpoint protein inhibitors, have demonstrated unprecedented clinical efficacy in more than 20 cancer types. Besides monoclonal antibodies, diverse PD- 1/PD-L1 inhibiting candidates, such as peptides, small molecules have formed a powerful collection of weapons to fight cancer. The goal of this review is to summarize and discuss the current PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors including candidates under clinical development, their molecular interactions with PD-1 or PD-L1, the disclosed structureactivity relationships of peptides and small molecules as inhibitors. Current PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors under clinical development are exclusively dominated by antibodies. The molecular interactions of therapeutic antibodies with PD-1 or PD-L1 have been gradually elucidated for the design of novel inhibitors. Various peptides and traditional small molecules have been investigated in preclinical model to discover novel PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Peptides and small molecules may play an important role in immuno-oncology because they may bind to multiple immune checkpoint proteins via rational design, opening opportunity for a new generation of novel PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Network structure of Mo-oxide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, M.; Svab, E.; Milanova, M.; Krezhov, K.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of molybdate glasses have been investigated by neutron and high-energy X-ray diffraction coupled with Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation technique. From the modelling the partial atomic correlation functions g ij(r), the coordination number distributions CN ij and bond angle distributions have been revealed. For binary 90MoO3-10Nd2O3 glass composition the fraction of MoO4/MoO6 was 0.55/0.25. Three type of ternary system have been studied, where the most important structural units was authenticated. For MoO3-Nd2O3-B2O3 sample mixed MoO4-BO4 and MoO4-BO3 linkages form pronounced intermediate-range order. In case of MoO3-ZnO-B2O3 series the BO3 and BO4 units are linked to MoO4 and/or ZnO4, forming mixed MoO4-BO4(BO3), MoO4-ZnO4 and ZnO4-BO4(BO3) bond-linkages.

  10. MOEX: Solvent extraction approach for recycling enriched 98Mo/ 100Mo material

    DOE PAGES

    Tkac, Peter; Brown, M. Alex; Momen, Abdul; ...

    2017-03-20

    Several promising pathways exist for the production of 99Mo/ 99mTc using enriched 98Mo or 100Mo. Use of Mo targets require a major change in current generator technology, and the necessity for an efficient recycle pathway to recover valuable enriched Mo material. High recovery yields, purity, suitable chemical form and particle size are required. Results on the development of the MOEX– molybdenum solvent extraction – approach to recycle enriched Mo material are presented. Furthermore, the advantages of the MOEX process are very high decontamination factors from potassium and other elements, high throughput, easy scalability, automation, and minimal waste generation.

  11. MOEX: Solvent extraction approach for recycling enriched 98Mo/ 100Mo material

    SciT

    Tkac, Peter; Brown, M. Alex; Momen, Abdul

    Several promising pathways exist for the production of 99Mo/ 99mTc using enriched 98Mo or 100Mo. Use of Mo targets require a major change in current generator technology, and the necessity for an efficient recycle pathway to recover valuable enriched Mo material. High recovery yields, purity, suitable chemical form and particle size are required. Results on the development of the MOEX– molybdenum solvent extraction – approach to recycle enriched Mo material are presented. Furthermore, the advantages of the MOEX process are very high decontamination factors from potassium and other elements, high throughput, easy scalability, automation, and minimal waste generation.

  12. Effectiveness of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in urothelial carcinoma patients with different PD-L1 expression levels: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junqi; Zhang, Chuanfeng; Hu, Jiegang; Tian, Qing; Wang, Xin; Gu, Hao; Zhang, Song; Zhao, Di; Fan, Ruitai

    2018-02-23

    Urothelial carcinoma ranks the ninth among malignant cancers. We conducted this study to identify which patients could benefit more from the treatment of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. We performed literature searches, combined data from qualified literature and performed comparative analyses on the effectiveness of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in patients with different PD-L1 expression levels. We divided patients into three groups according to the percentages of PD-L1-positive cells, namely the low- PD-L1 (PD-L1 < 1%), the medium-PD-L1 (PD-L1 ≥ 1 and < 5%) and the high-PD-L1 (PD-L1 ≥ 5%) groups. We found that the high-PD-L1 group responded significantly better than other groups (P = 0.0003, ORs = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.29-071; P = 0.0009, ORs = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.25-0.73, for low-PD-L1 and medium-PD-L1 groups, respectively), while the latter two groups responded similarly (P = 0.90, ORs = 1.06, 95%CI: 0.62-1.83) to both PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors. Furthermore, we found that the medium-PD-L1 and high-PD-L1 groups responded similarly to PD-1/ PD-L1 inhibitors (P = 0.65, ORs = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.69-1.77), while the low-PD-L1 group responded better to PD-1 inhibitors than PD-L1 inhibitors (P = 0.046, ORs = 1.92, 95%CI: 0.98-3.89). Our results suggest that PD-L1 positive patients should be defined as those with ≥ 5% or greaterPD-L1-positive cells. PD-1 antibodies performed better only in the low-group patients, likely because they could block the interactions of PD-1 with both PD-L1 and PD-L2.

  13. Aqueous Isolation of 17-Nuclear Zr-/Hf- Oxide Clusters during the Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZrO2/HfO2.

    PubMed

    Sung, Qing; Liu, Caiyun; Zhang, Guanyun; Zhang, Jian; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wang, Yifeng

    2018-06-21

    Novel 17-nuclear Zr-/Hf- oxide clusters ({Zr17} and {Hf17}) are isolated from aqueous systems. In the clusters, Zr/Hf ions are connected via μ3-O, μ3-OH and μ2-OH linkages into a pinwheel core which is wrapped with SO42-, HCOO- and aqua ligands. Octahedral hexanuclear Zr-/Hf- oxide clusters ({Zr6}oct and {Hf6}oct) are also isolated from the same hydrothermal system by decreasing the synthesis temperature. Structural analysis, synthetic conditions, vibrational spectra and ionic conductivity of the clusters are studied. Structural studies and synthesis inspection suggest that formation of {Zr6}oct and {Zr17} involves assembly of the same transferable building blocks, but the condensation degree and thermodynamic stability of the products increase with hydrothermal temperature. The role of {Zr6}oct and {Zr17} in the formation of ZrO2 nanocrystals are then discussed in the scenario of nonclassical nucleation theory. Besides, the Zr-oxide clusters exhibit ionic conductivity due to the mobility of protons. This study not only adds new members to the Zr-/Hf- oxide cluster family, but also establishes a connection from Zr4+ ions to ZrO2 in the hydrothermal preparation of zirconium oxide nanomaterials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. (Zr,Ti)O2 interface structure in ZrO2-TiO2 nanolaminates with ultrathin periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, C. R.; DeLoach, J. D.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2002-07-01

    A mixed cation interfacial structure in ZrO2-TiO2 nanolaminate films with ultrathin bilayer periodicity grown by sputter deposition at 297 K was identified by x-ray diffraction and nonresonant Raman spectroscopy. This structure consists of an amorphous phase at a ZrO2-on-TiO2 bilayer interface, followed by an extensive crystalline monoclinic (Zr,Ti)O2 solid solution predicted by Vegard's law. Monoclinic (Zr,Ti)O2 has previously been reported only once, in bulk powder of a single composition (ZrTiO4) at high pressure. Its stabilization in the nanolaminates is explained by the Gibbs-Thomson effect. This complex interfacial structure is shown to be a means of accommodating chemical mixing in the absence of a driving force for heteroepitaxy.

  15. Future of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 applications: Combinations with other therapeutic regimens.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengjia; Chen, Xinfeng; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L1) blockade has shown promising effects in cancer immunotherapy. Removing the so-called " brakes" on T cell immune responses by blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 check point should boost anti-tumor immunity and provide durable tumor regression for cancer patients. However, 30%-60% of patients show no response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. Thus, it is urgent to explore the underlying resistance mechanisms to improve sensitivity to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. We propose that the mechanisms promoting resistance mainly include T cell exclusion or exhaustion at the tumor site, immunosuppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment (TME), and a range of tumor-intrinsic factors. This review highlights the power of studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of resistance to improve the rational design of combination therapeutic strategies that can be translated to the clinic. Here, we briefly discuss the development of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade agents and focus on the current issues and future prospects for potential combinatorial therapeutic strategies that include anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, based upon the available preclinical and clinical data.

  16. Design of Fatigue Resistant Heusler-strengthened PdTi-based Shape Memory Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Dana J.

    The development of non-surgical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques, which utilize collapsible artificial heart valves with shape memory alloy (SMA)-based frames, pushes performance requirements for biomedical SMAs beyond those for well-established vascular stent applications. Fatigue life for these devices must extend into the ultra-high cycle fatigue (UHCF) regime (>600M cycles) with zero probability of failure predicted at applied strain levels. High rates of Ni-hypersensitivity raise biocompatibility concerns, driving the development of low-Ni and Ni-free SMAs. This work focuses on the development of biocompatible, precipitation-strengthened, fatigue-resistant PdTi-based SMAs for biomedical applications. Functional and structural fatigue are both manifestations of cyclic instability resulting in accumulation of slip and eventual structural damage. While functional fatigue is easily experimentally evaluated, structural fatigue is more difficult to measure without the proper equipment. Therefore, in this work a theoretical approach using a model well validated in steels is utilized to investigate structural fatigue behavior in NiTi in the UHCF regime, while low cycle functional fatigue is evaluated in order to monitor the core phenomena of the cyclic instability. Results from fatigue simulations modeling crack nucleation at non-metallic inclusions in commercial NiTi underscore the importance of increasing yield strength for UHCF performance. Controlled precipitation of nanoscale, low-misfit, L21 Heusler aluminides can provide effective strengthening. Phase relations, precipitation kinetics, transformation temperature, transformation strain, cyclic stability, and mechanical properties are characterized in both Ni-free (Pd,Fe)(Ti,Al) and low-Ni high-strength "hybrid" (Pd,Ni)(Ti,Zr,Al) systems. Atom probe tomography is employed to measure phase compositions and particle sizes used to calibrate LSW models for coarsening kinetics and Gibbs

  17. Geometrically frustrated magnetic structures of the heavy-fermion compound CePdAl studied by powder neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dönni, A.; Ehlers, G.; Maletta, H.; Fischer, P.; Kitazawa, H.; Zolliker, M.

    1996-12-01

    The heavy-fermion compound CePdAl with ZrNiAl-type crystal structure (hexagonal space group 0953-8984/8/50/043/img8) was investigated by powder neutron diffraction. The triangular coordination symmetry of magnetic Ce atoms on site 3f gives rise to geometrical frustration. CePdAl orders below 0953-8984/8/50/043/img9 with an incommensurate antiferromagnetic propagation vector 0953-8984/8/50/043/img10, and a longitudinal sine-wave (LSW) modulated spin arrangement. Magnetically ordered moments at Ce(1) and Ce(3) coexist with frustrated disordered moments at Ce(2). The experimentally determined magnetic structure is in agreement with group theoretical symmetry analysis considerations, calculated by the program MODY, which confirm that for Ce(2) an ordered magnetic moment parallel to the magnetically easy c-axis is forbidden by symmetry. Further low-temperature experiments give evidence for a second magnetic phase transition in CePdAl between 0.6 and 1.3 K. Magnetic structures of CePdAl are compared with those of the isostructural compound TbNiAl, where a non-zero ordered magnetic moment for the geometrically frustrated Tb(2) atoms is allowed by symmetry.

  18. Development of multilayer perceptron networks for isothermal time temperature transformation prediction of U-Mo-X alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Jesse M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a multilayered perceptron (MLP) network is used to develop predictive isothermal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) models covering a range of U-Mo binary and ternary alloys. The selected ternary alloys for model development are U-Mo-Ru, U-Mo-Nb, U-Mo-Zr, U-Mo-Cr, and U-Mo-Re. These model's ability to predict 'novel' U-Mo alloys is shown quite well despite the discrepancies between literature sources for similar alloys which likely arise from different thermal-mechanical processing conditions. These models are developed with the primary purpose of informing experimental decisions. Additional experimental insight is necessary in order to reduce the number of experiments required to isolate ideal alloys. These models allow test planners to evaluate areas of experimental interest; once initial tests are conducted, the model can be updated and further improve follow-on testing decisions. The model also improves analysis capabilities by reducing the number of data points necessary from any particular test. For example, if one or two isotherms are measured during a test, the model can construct the rest of the TTT curve over a wide range of temperature and time. This modeling capability reduces the cost of experiments while also improving the value of the results from the tests. The reduced costs could result in improved material characterization and therefore improved fundamental understanding of TTT dynamics. As additional understanding of phenomena driving TTTs is acquired, this type of MLP model can be used to populate unknowns (such as material impurity and other thermal mechanical properties) from past literature sources.

  19. Development of multilayer perceptron networks for isothermal time temperature transformation prediction of U-Mo-X alloys

    SciT

    Johns, Jesse M.; Burkes, Douglas

    In this work, a multilayered perceptron (MLP) network is used to develop predictive isothermal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) models covering a range of U-Mo binary and ternary alloys. The selected ternary alloys for model development are U-Mo-Ru, U-Mo-Nb, U-Mo-Zr, U-Mo-Cr, and U-Mo-Re. These model’s ability to predict 'novel' U-Mo alloys is shown quite well despite the discrepancies between literature sources for similar alloys which likely arise from different thermal-mechanical processing conditions. These models are developed with the primary purpose of informing experimental decisions. Additional experimental insight is necessary in order to reduce the number of experiments required to isolate ideal alloys. Thesemore » models allow test planners to evaluate areas of experimental interest; once initial tests are conducted, the model can be updated and further improve follow-on testing decisions. The model also improves analysis capabilities by reducing the number of data points necessary from any particular test. For example, if one or two isotherms are measured during a test, the model can construct the rest of the TTT curve over a wide range of temperature and time. This modeling capability reduces the cost of experiments while also improving the value of the results from the tests. The reduced costs could result in improved material characterization and therefore improved fundamental understanding of TTT dynamics. As additional understanding of phenomena driving TTTs is acquired, this type of MLP model can be used to populate unknowns (such as material impurity and other thermal mechanical properties) from past literature sources.« less

  20. Thermoelectric power of Fe-Zr and Co-Zr metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    From, M.; Muir, W. B.

    1986-03-01

    The thermopower of Fe1-xZrx (0.57Zr and Co-Zr glasses is significantly different from that previously observed in crystalline materials.

  1. Routine Production of 89Zr Using an Automated Module

    DOE PAGES

    Wooten, A.; Madrid, Evelyn; Schweitzer, Gordon; ...

    2013-07-12

    89Zr has emerged as a useful radioisotope for targeted molecular imaging via positron emission tomography (PET) in both animal models and humans. This isotope is particularly attractive for cancer research because its half-life (t 1/2 = 3.27 days) is well-suited for in vivo targeting of macromolecules and nanoparticles to cell surface antigens expressed by cancer cells. Furthermore, 89Zr emits a low-energy positron (E β+,mean = 0.40 MeV), which is favorable for high spatial resolution in PET, with an adequate branching ratio for positron emission (BR = 23%). The demand for 89Zr for research purposes is increasing; however, 89Zr also emitsmore » significant gamma radiation (Γ 15 keV = 6.6 R∙cm 2/mCi∙h), which makes producing large amounts of this isotope by hand unrealistic from a radiation safety standpoint. Fortunately, a straightforward method exists for production of 89Zr by bombarding a natural Y target in a biomedical cyclotron and then separation of 89Zr from the target material by column chromatography. The chemical separation in this method lends itself to remote processing using an automated module placed inside a hot cell. In this work, we have designed, built and commissioned a module that has performed the chemical separation of 89Zr safely and routinely, at activities in excess of 50 mCi, with radionuclidic purity > 99.9% and satisfactory effective specific activity (ESA).« less

  2. Measurement of benzenethiol adsorption to nanostructured Pt, Pd, and PtPd films using Raman spectroelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pomfret, Michael B; Pietron, Jeremy J; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C

    2010-05-04

    Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to study the behavior of the model adsorbate benzenethiol (BT) on nanostructured Pt, Pd, and PtPd electrodes as a function of applied potential. Benzenethiol adsorbs out of ethanolic solutions as the corresponding thiolate, and voltammetric stripping data reveal that BT is oxidatively removed from all of the nanostructured metals upon repeated oxidative and reductive cycling. Oxidative stripping potentials for BT increase in the order Pt < PtPd < Pd, indicating that BT adsorbs most strongly to nanoscale Pd. Yet, BT Raman scattering intensities, measured in situ over time scales of minutes to hours, are most persistent on the film of nanostructured Pt. Raman spectra indicate that adsorbed BT desorbs from nanoscale Pt at oxidizing potentials via cleavage of the Pt-S bond. In contrast, on nanoscale Pd and PtPd, BT is irreversibly lost due to cleavage of BT C-S bonds at oxidizing potentials, which leaves adsorbed sulfur oxides on Pd and PtPd films and effects the desulfurization of BT. While Pd and PtPd films are less sulfur-resistant than Pt films, palladium oxides, which form at higher potentials than Pt oxides, oxidatively desulfurize BT. In situ spectroelectrochemical Raman spectroscopy provides real-time, chemically specific information that complements the cyclic voltammetric data. The combination of these techniques affords a powerful and convenient method for guiding the development of sulfur-tolerant PEMFC catalysts.

  3. TiOx thin films grown on Pd(100) and Pd(111) by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farstad, M. H.; Ragazzon, D.; Grönbeck, H.; Strømsheim, M. D.; Stavrakas, C.; Gustafson, J.; Sandell, A.; Borg, A.

    2016-07-01

    The growth of ultrathin TiOx (0≤x≤2) films on Pd(100) and Pd(111) surfaces by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), using Titanium(IV)isopropoxide (TTIP) as precursor, has been investigated by high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. Three different TiOx phases and one Pd-Ti alloy phase have been identified for both surfaces. The Pd-Ti alloy phase is observed at the initial stages of film growth. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for Pd(100) and Pd(111) suggest that Ti is alloyed into the second layer of the substrate. Increasing the TTIP dose yields a wetting layer comprising Ti2 + species (TiOx, x ∼0.75). On Pd(100), this phase exhibits a mixture of structures with (3 × 5) and (4 × 5) periodicity with respect to the Pd(100) substrate, while an incommensurate structure is formed on Pd(111). Most importantly, on both surfaces this phase consists of a zigzag pattern similar to observations on other reactive metal surfaces. Further increase in coverage results in growth of a fully oxidized (TiO2) phase on top of the partially oxidized layer. Preliminary investigations indicate that the fully oxidized phase on both Pd(100) and Pd(111) may be the TiO2(B) phase.

  4. Mo99 Production Plant Layout

    SciT

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Naranjo, Angela Carol

    The NorthStar Medical Technologies 99Mo production facility configuration is envisioned to be 8 accelerator pairs irradiating 7 100Mo targets (one spare accelerator pair undergoing maintenance while the other 7 pairs are irradiating targets). The required shielding in every direction for the accelerators is initially estimated to be 10 feet of concrete. With the accelerator pairs on one (ground) level and spaced with the required shielding between adjacent pairs, the only practical path for target insertion and removal while minimizing floor space is vertical. The current scheme then requires a target vertical lift of nominally 10 feet through a shield stack.more » It is envisioned that the lift will be directly into a hot cell where an activated target can be removed from its holder and a new target attached and lowered. The hot cell is on a rail system so that a single hot cell can service all active target locations, as well as deliver the ready targets to the separations lab. On this rail system, coupled to the hot cell, will be a helium recovery and clean-up system. All helium coolant equipment is located on the upper level near to the target removal point.« less

  5. Deformation behavior, corrosion resistance, and cytotoxicity of Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Qiu, C L; Chen, Q; Chan, K C; Zhang, S M

    2008-07-01

    Two Ni-free bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of Zr(60)Nb(5)Cu(22.5)Pd(5)Al(7.5) and Zr(60)Nb(5)Cu(20)Fe(5)Al(10) were successfully prepared by arc-melting and copper mold casting. The thermal stability and crystallization were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. It demonstrates that the two BMGs exhibit very good glass forming ability with a wide supercooled liquid region. A multi-step process of crystallization with a preferential formation of quasicrystals occurred in both BMGs under continuous heating. The deformation behavior of the two BMGs was investigated using quasi-static compression testing. It reveals that the BMGs exhibit not only superior strength but also an extended plasticity. Corrosion behaviors of the BMGs were investigated in phosphate buffered solution by electrochemical polarization. The result shows that the two BMGs exhibit excellent corrosion resistance characterized by low corrosion current densities and wide passive regions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that the passive film formed after anodic polarization was highly enriched in zirconium, niobium, and aluminum oxides. This is attributed to the excellent corrosion resistance. Additionally, the potential cytotoxicity of the two Ni-free BMGs was evaluated through cell culture for 1 week followed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and SEM observation. The results indicate that the two Ni-free BMGs exhibit as good biocompatibility as Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and thus show a promising potential for biomedical applications. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Microwave effects on NiMoS and CoMoS single-sheet catalysts.

    PubMed

    Borges, I; Silva, Alexander M; Modesto-Costa, Lucas

    2018-05-04

    Single-sheet nanoclusters of MoS 2 , NiMoS or CoMoS are widely used in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysis in the petroleum industry. In HDS reactions under microwave irradiation, experiments indirectly pointed out that for pristine MoS 2 reaction rates are accelerated because hot spots are generated on the catalyst bed. In this work, we investigated NiMoS and CoMoS isolated single-sheet substituted catalysts before and after thiophene adsorption focusing on quantifying the effect of microwave irradiation. For that purpose, density functional theory (DFT) molecular charge densities of each system were decomposed according to the distributed multipole analysis (DMA) of Stone. Site dipole values of each system were directly associated with a larger or smaller interaction with the microwave field according to a proposed general approach. We showed that microwave enhancement of HDS reaction rates can occur more efficiently in the CoMoS and NiMoS promoted clusters compared to pristine MoS 2 in the following order: CoMoS > NiMoS > MoS 2 . The atomic origin of the catalyst hot spots induced by microwaves was clearly established in the promoted clusters.

  7. The characterisation of second phases in the Zr-Nb and Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe alloys: A critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Allan; Griffiths, Malcolm; Preuss, Michael

    2018-07-01

    The nature and evolution of the Fe environment in Zr-Nb and Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe systems is essential to alloy performance during corrosion, hardening and irradiation-induced growth. Unfortunately, there is ambiguity in the literature regarding the characterisation of secondary phases in these systems. The presence, or not, of Fe in β-Nb phase has been a source of disagreement. In ternary ZrNbFe intermetallics, identical compositions have been designated as Zr(Nb,Fe)2 or (Zr,Nb)3Fe. We show that while Zr(Nb,Fe)2 is commonly reported, it is not always justified. The cubic phase (Zr,Nb)2Fe is easily identified, but its composition is more variable after low temperature heat treatments. We demonstrate the need for correlative approaches in the assessment of phase composition, crystallography and local Fe environment under different heat treatment regimes. Irradiation effects allow us to draw clues regarding phase designation, but there is diverse behaviour under irradiation due to initial phase composition, irradiation dose rate and temperature.

  8. Multiplexed Immunofluorescence Reveals Potential PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway Vulnerabilities in Craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Coy, Shannon; Rashid, Rumana; Lin, Jia-Ren; Du, Ziming; Donson, Andrew M; Hankinson, Todd C; Foreman, Nicholas K; Manley, Peter E; Kieran, Mark W; Reardon, David A; Sorger, Peter K; Santagata, Sandro

    2018-03-02

    Craniopharyngiomas are neoplasms of the sellar/parasellar region that are classified into adamantinomatous (ACP) and papillary (PCP) subtypes. Surgical resection of craniopharyngiomas is challenging, and recurrence is common, frequently leading to profound morbidity. BRAF V600E mutations render PCP susceptible to BRAF/MEK inhibitors, but effective targeted therapies are needed for ACP. We explored the feasibility of targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway in ACP and PCP. We mapped and quantified PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in ACP and PCP resections using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and RNA in situ hybridization. We used tissue-based cyclic immunofluorescence (t-CyCIF) to map the spatial distribution of immune cells and characterize cell cycle and signaling pathways in ACP tumor cells which intrinsically express PD-1. All ACP (15±14% of cells, n=23, average±S.D.) and PCP (35±22% of cells, n=18) resections expressed PD-L1. In ACP, PD-L1 was predominantly expressed by tumor cells comprising the cyst-lining. In PCP, PD-L1 was highly-expressed by tumor cells surrounding the stromal fibrovascular cores. ACP also exhibited tumor cell-intrinsic PD-1 expression in whorled epithelial cells with nuclear-localized beta-catenin. These cells exhibited evidence of elevated mTOR and MAPK signaling. Profiling of immune populations in ACP and PCP showed a modest density of CD8+ T-cells. ACP exhibit PD-L1 expression in the tumor cyst-lining and intrinsic PD-1 expression in cells proposed to comprise an oncogenic stem-like population. In PCP, proliferative tumor cells express PD-L1 in a continuous band at the stromal-epithelial interface. Targeting PD-L1 and/or PD-1 in both subtypes of craniopharyngioma might therefore be an effective therapeutic strategy.

  9. Effects of alloying elements on the formation of < c >-component loops in Zr alloy Excel under heavy ion irradiation.

    SciT

    Idrees, Yasir; Francis, Elisabeth M.; Yao, Zhongwen

    2015-05-14

    We report here the microstructural changes occurring in the zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5 wt% Sn-0.8Nb-0.8Mo-0.2Fe) during heavy ion irradiation. In situ irradiation experiments were conducted at reactor operating temperatures on two Zr Excel alloy microstructures with different states of alloying elements, with the states achieved by different solution heat treatments. In the first case, the alloying elements were mostly concentrated in the beta (beta) phase, whereas, in the second case, large Zr-3(Mo,Nb,Fe)(4) secondary phase precipitates (SPPs) were grown in the alpha (alpha) phase by long term aging. The heavy ion induced damage and resultant compositional changes were examined using transmissionmore » electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Significant differences were seen in microstructural evolution between the two different microstructures that were irradiated under similar conditions. Nucleation and growth of < c >-component loops and their dependence on the alloying elements are a major focus of the current investigation. It was observed that the < c >-component loops nucleate readily at 100, 300, and 400 degrees C after a threshold incubation dose (TID), which varies with irradiation temperature and the state of alloying elements. It was found that the TID for the formation of < c >-component loops increases with decrease in irradiation temperature. Alloying elements that are present in the form of SPPs increase the TID compared to when they are in the beta phase solid solution. Dose and temperature dependence of loop size and density are presented. Radiation induced redistribution and clustering of alloying elements (Sn, Mo, and Fe) have been observed and related to the formation of < c >-component loops. It has been shown that at the higher temperature tests, irradiation induced dissolution of precipitates occurs whereas irradiation induced

  10. Structural Stabilities of β-Ti Alloys Studied Using a New Mo Equivalent Derived from [ β/( α + β)] Phase-Boundary Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Dong, Chuang; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-08-01

    Structural stabilities of β-Ti alloys are generally investigated by an empirical Mo equivalent, which quantifies the stability contribution of each alloying element, M, in comparison to that of the major β-Ti stabilizer, Mo. In the present work, a new Mo equivalent (Moeq)Q is proposed, which uses the slopes of the boundary lines between the β and ( α + β) phase zones in binary Ti-M phase diagrams. This (Moeq)Q reflects a simple fact that the β-Ti stability is enhanced, when the β phase zone is enlarged by a β-Ti stabilizer. It is expressed as (Moeq)Q = 1.0 Mo + 0.74 V + 1.01 W + 0.23 Nb + 0.30 Ta + 1.23 Fe + 1.10 Cr + 1.09 Cu + 1.67 Ni + 1.81 Co + 1.42 Mn + 0.38 Sn + 0.34 Zr + 0.99 Si - 0.57 Al (at. pct), where the equivalent coefficient of each element is the slope ratio of the [ β/( α + β)] boundary line of the binary Ti-M phase diagram to that of the Ti-Mo. This (Moeq)Q is shown to reliably characterize the critical stability limit of multi-component β-Ti alloys with low Young's moduli, where the critical lower limit for β stabilization is (Moeq)Q = 6.25 at. pct or 11.8 wt pct Mo.

  11. Hydrogen attack in Cr-Mo steels. [3Cr-1. 5Mo and 2. 25Cr-1Mo steels

    SciT

    Ruoff, S.; Stone, D.; Wanagel, J.

    Experiments conducted upon 3Cr-1.5Mo steel at elevated temperatures (600 C), and high pressure hydrogen (2000 psi), have shown a greater resistence to hydrogen attack compared with similar studies of 2.25Cr-lMo steels. Hydrogen exposure tests with and without an applied stress have been performed on both types of steels. Results of similar conditions show clear evidence of hydrogen attack in 2.25Cr-lMo steel, however, for the 3Cr-1.5Mo steel with exposure time up to 80 days without an applied stress no evidence of hydrogen attack is observed. For stress-rupture tests using stresses of 14 and 16 ksi, the 3Cr-1.5Mo steel showed no effectsmore » of hydrogen attack, and no damage was observed using a SEM.« less

  12. Anti-tumor immunotherapy by blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with recombinant human PD-1-IgV.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Wu, S; Xue, X; Li, M; Qin, X; Li, W; Han, W; Zhang, Y

    2008-01-01

    Blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway can delay tumor growth and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) V domain of PD-1 is important for the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1, suggesting that PD-1-IgV may be a potential target for anti-tumor immunotherapy. The extracellular sequence of human PD-1-IgV (hPD-1-IgV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The anti-tumor effect of hPD-1-IgV on tumor-bearing mice was tested. hPD-1-IgV recombinant protein could bind PD-L1 at molecular and cellular levels and enhance Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) activity and anti-tumor effect on tumor-bearing mice in vivo. The percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in tumor-bearing mice was decreased compared with control mice after administration of the recombinant protein. Our results suggest that inhibition of the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 by hPD-1-IgV may be a promising strategy for specific tumor immunotherapy.

  13. Arsenic and fluoride removal from contaminated drinking water with Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Debra H; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Sen Gupta, Arup K

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the study was to carry-out batch tests to examine the effectiveness of Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads in the removal of As(III), As(V) and F - from groundwater with a similar geochemistry to a site where a community-based drinking water plant has been installed in West Bengal, India. The groundwater was spiked separately with ∼200 μg/L As(III) and As(V) and 5 mg/L F - . Haix-Zr resin beads were more effective than Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads in removing As(III) and As(V). Haix-Zr resin beads showed higher removal of As(V) compared to As(III). Haix-Zr resin beads removed As(V) below the WHO (10 μg/L) drinking water standards at 8.79 μg/L after 4 h of shaking, while As(III) was reduced to 7.72 μg/L after 8 h of shaking. Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads were more effective in removing F - from the spiked groundwater compared to Haix-Zr resin beads. Concentrations of F - decreased from 6.27 mg/L to 1.26 mg/L, which is below the WHO drinking water standards (1.5 mg/L) for F - , after 15 min of shaking with Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads. After 20 min of shaking in groundwater treated with Haix-Zr resin beads, F - concentrations decreased from 6.27 mg/L to 1.43 mg/L. In the removal of As(III), As(V), and F - from the groundwater, Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads fit the parabolic diffusion equation (PDE) suggesting that adsorption of these contaminants was consistent with inter-particle diffusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrafast charge transfer between MoTe2 and MoS2 monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shudi; Ceballos, Frank; Bellus, Matthew Z.; Zereshki, Peymon; Zhao, Hui

    2017-03-01

    High quality and stable electrical contact between metal and two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, is a necessary requirement that has yet to be achieved in order to successfully exploit the advantages that these materials offer to electronics and optoelectronics. MoTe2, owing to its phase changing property, can potentially offer a solution. A recent study demonstrated that metallic phase of MoTe2 connects its semiconducting phase with very low resistance. To utilize this property to connect other two-dimensional materials, it is important to achieve efficient charge transfer between MoTe2 and other semiconducting materials. Using MoS2 as an example, we report ultrafast and efficient charge transfer between MoTe2 and MoS2 monolayers. In the transient absorption measurements, an ultrashort pump pulse is used to selectively excite electrons in MoTe2. The appearance of the excited electrons in the conduction band of MoS2 is monitored by using a probe pulse that is tuned to the resonance of MoS2. We found that electrons transfer to MoS2 on a time scale of at most 0.3 ps. The transferred electrons give rise to a large transient absorption signal at both A-exciton and B-exciton resonances due to the screening effect. We also observed ultrafast transfer of holes from MoS2 to MoTe2. Our results suggest the feasibility of using MoTe2 as a bridge material to connect MoS2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides, and demonstrate a new transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructure involving MoTe2, which extends the spectral range of such structures to infrared.

  15. Spallation behaviour of a Zr-bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Z.; Huang, X.; Shen, L. T.; Dai, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    Plate impact experiments have been conducted on a Zr-based bulk metal glass (BMG) using a single stage light gas gun. To understand the spallation process of the material, samples were subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of the same amplitude but different durations. Fractographs of spallation surface and fracture features were characterized and the fracture mechanism of different regions of the spallation surface was discussed. Morphology of the spallation surface in the Zr-BMG exhibited a typical equiaxial cellular pattern and porous microstructure. These experiments revealed that, subjected to hydro-tensile stresses, the microdamage of the spallation occurred in the Zr-BMG is microvoids; the spallation in the Zr-BMG is resulted from nucleation, growth and coalescence of microvoids; and the time needed for these microvoids nucleation is less than 100 ns with a stress amplitude of 3.18 GPa.

  16. On the Mo-Papas equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirregabiria, J. M.; Chamorro, A.; Valle, M. A.

    1982-05-01

    A new heuristic derivation of the Mo-Papas equation for charged particles is given. It is shown that this equation cannot be derived for a point particle by closely following Dirac's classical treatment of the problem. The Mo-Papas theory and the Bonnor-Rowe-Marx variable mass dynamics are not compatible.

  17. Direct observation of MoO 2 crystal growth from amorphous MoO 3 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nina, Kenji; Kimura, Yuki; Yokoyama, Kaori; Kido, Osamu; Binyo, Gong; Kaito, Chihiro

    2008-08-01

    The formation process of MoO 2 crystal from amorphous MoO 3 film has been imaged by in situ observation with a transmission electron microscope. Selective growth of flower-shaped MoO 2 crystals by heating above 673 K in vacuum was directly observed. Since the MoO 2 crystal has metallic conductivity of the order of indium oxide film containing tin (ITO film), the thin film growth of the MoO 2 phase has been discussed on the basis of a new substitute for ITO film.

  18. A new series of mixed oxalates MM'(C 2O 4) 3(H 2O) 3· nH 2O (M = Cd, Hg, Pb; M' = Zr, Hf) based on eight-fold coordinated metals: Synthesis, crystal structure from single-crystal and powder diffraction data and thermal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavilan, Elisabeth; Audebrand, Nathalie; Jeanneau, Erwann

    2007-11-01

    A new series of mixed oxalates MM'(C 2O 4) 3(H 2O) 3· nH 2O (M = Cd, Hg, Pb; M' = Zr, Hf) has been prepared. The crystal structures have been solved from single-crystal and powder diffraction data. The isotypical compounds crystallise with space group P2 1/ c (No. 14). The structures consist of honeycomb layers formed by eight-fold coordinated metals, in a distorted square-based antiprismatic conformation, connected together via oxalates which act as bidentate ligands and also as monodentate in a less-common μ3-bridging mode. Sheets are built from two shifted honeycomb layers and linked to each other through a hydrogen network. The resulting frameworks of the series display a compact two-dimensional arrangement of polyhedra MO 8 and M'O 8. Weakly-bonded water molecules are located between and within the sheets. Comparisons with the 3D open-framework structures of related metal oxalates are made. The dehydration processes occur in three or four steps. The final products are MO, M'O 2 and PbZrO 3 resulting from the sublimation of PbO in air. The size of PbZrO 3 crystallites, which are on average isotropic, has been evaluated to be 1055 Å from line-broadening analysis.

  19. Lateral MoS2 p-n junction formed by chemical doping for use in high-performance optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Sup; Qu, Deshun; Lee, Daeyeong; Liu, Xiaochi; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yoo, Won Jong

    2014-09-23

    This paper demonstrates a technique to form a lateral homogeneous 2D MoS2 p-n junction by partially stacking 2D h-BN as a mask to p-dope MoS2. The fabricated lateral MoS2 p-n junction with asymmetric electrodes of Pd and Cr/Au displayed a highly efficient photoresponse (maximum external quantum efficiency of ∼7000%, specific detectivity of ∼5 × 10(10) Jones, and light switching ratio of ∼10(3)) and ideal rectifying behavior. The enhanced photoresponse and generation of open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short-circuit current (ISC) were understood to originate from the formation of a p-n junction after chemical doping. Due to the high photoresponse at low VD and VG attributed to its built-in potential, our MoS2 p-n diode made progress toward the realization of low-power operating photodevices. Thus, this study suggests an effective way to form a lateral p-n junction by the h-BN hard masking technique and to improve the photoresponse of MoS2 by the chemical doping process.

  20. Simulation of the MoEDAL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Matthew; MoEDAL Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The MoEDAL experiment (Monopole and Exotics Detector at the LHC) is designed to directly search for magnetic monopoles and other highly ionising stable or meta-stable particles at the LHC. The MoEDAL detector comprises an array of plastic track detectors and aluminium trapping volumes around the P8 intersection region, opposite from the LHCb detector. TimePix devices are also installed for monitoring of the experiment. As MoEDAL mostly employs passive detectors the software development focusses on particle simulation, rather than digitisation or reconstruction. Here, we present the current status of the MoEDAL simulation software. Specifically, the development of a material description of the detector and simulations of monopole production and propagation at MoEDAL.

  1. Combination therapy with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade: An overview of ongoing clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C Bryce; Win, Shwe Y

    2018-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the programmed death 1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) receptors are the most clinically advanced tumor immunotherapies. Given the broad antitumor efficacy and novel mechanism of action, numerous combinatorial approaches incorporating PD-1/PD-L1 blockade have been suggested; herein we present a comprehensive analysis of these clinical trials. We queried clinicaltrials.gov for all PD-1/PD-L1 mAbs administered for cancer therapy with an end date of 4/30/2017. A total of 1,218 clinical trials met our search criteria. These trials have a planned enrollment of 227,190 patients, and approximately half (493) were initiated in 2016 alone. Of these over 1,200 trials, 916 combine PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with at least one additional therapy, ranging from traditional treatment modalities like surgery and chemoradiation to newer therapies like small molecule inhibitors and other immunotherapies. The staggering proliferation of clinical trials combining PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with disparate treatments necessitates careful accounting to maximize efficiency and highlight areas of unmet needs. We believe our analysis provides this data and expect it will facilitate the design of future clinical trials in this burgeoning area of oncology research.

  2. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibitors in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Isaacsson Velho, Pedro; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2018-05-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of immune checkpoint receptors or their ligands represents a transformative breakthrough in the management of multiple cancers. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors have yet to be FDA-approved for the management of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), the commonest non-cutaneous malignancy in men. Areas covered: We review our current understanding of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in cancer, the use of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapeutics in PCa, and potential subgroups of PCa patients who may derive the greatest benefit from these agents (such as men with tumors that have expression of PD-L1 and/or high mutational load). We also review the prior and current clinical trials evaluating the blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 in PCa, highlighting some of the key ongoing studies of greatest relevance to the field. Expert commentary: Clinical trials investigating PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors should be encouraged in patients with PCa. While it is unlikely that immune checkpoint monotherapies will produce long-lasting responses in a substantial proportion of patients, there is early evidence of activity in some patient subsets. These subgroups may include those with high PD-L1 expression, those with hypermutated or microsatellite-unstable tumors, and those enriched for germline and/or somatic DNA-repair gene mutations (e.g. intraductal/ductal histology, primary Gleason pattern 5, and perhaps AR-V7-positive tumors).

  3. The PD-1/PD-L1 axis may be aberrantly activated in occupational cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Hamano, Genya; Nakamori, Shoji; Fujikawa, Masahiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Arimoto, Akira; Yamamura, Minako; Sasaki, Motoko; Harada, Kenichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kubo, Shoji

    2017-03-01

    An outbreak of cholangiocarcinoma in a printing company was reported in Japan, and these cases were regarded as an occupational disease (occupational cholangiocarcinoma). This study examined the expression status of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in occupational cholangiocarcinoma. Immunostaining of PD-1, PD-L1, CD3, CD8, and CD163 was performed using tissue sections of occupational cholangiocarcinoma (n = 10), and the results were compared with those of control cases consisting of intrahepatic (n = 23) and extrahepatic (n = 45) cholangiocarcinoma. Carcinoma cells expressed PD-L1 in all cases of occupational cholangiocarcinoma, whereas the detection of PD-L1 expression in cholangiocarcinoma cells was limited to a low number of cases (less than 10%) in the control subjects. In cases of occupational cholangiocarcinoma, occasional PD-L1 expression was also noted in precancerous/preinvasive lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. Additionally, tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-infiltrating T cells expressed PD-L1 and PD-1, respectively. The number of PD-L1-positive mononuclear cells, PD-1-positive lymphocytes, and CD8-positive lymphocytes infiltrating within the tumor was significantly higher in occupational cholangiocarcinoma compared with that in control cases. These results indicate that immune escape via the PD-1/PD-L1 axis may be occurring in occupational cholangiocarcinoma. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Development and Validation of Capabilities to Measure Thermal Properties of Layered Monolithic U-Mo Alloy Plate-Type Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-01

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world's highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium to low enriched uranium. One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of the thermal-conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify functionality of equipment installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, refine procedures to operate the equipment, and validate models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures, and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a Zr diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons < 0,0,12,0> is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially < 0,2,8,2> and < 0,2,8,1> , are prominent. And the < 0,2,8,2> polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5 MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the < 0,0,12,0> in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. The relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5.

  6. Biocompatible Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with high-Zr-content: compositional optimization for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Nengbin; Huang, Lu; Chen, Wenzhe; He, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The present study designs and prepares Ni-free Zr60+xTi2.5Al10Fe12.5-xCu10Ag5 (at.%, x=0, 2.5, 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by copper mold casting for potential biomedical application. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility of the Zr-based BMGs are evaluated by investigating mechanical properties, bio-corrosion behavior, and cellular responses. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high notch toughness. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based BMGs are corrosion resistant in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The bio-corrosion resistance of BMGs is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. Regular cell responses of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells, including cell adhesion and proliferation, are observed on the Zr-Ti-Al-Fe-Cu-Ag BMGs, which reveals their general biosafety. The high-Zr-based BMGs exhibit a higher cell proliferation activity in comparison with that of pure Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility can be used to guide the future design of biocompatible Zr-based BMGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr 50Cu 45Al 5 and Cu 50Zr 45Al 5 metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; ...

    2016-02-01

    Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr 50Cu 45Al 5 and Cu-rich Cu 50Zr 45Al 5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr 50Cu 45Al 5 and Cu 50Zr 45Al 5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons < 0,0,12,0 > is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially < 0,2,8,2 > and , are prominent. And the < 0,2,8,2 > polyhedra in Cu 50Zr 45Al 5 MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the < 0,0,12,0 > in Zr 50Cu 45Al 5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. Lastly, the relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr 50Cu 45Al 5.« less

  8. Electronic structure of ZrX2 (X = Se, Te)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkvarin, A. S.; Merentsov, A. I.; Shkvarina, E. G.; Yarmoshenko, Yu. M.; Píš, I.; Nappini, S.; Titov, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The electronic structure of the ZrX2 (X = Se, Te) compounds has been studied using photoelectron, resonant photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, theoretical calculations of the X-ray absorption spectra, and density of electronic states. It was found that the absorption spectra and valence band spectra are influenced by the chalcogen type. The results of the multiplet calculation of the Zr4+ atom show that the change in the splitting in the crystal field, which is described by the 10Dq parameter, is due to the change in the ratio of covalent and ionic contributions to the chemical bond. The resonance band near the Fermi level in the valence band spectra is observed for ZrTe2 in the Zr 3p-4d resonant excitation mode. The extent of photon energy indicates the charge localization on the Zr atom. Similar resonance band for ZrSe2 is absent; it indicates the presence of a gap at the Fermi level.

  9. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    ZrB2 appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B4C. Since ZrB2 has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB2, significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB2 powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB2 by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13-23 GPa and 1.8-2.8 MPa m0.5, respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study.

  10. Tuning of optical mode magnetic resonance in CoZr/Ru/CoZr synthetic antiferromagnetic trilayers by oblique sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Fenglong; Cao, Cuimei; Li, Pingping; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun

    2018-04-01

    CoZr/Ru/CoZr synthetic antiferromagnetic trilayers with strong antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling were fabricated by an oblique sputtering method that induced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. A microstrip method using a vector network analyzer was applied to investigate the magnetic resonance modes of the trilayers, including the acoustic modes (AMs) and the optical modes (OMs). At zero magnetic field, the CoZr/Ru/CoZr trilayers showed OMs with resonance frequencies of up to 7.1 GHz. By increasing the applied external magnetic field, the magnetic resonance mode can be tuned to various OMs, mixed modes, and AMs. Additionally, the magnetic resonance mode showed an angular dependence between the magnetization and the microwave field, which showed similar switching of the magnetic modes with variation of the angle. Our results provide important information that will be helpful in the design of multifunctional microwave devices.

  11. Phase equilibria, crystal structures, and dielectric anomaly in the BaZrO 3-CaZrO 3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Igor; Amos, Tammy G.; Bell, Steven M.; Farber, Leon; Vanderah, Terrell A.; Roth, Robert S.; Toby, Brian H.

    2003-11-01

    Phase equilibria in the (1- x)BaZrO 3- xCaZrO 3 system were analyzed using a combination of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The proposed phase diagram features two extended two-phase fields containing mixtures of a Ba-rich cubic phase and a tetragonal, or orthorhombic Ca-rich phase, all having perovskite-related structures. The symmetry differences in the Ca-rich phases are caused by different tilting patterns of the [ZrO 6] octahedra. In specimens quenched from 1650°C, CaZrO 3 dissolves only a few percent of Ba, whereas the solubility of Ca in BaZrO 3 is approximately 30 at% . The BaZrO 3-CaZrO 3 system features at least two tilting phase transitions, Pm3 m→ I4/ mcm and I4/ mcm→ Pbnm. Rietveld refinements of the Ba 0.8Ca 0.2ZrO 3 structure using variable-temperature neutron powder diffraction data confirmed that the Pm3 m→ I4/ mcm transition corresponds to a rotation of octahedra about one of the cubic axes; successive octahedra along this axis rotate in opposite directions. In situ variable-temperature electron diffraction studies indicated that the transition temperature increases with increasing Ca-substitution on the A-sites, from approximately -120°C at 5 at% Ca to 225°C at 20 at% Ca. Dielectric measurements revealed that the permittivity increases monotonically from 36 for BaZrO 3 to 53 for Ba 0.9Ca 0.1ZrO 3, and then decreases to 50 for Ba 0.8Ca 0.2ZrO 3. This later specimen was the Ca-richest composition for which pellets could be quenched from the single-phase cubic field with presently available equipment. Strongly non-monotonic behavior was also observed for the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency; however, in this case, the maximum occurred at a lower Ca concentration, 0.05⩽ x⩽0.1. The non-linear behavior of the dielectric properties was attributed to two competing structural effects: a positive effect associated with substitution of relatively small Ca cations on the A-sites, resulting

  12. Effects of pretreatment processes for Zr electrorefining of oxidized Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwa Lee, Chang; Lee, Yoo Lee; Jeon, Min Ku; Choi, Yong Taek; Kang, Kweon Ho; Park, Geun Il

    2014-06-01

    The effect of pretreatment processes for the Zr electrorefining of oxidized Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes is examined in LiCl-KCl-ZrCl4 molten salts at 500 °C. The cyclic voltammetries reveal that the Zr dissolution kinetics is highly dependent on the thickness of a Zr oxide layer formed at 500 °C under air atmosphere. For the Zircaloy-4 tube covered with a 1 μm thick oxide layer, the Zr dissolution process is initiated from a non-stoichiometric Zr oxide surface through salt treatment at an open circuit potential in the molten salt electrolyte. The Zr dissolution of the samples in the middle range of oxide layer thickness appears to be more effectively derived by the salt treatment coupled with an anodic potential application at an oxidation potential of Zr. A modification of the process scheme offers an applicability of Zr electrorefining for the treatment of oxidized cladding hull wastes.

  13. National Dam Safety Program. Ursel Gingerich Dam (MO 10393), Mississippi - Salt - Quincy River Basin, Schuyler County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    34 which identifies the program element, project, task area, and work unit or equivalent under which the work was authorized. Block 11. Controlling ...Dam Inventory and Inspection Section, LMSED-PD ULSF 210 Tucker Blvd., North, St. Louis, Mo. 63101D C O 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12m...under the National Program of Inspection of Non -Federal Dams. This report assesses the general condition of the dam with a respect to safety, based on

  14. High pressure phase transitions and compressibilities of Er2Zr2O7 and Ho2Zr2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F. X.; Lang, M.; Becker, U.; Ewing, R. C.; Lian, J.

    2008-01-01

    Phase stability and compressibility of rare earth zirconates with the defect-fluorite structure were investigated by in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A sluggish defect-fluorite to a cotunnitelike phase transformation occurred at pressures of ˜22 and ˜30GPa for Er2Zr2O7 and Ho2Zr2O7, respectively. Enhanced compressibility was found for the high pressure phase as a result of increasing cation coordination number and cation-anion bond length.

  15. A First-Principles Study on the Vibrational and Electronic Properties of Zr-C MXenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chang-Ying; Guo, Yong-Liang; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Guang-Li; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Cui-Lan; Han, Han; Huai, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Within the framework of density functional theory calculations, the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of Zr n C n - 1 (n = 2, 3, and 4) and their functionalized MXenes have been investigated. We find that the most stable configurations for Zr-C MXene are the ones that the terminal groups F, O, and OH locate on the common hollow site of the superficial Zr layer and its adjacent C layer. F and OH-terminated Zr 3 C 2 and Zr 4 C 3 have small imaginary acoustic phonon branches around Γ point while the others have no negative phonon modes. The pristine MXenes (Zr 2 C, Zr 3 C 2 and Zr 4 C 3 ) are all metallic with large DOS contributed by the Zr atom at the Fermi energy. When functionalized by F, O and OH, new hybridization states appear and the DOS at the Fermi level are reduced. Moreover, we find that their metallic characteristic increases with an increase in n. For (Zr n C n - 1 )O 2, Zr 2 CO 2 is a semiconductor, Zr 3C2O2 is a semimetal, and Zr 4 C 3O2 becomes a metal. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11605273, 21571185, U1404111, 11504089, 21501189, 21676291, the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission 16ZR1443100, the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA02040104)

  16. Nonvolatile MoS2 field effect transistors directly gated by single crystalline epitaxial ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhongyuan; Serrao, Claudy; Khan, Asif Islam; You, Long; Wong, Justin C.; Ye, Yu; Zhu, Hanyu; Zhang, Xiang; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate non-volatile, n-type, back-gated, MoS2 transistors, placed directly on an epitaxial grown, single crystalline, PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT) ferroelectric. The transistors show decent ON current (19 μA/μm), high on-off ratio (107), and a subthreshold swing of (SS ˜ 92 mV/dec) with a 100 nm thick PZT layer as the back gate oxide. Importantly, the ferroelectric polarization can directly control the channel charge, showing a clear anti-clockwise hysteresis. We have self-consistently confirmed the switching of the ferroelectric and corresponding change in channel current from a direct time-dependent measurement. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain transistor operation directly on polar surfaces, and therefore, it should be possible to integrate 2D electronics with single crystalline functional oxides.

  17. Asymmetric magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Dong -Ok; Song, Kyung Mee; Choi, Yongseong; ...

    2016-05-06

    In spintronic devices consisting of ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems, the ferromagnet-induced magnetic moment in the adjacent nonmagnetic material significantly influences the spin transport properties. In this study, such magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system is investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity, which enables magnetic characterizations with element and depth resolution. We observe that the total Pd magnetic moments induced at the top Co/Pd interface are significantly larger than the Pd moments at the bottom Pd/Co interface, whereas transmission electron microscopy and reflectivity analysis indicate the two interfaces are nearly identical structurally. Furthermore, such asymmetry inmore » magnetic proximity effects could be important for understanding spin transport characteristics in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems and its potential application to spin devices.« less

  18. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in multiple myeloma: The present and the future

    PubMed Central

    Jelinek, T.; Hajek, R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The introduction of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibitors has marked a significant milestone in the treatment of various types of solid tumors. The current situation in multiple myeloma (MM) is rather unclear, as distinct research groups have reported discordant results. This discrepancy dominantly concerns the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 molecules as well as the identification of the responsible immune effector cell population. The results of monotherapy with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have been unsatisfactory in MM, suggesting that a combination approach is needed. The most logical partners are immunomodulatory agents as they possess many synergistic effects. We are also proposing other rational and promising combinations (e.g., daratumumab, ibrutinib, anti-CD137) that warrant further investigation. PMID:28123899

  19. Asymmetric magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system

    SciT

    Kim, Dong -Ok; Song, Kyung Mee; Choi, Yongseong

    In spintronic devices consisting of ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems, the ferromagnet-induced magnetic moment in the adjacent nonmagnetic material significantly influences the spin transport properties. In this study, such magnetic proximity effect in a Pd/Co/Pd trilayer system is investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity, which enables magnetic characterizations with element and depth resolution. We observe that the total Pd magnetic moments induced at the top Co/Pd interface are significantly larger than the Pd moments at the bottom Pd/Co interface, whereas transmission electron microscopy and reflectivity analysis indicate the two interfaces are nearly identical structurally. Furthermore, such asymmetry inmore » magnetic proximity effects could be important for understanding spin transport characteristics in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems and its potential application to spin devices.« less

  20. The influence of Zr substitution for Nb on the corrosion behaviors of the Ni-Nb-Zr bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, DengKe; Zhu, ZhengWang; Zhang, HaiFeng; Wang, AiMin; Hu, ZhuangQi

    2012-12-01

    The influence of Zr content on corrosion behaviors of the Ni61.5Nb38.5- x Zr x ( x=1, 3, 5, 7, 9 at.%) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in 1 M HCl aqueous solution was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that these BMG alloys possess superior corrosion resistance, that is, with large passive region of about 1.5 V and low passive current density (as low as 0.05 Am-2 for Ni61.5Nb31.5Zr7). XPS analysis indicates that the high corrosion resistance is attributed to the formation of Nb- and Zr-enriched surface films formed in the aggressive acid solution. The Zr substitution for Nb effectively reduces the Ni content, particularly the metallic state Ni content in the surface films, which depresses the electrical conduction of the surface films and reduces the passive current density, thus leading to the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of these Ni-Nb-Zr BMGs. These alloys may potentially be useful for engineering applications.

  1. Phase transition temperature in the Zr-rich corner of Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canay, M.; Danón, C. A.; Arias, D.

    2000-08-01

    The influence of small composition changes on the phase transformation temperature of Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.2(0.7)Fe alloys was studied in the present work, by electrical resistivity measurements and metallographic techniques. For the alloy with 0.2 at.% Fe we have determined Tα↔α+β=741°C and Tα+β↔β=973°C, and for the 0.7 at.% Fe the transformation temperatures were T α↔α+β=712°C and T α+β↔β=961°C. We have verified that the addition of Sn stabilized the β phase.

  2. Characterization of hot-pressed short ZrO{sub 2} fiber toughened ZrB{sub 2}-based ultra-high temperature ceramics

    SciT

    Lin, Jia, E-mail: 2013113205@xmut.edu.cn; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Houan

    2014-09-15

    Two different ZrB{sub 2}-based ultra-high temperature ceramics were produced by hot pressing: ZrB{sub 2} + 20 vol.% SiC particle + 15 vol.% ZrO{sub 2} fiber and ZrB{sub 2} + 20 vol.% SiC whisker + 15 vol.% ZrO{sub 2} fiber. The microstructures were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that a clean interface without any impurities was identified in ZrB{sub 2}-based hybrid ceramics with SiC whiskers and ZrO{sub 2} fibers, which would significantly improve the toughening mechanism. The results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that stacking faults in SiC whiskers resulted frommore » an insertion of a (111) layer, which would be one of the main reasons for material anisotropy. However, the interface between the SiC particle and ZrO{sub 2} fiber was found to be ambiguous in ZrB{sub 2}-based hybrid ceramics with SiC particles and ZrO{sub 2} fibers due to the slight reaction. The orientation relationship between t-ZrO{sub 2} and m-ZrO{sub 2} phases obeyed the classical correspondence: (100){sub m}//(100){sub t} and [001]{sub m}//〈001〉{sub t}, which further verified the feasibility of phase transformation toughening mechanism. - Highlights: • ZrB{sub 2}-based ceramics toughened by short ZrO{sub 2} fiber are characterized by TEM and HRTEM. • The orientation relationship of t- and m-ZrO{sub 2} are (100){sub m}//(100){sub t}, [001]{sub m}//〈001〉{sub t} • The clean interface without any impurities leads to improve the toughening mechanism.« less

  3. Zircon solubility and of Zr species in subduction zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, M.; Schmidt, C.; Rickers, K.; Pascarelli, S.; Manning, C. E.; Stechern, A.

    2009-12-01

    The geochemical signature of igneous rocks at convergent plate margins is thought to result from complex melt formation processes involving aqueous solutions derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. In these processes, the depletion of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) may be controlled by the presence of accessory phases such as zircon and rutile, which can strongly fractionate these elements; however, the stability and solubility of these phases depends strongly on the fluid composition, including concentration and stoichiometry of Na-Al silicate components. Here we present new data on the influence of the fluid composition on zircon solubility as well as data on the Zr complexation in these fluids at P&T. Experiments were conducted using a modified hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC). Zr contents at P&T were determined using SR-µXRF spectra. Zr K-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectra were acquired to investigate the Zr complexation in-situ at P&T. A grain of synthetic crystalline zircon was equilibrated with an aqueous fluid containing Na2Si2O5 or Na2Si2O5 + Al2O3 components. XAFS and SR-µXRF spectra were taken at the dispersive beamline ID24 of the ESRF, Grenoble, France. Some additional SR-µXRF spectra were taken at HASYLAB, Hamburg, beamline L. The observed Zr concentrations in fluids containing 7-33 wt% Na2Si2O5 and variable Al contents were between 75 and 720 ppm at 500 to 750°C and ~300 MPa to ~700 MPa. These values match expected solubilities calculated from linear interpolation of the maximum solubility in pure H2O (from the detection limit) and the solubility in the most alkaline high-silica melts reported by Ellison and Hess (1986, CMP, 94, 343). The high Zr solubility in sodium silicate-bearing solutions signifies that aqueous fluids with alkali silicates offer an efficient mechanism for HFSE transport. This can be explained by complexation of HFSE with Si, Na, and perhaps also Al, via formation of polymerized solutes

  4. PD-L1 inhibits acute and chronic pain by suppressing nociceptive neuron activity via PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Kim, Yong Ho; Li, Hui; Luo, Hao; Liu, Da-Lu; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lay, Mark; Chang, Wonseok; Zhang, Yu-Qiu; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is typically produced by cancer cells and suppresses immunity through PD-1 receptor expressed on T cells. However, the role of PD-L1/PD-1 in regulating pain and neuronal function is unclear. Here we report that both melanoma and normal neural tissues including dorsal root ganglia (DRG) produce PD-L1 that can potently inhibit acute and chronic pain. Intraplantar injection of PD-L1 evokes analgesia in naïve mice via PD-1, whereas PD-L1 neutralization or PD-1 blockade induces mechanical allodynia. Mice lacking Pd1 exhibit thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity. PD-1 activation in DRG nociceptive neurons by PD-L1 induces SHP-1 phosphorylation, inhibits sodium channels, and causes hyperpolarization through activation of TREK2 K+ channels. PD-L1 also potently suppresses nociceptive neuron excitability of human DRGs. Remarkably, blocking PD-L1 or PD-1 elicits spontaneous pain and allodynia in melanoma-bearing mice. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized role of PD-L1 as an endogenous pain inhibitor and a neuromodulator. PMID:28530662

  5. PD-1/PD-L blockade in gastrointestinal cancers: lessons learned and the road toward precision immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Long, Junyu; Lin, Jianzhen; Wang, Anqiang; Wu, Liangcai; Zheng, Yongchang; Yang, Xiaobo; Wan, Xueshuai; Xu, Haifeng; Chen, Shuguang; Zhao, Haitao

    2017-08-03

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most prevalent tumors worldwide, with increasing incidence and mortality. Although surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy have led to significant advances in the treatment of GI cancer patients, overall survival is still low. Therefore, alternative strategies must be identified to improve patient outcomes. In the tumor microenvironment, tumor cells can escape the host immune response through the interaction of PD-1 and PD-L, which inhibits the function of T cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes while increasing the function of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells. The use of an anti-PD-1/PD-L blockade enables reprogramming of the immune system to efficiently identify and kill tumor cells. In recent years, the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L blockade has been demonstrated in many tumors, and this treatment is expected to be a pan-immunotherapy for tumors. Here, we review the signaling pathway underlying the dysregulation of PD-1/PD-L in tumors, summarize the current clinical data for PD-1/PD-L inhibitors in GI malignancies, and discuss road toward precision immunotherapy in relation to PD-1/PD-L blockade. The preliminary data for PD-1/PD-L inhibitors are encouraging, and the precision immunotherapy of PD-1/PD-L inhibitors will be a viable and pivotal clinical strategy for GI cancer therapy.

  6. MoRFchibi SYSTEM: software tools for the identification of MoRFs in protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Malhis, Nawar; Jacobson, Matthew; Gsponer, Jörg

    2016-07-08

    Molecular recognition features, MoRFs, are short segments within longer disordered protein regions that bind to globular protein domains in a process known as disorder-to-order transition. MoRFs have been found to play a significant role in signaling and regulatory processes in cells. High-confidence computational identification of MoRFs remains an important challenge. In this work, we introduce MoRFchibi SYSTEM that contains three MoRF predictors: MoRFCHiBi, a basic predictor best suited as a component in other applications, MoRFCHiBi_ Light, ideal for high-throughput predictions and MoRFCHiBi_ Web, slower than the other two but best for high accuracy predictions. Results show that MoRFchibi SYSTEM provides more than double the precision of other predictors. MoRFchibi SYSTEM is available in three different forms: as HTML web server, RESTful web server and downloadable software at: http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/faculty/joerg-gsponer/gsponer-lab/software/morf_chibi/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Recovery of high-purity metallic Pd from Pd(II)-sorbed biosorbents by incineration.

    PubMed

    Won, Sung Wook; Lim, Areum; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2013-06-01

    This work reports a direct way to recover metallic palladium with high purity from Pd(II)-sorbed polyethylenimine-modified Corynebacterium glutamicum biosorbent using a combined method of biosorption and incineration. This study is focused on the incineration part which affects the purity of recovered Pd. The incineration temperature and the amount of Pd loaded on the biosorbent were considered as major factors in the incineration process, and their effects were examined. The results showed that both factors significantly affected the enhancement of the recovery efficiency and purity of the recovered Pd. SEM-EDX and XRD analyses were used to confirm that Pd phase existed in the ash. As a result, the recovered Pd was changed from PdO to zero-valent Pd as the incineration temperature was increased from 600 to 900°C. Almost 100% pure metallic Pd was recovered with recovery efficiency above 99.0% under the conditions of 900°C and 136.9 mg/g. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Facile synthesis of Pt-Pd alloy nanocages and Pt nanorings by templating with Pd nanoplates

    SciT

    Wang, Xue; Luo, Ming; Huang, Hongwen

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pt-Pd nanocages and Pt nanorings by conformally coating Pd nanoplates with Pt-based shells using polyol- and water-based protocols, respectively, followed by selective removal of the Pd cores. For the polyol-based system, Pd nanoplates were conformally coated with Pt-Pd alloy shells due to the use of a high reaction temperature of 200 °C and a slow injection rate for the Pt precursor. In comparison, Pt shells were formed on Pd nanoplates (with a larger thickness on the side face than on the top/bottom face) in the water-based system due to the usemore » of a low reaction temperature of 80 °C and the presence of twin boundaries on the side face. As such, the Pd@Pt nanoplates prepared using the polyol- and water-based protocols evolved into Pt-Pd nanocages and Pt nanorings, respectively, when the Pd templates in the cores were selectively removed by wet etching. As a result, the wall thickness of the nanocages and the ridge thickness of the nanorings could be reduced down to 1.1 nm and 1.8 nm, respectively, without breaking the hollow structures.« less

  9. Immune checkpoint blockade: the role of PD-1-PD-L axis in lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ilcus, Cristina; Bagacean, Cristina; Tempescul, Adrian; Popescu, Cristian; Parvu, Andrada; Cenariu, Mihai; Bocsan, Corina; Zdrenghea, Mihnea

    2017-01-01

    The co-inhibitory receptor programmed cell death (PD)-1, expressed by immune effector cells, is credited with a protective role for normal tissue during immune responses, by limiting the extent of effector activation. Its presently known ligands, programmed death ligands (PD-Ls) 1 and 2, are expressed by a variety of cells including cancer cells, suggesting a role for these molecules as an immune evasion mechanism. Blocking of the PD-1-PD-L signaling axis has recently been shown to be effective and was clinically approved in relapsed/refractory tumors such as malignant melanoma and lung cancer, but also classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A plethora of trials exploring PD-1 blockade in cancer are ongoing. Here, we review the role of PD-1 signaling in lymphoid malignancies, and the latest results of trials investigating PD-1 or PD-L1 blocking agents in this group of diseases. Early phase studies proved very promising, leading to the clinical approval of a PD-1 blocking agent in Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and Phase III clinical studies are either planned or ongoing in most lymphoid malignancies. PMID:28496333

  10. Immune Checkpoint PD-1/PD-L1: Is There Life Beyond Antibodies?

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Markella; Zarganes-Tzitzikas, Tryfon; Magiera-Mularz, Katarzyna; Holak, Tad A; Dömling, Alexander

    2018-04-23

    The PD-1/PD-L1 interaction has emerged as a significant target in cancer immunotherapy. Current medications include monoclonal antibodies, which have shown impressive clinical results in the treatment of several types of tumors. The cocrystal structure of human PD-1 and PD-L1 is expected to be a valuable starting point for the design of novel inhibitors, along with the recent crystal structures with monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, and macrocycles. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Facile synthesis of Pt-Pd alloy nanocages and Pt nanorings by templating with Pd nanoplates

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xue; Luo, Ming; Huang, Hongwen; ...

    2016-09-06

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pt-Pd nanocages and Pt nanorings by conformally coating Pd nanoplates with Pt-based shells using polyol- and water-based protocols, respectively, followed by selective removal of the Pd cores. For the polyol-based system, Pd nanoplates were conformally coated with Pt-Pd alloy shells due to the use of a high reaction temperature of 200 °C and a slow injection rate for the Pt precursor. In comparison, Pt shells were formed on Pd nanoplates (with a larger thickness on the side face than on the top/bottom face) in the water-based system due to the usemore » of a low reaction temperature of 80 °C and the presence of twin boundaries on the side face. As such, the Pd@Pt nanoplates prepared using the polyol- and water-based protocols evolved into Pt-Pd nanocages and Pt nanorings, respectively, when the Pd templates in the cores were selectively removed by wet etching. As a result, the wall thickness of the nanocages and the ridge thickness of the nanorings could be reduced down to 1.1 nm and 1.8 nm, respectively, without breaking the hollow structures.« less

  12. In Situ Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Diffraction Study on Phase and Oxide Growth during a High Temperature Cycle of a NiTi-20 at.% Zr High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Matthew; Van Doren, Brian; Young, Marcus L.

    2018-03-01

    Ternary additions to binary NiTi shape memory alloys are known to significantly affect the characteristic martensite-to-austenite phase transformation, i.e., decrease or increase transformation temperatures. High temperature shape memory alloys can be created by adding Au, Pt, Pd, Hf, or Zr to binary NiTi in appropriate amounts; however, the majority of these ternary additions are exceedingly expensive, unfortunately making them impractical for most commercial applications. Zr is the exception of the group, but it is often disregarded because of its poor workability and thermal stability. In an effort to find a temperature range that allows for the potential workability of NiTiZr alloys in normal atmosphere environments and to gain understanding as to the cause of failure during processing, a NiTi-20 at.% Zr was subjected to a thermal cycle ranging from RT to 1000 °C with short 15 min holds at select temperatures during both heating and cooling while simultaneously collecting high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements. This study provides valuable insight into the kinetics of precipitation and oxide formation and its relationship to processing. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was performed on five samples, each isothermally held to examine precipitation and oxide structure and growth.

  13. In Situ Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Diffraction Study on Phase and Oxide Growth during a High Temperature Cycle of a NiTi-20 at.% Zr High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Matthew; Van Doren, Brian; Young, Marcus L.

    2018-02-01

    Ternary additions to binary NiTi shape memory alloys are known to significantly affect the characteristic martensite-to-austenite phase transformation, i.e., decrease or increase transformation temperatures. High temperature shape memory alloys can be created by adding Au, Pt, Pd, Hf, or Zr to binary NiTi in appropriate amounts; however, the majority of these ternary additions are exceedingly expensive, unfortunately making them impractical for most commercial applications. Zr is the exception of the group, but it is often disregarded because of its poor workability and thermal stability. In an effort to find a temperature range that allows for the potential workability of NiTiZr alloys in normal atmosphere environments and to gain understanding as to the cause of failure during processing, a NiTi-20 at.% Zr was subjected to a thermal cycle ranging from RT to 1000 °C with short 15 min holds at select temperatures during both heating and cooling while simultaneously collecting high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements. This study provides valuable insight into the kinetics of precipitation and oxide formation and its relationship to processing. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was performed on five samples, each isothermally held to examine precipitation and oxide structure and growth.

  14. Initial stages of oxide formation on the Zr surface at low oxygen pressure: An in situ FIM and XPS study

    PubMed Central

    Bespalov, I.; Datler, M.; Buhr, S.; Drachsel, W.; Rupprechter, G.; Suchorski, Y.

    2015-01-01

    An improved methodology of the Zr specimen preparation was developed which allows fabrication of stable Zr nanotips suitable for FIM and AP applications. Initial oxidation of the Zr surface was studied on a Zr nanotip by FIM and on a polycrystalline Zr foil by XPS, both at low oxygen pressure (10−8–10−7 mbar). The XPS data reveal that in a first, fast stage of oxidation, a Zr suboxide interlayer is formed which contains three suboxide components (Zr+1, Zr+2 and Zr+3) and is located between the Zr surface and a stoichiometric ZrO2 overlayer that grows in a second, slow oxidation stage. The sole suboxide layer has been observed for the first time at very early states of the oxidation (oxygen exposure ≤4 L). The Ne+ FIM observations are in accord with a two stage process of Zr oxide formation. PMID:25766998

  15. Tumor cells versus host immune cells: whose PD-L1 contributes to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade mediated cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Zheng, Pan

    2018-01-01

    Antibody blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has elicited durable antitumor responses in the therapy of a broad spectrum of cancers. PD-L1 is constitutively expressed in certain tumors and host immune cells, and its expression can be induced or maintained by many factors. The expression of PD-L1 on tumor tissues has been reported to be positively correlated with the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in patients. However, multiple clinical trials indicate that patients with PD-L1-negative tumors also respond to this blockade therapy, which suggests the potential contribution of PD-L1 from host immune cells. Recently, six articles independently evaluated and verified the contributions of PD-L1 from tumor versus non-tumor cells in various mouse tumor models. These studies confirmed that PD-L1 on either tumor cells or host immune cells contributes to tumor escape, and the relative contributions of PD-L1 on these cells seem to be context-dependent. While both tumor- and host-derived PD-L1 can play critical roles in immune suppression, differences in tumor immunogenicity appear to underlie their relative importance. Notably, these reports highlight the essential roles of PD-L1 from host myeloid cells in negatively regulating T cell activation and limiting T cell trafficking. Therefore, comprehensive evaluating the global PD-L1 expression, rather than monitoring PD-L1 expression on tumor cells alone, should be a more accurate way for predicting responses in PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy in cancer patients.

  16. Mass measurements of neutron-deficient Y, Zr, and Nb isotopes and their impact on rp and νp nucleosynthesis processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Y. M.; Li, K. A.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.; Wang, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Blaum, K.; Wanajo, S.; Kubono, S.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Sieverding, A.; Chen, R. J.; Shuai, P.; Fu, C. Y.; Yan, X. L.; Huang, W. J.; Xu, X.; Tang, X. D.; Xu, H. S.; Bao, T.; Chen, X. C.; Gao, B. S.; He, J. J.; Lam, Y. H.; Li, H. F.; Liu, J. H.; Ma, X. W.; Mao, R. S.; Si, M.; Sun, M. Z.; Tu, X. L.; Wang, Q.; Yang, J. C.; Yuan, Y. J.; Zeng, Q.; Zhang, P.; Zhou, X.; Zhan, W. L.; Litvinov, S.; Audi, G.; Uesaka, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, T.; Ozawa, A.; Fröhlich, C.; Rauscher, T.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Sun, B. H.; Sun, Y.; Dai, A. C.; Xu, F. R.

    2018-06-01

    Using isochronous mass spectrometry at the experimental storage ring CSRe in Lanzhou, the masses of 82Zr and 84Nb were measured for the first time with an uncertainty of ∼10 keV, and the masses of 79Y, 81Zr, and 83Nb were re-determined with a higher precision. The latter are significantly less bound than their literature values. Our new and accurate masses remove the irregularities of the mass surface in this region of the nuclear chart. Our results do not support the predicted island of pronounced low α separation energies for neutron-deficient Mo and Tc isotopes, making the formation of Zr-Nb cycle in the rp-process unlikely. The new proton separation energy of 83Nb was determined to be 490(400) keV smaller than that in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012. This partly removes the overproduction of the p-nucleus 84Sr relative to the neutron-deficient molybdenum isotopes in the previous νp-process simulations.

  17. Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

  18. Demonstration of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements in U-10Mo nuclear fuel foils

    SciT

    Havrilla, George Joseph; Gonzalez, Jhanis

    2015-06-10

    The use of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the isotopic ratio of uranium directly in U-10Mo fuel foils. The measurements were done on both the flat surface and cross sections of bare and Zr clad U-10Mo fuel foil samples. The results for the depleted uranium content measurements were less than 10% of the accepted U235/238 ratio of 0.0020. Sampling was demonstrated for line scans and elemental mapping over large areas. In addition to the U isotopic ratio measurement, the Zr thickness could be measured as well as trace elementalmore » composition if required. A number of interesting features were observed during the feasibility measurements which could provide the basis for further investigation using this methodology. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using fs-LA-ICP-MS for measuring the U isotopic ratio in U-10Mo fuel foils.« less

  19. Comparison of Ti/Pd/Ag, Pd/Ti/Pd/Ag and Pd/Ge/Ti/Pd/Ag contacts to n-type GaAs for electronic devices handling high current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Pengyun; Galiana, Beatriz; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    In the quest for metal contacts for electronic devices handling high current densities, we report the results of Pd/Ti/Pd/Ag and Pd/Ge/Ti/Pd/Ag contacts to n-GaAs and compare them to Ti/Pd/Ag and AuGe/Ni/Au. These metal systems have been designed with the goal of producing an electrical contact with (a) low metal-semiconductor specific contact resistance, (b) very high sheet conductance, (c) good bondability, (d) long-term durability and (e) cost-effectiveness. The structure of the contacts consists of an interfacial layer (either Pd or Pd/Ge) intended to produce a low metal-semiconductor specific contact resistance; a diffusion barrier (Ti/Pd) and a thick top layer of Ag to provide the desired high sheet conductance, limited cost and good bondability. The results show that both systems can achieve very low metal resistivity (ρ M ˜ 2 × 10-6 Ω cm), reaching values close to that of pure bulk silver. This fact is attributed to the Ti/Pd bilayer acting as an efficient diffusion barrier, and thus the metal sheet resistance can be controlled by the thickness of the deposited silver layer. Moreover, the use of Pd as interfacial layer produces contacts with moderate specific contact resistance (ρ C ˜ 10-4 Ω cm2) whilst the use of Pd/Ge decreases the specific contact resistance to ρ C ˜ 1.5 × 10-7 Ω cm2, as a result of the formation of a Pd4(GaAs, Ge2) compound at the GaAs interface.

  20. Fundamental investigation of vacuum PD tubes

    SciT

    Suyama, M.; Hirano, K.; Asakura, N.

    1994-08-01

    As a fundamental study of photodiodes (PDs) for electron bombardment, two types of PDs have been experimentally investigated to be applied in electron tubes. A PD bombarded from the front surface (FB-PD), where pn junction of planer structure existed, was evaluated to measure fast response characteristics such as 2.1ns in rise time, however, more than an order of magnitude increase of dark current was also confirmed after a long term stability test of 1,000 hours. On the other hand, a PD bombarded by electrons from the rear surface (RB-PD) showed no increase of dark current after the stability test andmore » fast rise time of 2.7ns. However, it was clarified that the rise time of RB-PD depended on applied voltage to the PD, and applied voltage of 200 V was necessary to achieve such fast response. Since it was a much higher voltage than expected, some modifications may be necessary to achieve fast response with lower applied voltage, considering the yield of the PDs. Comparison of two types of PDs on some other characteristics are discussed. Preliminary test results of an electron bombardment APD are also discussed.« less

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Reactive In Situ Zr Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Reactive in situ multi-material additive manufacturing of ZrB2-based ultra-high-temperature ceramics in a Zr metal matrix was demonstrated using LENS™. Sound metallurgical bonding was achieved between the Zr metal and Zr-BN composites with Ti6Al4V substrate. Though the feedstock Zr power had α phase, LENS™ processing of the Zr powder and Zr-BN premix powder mixture led to the formation of some β phase of Zr. Microstructure of the Zr-BN composite showed primary grains of zirconium diboride phase in zirconium metal matrix. The presence of ZrB2 ceramic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness of pure Zr was measured as 280 ± 12 HV and, by increasing the BN content in the feedstock, the hardness was found to increase. In Zr-5%BN composite, the hardness was 421 ± 10 HV and the same for Zr-10%BN composite was 562 ± 10 HV. It is envisioned that such multi-materials additive manufacturing will enable products in the future that cannot be manufactured using traditional approaches particularly in the areas of high-temperature metal-ceramic composites with compositional and functional gradation.

  2. Structure and properties of ZrB2, ZrSiB and ZrAlSiB cathode materials and coatings obtained by their magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatsyuk, I. V.; Lemesheva, M. V.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph V.; Levashov, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    The ceramic ZrB2, ZrSiB, and ZrAlSiB cathodes were manufactured by means of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The parameters of SHS process including dependence of the combustion temperature and rate on the initial temperature of the reaction mixtures, as well as values of effective activation energy were estimated. Cathodes were subjected to the magnetron sputtering in the argon atmosphere. The structure and properties of cathodes and coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. Bulk ceramic samples and coatings were characterised in terms of their hardness, elastic modulus, elastic recovery, density, and residual porosity. Results obtained shows that cathodes posses homogeneous structure with low porosity level in range 2-6% and hardness between 10 and 17 GPa. Coatings demonstrate dense defect-free structure and contain nanocrystallites of h-ZrB2 phase. The grain size and hardness decrease from 8 down to 2 nm and from 37 down to 16 GPa with the addition of the silicon and aluminum dopes.

  3. Mechanical properties and bio-tribological behaviors of novel beta-Zr-type Zr-Al-Fe-Nb alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Nengbin; Chen, Wenzhe; Zhang, Lei; Li, Guanghui; Liao, Zhenlong; Lin, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The present study prepares novel Zr 70+x Al 5 Fe 15-x Nb 10 (x=0, 5) alloys by arc-melting for potential biomedical application. The mechanical properties and bio-tribological behaviors of the Zr-based alloys are evaluated and compared with biomedical pure Zr. The as-prepared alloys exhibit a microstructure containing a micrometer-sized dendritic beta-Zr phase dispersed in a Zr 2 Fe-typed matrix. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high compressive strength. The wear resistance of the Zr-Al-Fe-Nb alloys in air and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution is superior to that of pure Zr. The wear mechanism of Zr-based alloys sliding in air is controlled by oxidation and abrasive wear whereas that sliding in PBS is controlled by synergistic effects of the abrasive and corrosive wear. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based alloys are corrosion resistant in PBS. Their bio-corrosion resistance is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. The Zr 75 Al 5 Fe 10 Nb 10 exhibits the best corrosion resistance in PBS, which contributes to its superior wear resistance in a simulated body environment. The combination of good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biotribological behaviors of the Zr-Al-Fe-Nb alloys offers them potential advantages in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PD-1 and cancer: molecular mechanisms and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Salmaninejad, Arash; Khoramshahi, Vahid; Azani, Alireza; Soltaninejad, Ehsan; Aslani, Saeed; Zamani, Mohammad Reza; Zal, Masoud; Nesaei, Abolfazl; Hosseini, Sayed Mostafa

    2018-02-01

    The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is expressed by activated T cells that act as an immunoregulatory molecule, and are responsible for the negative regulation of T cell activation and peripheral tolerance. The PD-1 gene also encodes an inhibitory cell surface receptor involved in the regulation of T cell functions during immune responses/tolerance. Beyond potent inhibitory effects on T cells, PD-1 also has a role in regulating B cell and monocyte responses. An overexpression of PD-1 has been reported to contribute to immune system avoidance in different cancers. In particular, PD-1 over-expression influences tumor-specific T cell immunity in a cancer microenvironment. Blocking the PD-1/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) pathway could potentially augment endogenous antitumor responses. Along these lines, the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors has been applied in clinical trials against diverse forms of cancer. It was believed that antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 might synergize with other treatments that enhance endogenous antitumor immunity by blocking inhibitory receptor-ligand interactions. However, in all cases, the host genetic status (as well as that of the tumor) is likely to have an impact on the expected outcomes. Various investigations have evaluated the association between PD-1 polymorphisms and the risk of various types of cancer. Frequently studied PD-1 polymorphisms, PD-1.1 (rs36084323), PD-1.3 (rs11568821), PD-1.5 (rs2227981), PD-1.9 (rs2227982), and PD-1 rs7421861, and their associations in the risk of susceptibility to different types of cancer are mentioned in this review, as are studies highlighting the significance of conducting genetic association studies in different ethnic populations.

  5. Crystal Structure of the Complex Between Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) and its Ligand PD-L2

    SciT

    Lazar-Molnar,E.; Yan, Q.; Cao, E.

    2008-01-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a member of the CD28/B7 superfamily that delivers negative signals upon interaction with its two ligands, PD-L1 or PD-L2. The high-resolution crystal structure of the complex formed by the complete ectodomains of murine PD-1 and PD-L2 revealed a 1:1 receptor:ligand stoichiometry and displayed a binding interface and overall molecular organization distinct from that observed in the CTLA-4/B7 inhibitory complexes. Furthermore, our structure also provides insights into the association between PD-1 and PD-L1 and highlights differences in the interfaces formed by the two PD-1 ligands (PD-Ls) Mutagenesis studies confirmed the details of the proposed PD-1/PD-L binding interfacesmore » and allowed for the design of a mutant PD-1 receptor with enhanced affinity. These studies define spatial and organizational constraints that control the localization and signaling of PD-1/PD-L complexes within the immunological synapse and provide a basis for manipulating the PD-1 pathways for immunotherapy.« less

  6. Alternative energy resources for MoDOT

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-02-01

    This research investigates environmentally friendly alternative energy sources that could be used by MoDOT in various areas, and develops applicable and sustainable strategies to implement those energy sources.

  7. The Perturbational MO Method for Saturated Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes a theoretical approach using nonbonding MO's and perturbation theory to correlate properties of saturated hydrocarbons. Discussion is limited to correctly predicted using this method. Suggests calculations can be carried out quickly in organic chemistry. (Author/SA)

  8. Large enhancement of superconductivity in Zr point contacts.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammad; Singh, Chandan; Das, Shekhar; Kumar, Ritesh; Datta, Soumya; Halder, Soumyadip; Gayen, Sirshendu; Kabir, Mukul; Sheet, Goutam

    2018-04-30

    For certain complex superconducting systems, the superconducting properties get enhanced under mesoscopic point contacts made of elemental non-superconducting metals. However, understanding of the mechanism through which such contact induced local enhancement of superconductivity happens has been limited due to the complex nature of such compounds. In this paper we present a large enhancement of superconducting transition temperature (T<sub>c</sub>) and superconducting energy gap (Δ) in a simple elemental superconductor Zr. While bulk Zr shows a critical temperature around 0.6K, superconductivity survives at Ag/Zr and Pt/Zr point contacts up to 3K with a corresponding five-fold enhancement of Δ. Further, the first-principles calculations on a model system provide useful insights. We show that the enhancement in superconducting properties can be attributed to a modification in the electron-phonon coupling accompanied by an enhancement of the density of states which involves the appearance of a new electron band at the Ag/Zr interfaces. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of polyols over Pd/WO3-ZrO2: Role of Pd-WO3 interaction and hydrodeoxygenation pathway

    SciT

    Liu, Changjun; Sun, Junming; Brown, Heather M.

    Aqueous-phase hydrodeoxygenation of sugar and sugar-derived molecules can be used to produce a range of alkanes and oxygenates. In this paper, we have identified the reaction intermediates and reaction chemistry for the aqueous-phase hydrodeoxygenation of sorbitol over a bifunctional catalyst (Pt/SiO2–Al2O3) that contains both metal (Pt) and acid (SiO2–Al2O3) sites. A wide variety of reactions occur in this process including Csingle bondC bond cleavage, Csingle bondO bond cleavage, and hydrogenation reactions. The key Csingle bondC bond cleavage reactions include: retro-aldol condensation and decarbonylation, which both occur on metal catalytic sites. Dehydration is the key Csingle bondO bond cleavage reaction andmore » occurs on acid catalytic sites. Sorbitol initially undergoes dehydration and ring closure to produce cyclic C6 molecules or retro-aldol condensation reactions to produce primarily C3 polyols. Isosorbide is the major final product from sorbitol dehydration. Isosorbide then undergoes ring opening hydrogenation reactions and a dehydration/hydrogenation step to form 1,2,6-hexanetriol. The hexanetriol is then converted into hexanol and hexane by dehydration/hydrogenation. Smaller oxygenates are produced by Csingle bondC bond cleavage. These smaller oxygenates undergo dehydration/hydrogenation reactions to produce alkanes from C1–C5. The results from this paper suggest that hydrodeoxygenation chemistry can be tuned to make a wide variety of products from biomass-derived oxygenates.« less

  10. Correlation of PD-1/PD-L1 polymorphisms and expressions with clinicopathologic features and prognosis of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dan; Sheng, Li; Yi, Qing-Hua

    2018-02-06

    To explore the correlation of PD-1/PD-L1 polymorphisms and their expressions with clinicopathologic features and prognosis of ovarian cancer. A total of 164 patients with ovarian cancer were enrolled as case group and 170 healthy women as control group. We conducted quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) to determine PD-1/PD-L1 expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and allele-specific amplification were used to detect PD-1 rs2227982 C>T and PD-L1 rs4143815 C>G. PD-1 rs2227982 C>T and PD-L1 rs4143815 C>G polymorphisms increased the risk for ovarian cancer. PD-1 rs2227982 C>T was associated with FIGO stage and differentiation grade, while PD-L1 rs4143815 C>G was correlated with histological type and differentiation grade. Besides, PD-1/PD-L1 expressions were positively correlated in PBMCs of patients with ovarian cancer to be associated with differentiation grade. Compared with wild homozygous patients, PD-1/PD-L1 expressions were significantly decreased in PBMCs of ovarian cancer patients carried with the mutant genotypes of rs2227982 C>T and rs4143815 C>G. The PFS and OS in ovarian cancer patients with wild homozygous genotype of rs2227982 C>T and rs4143815 C>G were significantly higher than those with mutant genotypes, which were significantly lower in patients with low expressions of PD-1/PD-L1 than those with high expressions. Univariate COX regression analysis identified FIGO staging, differentiation grade, rs2227982 C>T, rs4143815 C>G and expressions of PD-1/PD-L1 as the prognostic factors, and multivariate COX regression analysis demonstrated that high FIGO stage and low expressions of PD-1/PD-L1 were independent risk factors for the prognosis of ovarian cancer. PD-1 rs2227982 C>T and PD-L1 rs4143815 C>G polymorphisms increased the risk of ovarian cancer, leading to a poor prognosis, associated with low expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1. While high PD-1

  11. Charge disproportionation in tetragonal La2MoO5, a small band gap semiconductor influenced by direct Mo-Mo bonding.

    PubMed

    Colabello, Diane M; Camino, Fernando E; Huq, Ashfia; Hybertsen, Mark; Khalifah, Peter G

    2015-01-28

    The structure of the novel compound La2MoO5 has been solved from powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data and belongs to the tetragonal space group P4/m (no. 83) with a = 12.6847(3) Å and c = 6.0568(2) Å and with Z = 8. It consists of equal proportions of bioctahedral (Mo2O10) and square prismatic (Mo2O8) dimers, both of which contain direct Mo-Mo bonds and are arranged in 1D chains. The Mo-Mo bond length in the Mo2O10 dimers is 2.684(8) Å, while there are two types of Mo2O8 dimers with Mo-Mo bonds lengths of 2.22(2) and 2.28(2) Å. Although the average Mo oxidation state in La2MoO5 is 4+, the very different Mo-Mo distances reflect the fact that the Mo2O10 dimers contain only Mo(5+) (d(1)), while the prismatic Mo2O8 dimers only contain Mo(3+) (d(3)), a result directly confirmed by density function theory calculations. This is due to the complete disproportionation of Mo(4+), a phenomenon which has not previously been observed in solid-state compounds. La2MoO5 is diamagnetic, behavior which is not expected for a nonmetallic transition-metal oxide whose cation sites have an odd number of d-electrons. The resistivity displays the Arrhenius-type activated behavior expected for a semiconductor with a band gap of 0.5 eV, exhibiting an unusually small transport gap relative to other diamagnetic oxides. Diffuse reflectance studies indicate that La2MoO5 is a rare example of a stable oxide semiconductor with strong infrared absorbance. It is shown that the d-orbital splitting associated with the Mo2O8 and Mo2O10 dimeric units can be rationalized using simple molecular orbital bonding concepts.

  12. Nanocrystalline Fe/Zr alloys: preparation by using mechanical alloying and mechanical milling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, V. A. Peña; Medina, J. Medina; Marcatoma, J. Quispe; Ayala, Ch. Rojas; Landauro, C. V.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M.; Passamani, E. C.

    2011-11-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe/Zr alloys have been prepared after milling for 9 h the mixture of elemental Fe and Zr powders or the arc-melting produced Fe2Zr alloy by using mechanical alloying and mechanical milling techniques, respectively. X-ray and Mössbauer results of the Fe and Zr powders, mechanically alloyed, suggest that amorphous Fe2Zr phase and \\upalpha-Fe(Zr) nanograins have been produced with relative concentrations of 91% and 9%, respectively. Conversely, the results of the mechanically milled Fe2Zr alloy indicate that nanograins of the Fe2Zr alloy have been formed, surrounded by a magnetic inter-granular phase that are simultaneously dispersed in a paramagnetic amorphous phase.

  13. Synthesis of Carboxylate Cp*Zr(IV) Species: Toward the Formation of Novel Metallocavitands.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Maxime; Bi, Wenhua; Légaré, Marc-André; Morin, Jean-François; Fontaine, Frédéric-Georges

    2015-06-01

    With the intent of generating metallocavitands isostructural to species [(CpZr)3(μ(3)-O)(μ(2)-OH)3(κO,O,μ(2)-O2C(R))3](+), the reaction of Cp*2ZrCl2 and Cp*ZrCl3 with phenylcarboxylic acids was carried out. Depending on the reaction conditions, five new complexes were obtained, which consisted of Cp*2ZrCl(κ(2)-OOCPh) (1), (Cp*ZrCl(κ(2)-OOCPh))2(μ-κ(2)-OOCPh)2 (2), [(Cp*Zr(κ(2)-OOCPh))2(μ-κ(2)-OOCPh)2(μ(2)-OH)2]·Et2O (3·Et2O), [[Cp*ZrCl2](μ-Cl)(μ-OH)(μ-O2CC6H5)[Cp*Zr

  14. Detectors based on Pd-doped and PdO-functionalized ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postica, V.; Lupan, O.; Ababii, N.; Hoppe, M.; Adelung, R.; Chow, L.; Sontea, V.; Aschehoug, P.; Viana, V.; Pauporté, Th.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured films were grown using a simple synthesis from chemical solutions (SCS) approach from aqueous baths at relatively low temperatures (< 95 °C). The samples were doped with Pd (0.17 at% Pd) and functionalized with PdO nanoparticles (NPs) using the PdCl2 aqueous solution and subsequent thermal annealing at 650 °C for 30 min. The morphological, micro-Raman and optical properties of Pd modified samples were investigated in detail and were demonstrated to have high crystallinity. Gas sensing studies unveiled that compared to pure ZnO films, the Pd-doped ZnO (ZnO:Pd) nanostructured films showed a decrease in ethanol vapor response and slight increase in H2 response with low selectivity. However, the PdO-functionalized samples showed excellent H2 gas sensing properties with possibility to detect H2 gas even at room temperature (gas response of 2). Up to 200 °C operating temperature the samples are highly selective to H2 gas, with highest response of 12 at 150 °C. This study demonstrates that surface functionalization of n-ZnO nanostructured films with p-type oxides is very important for improvement of gas sensing properties.

  15. Mo100 to Mo99 Target Cooling Enhancements Report

    SciT

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard

    2016-02-16

    Target design requirements changed significantly over the past year to a much higher beam current on larger diameter disks, and with a beam impingement on both ends of the target. Scaling from the previous design, that required significantly more mass flow rate of helium coolant, and also thinner disks. A new Aerzen GM12.4 blower was selected that can deliver up to 400 g/s at 400 psi, compared to about 100 g/s possible with the Tuthill blower previously selected.Further, to accommodate the 42 MeV, 2.7 mA beam on each side of the target, the disk thickness and the coolant gaps weremore » halved to create the current baseline design: 0.5 mm disk thickness (at 29 mm diameter) and 0.25 mm coolant gap. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of this target, presented below for reference, gave very good results, suggesting that the target could be improved with fewer, thicker disks and with disk thickness increasing toward the target center. The total thickness of Mo100 in the target remaining the same, that reduces the number of coolant gaps. This allows for the gap width to be increased, increasing the mass flow in each gap and consequently increasing heat transfer. A preliminary geometry was selected and analyzed with variable disk thickness and wider coolant gaps. The result of analysis of this target shows that disk thickness increase near the window was too aggressive and further resizing of the disks is necessary, but it does illustrate the potential improvements that are possible. Experimental and analytical study of diffusers on the target exit has been done. This shows modest improvement in requcing pressure drop, as will be summarized below. However, the benefit is not significant, and implementation becomes problematic when disk thickness is varying. A bull nose at the entrance does offer significant benefit and is relatively easy to incorporate. A bull nose on both ends is now a feature of the baseline design, and will be a feature of any redesign or enhanced designs

  16. Effects of hydroxyapatite/Zr and bioglass/Zr coatings on morphology and corrosion behaviour of Rex-734 alloy.

    PubMed

    Say, Y; Aksakal, B

    2016-06-01

    To improve corrosion resistance of metallic implant surfaces, Rex-734 alloy was coated with two different bio-ceramics; single-Hydroxyapatite (HA), double-HA/Zirconia(Zr) and double-Bioglass (BG)/Zr by using sol-gel method. Porous surface morphologies at low crack density were obtained after coating and sintering processes. Corrosion characteristics of coatings were determined by Open circuit potential and Potentiodynamic polarization measurements during corrosion tests. Hardness and adhesion strength of coating layers were measured and their surface morphologies before and after corrosion were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), XRD and EDX. Through the SEM analysis, it was observed that corrosion caused degradation and sphere-like formations appeared with dimples on the coated surfaces. The coated substrates that exhibit high crack density, the corrosion was more effective by disturbing and transmitting through the coating layer, produced CrO3 and Cr3O8 oxide formation. It was found that the addition of Zr provided an increase in adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the coatings. However, BG/Zr coatings had lower adhesion strength than the HA/Zr coatings, but showed higher corrosion resistance.

  17. PD-1-PD-L1 immune-checkpoint blockade in malignant lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Ling; Tian, Chen; Zhang, Yizhuo

    2018-02-01

    Tumor cells can evade immune surveillance through overexpressing the ligands of checkpoint receptors on tumor cells or adjacent cells, leading T cells to anergy or exhaustion. Growing evidence of the interaction between tumor cells and microenvironment promoted the emergence of immune-checkpoint blockade. By targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway, cytotoxic activity of T cell is enhanced significantly and tumor cell lysis is induced subsequently. Currently, various antibodies against PD-1 and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are under clinical studies in lymphomas. In this review, we outline the rationale for investigation of PD-1-PD-L1 immune-checkpoint blockade in lymphomas and discuss their prospect of applications in clinical treatment.

  18. Isotopic composition of a sample enriched in 93Zr

    DOE PAGES

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Hori, Jun-ichi; Du, Miting; ...

    2015-10-22

    A project to determine the neutron-capture cross section of long lived fission products and minor actinides has been started by using a beam-line at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). We prepared one of the target nuclides is Zr-93, which in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Qualitative and quantitative analyses on the sample were performed at Kyoto University. The isotopic composition of (m) Zr (m 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 96) was precisely determined by multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry with < 0.1 % of 2 sigma uncertainty. We determined that the atomic abundance of Zr-93 in the sample tomore » be 18.86 ± A 0.05 %.« less

  19. Laser emission from flash ignition of Zr/Al nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Kang, Xiaoli; Luo, Jiangshan; Sun, Laixi; Xia, Handing; Yi, Zao; Tang, Yongjian

    2017-10-02

    We report the first laser emission from flash ignition of Zr/Al nanoparticles with the addition of strong oxidizer KClO 4 using Nd: YAG as a laser medium. The mixture Zr/Al/Kp-45 (mass ratio = 33%Zr: 33%Al: 34%KClO 4 ) has the highest brightness temperature Tb = 4615 K and the adiabatic flame temperature Tf = 4194 K with the duration of 20 ms. At 1064 nm we measured a maximum output energy of 702.5 mJ with the duration of nearly 10 ms by using only 100 mg mixture with an output coupler (transmission T = 10%). Further optimizing the concentration cavity and increasing the mixture content will yield much higher efficiency and output energy.

  20. B Removal by Zr Addition in Electromagnetic Solidification Refinement of Si with Si-Al Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yun; Ma, Wenhui; Sun, Luen; Dai, Yongnian; Morita, Kazuki

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated a new process of enhancing B removal by adding small amounts of Zr in the electromagnetic solidification refinement of Si with Si-Al melt. B in Si was removed by as much as 97.2 pct by adding less than 1057 ppma Zr, and the added Zr was removed by as much as 99.7 pct. In addition, Zr is more effective in enhancing B removal than Ti in the same electromagnetic solidification refining process.

  1. The 95Zr(n, γ)96Zr Cross Section from the Surrogate Ratio Method and Its Effect on s-process Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S. Q.; Li, Z. H.; Wang, Y. B.; Nishio, K.; Lugaro, M.; Karakas, A. I.; Makii, H.; Mohr, P.; Su, J.; Li, Y. J.; Nishinaka, I.; Hirose, K.; Han, Y. L.; Orlandi, R.; Shen, Y. P.; Guo, B.; Zeng, S.; Lian, G.; Chen, Y. S.; Liu, W. P.

    2017-10-01

    The 95Zr(n, γ)96Zr reaction cross section is crucial in the modeling of s-process nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars because it controls the operation of the branching point at the unstable 95Zr and the subsequent production of 96Zr. We have carried out the measurement of the 94Zr(18O, 16O) and 90Zr(18O, 16O) reactions and obtained the γ-decay probability ratio of 96Zr* and 92Zr* to determine the 95Zr(n, γ)96Zr reaction cross sections with the surrogate ratio method. Our deduced Maxwellian-averaged cross section of 66 ± 16 mb at 30 keV is close to the value recommended by Bao et al., but 30% and more than a factor of two larger than the values proposed by Toukan & Käppeler and Lugaro et al., respectively, and routinely used in s-process models. We tested the new rate in stellar models with masses between 2 and 6 M ⊙ and metallicities of 0.014 and 0.03. The largest changes—up to 80% variations in 96Zr—are seen in models of mass 3–4 M ⊙, where the 22Ne neutron source is mildly activated. The new rate can still provide a match to data from meteoritic stardust silicon carbide grains, provided that the maximum mass of the parent stars is below 4 M ⊙, for a metallicity of 0.03.

  2. Calculation and synthesis of ZrC by CVD from ZrCl4-C3H6-H2-Ar system with high H2 percentage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan; Cheng, Laifei; Ma, Baisheng; Gao, Shuang; Feng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Litong

    2015-03-01

    A thermodynamic calculation about the synthesis of ZrC from the ZrCl4-C3H6-H2-Ar system with high percentage of H2 was performed using the FactSage thermochemical software. According to the calculation, ZrC coating was synthesized on graphite substrates and carbon fibers by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process, and growth rate of the ZrC coating as a function of temperature was investigated. The surface diagrams of condensed-phases in this system were expressed as the functions of the deposition temperature, total pressure and reactant ratios of ZrCl4/(ZrCl4 + C3H6), H2/(ZrCl4 + C3H6), and the yield of the products was determined by the diagrams. A smooth and dense ZrC coating could be synthesized under the instruction of the calculated parameters. The morphologies of the ZrC coatings were significantly affected by temperature and gases flux. The deposition temperature is much lower than that from the ZrCl4-CH4-H2-Ar system.

  3. Influence of free carbon on the characteristics of ZrC and deposition of near-stoichiometric ZrC in TRISO coated particle fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daejong; Ko, Myeong Jin; Park, Ji Yeon; Cho, Moon Sung; Kim, Weon-Ju

    2014-08-01

    Advanced TRISO coated particles with a ZrC coating layer as a main pressure boundary were fabricated by a fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) method using a chloride process. Experiments were performed to determine the effect of codeposition of graphitic carbon on the hardness and obtain the stoichiometric ZrC phase. The ZrC coating layer was composed of a mixture of ZrC and graphitic carbon phases at a low ZrCl4/CH4 ratio. A near-stoichiometric ZrC without the free carbon can be obtained by employing an impeller-driven ZrCl4 vaporizer. The codeposition of the graphitic carbon significantly lowered the hardness of ZrC while increasing the fraction of the carbon. The hardness reached its maximum when ZrC was in a slight carbon deficit without free carbon. As the graphitic carbon increased up to 12 vol%, the hardness was reduced by approximately 50% compared to the near-stoichiometric ZrC.

  4. Selection by current compliance of negative and positive bipolar resistive switching behaviour in ZrO2-x /ZrO2 bilayer memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ruomeng; Yan, Xingzhao; Morgan, Katrina A.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; (Kees de Groot, C. H.

    2017-05-01

    We report here a ZrO2-x /ZrO2-based bilayer resistive switching memory with unique properties that enables the selection of the switching mode by applying different electroforming current compliances. Two opposite polarity modes, positive bipolar and negative bipolar, correspond to the switching in the ZrO2 and ZrO2-x layer, respectively. The ZrO2 layer is proved to be responsible for the negative bipolar mode which is also observed in a ZrO2 single layer device. The oxygen deficient ZrO2-x layer plays the dominant role in the positive bipolar mode, which is exclusive to the bilayer memory. A systematic investigation of the ZrO2-x composition in the bilayer memory suggests that ZrO1.8 layer demonstrates optimum switching performance with low switching voltage, narrow switching voltage distribution and good cycling endurance. An excess of oxygen vacancies, beyond this composition, leads to a deterioration of switching properties. The formation and dissolution of the oxygen vacancy filament model has been proposed to explain both polarity switching behaviours and the improved properties in the bilayer positive bipolar mode are attributed to the confined oxygen vacancy filament size within the ZrO2-x layer.

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of W-ZrC Composites Synthesized by Reactive Melt Infiltration of Zr2Cu into Porous Preforms from Partially Carburized W Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Yu-Jin; Huo, Si-Jia; Zhao, Yan-Wei; Ouyang, Jia-Hu; Song, Gui-Ming; Zhou, Yu

    2018-03-01

    W-ZrC composites with different W contents from 48 to 73 vol.% have been synthesized by reactive melt infiltration of Zr2Cu melt into porous preforms from partially carburized W powders at 1300 °C for 1 h in vacuum. The influences of carbon content and porosity in the preforms on microstructure and mechanical properties of W-ZrC composites are investigated. Cold isostatic pressing followed by pre-sintering process is used to produce porous preforms with suitable porosities of 53.6-47% under a pressure of 100 MPa to allow sufficient penetration of Zr2Cu melt into the preforms. Small amounts of Cu-rich phases form in the synthesized W-ZrC composites after a complete reaction of y/2xZr2Cu(l) + WC y (s) = y/xZrC x (s) + W(s) + y/2xCu(l). These Cu-rich phases are distributed not only at the phase boundaries of W matrix and ZrC grains, but also in the interior of ZrC x grains. With decreasing W content from 73 to 48 vol.% in the W-ZrC composites, the flexural strength and fracture toughness increase from 519 to 657 MPa and from 9.1 to 10.6 MPa m1/2, respectively.

  6. Magnetic characteristics of CoPd and FePd antidot arrays on nanoperforated Al2O3 templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximenko, A.; Fedotova, J.; Marszałek, M.; Zarzycki, A.; Zabila, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Hard magnetic antidot arrays show promising results in context of designing of percolated perpendicular media. In this work the technology of magnetic FePd and CoPd antidot arrays fabrication is presented and correlation between surface morphology, structure and magnetic properties is discussed. CoPd and FePd antidot arrays were fabricated by deposition of Co/Pd and Fe/Pd multilayers (MLs) on porous anodic aluminum oxide templates with bowl-shape cell structure with inclined intercellular regions. FePd ordered L10 structure was obtained by successive vacuum annealing at elevated temperatures (530 °C) and confirmed by XRD analysis. Systematic analysis of magnetization curves evidenced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoPd antidot arrays, while FePd antidot arrays revealed isotropic magnetic anisotropy with increased out-of-plane magnetic contribution. MFM images of antidots showed more complicated contrast, with alternating magnetic dots oriented parallel and antiparallel to tip magnetization moment.

  7. [PD1/PD-L1 immunohistochemistry in thoracic oncology: Where are we?

    PubMed

    Hofman, Paul; Ilié, Marius; Lassalle, Sandra; Long, Elodie; Bence, Coraline; Butori, Catherine; Hofman, Véronique

    2017-02-01

    The assays for the assessment of the PD-L1 status by immunohistochemistry are available in clinical studies in thoracic oncology to predict response to immunotherapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. With the arrival of this new class of molecules in second line and very soon in first line of treatment for patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, these tests will certainly be required in routine once these new drugs will be granted marketing authorization. The rapid introduction of these "companion" or "complementary" tests seems essential to select patients to benefit from these effective but also expensive and sometimes toxic therapies. Although challenged by some oncologists (as some patients not expressing PD-L1 may sometimes respond to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade), the anti-PD-L1 immunohistochemically approach seems inevitable in 2017. This new activity developed in the pathology laboratories raises several questions: which anti-PD-L1 clone should be used? On which device? What threshold of positivity should be considered? Should PD-L1 expression be assessed on tumor cells as well as on the immune cells? What controls should be used? Comparative studies are underway or have been already implemented in order to answer some of these questions. This review addresses the different evaluation criteria for immunohistochemistry using the main anti-PD-L1 antibodies used to date as well the recently published studies using these antibodies in thoracic oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Generation and oxidation of aerosol deposited PdAg nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, S.; Gustafson, J.; Martin, N. M.; Messing, M. E.; Deppert, K.; Liu, Z.; Chang, R.; Fernandes, V. R.; Borg, A.; Grönbeck, H.; Lundgren, E.

    2013-10-01

    PdAg nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm have been generated by an aerosol particle method, and supported on a silica substrate. By using a combination of X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy it is shown that the size distribution of the particles is narrow and that the two metals form an alloy with a mixture of 75% Pd and 25% Ag. Under oxidizing conditions, Pd is found to segregate to the surface and a thin PdO like oxide is formed similar to the surface oxide previously reported on extended PdAg and pure Pd surfaces.

  9. Impact of reduced graphene oxide on MoS{sub 2} grown by sulfurization of sputtered MoO{sub 3} and Mo precursor films

    SciT

    Pacley, Shanee, E-mail: shanee.pacley@us.af.mil; Brausch, Jacob; Beck-Millerton, Emory

    2016-07-15

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}), a two dimensional semiconducting dichalcogenide material with a bandgap of 1.8–1.9 eV, has demonstrated promise for future use in field effect transistors and optoelectronics. Various approaches have been used for MoS{sub 2} processing, the most common being chemical vapor deposition. During chemical vapor deposition, precursors such as Mo, MoO{sub 3}, and MoCl{sub 5} have been used to form a vapor reaction with sulfur, resulting in thin films of MoS{sub 2}. Currently, MoO{sub 3} ribbons and powder, and MoCl{sub 5} powder have been used. However, the use of ribbons and powder makes it difficult to growmore » large area-continuous films. Sputtering of Mo is an approach that has demonstrated continuous MoS{sub 2} film growth. In this paper, the authors compare the structural properties of MoS{sub 2} grown by sulfurization of pulse vapor deposited MoO{sub 3} and Mo precursor films. In addition, they have studied the effects that reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has on MoS{sub 2} structure. Reports show that rGO increases MoS{sub 2} grain growth during powder vaporization. Herein, the authors report a grain size increase for MoS{sub 2} when rGO was used during sulfurization of both sputtered Mo and MoO{sub 3} precursors. In addition, our transmission electron microscopy results show a more uniform and continuous film growth for the MoS{sub 2} films produced from Mo when compared to the films produced from MoO{sub 3}. Atomic force microscopy images further confirm this uniform and continuous film growth when Mo precursor was used. Finally, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the MoS{sub 2} films produced using both precursors were stoichiometric and had about 7–8 layers in thickness, and that there was a slight improvement in stoichiometry when rGO was used.« less

  10. A DFT+U study of Pu immobilization in Gd2Zr2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F. A.; Xiao, H. Y.; Jiang, M.; Liu, Z. J.; Zu, X. T.

    2015-12-01

    The solubility of Pu in Gd2Zr2O7 has been investigated by the density functional theory plus Hubbard U correction. It is found that the formation of PuGdZr2O7, Gd2PuZrO7 and Gd2Pu1.5Zr0.5O7 are exothermic, whereas Pu0.5Gd1.5Zr2O7, Pu1.5Gd0.5Zr2O7 and Gd2Pu0.5Zr1.5O7 are energetically less stable than their respective separated states. The calculations show that both the Gd and Zr lattice sites can be substituted by the Pu, which is consistent with the immobilization behavior of uranium in Gd2Zr2O7 observed experimentally. The site preference of Pu in Gd2Zr2O7 is found to be dependent on the chemical environment, i.e., Pu prefers to substitute for Gd-site under Gd-rich and O2-rich conditions and for Zr-site under Zr-rich and O2-rich conditions.

  11. Partitioning of Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th and U between immiscible carbonate and silicate liquids: Evaluating the effects of P2O5,F, and carbonate composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Walker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Previously we have reported carbonate liq./silicate liq. partition coefficients (D) for a standard suite of trace elements (Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th, and U) and Ra and Pa as well. In brief, we have found that immiscible liquid partitioning is a strong function of temperature. As the critical temperature of the carbonate-silicate solvus is approached, all partition coefficients approach unity. Additionally, for the overwhelming majority of the partitioning elements, InD is a linear function of 'ionic field strength,' z/r, where z is the charge of the partitioned cation and r is its ionic radius.

  12. Oxidation Behavior of a Refractory NbCrMo0.5Ta0.5TiZr Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    DANIEL J. EVANS, Chief Metals Branch Metals Branch Structural Materials Division...damage, is dif- ficult to achieve [2]. Thus, new metallic systems with higher melting points and a good balance of structural properties at high...has been considered to be the main issue during oxidation of conventional refractory alloys [14]. Heavy alloying of refractory metals with other

  13. Materials Data on K10Zr3Cd(MoO4)12 (SG:146) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Influence of the Metal-MoS2 interface on MoS2 Transistor Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hui; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.; Li, Qiliang; Richter, Curt A.

    2015-03-01

    We compare the electrical characteristics of MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETS) with Ag source/drain contacts with transistors with Ti contacts, and we demonstrate that the metal-MoS2 interface is crucial to the final device performance. The topography of 5nm Au/5nm Ag (contact layer) and 5nm Au/5nm Ti metal films deposited onto mono- and few-layer MoS2 was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface morphology of the Au/Ti films on MoS2 shows a rough, dewetting pattern while Au/Ag forms smooth, dense films. These smoother and denser Au/Ag contacts lead to improved carrier transport efficiency. FETs with Ag contacts show more than 60 times higher on-state current and a steeper subthreshold slope. Raman spectroscopy of MoS2 covered with Au/Ag or Au/Ti films revealed that the contact layer is Ag or Ti, respectively. In addition, there is a dramatic difference in the heat transfer between the MoS2 and the two metals: while laser heating is observed in Au/Ti covered MoS2, no heating effects are seen in Au/Ag covered MoS2. It is reasonable to conclude that the smoother and denser Ag contact leads to higher carrier transport efficiency and contributes to the improved thermal properties.

  15. ?-BiPd: a clean noncentrosymmetric superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Joshi, Bhanu; Thamizhavel, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a comprehensive review of the normal and superconducting state properties of a high-quality single crystal of monoclinic BiPd (?-BiPd, space group ?). The superconductivity of this crystal below 3.8 K is established by measuring its properties using bulk as well as spectroscopic techniques. BiPd is one of the cleanest noncentrosymmetric superconductors that display superconductivity with multiple energy gaps. Evidence of multiple energy gaps was found in heat capacity, point contact (PC) spectroscopy, penetration depth, muon spin rotation, small angle neutron scattering and NMR/NQR measurements. Moreover, Muon spin rotation measurements also suggest strong field dependence of the penetration depth of this superconductor. Unusual superconducting properties due to possible s and p wave mixing are shown by the observation of Andreev bound state in PC measurements as well as the suppressed coherence peak in the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation in the NQR measurements. This surmise is at variance with the recent STM measurements (different crystal). The observed unusual properties and multiband superconductivity are extremely sensitive to disorder in BiPd. Finally, there is a possibility of tuning the electron correlations by selective substitution in BiPd, thus making it an important system for further investigations.

  16. PD-1 checkpoint inhibition: Toxicities and management.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andrew W; Gill, David M; Agarwal, Neeraj; Maughan, Benjamin L

    2017-12-01

    With the recent approval of 5 PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for a number of malignancies, PD-1 axis inhibition is drastically changing the treatment landscape of immunotherapy in cancer. As PD-1/PD-L1 are involved in peripheral immune tolerance, inhibition of this immune checkpoint has led to novel immune-related adverse events including colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis, rash, and endocrinopathies among many others. In this seminar, we will analyze the incidence of immune-related adverse events for nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab. Then, we will discuss the specific management of the most common immune-mediated adverse events including colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis, rash, endocrinopathies, nephritis, and neurologic toxicities. Immune-related adverse events are frequently treated with immunosuppressive medication such as steroids and mycofenolate mofetil. There are specific immune-related adverse events which are frequently seen by the treating oncologist from checkpoint inhibitors. It is essential to understand the recommended treatment options to minimize toxicity and mortality from this important class of anti-neoplastic therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogen storage and phase transformations in Mg-Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callini, E.; Pasquini, L.; Rude, L. H.; Nielsen, T. K.; Jensen, T. R.; Bonetti, E.

    2010-10-01

    Microstructure refinement and synergic coupling among different phases are currently explored strategies to improve the hydrogen storage properties of traditional materials. In this work, we apply a combination of these methods and synthesize Mg-Pd composite nanoparticles by inert gas condensation of Mg vapors followed by vacuum evaporation of Pd clusters. Irreversible formation of the Mg6Pd intermetallic phase takes place upon vacuum annealing, resulting in Mg/Mg6Pd composite nanoparticles. Their hydrogen storage properties are investigated and connected to the undergoing phase transformations by gas-volumetric techniques and in situ synchrotron radiation powder x-ray diffraction. Mg6Pd transforms reversibly into different Mg-Pd intermetallic compounds upon hydrogen absorption, depending on temperature and pressure. In particular, at 573 K and 1 MPa hydrogen pressure, the metal-hydride transition leads to the formation of Mg3Pd and Mg5Pd2 phases. By increasing the pressure to 5 MPa, the Pd-richer MgPd intermetallic is obtained. Upon hydrogen desorption, the Mg6Pd phase is reversibly recovered. These phase transformations result in a specific hydrogen storage capacity associated with Mg-Pd intermetallics, which attain the maximum value of 3.96 wt % for MgPd and influence both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen sorption in the composite nanoparticles.

  18. PD-1 regulates extrathymic regulatory T-cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiufen; Fosco, Dominick; Kline, Douglas E.; Meng, Liping; Nishi, Saki; Savage, Peter A.; Kline, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells and the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway are both critical for maintaining peripheral tolerance to self antigens. A significant subset of Treg cells constitutively expresses PD-1, which prompted an investigation into the role of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions in Treg-cell development, function and induction in vivo. The phenotype and abundance of Treg cells was not significantly altered in PD-1-deficient mice. The thymic development of polyclonal and monospecific Treg cells was not negatively impacted by PD-1 deficiency. The suppressive function of PD-1−/− Treg cells was similar to their PD-1+/+ counterparts both in vitro and in vivo. However, in three different in vivo experimental settings, PD-1−/− conventional CD4+ T cells demonstrated a strikingly diminished tendency toward differentiation into peripherally induced Treg (pTreg) cells. Our results demonstrate that PD-1 is dispensable for thymic (tTreg) Treg-cell development and suppressive function, but is critical for the extrathymic differentiation of pTreg cells in vivo. These data suggest that antibody blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may augment T-cell responses by acting directly on conventional T cells, and also by suppressing the differentiation of pTreg cells. PMID:24975127

  19. Performance of two-layer thermal barrier systems on directionally solidified Ni-Al-Mo and comparative effects of alloy thermal expansion on system life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1980-01-01

    A promising two-layer thermal barrier coating system (TBS), Ni-16.4Cr-5.1A1-0.15Y/ZrO2-6.1Y2O3 (all in weight percent), was identified for directionally solidified Ni-Al-Mo (gamma/gamma' alpha). In cyclic furnace tests at 1095 C this system on gamma/gamma' alpha was better than Ni-16. 4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y/ZrO2-7.8Y2O3 by about 50 percent. In natural gas - oxygen torch rig tests at 1250 C the ZrO2-6.1Y2O3 coating was better than the ZrO2-7.8Y2O3 coating by 95 percent, on MAR-M509 substrates and by 60 percent on gamma/gamma' alpha substrates. Decreasing the coefficient of thermal expansion of the substrate material from 17-18x10 to the -6 power/C (MAR-M200 + Hf and MAR-M509) to 11x10 to the -6 power/C (gamma/gamma' alpha) also resulted in improved TBS life. For example, in natural gas - oxygen torch rig tests at 1250 C, the life of Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y/ZrO26.1Y2O3 was about 30 percent better on gamma/gamma' alpha than on MAR-M509 substrates. Thus compositional changes in the bond and thermal barrier coatings were shown to have a greater effect on TBS life than does the coefficient of thermal expansion.

  20. Molecular growth from a Mo176 to a Mo248 cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, A.; Shah, Syed Q. N.; Bögge, H.; Schmidtmann, M.

    1999-01-01

    In polyoxometalate chemistry a large variety of compounds, clusters and solid-state structures can be formed by the linking together of well-defined metal-oxygen building blocks, . These species exhibit unusual topological and electronic properties, andfind applications ranging from medicine to industrial processes. The recently reported ring-shaped mixed-valence polyoxomolybdates of the type {Mo154} (refs 5, 6) and {Mo176} (refs 7, 8) represent a new class of giant clusters with nanometre-sized cavities and interesting properties for host-guest chemistry. Here we describe the formation of related clusters of the type {Mo248} formed by addition of further units to the inner surface of the {Mo176 } `wheel'. The additional units arrange themselves into two {Mo36} `hub-caps' on the initial wheel-clusters that are not stable in isolation. These findings reveal a new pathway to the development of complex coordination clusters.

  1. Modulating PD-L1 expression in multiple myeloma: an alternative strategy to target the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Tremblay-LeMay, Rosemarie; Rastgoo, Nasrin; Chang, Hong

    2018-03-27

    Even with recent advances in therapy regimen, multiple myeloma patients commonly develop drug resistance and relapse. The relevance of targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis has been demonstrated in pre-clinical models. Monotherapy with PD-1 inhibitors produced disappointing results, but combinations with other drugs used in the treatment of multiple myeloma seemed promising, and clinical trials are ongoing. However, there have recently been concerns about the safety of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors combined with immunomodulators in the treatment of multiple myeloma, and several trials have been suspended. There is therefore a need for alternative combinations of drugs or different approaches to target this pathway. Protein expression of PD-L1 on cancer cells, including in multiple myeloma, has been associated with intrinsic aggressive features independent of immune evasion mechanisms, thereby providing a rationale for the adoption of new strategies directly targeting PD-L1 protein expression. Drugs modulating the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of PD-L1 could represent new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of multiple myeloma, help potentiate the action of other drugs or be combined to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in order to avoid the potentially problematic combination with immunomodulators. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of PD-L1 expression in multiple myeloma and drugs that have been shown to modulate this expression.

  2. High performance fuel electrodes fabricated by electroless plating of copper on BaZr0.8Ce0.1Y0.1O3-δ proton-conducting ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patki, Neil S.; Way, J. Douglas; Ricote, Sandrine

    2017-10-01

    The stability of copper at high temperatures in reducing and hydrocarbon-containing atmospheres makes it a good candidate for fabricating fuel electrodes on proton-conducting ceramics, such as BaZr0.9-xCexY0.1O3-δ (BZCY). In this work, the electrochemical performance of Cu-based electrodes fabricated by electroless plating (ELP) on BaZr0.8Ce0.1Y0.1O3-δ is studied with impedance spectroscopy. Three activation catalysts (Pd, Ru, and Cu) are investigated and ELP is compared to a commercial Cu paste (ESL 2312-G) for electrode fabrication. The area specific resistances (ASR) for Pd, Ru, and Cu activations at 700 °C in moist 5% H2 in Ar are 2.1, 3.2, and 13.4 Ω cm2, respectively. That is a 1-2 orders of magnitude improvement over the commercial Cu paste (192 Ω cm2). Furthermore, the ASR has contributions from electrode processes and charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Additionally, the morphology of the as-fabricated electrode is unaffected by the activation catalyst. However, heat treatment at 750 °C in H2 for 24 h leads to sintering and large reorganization of the electrode fabricated with Cu activation (micron sized pores seen in the tested sample), while Pd and Ru activations are immune to such reorganization. Thus, Pd and Ru are identified as candidates for future work with improvements to charge transfer required for the former, and better electrode processes required for the latter.

  3. Targeting the host immune system: PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Shaheenah; Rugo, Hope S

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the role of the PD-1 axis and reviews current data and future directions inhibiting PD-1 and PD-L1 in breast cancer. Four phase I monotherapy expansion trials in patients with metastatic breast cancer have demonstrated low but durable single agent responses to PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, ranging from 4.8 to 19%. Higher response rates are seen in triple negative breast cancer, compared with hormone receptor positive disease. Variability in requirements for tumor PD-L1 expression, and variations in testing complicate cross trial comparisons. A fifth phase Ib trial reported a 38% response rate in metastatic triple negative breast cancer treated with the combination of a PD-L1 inhibitor and nab-paclitaxel chemotherapy. Treatment is generally well tolerated, with low rates of immune toxicity including hypothyroidism, pneumonitis, hepatitis, colitis, and hypophysitis, occurring even months after the end of therapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has recently been shown to have clinical efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer. The most compelling data are in the triple negative subtype, with responses documented in hormone receptor positive disease as well. Numerous trials are evaluating various combination strategies and biomarkers in early and late stage disease to enhance immunogenicity and response.

  4. Anti–PD-1/PD-L1 therapy of human cancer: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lieping; Han, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Major progress has been made toward our understanding of the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway (referred to as the PD pathway). mAbs are already being used to block the PD pathway to treat human cancers (anti-PD therapy), especially advanced solid tumors. This therapy is based on principles that were discovered through basic research more than a decade ago, but the great potential of this pathway to treat a broad spectrum of advanced human cancers is just now becoming apparent. In this Review, we will briefly review the history and development of anti-PD therapy, from the original benchwork to the most up-to-date clinical results. We will then focus the discussion on three basic principles that define this unique therapeutic approach and highlight how anti-PD therapy is distinct from other immunotherapeutic approaches, namely tumor site immune modulation, targeting tumor-induced immune defects, and repairing ongoing (rather than generating de novo) tumor immunity. We believe that these fundamental principles set the standard for future immunotherapies and will guide our efforts to develop more efficacious and less toxic immune therapeutics to treat human cancers. PMID:26325035

  5. Impact of the oxygen defects and the hydrogen concentration on the surface of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 on the reduction rates of stearic acid on Ni/ZrO2

    SciT

    Foraita, Sebastian D.; Fulton, John L.; Chase, Zizwe A.

    2015-02-02

    The effect of the physicochemical properties of ZrO2 phases on the activity of Ni/ZrO2 catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid are described. A synergistic interaction between Ni and ZrO2 support was found. The effect is greatest for the monoclinic phase of ZrO2.

  6. Synovial T cell hyporesponsiveness to myeloid dendritic cells is reversed by preventing PD-1/PD-L1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Moret, Frederique M; van der Wurff-Jacobs, Kim M G; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; Lafeber, Floris P J G; van Roon, Joel A G

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate PD-1/PD-L1 involvement in the hyporesponsiveness of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fluid (SF) CD4 T cells upon stimulation by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-primed CD1c myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). Expression of PD-1 on naïve (Tn), central memory (Tcm) and effector memory (Tem) CD4 T cell subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. PD-L1 expression and its regulation upon TSLP stimulation of mDCs from peripheral blood (PB) and SF of RA patients were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The involvement of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions in SF T cell hyporesponsiveness upon (TSLP-primed) mDC activation was determined by cell culture in the presence of PD-1 blocking antibodies, with or without interleukin 7 (IL-7) as a recognized suppressor of PD-1 expression. PD-1 expression was increased on CD4 T cells derived from SF compared with PB of RA patients. TSLP increased PD-L1 mRNA expression in both PB and SF mDCs. PD-L1 protein expression was increased on SF mDCs compared with PB mDCs and was associated with T cell hyporesponsiveness. Blockade of PD-1, as well as IL-7 stimulation, during cocultures of memory T cells and (TSLP-primed) mDCs from RA patients significantly recovered T cell proliferation. SF T cell hyporesponsiveness upon (TSLP-primed) mDC stimulation in RA joints is partially dependent on PD-1/PD-L1 interactions, as PD-1 and PD-L1 are both highly expressed on SF T cells and mDCs, respectively, and inhibiting PD-1 availability restores T cell proliferation. The potential of IL-7 to robustly reverse this hyporesponsiveness suggests that such proinflammatory cytokines in RA joints strongly contribute to memory T cell activation.

  7. Electrical resistivity of Co-Ni-Pd and Co-Pd alloys

    SciT

    Jen, S.U.; Chen, T.P.; Chang, S.A.

    1991-11-15

    Three series of ferromagnetic alloys have been made: Co{sub 100{minus}{ital x}}Pd{sub {ital x}}, Co{sub 25}Ni{sub 75{minus}{ital y}}Pd{sub {ital y}} and Co{sub 5{minus}{ital z}}Ni{sub {ital z}}Pd{sub 95}. The electrical resistivity {rho} of these alloys was measured from 4 to 300 K. Their high field ({ital H}{gt}2 T) susceptibility {chi}{sub HF} was obtained with superconducting quantum interference device measurements at 5 K. Comparing the residual resistivity {rho}{sub 0} of Co-Ni and Co-Pd, it is found that the spin-up resistivity {rho}{sub {up arrow}} of Co-Ni follows the Nordheim's rule, while that of Co-Pd peaks at {ital x}=85. This indicates the spin-up {ital d}more » band of Co-Pd is not full for all the {ital x} values. Also, {chi}{sub HF} data reveal the same tendency of the spin-up band. Based on the deviation from Matthiessen's rule of the two-current model, we estimate {alpha}={rho}{sub 0{down arrow}} /{rho}{sub 0{up arrow}}{congruent}2 for the dilute {ital PdCo} alloy, where {rho}{sub 0}={rho}{sub 0{down arrow}} {rho}{sub 0{up arrow}}/({rho}{sub 0{up arrow}}+{rho}{sub 0{down arrow}} ), from the residual resistivity of the ternary Co{sub 5{minus}{ital z}}Ni{sub {ital z}}Pd{sub 95} alloy and from the temperature dependence of {rho}({ital T}) of the binary Co{sub 5}Pd{sub 95} alloy« less

  8. Keplerate cluster (Mo-132) mediated electrostatic assembly of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gooch, Jonathan; Jalan, Abhishek A; Jones, Stephanie; Hine, Corey R; Alam, Rabeka; Garai, Somenath; Maye, Mathew M; Müller, Achim; Zubieta, Jon

    2014-10-15

    The electrostatic assembly between a series of differently charged Mo-132-type Keplerates present in the compounds (NH4)42[{(Mo(VI))Mo(VI)5O21(H2O)6}12 {Mo(V)2O4(CH3COO)}30].ca. {300 H2O+10 CH3COONH4} (Mo-132a), (NH4)72-n[{(H2O)81-n+(NH4)n} {(Mo(VI))Mo(VI)5O21(H2O)6}12 {Mo(V)2O4(SO4)}30].ca. 200 H2O (Mo-132b), and Na10(NH4)62[{(Mo(VI))Mo(VI)5O21(H2O)6}12 {Mo(V)2O4(HPO4)}30]. ca. {300H2O+2Na(+)+2NH4(+)+4H2PO4(-)} (Mo-132c) with cationic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated for the first time. The rapid electrostatic assembly from nanoscopic entities to micron scale aggregates was observed upon precipitation, which closely matched the point of aggregate electroneutrality. Successful assembly was demonstrated using UV-vis, DLS, TEM, and zeta-potential analysis. Results indicate that the point at which precipitation occurs is related to charge balance or electroneutrality, and that counterions at both the Mo-132 and AuNP play a significant role in assembly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitrite reduction mechanism on a Pd surface.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeyoung; Jung, Sungyoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-11-04

    Nitrate (NO3-) is one of the most harmful contaminants in the groundwater, and it causes various health problems. Bimetallic catalysts, usually palladium (Pd) coupled with secondary metallic catalyst, are found to properly treat nitrate-containing wastewaters; however, the selectivity toward N2 production over ammonia (NH3) production still requires further improvement. Because the N2 selectivity is determined at the nitrite (NO2-) reduction step on the Pd surface, which occurs after NO3- is decomposed into NO2- on the secondary metallic catalyst, we here performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experiments to investigate the NO2- reduction pathway on the Pd surface activated by hydrogen. Based on extensive DFT calculations on the relative energetics among ∼100 possible intermediates, we found that NO2- is easily reduced to NO* on the Pd surface, followed by either sequential hydrogenation steps to yield NH3 or a decomposition step to N* and O* (an adsorbate on Pd is denoted using an asterisk). Based on the calculated high migration barrier of N*, we further discussed that the direct combination of two N* to yield N2 is kinetically less favorable than the combination of a highly mobile H* with N* to yield NH3. Instead, the reduction of NO2- in the vicinity of the N* can yield N2O* that can be preferentially transformed into N2 via diverse reaction pathways. Our DFT results suggest that enhancing the likelihood of N* encountering NO2- in the solution phase before combination with surface H* is important for maximizing the N2 selectivity. This is further supported by our experiments on NO2- reduction by Pd/TiO2, showing that both a decreased H2 flow rate and an increased NO2- concentration increased the N2 selectivity (78.6-93.6% and 57.8-90.9%, respectively).

  10. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of LaTMg and CeTMg (T = Pd, Pt, Au)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, B. J.; Das, A.; Kremer, R. K.; Hoffmann, R.-D.; Pöttgen, R.

    2002-05-01

    The title compounds were prepared from the elements by reactions in sealed tantalum tubes in a water-cooled sample chamber of a high-frequency furnace. They crystallize with the ZrNiAl-type structure, space group P bar 6 2m. The structures of the cerium compounds were refined from single-crystal x-ray diffraction data: a = 767.3(1) pm, c = 410.37(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0324, 521 F2-values for CePdMg; a = 755.02(7) pm, c = 413.82(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0393, 514 F2-values for CePtMg; and a = 774.1(3) pm, c = 421.6(1) pm, wR2 = 0.0355, 395 F2-values for CeAuMg, with 14 variables for each refinement. The palladium compound shows a small homogeneity range: CePd1+xMg1-x. The structures contain two crystallographically different transition metal sites T1 and T2 which are located in tri-capped trigonal prisms: [T1 Mg6Ce3] and [T2 Ce6Mg3]. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements reveal long-range magnetic ordering at 2.1(2) K for CePdMg, 3.6(2) K for CePtMg, and 2.0(2) K for CeAuMg. Curie-Weiss behaviour at higher temperatures shows that the cerium ions are in the 3+ oxidation state. The isotypic LaTMg compounds are Pauli paramagnetic down to lowest temperatures (T = 0.3 K). All the compounds, RETMg (RE = La, Ce; T = Pd, Pt, Au) show metallic behaviour.

  11. New results in low-energy fusion of Ca 40 + Zr 90 , 92

    SciT

    Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Esbensen, H.

    Near- and sub-barrier fusion of various Ca + Zr isotopic combinations have been widely investigated. A recent analysis of 40Ca + 96Zr data has highlighted the importance of couplings to multiphonon excitations and to both neutron and proton transfer channels. Analogous studies of 40Ca + 90Zr tend to exclude any role of transfer couplings. However, the lowest measured cross section for this system is rather high (840μb). Here, a rather complete data set is available for 40Ca + 94Zr, while no measurement of 40Ca + 92Zr fusion has been performed in the past.

  12. New results in low-energy fusion of Ca 40 + Zr 90 , 92

    DOE PAGES

    Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Esbensen, H.; ...

    2017-07-07

    Near- and sub-barrier fusion of various Ca + Zr isotopic combinations have been widely investigated. A recent analysis of 40Ca + 96Zr data has highlighted the importance of couplings to multiphonon excitations and to both neutron and proton transfer channels. Analogous studies of 40Ca + 90Zr tend to exclude any role of transfer couplings. However, the lowest measured cross section for this system is rather high (840μb). Here, a rather complete data set is available for 40Ca + 94Zr, while no measurement of 40Ca + 92Zr fusion has been performed in the past.

  13. Nature's polyoxometalate chemistry: X-ray structure of the Mo storage protein loaded with discrete polynuclear Mo-O clusters.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Björn; Poppe, Juliane; Demmer, Ulrike; Warkentin, Eberhard; Dierks, Thomas; Ermler, Ulrich; Schneider, Klaus

    2012-06-13

    Some N(2)-fixing bacteria prolong the functionality of nitrogenase in molybdenum starvation by a special Mo storage protein (MoSto) that can store more than 100 Mo atoms. The presented 1.6 Å X-ray structure of MoSto from Azotobacter vinelandii reveals various discrete polyoxomolybdate clusters, three covalently and three noncovalently bound Mo(8), three Mo(5-7), and one Mo(3) clusters, and several low occupied, so far undefinable clusters, which are embedded in specific pockets inside a locked cage-shaped (αβ)(3) protein complex. The structurally identical Mo(8) clusters (three layers of two, four, and two MoO(n) octahedra) are distinguishable from the [Mo(8)O(26)](4-) cluster formed in acidic solutions by two displaced MoO(n) octahedra implicating three kinetically labile terminal ligands. Stabilization in the covalent Mo(8) cluster is achieved by Mo bonding to Hisα156-N(ε2) and Gluα129-O(ε1). The absence of covalent protein interactions in the noncovalent Mo(8) cluster is compensated by a more extended hydrogen-bond network involving three pronounced histidines. One displaced MoO(n) octahedron might serve as nucleation site for an inhomogeneous Mo(5-7) cluster largely surrounded by bulk solvent. In the Mo(3) cluster located on the 3-fold axis, the three accurately positioned His140-N(ε2) atoms of the α subunits coordinate to the Mo atoms. The formed polyoxomolybdate clusters of MoSto, not detectable in bulk solvent, are the result of an interplay between self- and protein-driven assembly processes that unite inorganic supramolecular and protein chemistry in a host-guest system. Template, nucleation/protection, and catalyst functions of the polypeptide as well as perspectives for designing new clusters are discussed.

  14. Nanocrystallization in Cu-Zr-Al-Sm Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikan, Fatih; Yasar, Bengisu; Kalay, Ilkay

    2018-04-01

    The effect of rare-earth element (Sm) microalloying on the thermal stability and crystallization kinetics of melt-spun ribbons and suction-cast rods of Zr48Cu38.4Al9.6Sm4 alloy were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atom probe tomography (APT). The XRD results of constant heating rate annealing indicated that amorphous Zr48Cu38.4Al9.6Sm4 melt-spun ribbons devitrifies into Cu2Sm at 673 K (400 °C). The sequence continues with the precipitation of Cu10Zr7 and then these two phases coexist. XRD and TEM studies on 1 mm diameter as suction-cast rods indicated the precipitation of 30-nm-mean size Cu2Sm crystals during solidification. TEM investigation of the isothermal crystallization sequence of melt-spun ribbons and 1-mm-diameter suction-cast rods revealed the precipitation of Cu2Sm nanocrystals at the onset of crystallization and the restriction of the growth of these nanocrystals up to 10 nm diameter with further annealing. APT analysis of 1-mm-diameter suction-cast rods showed that the limited growth of Cu2Sm nanocrystals is due to sluggish diffusion of Sm and Al-Zr pile up at the interface.

  15. Search for the β decay of 96Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, S. W.; Tornow, W.

    2016-01-01

    96Zr and 48Ca are unique among double-β decay candidate nuclides in that they may also undergo single-β decay. In the case of 96Zr, the single-β decay mode is dominated by the fourth-forbidden β decay with a 119 keV Q value. A search was conducted for the β decay of 96Zr by observing the decay of the daughter 96Nb nucleus. Two coaxial high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to detect the γ-ray cascade produced by the daughter nucleus as it de-excited to the ground state. The experiment was carried out at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility and produced 685.7 days of data with a 17.91 g enriched sample. No counts were seen above background, producing a limit of T1/2 > 2.4 ×1019 year. This is the first experimental search that is able to discern between the β decay and the double-β decay to an excited state of 96Zr.

  16. Large Scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Study of PD Susceptibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    familial PD, the results of intensive investigations of polymorphisms in dozens of genes related to sporadic, late onset, typical PD have not shown...association between classical, sporadic PD and 2386 SNPs in 23 genes implicated in the pathogenesis of PD; (2) construct haplotypes based on the SNP...derived from this study may be applied in other complex disorders for the identification of susceptibility genes , as well as in genome-wide SNP

  17. PD-L1 expression and prognostic impact in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Nduom, Edjah K.; Wei, Jun; Yaghi, Nasser K.; Huang, Neal; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Ling, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Shouhao; Ivan, Cristina; Chen, Jie Qing; Burks, Jared K.; Fuller, Greg N.; Calin, George A.; Conrad, Charles A.; Creasy, Caitlin; Ritthipichai, Krit; Radvanyi, Laszlo; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic targeting of the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4) and PD-1/PD-L1 has demonstrated tumor regression in clinical trials, and phase 2 trials are ongoing in glioblastoma (GBM). Previous reports have suggested that responses are more frequent in patients with tumors that express PD-L1; however, this has been disputed. At issue is the validation of PD-L1 biomarker assays and prognostic impact. Methods Using immunohistochemical analysis, we measured the incidence of PD-L1 expression in 94 patients with GBM. We categorized our results according to the total number of PD-L1-expressing cells within the GBMs and then validated this finding in ex vivo GBM flow cytometry with further analysis of the T cell populations. We then evaluated the association between PD-L1 expression and median survival time using the protein expression datasets and mRNA from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Results The median percentage of PD-L1-expressing cells in GBM by cell surface staining is 2.77% (range: 0%–86.6%; n = 92), which is similar to the percentage found by ex vivo flow cytometry. The majority of GBM patients (61%) had tumors with at least 1% or more PD-L1-positive cells, and 38% had at least 5% or greater PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 is commonly expressed on the GBM-infiltrating T cells. Expression of both PD-L1 and PD-1 are negative prognosticators for GBM outcome. Conclusions The incidence of PD-L1 expression in GBM patients is frequent but is confined to a minority subpopulation, similar to other malignancies that have been profiled for PD-L1 expression. Higher expression of PD-L1 is correlated with worse outcome. PMID:26323609

  18. Optical and structural characterization of Nb, Zr, Nb/Zr, Zr/Nb thin films on Si3N4 membranes windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, K.; Gaballah, A. E. H.; Ahmed, Nadeem; Zuppella, P.; Nicolosi, P.

    2017-05-01

    High brilliance sources in the EUV spectral range such as Synchrotron and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) are widely used in multiple scientific and technological applications thanks to their peculiar characteristics. One main technical problem of FEL is related to the rejection of high harmonics, seed laser, first stage photons, and diffuse light; in order to improve the quality of the beam delivered by these sources, a suitable optical system acting as band-pass filters is necessary. In this paper we discuss the optical and structure characterization of Nb/Zr and Zr/Nb self-stand transmittance filters, designed for 4.5 nm-20 nm wavelength ranges. In order to understand the properties of these bilayers filters, a campaign of measurements has been planned to be performed on Zr and Nb films on Si3N4 membrane windows and silicon substrates, deposited with e- beam deposition technique. Comparison of the results has been planned too. IMD transmittance and reflectance simulations, together with preliminary AFM and reflectance measurements will be shown in this work.

  19. Synthesis of MAX Phases in the Zr-Ti-Al-C System.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Bensu; Lapauw, Thomas; Karakulina, Olesia M; Batuk, Maria; Cabioc'h, Thierry; Hadermann, Joke; Delville, Rémi; Lambrinou, Konstantina; Vleugels, Jozef

    2017-03-20

    This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of MAX phases in the (Zr,Ti) n+1 AlC n system. The MAX phases were synthesized by reactive hot pressing and pressureless sintering in the 1350-1700 °C temperature range. The produced ceramics contained large fractions of 211 and 312 (n = 1, 2) MAX phases, while strong evidence of a 413 (n = 3) stacking was found. Moreover, (Zr,Ti)C, ZrAl 2 , ZrAl 3 , and Zr 2 Al 3 were present as secondary phases. In general, the lattice parameters of the hexagonal 211 and 312 phases followed Vegard's law over the complete Zr-Ti solid solution range, but the 312 phase showed a non-negligible deviation from Vegard's law around the (Zr 0.33 ,Ti 0.67 ) 3 Al 1.2 C 1.6 stoichiometry. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray diffraction demonstrated ordering of the Zr and Ti atoms in the 312 phase, whereby Zr atoms occupied preferentially the central position in the close-packed M 6 X octahedral layers. The same ordering was also observed in 413 stackings present within the 312 phase. The decomposition of the secondary (Zr,Ti)C phase was attributed to the miscibility gap in the ZrC-TiC system.

  20. Structure, mechanical properties, and grindability of dental Ti-Zr alloys.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wen-Fu; Chen, Wei-Kai; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    Structure, mechanical properties and grindability of a series of binary Ti-Zr alloys with zirconium contents ranging from 10 to 40 wt% have been investigated. Commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) was used as a control. Experimental results indicated that the diffraction peaks of all the Ti-Zr alloys matched those for alpha Ti. No beta-phase peaks were found. The hardness of the Ti-Zr alloys increased as the Zr contents increased, and ranged from 266 HV (Ti-10Zr) to 350 HV (Ti-40Zr). As the concentration of zirconium in the alloys increased, the strength, elastic recovery angles and hardness increased. Moreover, the elastically recoverable angle of Ti-40Zr was higher than of c.p. Ti by as much as 550%. The grindability of each metal was found to be largely dependent on the grinding conditions. The Ti-40Zr alloy had a higher grinding rate and grinding ratio than c.p. Ti at low speed. The grinding rate of the Ti-40Zr alloy at 500 m/min was about 1.8 times larger than that of c.p. Ti, and the grinding ratio was about 1.6 times larger than that of c.p. Ti. Our research suggested that the Ti-40Zr alloy has better mechanical properties, excellent elastic recovery capability and improved grindability at low grinding speed. The Ti-40Zr alloy has a great potential for use as a dental machining alloy.

  1. Al-centered icosahedral ordering in Cu46Zr46Al8 bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. Z.; Hui, X.; Chen, G. L.; Liu, Z. K.

    2009-03-01

    Icosahedral short-range order, of which Al atoms are caged in the center of icosahedra with Cu and Zr atoms being the vertices, has been evidenced in the Cu46Zr46Al8 glassy structure by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. These Al-centered clusters distribute irregularly in the three-dimensional space and form a "backbone" structure of the Cu46Zr46Al8 glass alloy. It is suggested that this kind of local structural feature is attributed to the requirement of efficient dense packing and the chemical affinity between Zr-Zr, Zr-Al, and Cu-Zr atoms. Our calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Seeing is believing: anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies in action for checkpoint blockade tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shuguang; Zhang, Catherine W-H; Gao, George F

    2016-01-01

    Structural immunology, focusing on structures of host immune related molecules, enables the immunologists to see what the molecules look like, and more importantly, how they work together. Antibody-based PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy has achieved brilliant successes in clinical applications. The recent breakthrough of the complex structures of checkpoint blockade antibodies with their counterparts, pembrolizumab with PD-1 and avelumab with PD-L1, have made it clear how these monoclonal antibodies compete the binding of PD-1/PD-L1 and function to blockade the receptor-ligand interaction. Herein, we summarize the structural findings of these two reports and look into the future for how this information would facilitate the development of more efficient PD-1/PD-L1 targeting antibodies, small molecule drugs, and other protein or non-protein inhibitors. PMID:29263905

  3. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor screening of caffeoylquinic acid compounds using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Ya; Gao, Yaning; He, Tian; Wang, Daidong; Guo, Ning; Zhang, Xiaotian; Chen, Shizhong; Wang, Hong

    2018-04-15

    Following the FDA approval of three monoclonal antibodies of PD-1/PD-L1, this pathway has become a promising target for cancer treatment. Currently small-molecule inhibitors have not been extensively investigated, and appropriate screening methods for such inhibitors are urgently required. In this study, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology was used to evaluate the affinity and competitive inhibition of nine caffeoylquinic acid compounds (CQAs) against PD-1/PD-L1. As a result, four small molecules including 1-CQA, 3-CQA, 4-CQA and 5-CQA were determined as PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. This study provided an efficient method for screening small-molecule inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    SciT

    Schulthess, Jason

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  5. The anticancer immune response of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and the genetic determinants of response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Weidong; Wang, Xian; Fang, Yong; Li, Da; Pan, Hongming; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    The programmed death-1 (PD-1), a coinhibitory receptor expressed on activated T cells and B cells, is demonstrated to induce an immune-mediated response and play a critical role in tumor initiation and development. The cancer patients harboring PD-1 or PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein expression have often a poor prognosis and clinical outcome. Currently, targeting PD-1 pathway as a potential new anticancer strategy is attracting more and more attention in cancer treatment. Several monoclonal antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 have been reported to enhance anticancer immune responses and induce tumor cell death. Nonetheless, the precise molecular mechanisms by which PD-1 affects various cancers remain elusive. Moreover, this therapy is not effective for all the cancer patients and only a fraction of patients respond to the antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1, indicating these antibodies may only works in a subset of certain cancers. Thus, understanding the novel function of PD-1 and genetic determinants of response to anti-PD-1 therapy will allow us to develop a more effective and individualized immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer. PMID:26305724

  6. The modulation of Schottky barriers of metal-MoS2 contacts via BN-MoS2 heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Su, Jie; Feng, Liping; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Zhengtang

    2016-06-22

    Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we systematically studied the effect of BN-MoS2 heterostructure on the Schottky barriers of metal-MoS2 contacts. Two types of FETs are designed according to the area of the BN-MoS2 heterostructure. Results show that the vertical and lateral Schottky barriers in all the studied contacts, irrespective of the work function of the metal, are significantly reduced or even vanish when the BN-MoS2 heterostructure substitutes the monolayer MoS2. Only the n-type lateral Schottky barrier of Au/BN-MoS2 contact relates to the area of the BN-MoS2 heterostructure. Notably, the Pt-MoS2 contact with n-type character is transformed into a p-type contact upon substituting the monolayer MoS2 by a BN-MoS2 heterostructure. These changes of the contact natures are ascribed to the variation of Fermi level pinning, work function and charge distribution. Analysis demonstrates that the Fermi level pinning effects are significantly weakened for metal/BN-MoS2 contacts because no gap states dominated by MoS2 are formed, in contrast to those of metal-MoS2 contacts. Although additional BN layers reduce the interlayer interaction and the work function of the metal, the Schottky barriers of metal/BN-MoS2 contacts still do not obey the Schottky-Mott rule. Moreover, different from metal-MoS2 contacts, the charges transfer from electrodes to the monolayer MoS2, resulting in an increment of the work function of these metals in metal/BN-MoS2 contacts. These findings may prove to be instrumental in the future design of new MoS2-based FETs with ohmic contact or p-type character.

  7. Heat shock proteins MoSsb1, MoSsz1, and MoZuo1 attenuate MoMkk1-mediated CWI signaling and are important for growth and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Muxing; Liu, Xinyu; Yin, Ziyi; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2018-06-05

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase MoMkk1 governs the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. To understand the underlying mechanism, we have identified MoSsb1 as one of the MoMkk1-interacting proteins. MoSsb1 is a stress-seventy subfamily B (Ssb) protein homolog, sharing high amino acid sequence homology with the 70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s). Hsp70 proteins are a family of conserved and ubiquitously expressed chaperones that regulate protein biogenesis by promoting protein folding, preventing protein aggregation and controlling protein degradation. We found that MoSsb1 regulates the synthesis of nascent polypeptide chains and this regulation is achieved by being in complex with other members of heat shock proteins: Hsp70 MoSsz1 and 40-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp40) MoZuo1. MoSsb1 is important for the growth, conidiation and full virulence of the blast fungus and this role is also shared by MoSsz1 and MoZuo1. Importantly, MoSsb1, MoSsz1 and MoZuo1 are all involved in the regulation of the CWI MAP kinase pathway by modulating MoMkk1 biosynthesis. Our studies reveal novel insights into how MoSsb1, MoSsz1 and MoZuo1 affect CWI signaling that is involved in regulating growth, differentiation and virulence of M. oryzae and highlight the conserved functional mechanisms of Hsp proteins in pathogenic fungi.

  8. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al–Sc–Zr and Al–Mn–Sc–Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    SciT

    Vlach, M., E-mail: martin.vlach@mff.cuni.cz; Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.

    2013-12-15

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 °C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 °C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitationmore » of the Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 °C. The precipitation of the Al{sub 6}Mn- and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ∼ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 °C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al{sub 3}Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al{sub 6}Mn and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al{sub 3}Sc-phase and the Al{sub 6}Mn-phase precipitation. - Highlights: • The Mn, Sc and Zr additions to Al totally suppresses recrystallization at 550 °C. • The Sc,Zr

  9. Elastic modulus of phases in Ti–Mo alloys

    SciT

    Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu11@aliyun.com; Wu, Hong

    2015-08-15

    In this work, a series of binary Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were prepared using non-consumable arc melting. The microstructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, and the elastic modulus was evaluated by nanoindentation testing technique. The evolution of the volume fractions of ω phase was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the phase constitution and elastic modulus of the Ti–Mo alloys are sensitive to the Mo content. Ti–3.2Mo and Ti–8Mo alloys containing only α and β phases, respectively, have a low elastic modulus. In contrast, Ti–4.5Mo,more » Ti–6Mo, Ti–7Mo alloys, with different contents of ω phase, have a high elastic modulus. A simple micromechanical model was used to calculate the elastic modulus of ω phase (E{sub ω}), which was determined to be 174.354 GPa. - Highlights: • Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were investigated. • XPS was used to investigate the volume fractions of ω phase. • The elastic modulus of Ti–Mo alloys is sensitive to the Mo content. • The elastic modulus of ω phase was determined to be 174.354 GPa.« less

  10. {Mo96La8} eggshell ring and self-assembly to {Mo132} Keplerate through Mo-blue intermediate, involved in UV-photolysis of [Mo7O24](6-)/carboxylic acid system at pH 4.

    PubMed

    Yamase, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Shun; Prokop, Petra V; Ishikawa, Eri; Tomsa, Adrian-Raul

    2010-10-18

    The prolonged UV-photolysis of aqueous solutions containing [Mo(7)O(24)](6-) and C(2)H(5)CO(2)H (as electron donor) at pH 3.9-4.1 generates the carboxylate-coordinated {Mo(132)} Keplerate (1a) isolated as a formamidinium/ammonium-mixed salt, [HC(NH(2))(2)](26)(NH(4))(28)[Mo(V)(60)Mo(VI)(72)O(372)(H(2)O)(48)(C(2)H(5)CO(2))(36)((i)C(3)H(7)CO(2))(6)]·16H(2)O (1), through the Mo-blue intermediate (2). The coordination of 2 to La(3+) gives rise to the formation of the chain structure of the C(2)-symmetric {Mo(96)La(8)} eggshell rings, formulated by H(22)[Mo(V)(20)Mo(VI)(76)O(301)(H(2)O)(29){La(H(2)O)(6)}(2)]{La(H(2)O)(5)}(6)]·54.5H(2)O (3). The eggshell-ring geometry results from the insertion of [Mo(VI)(2)O(7)(H(2)O)](2-) (spacer) into the equator outer ring of the wheel-shaped Mo-blue, and 10 {(Mo(VI))(Mo(VI)(5))} pentagonal subunits alternately above and below the equator outer ring are connected by eight La(3+) and two {Mo(VI)(2)} linkers within two inner rings. The neighboring eggshell rings are linked through two Mo-O-Mo bonds formed by dehydrative condensation between the {Mo(VI)(2)} linkers to result in the chain structure. Together with the results of the elemental analysis and IR, electronic absorption, (13)C NMR, and ESI-MS spectra for 2, the ring profile analysis of 3 let us identify 2 with a carbolylate-coordinated Mo-blue ring of high nuclearity. The Mo(VI)→Mo(V) photoreductive change of 2 to the 60-electron reduced Keplerate in the presence of C(2)H(5)CO(2)H involves both degradation of the outer ring and splitting of the binuclear linkers, which leads to the formation of [(Mo(VI))Mo(VI)(5)O(21)(H(2)O)(4)(carboxylate)](7-) pentagonal subunits and [Mo(V)(2)O(4)(carboxylate)](+)/[Mo(V)O(2)(carboxylate)(1/2)](0.5+)-mixed linkers for 1.

  11. PD-L1 expression in perihilar and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fontugne, Jacqueline; Augustin, Jérémy; Pujals, Anaïs; Compagnon, Philippe; Rousseau, Benoit; Luciani, Alain; Tournigand, Christophe; Cherqui, Daniel; Azoulay, Daniel; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Calderaro, Julien

    2017-04-11

    Cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive biliary neoplasm lacking effective therapeutic agents. Immunotherapies targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoint have shown encouraging results in solid and hematologic cancers in clinical trials. Response to these immunomodulators is correlated with PD-L1 expression. Our goal was to characterize PD-L1 expression in intra-hepatic (iCCA) and perihilar (pCCA) cholangiocarcinomas, and to correlate our results with clinicopathological features, density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-1 expression.A series of 58 iCCAs and 41 pCCAs was included in the study. PD-L1, PD-1 and CD3 expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry. Density of TILs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a quantitative score of CD3-stained intratumoral lymphocytes.PD-L1 expression by neoplastic cells was observed in 9 cases (9%, 5 iCCAs and 4 pCCAs). PD-L1 positive inflammatory cell aggregates were identified in 46% (n = 46) of the cases (31 iCCAs and 15 pCCAs). PD-L1 expression by either neoplastic or inflammatory cells was associated to high density of CD3-positive TILs (p = 0.01 and p = 0.005, respectively). The number of PD-L1 positive inflammatory cell aggregates was higher in tumors with high PD-1 expression (p < 0.0001).Altogether, PD-L1 in iCCA and pCCA is mainly expressed in tumors with high density of TILs. Our results suggest that CCAs with dense intratumoral lymphocytic infiltration might represent good candidates for PD-L1/PD-1 blocking agents.

  12. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system: a potential target for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jordan A; Gonzalez, Raul S; Das, Satya; Berlin, Jordan; Shi, Chanjuan

    2017-12-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system has a dismal prognosis with limited treatment options. This study aimed to investigate expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in these tumors. Thirty-seven patients with a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system were identified. Their electronic medical records, pathology reports, and pathology slides were reviewed for demographics, clinical history, and pathologic features. Tumor sections were immunohistochemically labeled for PD-1 and PD-L1, and expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on tumor and tumor-associated immune cells was analyzed and compared between small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. The mean age of patients was 61 years old with 18 men and 19 women. The colorectum (n=20) was the most common primary site; other primary sites included the pancreaticobiliary system, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and ampulla. Expression of PD-1 was detected on tumor cells (n=6, 16%) as well as on tumor-associated immune cells (n=23, 63%). The 6 cases with PD-1 expression on tumor cells also had the expression on immune cells. Expression of PD-L1 was visualized on tumor cells in 5 cases (14%) and on tumor-associated immune cells in 10 cases (27%). There was no difference in PD-1 and PD-L1 expression between small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. In conclusion, PD-1/PD-L1 expression is a frequent occurrence in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system. Checkpoint blockade targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may have a potential role in treating patients with this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA-Templated Pd Conductive Metallic Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, K.; Monteverde, M.; Lyonnais, S.; Campidelli, S.; Bourgoin, J.-Ph.; Filoramo, A.

    2008-10-01

    Because of its unique recognition properties, its size and the sub-nanometric resolution, DNA is of particular interest for positioning and organizing nanomaterials. However, in DNA-directed nanoelectronic it can be envisioned to use DNA not only as a positioning scaffold, but also as a support for the conducting element. To ensure this function a metallization process is necessary and among the various DNA metallization methods the Pd based ones are of particular interest for carbon nanotube transistor connections. In this field, the major drawback of the existing methods is the fast kinetics of the process which lead to a stochastic growth. Here, we present a novel approach to DNA Pd metalization where the DNA molecule is previously deposited on a dry substrate in a typical nanodevice configuration. In our approach the progressive growth of nanowires is achieved by the slow and selective precipitation of PdO, followed by a subsequent reduction step. Thanks to this strategy we fabricated homogeneous, continuous and conductive Pd nanowires on the DNA scaffolds of very thin diameter (20-25 nm).

  14. Ferromagnetism of Pd-Fe (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, G.; Carnegie, D. W., Jr.; Claus, H.

    1984-03-01

    We present new low field ac susceptibility measurements on Pd1-xFex alloys (0.002≤X<0.01). The Curie temperature TC, determined from these measurements, are significantly lower than those previously obtained in higher magnetic fields [G. J. Nieuwenhuys, Adv. Phys. 24, 515 (1975)]. We also found that for a given sample, TC depends very sensitively on its heat treatment. As an example, for an alloy with 0.4 at. % Fe, TC can be varied between 4 and 10 K. In other alloys, like PdNi or RhNi similar changes in TC are due to changes in the degree of atomic short-range order [S. Crane, D. W. Carnegie, Jr., and H. Claus, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 2179 (1982)]. However, for PdFe we show evidence that the changes in TC are due to absorption of small amounts of oxygen, the samples with the highest amount of oxygen having the highest TC. It thus seems that oxygen has the opposite effect from hydrogen on the exchange enhanced susceptibility of Pd [J. A. Mydosh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1562 (1974)].

  15. Surface Composition of NiPd Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Khalil, Joe; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Surface segregation in Ni-Pd alloys has been studied using the BFS method for alloys. Not only does the method predict an oscillatory segregation profile but it also indicates that the number of Pd-enriched surface planes can vary as a function of orientation. The segregation profiles were computed as a function of temperature, crystal face, and composition. Pd enrichment of the first layer is observed in (111) and (100) surfaces, and enrichment of the top two layers occurs for (110) surfaces. In all cases, the segregation profile shows oscillations that are actually related to weak ordering tendencies in the bulk. An atom-by-atom analysis was performed to identify the competing mechanisms leading to the observed surface behaviors. Large-scale atomistic simulations were also performed to investigate the temperature dependence of the segregation profiles as well as for analysis of the bulk structures. Finally, the observed surface behaviors are discussed in relation to the bulk phase structure of Ni-Pd alloys, which exhibit a tendency to weakly order.

  16. Development of a multi-variate calibration approach for quantitative analysis of oxidation resistant Mo-Si-B coatings using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakara, Anja; Bonta, Maximilian; Riedl, Helmut; Mayrhofer, Paul H.; Limbeck, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, for the production of oxidation protection coatings in ultrahigh temperature environments, alloys of Mo-Si-B are employed. The properties of the material, mainly the oxidation resistance, are strongly influenced by the Si to B ratio; thus reliable analytical methods are needed to assure exact determination of the material composition for the respective applications. For analysis of such coatings, laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been reported as a versatile method with no specific requirements on the nature of the sample. However, matrix effects represent the main limitation of laser-based solid sampling techniques and usually the use of matrix-matched standards for quantitative analysis is required. In this work, LA-ICP-MS analysis of samples with known composition and varying Mo, Si and B content was carried out. Between known analyte concentrations and derived LA-ICP-MS signal intensities no linear correlation could be found. In order to allow quantitative analysis independent of matrix effects, a multiple linear regression model was developed. Besides the three target analytes also the signals of possible argides (40Ar36Ar and 98Mo40Ar) as well as detected impurities of the Mo-Si-B coatings (108Pd) were considered. Applicability of the model to unknown samples was confirmed using external validation. Relative deviations from the values determined using conventional liquid analysis after sample digestion between 5 and 10% for the main components Mo and Si were observed.

  17. Interaction of Au with thin ZrO2 films: influence of ZrO2 morphology on the adsorption and thermal stability of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yonghe; Gao, Yan; Kong, Dandan; Wang, Guodong; Hou, Jianbo; Hu, Shanwei; Pan, Haibin; Zhu, Junfa

    2012-04-10

    The model catalysts of ZrO(2)-supported Au nanoparticles have been prepared by deposition of Au atoms onto the surfaces of thin ZrO(2) films with different morphologies. The adsorption and thermal stability of Au nanoparticles on thin ZrO(2) films have been investigated using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thin ZrO(2) films were prepared by two different methods, giving rise to different morphologies. The first method utilized wet chemical impregnation to synthesize the thin ZrO(2) film through the procedure of first spin-coating a zirconium ethoxide (Zr(OC(2)H(5))(4)) precursor onto a SiO(2)/Si(100) substrate at room temperature followed by calcination at 773 K for 12 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations indicate that highly porous "sponge-like nanostructures" were obtained in this case. The second method was epitaxial growth of a ZrO(2)(111) film through vacuum evaporation of Zr metal onto Pt(111) in 1 × 10(-6) Torr of oxygen at 550 K followed by annealing at 1000 K. The structural analysis with low energy electron diffraction (LEED) of this film exhibits good long-range ordering. It has been found that Au forms smaller particles on the porous ZrO(2) film as compared to those on the ordered ZrO(2)(111) film at a given coverage. Thermal annealing experiments demonstrate that Au particles are more thermally stable on the porous ZrO(2) surface than on the ZrO(2)(111) surface, although on both surfaces, Au particles experience significant sintering at elevated temperatures. In addition, by annealing the surfaces to 1100 K, Au particles desorb completely from ZrO(2)(111) but not from porous ZrO(2). The enhanced thermal stability for Au on porous ZrO(2) can be attributed to the stronger interaction of the adsorbed Au with the defects and the hindered migration or coalescence resulting from the porous structures. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Zr/ZrO2 sensors for in situ measurement of pH in high-temperature and -pressure aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R H; Zhang, X T; Hu, S M

    2008-04-15

    The aim of this study is to develop new pH sensors that can be used to test and monitor hydrogen ion activity in hydrothermal conditions. A Zr/ZrO2 oxidation electrode is fabricated for in situ pH measurement of high-temperature aqueous solutions. This sensor responds rapidly and precisely to pH over a wide range of temperature and pressure. The Zr/ZrO2 electrode was made by oxidizing zirconium metal wire with Na2CO3 melt, which produced a thin film of ZrO2 on its surface. Thus, an oxidation-reduction electrode was produced. The Zr/ZrO2 electrode has a good electrochemical stability over a wide range of pH in high-temperature aqueous solutions when used with a Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Measurements of the Zr/ZrO2 sensor potential against a Ag/AgCl reference electrode is shown to vary linearly with pH between temperatures 20 and 200 degrees C. The slope of the potential versus pH at high temperature is slightly below the theoretical value indicated by the Nernst equation; such deviation is attributed to the fact that the sensor is not strictly at equilibrium with the solution to be tested in a short period of time. The Zr/ZrO2 sensor can be calibrated over the conditions that exist in the natural deep-seawater. Our studies showed that the Zr/ZrO2 electrode is a suitable pH sensor for the hydrothermal systems at midocean ridge or other geothermal systems with the high-temperature environment. Yttria-stabilized zirconia sensors have also been used to investigate the pH of hydrothermal fluids in hot springs vents at midocean ridge. These sensors, however, are not sensitive below 200 degrees C. Zr/ZrO2 sensors have wider temperature range and can be severed as good alternative sensors for measuring the pH of hydrothermal fluids.

  19. Recycle of enriched Mo targets for economic production of 99Mo/ 99mTc medical isotope without use of enriched uranium

    SciT

    Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2015-08-09

    A new recycle process for recovery of enriched 98Mo or 100Mo used for production of 99Mo/ 99mTc medical isotope was developed. In this process, Mo is precipitated from spent NorthStar Mo/Tc generator solution containing ~200 g/L Mo as K 2MoO 4 in 5 M KOH using acetic acid and then washed with nitric acid. High purification factors from potassium were achieved, and typical Mo recovery yields were ~95 %. In conclusion, the recycle process was performed with up to 260 g of Mo per batch and can be easily implemented for processing of up to 400 g of Mo.

  20. CO Oxidation and Subsequent CO 2 Chemisorption on Alkaline Zirconates: Li 2 ZrO 3 and Na 2 ZrO 3

    DOE PAGES

    Alcántar-Vázquez, Brenda; Duan, Yuhua; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2016-08-26

    Here, two different alkaline zirconates (Li 2ZrO 3 and Na 2ZrO 3) were studied as possible bifunctional catalytic-captor materials for CO oxidation and the subsequent CO 2 chemisorption process. Initially, CO oxidation reactions were analyzed in a catalytic reactor coupled to a gas chromatograph, using Li 2ZrO 3 and Na 2ZrO 3, under different O 2 partial flows. We found results clearly showed that Na 2ZrO 3 possesses much better catalytic properties than Li 2ZrO 3. After the CO-O 2 oxidation catalytic analysis, CO2 chemisorption process was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis, only for the Na 2ZrO 3 ceramic. The resultsmore » confirmed that Na 2ZrO 3 is able to work as a bifunctional material (CO oxidation and subsequent CO 2 chemisorption), although the kinetic CO 2 capture process was not the best one under the physicochemical condition used in this case. For Na 2ZrO 3, the best CO conversions were found between 445 and 580 °C (100%), while Li 2ZrO 3 only showed a 35% of efficiency between 460 and 503 °C. However, in the Na 2ZrO 3 case, at temperatures higher than 580 °C its catalytic activity gradually decreases as a result of CO 2 capture process. Finally, all these experiments were compared and supported with theoretical thermodynamic data.« less

  1. CO Oxidation and Subsequent CO 2 Chemisorption on Alkaline Zirconates: Li 2 ZrO 3 and Na 2 ZrO 3

    SciT

    Alcántar-Vázquez, Brenda; Duan, Yuhua; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    Here, two different alkaline zirconates (Li 2ZrO 3 and Na 2ZrO 3) were studied as possible bifunctional catalytic-captor materials for CO oxidation and the subsequent CO 2 chemisorption process. Initially, CO oxidation reactions were analyzed in a catalytic reactor coupled to a gas chromatograph, using Li 2ZrO 3 and Na 2ZrO 3, under different O 2 partial flows. We found results clearly showed that Na 2ZrO 3 possesses much better catalytic properties than Li 2ZrO 3. After the CO-O 2 oxidation catalytic analysis, CO2 chemisorption process was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis, only for the Na 2ZrO 3 ceramic. The resultsmore » confirmed that Na 2ZrO 3 is able to work as a bifunctional material (CO oxidation and subsequent CO 2 chemisorption), although the kinetic CO 2 capture process was not the best one under the physicochemical condition used in this case. For Na 2ZrO 3, the best CO conversions were found between 445 and 580 °C (100%), while Li 2ZrO 3 only showed a 35% of efficiency between 460 and 503 °C. However, in the Na 2ZrO 3 case, at temperatures higher than 580 °C its catalytic activity gradually decreases as a result of CO 2 capture process. Finally, all these experiments were compared and supported with theoretical thermodynamic data.« less

  2. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody therapy for pretreated advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guo-Wu; Xiong, Ye; Chen, Si; Xia, Fan; Li, Qiang; Hu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody therapy is a promising clinical treatment for nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, whether anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody therapy can provide added benefits for heavily pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC and whether the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody therapy relates to the tumor PD-L1 expression level remain controversial. Thus, this meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody therapy for pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC. Methods: Randomized clinical trials were retrieved by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, ASCO meeting abstract, clinicaltrial.gov, and Cochrane library databases. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), and odds ratios for the overall response rate and adverse events (AEs) were calculated by STATA software. Results: Three randomized clinical trials involving 1141 pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC were included. These trials all compared the efficacy and safety of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies (nivolumab and MPDL3280A) with docetaxel. The results suggested that, for all patients, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy could acquire a greater overall response (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.08–2.07, P = 0.015, P for heterogeneity [Ph] = 0.620) and longer OS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61–0.81, P < 0.001, Ph = 0.361) than docetaxel, but not PFS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.65–1.06, P = 0.134; Ph = 0.031). Subgroup analyses according to the tumor PD-L1 expression level showed that anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy could significantly improve both OS and PFS in patients with high expressions of PD-L1, but not in those with low expressions. Generally, the rates of grade 3 or 4 AEs of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy were significantly lower than that of docetaxel. However, the risks of pneumonitis and hypothyroidism were significantly higher. Conclusion: Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody therapy may significantly improve

  3. Pd surface and Pt subsurface segregation in Pt1-c Pd c nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Clercq, A.; Giorgio, S.; Mottet, C.

    2016-02-01

    The structure and chemical arrangement of Pt1-c Pd c nanoalloys with the icosahedral and face centered cubic symmetry are studied using Monte Carlo simulations with a tight binding interatomic potential fitted to density-functional theory calculations. Pd surface segregation from the lowest to the highest coordinated sites is predicted by the theory together with a Pt enrichment at the subsurface, whatever the structure and the size of the nanoparticles, and which subsists when increasing the temperature. The onion-shell chemical configuration is found for both symmetries and is initiated from the Pd surface segregation. It is amplified in the icosahedral symmetry and small sizes but when considering larger sizes, the oscillating segregation profile occurs near the surface on about three to four shells whatever the structure. Pd segregation results from the significant lower cohesive energy of Pd as compared to Pt and the weak ordering tendency leads to the Pt subsurface segregation. The very weak size mismatch does not prevent the bigger atoms (Pt) from occupying subsurface sites which are in compression whereas the smaller ones (Pd) occupy the central site of the icosahedra where the compression is an order of magnitude higher.

  4. Ab initio study of Pd carbonyls and CO/Pd(110)

    SciT

    Ramprasad, R.; Glassford, K.M.; Adams, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon monoxide chemisorption on transition metal surfaces has been one of the most extensively studied in surface science in past years due to its importance in a variety of catalytic processes, especially, automotive catalytic converters using Pt or Pd. The authors have performed ab initio studies to understand the electronic and geometric aspects of the Pd-CO bond in small carbonyl clusters and the CO covered (2 x 1)p2mg superstructure of the Pd(110) surface. They have used the standard quantum chemistry package Gaussian to study the former system and a LDA (local density approximation) formalism using ab initio pseudopotentials and amore » plane wave basis to study the latter. The latter results are preliminary; the authors intended to study thicker slabs in the future. The organization of the paper is as follows. The authors describe the methods used in their calculation in Sec. 2. In Sec. 3, they present results and discussion; here, they first look at the smallest possible clusters, viz, Pd{sub 2} and PdCO, take a brief look at the orbital chemistry involved and then move on to the study of the CO covered Pd(110) surface and examine the geometry of the near equilibrium structure.« less

  5. 77 FR 17560 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00057

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13041 and 13042] Missouri Disaster MO-00057 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Missouri dated 03/15/2012. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Hail...

  6. Vector MO magnetometry for mapping microwave currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Višňovský, Š.; Lišková-Jakubisová, E.; Harward, I.; Celinski, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Magneto-optic (MO) effects in magnetic multilayers (MML) can be employed in non-invasive 2D mapping of microwave (mw) radiation on the surface of semiconductor chips. A typical sensor configuration consists of Fe nanolayers sandwiched with dielectrics on a thin Si substrate transparent to mw radiation. To extend the observation bandwidth, Δf, up to 100 GHz range the sensor works at ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency in applied magnetic flux density, Bappl. The mw currents excite the precession of magnetization, M, in magnetic nanolayers proportional to their amplitude. The MO component reflected on the sensor surface is proportional to the amplitude of M component, M⊥. The laser source operates at the wavelength of 410 nm. Its plane of incidence is oriented perpendicular to the M⊥ plane. M⊥ oscillates between polar and transverse configurations. A substantial improvement of MO figure of merit takes place in aperiodic MML. More favorable Δf vs. Bappl dependence and MO response can potentially be achieved in MML imbedding hexagonal ferrite or Co nanolayers with in-plane magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Mechanism of Mo-Dependent Nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Seefeldt, Lance C.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Dean, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria catalyze the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to two ammonia molecules (NH3), the major contribution of fixed nitrogen into the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The most widely studied nitrogenase is the Mo-dependent enzyme. The reduction of N2 by this enzyme involves the transient interaction of two component proteins, designated the Fe protein and the MoFe protein, and minimally requires sixteen MgATP, eight protons, and eight electrons. The current state of knowledge on how these proteins and small molecules together effect the reduction of N2 to ammonia is reviewed. Included is a summary of the roles of the Fe protein and MgATP hydrolysis, information on the roles of the two metal clusters contained in the MoFe protein in catalysis, insights gained from recent success in trapping substrates and inhibitors at the active site metal cluster FeMo-cofactor, and finally, considerations of the mechanism of N2 reduction catalyzed by nitrogenase. PMID:19489731

  8. PZEh-MO-8/Body Mass Measurement

    2009-06-30

    ISS020-E-015853 (30 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, uses the IM mass measurement device to perform the PZEh-MO-8/Body Mass Measurement Russian biomedical routine assessments in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  9. 75 FR 57088 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12312 and 12313] Missouri Disaster MO-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Missouri dated 09/10/2010. Incident: Severe Storms...

  10. 78 FR 62326 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00067

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13794 and 13795] Missouri Disaster MO-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Missouri dated 10/08/2013. Incident: Severe storms...

  11. Phase decomposition of γ-U (bcc) in U-10 wt% Mo fuel alloy during hot isostatic pressing of monolithic fuel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Eriksson, N.; Newell, R.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2016-11-01

    Eutectoid decomposition of γ-phase (cI2) into α-phase (oC4) and γ‧-phase (tI6) during the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of the U-10 wt% Mo (U10Mo) alloy was investigated using monolithic fuel plate samples consisting of U10Mo fuel alloy, Zr diffusion barrier and AA6061 cladding. The decomposition of the γ-phase was observed because the HIP process is carried out near the eutectoid temperature, 555 °C. Initially, a cellular structure, consisting of γ‧-phase surrounded by α-phase, developed from the destabilization of the γ-phase. The cellular structure further developed into an alternating lamellar structure of α- and γ‧-phases. Using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, qualitative and quantitative microstructural analyses were carried out to identify the phase constituents, and elucidate the microstructural development based on time-temperature-transformation diagram of the U10Mo alloy. The destabilization of γ -phase into α- and γ‧-phases would be minimized when HIP process was carried out with rapid ramping/cooling rate and dwell temperature higher than 560 °C.

  12. A modelling study of the inter-diffusion layer formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates at high power

    SciT

    Ye, B.; Hofman, G. L.; Leenaers, A.

    Post irradiation examinations of full-size U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates fabricated with ZrN- or Sicoated U-Mo particles revealed that the reaction rate of irradiation-induced U-Mo-Al inter-diffusion, an important microstructural change impacting the performance of this type of fuel, is temperature and fission-rate dependent. In order to simulate the U-Mo/Al inter-diffusion layer (IL) growth behavior in full-size dispersion fuel plates, the existing IL growth correlation was modified with a temperaturedependent multiplication factor that transits around a threshold fission rate. In-pile irradiation data from four tests in the BR2 reactors, including FUTURE, E-FUTURE, SELEMIUM, and SELEMIUM-1a, were utilized to determine and validate themore » updated IL growth correlation. Irradiation behavior of the plates was simulated with the DART-2D computational code. The general agreement between the calculated and measured fuel meat swelling and constituent volume fractions as a function of fission density demonstrated the plausibility of the updated IL growth correlation. The simulation results also suggested the temperature dependence of the IL growth rate, similar to the temperature dependence of the intermixing rate in ion-irradiated bi-layer systems.« less

  13. MMSE and MoCA in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies: a multicenter 1-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Weis, L.; Bostantjopoulou, S.; Stefanova, E.; Falup-Pecurariu, C.; Kramberger, M. G.; Geurtsen, G. J.; Antonini, A.; Weintraub, D.; Aarsland, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) are the most commonly used scales to test cognitive impairment in Lewy body disease (LBD), but there is no consensus on which is best suited to assess cognition in clinical practice and most sensitive to cognitive decline. Retrospective cohort study of 265 LBD patients [Parkinson’s disease (PD) without dementia (PDnD, N = 197), PD with dementia (PDD, N = 40), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, N = 28)] from an international consortium who completed both the MMSE and MoCA at baseline and 1-year follow-up (N = 153). Percentage of relative standard deviation (RSD%) at baseline was the measure of inter-individual variance, and estimation of change (Cohen’s d) over time was calculated. RSD% for the MoCA (21 %) was greater than for the MMSE (13 %) (p = 0.03) in the whole group. This difference was significant only in PDnD (11 vs. 5 %, p < 0.01), but not in PDD (30 vs. 19 %, p = 0.37) or DLB (15 vs. 14 %, p = 0.78). In contrast, the 1-year estimation of change did not differ between the two tests in any of the groups (Cohen’s effect <0.20 in each group). MMSE and MoCA are equal in measuring the rate of cognitive changes over time in LBD. However, in PDnD, the MoCA is a better measure of cognitive status as it lacks both ceiling and floor effects. PMID:26852137

  14. Analysis of MoDOT communication and outreach effectiveness

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-07-01

    Personal interviews were held with MoDOT personnel to assess MoDOTs current communication practices and existing customer segmentation practices. Focus groups were then held to help gauge the effectiveness of existing communication practices and t...

  15. Transfer matrix approach to electron transport in monolayer MoS2/MoO x heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen

    2018-05-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment can introduce oxidation into monolayer MoS2 to transfer MoS2 into MoO x , causing the formation of MoS2/MoO x heterostructures. We find the MoS2/MoO x heterostructures have the similar geometry compared with GaAs/Ga1‑x Al x As semiconductor superlattice. Thus, We employ the established transfer matrix method to analyse the electron transport in the MoS2/MoO x heterostructures with double-well and step-well geometries. We also considere the coupling between transverse and longitudinal kinetic energy because the electron effective mass changes spatially in the MoS2/MoO x heterostructures. We find the resonant peaks show red shift with the increasing of transverse momentum, which is similar to the previous work studying the transverse-momentum-dependent transmission in GaAs/Ga1‑x Al x As double-barrier structure. We find electric field can enhance the magnitude of peaks and intensify the coupling between longitudinal and transverse momentums. Moreover, higher bias is applied to optimize resonant tunnelling condition to show negative differential effect can be observed in the MoS2/MoO x system.

  16. β-K3Fe(MoO4)2Mo2O7

    PubMed Central

    Souilem, Amira; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, tripotassium iron(III) bis­(ortho­molyb­date) dimolybdate, was obtained by a solid-state reaction. The main structural building units are one FeO6 octa­hedron, two MoO4 tetra­hedra and one Mo2O7 dimolybdate group, all with point group symmetries m. These units are linked via corner-sharing to form ribbons parallel to [010]. The three K+ cations are located between the ribbons on mirror planes and have coordination numbers of 10 and 12. Two O atoms of one of the MoO4 tetra­hedra of the dimolybdate group are disordered over two positions in a 0.524 (11):0.476 (11) ratio. The structure of the title compound is compared briefly with that of Rb3FeMo4O15. PMID:25161509

  17. PD-1 and PD-L1 in neoplastic cells and the tumor microenvironment of Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mitteldorf, Christina; Berisha, Arbeneshe; Tronnier, Michael; Pfaltz, Monique C; Kempf, Werner

    2017-09-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neoplasm, which is often associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 are key players of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Fourteen paraffin-embedded tissue samples of MCC were stratified by their MCPyV detection. Apart from PD-L1 and PD-1, the TME was further characterized for the expression of CD33, FOXP3 and MxA. We observed PD-1 in 2 of 12 tumors. PD-L1 expression by tumor cells was found in 7 of 8 MCPyV(+) samples and was detected particularly in the periphery. The tumor cells were surrounded by a shield of PD-L1/CD33 immune cells. Expression of PD-L1 by the tumor cells was higher in areas with a denser immune infiltrate. CD33(+) cells without direct tumor contact were PD-L1 negative. Only a low number of FOXP3(+) regulatory T-cells was admixed. Tumor cells of MCPyV(-) samples were mostly PD-L1 negative. Our data demonstrate that PD-L1 expression occurs in tumor and immune cells, in areas in which they are close in contact. Interferon seems to play a role in this interaction. We postulate that PD-L1(+)/CD33(+) cells shield the tumor against attacking PD-1(+) immune cells. Therefore, next to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies, blockade of CD33 seems to be a promising therapeutic approach. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Correlation of PD-1/PD-L1 Signaling Pathway with Treg/Th17 Imbalance from Asthmatic Children.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xia; Liu, Jing-Mei; Guo, Jun-Ying

    2018-06-06

    The balance between T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) is a new paradigm in asthma pathogenesis, but no therapeutic targets could modulate the Th17/Treg balance specifically for asthma. Since previous studies have shown the programmed cell death-1(PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is critical to immune homeostasis in this disease, we hypothesized that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway might be involved in the regulation of Treg/Th17 imbalance in asthmatic children. The percentage of Treg and Th17 cells and the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected by flow cytometry in children with asthma and healthy controls. CD4+ T cells were stimulated with Th17 and Treg differentiating factors, and treated with anti-PD-1. Then cells were harvested and measured for Th17 and Treg percentages and Foxp3 and RORγt levels using RT-PCR. We observed an inverse correlation between the percentages of Treg and Th17 cells, and the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in the two subsets also changed in the mild persistent and moderate to severe persistent groups compared with healthy controls. In vitro, administration of anti-PD-1 could decrease Th17 percentages and RORγt mRNA, and increase Treg percentages and Foxp3 mRNA in CD4+ T cells of children with asthma in the mild persistent and moderate to persistent groups. Additionally, the role played by anti-PD-1 in regulating Treg/Th17 balance was further confirmed in an asthmatic mouse model. Alteration of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway can modulate Treg/Th17 balance in asthmatic children. Treatment with anti-PD-1 posed protective effects on asthma models, providing a novel theoretical target for asthma. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. New results in low-energy fusion of 40Ca+Zr,9290

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Esbensen, H.; Čolović, P.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Galtarossa, F.; Goasduff, A.; Grebosz, J.; Haas, F.; Mazzocco, M.; Soić, N.; Strano, E.; Szilner, S.

    2017-07-01

    Background: Near- and sub-barrier fusion of various Ca + Zr isotopic combinations have been widely investigated. A recent analysis of 40Ca+96Zr data has highlighted the importance of couplings to multiphonon excitations and to both neutron and proton transfer channels. Analogous studies of 40Ca+90Zr tend to exclude any role of transfer couplings. However, the lowest measured cross section for this system is rather high (840 μ b ). A rather complete data set is available for 40Ca+94Zr , while no measurement of 40Ca+92Zr fusion has been performed in the past. Purpose: Our aim is to measure the full excitation function of 40Ca+92Zr near the barrier and to extend downward the existing data on 40Ca+90Zr , in order to estimate the transfer couplings that should be used in coupled-channels calculations of the fusion of these two systems and of 40Ca+94Zr . Methods: 40Ca beams from the XTU Tandem accelerator of INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro were used, bombarding thin metallic 90Zr (50 μ g /cm2 ) and 92ZrO2 targets (same thickness) enriched to 99.36 % and 98.06 % in masses 90 and 92, respectively. An electrostatic beam deflector allowed the detection of fusion evaporation residues (ER) at very forward angles, and angular distributions of ER were measured. Results: The excitation function of 40Ca+92Zr has been measured down to the level of ≃60 μ b . Coupled-channels (CC) calculations using a standard Woods-Saxon (WS) potential and following the line of a previous analysis of 40Ca+96Zr fusion data give a good account of the new data, as well as of the existing data for 40Ca+94Zr . The previous excitation function of 40Ca+90Zr has been extended down to 40 μ b . Conclusions: Transfer couplings play an important role in explaining the fusion data for 40Ca+92Zr and 40Ca+94Zr . The strength of the pair-transfer coupling is deduced by applying a simple recipe based on the value obtained for 40Ca+96Zr . The logarithmic slopes and the S factors for fusion are reproduced

  20. Microstructures of Pd-containing dispersants for admixed dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Chern Lin, J H; Greener, E H

    1991-10-01

    Blended Pd-containing dispersants were developed by the utilization of a Ag-Cu eutectic into which Pd was substituted for Ag or Cu in concentrations of up to 20 wt%. Compositions were melted either in argon-filled sealed vycor tubes or in a graphite-linked carbon crucible of an induction furnace with an argon blanket. Ingots of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter were sectioned to 0.2 cm in thickness and polished through standard metallographic polishing procedures. The possible compounds were identified by XRD. The microstructures of the alloys were examined by SEM/EDS. XRD analysis of the alloys revealed the preferential dissolution of Pd in Cu when the Pd concentration was less than or equal to 10 wt%. When the Pd concentration exceeded 20 wt%, Pd was found to be dissolved in both Ag and Pd. No Cu3Pd x-ray diffraction peaks were found for alloys with Pd concentration of up to 20 wt%. SEM/EDS analysis confirmed XRD results; lamellae of Ag and Cu-Pd were found in alloys with Pd concentration less than or equal to 10 wt%.

  1. Evaluation of 89Zr-pertuzumab in Breast Cancer Xenografts

    DOE PAGES

    Marquez, Bernadette V.; Ikotun, Oluwatayo F.; Zheleznyak, Alexander; ...

    2014-07-24

    Here, pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to HER2 and is used in combination with another HER2–specific monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, for the treatment of HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Pertuzumab binds to an HER2 binding site distinct from that of trastuzumab, and its affinity is enhanced when trastuzumab is present. We aim to exploit this enhanced affinity of pertuzumab for its HER2 binding epitope and adapt this antibody as a PET imaging agent by radiolabeling with 89Zr to increase the sensitivity of HER2 detection in vivo. Here, we investigate the biodistribution of 89Zr-pertuzumab in HER2–expressing BT-474 and HER2–nonexpressing MDA-MB-231 xenograftsmore » to quantitatively assess HER2 expression in vivo. In vitro cell binding studies were performed resulting in retained immunoreactivity and specificity for HER2–expressing cells. In vivo evaluation of 89Zr-pertuzumab was conducted in severely combined immunodeficient mice, subcutaneously inoculated with BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 cells. 89Zr-pertuzumab was systemically administered and imaged at 7 days postinjection (p.i.) followed by terminal biodistribution studies. Higher tumor uptake was observed in BT-474 compared to MDA-MB-231 xenografts with 47.5 ± 32.9 and 9.5 ± 1.7% ID/g, respectively at 7 days p.i (P = 0.0009) and blocking studies with excess unlabeled pertuzumab showed a 5-fold decrease in BT-474 tumor uptake (P = 0.0006), confirming the in vivo specificity of this radiotracer. Importantly, we observed that the tumor accumulation of 89Zr-pertuzumab was increased in the presence of unlabeled trastuzumab, at 173 ± 74.5% ID/g (P = 0.01). Biodistribution studies correlate with PET imaging quantification using max SUV (r = 0.98, P = 0.01). Collectively, these results illustrate that 89Zr-pertuzumab as a PET imaging agent may be beneficial for the quantitative and noninvasive assessment of HER2 expression in vivo especially for patients undergoing trastuzumab therapy.« less

  2. Photodeposited Pd Nanoparticles with Disordered Structure for Phenylacetylene Semihydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qining; He, Sha; Hao, Lin; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Yue; Xu, Sailong; Zhang, Fazhi

    2017-02-01

    Developing effective heterogeneous metal catalysts with high selectivity and satisfactory activity for chemoselective hydrogenation of alkyne to alkene is of great importance in the chemical industry. Herein, we report our efforts to fabricate TiO2-supported Pd catalysts by a photodeposition method at room temperature for phenylacetylene semihydrogenation to styrene. The resulting Pd/TiO2 catalyst, possessing smaller Pd ensembles with ambiguous lattice fringes and more low coordination Pd sites, exhibits higher styrene selectivity compared to two contrastive Pd/TiO2 samples with larger ensembles and well-organized crystal structure fabricated by deposition-precipitation or photodeposition with subsequent thermal treatment at 300 °C. The sample derived from photodeposition exhibits greatly slow styrene hydrogenation in kinetic evaluation because the disordered structure of Pd particles in photodeposited Pd/TiO2 may prevent the formation of β-hydride phases and probably produce more surface H atoms, which may favor high styrene selectivity.

  3. 102Pd(n, {gamma}) Cross Section Measurement Using DANCE

    SciT

    Hatarik, R.; Alpizar-Vicente, A. M.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545

    2006-03-13

    The neutron capture cross section of the proton rich nucleus 102Pd was measured with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The target was a 2 mg Pd foil with 78% enriched 102Pd. It was held by a 0.9 {mu}m thick Mylar bag which was selected after comparing different thicknesses of Kapton and Mylar for their scattering background. To identify the contribution of the other Pd isotopes the data of a natural Pd sample was compared to the data of the 102Pd enriched sample. A 12C sample was used to determine themore » scattering background. The 102Pd(n, {gamma}) rate is of importance for the p-process nucleosynthesis.« less

  4. AMS of 93Zr: Passive absorber versus gas-filled magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, Karin; Deneva, Boyana; Faestermann, Thomas; Fimiani, Leticia; Gómez-Guzmán, José Manuel; Koll, Dominik; Korschinek, Gunther; Ludwig, Peter; Sergeyeva, Victoria; Thiollay, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    Two different isobar separation techniques were tested for the detection of the long-lived fission product 93Zr (T1/2 = 1.64 · 106 a) using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), i.e. a passive absorber and a gas-filled magnet, respectively. Both techniques were used in combination with a Time-of-Flight path for the identification of the stable neighboring isotopes 92Zr and 94Zr. The passive absorber was represented by a stack of silicon nitride foils for high flexibility regarding the thickness for optimal isobar separation. Ion beams with a large variety of energies, between 80 and 180 MeV, were provided for this experiment by the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory in Garching, Germany. With these beams, the stopping powers of 93Zr and 93Nb as a function of energy were determined experimentally and compared to the results obtained with the simulation program SRIM. Considerable discrepancies regarding the energy dependence of the two stopping power curves relative to each other were found. The lowest detection limit for 93Zr achieved with the passive absorber setup was 93Zr/Zr = 1 · 10-10. In comparison, by optimizing the gas-filled magnet set-up, 93Nb was suppressed by around six orders of magnitude and a detection limit of 93Zr/Zr = 5 · 10-11 was obtained. To our knowledge, these results represent the lowest detection limit achieved for 93Zr until now.

  5. Effects of Al addition on atomic structure of Cu-Zr metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Zhang, Huajian; Liu, Xiongjun; Dong, Yuecheng; Yu, Chunyan; Lu, Zhaoping

    2018-02-01

    The atomic structures of Cu52Zr48 and Cu45Zr48Al7 metallic glasses (MGs) have been studied by molecular dynamic simulations. The results reveal that the molar volume of the Cu45Zr48Al7 MG is smaller than that of the Cu52Zr48 MG, although the size of the Al atom is larger than that of the Cu atom, implying an enhanced atomic packing density achieved by introducing Al into the ternary MG. Bond shortening in unlike atomic pairs Zr-Al and Cu-Al is observed in the Cu45Zr48Al7 MG, which is attributed to strong interactions between Al and (Zr, Cu) atoms. Meanwhile, the atomic packing efficiency is enhanced by the minor addition of Al. Compared with the Cu52Zr48 binary MG, the potential energy of the ternary MG decreases and the glass transition temperature increases. Structural analyses indicate that more Cu- and Al-centered full icosahedral clusters emerge in the Cu45Zr48Al7 MG as some Cu atoms are substituted by Al. Furthermore, the addition of Al leads to more icosahedral medium-range orders in the ternary MG. The increase of full icosahedral clusters and the enhancement of the packing density are responsible for the improved glass-forming ability of Cu45Zr48Al7.

  6. Effects of Undercooling and Cooling Rate on Peritectic Phase Crystallization Within Ni-Zr Alloy Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, P.; Wang, H. P.

    2018-04-01

    The liquid Ni-16.75 at. pct Zr peritectic alloy was substantially undercooled and containerlessly solidified by an electromagnetic levitator and a drop tube. The dependence of the peritectic solidification mode on undercooling was established based on the results of the solidified microstructures, crystal growth velocity, as well as X-ray diffraction patterns. Below a critical undercooling of 124 K, the primary Ni7Zr2 phase preferentially nucleates and grows from the undercooled liquid, which is followed by a peritectic reaction of Ni7Zr2+L → Ni5Zr. The corresponding microstructure is composed of the Ni7Zr2 dendrites, peritectic Ni5Zr phase, and inter-dendritic eutectic. Nevertheless, once the liquid undercooling exceeds the critical undercooling, the peritectic Ni5Zr phase directly precipitates from this undercooled liquid. However, a negligible amount of residual Ni7Zr2 phase still appears in the microstructure, indicating that nucleation and growth of the Ni7Zr2 phase are not completely suppressed. The micromechanical property of the peritectic Ni5Zr phase in terms of the Vickers microhardness is enhanced, which is ascribed to the transition of the peritectic solidification mode. To suppress the formation of the primary phase completely, this alloy was also containerlessly solidified in free fall experiments. Typical peritectic solidified microstructure forms in large droplets, while only the peritectic Ni5Zr phase appears in smaller droplets, which gives an indication that the peritectic Ni5Zr phase directly precipitates from the undercooled liquid by completely suppressing the growth of the primary Ni7Zr2 phase and the peritectic reaction due to the combined effects of the large undercooling and high cooling rate.

  7. Effects of incorporation of HA/ZrO(2) into glass ionomer cement (GIC).

    PubMed

    Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Khor, K A

    2005-03-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a class of bioactive cements that bond directly to bone. In this paper, a new bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA)/zirconia (ZrO(2))-filled GIC composite was developed to improve the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the GICs with the surrounding bone and connective tissues. Nano-sized HA/30 wt% ZrO(2) powders were heat treated at 700 degrees Celsius and 800 degrees Celsius for 3 h to elucidate the influence of the crystallinity of composite powders on the performance of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs. The effects of different volume percentages of HA/ZrO(2) powders (4, 12, 28 and 40 vol%) substituted within GICs were investigated based on their microhardness, compressive strength and diametral tensile strength. The HA/ZrO(2)-GICs composite was soaked in distilled water for 1 day and 1 week before subjecting the samples to mechanical testing. Results showed that the glass and HA/ZrO(2) particles were distributed uniformly in the GIC matrix. The substitution of highly crystalline HA/ZrO(2) improved the mechanical properties of the HA/ZrO(2)-GICs due to the slow resorption rate for highly crystalline powders in distilled water. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs increased with increasing soak time due to the continuous formation of aluminium salt bridges, which improved the final strength of the cements. The compositions 4 and 12 vol% HA/ZrO(2)-GICs exhibited superior mechanical properties than the original GICs. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs were found to be much better than those of HA-GICs because ZrO(2) has the attributes of high strength, high modulus, and is significantly harder than glass and HA particles. Furthermore, ZrO(2) does not dissolve with increasing soaking time.

  8. A Mini-Review for Cancer Immunotherapy: Molecular Understanding of PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway & Translational Blockade of Immune Checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongshu; Li, Fangfei; Jiang, Feng; Lv, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Rongjiang; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Interference of the binding of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has become a new inspiring immunotherapy for resisting cancers. To date, the FDA has approved two PD-1 monoclonal antibody drugs against cancer as well as a monoclonal antibody for PD-L1. More PD-1 and PD-L1 monoclonal antibody drugs are on their way in clinical trials. In this review, we focused on the mechanism of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway and the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against PD-1 and PD-L1, which were approved by the FDA or are still in clinical trials. And also presented is the prospect of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade in the next generation of immunotherapy. PMID:27438833

  9. Effects of nitrogen gas ratio on the structural and corrosion properties of ZrN thin films grown on biodegradable magnesium alloy by ion-beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiahosseini, Seyed Rahim; Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Majid

    2017-12-01

    Studies on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys, which are widely applied as biomaterials, have increased in recent years. In this work, zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy through ion-beam sputtering at 473 K with 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 nitrogen proportions [F(N2)] in ionized gas. X-ray diffraction, profilometry, hardness tests, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques were used to analyze the structure, thickness, adhesion, microstructure, and corrosion resistance of coated samples, respectively. Results showed that the (111) crystalline orientation dominated in all coatings. Williamson-Hall technique revealed that the crystallite size of ZrN films decreased from 73 to 20 nm with increasing F(N2), and compressive microstrain increased from 0.004 to 0.030. Film thicknesses were inversely correlated with N2 amount and significantly decreased from 1.7 to 0.8 µm. The maximum d P/d r ratio, a dependent factor of adhesion, was 0.04 kg/cm for the film deposited under the F(N2) value of 0.5. The corrosion potential of coated samples was not significantly different from that of uncoated AZ91. Under the F(N2) value of 0.6, corrosion current density slightly decreased from 14 to 9.7 µA/cm2 and significantly increased to 13.5 µA/cm2. Results indicated that ZrN film deposited under the F(N2) value of 0.5 showed high adhesion and corrosion resistance.

  10. Influence of ZrO2 addition on the microstructure and discharge properties of Mg-Zr-O protective layers in alternating current plasma display panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bingang; Liu, Chunliang; Song, Zhongxiao; Liu, Liu; Fan, Yufeng; Xia, Xing; Fan, Duowang

    2005-08-01

    Mg-Zr-O protective layers for alternating current plasma display panels were deposited by e-beam evaporation. The effect of the ZrO2 addition on both the discharge properties [firing voltage Vf, minimum sustaining voltage Vs, and memory coefficient (MC)] and the microstructure of deposited Mg-Zr-O films were investigated. The results show that the film microstructure changes and the electron emission enhancement due to the ZrO2 addition are the main reasons for the improvements of the discharge properties of Mg-Zr-O films. A small amount of Zr solution in MgO under its solid solubility can effectively increase the outer-shell valence electron emission yield so as to decrease Vf and Vs compared with using a pure MgO protective layer. The ZrO2/(MgO +ZrO2) ratio has a great effect on the film surface conditions. Proper surface morphologies make a good contribution to obtain large MC in accordance with lower firing voltage.

  11. Surface Characterization of ZrO2/Zr Coating on Ti6Al4V and IN VITRO Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior and Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruoyun; Sun, Yonghua; He, Xiaojing; Gao, Yuee; Yao, Xiaohong

    Biocompatibility is crucial for implants. In recent years, numerous researches were conducted aiming to modify titanium alloys, which are the most extensively used materials in orthopedic fields. The application of zirconia in the biomedical field has recently been explored. In this study, the biological ZrO2 coating was synthesized on titaniumalloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates by a duplex-treatment technique combining magnetron sputtering with micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in order to further improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Ti6Al4V alloys. The microstructures and phase constituents of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface wettability was evaluated by contact angle measurements. The results show that ZrO2 coatings are porous with pore sizes less than 2μm and consist predominantly of the tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) and cubic ZrO2(c-ZrO2) phase. Electrochemical tests indicate that the corrosion rate of Ti6Al4V substrates is appreciably reduced after surface treatment in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS). In addition, significantly improved cell adhesion and growth were observed from the ZrO2/Zr surface. Therefore, the hybrid approach of magnetron sputtering and MAO provides a surface modification for Ti6Al4V to achieve acceptable corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  12. The effect of lanthanum on the fabrication of ZrB{sub 2}-ZrC composites by spark plasma sintering

    SciT

    Kim, Kyoung Hun; Shim, Kwang Bo

    2003-01-15

    The effect of the addition of the rare earth element, lanthanum, on the sintering characteristics of ZrB{sub 2}-ZrC composites has been analyzed during a spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Microscopic observation confirmed that lanthanum accelerated mass transport by the formation of the liquid phase between the particles induced by the spark plasma in the initial stage of the SPS process, and then these were recrystallized to form a lanthanum-containing secondary phase at the grain boundaries and at the grain boundary triple junctions. In spite of the strong covalent bonding characteristics of the ZrB{sub 2}-ZrC composite there are many well-developed dislocationmore » structures observed. The fracture toughness of the lanthanum-containing ZrB{sub 2}-ZrC is about 2.56 MPa m{sup 1/2}, which is comparable to that of the pure composite. Therefore, it is concluded that lanthanum is very effective as a sintering aid for the ZrB{sub 2}-ZrC composite without any degradation of the mechanical properties.« less

  13. First principles calculations of interactions of ZrCl4 precursors with the bare and hydroxylated ZrO2 surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandarova, I. M.; Knizhnik, A. A.; Bagatur'yants, A. A.; Potapkin, B. V.; Korkin, A. A.

    2004-05-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to determine the structures and relative energies of different zirconium chloride groups chemisorbed on the tetragonal ZrO2(001) surface and to study the effects of the surface coverage with metal chloride groups and the degree of hydroxylation on the adsorption energies of metal precursors. It is shown that the molecular and dissociative adsorption energies of the ZrCl4 precursor on the bare t-ZrO2(001) surface are too small to hold ZrCl4 molecules on the surface during an atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycle at temperatures higher than 300°C. On the contrary, it has been found that molecular adsorption on the fully hydroxylated zirconia surface leads to the formation of a stable adsorbed complex. This strong adsorption of ZrCl4 molecules can lead to a decrease in the film growth rate of the ALD process at lower temperatures (<200°C). The energies of interaction between adsorbed ZrCl4 groups at a 50% surface coverage has been found to be relatively small, which explains the maximum film growth rate observed in the ZrCl4:H2O ALD process. Moreover, we found that the adsorbed ZrCl4 precursors after hydrolysis give rise to very stable hydroxyl groups, which can be responsible for film growth at high temperatures (up to 900°C).

  14. Interstitial Mo-Assisted Photovoltaic Effect in Multilayer MoSe2 Phototransistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunkook; Maassen, Jesse; Lee, Jiyoul; Kim, Seung Min; Han, Gyuchull; Kwon, Junyeon; Hong, Seongin; Park, Jozeph; Liu, Na; Park, Yun Chang; Omkaram, Inturu; Rhyee, Jong-Soo; Hong, Young Ki; Yoon, Youngki

    2018-03-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on multilayer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe 2 ) synthesized by modified atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) exhibit outstanding photoresponsivity (103.1 A W -1 ), while it is generally believed that optical response of multilayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is significantly limited due to their indirect bandgap and inefficient photoexcitation process. Here, the fundamental origin of such a high photoresponsivity in the synthesized multilayer MoSe 2 TFTs is sought. A unique structural characteristic of the APCVD-grown MoSe 2 is observed, in which interstitial Mo atoms exist between basal planes, unlike usual 2H phase TMDs. Density functional theory calculations and photoinduced transfer characteristics reveal that such interstitial Mo atoms form photoreactive electronic states in the bandgap. Models indicate that huge photoamplification is attributed to trapped holes in subgap states, resulting in a significant photovoltaic effect. In this study, the fundamental origin of high responsivity with synthetic MoSe 2 phototransistors is identified, suggesting a novel route to high-performance, multifunctional 2D material devices for future wearable sensor applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 76 FR 28887 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...-0432; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-8] Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E airspace at Ozark, MO... Regulations (14 CFR) Part 71 by removing Class E airspace in the Ozark, MO, area. Abandonment of the former...

  16. 75 FR 68415 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kennett, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...; Airspace Docket No. 10-ACE-8] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kennett, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Kennett, MO... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Kennett, MO, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Kennett Memorial...

  17. Auger Spectroscopy Analysis of Spalled LEU-10Mo Foils

    SciT

    Lawrence, Samantha Kay; Schulze, Roland K.

    2017-08-03

    Presentation includes slides on Surface Science used to probe LEU-10Mo Spall; Auger highlights graphitic-like inclusions and Mo-deficient oxide on base metal; Higher C concentration detected within spall area Images Courtesy; Depth profiling reveals thick oxide; Mo concentration nears nominal only at depths ~400 nm; and lastly Key Findings.