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Sample records for zr-based bulk amorphousmetal

  1. Zr-based bulk metallic glass as a cylinder material for high pressure apparatuses

    DOE PAGES

    Komatsu, Kazuki; Munakata, Koji; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; ...

    2015-05-12

    Zirconium-based bulk metallic glass (Zr-based BMG) has outstanding properties as a cylinder mate- rial for piston-cylinder high pressure apparatuses and is especially useful for neutron scattering. The piston-cylinder consisting of a Zr-based BMG cylinder with outer/inner diameters of 8.8/2.5 mm sustains pressures up to 1.81 GPa and ruptured at 2.0 GPa, with pressure values determined by the superconduct- ing temperature of lead. The neutron attenuation of Zr-based BMG is similar to that of TiZr null-scattering alloy and more transparent than that of CuBe alloy. No contamination of sharp Bragg reflections is observed in the neutron diffraction pattern for Zr-based BMG.more » The magnetic susceptibility of Zr-based BMG is similar to that of CuBe alloy; this leads to a potential application for measurements of magnetic properties under pressure.« less

  2. Friction stir welding of Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y. S.; Fujii, H.; Maeda, M.; Nakata, K.; Kimura, H.; Inoue, A.; Nogi, K.

    2009-05-01

    A Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass plate was successfully welded below its crystallization temperature by friction stir welding. The flash formation and heat concentration at the shoulder edge was minimized using a wider tool and the angle of the recessed shoulder surface was 3°. To analyze the crystallization of the base material and stir zone, the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed using DSC, XRD, TEM, and micro-hardness. As a result, it was found that the amorphous structure and original mechanical properties were maintained in the whole joints.

  3. Fracture Behavior of Zr-BASED Bulk Metallic Glass Under Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Oh, Sang-Yeob

    The fracture behavior of a Zr-based bulk amorphous metal under impact loading using subsize V-shaped Charpy specimens was investigated. Influences of loading rate on the fracture behavior of amorphous Zr-Al-Ni-Cu alloy were examined. As a result, the maximum load and absorbed fracture energy under impact loading were lower than those under quasi-static loading. A large part of the absorbed fracture energy in the Zr-based BMG was consumed in the process for crack initiation and not for crack propagation. In addition, fractographic characteristics of BMGs, especially the initiation and development of shear bands at the notch tip were investigated. Fractured surfaces under impact loading are smoother than those under quasi-static loading. The absorbed fracture energy appeared differently depending on the appearance of the shear bands developed. It can be found that the fracture energy and fracture toughness of Zr-based BMG are closely related with the extent of shear bands developed during fracture.

  4. Plastic deformation behaviors of Ni- and Zr-based bulk metallic glasses subjected to nanoindentation

    SciT

    Weizhong, Liang, E-mail: wzliang1966@126.com; Zhiliang, Ning; Zhenqian, Dang

    2013-12-15

    Plastic deformation behaviors of Ni{sub 42}Ti{sub 20}Zr{sub 21.5}Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}Si{sub 3.5} and Zr{sub 51}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 25}Al{sub 9} bulk metallic glasses at room temperature were studied by nanoindentation testing and atomic force microscopy under equivalent indentation experimental conditions. The different chemical composition of these two bulk metallic glasses produced variant tendencies for displacement serrated flow to occur during the loading process. The nanoindentation strain rate was calculated as a function of indentation displacement in order to verify the occurrence of displacement serrated flow at different loading rates. Atomic force microscopy revealed decreasing numbers of discrete shear bands around the indentationmore » sites as loading rates increased from 0.025 to 2.5 mNs{sup −1}. Variations in plastic deformation behaviors between Ni and Zr-based glasses materials can be explained by the different metastable microstructures and thermal stabilities of the two materials. The mechanism governing plastic deformation of these metallic glasses was analyzed in terms of an established model of the shear transformation zone. - Highlights: • Plastic deformation of Ni- and Zr-based BMG is studied under identical conditions • Zr-based BMG undergoes a greater extent of plastic deformation than Ni-based BMG • Nanoindentation strain rate is studied to clarify variation in plastic deformation • Metastable microstructure, thermal stability affect BMG plastic deformation.« less

  5. Tribological characterisation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass in simulated physiological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Chan, K. C.; Liu, L.

    2011-10-01

    Due to their excellent wear resistant properties and high strength, as well as a low Young's modulus, Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are potentially suitable biomaterials for low-friction arthroplasty. The wear characteristics of the Zr60.14Cu22.31Fe4.85Al9.7Ag3 bulk amorphous alloy against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) compared to a CoCrMo/UHMWPE combination were investigated in two different wear screening test devices, reciprocating and unidirectional. Hank's solution and sterile calf bovine serum were selected as the lubricant fluid media. It was found that different fluid media had insignificant effect on polyethylene wear against BMG counterfaces. The wear behaviour obtained on both test devices demonstrated that Zr-based BMG achieved UHMWPE counterface wear rates superior to conventional cast CoCrMo alloy, where the wear rate of UHMWPE is decreased by over 20 times. The tribological performance of these joints is superior to that of conventional metal-on-polymer designs. Contact angle measurements suggested that the advantage of BMG over a CoCrMo alloy counterface is attributed to its highly hydrophilic surfaces.

  6. Toughness of Wear-Resistant Cu-Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Laura M.

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have the potential to exhibit exceptional wear-resistance due to their high hardness and strength. Combined with their other unique properties, this makes them ideal candidates for a wide range of technological applications (e.g. gears, bearings, biomaterials). In the course of this dissertation, high-glass-forming bulk metallic glasses are prepared and characterized in order to identify wear-resistant compositions and optimize their toughness. First, a comprehensive study identifies a class of Cu-Zr-based BMGs that exhibit more exceptional wear performance than other BMGs. The results demonstrate that when BMGs are designed properly, they exhibit wear properties that compete with, and can surpass, state-of-the-art engineering materials. It is identified that, in order to optimize the wear performance of Cu-Zr-based BMG gears, toughness should be maximized. Second, the notch toughness of wear-resistant Cu43Zr 43Al7Be7 BMGs with in-situ crystallization is investigated. In order to identify in-situ crystallization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Cu K? radiation, extremely long dwell times and high X-ray fluxes are required. This demonstrates the importance of reporting operating parameters when trying to evaluate the amorphous nature of BMGs. XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are used to identify the metastable crystalline phase. The notch toughness is found to correlate closely with the amount of crystallization and the composition of the remaining amorphous matrix. Finally, the effect of substituting standard-grade zirconium lump (99.8% excluding up to 4% hafnium) for high-purity zirconium crystal bar (99.5%) in Cu43Zr43Al7Be7 is investigated. Introducing low-purity zirconium significantly decreases the glass-forming-ability and reduces the notch toughness of the BMG. Furthermore, Weibull statistics provide an analysis of the variability in toughness for high-purity ingots

  7. Fatigue-Induced Damage in Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chih-Pin; Yuan, Tao; Dmowski, Wojciech; Wang, Gong-Yao; Freels, Matt; Liaw, Peter K.; Li, Ran; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the effect of “fatigue” on the fatigue behavior and atomic structure of Zr-based BMGs. Fatigue experiments on the failed-by-fatigue samples indicate that the remnants generally have similar or longer fatigue life than the as-cast samples. Meanwhile, the pair-distribution-function (PDF) analysis of the as-cast and post-fatigue samples showed very small changes of local atomic structures. These observations suggest that the fatigue life of the 6-mm in-diameter Zr-based BMG is dominated by the number of pre-existing crack-initiation sites in the sample. Once the crack initiates in the specimen, the fatigue-induced damage is accumulated locally on these initiated sites, while the rest of the region deforms elastically. The results suggest that the fatigue failure of BMGs under compression-compression fatigue experiments is a defect-controlled process. The present work indicates the significance of the improved fatigue resistance with decreasing the sample size. PMID:23999496

  8. Laser Shock Peening on Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass and Its Effect on Plasticity: Experiment and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yunfeng; Xie, Xie; Antonaglia, James; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Wang, Gongyao; Shin, Yung C.; Withers, Philip J.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-05-01

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new family of attractive materials with good glass-forming ability and excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength and good wear resistance, which make them candidates for structural and biomedical materials. Although the mechanical behavior of BMGs has been widely investigated, their deformation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In particular, their poor ductility significantly impedes their industrial application. In the present work, we show that the ductility of Zr-based BMGs with nearly zero plasticity is improved by a laser shock peening technique. Moreover, we map the distribution of laser-induced residual stresses via the micro-slot cutting method, and then predict them using a three-dimensional finite-element method coupled with a confined plasma model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between the experimental and modeling results. The analyses of serrated flows reveal plentiful and useful information of the underlying deformation process. Our work provides an easy and effective way to extend the ductility of intrinsically-brittle BMGs, opening up wider applications of these materials.

  9. Laser shock peening on Zr-based bulk metallic glass and its effect on plasticity: Experiment and modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Yunfeng; Xie, Xie; Antonaglia, James; ...

    2015-05-20

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new family of attractive materials with good glass-forming ability and excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength and excellent wear resistance, which make them candidates for structural and biomedical materials. Although the mechanical behavior of BMGs has been widely investigated, their deformation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In particular, their poor ductility significantly impedes their industrial application. In the present work, we show that the ductility of Zr-based BMGs with nearly zero plasticity is improved by a laser shock peening technique. Moreover, we map the distribution of laser-induced residual stresses via themore » micro-slot cutting method, and then predict them using a three dimensional finite-element method coupled with a confined plasma model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between the experimental and modeling results. The analysis of serrated flow reveals plentiful and useful information of the underlying deformation process. As a result, our work provides an easy and effective way to extend the ductility of intrinsically-brittle BMGs, opening up wider applications of these materials.« less

  10. Degradation of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses used in load-bearing implants: A tribocorrosion appraisal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Hua; Aune, Ragnhild E; Mao, Huahai; Espallargas, Nuria

    2016-07-01

    Owing to the amorphous structure, Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) have been demonstrating attractive properties for potential biomedical applications. In the present work, the degradation mechanisms of Zr-based BMGs with nominal compositions Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 and Zr65Cu18Ni7Al10 as potential load-bearing implant material were investigated in a tribocorrosion environment. The composition-dependent micro-mechanical and tribological properties of the two BMGs were evaluated prior to the tribocorrosion tests. The sample Zr65-BMG with a higher Zr content exhibited increased plasticity but relatively reduced wear resistance during the ball-on-disc tests. Both BMGs experienced abrasive wear after the dry wear test under the load of 2N. The cross-sectional subsurface structure of the wear track was examined by Focused Ion Beam (FIB). The electrochemical properties of the BMGs in simulated body fluid were evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The spontaneous passivation of Zr-based BMGs in Phosphate Buffer Saline solution was mainly attributed to the highly concentrated zirconium cation (Zr(4+)) in the passive film. The tribocorrosion performance of the BMGs was investigated using a reciprocating tribometer equipped with an electrochemical cell. The more passive nature of the Zr65-BMG had consequently a negative influence on its tribocorrosion resistance, which induced the wear-accelerated corrosion and eventually speeded-up the degradation process. It has been revealed the galvanic coupling was established between the depassivated wear track and the surrounding passive area, which is the main degradation mechanism for the passive Zr65-BMG subjected to the tribocorrosion environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The electrochemical Evaluation of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass in a Phosphate-Buffered Saline Electrolyte

    SciT

    Morrison, M. L.; Buchanan, R. A.; Leon, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials with an amorphous structure and a unique combination of properties. The objectives of this investigation were to define the electrochemical behavior of a specific Zr-based BMG alloy in a physiologically relevant environment and to compare these properties to standard, crystalline biomaterials as well as other Zr-based BMG compositions. Cyclic-anodic-polarization studies were conducted with a Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10.0}Ti{sub 5.0} (at %) BMG in a phosphate-buffered saline electrolyte with a physiologically relevant oxygen content at 37 C. The results were compared to three common, crystalline biomaterials: CoCrMo, 316L stainless steel,more » and Ti-6Al-4V. The BMG alloy was found to have a lower corrosion penetration rate (CPR), as compared to the 316L stainless steel, and an equivalent CPR, as compared to the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Furthermore, the BMG alloy demonstrated better localized corrosion resistance than the 316L stainless steel. However, the localized corrosion resistance of the BMG alloy was not as high as those of the CoCrMo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in the tested environment. The excellent electrochemical properties demonstrated by the BMG alloy are combined with a low modulus and unparalleled strength. This unique combination of properties dramatically demonstrates the potential for amorphous alloys as a new generation of biomaterials.« less

  12. Mechanical relaxation in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass: Analysis based on physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, J. C.; Pelletier, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    The mechanical relaxation behavior in a Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 bulk metallic glass is investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis in both temperature and frequency domains. Master curves can be obtained for the storage modulus G' and for the loss modulus G'', confirming the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle. Different models are discussed to describe the main (α) relaxation, e.g., Debye model, Havriliak-Negami (HN) model, Kohlrausch-Williams-Watt (KWW) model, and quasi-point defects (QPDs) model. The main relaxation in bulk metallic glass cannot be described using a single relaxation time. The HN model, the KWW model, and the QPD theory can be used to fit the data of mechanical spectroscopy experiments. However, unlike the HN model and the KWW model, some physical parameters are introduced in QPD model, i.e., atomic mobility and correlation factor, giving, therefore, a new physical approach to understand the mechanical relaxation in bulk metallic glasses.

  13. Temperature rise and flow of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses under high shearing stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiguo; Ma, Mingzhen; Song, Aijun; Liang, Shunxing; Hao, Qiuhong; Tan, Chunlin; Jing, Qin; Liu, Riping

    2011-11-01

    Deformation of the bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and the creation and propagation of the shear bands are closely interconnected. Shearing force was loaded on Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5(Vit.1) BMGs by cutting during the turning of the BMG rod. The temperature rise of alloy on the shear bands was calculated and the result showed that it could reach the temperature of the super-cooled liquid zone or exceed the melting point. The temperature rise caused viscous fluid flow and brought about the deformation of BMGs. This suggested that the deformation of BMGs was derived, at least to some extent, from the adiabatic shear temperature rise.

  14. Tribological studies of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass with different states

    SciT

    Jiang, Feng; Qu, Jun; Fan, Guojiang

    The tribological characteristics of a bulk-metallic glass (BMG) Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10.0Ti5.0 (Vit 105) with different states have been studied. Friction and wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding apparatus against AISI E52100 bearing steel under dry condition. The observed wear resistance in an ascending order is deformed, crept, relaxed, and as-cast. Results suggested that the wear process of BMG alloys involved abrasion, adhesion, and oxidation. The differences in hardness, free volume, and embrittlement at different states significantly affected the friction and wear behaviors of the BMG alloys.

  15. Corrosion fatigue studies on a bulk glassy Zr-based alloy under three-point bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grell, Daniel; Wilkin, Yannic; Gostin, Petre F.; Gebert, Annett; Kerscher, Eberhard

    2016-12-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF) tests were carried out on bulk glassy Zr52.5Cu17.9Al10Ni14.6Ti5 (Vitreloy 105) samples under load-controlled three-point bending conditions with a load ratio of R = 0.1 in 0.01 M Na2SO4 + 0.01 M NaCl electrolyte. During cyclic testing, the bar-shaped specimens were polarized in situ at constant potentials and the current was monitored. Three different anodic potentials within the interval between the pitting potential EP and the repassivation potential ER, and three different load amplitudes were applied. In some cases, in situ microscopic observations revealed the formation of black corrosion products in the vicinity of the crack tip during anodic polarization. Fractographic analysis revealed a clear distinction between two modes of crack growth characterized by smooth dissolution induced regions on the one hand and slim fast fracture areas on the other hand. Both alternating features contributed to a broad striated corrosion fatigue fracture surface. Moreover, further fatigue tests were carried out under free corrosion conditions yielding additional information on crack initiation and crack propagation period by means of the open circuit potential (OCP) changes. Thereby, a slight increase in OCP was detected after rupture of the passive layer due to bare metal exposed to the electrolyte. The electrochemical response increased continuously according to stable crack propagation until fracture occurred. Finally, the fracture surfaces of the corrosion fatigue samples were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray with the objective of analyzing the elemental distribution after anodic dissolution. Interestingly, anodic polarization at a near repassivation potential of -50 mV vs. SCE (Saturated Calomel Electrode, E = 0.241 V vs. SHE, Standard Hydrogen Electrode) led to favorable effects on the fatigue lifetime. In conclusion, all results are conflated to a corrosion fatigue model for bulk glassy Vitreloy 105 under anodic polarization in chloride

  16. Rapid Relaxation and Embrittlement of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses by Electropulsing

    SciT

    Yiu, P; Chen, Y. C.; Chu, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical relaxation and embrittlement of Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 bulk metallic glasses were achieved rapidly by the direct current electropulsing treatment. The temperature profile was recorded by an infrared camera and it was found to be non-uniform in the treated specimen. Specifically, temperatures below the glass transition temperature, near and above the crystallization temperature could be ach- ieved, respectively, at different locations in the same treated specimen. Two sets of nanoindentation were conducted. While the first set investigated the mechanical properties of three individually elec- tropulsed specimens with different conditions, the second set indented a single treated specimen along its temperature gradient. Bothmore » sets of indentation revealed that by Joule heating to different tempera- tures, relaxation, embrittlement, and crystallization were significantly accelerated by electrical pulses. Results suggest that electropulsing provides an opportunity to simultaneously achieve plastic forming and mechanical property control of metallic glasses.« less

  17. Structural and mechanical modifications induced on Zr-based bulk metallic glass by laser shock peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunhu; Fu, Jie; Zheng, Chao; Ji, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, surface modification of a Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (vit1) bulk metallic glass (BMG) has been studied in an effort to improve the mechanical properties by laser shock peening (LSP) treatment. The phase structure, mechanical properties, and microstructural evolution of the as-cast and LSP treated specimens were systematically investigated. It was found that the vit1 BMG still consisted of fully amorphous structure after LSP treatment. Measurements of the heat relaxation indicate that a large amount of free volume is introduced into vit1 BMG during LSP process. LSP treatment causes a decrease of hardness attributable to generation of free volume. The plastic deformation ability of vit1 BMG was investigated under three-point bending conditions. The results demonstrate that the plastic strain of LSP treated specimen is 1.83 times as large as that of the as-cast specimen. The effect of LSP technology on the hardness and plastic deformation ability of vit1 BMG is discussed on the basis of free volume theory. The high dense shear bands on the side surface, the increase of striations and critical shear displacement on the tensile fracture region, and more uniform dimples structure on the compressive fracture region also demonstrate that the plasticity of vit1 BMG can be enhanced by LSP.

  18. Effect of high strain rates on peak stress in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunny, George; Yuan, Fuping; Prakash, Vikas; Lewandowski, John

    2008-11-01

    The mechanical behavior of Zr41.25Ti13.75Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (LM-1) has been extensively characterized under quasistatic loading conditions; however, its mechanical behavior under dynamic loading conditions is currently not well understood. A Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a single-stage gas gun are employed to characterize the mechanical behavior of LM-1 in the strain-rate regime of 102-105/s. The SHPB experiments are conducted with a tapered insert design to mitigate the effects of stress concentrations and preferential failure at the specimen-insert interface. The higher strain-rate plate-impact compression-and-shear experiments are conducted by impacting a thick tungsten carbide (WC) flyer plate with a sandwich sample comprising a thin bulk metallic glass specimen between two thicker WC target plates. Specimens employed in the SHPB experiments failed in the gage-section at a peak stress of approximately 1.8 GPa. Specimens in the high strain-rate plate-impact experiments exhibited a flow stress in shear of approximately 0.9 GPa, regardless of the shear strain-rate. The flow stress under the plate-impact conditions was converted to an equivalent flow stress under uniaxial compression by assuming a von Mises-like material behavior and accounting for the plane strain conditions. The results of these experiments, when compared to the previous work conducted at quasistatic loading rates, indicate that the peak stress of LM-1 is essentially strain rate independent over the strain-rate range up to 105/s.

  19. Deformation behavior, corrosion resistance, and cytotoxicity of Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Qiu, C L; Chen, Q; Chan, K C; Zhang, S M

    2008-07-01

    Two Ni-free bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of Zr(60)Nb(5)Cu(22.5)Pd(5)Al(7.5) and Zr(60)Nb(5)Cu(20)Fe(5)Al(10) were successfully prepared by arc-melting and copper mold casting. The thermal stability and crystallization were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. It demonstrates that the two BMGs exhibit very good glass forming ability with a wide supercooled liquid region. A multi-step process of crystallization with a preferential formation of quasicrystals occurred in both BMGs under continuous heating. The deformation behavior of the two BMGs was investigated using quasi-static compression testing. It reveals that the BMGs exhibit not only superior strength but also an extended plasticity. Corrosion behaviors of the BMGs were investigated in phosphate buffered solution by electrochemical polarization. The result shows that the two BMGs exhibit excellent corrosion resistance characterized by low corrosion current densities and wide passive regions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that the passive film formed after anodic polarization was highly enriched in zirconium, niobium, and aluminum oxides. This is attributed to the excellent corrosion resistance. Additionally, the potential cytotoxicity of the two Ni-free BMGs was evaluated through cell culture for 1 week followed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and SEM observation. The results indicate that the two Ni-free BMGs exhibit as good biocompatibility as Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and thus show a promising potential for biomedical applications. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Biocompatible Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with high-Zr-content: compositional optimization for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Nengbin; Huang, Lu; Chen, Wenzhe; He, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The present study designs and prepares Ni-free Zr60+xTi2.5Al10Fe12.5-xCu10Ag5 (at.%, x=0, 2.5, 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by copper mold casting for potential biomedical application. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility of the Zr-based BMGs are evaluated by investigating mechanical properties, bio-corrosion behavior, and cellular responses. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high notch toughness. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based BMGs are corrosion resistant in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The bio-corrosion resistance of BMGs is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. Regular cell responses of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells, including cell adhesion and proliferation, are observed on the Zr-Ti-Al-Fe-Cu-Ag BMGs, which reveals their general biosafety. The high-Zr-based BMGs exhibit a higher cell proliferation activity in comparison with that of pure Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility can be used to guide the future design of biocompatible Zr-based BMGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Zr-based bulk metallic glass for future stent applications: Materials properties, finite element modeling, and in vitro human vascular cell response.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Pu, Chao; Fisher, Richard K; Mountain, Deidra J H; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K; Zhang, Wei; He, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Despite the prevalent use of crystalline alloys in current vascular stent technology, new biomaterials are being actively sought after to improve stent performance. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of a Zr-Al-Fe-Cu bulk metallic glass (BMG) to serve as a candidate stent material. The mechanical properties of the Zr-based BMG, determined under both static and cyclic loadings, were characterized by high strength, which would allow for the design of thinner stent struts to improve stent biocompatibility. Finite element analysis further complemented the experimental results and revealed that a stent made of the Zr-based BMG was more compliant with the beats of a blood vessel, compared with medical 316L stainless steel. The Zr-based BMG was found to be corrosion resistant in a simulated body environment, owing to the presence of a highly stable ZrO2-rich surface passive film. Application-specific biocompatibility studies were conducted using human aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The Zr-Al-Fe-Cu BMG was found to support stronger adhesion and faster coverage of endothelial cells and slower growth of smooth muscle cells than 316L stainless steel. These results suggest that the Zr-based BMG could promote re-endothelialization and potentially lower the risk of restenosis, which are critical to improve vascular stent implantation integration. In general, findings in this study raised the curtain for the potential application of BMGs as future candidates for stent applications. Vascular stents are medical devices typically used to restore the lumen of narrowed or clogged blood vessel. Despite the clinical success of metallic materials in stent-assisted angioplasty, post-surgery complications persist due to the mechanical failures, corrosion, and in-stent restenosis of current stents. To overcome these hurdles, strategies including new designs and surface functionalization have been exercised. In addition, the development of new materials with

  2. The structural properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses subjected to high pressure torsion at different temperatures

    SciT

    Boltynjuk, E. V., E-mail: boltynjuk@gmail.com; Ubyivovk, E. V.; Kshumanev, A. M.

    2016-06-17

    The structural properties of a Zr{sub 62}Cu{sub 22}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 5}Dy{sub 1} bulk metallic glasses were investigated. Cylindrical rods of the Zr{sub 62}Cu{sub 22}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 5}Dy{sub 1} BMG were subjected to high pressure torsion at temperatures of 20°C and 150°C. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy were used to determine peculiarities of the modified structure. Analysis of fracture surfaces, nanohardness measurements were conducted to investigate the influence of structural changes on mechanical behavior of processed samples.

  3. Pair distribution function study and mechanical behavior of as-cast and structurally relaxed Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Cang; Liaw, P. K.; Wilson, T. W.; Choo, H.; Gao, Y. F.; Liu, C. T.; Proffen, Th.; Richardson, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Contrary to reported results on structural relaxation inducing brittleness in amorphous alloys, the authors found that structural relaxation actually caused an increase in the strength of Zr55Cu35Al10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) without changing the plasticity. Three dimensional models were rebuilt for the as-cast and structurally relaxed BMGs by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations based on the pair distribution function (PDF) measured by neutron scattering. Only a small portion of the atom pairs was found to change to more dense packing. The concept of free volume was defined based on the PDF and RMC studies, and the mechanism of mechanical behavior was discussed.

  4. Comparison of Structural Relaxation Behavior in As-Cast and Pre-Annealed Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses Just below Glass Transition

    DOE PAGES

    Haruyama, Osami; Yoshikawa, Kazuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshikatsu; ...

    2015-04-25

    In this paper, the α-relaxation of pre-annealed Zr 55Cu 30Ni 5Al 10 bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) was compared with that of as-cast Zr-based BMGs including Zr 55Cu 30Ni 5Al 10. The α-relaxation was investigated by volume relaxation. The relaxation behavior was well described by a stretched exponential relaxation function, Φ (t) ≈ exp [ - (t/τ α ) β α ], with the isothermal relaxation time, τ α, and the Kohlrausch exponent, β α. The β α exhibited the strong temperature dependence for the pre-annealed BMG, while the weak temperature dependence was visualized for the as-cast BMG similar to themore » dynamic relaxation. The τ α’s were modified by Moynihan and Narayanaswamy-Tool-Moynihan methods that reduce the difference in the thermal history of sample. Finally, as a result, the relaxation kinetics in the glass resembled that of a liquid deduced from the behavior of viscosity in the supercooled liquid.« less

  5. Effect of MoSi2 Content on Dry Sliding Tribological Properties of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longfei; Yang, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass and its composites were prepared by suction casting into a copper mold. The effect of MoSi2 content on the tribological behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG was studied by using a high-speed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The results indicate that the friction coefficient and wear resistance of the BMGs can be improved by a certain amount of crystalline phase induced by MoSi2 content from 1 to 3% and deteriorated with MoSi2 content of 4%. The wear mechanism of both the metallic glass and its composite is abrasive wear. The mechanism of crystalline phase-dependent tribological properties of the composite was discussed based on the wear track and mechanical properties in the present work. The wear behavior of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 BMG and its composite indicates that a good combination of the toughness and the hardness can make the composite be well wear resistant.

  6. Dual self-organised shear banding behaviours and enhanced ductility in phase separating Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Q.; Song, K. K.; Sun, B. A.; Wang, L.; Cui, W. C.; Qin, Y. S.; Han, X. L.; Xue, Q. S.; Peng, C. X.; Sarac, B.; Spieckermann, F.; Kaban, I.; Eckert, J.

    2018-07-01

    The multiplication and interaction of self-organised shear bands often transform to a stick-slip behaviour of a major shear band along the primary shear plane, and ultimately the major shear band becomes runaway and terminates the plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Here, we examined the deformation behaviours of the nanoscale phase-separating Zr65-xCu25Al10Fex (x = 5 and 7.5 at.%) BMGs. The formation of multi-step phase separation, being mainly governed by nucleation and growth, results in the microstructural inhomogeneity on a wide range of length-scales and leads to obviously macroscopic and repeatable ductility. The good deformability can be attributed to two mechanisms for stabilizing shear banding process, i.e. the mutual interaction of multiple shear bands away from the major shear band and the delaying slip-to-failure of dense fine shear bands around the major shear band, both of which show a self-organised criticality yet with different power-law exponents. The two mechanisms could come into effect in the intermediate (stable) and later plastic deformation regime, respectively. Our findings provide a possibility to enhance the shear banding stability over the whole plastic deformation through a proper design of microstructure heterogeneities.

  7. The influence of Sc addition on the welding microstructure of Zr-based bulk metallic glass: The stability of the amorphous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shing Hoa; Kuo, Pei Hung; Tsang, Hsiao Tsung; Jeng, Rong Ruey; Lin, Yu Lon

    2007-10-01

    Pulsed direct current autogeneous tungsten inert gas arc welding was conducted on rods of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 and (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 under two different cooling conditions. The crystalline precipitates in the fusion zone of BMG Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 were confirmed by microfocused x-ray diffraction pattern analysis as Zr2Ni and Zr2(Cu,Al) intermetallic compounds. In contrast, BMG with Sc addition (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 shows an excellent stable glass forming ability. The fusion zone of BMG (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 remains in the same amorphous state as that of the amorphous base metal when the weld is cooled with accelerated cooling.

  8. Anomalous shear band characteristics and extra-deep shock-affected zone in Zr-based bulk metallic glass treated with nanosecond laser peening.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanpeng; Xu, Guangyue; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Zhe; Guo, Yacong; Huang, Chenguang; Wei, Bingchen

    2017-03-07

    The effects of nanosecond laser peening on Zr 41 Ti 14 Cu 12.5 Ni 10 Be 22.5 metallic glass were investigated in this study. The peening treatment produced an extra-deep shock-affected zone compared to crystal metal. As opposed to the conventional shear bands, numerous arc shear bands appeared and aggregated in the vertical direction of the laser beam, forming basic units for accommodating plastic deformation. The arc shear bands exhibited short and discrete features near the surface of the material, then grew longer and fewer at deeper peened layer depths, which was closely related to the laser shock wave attenuation. An energy dissipation model was established based on Hugoniot Elastic Limit and shear band characteristics to represent the formation of an extra-deep shock-affected zone. The results presented here suggest that the bulk modification of metallic glass with a considerable affected depth is feasible. Further, they reveal that nanosecond laser peening is promising as an effective approach to tuning shear bands for improved MGs ductility.

  9. Surface Mechanoengineering of a Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass via Ar-Nanobubble Doping to Probe Cell Sensitivity to Rigid Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Lu; Tian, Mengkun; Wu, Dong; ...

    2017-11-24

    In this paper, a new materials platform, utilizing the amorphous microstructure of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and the versatility of ion implantation, was developed for the fundamental investigation of cell responses to substrate-rigidity variations in the gigapascal modulus range, which was previously unattainable with polymeric materials. The surface rigidity of a Zr-Al- Ni-Cu-Y BMG was modulated with low-energy Ar-ion implantation owing to the impartment of Ar nanobubbles into the amorphous matrix. Surface softening was achieved due to the formation of nanobubble-doped transitional zones in the Zrbased BMG substrate. Bone-forming cell studies on this newly designed platform demonstrated that mechanical cues,more » accompanied with the potential effects of other surface properties (i.e. roughness, morphology, and chemistry), contributed to modulating cell behaviors. Cell adhesion and actin filaments were found to be less established on less stiff surfaces, especially on the surface with an elastic modulus of 51 GPa. Cell growth appeared to be affected by surface mechanical properties. A lower stiffness was generally related to a higher growth rate. Findings in this study broadened our fundamental understanding concerning the mechanosensing of bone cells on stiff substrates. It also suggests that surface mechano-engineering of metallic materials could be a potential strategy to promote osseointegration of such materials for bone-implant applications. Further investigations are proposed to fine tune the ion implantation variables in order to further distinguish the surface-mechanical effect on bone-forming cell activities from the contributions of other surface properties.« less

  10. Surface Mechanoengineering of a Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass via Ar-Nanobubble Doping to Probe Cell Sensitivity to Rigid Materials

    SciT

    Huang, Lu; Tian, Mengkun; Wu, Dong

    In this paper, a new materials platform, utilizing the amorphous microstructure of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and the versatility of ion implantation, was developed for the fundamental investigation of cell responses to substrate-rigidity variations in the gigapascal modulus range, which was previously unattainable with polymeric materials. The surface rigidity of a Zr-Al- Ni-Cu-Y BMG was modulated with low-energy Ar-ion implantation owing to the impartment of Ar nanobubbles into the amorphous matrix. Surface softening was achieved due to the formation of nanobubble-doped transitional zones in the Zrbased BMG substrate. Bone-forming cell studies on this newly designed platform demonstrated that mechanical cues,more » accompanied with the potential effects of other surface properties (i.e. roughness, morphology, and chemistry), contributed to modulating cell behaviors. Cell adhesion and actin filaments were found to be less established on less stiff surfaces, especially on the surface with an elastic modulus of 51 GPa. Cell growth appeared to be affected by surface mechanical properties. A lower stiffness was generally related to a higher growth rate. Findings in this study broadened our fundamental understanding concerning the mechanosensing of bone cells on stiff substrates. It also suggests that surface mechano-engineering of metallic materials could be a potential strategy to promote osseointegration of such materials for bone-implant applications. Further investigations are proposed to fine tune the ion implantation variables in order to further distinguish the surface-mechanical effect on bone-forming cell activities from the contributions of other surface properties.« less

  11. Cladding of Mg alloy with Zr based BMG Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, A. K.; Oh, Y. S.; Faisal, M. K.; Kim, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to clad AZ31 magnesium alloy with Zr-based bulk metallic glassy alloy (Vit-1), by casting method. The interface studies conducted using SEM-EDS line scan indicate that a good bond is formed at the clad interface of Zr and Mg. And the mechanism involved is discussed herein.

  12. Microstructural development at weld interface between Zr-based glassy alloy and stainless steel by resistance microwelding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, S.; Minami, M.; Soeda, A.; Matsushima, M.; Takahashi, M.; Yokoyama, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    2012-08-01

    Zr-based bulk metallic glasses are expected to be welded to conventional structural alloys. Dissimilar welding of metallic glasses to stainless steel was carried out by resistance microwelding. The metallurgical analysis of the weld interface revealed the welding mechanism. A thin reaction layer was formed between the two liquid materials. The melting of stainless steel should be limited to obtain sound joints.

  13. Martensitic transformation in a B2-containing CuZr-based BMG composite revealed by in situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Gian; Lee, Chanho; Hong, Sung Hwan; ...

    2017-06-27

    Here, CuZr-based bulk-metallic-glass (BMG) composites reinforced by a B2-type CuZr crystalline-phase (CP) have been widely studied, and exhibit that the plastic deformation of the CP induces martensitic transformation from the B2 to B19', which plays a dominant role in the deformation behavior and mechanical properties. In the present study, 2.0% Co containing CuZr-based BMG composites were investigated using in-situ neutron-diffraction technique. The in-situ neutron-diffraction results reveal the continuous load transfer from the glass matrix to B2 CP and martensitic transformation from the B2 CP to B19' during the deformation of the composite. Moreover, it was found that the martensitic transformationmore » is initiated at the applied stress higher than 1500 MPa, and is significantly suppressed during the deformation, as compared to other 0.5% Co-containing CuZr-based BMG composites. Based on these in-situ neutron-diffraction results, the martensitic transformation is strongly affected by the amount of the addition of Co, which determines the mechanical properties of CP-reinforced BMG composites, such as ductility and hardening capability.« less

  14. Martensitic transformation in a B2-containing CuZr-based BMG composite revealed by in situ neutron diffraction

    SciT

    Song, Gian; Lee, Chanho; Hong, Sung Hwan

    Here, CuZr-based bulk-metallic-glass (BMG) composites reinforced by a B2-type CuZr crystalline-phase (CP) have been widely studied, and exhibit that the plastic deformation of the CP induces martensitic transformation from the B2 to B19', which plays a dominant role in the deformation behavior and mechanical properties. In the present study, 2.0% Co containing CuZr-based BMG composites were investigated using in-situ neutron-diffraction technique. The in-situ neutron-diffraction results reveal the continuous load transfer from the glass matrix to B2 CP and martensitic transformation from the B2 CP to B19' during the deformation of the composite. Moreover, it was found that the martensitic transformationmore » is initiated at the applied stress higher than 1500 MPa, and is significantly suppressed during the deformation, as compared to other 0.5% Co-containing CuZr-based BMG composites. Based on these in-situ neutron-diffraction results, the martensitic transformation is strongly affected by the amount of the addition of Co, which determines the mechanical properties of CP-reinforced BMG composites, such as ductility and hardening capability.« less

  15. Four-point-bending-fatigue behavior of the Zr-based Vitreloy 105 bulk metallic glass

    SciT

    Morrison, M. L.; Buchanan, R. A.; Liaw, Peter K

    The purpose of this study was to make a direct comparison between four-point-bending and uniaxial fatigue tests with the Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10.0}Ti{sub 5.0} (at.%) BMG alloy (Vitreloy 105). The fatigue lifetimes in four-point bending were found to be greater than those reported in uniaxial testing. However, the fatigue-endurance limit found in four-point bending was slightly less than that reported for uniaxial fatigue. Thus, the significant differences between fatigue studies in the literature are not likely due to this difference in testing geometry. On the contrary, the fatigue lifetimes were found to be highly dependent upon surface defects andmore » material quality. The four-point-bending-fatigue performance of the Vit 105 alloy was found to be greater than most BMGs and similar to the 300 M high-strength steel and other crystalline alloys in spite of not being 'perfectly amorphous.' Due to the detrimental effects of these inhomogeneities and wear at the supporting pins, this fatigue behavior can be assumed to be a conservative estimate of the potential fatigue performance of a perfectly amorphous and homogeneous BMG.« less

  16. Production and properties of high strength Ni free Zr-based BMGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M.; Wang, W. H.

    2014-06-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are well known for very attractive physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Zr-based BMGs are used as structural materials in sports goods, electronics, jewelry, medical and aerospace applications. Ni free Zr48Cu36Al8M8 (M = Nb, Ti and Ta) BMGs are successfully synthesized by Cu mold casting technique. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) results show that the Zr48Cu36Al8Nb8 BMG have good thermal stability, wide supercooled liquid region of 80 K and contain the double stage crystallization. The alloy has fracture strength of 1.953 GPa. Shear angle was measured to be in the range of 43.5±5° for the alloy studied. Vicker's hardness of the BMGs was found to be over 500 Hv for the as cast alloy which enhanced about 11 % more by annealing up to 600 °C/20 min. Intersected shear bands were observed. The observed promising mechanical and thermal properties showed that BMG studied can be used for industrial applications.

  17. Synchrotron x-ray scattering investigations of oxygen-induced nucleation in a Zr-based glass-forming alloy.

    SciT

    Wall, J. J.; Almer, J. D.; Vogel, S. C.

    The metallic glass-forming alloy VIT-105 (Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}) was used to study the effect of oxygen on nucleation. Ex situ synchrotron X-ray scattering experiments performed on as-cast samples showed that oxygen leads to the formation of tetragonal and/or cubic phases, depending on oxygen content. The samples crystallized into either a primitive tetragonal phase or the so-called fcc 'big cube' phase in a glassy matrix. A subsequent discussion on the role of oxygen in heterogeneous nucleation in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses is presented.

  18. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    SciT

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. These amorphous alloys appear to maintain their corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature. Visionary research is proposed to extend the application of corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous metal coatings, and variants of these coatings, to protection of the Nation's transportation infrastructure. Specific objectives of the proposed work are: (1) fabrication of appropriate test samples for evaluation of concept; (2) collection of production and test data for coated steel reinforcement bars, enabling systematic comparison of various coating options, based upon performance and economic considerations; and (3) construction and testing of concrete structures with coated steel reinforcement bars, thereby demonstrating the value of amorphous-metal coatings. The benefits of ceramic coatings as thermal barriers will also be addressed.« less

  19. A High Strain-Rate Investigation of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass and an HTPB Polymer Composite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    95 8. Lankford J. (1977) Compressive strength and microplasticity in polycrystalline alumina. Journal of Materials Science 12, 791-796. 9...Letters 45, 615-616. 59. Lankford J. (1977) Compressive strength and microplasticity in polycrystalline alumina. Journal of Materials Science 12, 791

  20. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang

    2016-10-01

    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN.

  1. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings: SAM HPCRM Program ? FY04 Annual Report ? Rev. 0 - DARPA DSO & DOE OCRWM Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    SciT

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Wong, F

    2007-09-19

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoingmore » corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an 'integral drip shield' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent.« less

  2. Thermal stability and specular reflection behaviour of CoNbZr-based bottom spin valves with nano-oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Lee, Seong-Rae

    2004-06-01

    The thermal stability and specularity aspects of a CoNbZr-based bottom spin valve (SV) employing a nano-oxide layer (NOL) were investigated. The magnetoresistance (MR) ratio of the as-deposited CoNbZr-based bottom SV increased by 62% (from 6.3 to 10.2%) with incorporation of the NOL. The enhancement of the MR ratio was considered to be due to the specular effect ( increased from 0.722 to 1.363 cm) of the NOL. The MR ratio of a Ta-based bottom SV decreased by about 45% (from 6.9 to 3.8%) when the samples were annealed at 300 °C for 240 min. By contrast, the MR ratio of the CoNbZr-based bottom SV with NOL increase d by 14 % (from 10.2 to 11.7%). The root mean square roughness value of the CoNbZr layer (0.07 nm) was superior to that of the Ta layer (0.43 nm). Although Mn in IrMn diffused out to the surface through the active layers resulting in the formation of Mn oxide at the surface in the CoNbZr-based bottom SV, no trace of Mn was found in the active layers and no significant degradation occurred.

  3. Wear resistance of CuZr-based amorphous-forming alloys against bearing steel in 3.5% NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiulin; Wang, Hui; Bao, Yayun; Zheng, Dingcong

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the amorphous-crystalline microstructure on the tribocorrosion of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), 6 mm diameter rods of Cu46-xZr47Al7Agx (x = 0, 2, 4) amorphous-forming alloys with in situ crystalline and amorphous phases were fabricated by arc-melting and Cu-mould casting. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer, the tribo-pair composed by CuZr-based amorphous-forming alloys and AISI 52100 steel were studied in 3.5% NaCl solution. With the increase of Ag content from 0 to 4 at.%, the compressive fracture strength and the average hardness decrease firstly and then increase. Moreover, 4 at.% Ag addition increases the amount of amorphous phase obviously and inhibits the formation of brittle crystalline phase, resulting in the improvement of corrosion resistance and the corrosive wear resistance. The primary wear mechanism of the BMG composites is abrasive wear accompanying with corrosive wear. The tribocorrosion mass loss of Cu42Zr47Al7Ag4 composite is 1.5 mg after 816.8 m sliding distance at 0.75 m s-1 sliding velocity under 10 N load in NaCl solution. And the volume loss evaluated from the mass loss is about 20 times lower than that of AISI 304 SS. Thus, Cu42Zr47Al7Ag4 composite may be a good candidate in the tribology application under marine environment.

  4. Immobilization of silver nanoparticles in Zr-based MOFs: induction of apoptosis in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Congcong; Yang, Jian; Gu, Jinlou

    2018-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a potential class of nanomaterial for antibiosis and chemotherapeutic effects against human carcinoma cells. However, the DNA-damaging ability of free AgNPs pose the critical issues in their biomedical applications. Herein, we demonstrated a facile method to capture Ag+ ions and reduce them into active AgNPs within Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of UiO-66 with a mild reductant of DMF (AgNPs@UiO-66(DMF)). The average diameters of UiO-66 carriers and AgNPs were facilely controlled to be 140 and 10 nm, respectively. The obtained UiO-66 nanocarriers exhibited excellent biocompatibility and could be effectively endocytosed by cancer cells. Additionally, the AgNPs@UiO-66(DMF) could rapidly release Ag+ ions and efficiently inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the encapsulated AgNPs were calculated to be 2.7 and 2.45 μg mL-1 for SMMC-7721 and HeLa cells, respectively, which were much lower than those of free AgNPs in the reported works. Therefore, the developed AgNPs@UiO-66(DMF) not only maintained the therapeutic effect against cancer cells but also reduced the dosage of free AgNPs in chemotherapy treatment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Activation characteristics of multiphase Zr-based hydrogen storage alloys for Ni/MH rechargeable batteries

    SciT

    Lee, H.; Lee, S.M.; Lee, J.Y.

    1999-10-01

    AB{sub 2} type Zr-based Laves phase alloys have been studied for possible use as negative electrodes of Ni/MH batteries with high hydrogen storage capacity. However, these alloys have the serious problem of slow activation owing to the formation of surface oxide films. To overcome this problem, alloys with multiphase microstructures have been developed. These alloys become electrochemically active via the creation of micropores by the dissolution of soluble oxide components such as vanadium oxide. However, this phenomenon has been described based only on changes in the chemical composition of the oxide layer. In the present study, this phenomenon is approachedmore » with respect to interactions between the constituent phases. An electrochemical analysis of constituent phases showed that the second phase, resulting in localized Ni-rich pits on the alloy surface. The presence of microcracks at the periphery of the Ni-rich pits after 30 h exposure to KOH electrolyte implies that hydrogen is absorbed preferentially at Ni-rich pits, thereby forming a large active surface area. However, such multiphase alloys have poor cycle durability due to the persistent dissolution of components in the second phase. Through Cr substitution, the authors have developed a family of durable alloys to prevent this unwanted dissolution from the second phase.« less

  6. Development of Cu Clad Cu-Zr Based Metallic Glass and Its Solderability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terajima, Takeshi; Kimura, Hisamichi; Inoue, Akihisa

    Soldering is a candidate technique for joining metallic glasses. It can be processed far below the crystallization temperatures of the various metallic glasses so that there is no possibility of crystallization. However, wettability of Cu-Zr based metallic glass by Pb free solder is poor because a strong surface oxide film interferes direct contact between them. To overcome the problem, Cu thin film clad metallic glass was developed. It was preliminary produced by casting a melt of Cu36Zr48Al8Ag8 pre-alloy into Cu mold cavity, inside which Cu thin film with 2 mm in thickness was set on the wall. Cu36Zr48Al8Ag8 metallic glass, whose surface Cu thin film was welded to, was successfully produced. From the microstructure analyses, it was found that reaction layer was formed at the interface between Cu and Cu36Zr48Al8Ag8 metallic glass, however, there was no oxide in the Cu clad layer. Solderability to the metallic glass was drastically increased. The Cu clad layer played an important role to prevent the formation of surface oxide film and consequently improved the solderability.

  7. Breakaway phenomenon of Zr-based alloys during a high-temperature oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The breakaway oxidation phenomena in Zr-based alloys were studied in the temperature range of 950-1200 °C for up to 36 000 s by using a modified thermo-gravimetric analyzer. After the oxidation tests, the oxidation behaviors, breakaway oxidation time, hydrogen pick-up contents, and oxidation rate constants of the alloys were systematically evaluated in this study. The breakaway oxidation time was shortened with an increase of the Sn content in the Zr alloys. A breakaway oxidation phenomenon could be caused by the transition of a tetragonal oxide phase into a monoclinic one, and the oxide transition could lead to form the oxide cracks in both the lateral and radial directions. The cracks within the oxide layer could result in catastrophic increase in the weight gain rates and rapid increase the hydrogen pick-up within the oxygen-stabilized α-Zr and prior β-Zr layers. The oxidation rate constants calculated from the post-breakaway data in the Zr alloys with breakaway oxidation behaviors matched well with the values from both the Baker-Just and Cathcart-Pawel correlations.

  8. Methane Adsorption in Zr-Based MOFs: Comparison and Critical Evaluation of Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The search for nanoporous materials that are highly performing for gas storage and separation is one of the contemporary challenges in material design. The computational tools to aid these experimental efforts are widely available, and adsorption isotherms are routinely computed for huge sets of (hypothetical) frameworks. Clearly the computational results depend on the interactions between the adsorbed species and the adsorbent, which are commonly described using force fields. In this paper, an extensive comparison and in-depth investigation of several force fields from literature is reported for the case of methane adsorption in the Zr-based Metal–Organic Frameworks UiO-66, UiO-67, DUT-52, NU-1000, and MOF-808. Significant quantitative differences in the computed uptake are observed when comparing different force fields, but most qualitative features are common which suggests some predictive power of the simulations when it comes to these properties. More insight into the host–guest interactions is obtained by benchmarking the force fields with an extensive number of ab initio computed single molecule interaction energies. This analysis at the molecular level reveals that especially ab initio derived force fields perform well in reproducing the ab initio interaction energies. Finally, the high sensitivity of uptake predictions on the underlying potential energy surface is explored. PMID:29170687

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Zr-BASED Amorphous and Crystalline Composite Coating on Ti Substrate by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, D. M.; Zhang, D. C.; Peng, W.; Luo, Z. C.; Wu, X. Q.; Wang, Y. M.; Lin, J. G.

    2014-02-01

    A thin strip of a Zr-based alloy with a composition of Zr60Cu25Fe5Al10 (in atom percent) was used as a raw material, and the composite coatings containing Zr-based amorphous phase and crystallites on Ti substrate were fabricated by a one-step laser cladding method without protection. The microstructure, phase constitution, microhardness and wear properties of the coatings were investigated. The results indicate that the microstructure of the coatings is strongly dependent on the laser scanning speed under the conditions of the laser power of 1300 W and laser beam diameter of 6 mm, and the composite coating mainly containing amorphous phase with a small amount of the crystallites can be obtained at the laser scanning speed of 10 mm/s. The composite coating exhibits much higher microhardness than the pure Ti substrate, and thus it behaves superior wear resistance in comparison with the substrate.

  10. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; ...

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the abilitymore » of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.« less

  11. Mechanical rejuvenation in bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep

    SciT

    Tong, Yang; Dmowski, W.; Bei, Hongbin

    Using high energy X-ray diffraction we studied the temperature, stress, and time effect on structural changes in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep. Pair distribution functions obtained from two-dimensional diffraction patterns show that thermo-mechanical creep induces structural disordering, but only when the stress beyond a threshold is applied. A similar threshold behavior was observed for anelastic strain. We conclude that anelastic creep strain induces rejuvenation, whereas plastic strain does not.

  12. Mechanical rejuvenation in bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep

    DOE PAGES

    Tong, Yang; Dmowski, W.; Bei, Hongbin; ...

    2018-02-16

    Using high energy X-ray diffraction we studied the temperature, stress, and time effect on structural changes in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep. Pair distribution functions obtained from two-dimensional diffraction patterns show that thermo-mechanical creep induces structural disordering, but only when the stress beyond a threshold is applied. A similar threshold behavior was observed for anelastic strain. We conclude that anelastic creep strain induces rejuvenation, whereas plastic strain does not.

  13. Bulk undercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  14. Application of thin layer activation technique for surface wear studies in Zr based materials using charged particle induced nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, D. P.; Pal, Sujit; Parthasarathy, R.; Mathur, P. K.; Kohli, A. K.; Limaye, P. K.

    1998-09-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) technique has been developed in Zr based alloy materials, e.g., zircaloy II, using 40 MeV α-particles from Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre at Calcutta. A brief description of the methodology of TLA technique is presented to determine the surface wear. The sensitivity of the measurement of surface wear in zircaloy material is found to be 0.22±0.05 μm. The surface wear is determined by TLA technique in zircaloy material which is used in pressurised heavy water reactor and the values have been compared with that obtained by conventional technique for the analytical validation of the TLA technique.

  15. Recent advances in bulk metallic glasses for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Zheng, Y F

    2016-05-01

    With a continuously increasing aging population and the improvement of living standards, large demands of biomaterials are expected for a long time to come. Further development of novel biomaterials, that are much safer and of much higher quality, in terms of both biomedical and mechanical properties, are therefore of great interest for both the research scientists and clinical surgeons. Compared with the conventional crystalline metallic counterparts, bulk metallic glasses have unique amorphous structures, and thus exhibit higher strength, lower Young's modulus, improved wear resistance, good fatigue endurance, and excellent corrosion resistance. For this purpose, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have recently attracted much attention for biomedical applications. This review discusses and summarizes the recent developments and advances of bulk metallic glasses, including Ti-based, Zr-based, Fe-based, Mg-based, Zn-based, Ca-based and Sr-based alloying systems for biomedical applications. Future research directions will move towards overcoming the brittleness, increasing the glass forming ability (GFA) thus obtaining corresponding bulk metallic glasses with larger sizes, removing/reducing toxic elements, and surface modifications. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), also known as amorphous alloys or liquid metals, are relative newcomers in the field of biomaterials. They have gained increasing attention during the past decades, as they exhibit an excellent combination of properties and processing capabilities desired for versatile biomedical implant applications. The present work reviewed the recent developments and advances of biomedical BMGs, including Ti-based, Zr-based, Fe-based, Mg-based, Zn-based, Ca-based and Sr-based BMG alloying systems. Besides, the critical analysis and in-depth discussion on the current status, challenge and future development of biomedical BMGs are included. The possible solution to the BMG size limitation, the brittleness of BMGs has been

  16. Calculations of hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys: Influence of alloying elements and effect of stress

    SciT

    Yu, J.; Jiang, C.; Zhang, Y.

    This report summarizes the progress on modeling hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys. The presence of hydrogen (H) can detrimentally affect the mechanical properties of many metals and alloys. To mitigate these detrimental effects requires fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics governing H pickup and hydride formation. In this work, we focus on H diffusion in Zr-based alloys by studying the effects of alloying elements and stress, factors that have been shown to strongly affect H pickup and hydride formation in nuclear fuel claddings. A recently developed accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method is used for the study. It is foundmore » that for the alloys considered here, H diffusivity depends weakly on composition, with negligible effect at high temperatures in the range of 600-1200 K. Therefore, the small variation in compositions of these alloys is likely not a major cause of the very different H pickup rates. In contrast, stress strongly affects H diffusivity. This effect needs to be considered for studying hydride formation and delayed hydride cracking.« less

  17. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Damage during Compressive Deformation of Amorphous Zr-Based Foams with Aligned, Elongated Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Marie E.; Dunand, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Acoustic emission methods are used to investigate the evolution of internal microfractural damage during uniaxial compression of amorphous Zr-based foams with aligned, elongated pores. The foams are fabricated by means of densifying a blend of crystalline W powders and amorphous Zr-based powders with two oxygen contents (0.078 and 0.144 wt pct) by warm equal channel angular extrusion, followed by dissolution of the elongated W phase from the fully densified amorphous matrix. For the high-oxygen foams, prior powder boundaries in the amorphous struts promote damage that accumulates during compression, resulting in energy-absorbing properties comparable with the low-oxygen foams without stress-concentrating powder boundaries. The influence of pore orientation on the evolution of microfracture damage and the ability of the foams to accumulate damage without catastrophic failure is also investigated: pores oriented from 24 to 68 deg to the loading direction promote wall bending, resulting in foams with more diffuse damage and better energy-absorbing properties.

  18. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciT

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.

    Recently, Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. Here, we report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination ofmore » DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. Our experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.« less

  19. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciT

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.

    Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recently shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. We report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination ofmore » DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. These experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.« less

  20. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.; ...

    2016-12-30

    Recently, Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. Here, we report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination ofmore » DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. Our experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.« less

  1. Biocompatibility Study of Zirconium-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Orthopedic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Chuang, Andrew; Cao, Zheng; Liaw, Peter K.

    2010-07-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials that offer an attractive combination of properties, such as high strength, low modulus, good fatigue limit, and near-net-shape formability. The BMGs have been explored in mechanical, chemical, and magnetic applications. However, little research has been attracted in the biomedical field. In this work, we study the potential of BMGs for the orthopedic repair and replacement. We report the biocompatibility study of zirconium (Zr)-based solid BMGs using mouse osteoblast cells. Cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation are compared to Ti-6Al-4V, a well-studied alloy biomaterial. Our in-vitro study has demonstrated that cells cultured on the Zr-based BMG substrate showed higher attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone matrix deposition compared to those grown on the control Ti alloy substrate. Cytotoxicity staining also revealed the remarkable viability of cells growing on the BMG substrates.

  2. In Vivo Evaluation of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Osteosynthesis Devices

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Hiromoto, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) show higher strength and lower Young’s modulus than Ti-6Al-4V alloy and SUS 316L stainless steel. This study aimed to perform in vivo evaluations of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs for osteosynthesis devices. In the study for intramedullary implants, osteotomies of the femoral bones were performed in male Wistar rats and were stabilized with Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or 316L stainless steel intramedullary nails for 12 weeks. In the study for bone surface implants, Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs ribbons were implanted on the femur surface for 6 weeks. Local effects on the surrounding soft tissues of the implanted BMGs were assessed by histological observation. Implanted materials’ surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). In the study for intramedullary implants, bone healing after osteotomy was assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and mechanical tests. Histological observation showed no findings of the biological effects. SEM-EDS showed no noticeable change on the surface of BMGs, while Ca and P deposition was seen on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface, and irregularities were seen on the 316L stainless steel surface. Mechanical test and peripheral QCT showed that, although there was no significant difference, bone healing of BMGs was more than that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The results indicated that Zr-based BMGs can lead to bone healing equal to or greater than Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Zr-based BMGs exhibited the advantage of less bone bonding and easier implant removal compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In conclusion, Zr-based BMGs are promising for osteosynthesis devices that are eventually removed. PMID:28773792

  3. Pressure Induced Liquid-to-Liquid Transition in Zr-based Supercooled Melts and Pressure Quenched Glasses.

    PubMed

    Dmowski, W; Gierlotka, S; Wang, Z; Yokoyama, Y; Palosz, B; Egami, T

    2017-07-26

    Through high-energy x-ray diffraction and atomic pair density function analysis we find that Zr-based metallic alloy, heated to the supercooled liquid state under hydrostatic pressure and then quenched to room temperature, exhibits a distinct glassy structure. The PDF indicates that the Zr-Zr distances in this glass are significantly reduced compared to those quenched without pressure. Annealing at the glass transition temperature at ambient pressure reverses structural changes and the initial glassy state is recovered. This result suggests that pressure causes a liquid-to-liquid phase transition in this metallic alloy supercooled melt. Such a pressure induced transition is known for covalent liquids, but has not been observed for metallic liquids. The High Pressure Quenched glasses are stable in ambient conditions after decompression.

  4. Pressure Induced Liquid-to-Liquid Transition in Zr-based Supercooled Melts and Pressure Quenched Glasses

    SciT

    Dmowski, W.; Gierlotka, S.; Wang, Z.

    Through high-energy x-ray diffraction and atomic pair density function analysis we find that Zr-based metallic alloy, heated to the supercooled liquid state under hydrostatic pressure and then quenched to room temperature, exhibits a distinct glassy structure. The PDF indicates that the Zr-Zr distances in this glass are significantly reduced compared to those quenched without pressure. Annealing at the glass transition temperature at ambient pressure reverses structural changes and the initial glassy state is recovered. This result suggests that pressure causes a liquid-to-liquid phase transition in this metallic alloy supercooled melt. Such a pressure induced transition is known for covalent liquids,more » but has not been observed for metallic liquids. The High Pressure Quenched glasses are stable in ambient conditions after decompression.« less

  5. Processing and characterization of Zr-based metallic glass by laser direct deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Heehun

    Bulk Metallic Glass has become famous for its exceptional mechanical and corrosion properties. Especially, Zirconium has been the prominent constituent in Bulk Metallic Glass due to its superior glass forming ability, the ability to form amorphous phase with low cooling rate, thereby giving advantages in structural applications. In this study, Zirconium powder was alloyed with Aluminum, Nickel and Copper powder at an atomic ratio of 65:10:10:15, respectively. Using the ball milling process to mix the powders, Zr65Al10Ni 10Cu15 amorphous structure was manufactured by laser direct deposition. Laser power and laser scanning speed were optimized to increase the fraction of amorphous phase. X-ray Diffraction confirmed the existence of both amorphous and crystalline phase by having a wide halo peak and sharp intense peak in the spectrum. Differential Scanning Calorimetry proved the presence of amorphous phase and glass transition was observed to be around 655 K. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of the deposited sample to have repetitive amorphous and crystalline phase as XRD examined. Crystalline phase resulted from the laser reheating and remelting process due to subsequent laser scan. Laser direct deposited amorphous/crystalline composite showed Vickers Hardness of 670 Hv and exhibited improved corrosion resistance in comparison to fully-crystallized sample. The compression test showed that, due to the existence of crystalline phase, fracture strain of Zr65Al10Ni10Cu 15 amorphous composites was enhanced from less than 2% to as high as 5.7%, compared with fully amorphous metallic glass.

  6. Study of Adsorption and Desorption Performances of Zr-Based Metal–Organic Frameworks Using Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoting; Chen, Ying; Zheng, Yajun

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic pore systems and high surface areas of flexible metal–organic framework materials make them excellent candidates to be used in different kinds of adsorption processes. However, the adsorption and desorption behaviors of therapeutic drugs on metal–organic frameworks in solution are not fully developed. Here, we systematically investigated the adsorption and desorption behaviors of a typical therapeutic drug, verapamil, over several Zr-based metal–organic frameworks [e.g., Zr-FUM, UiO-66(Zr), UiO-66(Zr)-NH2 and UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH] as well as ZrO2 in an acetonitrile solution by using paper spray mass spectrometry. In contrast to other materials, UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH demonstrated a superior adsorption performance to verapamil due to their strong acid-base and/or hydrogen-bond interactions, and the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. As verapamil-adsorbed materials were used for desorption experiments, ZrO2 demonstrated the most favorable desorption performance, whereas UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH yielded the poorest desorption capability. These Zr-based materials had also been coated at the surface with filter papers for the analysis of various drugs and proteins in the process of paper spray mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that among the studied materials, ZrO2-coated paper gave the most favorable desorption performance as a pure drug solution, whereas the paper from UiO-66(Zr) demonstrated the optimal capability in the analyses of therapeutic drugs in a complex matrix (e.g., blood) and a protein (e.g., myoglobin). PMID:28773131

  7. Study of Adsorption and Desorption Performances of Zr-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoting; Chen, Ying; Zheng, Yajun; Zhang, Zhiping

    2017-07-08

    The dynamic pore systems and high surface areas of flexible metal-organic framework materials make them excellent candidates to be used in different kinds of adsorption processes. However, the adsorption and desorption behaviors of therapeutic drugs on metal-organic frameworks in solution are not fully developed. Here, we systematically investigated the adsorption and desorption behaviors of a typical therapeutic drug, verapamil, over several Zr-based metal-organic frameworks [e.g., Zr-FUM, UiO-66(Zr), UiO-66(Zr)-NH₂ and UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH] as well as ZrO₂ in an acetonitrile solution by using paper spray mass spectrometry. In contrast to other materials, UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH demonstrated a superior adsorption performance to verapamil due to their strong acid-base and/or hydrogen-bond interactions, and the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. As verapamil-adsorbed materials were used for desorption experiments, ZrO₂ demonstrated the most favorable desorption performance, whereas UiO-66(Zr)-2COOH yielded the poorest desorption capability. These Zr-based materials had also been coated at the surface with filter papers for the analysis of various drugs and proteins in the process of paper spray mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that among the studied materials, ZrO₂-coated paper gave the most favorable desorption performance as a pure drug solution, whereas the paper from UiO-66(Zr) demonstrated the optimal capability in the analyses of therapeutic drugs in a complex matrix (e.g., blood) and a protein (e.g., myoglobin).

  8. Fracture behaviors under pure shear loading in bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cen; Gao, Meng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-12-23

    Pure shear fracture test, as a special mechanical means, had been carried out extensively to obtain the critical information for traditional metallic crystalline materials and rocks, such as the intrinsic deformation behavior and fracture mechanism. However, for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the pure shear fracture behaviors have not been investigated systematically due to the lack of a suitable test method. Here, we specially introduce a unique antisymmetrical four-point bend shear test method to realize a uniform pure shear stress field and study the pure shear fracture behaviors of two kinds of BMGs, Zr-based and La-based BMGs. All kinds of fracture behaviors, the pure shear fracture strength, fracture angle and fracture surface morphology, are systematically analyzed and compared with those of the conventional compressive and tensile fracture. Our results indicate that both the Zr-based and La-based BMGs follow the same fracture mechanism under pure shear loading, which is significantly different from the situation of some previous research results. Our results might offer new enlightenment on the intrinsic deformation and fracture mechanism of BMGs and other amorphous materials.

  9. Fracture behaviors under pure shear loading in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cen; Gao, Meng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-12-01

    Pure shear fracture test, as a special mechanical means, had been carried out extensively to obtain the critical information for traditional metallic crystalline materials and rocks, such as the intrinsic deformation behavior and fracture mechanism. However, for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the pure shear fracture behaviors have not been investigated systematically due to the lack of a suitable test method. Here, we specially introduce a unique antisymmetrical four-point bend shear test method to realize a uniform pure shear stress field and study the pure shear fracture behaviors of two kinds of BMGs, Zr-based and La-based BMGs. All kinds of fracture behaviors, the pure shear fracture strength, fracture angle and fracture surface morphology, are systematically analyzed and compared with those of the conventional compressive and tensile fracture. Our results indicate that both the Zr-based and La-based BMGs follow the same fracture mechanism under pure shear loading, which is significantly different from the situation of some previous research results. Our results might offer new enlightenment on the intrinsic deformation and fracture mechanism of BMGs and other amorphous materials.

  10. Spallation behaviour of a Zr-bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Z.; Huang, X.; Shen, L. T.; Dai, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    Plate impact experiments have been conducted on a Zr-based bulk metal glass (BMG) using a single stage light gas gun. To understand the spallation process of the material, samples were subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of the same amplitude but different durations. Fractographs of spallation surface and fracture features were characterized and the fracture mechanism of different regions of the spallation surface was discussed. Morphology of the spallation surface in the Zr-BMG exhibited a typical equiaxial cellular pattern and porous microstructure. These experiments revealed that, subjected to hydro-tensile stresses, the microdamage of the spallation occurred in the Zr-BMG is microvoids; the spallation in the Zr-BMG is resulted from nucleation, growth and coalescence of microvoids; and the time needed for these microvoids nucleation is less than 100 ns with a stress amplitude of 3.18 GPa.

  11. The Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Zr-Based Metallic Glass under Different Strain Rate Compressions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao-Hsing; Tsai, Chih-Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the high strain rate deformation behavior and the microstructure evolution of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under various strain rates were investigated. The influence of strain and strain rate on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior, as well as microstructural properties was also investigated. Before mechanical testing, the structure and thermal stability of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter. The mechanical property experiments and microstructural observations of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under different strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 5.1 × 103 s−1 and at temperatures of 25 °C were investigated using compressive split-Hopkinson bar (SHPB) and an MTS tester. An in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanoindenter was used to carry out compression tests and investigate the deformation behavior arising at nanopillars of the Zr-based metallic glass. The formation and interaction of shear band during the plastic deformation were investigated. Moreover, it was clearly apparent that the mechanical strength and ductility could be enhanced by impeding the penetration of shear bands with reinforced particles. PMID:28788034

  12. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  13. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  14. Microstructure and hydrogenation properties of a melt-spun non-stoichiometric Zr-based Laves phase alloy

    SciT

    Zhang, Tiebang, E-mail: tiebangzhang@nwpu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yunlong; Li, Jinshan

    2016-01-15

    Alloy with composition of Zr{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}V{sub 1.7} off normal stoichiometric proportion is selected to investigate the effect of defects introduced by non-stoichiometry on hydrogenation kinetics of Zr–Ti–V Laves phase alloys. Microstructure and phase constituent of melt-spun ribbons have been investigated in this work. The activation process, hydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamics characteristics and hydride phase constituent of as-cast alloy and melt-spun ribbons are also compared. Comparing with the as-cast alloy, the dominant Laves phase ZrV{sub 2} is preserved, V-BCC phase is reduced and α-Zr phase is replaced by a small amount of Zr{sub 3}V{sub 3}O phase in melt-spun ribbons. Melt-spun ribbonsmore » exhibit easy activation and fast initial hydrogen absorption on account of the increased specific surface area. However, the decrease in unit cell volume of the dominant phase leads to the decrease in hydrogen absorption capacity. Melt-spinning technique raises the equilibrium pressure and decreases the stability of hydride due to the decrease of unit cell volume and the elimination of α-Zr phase, respectively. Melt-spun ribbons with fine grains show improved hydrogen absorption kinetics comparing with that of the as-cast alloy. Meanwhile, the prevalent micro twins observed within melt-spun ribbons are believed to account for the improved hydrogen absorption kinetics. - Highlights: • Role of defects on hydrogenation kinetics of Zr-based alloys is proposed. • Microstructure and hydrogenation properties of as-cast/melt-spun alloy are compared. • Melt-spinning technique improves the hydrogenation kinetics of Zr{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}V{sub 1.7} alloy. • Refined grains and twin defects account for improved hydrogen absorption kinetics.« less

  15. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L. H.; Huang, X.; Ling, Z.

    2015-09-01

    Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones) mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs) at atomic scale.

  16. A new activation process for a Zr-based alloy as a negative electrode for Ni/MH electric vehicle batteries

    SciT

    Yu, J.S.; Lee, H.; Lee, S.M.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of a combination hot-immersion and slow-charging method on the activation of a Zr-based alloy were investigated. A Zr{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3}Cr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.3}V{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 1.0} alloy electrode was treated with two steps: alloy electrodes were immersed at 80 C for 12 h in a KOH solution and then charged at a low current density for one cycle. It was found that the alloy electrode activation was greatly improved after this hot-immersion and slow-charging treatment, and furthermore the treated electrodes were fully activated at the first normal cycle. The effects of this treatment are discussed on the basis of resultsmore » obtained by scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. The hot-immersion and slow-charging method was successfully applied to the formation process of 80 Ah Ni/MH cells using this Zr-based alloy.« less

  17. The effect of surface pre-conditioning treatments on the local composition of Zr-based conversion coatings formed on aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerezo, J.; Vandendael, I.; Posner, R.; de Wit, J. H. W.; Mol, J. M. C.; Terryn, H.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of different alkaline, acidic and thermal pre-conditioning treatments applied to different Al alloy surfaces. The obtained results are compared to the characteristics of Zr-based conversion coatings that were subsequently generated on top of these substrates. Focus is laid on typical elemental distributions on the sample surfaces, in particular on the amount of precipitated functional additives such as Cu species that are present in the substrate matrix as well as in the conversion bath solutions. To this aim, Field Emission Auger Electron spectra, depth profiles and surface maps with superior local resolution were acquired and compared to scanning electron microscopy images of the sample. The results show how de-alloying processes, which occur at and around intermetallic particles in the Al matrix during typical industrial alkaline or acidic cleaning procedures, provide a significant source of crystallization cores for any following coating processes. This is in particular due for Cu-species, as the resulting local Cu structures on the surface strongly affect the film formation and compositions of state-of-the-art Zr-based films. The findings are highly relevant for industrial treatments of aluminium surfaces, especially for those that undergo corrosion protection and painting process steps prior to usage.

  18. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  19. Local melting to design strong and plastically deformable bulk metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yue-Sheng; Han, Xiao-Liang; Song, Kai-Kai; Tian, Yu-Hao; Peng, Chuan-Xiao; Wang, Li; Sun, Bao-An; Wang, Gang; Kaban, Ivan; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Recently, CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites reinforced by the TRIP (transformation-induced plasticity) effect have been explored in attempt to accomplish an optimal of trade-off between strength and ductility. However, the design of such BMG composites with advanced mechanical properties still remains a big challenge for materials engineering. In this work, we proposed a technique of instantaneously and locally arc-melting BMG plate to artificially induce the precipitation of B2 crystals in the glassy matrix and then to tune mechanical properties. Through adjusting local melting process parameters (i.e. input powers, local melting positions, and distances between the electrode and amorphous plate), the size, volume fraction, and distribution of B2 crystals were well tailored and the corresponding formation mechanism was clearly clarified. The resultant BMG composites exhibit large compressive plasticity and high strength together with obvious work-hardening ability. This compelling approach could be of great significance for the steady development of metastable CuZr-based alloys with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:28211890

  20. A study of stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy by in-situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Dongmei; Mu, Juan; Chen, Yan; ...

    2017-03-01

    The stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy were investigated by in-situ neutron diffraction. The pseudoelastic behavior with a pronounced strain-hardening effect is observed. The retained martensite nuclei and the residual stress obtained from the 1st cycle reduce the stress threshold for the martensitic transformation. A critical stress level is required for the reverse martensitic transformation from martensite to B2 phase. An increase of intensity for the B2 (110) plane in the 1st cycle is caused by the twinning along the {112}<111> twinning system. The convoluted stress partitioning influenced by the elastic and transformation anisotropy along with themore » newly formed martensite determines the microstress partitioning of the studied CuZr-based alloy. The reversible martensitic transformation is responsible for the pseudoelasticity. The macro mechanical behavior of the pure B2 phase can be divided into 3 stages, which are mediated by the evolvement of the martensitic transformation. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).« less

  1. A study of stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy by in-situ neutron diffraction

    SciT

    Wang, Dongmei; Mu, Juan; Chen, Yan

    The stress-induced phase transformation and micromechanical behavior of CuZr-based alloy were investigated by in-situ neutron diffraction. The pseudoelastic behavior with a pronounced strain-hardening effect is observed. The retained martensite nuclei and the residual stress obtained from the 1st cycle reduce the stress threshold for the martensitic transformation. A critical stress level is required for the reverse martensitic transformation from martensite to B2 phase. An increase of intensity for the B2 (110) plane in the 1st cycle is caused by the twinning along the {112}<111> twinning system. The convoluted stress partitioning influenced by the elastic and transformation anisotropy along with themore » newly formed martensite determines the microstress partitioning of the studied CuZr-based alloy. The reversible martensitic transformation is responsible for the pseudoelasticity. The macro mechanical behavior of the pure B2 phase can be divided into 3 stages, which are mediated by the evolvement of the martensitic transformation. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).« less

  2. Effects of chemical composition and test conditions on the dynamic tensile response of Zr-based metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Laws, K.; Martinez, D.; Trujillo, C. P.; Brown, A. D.; Cerreta, E. K.; Hazell, P. J.; Ferry, M.; Quadir, M. Z.; Jiang, J.; Escobedo, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of impact velocity and temperature on the dynamic mechanical behavior of two bulk metallic (BMG) alloys with slightly different elemental compositions (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al30 and Zr46Cu38Ag8Al38) have been investigated. Bullet-shaped samples were accelerated by a gas gun to speeds in the 400˜600m/s range and tested at both room temperature and 250°C. The samples impacted steel extrusion dies which subjected the bullets to high strains at relatively high strain-rates. The extruded fragments were subsequently soft recovered by using low density foams and examined by means of optical/scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that shear banding was the dictating mechanism responsible for the fracture of all BMGs. At room temperature, the Zr55Cu30Ni5Al30 alloy exhibited a higher resistance to fragmentation than the Zr46Cu38Ag8Al38 alloy. At 250°C, significant melting was observed in the recovered fragments of both alloys, which indicates that the BMG glassy structure undergoes a melting process and deformation likely occurs homogeneously.

  3. Origin of anomalous inverse notch effect in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Zhou, H. F.; Wang, Z. T.; Li, Y.; Gao, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding notch-related failure is crucial for the design of reliable engineering structures. However, substantial controversies exist in the literature on the notch effect in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), and the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the apparent confusion is still poorly understood. Here we investigate the physical origin of an inverse notch effect in a Zr-based metallic glass, where the tensile strength of the material is dramatically enhanced, rather than decreased (as expected from the stress concentration point of view), by introduction of a notch. Our experiments and molecular dynamics simulations show that the seemingly anomalous inverse notch effect is in fact caused by a transition in failure mechanism from shear banding at the notch tip to cavitation and void coalescence. Based on our theoretical analysis, the transition occurs as the stress triaxiality in the notched sample exceeds a material-dependent threshold value. Our results fill the gap in the current understanding of BMG strength and failure mechanism by resolving the conflicts on notch effects and may inspire re-interpretation of previous reports on BMG fracture toughness where pre-existing notches were routinely adopted.

  4. How does spallation microdamage nucleate in bulk amorphous alloys under shock loading?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Ling, Z.; Zhang, H. S.; Ma, J.; Dai, L. H.

    2011-11-01

    Specially designed plate-impact experiments have been conducted on a Zr-based amorphous alloy using a single-stage light gas gun. To understand the microdamage nucleation process in the material, the samples are subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude (˜ 3.18 GPa) but with different durations (83-201 ns). A cellular pattern with an equiaxed shape is observed on the spallation surface, which shows that spallation in the tested amorphous alloy is a typical ductile fracture and that microvoids have been nucleated during the process. Based on the observed fracture morphologies of the spallation surface and free-volume theory, we propose a microvoid nucleation model of bulk amorphous alloys. It is found that nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in amorphous alloys results from diffusion and coalescence of free volume, and that high mean tensile stress plays a dominant role in microvoid nucleation.

  5. Bulk crystalline optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renninger, W. H.; Kharel, P.; Behunin, R. O.; Rakich, P. T.

    2018-06-01

    Control of long-lived, high-frequency phonons using light offers a path towards creating robust quantum links, and could lead to tools for precision metrology with applications to quantum information processing. Optomechanical systems based on bulk acoustic-wave resonators are well suited for this goal in light of their high quality factors, and because they do not suffer from surface interactions as much as their microscale counterparts. However, so far these phonons have been accessible only electromechanically, using piezoelectric interactions. Here, we demonstrate customizable optomechanical coupling to macroscopic phonon modes of a bulk acoustic-wave resonator at cryogenic temperatures. These phonon modes, which are formed by shaping the surfaces of a crystal into a plano-convex phononic resonator, yield appreciable optomechanical coupling rates, providing access to high acoustic quality factors (4.2 × 107) at high phonon frequencies (13 GHz). This simple approach, which uses bulk properties rather than nanostructural control, is appealing for the ability to engineer optomechanical systems at high frequencies that are robust against thermal decoherence. Moreover, we show that this optomechanical system yields a unique form of dispersive symmetry-breaking that enables phonon heating or cooling without an optical cavity.

  6. The performances of proto-type Ni/MH secondary batteries using Zr-based hydrogen storage alloys and filamentary type Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, Ho; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Paul S.; Lee, Jai-Young

    2001-04-01

    For the purpose of developing a Zr-based Laves phase alloy with higher capacity and better performance for electrochemical application, extensive work has been carried out. After careful alloy design of ZrMn2-based hydrogen storage alloys through varying their stoichiometry by means of substituting or adding alloying elements, the Zr0.9Ti0.1(Mn0.7V0.5Ni1.4)0.92 with high capacity (392 mAh/g at the 0.25C) and improved performance (comparable to that of commercialized AB5 type alloy) was developed. Another endeavor was made to improve the poor activation property and the low rate capability of the developed Zr-based Laves phase alloy for commercialization. The combination method of hot-immersion and slow-charging was introduced. It was found that electrode activation was greatly improved after hot immersion at 80°C for 12h followed by charging at 0.05C. The effects of this method are discussed in comparison with other activation methods. The combination method was successfully applied to the formation process of 80 Ah Ni/MH cells. A series of systematic investigations has been rendered to analyze the inner cell pressure characteristics of a sealed type Ni-MH battery. It was found that the increase of inner cell pressure in the sealed type Ni/MH battery of the above-mentioned Zr-Ti-Mn-V-Ni alloy was mainly due to the accumulation of oxygen gas during charge/discharge cycling. The fact identified that the surface catalytic activity was affected more dominantly by the oxygen recombination reaction than the reaction surface area was also identified. In order to improve the surface catalytic activity of a Zr-Ti-Mn-V-Ni alloy, which is closely related to the inner pressure behavior in a sealed cell, the electrode was fabricated by mixing the alloy with Cu powder and a filamentary type of Ni and replacing 75% of the carbon black with them; thus, the inner cell pressure rarely increases with cycles due to the active gas recombination reaction. Measurements of the surface

  7. Effect of Multiple Alloying Elements on the Glass-Forming Ability, Thermal Stability, and Crystallization Behavior of Zr-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazlov, A. I.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Ketov, S. V.; Suryanarayana, C.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Effect of multiple alloying elements on the glass-forming ability, thermal stability, and crystallization behavior of Zr-based glass-forming alloys were studied in the present work. We investigated the effect of complete or partial substitution of Ti and Ni with similar early and late transition metals, respectively, on the glass-forming ability and crystallization behavior of the Zr50Ti10Cu20Ni10Al10 alloy. Poor correlation was observed between different parameters indicating the glass-forming ability and the critical size of the obtained glassy samples. Importance of the width of the crystallization interval is emphasized. The kinetics of primary crystallization, i.e., the rate of nucleation and rate of growth of the nuclei of primary crystals is very different from that of the eutectic alloys. Thus, it is difficult to estimate the glass-forming ability only on the basis of the empirical parameters not taking into account the crystallization behavior and the crystallization interval.

  8. Bulk viscous quintessential inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    In a spatially-flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, the incorporation of bulk viscous process in general relativity leads to an appearance of a nonsingular background of the universe that both at early and late times depicts an accelerated universe. These early and late scenarios of the universe can be analytically calculated and mimicked, in the context of general relativity, by a single scalar field whose potential could also be obtained analytically where the early inflationary phase is described by a one-dimensional Higgs potential and the current acceleration is realized by an exponential potential. We show that the early inflationary universe leads to a power spectrum of the cosmological perturbations which match with current observational data, and after leaving the inflationary phase, the universe suffers a phase transition needed to explain the reheating of the universe via gravitational particle production. Furthermore, we find that at late times, the universe enters into the de Sitter phase that can explain the current cosmic acceleration. Finally, we also find that such bulk viscous-dominated universe attains the thermodynamical equilibrium, but in an asymptotic manner.

  9. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  10. Bulk muscles, loose cables

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  11. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  13. James C. McGroddy Prize Talk: Development and Applications of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-03-01

    We realized, through detailed amorphous material investigations in the 1980's, that a number of metallic glassy alloys of multi-component La-, Mg- and Zr-based systems exhibit a large supercooled-liquid region prior to crystallization. The stabilization phenomenon of these supercooled liquid should enable us to fabricate, by slow cooling processes, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with critical diameters larger than several millimeters. Caltech's group also succeeded the fabrication of BMG in Zr-based alloy system in 1993. Since then, much attention has been paid to BMGs because of their novel characteristics in basic science and engineering aspects and new materials science and engineering fields have emerged for BMGs. Based on knowledge obtained thus far, we have successfully developed new BMGs with technologically-important transition metals, such as Zr-, Ti-, Fe-, Co-, Ni- and Cu-based alloys. Currently, the maximum diameter for glass formation reaches 30 mm for Zr- and Cu-based systems, 12 mm for Ti-based system, 18 mm for Fe-Co-based system and 20 mm for Ni-based system, even employing the copper mold casting technique. These large size BMGs possess nearly the same fundamental properties as those of the BMGs with smaller diameters. BMGs with diameters above 10 mm can be formed in Zr-Al-Ni-Cu system with Zr compositions higher than 65 at% and they exhibit excellent properties, such as high Poisson's ratio, high ductility, high fracture toughness, high fatigue strength and high stability of mechanical properties to annealing-induced embrittlement. The new Ti-based BMGs without allergic and toxic elements should exhibit good compatibility to bio-tissues. Applications of BMGs in Fe-, Co-, Ti- and Zr-based systems have advanced many devices including the following; choke coil, power inductor, electro magnetic shielding, magnetic and position sensors, micro-geared motor, pressure sensor, Coriolis flowmeter, surface coating layer, precise polishing medium, magnetic and

  14. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  15. Preparation, glass forming ability, crystallization and deformation of (zirconium, hafnium)-copper-nickel-aluminum-titanium-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaofeng

    Multicomponent Zr-based bulk metallic glasses are the most promising metallic glass forming systems. They exhibit great glass forming ability and fascinating mechanical properties, and thus are considered as potential structural materials. One potential application is that they could be replacements of the depleted uranium for making kinetic energy armor-piercing projectiles, but the density of existing Zr-based alloys is too low for this application. Based on the chemical and crystallographic similarities between Zr and Hf, we have developed two series of bulk metallic glasses with compositions of (HfxZr1-x) 52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 and (HfxZr1-x) 57Cu20Ni8Al10Ti5 ( x = 0--1) by gradually replacing Zr by Hf. Remarkably increased density and improved mechanical properties have been achieved in these alloys. In these glasses, Hf and Zr play an interchangeable role in determining the short range order. Although the glass forming ability decreases continuously with Hf addition, most of these alloys remain bulk glass-forming. Recently, nanocomposites produced from bulk metallic glasses have attracted wide attention due to improved mechanical properties. However, their crystalline microstructure (the grain size and the crystalline volume fraction) has to be optimized. We have investigated crystallization of (Zr, Hf)-based bulk metallic glasses, including the composition dependence of crystallization paths and crystallization mechanisms. Our results indicate that the formation of high number density nanocomposites from bulk metallic glasses can be attributed to easy nucleation and slowing-down growth processes, while the multistage crystallization behavior makes it more convenient to control the microstructure evolution. Metallic glasses are known to exhibit unique plastic deformation behavior. At low temperature and high stress, plastic flow is localized in narrow shear bands. Macroscopic investigations of shear bands (e.g., chemical etching) suggest that the internal

  16. Nanometer scale atomic structure of zirconium based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo

    We have studied the nanometer scale structure of bulk metallic glass (BMG) using fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM). The nanometer scale medium range order (MRO) in BMG is of significant interest because of its possible relationship to the properties, but the experimental study of the MRO is difficult because conventional diffraction techniques are not sensitive to the MRO scale. FEM is a quantitative transmission electron microscopy technique which measures the nanoscale structural fluctuation associated with MRO in amorphous materials, and provides information about the size, distribution, and internal structure of MRO. In this work, we developed an improved method for FEM using energy-filtered STEM nanodiffraction with highly coherent probes with size up to 11nm in a state-of-the-art Cs- corrected STEM. We also developed an effective way to eliminate the effect of sample thickness variation to the FEM data by using Z-contrast images as references. To study the detailed structure of MRO, we developed a hybrid reverse Monte Carlo (H-RMC) simulation which combines an empirical atomic potential and the FEM data. H-RMC generated model structures that match the experimental data at short and medium range. In addition, the subtle rotational symmetries in the FEM nanodiffraction patterns were analyzed by angular correlation function to reveal more details of the internal structure of MRO. Our experiments and simulations show that Zr-based BMG contains pseudo-planar, crystal-like MRO as well as icosahedral clusters in its nanoscale structure. We found that some icosahedral clusters may be connected, and that structural relaxation by annealing increases the population of icosahedral clusters.

  17. Influence of thin-film metallic glass coating on fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glass: Experiments and finite element modeling

    SciT

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Chu, Jinn P.; Jia, Haoling

    In this paper, a coating of the Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on the Zr 50Cu 30Al 10Ni 10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) to investigate shear-band evolution under four-point-bend fatigue testing. The fatigue endurance-limit of the TFMG-coated samples is ~ 33% higher than that of the BMG. The results of finite-element modeling (FEM) revealed a delay in the shear-band nucleation and propagation in TFMG-coated samples under applied cyclic-loading. The FEM study of spherical indentation showed that the redistribution of stress by the TFMG coating prevents localized shear-banding in the BMG substrate. Finally, the enhanced fatigue characteristics of themore » BMG substrates can be attributed to the TFMG coatings retarding shear-band initiation at defects on the surface of the BMG.« less

  18. Influence of thin-film metallic glass coating on fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glass: Experiments and finite element modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Chu, Jinn P.; Jia, Haoling; ...

    2017-03-21

    In this paper, a coating of the Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on the Zr 50Cu 30Al 10Ni 10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) to investigate shear-band evolution under four-point-bend fatigue testing. The fatigue endurance-limit of the TFMG-coated samples is ~ 33% higher than that of the BMG. The results of finite-element modeling (FEM) revealed a delay in the shear-band nucleation and propagation in TFMG-coated samples under applied cyclic-loading. The FEM study of spherical indentation showed that the redistribution of stress by the TFMG coating prevents localized shear-banding in the BMG substrate. Finally, the enhanced fatigue characteristics of themore » BMG substrates can be attributed to the TFMG coatings retarding shear-band initiation at defects on the surface of the BMG.« less

  19. Phobos: Observed bulk properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, Martin; Andert, Tom; Jacobson, Robert; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Dehant, Véronique

    2014-11-01

    This work is a review of the mass determinations of the Mars moon Phobos by spacecraft close flybys, by solving for the Martian gravity field and by the analysis of secular orbit perturbations. The absolute value and accuracy is sensitive on the knowledge and accuracy of the Phobos ephemeris, of the spacecraft orbit, other perturbing forces acting on the spacecraft and the resolution of the Martian gravity field besides the measurement accuracy of the radio tracking data. The mass value and its error improved from spacecraft mission to mission or from the modern analysis of “old” tracking data but these solutions depend on the accuracy of the ephemeris at the time of observation. The mass value seems to settle within the range of GMPh=(7.11±0.09)×10-4 km3 s-2 which covers almost all mass values from close flybys and “distant” encounters within its 3-σ error (1.5%). Using the volume value determined from MEX HRSC imaging, the bulk density is (1873±31) kg m-3 (3-σ error or 1.7%), a low value which suggests that Phobos is either highly porous, is composed partially of light material or both. The determination of the gravity coefficients C20 and C22 from the Mars Express 2010 close flyby does not allow to draw conclusion on the internal structure. The large errors do not distinguish whether Phobos is homogeneous or not. In view of theories of the Phobos' origin, one possibility is that Phobos is not a captured asteroid but accreted from a debris disk in Mars orbit as a second generation solar system object.

  20. Looking for a bulk point

    SciT

    Maldacena, Juan; Simmons-Duffin, David; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    Here, we consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We also argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at thesemore » locations. Finally, we prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.« less

  1. Looking for a bulk point

    DOE PAGES

    Maldacena, Juan; Simmons-Duffin, David; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2017-01-03

    Here, we consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We also argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at thesemore » locations. Finally, we prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.« less

  2. 7 CFR 201.40 - Bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.40 Bulk. Bulk seeds or screenings shall be sampled by inserting a long probe or thrusting the hand into the bulk as circumstances require in at least seven... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bulk. 201.40 Section 201.40 Agriculture Regulations of...

  3. 7 CFR 201.40 - Bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.40 Bulk. Bulk seeds or screenings shall be sampled by inserting a long probe or thrusting the hand into the bulk as circumstances require in at least seven... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk. 201.40 Section 201.40 Agriculture Regulations of...

  4. Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.

    2018-05-01

    The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

  5. Feasibility of using bulk metallic glass for self-expandable stent applications.

    PubMed

    Praveen Kumar, Gideon; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Tavakoli, Rouhollah; Cui, Fangsen

    2017-10-01

    Self-expandable stents are widely used to restore blood flow in a diseased artery segment by keeping the artery open after angioplasty. Despite the prevalent use of conventional crystalline metallic alloys, for example, nitinol, to construct self-expandable stents, new biomaterials such as bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are being actively pursued to improve stent performance. Here, we conducted a series of analyses including finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the feasibility of using a prototypical Zr-based BMG for self-expandable stent applications. We model stent crimping of several designs for different percutaneous applications. Our results indicate that BMG-based stents with diamond-shaped crowns suffer from severe localization of plastic deformation and abrupt failure during crimping. As a possible solution, we further illustrate that such abrupt failure could be avoided in BMG-based stents without diamond shape crowns. This work would open a new horizon for a quest toward exploiting superior mechanical and functional properties of metallic glasses to design future stents. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1874-1882, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A combined arc-melting and tilt-casting furnace for the manufacture of high-purity bulk metallic glass materials.

    PubMed

    Soinila, E; Pihlajamäki, T; Bossuyt, S; Hänninen, H

    2011-07-01

    An arc-melting furnace which includes a tilt-casting facility was designed and built, for the purpose of producing bulk metallic glass specimens. Tilt-casting was chosen because reportedly, in combination with high-purity processing, it produces the best fatigue endurance in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Incorporating the alloying and casting facilities in a single piece of equipment reduces the amount of laboratory space and capital investment needed. Eliminating the sample transfer step from the production process also saves time and reduces sample contamination. This is important because the glass forming ability in many alloy systems, such as Zr-based glass-forming alloys, deteriorates rapidly with increasing oxygen content of the specimen. The challenge was to create a versatile instrument, in which high purity conditions can be maintained throughout the process, even when melting alloys with high affinity for oxygen. Therefore, the design provides a high-vacuum chamber to be filled with a low-oxygen inert atmosphere, and takes special care to keep the system hermetically sealed throughout the process. In particular, movements of the arc-melting electrode and sample manipulator arm are accommodated by deformable metal bellows, rather than sliding O-ring seals, and the whole furnace is tilted for tilt-casting. This performance of the furnace is demonstrated by alloying and casting Zr(55)Cu(30)Al(10)Ni(5) directly into rods up to ø 10 mm which are verified to be amorphous by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and to exhibit locally ductile fracture at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  7. Application of computational thermodynamics in the study of magnsium alloys and bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongbo

    In this thesis, the application of the computational thermodynamics has been explored on two subjects, the study of magnesium alloys (Chapter 1-5) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) (Chapter 6-9). For the former case, a strategy of experiments coupled with the CALPHAD approach was employed to establish a thermodynamic description of the quaternary system Mg-Al-Ca-Sr focusing on the Mg-rich phase equilibria. Multicomponent Mg-rich alloys based on the MgAl-Ca-Sr system are one of the most promising candidates for the high temperature applications in the transportation industry. The Mg-Al-Ca-Sr quaternary consists of four ternaries and six binaries. Thermodynamic descriptions of all constituent binaries are available in the literature. Thermodynamic descriptions of the two key ternaries, Mg-Al-Sr and Mg-Al-Ca, were obtained by an efficient and reliable methodology, combining computational thermodynamics with key experiments. The obtained thermodynamic descriptions were validated by performing extensive comparisons between the calculations and experimental information. Thermodynamic descriptions of the other two ternaries, MgCa-Sr and Al-Ca-Sr, were obtained by extrapolation. For the later case, a computational thermodynamic strategy was formulated to obtain a minor but optimum amount of additional element into a base alloy to improve its glass forming ability (GFA). This was done through thermodynamically calculating the maximum liquidus depressions caused by various alloying addition (or replacement) schemes. The success of this approach has been examined in two multicomponent systems, Zr-based Zr-Cu-Ni-Al-Ti and Cu-rich Cu-Zr-Ti-Y. For both cases, experimental results showed conclusively that the GFA increases more than 100% from the base alloy to the one with minor but optimal elemental addition. Furthermore, a thermodynamic computational approach was employed to identify the compositions of Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Al alloys exhibiting low-lying liquidus surfaces, which tend to

  8. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  9. Bulk density of small meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  10. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  11. 49 CFR 172.514 - Bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings. 172.514 Section 172.514... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.514 Bulk packagings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, each person who offers for transportation a bulk packaging which contains a hazardous material...

  12. Flexoelectricity as a bulk property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resta, Raffaele

    2010-03-01

    Piezoelectric composites can be created using nonpiezoelectric materials, by exploiting flexoelectricity. This is by definition the linear response of polarization to strain gradient, and is symmetry-allowed even in elemental crystals. However, the basic issue whether flexoelectricity is a bulk or a surface material property is open. We mention that the analogous issue about piezoelectricity is nontrivial either.^1 In this first attempt towards a full theory of flexoelectricity we prove that, for a simple class of strain and strain gradients, flexoelectricity is indeed a bulk effect. The key ingredients of the present theory are the long-range perturbations linearly induced by a unit displacement of a single nucleus in an otherwise perfect crystal: to leading order these are dipolar, quadrupolar, and octupolar. The corresponding tensors have rank 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Whereas dipoles and quadrupoles provide the piezoelectric response,^1 we show that dipoles and octupoles provide the flexoelectric response in nonpiezoelectric crystals. We conjecture that the full dipole and octupole tensors provide the flexoelectric response to the most general form of strain gradient. Our problem has a close relationship to the one of the ``absolute'' deformation potentials, which is based on a similar kind of dipolar and octupolar tensors.^2 ^1 R. M. Martin, Phys. Rev. B 5, 1607 (1972). ^2 R. Resta, L. Colombo and S. Baroni, Phys. Rev. B 41, 12538 (1990).

  13. 17 CFR 5.23 - Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations. 5.23 Section 5.23 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.23 Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations...

  14. 75 FR 34682 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ...] RIN 1625-AB47 Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk... on June 17, 2010, entitled ``Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code.'' This correction provides correct information with regard to the...

  15. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    DOE PAGES

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Lewkowycz, Aitor; Maldacena, Juan; ...

    2016-06-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  16. Aspects of silicon bulk lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsberg, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    The best lifetimes attained for bulk crytalline silicon as a function of doping concentrations are analyzed. It is assumed that the dopants which set the Fermi level do not contribute to the recombination traffic which is due to the unknown defect. This defect is assumed to have two charge states: neutral and negative, the neutral defect concentration is frozen-in at some temperature T sub f. The higher doping concentrations should include the band-band Auger effect by using a generalization of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism. The generalization of the SRH mechanism is discussed. This formulation gives a straightforward procedure for incorporating both band-band and band-trap Auger effects in the SRH procedure. Two related questions arise in this context: (1) it may sometimes be useful to write the steady-state occupation probability of the traps implied by SRH procedure in a form which approximates to the Fermi-Dirac distribution; and (2) the effect on the SRH mechanism of spreading N sub t levels at one energy uniformly over a range of energies is discussed.

  17. Structures and mechanical behaviors of Zr55Cu35Al10 bulk amorphous alloys at ambient and cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Cang; Liaw, P. K.; Haas, V.; Wall, J. J.; Choo, H.; Inoue, A.; Liu, C. T.

    2006-07-01

    Based on a systematic study of pair distribution functions, carried out at cryogenic and ambient temperatures, on as-cast and crystallized ternary Zr-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs), we found that the atoms in BAAs are inhomogenously distributed at a local atomic level. They exist as different clusters with significantly shorter bond lengths than their crystallized counterpart structures—intermetallic compounds, and these structures exist stably in the amorphous state. This results in additional free volume, which is about ˜7% larger than that measured by the Archimedes method. The compressive strength measured at ˜77K was found to be ˜16% larger than that measured at 298K . In this study, an amorphous structural model is proposed, in which strongly bonded clusters acting as units are randomly distributed and strongly correlated to one another, as the free volume forms between clusters. Simulations with reverse Monte Carlo were performed by combining icosehadral and cubic structures as the initial structures for the BAA. The simulations show results consistent with our model. An attempt has been made to connect the relationship between amorphous structures and their mechanical properties.

  18. Two-phase quasi-equilibrium in β-type Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Pauly, S.; Tang, M. Q.; Eckert, J.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of cast Ti/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) containing β-Ti still remains ambiguous. This is why to date the strategies and alloys suitable for producing such BMGCs with precisely controllable volume fractions and crystallite sizes are still rather limited. In this work, a Ti-based BMGC containing β-Ti was developed in the Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Be system. The glassy matrix of this BMGC possesses an exceptional glass-forming ability and as a consequence, the volume fractions as well as the composition of the β-Ti dendrites remain constant over a wide range of cooling rates. This finding can be explained in terms of a two-phase quasi-equilibrium between the supercooled liquid and β-Ti, which the system attains on cooling. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium allows predicting the crystalline and glassy volume fractions by means of the lever rule and we succeeded in reproducing these values by slight variations in the alloy composition at a fixed cooling rate. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium could be of critical importance for understanding and designing the microstructures of BMGCs containing the β-phase. Its implications on the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase are elaborated. PMID:26754315

  19. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  20. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  1. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  2. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  3. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  4. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section 127.313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator...

  5. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section 127.313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator...

  6. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section 127.313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator...

  7. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section 127.313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator...

  8. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section 127.313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator...

  9. Temporal soil bulk density following tillage

    Soil is the medium for air, energy, water, and chemical transport between the atmosphere and the solid earth. Soil bulk density is a key variable impacting the rate at which this transport occurs. Typically, soil bulk density is measured by the gravimetric method, where a sample of known volume is t...

  10. 76 FR 8658 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code..., the Coast Guard amended its regulations governing the carriage of solid hazardous materials in bulk to... hazardous bulk solid materials not addressed in the amended regulations. This notice announces that the...

  11. Bulk Leisure--Problem or Blessing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    With an increasing number of the nation's work force experiencing "bulk leisure" time because of new work scheduling procedures, parks and recreation offices are encouraged to examine their program scheduling and content. (JM)

  12. Appendix D - Sample Bulk Storage Facility Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This sample Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan in Appendix D is intended to provide examples and illustrations of how a bulk storage facility could address a variety of scenarios in its SPCC Plan.

  13. Faecal bulking efficacy of Australasian breakfast cereals.

    PubMed

    Monro, John A

    2002-01-01

    Faecal bulk may play an important role in preventing a range of disorders of the large bowel, but as yet there is little information available on the relative faecal bulking capacities of various foods. Breakfast cereals are often promoted as a good source of potential bulk for 'inner health' because they provide dietary fibre, but their relative abilities to provide faecal bulk per se have not been described. The faecal bulking efficacy of 28 representative Australasian breakfast cereals was therefore measured. A rat model developed for the purpose, and shown to give similar responses as humans to cereal fibres, was used to measure faecal bulking efficacy as increases in fully hydrated faecal weight/100 g diet, based on precise measurements of food intake, faecal dry matter output and faecal water-holding capacity (g water held without stress/g faecal dry matter). Compared to a baseline diet containing 50% sucrose, increments in hydrated faecal weight due to 50% breakfast cereal ranged from slightly negative (Cornflakes, -2 g/100 g diet) to about 80 g/100 g diet (San Bran). Most breakfast cereals increased hydrated faecal weight by between 10 and 20 g/100 g diet from a baseline of 21 +/- 1.5 g/100 g diet, but four products containing high levels of wheat bran had an exceptionally large impact on hydrated faecal weight (increment > 20 g/100 g diet), and the changes resulted more from relative changes in dry matter output than in faecal water retention/gram. However, as faecal water retention was about 2.5 g water/g faecal dry matter on average, increases in dry matter represented large increases in faecal water load. Faecal bulking indices (FBI) for most of the breakfast cereals were less than 20 (wheat bran = 100). The content of wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulk (WBE(fb)) in the breakfast cereals was calculated from FBI. Most breakfast cereals contributed, per serve, less than 10% of a theoretical daily reference value for faecal bulk (DRV(fb) = 63 WBE

  14. Holographic bulk reconstruction with α' corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti

    2017-10-01

    We outline a holographic recipe to reconstruct α' corrections to anti-de Sitter (AdS) (quantum) gravity from an underlying CFT in the strictly planar limit (N →∞ ). Assuming that the boundary CFT can be solved in principle to all orders of the 't Hooft coupling λ , for scalar primary operators, the λ-1 expansion of the conformal dimensions can be mapped to higher curvature corrections of the dual bulk scalar field action. Furthermore, for the metric perturbations in the bulk, the AdS /CFT operator-field isomorphism forces these corrections to be of the Lovelock type. We demonstrate this by reconstructing the coefficient of the leading Lovelock correction, also known as the Gauss-Bonnet term in a bulk AdS gravity action using the expression of stress-tensor two-point function up to subleading order in λ-1.

  15. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    SciT

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralizedmore » data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.« less

  16. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  17. Meteoroid Bulk Density and Ceplecha Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaauw, R. C.; Moser, D. E.; Moorhead, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The determination of asteroid bulk density is an important aspect of Near Earth Object (NEO) characterization. A fraction of meteoroids originate from asteroids (including some NEOs), thus in lieu of mutual perturbations, satellites, or expensive spacecraft missions, a study of meteoroid bulk densities can potentially provide useful insights into the densities of NEOs and PHOs (Potentially Hazardous Objects). Meteoroid bulk density is still inherently difficult to measure, and is most often determined by modeling the ablation of the meteoroid. One approach towards determining a meteoroid density distribution entails using a more easily measured proxy for the densities, then calibrating the proxy with known densities from meteorite falls, ablation modelling, and other sources. An obvious proxy choice is the Ceplecha type, KB (Ceplecha, 1958), which is thought to indicate the strength of a meteoroid and often correlated to different bulk densities in literature. KB is calculated using the air density at the beginning height of the meteor, the initial velocity, and the zenith angle of the radiant; quantities more readily determined than meteoroid bulk density itself. Numerical values of K(sub B) are sorted into groups (A, B, C, etc.), which have been matched to meteorite falls or meteor showers with known composition such as the porous Draconids. An extensive survey was conducted to establish the strength of the relationship between bulk density and K(sub B), specifically looking at those that additionally determined K(sub B) for the meteors. In examining the modeling of high-resolution meteor data from Kikwaya et al. (2011), the correlation between K(sub B) and bulk density was not as strong as hoped. However, a distinct split by dynamical type was seen with Jovian Tisserand parameter (T(sub J)), with meteoroids from Halley Type comets (T(sub J) < 2) exhibiting much lower bulk densities than those originating from Jupiter Family comets and asteroids (T(sub J) > 2

  18. Efficient bulk-loading of gridfiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leutenegger, Scott T.; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of bulk-loading large data sets for the gridfile multiattribute indexing technique. We propose a rectilinear partitioning algorithm that heuristically seeks to minimize the size of the gridfile needed to ensure no bucket overflows. Empirical studies on both synthetic data sets and on data sets drawn from computational fluid dynamics applications demonstrate that our algorithm is very efficient, and is able to handle large data sets. In addition, we present an algorithm for bulk-loading data sets too large to fit in main memory. Utilizing a sort of the entire data set it creates a gridfile without incurring any overflows.

  19. The bulk composition of Titan's atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the physical constraints for Titan's atmosphere leads to a model which describes the bulk composition of the atmosphere in terms of observable parameters. Intermediate-resolution photometric scans of both Saturn and Titan, including scans of the Q branch of Titan's methane band, constrain these parameters in such a way that the model indicates the presence of another important atmospheric gas, namely, another bulk constituent or a significant thermal opacity. Further progress in determining the composition and state of Titan's atmosphere requires additional observations to eliminate present ambiguities. For this purpose, particular observational targets are suggested.

  20. 46 CFR 148.04-23 - Unslaked lime in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unslaked lime in bulk. 148.04-23 Section 148.04-23... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Special Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-23 Unslaked lime in bulk. (a) Unslaked lime in bulk must be transported in unmanned, all steel, double-hulled barges...

  1. Hexaferrite multiferroics: from bulk to thick films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutzarova, T.; Ghelev, Ch; Peneva, P.; Georgieva, B.; Kolev, S.; Vertruyen, B.; Closset, R.

    2018-03-01

    We report studies of the structural and microstructural properties of Sr3Co2Fe24O41 in bulk form and as thick films. The precursor powders for the bulk form were prepared following the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The prepared pellets were synthesized at 1200 °C to produce Sr3Co2Fe24O41. The XRD spectra of the bulks showed the characteristic peaks corresponding to the Z-type hexaferrite structure as a main phase and second phases of CoFe2O4 and Sr3Fe2O7-x. The microstructure analysis of the cross-section of the bulk pellets revealed a hexagonal sheet structure. Large areas were observed of packages of hexagonal sheets where the separate hexagonal particles were ordered along the c axis. Sr3Co2Fe24O41 thick films were deposited from a suspension containing the Sr3Co2Fe24O41 powder. The microstructural analysis of the thick films showed that the particles had the perfect hexagonal shape typical for hexaferrites.

  2. A stereoscopic look into the bulk

    DOE PAGES

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; ...

    2016-07-26

    Here, we present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the “OPE blocks,” contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimalmore » surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space — the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow for conceptually clean and technically simple derivations of many results known in the literature, including linearized Einstein’s equations and the relation between conformal blocks and geodesic Witten diagrams.« less

  3. Winterization strategies for bulk storage of pickles

    Cucumbers are commercially fermented and stored in bulk in outdoor open top fiberglass tanks. During winter, snow and ice that accumulates around and on top of tanks influence heat transfer in an unpredictable manner, often compromising quality. This study evaluates the performance of inexpensive an...

  4. Cellulosic ethanol byproducts as a bulking agent

    J.M. Considine; D. Coffin; J.Y. Zhu; D.H. Mann; X. Tang

    2017-01-01

    Financial enhancement of biomass value prior to pulping requires subsequent use of remaining materials; e.g., high value use of remaining stock material after cellulosic ethanol production would improve the economics for cellulosic ethanol. In this work, use of enzymatic hydrolysis residual solids (EHRS), a cellulosic ethanol byproduct, were investigated as a bulking...

  5. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  6. Meteoroid Bulk Density and Ceplecha Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaauw, R. C.; Moser, D. E.; Moorhead, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Determination of asteroid bulk density is an important aspect of NEO characterization, yet difficult to measure. As a fraction of meteoroids originate from asteroids (including some NEOs), a study of meteoroid bulk densities can potentially provide useful insights into the densities of NEOs and PHOs in lieu of mutual perturbations, satellite, or expensive spacecraft missions. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office characterizes the meteoroid environment for the purpose of spacecraft risk and operations. To accurately determine the risk, a distribution of meteoroid bulk densities are needed. This is not trivial to determine. If the particle survives to the ground the bulk density can be directly measured, however only the most dense particles land on the Earth. The next best approach is to model the meteor's ablation, which is not straightforward. Clear deceleration is necessary to do this and there are discrepancies in results between models. One approach to a distribution of bulk density is to use a measured proxy for the densities, then calibrate the proxy with known densities from meteorite falls, ablation modelling, and other sources. An obvious proxy choice is the Ceplecha type, K(sub B), thought to indicate the strength of a meteoroid. KB is frequented cited as a good proxy for meteoroid densities, but we find it is poorly correlated with density. However, a distinct split by dynamical type was seen with Jovian Tisserand parameter, T(sub J), with meteoroids from Halley Type comets (T(sub J less than 2 ) exhibiting much lower densities than those originating from Jupiter and asteroids (T(sub J greater than 2).

  7. Bulk-wave ultrasonic propagation imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Syed Haider; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2018-03-01

    Laser-based ultrasound systems are described that utilize the ultrasonic bulk-wave sensing to detect the damages and flaws in the aerospace structures. These systems apply pulse-echo or through transmission methods to detect longitudinal through-the-thickness bulk-waves. These thermoelastic waves are generated using Q-switched laser and non-contact sensing is performed using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Laser-based raster scanning is performed by either twoaxis translation stage for linear-scanning or galvanometer-based laser mirror scanner for angular-scanning. In all ultrasonic propagation imagers, the ultrasonic data is captured and processed in real-time and the ultrasonic propagation can be visualized during scanning. The scanning speed can go up to 1.8 kHz for two-axis linear translation stage based B-UPIs and 10 kHz for galvanometer-based laser mirror scanners. In contrast with the other available ultrasound systems, these systems have the advantage of high-speed, non-contact, real-time, and non-destructive inspection. In this paper, the description of all bulk-wave ultrasonic imagers (B-UPIs) are presented and their advantages are discussed. Experiments are performed with these system on various structures to proof the integrity of their results. The C-scan results produced from non-dispersive, through-the-thickness, bulk-wave detection show good agreement in detection of structural variances and damage location in all inspected structures. These results show that bulk-wave UPIs can be used for in-situ NDE of engineering structures.

  8. The effect of Nb addition on mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and metal-ion release of ZrAlCuNi bulk metallic glasses in artificial body fluid.

    PubMed

    Qiu, C L; Liu, L; Sun, M; Zhang, S M

    2005-12-15

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of Zr(65 - x)Nb(x)- Cu(17.5)Ni(10)Al(7.5) with Nb = 0, 2, and 5 at % were prepared by copper mold casting. Compression tests reveal that the two BMGs containing Nb exhibited superior strength and plasticity to the base alloy. The corrosion behavior of the alloys obtained was investigated in artificial body fluid by electrochemical measurements. It was found that the addition of Nb significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the Zr-based BMG, as indicated by a remarkable increase in corrosion potential and pitting potential. XPS analysis revealed that the passive film formed after anodic polarization was enriched in aluminum oxide and depleted in phosphate ions for the BMGs containing Nb, which accounts for the improvement of corrosion resistance. On the other hand, metal-ion release of different BMGs were determined in PPb (ng/mL) level with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after being immersed in artificial body fluid at 37 degrees C for 20 days. It was found that the addition of Nb considerably reduced the ion release of all kinds of metals of the base system. This is probably attributed to the promoting effect of Nb on a rapid formation of highly protective film.

  9. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  10. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-11-23

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  11. Dissolution of bulk specimens of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. F.; Merkle, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    An accurate chemical characterization of silicon nitride has become important in connection with current efforts to incorporate components of this material into advanced heat engines. However, there are problems concerning a chemical analysis of bulk silicon nitride. Current analytical methods require the pulverization of bulk specimens. A pulverization procedure making use of grinding media, on the other hand, will introduce contaminants. A description is given of a dissolution procedure which overcomes these difficulties. It has been found that up to at least 0.6 g solid pieces of various samples of hot pressed and reaction bonded silicon nitride can be decomposed in a mixture of 3 mL hydrofluoric acid and 1 mL nitric acid overnight at 150 C in a Parr bomb. High-purity silicon nitride is completely soluble in nitric acid after treatment in the bomb. Following decomposition, silicon and hydrofluoric acid are volatilized and insoluble fluorides are converted to a soluble form.

  12. Bulk locality and boundary creating operators

    DOE PAGES

    Nakayama, Yu; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2015-10-19

    Here, we formulate a minimum requirement for CFT operators to be localized in the dual AdS. In any spacetime dimensions, we show that a general solution to the requirement is a linear superposition of operators creating spherical boundaries in CFT, with the dilatation by the imaginary unit from their centers. This generalizes the recent proposal by Miyaji et al. for bulk local operators in the three dimensional AdS. We show that Ishibashi states for the global conformal symmetry in any dimensions and with the imaginary di-latation obey free field equations in AdS and that incorporating bulk interactions require their superpositions.more » We also comment on the recent proposals by Kabat et al., and by H. Verlinde.« less

  13. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  14. Foamed Bulk Metallic Glass (Foam) Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This soldering iron has an evacuated copper capsule at the tip that contains a pellet of Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Prior to flight, researchers sealed a pellet of bulk metallic glass mixed with microscopic gas-generating particles into the copper ampoule under vacuum. Once heated in space, such as in this photograph, the particles generated gas and the BMG becomes a viscous liquid. The released gas made the sample foam within the capsule where each microscopic particle formed a gas-filled pore within the foam. The inset image shows the oxidation of the sample after several minutes of applying heat. Although hidden within the brass sleeve, the sample retained the foam shape when cooled, because the viscosity increased during cooling until it was solid.

  15. Portable design rules for bulk CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that for the past several years, one school of IC designers has used a simplified set of nMOS geometric design rules (GDR) which is 'portable', in that it can be used by many different nMOS manufacturers. The present investigation is concerned with a preliminary set of design rules for bulk CMOS which has been verified for simple test structures. The GDR are defined in terms of Caltech Intermediate Form (CIF), which is a geometry-description language that defines simple geometrical objects in layers. The layers are abstractions of physical mask layers. The design rules do not presume the existence of any particular design methodology. Attention is given to p-well and n-well CMOS processes, bulk CMOS and CMOS-SOS, CMOS geometric rules, and a description of the advantages of CMOS technology.

  16. Nonlinear AC susceptibility, surface and bulk shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Indenbom, M. V.; D'Anna, G.; Benoit, W.

    1996-02-01

    We calculate the nonlinear AC response of a thin superconducting strip in perpendicular field, shielded by an edge current due to the geometrical barrier. A comparison with the results for infinite samples in parallel field, screened by a surface barrier, and with those for screening by a bulk current in the critical state, shows that the AC response due to a barrier has general features that are independent of geometry, and that are significantly different from those for screening by a bulk current in the critical state. By consequence, the nonlinear (global) AC susceptibility can be used to determine the origin of magnetic irreversibility. A comparison with experiments on a Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ crystal shows that in this material, the low-frequency AC screening at high temperature is mainly due to the screening by an edge current, and that this is the unique source of the nonlinear magnetic response at temperatures above 40 K.

  17. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciT

    Pan, Andrew, E-mail: pandrew@ucla.edu; Chui, Chi On; California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority ofmore » the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.« less

  18. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Christopher; Chen, Antao

    2012-06-01

    The smuggling of bulk cash across borders is a serious issue that has increased in recent years. In an effort to curb the illegal transport of large numbers of paper bills, a detection scheme has been developed, based on the magnetic characteristics of bank notes. The results show that volumes of paper currency can be detected through common concealing materials such as plastics, cardboard, and fabrics making it a possible potential addition to border security methods. The detection scheme holds the potential of also reducing or eliminating false positives caused by metallic materials found in the vicinity, by observing the stark difference in received signals caused by metal and currency. The detection scheme holds the potential to detect for both the presence and number of concealed bulk notes, while maintaining the ability to reduce false positives caused by metal objects.

  19. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Christopher; Chen, Antao

    2011-10-01

    Bulk cash smuggling is a serious issue that has grown in volume in recent years. By building on the magnetic characteristics of paper currency, induction sensing is found to be capable of quickly detecting large masses of banknotes. The results show that this method is effective in detecting bulk cash through concealing materials such as plastics, cardboards, fabrics and aluminum foil. The significant difference in the observed phase between the received signals caused by conducting materials and ferrite compounds, found in banknotes, provides a good indication that this process can overcome the interference by metal objects in a real sensing application. This identification strategy has the potential to not only detect the presence of banknotes, but also the number, while still eliminating false positives caused by metal objects.

  20. Structural determinants in the bulk heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Acocella, Angela; Höfinger, Siegfried; Haunschmid, Ernst; Pop, Sergiu C; Narumi, Tetsu; Yasuoka, Kenji; Yasui, Masato; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2018-02-21

    Photovoltaics is one of the key areas in renewable energy research with remarkable progress made every year. Here we consider the case of a photoactive material and study its structural composition and the resulting consequences for the fundamental processes driving solar energy conversion. A multiscale approach is used to characterize essential molecular properties of the light-absorbing layer. A selection of bulk-representative pairs of donor/acceptor molecules is extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation of the bulk heterojunction and analyzed at increasing levels of detail. Significantly increased ground state energies together with an array of additional structural characteristics are identified that all point towards an auxiliary role of the material's structural organization in mediating charge-transfer and -separation. Mechanistic studies of the type presented here can provide important insights into fundamental principles governing solar energy conversion in next-generation photovoltaic devices.

  1. Structural rejuvenation in bulk metallic glasses

    SciT

    Tong, Yang; Iwashita, T.; Dmowski, Wojciech

    Using high-energy X-ray diffraction we study structural changes in bulk metallic glasses after uniaxial compressive homogeneous deformation at temperatures slightly below the glass transition. We observe that deformation results in structural disordering corresponding to an increase in the fictive, or effective, temperature. However, the structural disordering saturates after yielding. Lastly, examination of the experimental structure and molecular dynamics simulation suggests that local changes in the atomic connectivity network are the main driving force of the structural rejuvenation.

  2. Depositing bulk or micro-scale electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Tooker, Angela C.; Sheth, Heeral J.; Felix, Sarah H.; Delima, Terri L.

    2016-11-01

    Thicker electrodes are provided on microelectronic device using thermo-compression bonding. A thin-film electrical conducting layer forms electrical conduits and bulk depositing provides an electrode layer on the thin-film electrical conducting layer. An insulating polymer layer encapsulates the electrically thin-film electrical conducting layer and the electrode layer. Some of the insulating layer is removed to expose the electrode layer.

  3. Structural rejuvenation in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Tong, Yang; Iwashita, T.; Dmowski, Wojciech; ...

    2015-01-05

    Using high-energy X-ray diffraction we study structural changes in bulk metallic glasses after uniaxial compressive homogeneous deformation at temperatures slightly below the glass transition. We observe that deformation results in structural disordering corresponding to an increase in the fictive, or effective, temperature. However, the structural disordering saturates after yielding. Lastly, examination of the experimental structure and molecular dynamics simulation suggests that local changes in the atomic connectivity network are the main driving force of the structural rejuvenation.

  4. Palm-size miniature superconducting bulk magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saho, Norihide; Matsuda, Kazuya; Nishijima, Noriyo

    The development of a small, light, powerful and energy-efficient superconducting magnet has been desired in order to realize better efficiency and manipulability in guiding magnetic nano-particles, magnetic organic cells and other items to the right place. This study focuses on the development of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet characterized by comparatively low leak magnetism despite a relatively high magnetic field. On this basis, the authors developed a palm-sized superconducting bulk magnet, which is the world's smallest, lightest, and lowest power consuming, as well as a new technology to effectively magnetize such a bulk magnet in a compact Stirling-cycle cryocooler (magnet C) with a pre-magnetized HTS bulk magnet (magnet B) in a compact cryocooler. This technology is demonstrated in two steps. In the first step, magnet B is magnetized using a superconducting solenoid magnet with a high magnetic field (magnet A) via the field cooling method. In the second step, magnet C is magnetized in the high magnetic field of magnet B. The prototype magnet C weighs 1.8 kg, and measures 235 × 65 × 115 mm (L × W × H). Magnet B was magnetized to 4.9 T using a 5 T magnet, and the target, magnet C, was magnetized using magnet B so that its maximum trapped magnetic flux density reached the value of 3.15 T. The net power consumption in a steady cooling state was 23 W, which is very low and comparable to that of a laptop computer.

  5. 49 CFR 172.514 - Bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 172.302(b)(2) in place of the UN number on an orange panel, placard or white square-on-point; and (5..., shall affix the placards specified for the material in §§ 172.504 and 172.505. (b) Each bulk packaging... § 173.29(b)(1) of this subchapter. (c) Exceptions. The following packagings may be placarded on only two...

  6. 49 CFR 172.514 - Bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 172.302(b)(2) in place of the UN number on an orange panel, placard or white square-on-point; and (5..., shall affix the placards specified for the material in §§ 172.504 and 172.505. (b) Each bulk packaging... § 173.29(b)(1) of this subchapter. (c) Exceptions. The following packagings may be placarded on only two...

  7. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation-best described as an atomic scale ripple-was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  8. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOEpatents

    Knize, Randall J.; Cecchi, Joseph L.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  9. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOEpatents

    Knize, Randall J.; Cecchi, Joseph L.

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  10. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOEpatents

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  11. Bulk assembly of organic metal halide nanotubes

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Haoran; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; ...

    2017-10-16

    The organic metal halide hybrids welcome a new member with a one-dimensional (1D) tubular structure. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a single crystalline bulk assembly of organic metal halide nanotubes, (C 6H 13N 4) 3Pb 2Br 7. In a metal halide nanotube, six face-sharing metal halide dimers (Pb 2Br 9 5–) connect at the corners to form rings that extend in one dimension, of which the inside and outside surfaces are coated with protonated hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) cations (C 6H 13N 4 +). This unique 1D tubular structure possesses highly localized electronic states with strong quantum confinement, resultingmore » in the formation of self-trapped excitons that give strongly Stokes shifted broadband yellowish-white emission with a photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of ~7%. Finally, having realized single crystalline bulk assemblies of two-dimensional (2D) wells, 1D wires, and now 1D tubes using organic metal halide hybrids, our work significantly advances the research on bulk assemblies of quantum-confined materials.« less

  12. Effects of antimicrobial therapy on faecal bulking.

    PubMed Central

    Kurpad, A V; Shetty, P S

    1986-01-01

    It has recently been postulated that dietary fibre acts as a substrate for colonic flora, and that the resultant microbial growth bulks the faeces. Antimicrobial therapy was used in this study to assess the effect of reduction in colonic microbial proliferation on faecal output in human subjects on a constant dietary fibre intake. Six healthy young male subjects were maintained on constant daily diets and metronidazole (1 g/day) and ampicillin (1 g/day) were administered in divided doses for one week after an initial baseline study period of two weeks. After antimicrobial therapy, mean faecal weights rose from 176.0 +/- 27.0 g to 348.1 +/- 37.7 g/day. Faecal solids increased from 32.9 +/- 4.2 g to 46.1 +/- 5.8 g/day. Faecal neutral detergent fibre increased from 1.92 +/- 0.42 g to 15.19 +/- 2.58 g/day. The mean transit times and mean daily faecal nitrogen remained the same, both before and after treatment. Substantial breakdown of dietary fibre occurs in the human colon which may decrease faecal bulk, suggesting that water holding by dietary fibre is probably of greater importance for faecal bulking. PMID:3005139

  13. Superconducting state parameters of bulk amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Well recognized empty core pseudopotential of Ashcroft is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz; electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature T C , isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength N O V of some (Ni33Zr67)1- x V x ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15) bulk amorphous alloys. We have incorporated five different types of local field correction functions, proposed by Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F) and Sarkar et al. (S) to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The T C obtained from local field correction function proposed by Sarkar et al. (S) is in excellent agreement with available theoretical data. Quadratic T C equation has been proposed providing successfully the T C values of bulk amorphous alloys under consideration. Also, the present results are found in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirm the superconducting phase in the s bulk amorphous alloys.

  14. Sodium Flux Growth of Bulk Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Dollen, Paul Martin

    This dissertation focused on development of a novel apparatus and techniques for crystal growth of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) using the sodium flux method. Though several methods exist to produce bulk GaN, none have been commercialized on an industrial scale. The sodium flux method offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. But the current equipment and methods for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN are generally not amenable to large-scale crystal growth or in situ investigation of growth processes, which has hampered progress. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the sodium-gallium growth melt while permitting N2 gas to access the growing crystal, which was accomplished by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable sealed capsule. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring and control of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Molybdenum-based materials were identified from a corrosion study as candidates for direct containment of the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. Successful introduction of these materials allowed implementation of a crucible-free containment system, which improved process control and can potentially reduce crystal impurity levels. Using the new growth system, the (0001) Ga face (+c plane) growth rate was >50 mum/hr, which is the highest bulk GaN growth rate reported for the sodium flux method. Omega X-ray rocking curve (?-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were <100 arcseconds. Oxygen impurity concentrations as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were >1020 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures. This dissertation also introduced an in situ technique to correlate changes in N2 pressure with dissolution of nitrogen and precipitation of

  15. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  16. 4. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. Detail of a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. Detail of a vertical tank. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  17. 1. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. East side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. East side of tanks. View to northwest. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  18. 3. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. West side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. West side of tanks. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  19. 2. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. North side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. North side of tanks. View to southwest. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  20. 30 CFR 56.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 56.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle... cutting on a hollow shaft, the shaft shall be thoroughly cleaned inside and out and vented with a minimum...

  1. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with <7mW power consumption. The close match between test data and simulation results suggests that the piezoelectric properties of bulk-PZT5A are mostly preserved without any necessity of repolarization. Three generations of resonant vibration energy harvesters are designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate the competitive performance of the new fabrication process over traditional piezoelectric deposition systems. An unpackaged PZT/Si unimorph harvester with 27mm3 active device volume produces up to 205microW at 1.5g/154Hz. The prototypes have achieved the highest figure-of-merits (normalized

  2. Partial discharge testing of bulk transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwein, G. J.

    The generation of partial discharges in bulk transformer oil was investigated experimentally to determine the dominant conditions which contribute to their formation and growth under repetitive impulse stresses. The motivation for conducting these experiments arose from a problem with partial discharges and breakdowns occurring in the insulating oil around the high voltage switch in a continuous running 1.5 MV repetitive pulser system. From the experiment it was found tht repetitive stressing caused low level field ionization around the electrodes which led to bubble formation and eventually partial discharges. There were also qualitative indications of charge accumulation in the oil. Photographic records of numerous shot sequences were used to study the phenomena.

  3. Ovarian tissue characterization using bulk optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, B.; Xu, Y.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-03-01

    Ovarian cancer, the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers, is not often found in its early stages due to few symptoms and no reliable screening test. Optical imaging has a great potential to improve the ovarian cancer detection and diagnosis. In this study we have characterized the bulk optical properties of 26 ex-vivo human ovaries using a Diffuse Optical Tomography system. The quantitative values indicated that, in the postmenopausal group, malignant ovaries showed significantly lower scattering coefficient than normal ones. The scattering parameter is largely related to the collagen content that has shown a strong correlation with the cancer development.

  4. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  5. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  6. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  7. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  8. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  9. Use of containers to carry bulk and break bulk commodities and its impact on gulf region ports and international trade.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    The University of New Orleans Transportation Institute was tasked by the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) in mid-2012 to assess the use of containers to transport bulk and break bulk commodities and to determine what their impact would...

  10. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  11. Bulk magnetic domain stability controls paleointensity fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Greig A.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-12-01

    Nonideal, nonsingle-domain magnetic grains are ubiquitous in rocks; however, they can have a detrimental impact on the fidelity of paleomagnetic records—in particular the determination of ancient magnetic field strength (paleointensity), a key means of understanding the evolution of the earliest geodynamo and the formation of the solar system. As a consequence, great effort has been expended to link rock magnetic behavior to paleointensity results, but with little quantitative success. Using the most comprehensive rock magnetic and paleointensity data compilations, we quantify a stability trend in hysteresis data that characterizes the bulk domain stability (BDS) of the magnetic carriers in a paleomagnetic specimen. This trend is evident in both geological and archeological materials that are typically used to obtain paleointensity data and is therefore pervasive throughout most paleomagnetic studies. Comparing this trend to paleointensity data from both laboratory and historical experiments reveals a quantitative relationship between BDS and paleointensity behavior. Specimens that have lower BDS values display higher curvature on the paleointensity analysis plot, which leads to more inaccurate results. In-field quantification of BDS therefore reflects low-field bulk remanence stability. Rapid hysteresis measurements can be used to provide a powerful quantitative method for preselecting paleointensity specimens and postanalyzing previous studies, further improving our ability to select high-fidelity recordings of ancient magnetic fields. BDS analyses will enhance our ability to understand the evolution of the geodynamo and can help in understanding many fundamental Earth and planetary science questions that remain shrouded in controversy.

  12. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  13. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; ...

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO 3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO 2) x(PbTiO 3) 1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be asmore » high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  14. Modeling of Bulk Evaporation and Condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, S.; Ding, Z.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the modeling and mathematical formulation of the bulk evaporation and condensation involved in liquid-vapor phase change processes. An internal energy formulation, for these phase change processes that occur under the constraint of constant volume, was studied. Compared to the enthalpy formulation, the internal energy formulation has a more concise and compact form. The velocity and time scales of the interface movement were obtained through scaling analysis and verified by performing detailed numerical experiments. The convection effect induced by the density change was analyzed and found to be negligible compared to the conduction effect. Two iterative methods for updating the value of the vapor phase fraction, the energy based (E-based) and temperature based (T-based) methods, were investigated. Numerical experiments revealed that for the evaporation and condensation problems the E-based method is superior to the T-based method in terms of computational efficiency. The internal energy formulation and the E-based method were used to compute the bulk evaporation and condensation processes under different conditions. The evolution of the phase change processes was investigated. This work provided a basis for the modeling of thermal performance of multi-phase nuclear fuel elements under variable gravity conditions, in which the buoyancy convection due to gravity effects and internal heating are involved.

  15. Bulk viscous cosmology with causal transport theory

    SciT

    Piattella, Oliver F.; Fabris, Júlio C.; Zimdahl, Winfried, E-mail: oliver.piattella@gmail.com, E-mail: fabris@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: winfried.zimdahl@pq.cnpq.br

    2011-05-01

    We consider cosmological scenarios originating from a single imperfect fluid with bulk viscosity and apply Eckart's and both the full and the truncated Müller-Israel-Stewart's theories as descriptions of the non-equilibrium processes. Our principal objective is to investigate if the dynamical properties of Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be described by a single viscous fluid and how such description changes when a causal theory (Müller-Israel-Stewart's, both in its full and truncated forms) is taken into account instead of Eckart's non-causal one. To this purpose, we find numerical solutions for the gravitational potential and compare its behaviour with the corresponding ΛCDMmore » case. Eckart's and the full causal theory seem to be disfavoured, whereas the truncated theory leads to results similar to those of the ΛCDM model for a bulk viscous speed in the interval 10{sup −11} || cb{sup 2} ∼< 10{sup −8}.« less

  16. Bulk magnetic domain stability controls paleointensity fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-01-01

    Nonideal, nonsingle-domain magnetic grains are ubiquitous in rocks; however, they can have a detrimental impact on the fidelity of paleomagnetic records—in particular the determination of ancient magnetic field strength (paleointensity), a key means of understanding the evolution of the earliest geodynamo and the formation of the solar system. As a consequence, great effort has been expended to link rock magnetic behavior to paleointensity results, but with little quantitative success. Using the most comprehensive rock magnetic and paleointensity data compilations, we quantify a stability trend in hysteresis data that characterizes the bulk domain stability (BDS) of the magnetic carriers in a paleomagnetic specimen. This trend is evident in both geological and archeological materials that are typically used to obtain paleointensity data and is therefore pervasive throughout most paleomagnetic studies. Comparing this trend to paleointensity data from both laboratory and historical experiments reveals a quantitative relationship between BDS and paleointensity behavior. Specimens that have lower BDS values display higher curvature on the paleointensity analysis plot, which leads to more inaccurate results. In-field quantification of BDS therefore reflects low-field bulk remanence stability. Rapid hysteresis measurements can be used to provide a powerful quantitative method for preselecting paleointensity specimens and postanalyzing previous studies, further improving our ability to select high-fidelity recordings of ancient magnetic fields. BDS analyses will enhance our ability to understand the evolution of the geodynamo and can help in understanding many fundamental Earth and planetary science questions that remain shrouded in controversy. PMID:29187534

  17. Technical issues of a high-Tc superconducting bulk magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki

    2000-06-01

    Superconducting magnets made of high-Tc superconductors are promising for industrial applications. It is well known that REBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical current density, Jc, at 77 K and high magnetic fields. The materials are very promising for high magnetic field applications as a superconducting permanent/bulk magnet with liquid-nitrogen refrigeration. Light rare-earth (LRE) BaCuO bulks, compared with REBaCuO bulks, exhibit a larger Jc in high magnetic fields and a much improved irreversibility field, Hirr, at 77 K. In this study, we discuss technical issues of a high-Tc superconducting bulk magnet, namely the aspects of the melt processing for bulk superconductors, their characteristic superconducting properties and mechanical properties, and trapped field properties of a superconducting bulk magnet. One of the possible applications is a superconducting bulk magnet for the magnetically levitated (Maglev) train in the future.

  18. 17 CFR 5.23 - Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Notice and disclosure to retail forex customers of a bulk transfer. (1) A retail foreign exchange... consent of its retail forex customer to the assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer to another retail foreign exchange dealer, futures commission merchant or...

  19. 17 CFR 5.23 - Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Notice and disclosure to retail forex customers of a bulk transfer. (1) A retail foreign exchange... consent of its retail forex customer to the assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer to another retail foreign exchange dealer, futures commission merchant or...

  20. 17 CFR 5.23 - Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Notice and disclosure to retail forex customers of a bulk transfer. (1) A retail foreign exchange... consent of its retail forex customer to the assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer to another retail foreign exchange dealer, futures commission merchant or...

  1. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-20

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Method to synthesize bulk iron nitride

    SciT

    Monson, Todd; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Zheng, Baolong

    Bulk iron nitride can be synthesized from iron nitride powder by spark plasma sintering. The iron nitride can be spark plasma sintered at a temperature of less than 600°C. and a pressure of less than 600 MPa, with 400 MPa or less most often being sufficient. High pressure SPS can consolidate dense iron nitrides at a lower temperature to avoid decomposition. The higher pressure and lower temperature of spark discharge sintering avoids decomposition and limits grain growth, enabling enhanced magnetic properties. The method can further comprise synthesis of nanocrystalline iron nitride powders using two-step reactive milling prior to high-pressure sparkmore » discharge sintering.« less

  3. Bulk Acceleration of Electrons in Solar Flares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2014-06-01

    In two recent papers it has been argued that RHESSI observations of two coronal “above-the-loop-top” hard X-ray sources, together with EUV observations, show that ALL the electrons in the source volumes must have been accelerated. I will briefly review these papers and show that the interpretation most consistent with the combined flare observations is multi-thermal, with hot, thermal plasma in the “above-the-loop-top” sources and only a fraction, albeit a substantial fraction, of the electrons accelerated. Thus, there is no credible scientific evidence for bulk acceleration of electrons in flares. Differential emission measure (DEM) models deduced from SDO/AIA and RHESSI data, including the inversion of the AIA data to determine DEM, will be discussed as part of this analysis.

  4. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  5. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  6. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    SciT

    Yu, P; Luo, Weidong; Yi, D.

    2012-01-01

    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to no- vel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we em- ploy a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectricmore » hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite un- derlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon.« less

  7. Bulk semiconducting scintillator device for radiation detection

    DOEpatents

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael

    2016-08-30

    A bulk semiconducting scintillator device, including: a Li-containing semiconductor compound of general composition Li-III-VI.sub.2, wherein III is a Group III element and VI is a Group VI element; wherein the Li-containing semiconductor compound is used in one or more of a first mode and a second mode, wherein: in the first mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to an electrical circuit under bias operable for measuring electron-hole pairs in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of neutrons and the Li-containing semiconductor compound is also coupled to current detection electronics operable for detecting a corresponding current in the Li-containing semiconductor compound; and, in the second mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to a photodetector operable for detecting photons generated in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of the neutrons.

  8. Criticality in Bulk Metallic Glass Constituent Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Rodrigo Miguel Ojeda; Graedel, T. E.; Pekarskaya, Evgenia; Schroers, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which readily form amorphous phases during solidification, are increasingly being used in first applications of watch components, electronic casings, and sporting goods. The compositions of BMGs typically include four to six elements. Various political and geological factors have recently led to supply disruptions for several metals, including some present in BMG compositions. In this work, we assess the "criticality" of 22 technologically interesting BMG compositions, compare the results with those for three common engineering alloy groups, and derive recommendations for BMG composition choices from a criticality perspective. The criticality of BMGs is found to be generally much higher compared with those for the established engineering alloys. Therefore, criticality concerns should also be considered in the choice between existing and developing novel BMGs.

  9. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI; Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  10. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2013-04-09

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  11. Combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, A. F.; Moulder, J. C.; Runyan, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of bulk titanium in one atmosphere oxygen is studied using laser ignition and several analytical techniques. These were high-speed color cinematography, time and space resolved spectra in the visible region, metallography (including SEM) of specimens quenched in argon gas, X-ray and chemical product analyses, and a new optical technique, the Hilbert transform method. The cinematographic application of this technique for visualizing phase objects in the combustion zone is described. The results indicate an initial vapor phase reaction immediately adjacent to the molten surface but as the oxygen uptake progresses the evaporation approaches the point of congruency and a much reduced evaporation rate. This and the accumulation of the various soluble oxides soon drive the reaction zone below the surface where gas formation causes boiling and ejection of particles. The buildup of rutile cuts off the oxygen supply and the reaction ceases.

  12. Bulk-Flow Analysis, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Dara W.

    1993-01-01

    The bulk-flow analysis results for this contract are incorporated in the following publications: 'Fluid-Structure Interaction Forces at Pump-Impeller Shroud Surfaces for Axial Vibration Analysis'; 'Centrifugal Acceleration Modes for Incompressible Fluid in the Leakage Annulus Between a Shrouded Pump Impeller and Its Housing'; 'Influence of Impeller Shroud Forces on Pump Rotordynamics'; 'Pressure Oscillation in the Leakage Annulus Between a Shrouded Impeller and Its Housing Due to Impeller-Discharge-Pressure Disturbances'; and 'Compressibility Effects on Rotor Forces in the Leakage Path Between a Shrouded Pump Impeller and Its Housing'. These publications are summarized and included in this final report. Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) results developed by Dr. Erian Baskharone are reported separately.

  13. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciT

    Blanton, P.

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussedmore » as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.« less

  14. Bulk amorphous steels based on Fe alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lu, ZhaoPing; Liu, Chain T.

    2006-05-30

    A bulk amorphous alloy has the approximate composition: Fe.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Y.sub.aMn.sub.bT.sub.cM.sub.dX.sub.e wherein: T includes at least one of the group consisting of: Ni, Cu, Cr and Co; M includes at least one of the group consisting of W, Mo, Nb, Ta, Al and Ti; X includes at least one of the group consisting of Co, Ni and Cr; a is an atomic percentage, and a<5; b is an atomic percentage, and b.ltoreq.25; c is an atomic percentage, and c.ltoreq.25; d is an atomic percentage, and d.ltoreq.25; and e is an atomic percentage, and 5.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.30.

  15. Assessment of bioburden encapsulated in bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Newlin, Laura; Chung, Shirley Y.; Ellyin, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) imposes bioburden limitations on all spacecraft destined for solar system bodies that might harbor evidence of extant or extinct life. The subset of microorganisms trapped within solid materials during manufacture and assembly is referred to as encapsulated bioburden. In the absence of spacecraft-specific data, NASA relies on specification values to estimate total spacecraft encapsulated bioburden, typically 30 endospores/cm3 or 300 viable cells/cm3 in non-electronic materials. Specification values for endospores have been established conservatively, and represent no less than an order of magnitude greater abundance than that derived from empirical assessments of actual spacecraft materials. The goal of this study was to generate data germane to determining whether revised bulk encapsulated material values (lower than those estimated by historical specifications) tailored specifically to the materials designated in modern-day spacecraft design could be used, on a case-by-case basis, to comply with planetary protection requirements. Organic materials having distinctly different chemical properties and configurations were selected. This required more than one experimental and analytical approach. Filtration was employed for liquid electrolytes, lubricants were suspended in an aqueous solution and solids (wire and epoxy sealant) were cryogenically milled. The final data characteristic for all bioburden estimates was microbial colony formation in rich agar growth medium. To assess survival potential, three non-spore-forming bacterial cell lines were systematically encapsulated in an epoxy matrix, liberated via cryogenic grinding, and cultured. Results suggest that bulk solid materials harbor significantly fewer encapsulated microorganisms than are estimated by specification values. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte reagents housed fewer than 1 CFU/cm3. Results also demonstrated that non-spore-forming microorganisms

  16. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm < Lc < 6 mm) using carefully designed freezing experiments in a temperature-controlled, zero-humidity environment on thin water slabs. To probe the effect of surface wettability, we investigated the total time for room temperature water to completely freeze into ice on superhydrophilic ( θaapp→ 0°), hydrophilic (0° < θa < 90°), hydrophobic (90° < θa < 125°), and superhydrophobic ( θaapp→ 180°) surfaces. Our results show that at macroscopic length scales, heat conduction through the bulk water/ice layer dominates the freezing process when compared to heat conduction through the functional coatings or nanoscale gaps at the superhydrophobic substrate-water/ice interface. In order to verify our findings, and to determine when the surface structure thermal resistance approaches the water/ice resistance, we fabricated and tested the additional substrates coated with commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  17. Gravitational potential wells and the cosmic bulk flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuyu; Kumar, Abhinav; Feldman, Hume; Watkins, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The bulk flow is a volume average of the peculiar velocities and a useful probe of the mass distribution on large scales. The gravitational instability model views the bulk flow as a potential flow that obeys a Maxwellian Distribution. We use two N-body simulations, the LasDamas Carmen and the Horizon Run, to calculate the bulk flows of various sized volumes in the simulation boxes. Once we have the bulk flow velocities as a function of scale, we investigate the mass and gravitational potential distribution around the volume. We found that matter densities can be asymmetrical and difficult to detect in real surveys, however, the gravitational potential and its gradient may provide better tools to investigate the underlying matter distribution. This study shows that bulk flows are indeed potential flows and thus provides information on the flow sources. We also show that bulk flow magnitudes follow a Maxwellian distribution on scales > 10h-1 Mpc.

  18. Bulk Modulus Relaxation in Partially Molten Dunite?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, I.; Cline, C. J., II

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic solgel-derived Fo90 olivine was mixed with 3.5 wt % basaltic glass and hot-pressed within Ni/Fe foil to produce a dense aggregate expected to contain a small melt fraction at temperatures ≥ 1100°C. This specimen was precision ground and tested in both torsional and flexural forced oscillation to determine the relaxation behavior of both shear (G) and bulk (K) moduli at seismic frequencies. A recent upgrade of our experimental facility allows such measurements to be made without alteration of the driver/detector geometry, and uses an oscillating bending force rather than a bending moment, as previously described. The torsional and flexural tests were conducted in a gas apparatus at 200 MPa confining pressure, with oscillation periods ranging between 1 and 1000 s, during slow staged-cooling from 1300 to 25°C. Shear modulus and associated dissipation data are consistent with those for melt-bearing olivine specimens previously tested in torsion, with a pronounced dissipation peak superimposed on high-temperature background within the 1-1000 s observational window at temperatures of 1100-1200°C. A filament elongation model relates the observed flexural measurements to the variations along the experimental assembly of the complex Young's modulus (E*), bending moment and diametral moment of inertia. With E* given by 1/E*=1/(3G*) + 1/(9K*), and the complex shear modulus (G*) derived from torsional oscillation, any relaxation of K can be identified. Preliminary modeling shows that the viscoelastic properties in flexure are broadly consistent with those expected from the shear-mode viscoelasticity with anharmonic (real) values of K. However, some discrepancies between modeled results and flexure data at super-solidus temperatures require further investigation of possible differences in shear modulus relaxation between the torsional and flexural modes, and of potential relaxation of the bulk modulus through stress-induced changes in melt redistribution and

  19. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  20. Piezoelectric coefficients of bulk 3R transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konabe, Satoru; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2017-09-01

    The piezoelectric properties of bulk transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with a 3R structure were investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory combined with the Berry phase treatment. Values for the elastic constant Cijkl , the piezoelectric coefficient eijk , and the piezoelectric coefficient dijk are given for bulk 3R-TMDCs (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2). The piezoelectric coefficients of bulk 3R-TMDCs are shown to be sufficiently large or comparable to those of conventional bulk piezoelectric materials such as α-quartz, wurtzite GaN, and wurtzite AlN.

  1. Preliminary study of superconducting bulk magnets for Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Hiroki

    Recent development shows that melt-processed YBaCuO (Y123) or Rare Earth (RE)123 superconductors have a high Jc at 77 K and high magnetic field, leading to high field application as a superconducting quasi-permanent bulk magnet with the liquid nitrogen refrigeration. One of the promising applications is a superconducting magnet for the magnetically levitated (Maglev) train. We discuss a superconducting bulk magnet for the Maglev train in the aspect of a preliminary design of the bulk magnet and also processing for (L)REBaCuO bulk superconductors and their characteristic superconducting properties.

  2. Calcium Isotopic Composition of Bulk Silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Ionov, D. A.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Ca isotopes are used to study the accretion history of the Earth and terrestrial planets, but, Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) remains poorly constrained [1]. To better understand the Ca isotopic composition of BSE, we analyzed 22 well studied peridotite xenoliths from Tariat (Mongolia), Vitim (southern Siberia) and Udachnaya (Siberian Craton). These samples include both fertile and highly depleted garnet and spinel peridotites that show no or only minor post-melting metasomatism or alteration. Ca isotope measurements were done on a Triton-TIMS using double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The data are reported as δ44/40Ca (relative to NIST SRM 915a). Results for geostandards are consistent with those from other laboratories. 2 standard deviations of SRM 915a analyses are 0.13‰ (n=48). δ44/40Ca of both and fertile and refractory peridotites range from 0.79 to 1.07‰ producing an average of 0.93±0.12‰ (2SD). This value defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE, which is consistent with the average δ44/40Ca of oceanic basalts ( 0.90‰)[2,3]. [1] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292; [2] Valdes et al (2014) EPSL 394; [3]DePaolo (2004) RMG 55.

  3. Partical Melting of bulk Bi-2212

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeb, B.; Gauckler, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Dense and textured Bi-2212 bulk samples have been produced by the partial melting process. The appropriate amount of liquid phase necessary for complete densification has been adjusted by controlling the maximum processing temperature. The maximum temperature itself has to be adapted to several parameters as powder stoichiometry, silver addition and oxygen partial pressure. Prolonged annealing at 850 and 820 C and cooling in N2 atmosphere led to nearly single phase material with T(sub c) = 92 K. Critical current densities j(sub c) of 2'200 A/sq cm at 77 K/0 T have been achieved in samples of more than 1 mm thickness. Reducing the thickness below 0.4 mm enhances j(sub c) considerably to values is greater than 4'000 A/sq cm. The addition of 2 wt% Ag decreases the solidus temperature of the Bi-2212 powder by 21 C. Therefore, the maximum heat treatment temperature of Ag containing samples can be markedly lowered leading to a reduction of the amount of secondary phases. In addition, Ag enhances slightly the texture over the entire cross section and as a result j(sub c) at 77 K/0 T.

  4. On methods of estimating cosmological bulk flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusser, Adi

    2016-01-01

    We explore similarities and differences between several estimators of the cosmological bulk flow, B, from the observed radial peculiar velocities of galaxies. A distinction is made between two theoretical definitions of B as a dipole moment of the velocity field weighted by a radial window function. One definition involves the three-dimensional (3D) peculiar velocity, while the other is based on its radial component alone. Different methods attempt at inferring B for either of these definitions which coincide only for the case of a velocity field which is constant in space. We focus on the Wiener Filtering (WF) and the Constrained Minimum Variance (CMV) methodologies. Both methodologies require a prior expressed in terms of the radial velocity correlation function. Hoffman et al. compute B in Top-Hat windows from a WF realization of the 3D peculiar velocity field. Feldman et al. infer B directly from the observed velocities for the second definition of B. The WF methodology could easily be adapted to the second definition, in which case it will be equivalent to the CMV with the exception of the imposed constraint. For a prior with vanishing correlations or very noisy data, CMV reproduces the standard Maximum Likelihood estimation for B of the entire sample independent of the radial weighting function. Therefore, this estimator is likely more susceptible to observational biases that could be present in measurements of distant galaxies. Finally, two additional estimators are proposed.

  5. FAA bulk technology overview for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakoff, Alan K.

    1993-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the leading federal agency responsible for encouraging and fostering the development of a safe, secure, and efficient national airspace system (NAS). Our goal is to establish an operating environment that ensures a threat-free system to preclude acts of terrorism and fatalities. As part of the process to meet this goal, our research and development activities continually search for technologies to ensure aviation security. Recent acts of terrorism against the aviation community have demonstrated an increasing level of sophistication in the design and deployment of explosive devices. In order to prevent the introduction of explosives onto an aircraft they must be detected prior to passenger and baggage loading. The Bulk Detection program is one method of developing a number of technologies that 'see' into and 'alarm' on suspect baggage. These detection devices must be capable of providing this serve with a confidence commensurate with the state-of-the- art available today. This program utilizes the expertise of government agencies, universities and industries working toward constructing their plans and executing their designs to produce the best available equipment.

  6. Recent developments of film bulk acoustic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Junning; Liu, Guorong; Li, Jie; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) experienced skyrocketing development in the past 15 years, owing to the explosive development of mobile communication. It stands out in acoustic filters mainly because of high quality factor, which enables low insertion loss and sharp roll off. Except for the massive application in wireless communication, FBARs are also promising sensors because of the high sensitivity and readily integration ability to miniaturize circuits. On the ground of summarizing FBAR’s application in wireless communication as filters and in sensors including electronic nose, bio field, and pressure sensing, this paper review the main challenges of each application faced. The number of filters installed in the mobile phone has being grown explosively, which leads to overcrowded bands and put harsh requirements on component size and power consumption control for each unit. Data flow and rate are becoming increasingly demanding as well. This paper discusses three promising technical strategies addressing these issues. Among which coupled resonator filter is given intense attention because it is able to vigorously reduce the filter size by stacking two or more resonators together, and it is a great technique to increase data flow and rate. Temperature compensation methods are discussed considering their vital influence on frequency stability. Finally, materials improvement and novel materials exploration for band width modulation, tunable band acquisition, and quality factor improvement are discussed. The authors appeal attention of the academic society to bring AlN epitaxial thin film into the FBAR fabrication and have proposed a configuration to implement this idea.

  7. Stability of Ni-bsed bulk metallic glasses

    SciT

    Tokarz, Michelle L; Speakman, Scott A; Porter, Wallace D

    Several ternary (Ni{sub x}Nb{sub y}Sn{sub z}) refractory alloy glasses (RAGs) were studied at elevated temperatures in order to assess the stability of the amorphous state, i.e. devitrification, and to identify subsequent phase transformations in these materials. differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments indicated a complex phase transformation sequence with several distinct crystallization and melting events being recorded above the glass transition temperature, T{sub g}. Below T{sub g} the RAG samples were studied with an in situ environmental X-ray furnace facility, which allowed step-wise isothermal ramping experiments commencing at a temperature below the reduced temperature of T/T{sub g} {approx} 0.80. Distinct crystallinemore » phases were observed when T/T{sub g} {approx} 0.84 for ternary RAG alloys, while similar experiments on Zr-based Vit 106 glass alloys did not reveal any apparent phase separation until T/T{sub g} {approx} 0.96. The phase separation kinetics followed an Arrhenius type of relationship with Ni{sub 3}Sn, and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} being the principle crystalline precipitates.« less

  8. Ferromagnetic resonance in bulk nanocrystalline Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash Madduri, P. V.; Mathew, S. P.; Kaul, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    A detailed lineshape analysis of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra taken on pulse electrodeposited nanocrystalline (nc-) Ni sheets (with the average crystallite size, d, varying from 10 nm to 40 nm) at temperatures ranging from 113 K to 325 K yield accurate values for saturation magnetization, Ms (T), Landé splitting factor, g, anisotropy field, Hk (T) , resonance field, Hres , and FMR linewidth, ΔHpp (T) . Thermally-excited spin-wave (SW) excitations completely account for Ms (T) and the SW description of Ms (T) gives the values for the saturation magnetization and spin-wave stiffness at absolute zero of temperature, i.e., Ms (0) and D0 , for nc-Ni samples of different d that are in excellent agreement with the corresponding values deduced previously from an elaborate SW analysis of the bulk magnetization data. While Ms (0) varies with d as Ms (0) d - 3 / 2,D0 follows the power law D0 ∼d 4 / 3 . The angular variations of Hres in the 'in-plane' as well as 'out-of-plane' sample configurations, demonstrate that the main contribution to Hk (T) comes from the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The exchange-conductivity mechanism describes the observed thermal decline of ΔHpp reasonably well but fails to explain the very large magnitude of ΔHpp at any given temperature. By comparison, the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) damping gives a much greater contribution to ΔHpp but the LLG contribution is relatively insensitive to temperature.

  9. Measuring Surface Bulk Elemental Composition on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Parsons, Ann M.; Grau, Jim; Lawrence, David J.; McCclanahan, Timothy P.; Miles, Jeffrey; Peplowski, Patrick; Perkins, Luke; Starr, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The extreme surface environment (462 C, 93 bars pressure) of Venus makes subsurface measurements of its bulk elemental composition extremely challenging. Instruments landed on the surface of Venus must be enclosed in a pressure vessel. The high surface temperatures also require a thermal control system to keep the instrumentation temperatures within their operational range for as long as possible. Since Venus surface probes can currently operate for only a few hours, it is crucial that the lander instrumentation be able to make statistically significant measurements in a short time. An instrument is described that can achieve such a measurement over a volume of thousands of cubic centimeters of material by using high energy penetrating neutron and gamma radiation. The instrument consists of a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG) and a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS). The PNG emits isotropic pulses of 14.1 MeV neutrons that penetrate the pressure vessel walls, the dense atmosphere and the surface rock. The neutrons induce nuclear reactions in the rock to produce gamma rays with energies specific to the element and nuclear process involved. Thus the energies of the detected gamma rays identify the elements present and their intensities provide the abundance of each element. The GRS spectra are analyzed to determine the Venus elemental composition from the spectral signature of individual major, minor, and trace radioactive elements. As a test of such an instrument, a Schlumberger Litho Scanner oil well logging tool was used in a series of experiments at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The Litho Scanner tool was mounted above large (1.8 m x 1.8 m x.9 m) granite and basalt monuments and made a series of one-hour elemental composition measurements in a planar geometry more similar to a planetary lander measurement. Initial analysis of the results shows good agreement with target elemental assays

  10. Measuring Surface Bulk Elemental Composition on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Parsons, Ann M.; Grau, Jim; Lawrence, David J.; McClanahan, Timothy P.; Miles, Jeffrey; Peplowski, Patrick; Perkins, Luke; Starr, Richard

    Bulk elemental composition measurements of the subsurface of Venus are challenging because of the extreme surface environment (462 ˚C, 93 bars pressure). Instruments provided by landed probes on the surface of Venus must therefore be enclosed in a pressure vessel. The high surface temperatures require a thermal control system that keeps the instrumentation and electronics within their operating temperature range for as long as possible. Currently, Venus surface probes can operate for only a few hours. It is therefore crucial that the lander instrumentation be able to make statistically significant measurements in a short time. An instrument is described that can achieve such a measurement over a volume of thousands of cubic centimeters of material by using high energy penetrating neutron and gamma radiation. The instrument consists of a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG) and a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS). The PNG emits isotropic pulses of 14.1 MeV neutrons that penetrate the pressure vessel walls, the dense atmosphere and the surface rock. The neutrons induce nuclear reactions in the rock to produce gamma rays with energies specific to the element and nuclear process involved. Thus the energies of the detected gamma rays identify the elements present and their intensities provide the abundance of each element. The GRS spectra are analyzed to determine the Venus elemental composition from the spectral signature of individual major, minor, and trace radioactive elements. As a test of such an instrument, a Schlumberger Litho Scanner1 oil well logging tool was used in a series of experiments at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The Litho Scanner tool was mounted above large (1.8 m x 1.8 m x .9 m) granite and basalt monuments and made a series of one-hour elemental composition measurements in a planar geometry more similar to a planetary lander measurement. Initial analysis of the results shows good agreement with target elemental assays.

  11. High trapped fields in bulk YBCO superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Günter; Gruss, Stefan; Krabbes, Gernot; Schätzle, Peter; Verges, Peter; Müller, Karl-Hartmut; Fink, Jörg; Schultz, Ludwig

    The trapped field properties of bulk melt-textured YBCO material were investigated at different temperatures. In the temperature range of liquid nitrogen, maximum trapped fields of 1.1 T were found at 77 K by doping of YBCO with small amounts of zinc. The improved pinning of zinc-doped YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) results in a pronounced peak effect in the field dependence of the critical current density. the trapped field at lower temperatures increases due to the increasing critical current density, however, at temperatures around 50 K cracking of the material is observed which is exposed to considerably tensile stresses due to Lorentz forces. Very high trapped fields up to 14.4 T were achieved at 22.5 K for a YBCO disk pair by the addition of silver improving the tensile strength of YBCO and by using a bandage made of a steel tube. The steel tube produces a compressive stress on YBCO after cooling down from 300 K to the measuring temperature, which is due to the higher coeeficient of thermal expansion of steel compared with that of YBCO in the a,b plane. The application of superconducting permanent magnets with trapped fields of 10 T and more in superconducting bearings would allow to obtain very high levitation pressures up to 2500 N/cm2 which is two orders of magnitude higher than the levitation pressure achievable in superconducting bearings with conventional permanent magnets. The most important problem for the application of superconducting permanent magnets is the magnetizing procedure of the YBCO material. Results of magnetizing YBCO disks by using of pulsed magnetic fields will be presented.

  12. A new approximate sum rule for bulk alloy properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    A new, approximate sum rule is introduced for determining bulk properties of multicomponent systems, in terms of the pure components properties. This expression is applied for the study of lattice parameters, cohesive energies, and bulk moduli of binary alloys. The correct experimental trends (i.e., departure from average values) are predicted in all cases.

  13. Fracture Toughness Properties of Gd123 Superconducting Bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Murakami, A.

    Fracture toughness properties of melt growth GdBa2Cu3Ox (Gd123) large single domain superconducting bulks with Ag2O of 10 wt% and Pt of 0.5 wt%; 45 mm in diameter and 25 mm in thickness with low void density were evaluated at 77 K through flexural tests of specimens cut from the bulks, and compared to those of a conventional Gd123 with voids. The densified Gd123 bulks were prepared with a seeding and temperature gradient method; first melt processed in oxygen, then crystal growth in air; two-step regulated atmosphere heat treatment. The plane strain fracture toughness, KIC was obtained by the three point flexure test of the specimens with through precrack, referring to the single edge pre-cracked beam (SEPB) method, according to the JIS-R-1607, Testing Methods for Fracture Toughness of High Performance Ceramics. The results show that the fracture toughness of the densified Gd123 bulk with low void density was higher than that of the standard Gd123 bulk with voids, as well as the flexural strength previously reported. We also compared the fracture toughness of as-grown bulks with that of annealed bulks. The relation between the microstructure and the fracture toughness of the Gd123 bulk was clearly shown.

  14. 7 CFR 58.211 - Packaging room for bulk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging room for bulk products. 58.211 Section 58... Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.211 Packaging room for bulk products. A separate room or area shall... dust within the packaging room and where needed, a dust collector shall be provided and properly...

  15. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    .... Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY... biphenyl (PCB) disposal regulations regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste. The proposed... regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste under regulations promulgated at 40 CFR part 761. The...

  16. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  17. Improvement in trapped fields by stacking bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Wongsatanawarid, A.; Seki, H.; Murakami, M.

    2009-10-01

    We studied the effects of stacking several bulk superconductor blocks on the field trapping properties. In order to avoid the detrimental effects of the bottom deteriorated parts, bulk Dy-Ba-Cu-O superconductors 45 mm in diameter and 10 mm in thickness were cut from the top parts of as-grown bulk blocks of 25 mm diameter. We stacked the superconductors and measured the field distribution as a function of the gap. The trapped field measurements were performed by field-cooling the samples inserted in between two permanent magnets with liquid nitrogen. It was found that the trapped field values are almost doubled when the number of stacked bulk superconductors increased from two to three. The present results clearly show that one can expect beneficial effects of increasing the ratio of the height to the diameter even in bulk high temperature superconductors.

  18. A Compact Bulk Acousto-Optic Time Integrating Correlator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    AD-A156 668 A COMPACT BULK ACOUSTO - OPTIC TIME INTEGRATING 1/1 CORRELATOR(U) ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LAB ADELAIDE (AUSTRALIA) D A FOGG NOV 84 ERL-9323-TR...DEFENCE RESEARCH CENTRE SALISBURY SOUTH AUSTRALIA TECHNICAL REPORT ER L-0323-TR A COMPACT BULK ACOUSTO - OPTIC TIME INTEGRATING CORRELATOR D.A.B. FOGG...LABORATORY TECHNICAL REPORT ERL-0323-TR A COMPACT BULK ACOUSTO - OPTIC TIME INTEGRATING CORRELATOR D.A.B. Fogg SUMMARY This report describes the design and

  19. Phenomenological constraints on the bulk viscosity of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Jean-François; Shen, Chun; Denicol, Gabriel; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2017-11-01

    While small at very high temperature, the bulk viscosity of Quantum Chromodynamics is expected to grow in the confinement region. Although its precise magnitude and temperature-dependence in the cross-over region is not fully understood, recent theoretical and phenomenological studies provided evidence that the bulk viscosity can be sufficiently large to have measurable consequences on the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma. In this work, a Bayesian statistical analysis is used to establish probabilistic constraints on the temperature-dependence of bulk viscosity using hadronic measurements from RHIC and LHC.

  20. Onset of bulk pinning in BSCCO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Indenbom, M. V.; Berseth, V.; Li, T. W.; Benoit, W.

    1996-11-01

    The long growth defects often found in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8, “single” crystals effectively weaken the geometrical barrier and lower the field of first flux penetration. This means that the intrinsic (bulk) magnetic properties can be more easily accessed using magnetic measurements. Thus, the onset of strong bulk flux pinning in the sample bulk is determined to lie at T ≈ 40 K, indepedent of whether the field strength is above or below the field of the second peak in the magnetisation.

  1. Bulk local states and crosscaps in holographic CFT

    DOE PAGES

    Nakayama, Yu; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2016-10-17

    In a weakly coupled gravity theory in the anti-de Sitter space, local states in the bulk are linear superpositions of Ishibashi states for a crosscap in the dual conformal field theory. The superposition structure can be constrained either by the microscopic causality in the bulk gravity or the bootstrap condition in the boundary conformal field theory. We show, contrary to some expectation, that these two conditions are not compatible to each other in the weak gravity regime. As a result, we also present an evidence to show that bulk local states in three dimensions are not organized by the Virasoromore » symmetry.« less

  2. Surface Premelting Coupled with Bulk Phase Transitions in Colloidal Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Di; Cao, Xin; Peng, Yi; Ni, Ran; Liao, Maijia; Han, Yilong

    2015-03-01

    Colloids have been used as outstanding model systems for the studies of various phase transitions in bulk, but not at interface yet. Here we obtained equilibrium crystal-vapor interfaces using tunable attractive colloidal spheres and studied the surface premelting at the single-particle level by video microscopy. We found that monolayer crystals exhibit a bulk isostructural solid-solid transition which triggers the surface premelting. The premelting is incomplete due to the interruption of a mechanical-instability-induced bulk melting. By contrast, two- or multilayer crystals do not have the solid-solid transition and the mechanical instability, hence they exhibit complete premelting with divergent surface-liquid thickness. These novel interplays between bulk and surface phase transitions cast new lights for both types of transitions.

  3. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The bulk still wine record will contain the following: (a) The volume produced by fermentation in wine... fermentation, amelioration, sweetening, addition of spirits, blending; (d) The volume of wine used and produced...

  4. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The bulk still wine record will contain the following: (a) The volume produced by fermentation in wine... fermentation, amelioration, sweetening, addition of spirits, blending; (d) The volume of wine used and produced...

  5. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The bulk still wine record will contain the following: (a) The volume produced by fermentation in wine... fermentation, amelioration, sweetening, addition of spirits, blending; (d) The volume of wine used and produced...

  6. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... The bulk still wine record will contain the following: (a) The volume produced by fermentation in wine... fermentation, amelioration, sweetening, addition of spirits, blending; (d) The volume of wine used and produced...

  7. Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells has been improved significantly. For a large-scale application of this technology further improvements are required. This article reviews the basic working principles and the state of the art device design of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The importance of high power conversion efficiencies for the commercial exploitation is outlined and different efficiency models for bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed. Assuming state of the art materials and device architectures several models predict power conversion efficiencies in the range of 10–15%. A more general approach assuming device operation close to the Shockley–Queisser-limit leads to even higher efficiencies. Bulk heterojunction devices exhibiting only radiative recombination of charge carriers could be as efficient as ideal inorganic photovoltaic devices. PMID:24302787

  8. Bulk Charging of Dielectrics in Cryogenic Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.; Blackwell, W. C., Jr.; Parker, L. N.; Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.

    2007-01-01

    We use a 1-D bulk charging model to evaluate dielectric charging at cryogenic temperatures relevant to space systems using passive cooling to <100K or extended operations in permanently dark lunar craters and the lunar night.

  9. Bulk and edge spin transport in topological magnon insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Brataas, Arne; Duine, Rembert A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the spin transport properties of a topological magnon insulator, a magnetic insulator characterized by topologically nontrivial bulk magnon bands and protected magnon edge modes located in the bulk band gaps. Employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, we calculate the spin current driven through a normal metal |topological magnon insulator |normal metal heterostructure by a spin accumulation imbalance between the metals, with and without random lattice defects. We show that bulk and edge transport are characterized by different length scales. This results in a characteristic system size where the magnon transport crosses over from being bulk dominated for small systems to edge dominated for larger systems. These findings are generic and relevant for topological transport in systems of nonconserved bosons.

  10. 30 CFR 57.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Surface and Underground § 57.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a... removed. Before welding or cutting on a hollow shaft, the shaft shall be thoroughly cleaned inside and out...

  11. 27 CFR 26.304 - Bulk conveyances to be sealed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits from customs custody to the distilled spirits plant is made in a tank, tank barge, cargo container, tank car, tank truck, or similar bulk conveyance, all openings affording access to the spirits...

  12. 27 CFR 26.304 - Bulk conveyances to be sealed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits from customs custody to the distilled spirits plant is made in a tank, tank barge, cargo container, tank car, tank truck, or similar bulk conveyance, all openings affording access to the spirits...

  13. 27 CFR 26.304 - Bulk conveyances to be sealed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits from customs custody to the distilled spirits plant is made in a tank, tank barge, cargo container, tank car, tank truck, or similar bulk conveyance, all openings affording access to the spirits...

  14. 27 CFR 26.304 - Bulk conveyances to be sealed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits from customs custody to the distilled spirits plant is made in a tank, tank barge, cargo container, tank car, tank truck, or similar bulk conveyance, all openings affording access to the spirits...

  15. 27 CFR 26.304 - Bulk conveyances to be sealed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits from customs custody to the distilled spirits plant is made in a tank, tank barge, cargo container, tank car, tank truck, or similar bulk conveyance, all openings affording access to the spirits...

  16. Proposal of a Bulk HTSC Staggered Array Undulator

    SciT

    Kii, Toshiteru; Kinjo, Ryota; Bakr, Mahmoud A.

    We proposed a new type of undulator based on bulk high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTSC) which consists of a single solenoid and a stacked array of bulk HTSC. The main advantage of this configuration is that a mechanical structure is not required to produce and control the undulator field. In order to perform a proof of principle experiment, we have developed a prototype of bulk HTSC staggered array undulator using 11 pairs of DyBaCuO bulk superconductors and a normal conducting solenoid. Experimental results obtained by using the prototype undulator and numerical results obtained by a loop current model based on themore » Bean mode for a type-II superconductor were compared.« less

  17. Evaluation of Epoke Bulk Spreader for winter maintenance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    In the current economic climate, it is imperative to maximize efficiency while minimizing costs. As a : result, ODOT is evaluating new methods to reduce expenditures in their winter maintenance budget. One : such evaluation is of the Epoke Bulk Sprea...

  18. Search for Nucleosynthetic Cadmium Isotope Variations in Bulk Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, E. R.; Schönbächler, M.; Friebel, M.; Fehr, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    New high-precision Cd isotope data will be presented for bulk carbonaceous chondrites, such as Allende and Murchison. Volatile element isotope anomalies and their potential nucleosynthetic sources will be discussed.

  19. 27 CFR 20.142 - Records of bulk conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is to be shipped in a bulk conveyance, the shipment shall be accompanied by a record which identifies each car, truck, or compartment, the name and location (city or town and State) of both the consignor...

  20. 27 CFR 20.142 - Records of bulk conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is to be shipped in a bulk conveyance, the shipment shall be accompanied by a record which identifies each car, truck, or compartment, the name and location (city or town and State) of both the consignor...

  1. 27 CFR 20.142 - Records of bulk conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is to be shipped in a bulk conveyance, the shipment shall be accompanied by a record which identifies each car, truck, or compartment, the name and location (city or town and State) of both the consignor...

  2. 27 CFR 20.142 - Records of bulk conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is to be shipped in a bulk conveyance, the shipment shall be accompanied by a record which identifies each car, truck, or compartment, the name and location (city or town and State) of both the consignor...

  3. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The bulk still wine record will contain the following: (a) The volume produced by fermentation in wine... fermentation, amelioration, sweetening, addition of spirits, blending; (d) The volume of wine used and produced...

  4. Relaxation of the bulk modulus in partially molten dunite?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, C. J.; Jackson, I.

    2016-11-01

    To address the possibility of melt-related bulk modulus relaxation, a forced oscillation experiment was conducted at seismic frequencies on a partially molten synthetic dunite specimen (melt fraction = 0.026) utilizing the enhanced capacity of the Australian National University attenuation apparatus to operate in both torsional and flexural oscillation modes. Shear modulus and dissipation data are consistent with those for melt-bearing olivine specimens previously tested in torsion, with a pronounced dissipation peak superimposed on high-temperature background. Flexural data exhibit a monotonic decrease in complex Young's modulus with increasing temperature under transsolidus temperatures. The observed variation of Young's modulus is well described by the relationship 1/E 1/3G, without requiring relaxation of the bulk modulus. At high homologous temperatures, when shear modulus is low, extensional and flexural oscillation measurements have little resolution of bulk modulus, and thus, only pressure oscillation measurements can definitively constrain bulk properties at these conditions.

  5. 1. LOOKING SOUTH AT LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING (FORMERLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING SOUTH AT LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING (FORMERLY BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 1), WITH LIQUID OXYGEN STORAGE TANKS IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 3. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING, WITH THE LINDE LOW PURITY OXYGEN FRACTIONATING TOWERS ON LEFT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 2. WESTWARD VIEW OF LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WESTWARD VIEW OF LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING, AND FERROMANGANESE GAS CLEANING PLANT ON LEFT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 46 CFR 97.12-1 - Definition of a bulk solid cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definition of a bulk solid cargo. 97.12-1 Section 97.12... OPERATIONS Bulk Solid Cargoes § 97.12-1 Definition of a bulk solid cargo. (a) A bulk solid cargo— (1.... (b) Additional requirements for bulk solid materials needing special handling are contained in Part...

  9. Bulk Extractor 1.4 User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    optimistically decompresses data in ZIP, GZIP, RAR, and Mi- crosoft’s Hibernation files. This has proven useful, for example, in recovering email...command line. Java 7 or above must be installed on the machine for the Bulk Extractor Viewer to run. Instructions on running bulk_extractor from the... Hibernation File Fragments (decompressed and processed, not carved) Subsection 4.6 winprefetch Windows Prefetch files, file fragments (processed

  10. The Human Resource Management in Dry-Bulk Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Alexopoulos, Aristotelis B.

    2007-12-01

    This article investigates some positions and human resource management practices in dry-bulk shipping. The particularity of the human resource management field, as well as the crews' nationality change that has occurred over the last years, underpin the configuration of the hypothesis of this present research. The results demonstrate that the Greek dry-bulk shipping is going through a transition phase regarding the sector of the ships' human resource management by the captains.

  11. Unipolar memristive Switching in Bulk Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermosensitive Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongya; Cai, Kunpeng; Zhou, Ji; Li, Bo; Li, Longtu

    2013-01-01

    A memristive phenomenon was observed in macroscopic bulk negative temperature coefficient nickel monoxide (NiO) ceramic material. Current-voltage characteristics of memristors, pinched hysteretic loops were systematically observed in the Ag/NiO/Ag cell. A thermistor-based model for materials with negative temperature coefficient was proposed to explain the mechanism of the experimental phenomena. Most importantly, the results demonstrate the potential for a realization of memristive systems based on macroscopic bulk materials. PMID:24255717

  12. Accidental SUSY: enhanced bulk supersymmetry from brane back-reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.; van Nierop, L.; Parameswaran, S.; Salvio, A.; Williams, M.

    2013-02-01

    We compute how bulk loops renormalize both bulk and brane effective interactions for codimension-two branes in 6D gauged chiral supergravity, as functions of the brane tension and brane-localized flux. We do so by explicitly integrating out hyper- and gauge-multiplets in 6D gauged chiral supergravity compactified to 4D on a flux-stabilized 2D rugby-ball geometry, specializing the results of a companion paper, arXiv:1210.3753, to the supersymmetric case. While the brane back-reaction generically breaks supersymmetry, we show that the bulk supersymmetry can be preserved if the amount of brane- localized flux is related in a specific BPS-like way to the brane tension, and verify that the loop corrections to the brane curvature vanish in this special case. In these systems it is the brane-bulk couplings that fix the size of the extra dimensions, and we show that in some circumstances the bulk geometry dynamically adjusts to ensure the supersymmetric BPS-like condition is automatically satisfied. We investigate the robustness of this residual supersymmetry to loops of non-supersymmetric matter on the branes, and show that supersymmetry-breaking effects can enter only through effective brane-bulk interactions involving at least two derivatives. We comment on the relevance of this calculation to proposed applications of codimension-two 6D models to solutions of the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems.

  13. Dirac Fermions without bulk backscattering in rhombohedral topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera Acosta, Carlos; Lima, Matheus; Seixas, Leandro; da Silva, Antônio; Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    The realization of a spintronic device using topological insulators is not trivial, because there are inherent difficulties in achieving the surface transport regime. The majority of 3D topological insulators materials (3DTI) despite of support helical metallic surface states on an insulating bulk, forming topological Dirac fermions protected by the time-reversal symmetry, exhibit electronic scattering channels due to the presence of residual continuous bulk states near the Dirac-point. From ab initio calculations, we studied the microscopic origin of the continuous bulk states in rhombohedral topological insulators materials with the space group D3d 5 (R 3 m) , showing that it is possible to understand the emergence of residual continuous bulk states near the Dirac-point into a six bands effective model, where the breaking of the R3 symmetry beyond the Γ point has an important role in the hybridization of the px, py and pz atomic orbitals. Within these model, the mechanisms known to eliminate the bulk scattering, for instance: the stacking faults (SF), electric field and alloy, generated the similar effect in the effective states of the 3DTI. Finally, we show how the surface electronic transport is modified by perturbations of bulk with SF. We would like to thank the financial support by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).

  14. Does boundary quantum mechanics imply quantum mechanics in the bulk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad

    2018-03-01

    Perturbative bulk reconstruction in AdS/CFT starts by representing a free bulk field ϕ (0) as a smeared operator in the CFT. A series of 1 /N corrections must be added to ϕ (0) to represent an interacting bulk field ϕ. These corrections have been determined in the literature from several points of view. Here we develop a new perspective. We show that correlation functions involving ϕ (0) suffer from ambiguities due to analytic continuation. As a result ϕ (0) fails to be a well-defined linear operator in the CFT. This means bulk reconstruction can be understood as a procedure for building up well-defined operators in the CFT which thereby singles out the interacting field ϕ. We further propose that the difficulty with defining ϕ (0) as a linear operator can be re-interpreted as a breakdown of associativity. Presumably ϕ (0) can only be corrected to become an associative operator in perturbation theory. This suggests that quantum mechanics in the bulk is only valid in perturbation theory around a semiclassical bulk geometry.

  15. Unified bulk-boundary correspondence for band insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Bardarson, Jens H.; Slager, Robert-Jan

    2018-03-01

    The bulk-boundary correspondence, a topic of intensive research interest over the past decades, is one of the quintessential ideas in the physics of topological quantum matter. Nevertheless, it has not been proven in all generality and has in certain scenarios even been shown to fail, depending on the boundary profiles of the terminated system. Here, we introduce bulk numbers that capture the exact number of in-gap modes, without any such subtleties in one spatial dimension. Similarly, based on these 1D bulk numbers, we define a new 2D winding number, which we call the pole winding number, that specifies the number of robust metallic surface bands in the gap as well as their topological character. The underlying general methodology relies on a simple continuous extrapolation from the bulk to the boundary, while tracking the evolution of Green's function's poles in the vicinity of the bulk band edges. As a main result we find that all the obtained numbers can be applied to the known insulating phases in a unified manner regardless of the specific symmetries. Additionally, from a computational point of view, these numbers can be effectively evaluated without any gauge fixing problems. In particular, we directly apply our bulk-boundary correspondence construction to various systems, including 1D examples without a traditional bulk-boundary correspondence, and predict the existence of boundary modes on various experimentally studied graphene edges, such as open boundaries and grain boundaries. Finally, we sketch the 3D generalization of the pole winding number by in the context of topological insulators.

  16. Development of a superconducting bulk magnet for NMR and MRI.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tamada, Daiki; Yanagi, Yousuke; Itoh, Yoshitaka; Nemoto, Takahiro; Utumi, Hiroaki; Kose, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    A superconducting bulk magnet composed of six vertically stacked annular single-domain c-axis-oriented Eu-Ba-Cu-O crystals was energized to 4.74 T using a conventional superconducting magnet for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Shim coils, gradient coils, and radio frequency coils for high resolution NMR and MRI were installed in the 23 mm-diameter room-temperature bore of the bulk magnet. A 6.9 ppm peak-to-peak homogeneous region suitable for MRI was achieved in the central cylindrical region (6.2 mm diameter, 9.1 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a single layer shim coil. A 21 Hz spectral resolution that can be used for high resolution NMR spectroscopy was obtained in the central cylindrical region (1.3 mm diameter, 4 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a multichannel shim coil. A clear 3D MR image dataset of a chemically fixed mouse fetus with (50 μm)(3) voxel resolution was obtained in 5.5 h. We therefore concluded that the cryogen-free superconducting bulk magnet developed in this study is useful for high-resolution desktop NMR, MRI and mobile NMR device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bulk chemical compositions of Antarctic meteorites in the NIPR collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Haramura, H.; Kojima, H.

    2018-03-01

    Bulk chemical compositions of meteorites were traditionally analyzed by wet chemical analysis, and NIPR has data for 1162 meteorites as of September 2017. We discuss the classification of meteorites on the basis of these data. Chondrite data are distributed in an anomalously wide range of compositions on the Urey-Craig diagram. One of the reasons for such wide distribution is terrestrial weathering producing Fe2O3-bearing phases from Fe-Ni metal and sulfides. Another important factor affecting the bulk compositional data is brecciation. Our observations indicate that many brecciated chondrites contain anomalously abundant opaque minerals, or are depleted in them, resulting in unusual compositions. In case of enstatite and some carbonaceous chondrites, the bulk compositions are distributed in wider ranges than reported before. The bulk compositions of HED meteorites are consistent with their mineralogy and classification. Our study suggests that wet chemical data are still significant for the meteorite classification. However, petrographic observation is indispensable for evaluating the bulk chemistry and classification of meteorites.

  18. Mass production of bulk artificial nacre with excellent mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huai-Ling; Chen, Si-Ming; Mao, Li-Bo; Song, Zhao-Qiang; Yao, Hong-Bin; Cölfen, Helmut; Luo, Xi-Sheng; Zhang, Fu; Pan, Zhao; Meng, Yu-Feng; Ni, Yong; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2017-08-18

    Various methods have been exploited to replicate nacre features into artificial structural materials with impressive structural and mechanical similarity. However, it is still very challenging to produce nacre-mimetics in three-dimensional bulk form, especially for further scale-up. Herein, we demonstrate that large-sized, three-dimensional bulk artificial nacre with comprehensive mimicry of the hierarchical structures and the toughening mechanisms of natural nacre can be facilely fabricated via a bottom-up assembly process based on laminating pre-fabricated two-dimensional nacre-mimetic films. By optimizing the hierarchical architecture from molecular level to macroscopic level, the mechanical performance of the artificial nacre is superior to that of natural nacre and many engineering materials. This bottom-up strategy has no size restriction or fundamental barrier for further scale-up, and can be easily extended to other material systems, opening an avenue for mass production of high-performance bulk nacre-mimetic structural materials in an efficient and cost-effective way for practical applications.Artificial materials that replicate the mechanical properties of nacre represent important structural materials, but are difficult to produce in bulk. Here, the authors exploit the bottom-up assembly of 2D nacre-mimetic films to fabricate 3D bulk artificial nacre with an optimized architecture and excellent mechanical properties.

  19. Critical soil bulk density for soybean growth in Oxisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keisuke Sato, Michel; Veras de Lima, Herdjania; Oliveira, Pedro Daniel de; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the critical soil bulk density from the soil penetration resistance measurements for soybean root growth in Brazilian Amazon Oxisols. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using disturbed soil samples collected from the northwest of Para characterized by different texture. The treatments consisted of a range of soil bulk densities for each soil textural class. Three pots were used for soybean growth of and two for the soil penetration resistance curve. From the fitted model, the critical soil bulk density was determined considering the penetration resistance values of 2 and 3 MPa. After sixty days, plants were cut and root length, dry mass of root, and dry mass of shoots were determined. At higher bulk densities, the increase in soil water content decreased the penetration resistance, allowing unrestricted growth of soybean roots. Regardless of soil texture, the penetration resistance of 2 and 3 MPa had a slight effect on root growth in soil moisture at field capacity and a reduction of 50% in the soybean root growth was achieved at critical soil bulk density of 1.82, 1.75, 1.51, and 1.45 Mg m-3 for the sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clayey, and very clayey soil.

  20. Longitudinal and bulk viscosities of Lennard-Jones fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankeshwar, K.; Pathak, K. N.; Ranganathan, S.

    1996-12-01

    Expressions for the longitudinal and bulk viscosities have been derived using Green Kubo formulae involving the time integral of the longitudinal and bulk stress autocorrelation functions. The time evolution of stress autocorrelation functions are determined using the Mori formalism and a memory function which is obtained from the Mori equation of motion. The memory function is of hyperbolic secant form and involves two parameters which are related to the microscopic sum rules of the respective autocorrelation function. We have derived expressions for the zeroth-, second-and fourth- order sum rules of the longitudinal and bulk stress autocorrelation functions. These involve static correlation functions up to four particles. The final expressions for these have been put in a form suitable for numerical calculations using low- order decoupling approximations. The numerical results have been obtained for the sum rules of longitudinal and bulk stress autocorrelation functions. These have been used to calculate the longitudinal and bulk viscosities and time evolution of the longitudinal stress autocorrelation function of the Lennard-Jones fluids over wide ranges of densities and temperatures. We have compared our results with the available computer simulation data and found reasonable agreement.

  1. Running with rugby balls: bulk renormalization of codimension-2 branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M.; Burgess, C. P.; van Nierop, L.; Salvio, A.

    2013-01-01

    We compute how one-loop bulk effects renormalize both bulk and brane effective interactions for geometries sourced by codimension-two branes. We do so by explicitly integrating out spin-zero, -half and -one particles in 6-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar theories compactified to 4 dimensions on a flux-stabilized 2D geometry. (Our methods apply equally well for D dimensions compactified to D - 2 dimensions, although our explicit formulae do not capture all divergences when D > 6.) The renormalization of bulk interactions are independent of the boundary conditions assumed at the brane locations, and reproduce standard heat-kernel calculations. Boundary conditions at any particular brane do affect how bulk loops renormalize this brane's effective action, but not the renormalization of other distant branes. Although we explicitly compute our loops using a rugby ball geometry, because we follow only UV effects our results apply more generally to any geometry containing codimension-two sources with conical singularities. Our results have a variety of uses, including calculating the UV sensitivity of one-loop vacuum energy seen by observers localized on the brane. We show how these one-loop effects combine in a surprising way with bulk back-reaction to give the complete low-energy effective cosmological constant, and comment on the relevance of this calculation to proposed applications of codimension-two 6D models to solutions of the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems.

  2. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  3. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    PubMed

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  4. Bulk-edge correspondence in topological transport and pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Fukui, Takahiro; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    The bulk-edge correspondence (BEC) refers to a one-to-one relation between the bulk and edge properties ubiquitous in topologically nontrivial systems. Depending on the setup, BEC manifests in different forms and govern the spectral and transport properties of topological insulators and semimetals. Although the topological pump is theoretically old, BEC in the pump has been established just recently [1] motivated by the state-of-the-art experiments using cold atoms [2, 3]. The center of mass (CM) of a system with boundaries shows a sequence of quantized jumps in the adiabatic limit associated with the edge states. Despite that the bulk is adiabatic, the edge is inevitably non-adiabatic in the experimental setup or in any numerical simulations. Still the pumped charge is quantized and carried by the bulk. Its quantization is guaranteed by a compensation between the bulk and edges. We show that in the presence of disorder the pumped charge continues to be quantized despite the appearance of non-quantized jumps.

  5. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  6. Influence of addition of degassed water on bulk nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Tuziuti, Toru; Yasui, Kyuichi; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2018-05-01

    The effects of the addition of degassed water on bulk nanobubbles (ultrafine bubbles) of air in liquid water were investigated by measuring the volumetric concentration and size distribution at different dissolved air degree of saturation (DOS) values. The proportion of degassed water mixed with water containing bulk nanobubbles was increased to prepare samples having lower DOS values. It was found that the volumetric concentration of nanobubbles mostly decreased and the average nanobubble size became larger as the DOS was decreased. In our proposed mechanism, smaller nanobubbles are selectively dissolved into the surrounding liquid by Laplace pressure due to surface tension as the DOS is reduced. These results demonstrate that stable bulk nanobubbles are present even in water undersaturated with gas. The role of nanobubble under an ultrasound is also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bulk viscosity of water in acoustic modal analysis and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kůrečka, Jan; Habán, Vladimír; Himr, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Bulk viscosity is an important factor in the damping properties of fluid systems and exhibits frequency dependent behaviour. A comparison between modal analysis in ANSYS Acoustics, custom code and experimental data is presented in this paper. The measured system consists of closed ended water-filled steel pipes of different lengths. The influence of a pipe wall, flanges on both ends and longitudinal waves in the structural part were included in measurement evaluation. Therefore, the obtained values of sound speed and bulk viscosity are parameters of the fluid. A numerical simulation was carried out only using fluid volume in a range of bulk viscosity. Damping characteristics in this range were compared to measured values. The results show a significant influence of sound speed and subsequently, the use of sound speed value regressed from experimental data yields a better fit between the measurement and the computation.

  8. Extreme rejuvenation and softening in a bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Pan, J; Wang, Y X; Guo, Q; Zhang, D; Greer, A L; Li, Y

    2018-02-08

    Rejuvenation of metallic glasses, bringing them to higher-energy states, is of interest in improving their plasticity. The mechanisms of rejuvenation are poorly understood, and its limits remain unexplored. We use constrained loading in compression to impose substantial plastic flow on a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass. The maximum measured effects are that the hardness of the glass decreases by 36%, and its excess enthalpy (above the relaxed state) increases to 41% of the enthalpy of melting. Comparably high degrees of rejuvenation have been reported only on microscopic scales at the centre of shear bands confined to low volume fractions. This extreme rejuvenation of a bulk glass gives a state equivalent to that obtainable by quenching the liquid at ~10 10  K s -1 , many orders of magnitude faster than is possible for bulk specimens. The contrast with earlier results showing relaxation in similar tests under tension emphasizes the importance of hydrostatic stress.

  9. Magnetic confinement of weakly ionized plasma with superconducting bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Hidenori; Ohishi, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Kazuhito; Morita, Tomonori; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Ikuta, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Uichiro

    2003-04-01

    This letter describes the application of single-domain superconducting bulk magnets as a plasma confinement. A through-hole was drilled at the center of a Sm123 bulk superconductor of 39 mm diameter and 17 mm thickness. When the sample was field cooled to 77 K, the resulting bulk magnet trapped a magnetic field of ˜0.65 T called a magnetic mirror, in the bore of the hole. The magnet was applied to a weakly ionized neon plasma column. Both the magnet and discharge glass tube were immersed in liquid nitrogen. The spatial distribution in the tube of red fluorescence of the plasma showed that the magnet certainly confined the plasma. These results would provide a clue to applications of the compact magnet of strong magnetic field.

  10. Preparation of bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos, NM; He, Duanwei [Sichuan, CN

    2011-05-10

    Bulk, superhard, B--C--N nanocomposite compacts were prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture at a pressure in a range of from about 15 GPa to about 25 GPa, and sintering the pressurized encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a temperature in a range of from about 1800-2500 K. The product bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compacts were well sintered compacts with nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B--C--N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compacts had a measured Vicker's hardness in a range of from about 41 GPa to about 68 GPa.

  11. Mechanisms of the anomalous Pockels effect in bulk water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukita, Shunpei; Suzuki, Yuto; Shiokawa, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2018-04-01

    The "anomalous" Pockels effect is a phenomenon that a light beam passing between two electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte solution is deflected by an AC voltage applied between the electrodes: the deflection angle is proportional to the voltage such that the incident beam alternately changes its direction. This phenomenon, the Pockels effect in bulk water, apparently contradicts what is believed in nonlinear optics, i.e., macroscopic inversion symmetry should be broken for the second-order nonlinear optical effect to occur such as the first-order electro-optic effect, i.e., the Pockels effect. To clarify the underlying mechanism, the dependence of the effect on the electrode material is investigated to find that the Pockels coefficient with Pt electrodes is two orders of magnitude smaller than with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. It is experimentally confirmed that the Pockels effect of interfacial water in the electric double layer (EDL) on these electrodes shows an electrode dependence similar to the effect in bulk water while the effects depend on the frequency of the AC voltage such that the interfacial signal decreases with frequency but the bulk signal increases with frequency up to 221 Hz. These experimental results lead to a conclusion that the beam deflection is caused by the refractive index gradient in the bulk water region, which is formed transiently by the Pockels effect of interfacial water in the EDL when an AC electric field is applied. The refractive index gradient is caused by the diffuse layer spreading into the bulk region to work as a breaking factor of inversion symmetry of bulk water due to its charge-biased ionic distribution. This mechanism does not contradict the principle of nonlinear optics.

  12. Numerical modelling of iron-pnictide bulk superconductor magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, Mark D.; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Weiss, Jeremy D.; Hellstrom, Eric E.

    2017-10-01

    Iron-based superconductors exhibit a number of properties attractive for applications, including low anisotropy, high upper critical magnetic fields (H c2) in excess of 90 T and intrinsic critical current densities above 1 MA cm-2 (0 T, 4.2 K). It was shown recently that bulk iron-pnictide superconducting magnets capable of trapping over 1 T (5 K) and 0.5 T (20 K) can be fabricated with fine-grain polycrystalline Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Ba122). These Ba122 magnets were processed by a scalable, versatile and low-cost method using common industrial ceramic processing techniques. In this paper, a standard numerical modelling technique, based on a 2D axisymmetric finite-element model implementing the H -formulation, is used to investigate the magnetisation properties of such iron-pnictide bulk superconductors. Using the measured J c(B, T) characteristics of a small specimen taken from a bulk Ba122 sample, experimentally measured trapped fields are reproduced well for a single bulk, as well as a stack of bulks. Additionally, the influence of the geometric dimensions (thickness and diameter) on the trapped field is analysed, with a view of fabricating larger samples to increase the magnetic field available from such trapped field magnets. It is shown that, with current state-of-the-art superconducting properties, surface trapped fields >2 T could readily be achieved at 5 K (and >1 T at 20 K) with a sample of diameter 50 mm. Finally, an aspect ratio of between 1 and 1.5 for R/H (radius/thickness) would be an appropriate compromise between the accessible, surface trapped field and volume of superconducting material for bulk Ba122 magnets.

  13. Cosmic Bulk Flow and the Local Motion from Cosmicflows-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtois, Helene M.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent

    2015-08-01

    Full sky surveys of peculiar velocity are arguably the best way to map the large scale structure out to distances of a few times 100 Mpc/h.Using the largest and most accurate ever catalog of galaxy peculiar velocities Cosmicflows-2, the large scale structure has been reconstructed by means of the Wiener filter and constrained realizations assuming as a Bayesian prior model the LCDM standard model of cosmology. The present paper focuses on studying the bulk flow of the local flow field, defined as the mean velocity of top-hat spheres with radii ranging out to R=500 Mpc/h. Our main results is that the estimated bulk flow is consistent with the LCDM model with the WMAP inferred cosmological parameters. At R=50 (150)Mpc/h the estimated bulk velocity is 250 +/- 21 (239 +/- 38) km/s. The corresponding cosmic variance at these radii is 126 (60) km/s, which implies that these estimated bulk flows are dominated by the data and not by the assumed prior model. The estimated bulk velocity is dominated by the data out to R ˜200 Mpc/h, where the cosmic variance on the individual Supergalactic Cartesian components (of the r.m.s. values) exceeds the variance of the constrined realizations by at least a factor of 2. The SGX and SGY components of the CMB dipole velocity are recovered by the Wiener Filter velocity field down to a very few km/s. The SGZ component of the estimated velocity, the one that is most affected by the Zone of Avoidance, is off by 126km/s (an almost 2 sigma discrepancy).The bulk velocity analysis reported here is virtually unaffected by the Malmquist bias and very similar results are obtained for the data with and without the bias correction.

  14. Genetic variation among Staphylococcus aureus strains from Norwegian bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Mørk, T; Caugant, D A; Kearns, A; Rørvik, L M

    2005-12-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from bovine (n = 117) and caprine (n = 114) bulk milk were characterized and compared with S. aureus strains from raw-milk products (n = 27), bovine mastitis specimens (n = 9), and human blood cultures (n = 39). All isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In addition, subsets of isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multiplex PCR (m-PCR) for genes encoding nine of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), and the cloverleaf method for penicillin resistance. A variety of genotypes were observed, and greater genetic diversity was found among bovine than caprine bulk milk isolates. Certain genotypes, with a wide geographic distribution, were common to bovine and caprine bulk milk and may represent ruminant-specialized S. aureus. Isolates with genotypes indistinguishable from those of strains from ruminant mastitis were frequently found in bulk milk, and strains with genotypes indistinguishable from those from bulk milk were observed in raw-milk products. This indicates that S. aureus from infected udders may contaminate bulk milk and, subsequently, raw-milk products. Human blood culture isolates were diverse and differed from isolates from other sources. Genotyping by PFGE, MLST, and m-PCR for SE genes largely corresponded. In general, isolates with indistinguishable PFGE banding patterns had the same SE gene profile and isolates with identical SE gene profiles were placed together in PFGE clusters. Phylogenetic analyses agreed with the division of MLST sequence types into clonal complexes, and isolates within the same clonal complex had the same SE gene profile. Furthermore, isolates within PFGE clusters generally belonged to the same clonal complex.

  15. Genetic Variation among Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Norwegian Bulk Milk

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, H. J.; Mørk, T.; Caugant, D. A.; Kearns, A.; Rørvik, L. M.

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from bovine (n = 117) and caprine (n = 114) bulk milk were characterized and compared with S. aureus strains from raw-milk products (n = 27), bovine mastitis specimens (n = 9), and human blood cultures (n = 39). All isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In addition, subsets of isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multiplex PCR (m-PCR) for genes encoding nine of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), and the cloverleaf method for penicillin resistance. A variety of genotypes were observed, and greater genetic diversity was found among bovine than caprine bulk milk isolates. Certain genotypes, with a wide geographic distribution, were common to bovine and caprine bulk milk and may represent ruminant-specialized S. aureus. Isolates with genotypes indistinguishable from those of strains from ruminant mastitis were frequently found in bulk milk, and strains with genotypes indistinguishable from those from bulk milk were observed in raw-milk products. This indicates that S. aureus from infected udders may contaminate bulk milk and, subsequently, raw-milk products. Human blood culture isolates were diverse and differed from isolates from other sources. Genotyping by PFGE, MLST, and m-PCR for SE genes largely corresponded. In general, isolates with indistinguishable PFGE banding patterns had the same SE gene profile and isolates with identical SE gene profiles were placed together in PFGE clusters. Phylogenetic analyses agreed with the division of MLST sequence types into clonal complexes, and isolates within the same clonal complex had the same SE gene profile. Furthermore, isolates within PFGE clusters generally belonged to the same clonal complex. PMID:16332822

  16. Nuclear spin warm up in bulk n -GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotur, M.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Vladimirova, M.; Jouault, B.; Korenev, V. L.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating GaAs is dramatically accelerated at low magnetic fields. The origin of this effect, which cannot be explained in terms of well-known diffusion-limited hyperfine relaxation, is found in the quadrupole relaxation, induced by fluctuating donor charges. Therefore, quadrupole relaxation, which governs low field nuclear spin relaxation in semiconductor quantum dots, but was so far supposed to be harmless to bulk nuclei spins in the absence of optical pumping, can be studied and harnessed in the much simpler model environment of n -GaAs bulk crystal.

  17. Process audits versus product quality monitoring of bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Velthuis, A G J; van Asseldonk, M A P M

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of milk quality is based on bulk milk testing and farm certification on process quality audits. It is unknown to what extent dairy farm audits improve milk quality. A statistical analysis was conducted to quantify possible associations between bulk milk testing and dairy farm audits. The analysis comprised 64.373 audit outcomes on 26,953 dairy farms, which were merged with all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. Each farm audit record included 271 binary checklist items and 52 attention point variables (given to farmers if serious deviations were observed), both indicating possible deviations from the desired farm situation. Test results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acid (FFA), and milk sediment (SED). Results show that numerous audit variables were related to bulk milk test results, although the goodness of fit of the models was generally low. Cow hygiene, clean cubicles, hygiene of milking parlor, and utility room were positively correlated with superior product quality, mainly with respect to SCC, TBC, BAB, FPD, FFA, and SED. Animal health or veterinary drugs management (i.e., drug treatment recording, marking of treated animals, and storage of veterinary drugs) related to SCC, FPD, FFA, and SED. The availability of drinking water was related to TBC, BAB, FFA, and SED, whereas maintenance of the milking equipment was related mainly to SCC, FPD, and FFA. In summary, bulk milk quality and farm audit outcomes are, to some degree, associated: if dairy farms are assessed negatively on specific audit aspects, the bulk milk quality is more likely to be inferior. However, the proportion of the total variance in milk test results explained by audits ranged between 4 and 13% (depending on the specific bulk milk test), showing that auditing dairy farms provides

  18. Radiating gravitational collapse with shearing motion and bulk viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, R.

    2001-03-01

    A model is proposed of a collapsing radiating star consisting of a shearing fluid with bulk viscosity undergoing radial heat flow with outgoing radiation. The pressure of the star, at the beginning of the collapse, is isotropic but due to the presence of the bulk viscosity the pressure becomes more and more anisotropic. The behavior of the density, pressure, mass, luminosity, the effective adiabatic index and the Kretschmann scalar is analyzed. Our work is compared to the case of a collapsing shearing fluid of a previous model, for a star with 6 Msun.

  19. Reversible ultrafast melting in bulk CdSe

    SciT

    Wu, Wenzhi; Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712; He, Feng

    2016-02-07

    In this work, transient reflectivity changes in bulk CdSe have been measured with two-color femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy under a wide range of pump fluences. Three regions of reflectivity change with pump fluences have been consistently revealed for excited carrier density, coherent phonon amplitude, and lattice temperature. For laser fluences from 13 to 19.3 mJ/cm{sup 2}, ultrafast melting happens in first several picoseconds. This melting process is purely thermal and reversible. A complete phase transformation in bulk CdSe may be reached when the absorbed laser energy is localized long enough, as observed in nanocrystalline CdSe.

  20. Relation between nonlocal surface and bulk dark solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xinghui; Zhang, Chengyun; Wang, Qing

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the existence and stability of nonlocal surface dark solitons at the interface formed by a nonlocal nonlinear self-defocusing medium and a linear medium. We find that nonlocal fundamental surface dark solitons are always stable in their entire existence domain, while high-order surface dark solitons are oscillatory stable. Comparing with nonlocal bulk dark solitons in amplitude and boundary conditions, nonlocal surface dark solitons can be regarded as the half of the corresponding bulk dark solitons with antisymmetrical amplitude distribution.

  1. Bulk and surface electronic structures of MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönberger, U.; Aryasetiawan, F.

    1995-09-01

    The bulk electronic structure of MgO is calculated from first principles including correlation effects within the GW approximation. The band gap, the position of the 2s O band, and the valence band width are in good agreement with experiment. From the quasiparticle band structure, optical transitions corresponding to the main optical absorption peaks are identified. The energy-loss spectrum is also calculated and compared with experiment. The surface electronic structure of MgO(100) is calculated self-consistently within the local-density approximation. It is found that states observed in a recent photoemission experiment outside the bulk allowed states are close to surface states.

  2. 29 CFR 794.131 - “Customer * * * engaged in bulk distribution”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCustomer * * * engaged in bulk distributionâ. 794.131... Sales Made to Other Bulk Distributors § 794.131 “Customer * * * engaged in bulk distribution”. A sale to a customer of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products will...

  3. 49 CFR 173.24a - Additional general requirements for non-bulk packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter. (b) Non-bulk packaging filling limits. (1) A single or composite non-bulk packaging may be filled... gross mass marked on the packaging. (3) A single or composite non-bulk packaging which is tested and... marked on the packaging, or 1.2 if not marked. In addition: (i) A single or composite non-bulk packaging...

  4. 49 CFR 173.24a - Additional general requirements for non-bulk packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subchapter. (b) Non-bulk packaging filling limits. (1) A single or composite non-bulk packaging may be filled... gross mass marked on the packaging. (3) A single or composite non-bulk packaging which is tested and... marked on the packaging, or 1.2 if not marked. In addition: (i) A single or composite non-bulk packaging...

  5. 49 CFR 173.24a - Additional general requirements for non-bulk packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subchapter. (b) Non-bulk packaging filling limits. (1) A single or composite non-bulk packaging may be filled... gross mass marked on the packaging. (3) A single or composite non-bulk packaging which is tested and... marked on the packaging, or 1.2 if not marked. In addition: (i) A single or composite non-bulk packaging...

  6. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods

    Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Joe Scott; Kathy Gray; James Reardon

    2005-01-01

    Canopy bulk density (CBD) is an important crown characteristic needed to predict crown fire spread, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Presented here is a comprehensive research effort to evaluate six indirect sampling techniques for estimating CBD. As reference data, detailed crown fuel biomass measurements were taken on each tree within fixed-area plots...

  7. Should bulk cloudwater or fogwater samples obey Henry's law?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandis, Spyros N.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1991-06-01

    Mixing of droplets with different pH that are individually in Henry's law equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere always results in a bulk mixture that is supersaturated with weak acids like S(IV) and HCOOH, and bases like NH3 with respect to the original atmosphere. High supersaturations result only when the pH of the bulk droplet mixture exceeds the pKa of the species, in which pH range large pH differences among droplets of different sizes lead to large deviations from Henry's law for the bulk mixture. The deviation is shown to depend on the ratio of the arithmetic mean to the harmonic mean of the hydrogen ion concentrations of the droplets with the liquid water content used as weighting factor in the calculation of the means. The theory developed can explain observed discrepancies from Henry's law in atmospheric samples and also other observed phenomena like the reported increase of pH values of bulk aqueous samples during storage.

  8. Bulk densities of materials from selected pine-site hardwoods

    Clyde Vidrine; George E. Woodson

    1982-01-01

    Bulk densities of hardwood materials from low and high density species were determined for green and air-dry conditions. Materials consisted of whole-tree chips, bark-free chips, bark as collected from three types of debarkers (ring, rosser head, and drum debarkers) sawdust, planer shavings, flakes, logging residues, baled branchwood, steel-strapped firewood, and...

  9. Core vs. Bulk Samples in Soil-Moisture Tension Analyses

    Walter M. Broadfoot

    1954-01-01

    The usual laboratory procedure in determining soil-moisture tension values is to use "undisturbed" soil cores for tensions up to 60 cm. of water and bulk soil samples for higher tensions. Low tensions are usually obtained with a tension table and the higher tensions by use of pressure plate apparatus. In tension analysis at the Vicksburg Infiltration Project...

  10. Effect of Bulk Viscosity on the Oscillating Screen Viscometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Close to the critical temperature, the bulk viscosity of the xenon sample will exceed the shear viscosity by more than a factor of a billion. Nevertheless, the viscometer's low operating frequency ensures that the only significant force on the oscillating screen will be due to the shear viscosity.

  11. Soil water sensor response to bulk electrical conductivity

    Soil water monitoring using electromagnetic (EM) sensors can facilitate observations of water content at high temporal and spatial resolutions. These sensors measure soil dielectric permittivity (Ka) which is largely a function of volumetric water content. However, bulk electrical conductivity BEC c...

  12. Correlated Time-Variation of Asphalt Rheology and Bulk Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramm, Adam; Nazmus, Sakib; Bhasin, Amit; Downer, Michael

    We use noncontact optical microscopy and optical scattering in the visible and near-infrared spectrum on Performance Grade (PG) asphalt binder to confirm the existence of microstructures in the bulk. The number of visible microstructures increases linearly as penetration depth of the incident radiation increases, which verifies a uniform volume distribution of microstructures. We use dark field optical scatter in the near-infrared to measure the temperature dependent behavior of the bulk microstructures and compare this behavior with Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) measurements of the bulk complex shear modulus | G* (T) | . The main findings are: (1) After reaching thermal equilibrium, both temperature dependent optical scatter intensity (I (T)) and bulk shear modulus (| G* (T) |) continue to change appreciably for times much greater than thermal equilibration times. (2) The hysteresis behavior during a complete temperature cycle seen in previous work derives from a larger time dependence in the cooling step compared with the heating step. (3) Different binder aging conditions show different thermal time-variations for both I (T) and | G* (T) | .

  13. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Jason

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs may have turbulent velocities that exceed the electron thermal velocities. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. We discuss how to self-consistently resolve and interpret this effect in calculations of spectra of radiation MHD simulations. In particular, we show that this effect is dominated by radiation viscous dissipation and can be treated as thermal Comptonization with an equivalent temperature. We investigate whether bulk Comptonization may provide a physical basis for warm Comptonization models of the soft X-ray excess in AGN. We characterize our results with temperatures and optical depths to make contact with other models of this component. We show that bulk Comptonization shifts the Wien tail to higher energy and lowers the gas temperature, broadening the spectrum. More generally, we model the dependence of this effect on a wide range of fundamental accretion disc parameters, such as mass, luminosity, radius, spin, inner boundary condition, and the alpha parameter. Because our model connects bulk Comptonization to one dimensional vertical structure temperature profiles in a physically intuitive way, it will be useful for understanding this effect in future simulations run in new regimes. We also develop a global Monte Carlo code to study this effect in global radiation MHD simulations. This code can be used more broadly to compare global simulations with observed systems, and in particular to investigate whether magnetically dominated discs can explain why observed high Eddington accretion discs appear to be thermally stable.

  14. Two-dimensional topological insulators with large bulk energy gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. Q.; Jia, Jin-Feng; Qian, Dong

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs, or quantum spin Hall insulators) are special insulators that possess bulk 2D electronic energy gap and time-reversal symmetry protected one-dimensional (1D) edge state. Carriers in the edge state have the property of spin-momentum locking, enabling dissipation-free conduction along the 1D edge. The existence of 2D TIs was confirmed by experiments in semiconductor quantum wells. However, the 2D bulk gaps in those quantum wells are extremely small, greatly limiting potential application in future electronics and spintronics. Despite this limitation, 2D TIs with a large bulk gap attracted plenty of interest. In this paper, recent progress in searching for TIs with a large bulk gap is reviewed briefly. We start by introducing some theoretical predictions of these new materials and then discuss some recent important achievements in crystal growth and characterization. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1632272, 11574201, and 11521404). D. Q. acknowledges support from the Changjiang Scholars Program, China and the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar), China.

  15. 120. NORTH PLANT GB BULK STORAGE BUILDING AND AMMUNITION DEMOLITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. NORTH PLANT GB BULK STORAGE BUILDING AND AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY AT CENTER AND CASE FILLING PLANT/CLUSTER ASSEMBLY BUILDING (BUILDING 1601/1606) IN BACKGROUND, FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. Promising Thermoelectric Bulk Materials with 2D Structures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiming; Zhao, Li-Dong

    2017-12-01

    Given that more than two thirds of all energy is lost, mostly as waste heat, in utilization processes worldwide, thermoelectric materials, which can directly convert waste heat to electricity, provide an alternative option for optimizing energy utilization processes. After the prediction that superlattices may show high thermoelectric performance, various methods based on quantum effects and superlattice theory have been adopted to analyze bulk materials, leading to the rapid development of thermoelectric materials. Bulk materials with two-dimensional (2D) structures show outstanding properties, and their high performance originates from both their low thermal conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient due to their strong anisotropic features. Here, the advantages of superlattices for enhancing the thermoelectric performance, the transport mechanism in bulk materials with 2D structures, and optimization methods are discussed. The phenomenological transport mechanism in these materials indicates that thermal conductivities are reduced in 2D materials with intrinsically short mean free paths. Recent progress in the transport mechanisms of Bi 2 Te 3 -, SnSe-, and BiCuSeO-based systems is summarized. Finally, possible research directions to enhance the thermoelectric performance of bulk materials with 2D structures are briefly considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synaptotagmin-11 inhibits clathrin-mediated and bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhe; Wang, Yeshi; Hu, Meiqin; Chai, Zuying; Wu, Qihui; Huang, Rong; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Claire Xi; Zhou, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and efficient endocytosis is essential for vesicle recycling during a sustained neurotransmission. The regulation of endocytosis has been extensively studied, but inhibitors have rarely been found. Here, we show that synaptotagmin-11 (Syt11), a non-Ca(2+)-binding Syt implicated in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and bulk endocytosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The frequency of both types of endocytic event increases in Syt11 knockdown neurons, while the sizes of endocytosed vesicles and the kinetics of individual bulk endocytotic events remain unaffected. Specifically, clathrin-coated pits and bulk endocytosis-like structures increase on the plasma membrane in Syt11-knockdown neurons. Structural-functional analysis reveals distinct domain requirements for Syt11 function in CME and bulk endocytosis. Importantly, Syt11 also inhibits endocytosis in hippocampal neurons, implying a general role of Syt11 in neurons. Taken together, we propose that Syt11 functions to ensure precision in vesicle retrieval, mainly by limiting the sites of membrane invagination at the early stage of endocytosis. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. The homogeneity of levitation force in single domain YBCO bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Keran; Xu, Ke-Xi; Wu, Xing-da; Pan, Peng-jun

    2007-11-01

    The pellet homogeneity of levitation force versus the position in comparison to the seed or to the top surface has been studied in the entire volume of a single domain YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ bulk sample processed by the top-seeded melt texturing growth (TSMTG). It is found that the levitation forces increase and peak at a depth of 3 mm from the top of the sample at liquid nitrogen temperature. In other words, the second disk has the largest levitation force density. The phenomenon can be interpreted by the interaction between the microcracks or pores produced by crystal growth and the oxygenation. We propose a model in which Y211 particles distribution leading to microcracks and pores reduces the effective induced shielding current loops (ISCL) and increases the perimeters of ISCL. This corresponds to a decrease in the grain size and results in greatly reduced levitation forces of the bottom of the bulk. From the research, we know that the density of the YBCO bulk is also an important parameter for the levitation properties. The result is very attractive and useful for the fundamental studies and fabrication of TSMTG YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ bulk.

  19. 27 CFR 20.142 - Records of bulk conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records of bulk conveyances. 20.142 Section 20.142 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE.... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0337) ...

  20. Femtosecond coherent emission from GaAs bulk microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurioli, Massimo; Bogani, Franco; Ceccherini, Simone; Colocci, Marcello; Beltram, Fabio; Sorba, Lucia

    1999-02-01

    The emission from a λ/2 GaAs bulk microcavity resonantly excited by femtosecond pulses has been characterized by using an interferometric correlation technique. It is found that the emission is dominated by the coherent signal due to light elastically scattered by disorder, and that scattering is predominantly originated from the lower polariton branch.

  1. Development of a Test Rig for Measuring Isentropic Bulk Modulus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Figure 4, was fabricated from 17 - 4PH heat-treated steel. The cell is a three-part design consisting of a top and bottom with a thermowell sandwiched in...Bulk Modulus, Speed-of-Sound, Fuel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17 . LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  2. A bulk viscosity approach for shock capturing on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoeybi, Mohammad; Larsson, Nils Johan; Ham, Frank; Moin, Parviz

    2008-11-01

    The bulk viscosity approach for shock capturing (Cook and Cabot, JCP, 2005) augments the bulk part of the viscous stress tensor. The intention is to capture shock waves without dissipating turbulent structures. The present work extends and modifies this method for unstructured grids. We propose a method that properly scales the bulk viscosity with the grid spacing normal to the shock for unstructured grid for which the shock is not necessarily aligned with the grid. The magnitude of the strain rate tensor used in the original formulation is replaced with the dilatation, which appears to be more appropriate in the vortical turbulent flow regions (Mani et al., 2008). The original form of the model is found to have an impact on dilatational motions away form the shock wave, which is eliminated by a proposed localization of the bulk viscosity. Finally, to allow for grid adaptation around shock waves, an explicit/implicit time advancement scheme has been developed that adaptively identifies the stiff regions. The full method has been verified with several test cases, including 2D shock-vorticity entropy interaction, homogenous isotropic turbulence, and turbulent flow over a cylinder.

  3. Electro-optical modeling of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Pieters, Bart E.; Taretto, Kurt; Rau, Uwe

    2008-11-01

    We introduce a model for charge separation in bulk heterojunction solar cells that combines exciton transport to the interface between donor and acceptor phases with the dissociation of the bound electron/hole pair. We implement this model into a standard semiconductor device simulator, thereby creating a convenient method to simulate the optical and electrical characteristics of a bulk heterojunction solar cell with a commercially available program. By taking into account different collection probabilities for the excitons in the polymer and the fullerene, we are able to reproduce absorptance, internal and external quantum efficiency, as well as current/voltage curves of bulk heterojunction solar cells. We further investigate the influence of mobilities of the free excitons as well as the mobilities of the free charge carriers on the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells. We find that, in general, the highest efficiencies are achieved with the highest mobilities. However, an optimum finite mobility of free charge carriers can result from a large recombination velocity at the contacts. In contrast, Langevin-type of recombination cannot lead to finite optimum mobilities even though this mechanism has a strong dependence on the free carrier mobilities.

  4. 6. LOOKING WEST IN LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LOOKING WEST IN LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING AT STEAM TURBINE END OF TWO ALLIS-CHALMERS AXIAL AIR COMPRESSORS FOR 1000 TON PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 5. LOOKING WEST IN LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. LOOKING WEST IN LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING AT STEAM TURBINE END OF TWO ALLIS-CHALMER AXIAL AIR COMPRESSORS FOR 1000 TON PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Evaluation of bulk heat fluxes from atmospheric datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Benton

    Heat fluxes at the air-sea interface are an important component of the Earth's heat budget. In addition, they are an integral factor in determining the sea surface temperature (SST) evolution of the oceans. Different representations of these fluxes are used in both the atmospheric and oceanic communities for the purpose of heat budget studies and, in particular, for forcing oceanic models. It is currently difficult to quantify the potential impact varying heat flux representations have on the ocean response. In this study, a diagnostic tool is presented that allows for a straightforward comparison of surface heat flux formulations and atmospheric data sets. Two variables, relaxation time (RT) and the apparent temperature (T*), are derived from the linearization of the bulk formulas. They are then calculated to compare three bulk formulae and five atmospheric datasets. Additionally, the linearization is expanded to the second order to compare the amount of residual flux present. It is found that the use of a bulk formula employing a constant heat transfer coefficient produces longer relaxation times and contains a greater amount of residual flux in the higher order terms of the linearization. Depending on the temperature difference, the residual flux remaining in the second order and above terms can reach as much as 40--50% of the total residual on a monthly time scale. This is certainly a non-negligible residual flux. In contrast, a bulk formula using a stability and wind dependent transfer coefficient retains much of the total flux in the first order term, as only a few percent remain in the residual flux. Most of the difference displayed among the bulk formulas stems from the sensitivity to wind speed and the choice of a constant or spatially varying transfer coefficient. Comparing the representation of RT and T* provides insight into the differences among various atmospheric datasets. In particular, the representations of the western boundary current, upwelling

  7. Cosmic bulk flow and the local motion from Cosmicflows-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Yehuda; Courtois, Hélène M.; Tully, R. Brent

    2015-06-01

    Full sky surveys of peculiar velocity are arguably the best way to map the large-scale structure (LSS) out to distances of a few × 100 h-1 Mpc. Using the largest and most accurate ever catalogue of galaxy peculiar velocities Cosmicflows-2, the LSS has been reconstructed by means of the Wiener filter (WF) and constrained realizations (CRs) assuming as a Bayesian prior model the Λ cold dark matter model with the WMAP inferred cosmological parameters. This paper focuses on studying the bulk flow of the local flow field, defined as the mean velocity of top-hat spheres with radii ranging out to R = 500 h-1 Mpc. The estimated LSS, in general, and the bulk flow, in particular, are determined by the tension between the observational data and the assumed prior model. A pre-requisite for such an analysis is the requirement that the estimated bulk flow is consistent with the prior model. Such a consistency is found here. At R = 50 (150) h-1 Mpc, the estimated bulk velocity is 250 ± 21 (239 ± 38) km s-1. The corresponding cosmic variance at these radii is 126 (60) km s-1, which implies that these estimated bulk flows are dominated by the data and not by the assumed prior model. The estimated bulk velocity is dominated by the data out to R ≈ 200 h-1 Mpc, where the cosmic variance on the individual supergalactic Cartesian components (of the rms values) exceeds the variance of the CRs by at least a factor of 2. The SGX and SGY components of the cosmic microwave background dipole velocity are recovered by the WF velocity field down to a very few km s-1. The SGZ component of the estimated velocity, the one that is most affected by the zone of avoidance, is off by 126 km s-1 (an almost 2σ discrepancy). The bulk velocity analysis reported here is virtually unaffected by the Malmquist bias and very similar results are obtained for the data with and without the bias correction.

  8. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins.

    PubMed

    Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of p<0.05. Amount of eluted Bis-EMA and Bis-GMA from Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill and amount of eluted TEGDMA and HEMA from X-tra Fill higher than others composites (p<0.05). Residual monomers were eluted from bulk fill composite resins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    SciT

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall missionmore » as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility

  10. A predictive structural model for bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Laws, K. J.; Miracle, D. B.; Ferry, M.

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses, but there is still no clear connection between atomic structure and glass-forming ability. Here we give new insights into perhaps the most important question in the field of amorphous metals: how can glass-forming ability be predicted from atomic structure? We give a new approach to modelling metallic glass atomic structures by solving three long-standing problems: we discover a new family of structural defects that discourage glass formation; we impose efficient local packing around all atoms simultaneously; and we enforce structural self-consistency. Fewer than a dozen binary structures satisfy these constraints, but extra degrees of freedom in structures with three or more different atom sizes significantly expand the number of relatively stable, ‘bulk' metallic glasses. The present work gives a new approach towards achieving the long-sought goal of a predictive capability for bulk metallic glasses. PMID:26370667

  11. The Bulk Nanocrystalline zn Produced by Mechanical Attrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. K.; Zhao, K. Y.; Li, C. J.; Tao, J. M.; Chan, T. L.; Koch, C. C.

    The purpose of experiment was to produce bulk nanocrystalline Zn by mechanical attrition. The bulk nanocrystalline Zn produced by mechanical attrition was studied. The microstructural evolution during cryomilling and subsequent room temperature milling was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In this paper, Nanocrystalline Zn was produced by insitu consolidation of Zn elemental powder using mechanical attrition at liquid nitrogen and room temperature. For the samples studied, the longest elongation of 65% and highest stress of 200 MPa is obtained in nanocrystalline Zn during tensile testing at the condition of strain rate (10-3 sec-1) and 20°C which is equal to 0.43 Tm (Tm is the melting temperature of pure Zn).

  12. Recombination in polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Sarah R.; Roy, Anshuman; Heeger, Alan J.

    2010-12-01

    Recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells reduces the short circuit current (Jsc) and the fill factor (FF). Identifying the mechanism of recombination is, therefore, fundamentally important for increasing the power conversion efficiency. Light intensity and temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements on polymer BHJ cells made from a variety of different semiconducting polymers and fullerenes show that the recombination kinetics are voltage dependent and evolve from first-order recombination at short circuit to bimolecular recombination at open circuit as a result of increasing the voltage-dependent charge carrier density in the cell. The “missing 0.3 V” inferred from comparison of the band gaps of the bulk heterojunction materials and the measured open-circuit voltage at room-temperature results from the temperature dependence of the quasi-Fermi levels in the polymer and fullerene domains—a conclusion based on the fundamental statistics of fermions.

  13. Facilitated Diffusion of Transcription Factor Proteins with Anomalous Bulk Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-02-16

    What are the physical laws of the diffusive search of proteins for their specific binding sites on DNA in the presence of the macromolecular crowding in cells? We performed extensive computer simulations to elucidate the protein target search on DNA. The novel feature is the viscoelastic non-Brownian protein bulk diffusion recently observed experimentally. We examine the influence of the protein-DNA binding affinity and the anomalous diffusion exponent on the target search time. In all cases an optimal search time is found. The relative contribution of intermittent three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding of proteins along the DNA is quantified. Our results are discussed in the light of recent single molecule tracking experiments, aiming at a better understanding of the influence of anomalous kinetics of proteins on the facilitated diffusion mechanism.

  14. AC conductivity and dielectric behavior of bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Ali, H. A. M.

    2012-06-01

    AC conductivity and dielectric behavior for bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile have been studied over a temperature range (293-333 K) and frequency range (50-5×106 Hz). The frequency dependence of ac conductivity, σac, has been investigated by the universal power law, σac(ω)=Aωs. The variation of the frequency exponent (s) with temperature was analyzed in terms of different conduction mechanisms, and it was found that the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model is the predominant conduction mechanism. The temperature dependence of σac(ω) showed a linear increase with the increase in temperature at different frequencies. The ac activation energy was determined at different frequencies. Dielectric data were analyzed using complex permittivity and complex electric modulus for bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile at various temperatures.

  15. Glymphatic solute transport does not require bulk flow

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Mahdi; de Zélicourt, Diane; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2016-01-01

    Observations of fast transport of fluorescent tracers in mouse brains have led to the hypothesis of bulk water flow directed from arterial to venous paravascular spaces (PVS) through the cortical interstitium. At the same time, there is evidence for interstitial solute transport by diffusion rather than by directed bulk fluid motion. It has been shown that the two views may be consolidated by intracellular water flow through astrocyte networks combined with mainly diffusive extracellular transport of solutes. This requires the presence of a driving force that has not been determined to date, but for which arterial pulsation has been suggested as the origin. Here we show that arterial pulsation caused by pulse wave propagation is an unlikely origin of this hypothetical driving force. However, we further show that such pulsation may still lead to fast para-arterial solute transport through dispersion, that is, through the combined effect of local mixing and diffusion in the para-arterial space. PMID:27929105

  16. Retardation of Bulk Water Dynamics by Disaccharide Osmolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Nimesh; Chen, Lee; Pomarico, Enrico; Chergui, Majed; Othon, Christina

    Bioprotective nature of disaccharides is hypothesized to derive from the modification of the hydrogen bonding network of water which protects biomolecules through lowered water activity at the protein interface. Using ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy, we measured the relaxation of bulk water dynamics around the induced dipole moment of two fluorescent probes (Lucifer Yellow Ethylenediamine and Tryptophan). Our results indicate a reduction in bulk water reorganization rate of approximately 30%. We observe this retardation in the low concentration regime measured at 0.1 and 0.25 M, far below the onset of glassy dynamics. This water structuring should be significant in crowded biological systems, contributing to a global change in protein energy landscape, resulting in a significant enhancement of protein stability under environmental stress. We observed similar dynamic reduction for two disaccharide osmolytes, sucrose and trehalose, with trehalose being the more effective in reducing solvation dynamics.

  17. Scaling laws and bulk-boundary decoupling in heat flow.

    PubMed

    del Pozo, Jesús J; Garrido, Pedro L; Hurtado, Pablo I

    2015-03-01

    When driven out of equilibrium by a temperature gradient, fluids respond by developing a nontrivial, inhomogeneous structure according to the governing macroscopic laws. Here we show that such structure obeys strikingly simple scaling laws arbitrarily far from equilibrium, provided that both macroscopic local equilibrium and Fourier's law hold. Extensive simulations of hard disk fluids confirm the scaling laws even under strong temperature gradients, implying that Fourier's law remains valid in this highly nonlinear regime, with putative corrections absorbed into a nonlinear conductivity functional. In addition, our results show that the scaling laws are robust in the presence of strong finite-size effects, hinting at a subtle bulk-boundary decoupling mechanism which enforces the macroscopic laws on the bulk of the finite-sized fluid. This allows one to measure the marginal anomaly of the heat conductivity predicted for hard disks.

  18. Solid-State Explosive Reaction for Nanoporous Bulk Thermoelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kunpeng; Duan, Haozhi; Raghavendra, Nunna; Qiu, Pengfei; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2017-11-01

    High-performance thermoelectric materials require ultralow lattice thermal conductivity typically through either shortening the phonon mean free path or reducing the specific heat. Beyond these two approaches, a new unique, simple, yet ultrafast solid-state explosive reaction is proposed to fabricate nanoporous bulk thermoelectric materials with well-controlled pore sizes and distributions to suppress thermal conductivity. By investigating a wide variety of functional materials, general criteria for solid-state explosive reactions are built upon both thermodynamics and kinetics, and then successfully used to tailor material's microstructures and porosity. A drastic decrease in lattice thermal conductivity down below the minimum value of the fully densified materials and enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit are achieved in porous bulk materials. This work demonstrates that controlling materials' porosity is a very effective strategy and is easy to be combined with other approaches for optimizing thermoelectric performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nanotetrapods: quantum dot hybrid for bulk heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid thin film solar cell based on all-inorganic nanoparticles is a new member in the family of photovoltaic devices. In this work, a novel and performance-efficient inorganic hybrid nanostructure with continuous charge transportation and collection channels is demonstrated by introducing CdTe nanotetropods (NTs) and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Hybrid morphology is characterized, demonstrating an interpenetration and compacted contact of NTs and QDs. Electrical measurements show enhanced charge transfer at the hybrid bulk heterojunction interface of NTs and QDs after ligand exchange which accordingly improves the performance of solar cells. Photovoltaic and light response tests exhibit a combined optic-electric contribution from both CdTe NTs and CdSe QDs through a formation of interpercolation in morphology as well as a type II energy level distribution. The NT and QD hybrid bulk heterojunction is applicable and promising in other highly efficient photovoltaic materials such as PbS QDs. PMID:24139059

  20. Method of fabricating an optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction

    DOEpatents

    Shtein, Max [Ann Arbor, MI; Yang, Fan [Princeton, NJ; Forrest, Stephen R [Princeton, NJ

    2008-10-14

    A method of fabricating an optoelectronic device comprises: depositing a first layer having protrusions over a first electrode, in which the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material; depositing a second layer on the first layer such that the second layer is in physical contact with the first layer; in which the smallest lateral dimension of the protrusions are between 1 to 5 times the exciton diffusion length of the first organic small molecule material; and depositing a second electrode over the second layer to form the optoelectronic device. A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction is also provided and comprises: depositing a first layer with protrusions over an electrode by organic vapor phase deposition; depositing a second layer on the first layer where the interface of the first and second layers forms a bulk heterojunction; and depositing another electrode over the second layer.

  1. Direct observation of cerebrospinal fluid bulk flow in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre, Humberto; Tithof, Jeffrey; Thomas, John; Kelley, Douglas; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2017-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves a vital role in normal brain function. Its adequate flow and exchange with interstitial fluid through perivascular spaces (PVS) has been shown to be important in the clearance of toxic metabolites like amyloid- β, and its disturbance can cause severe neurological diseases. It has long been suspected that bulk flow may transport CSF, but limitations in imaging techniques have prevented direct observation of such flows in the PVS. In this talk, we describe a novel approach using high speed two photon laser scanning microscopy which has allowed for the first ever direct observation of CSF flow in the PVS of a mouse brain. By performing particle tracking velocimetry, we quantify the CSF bulk flow speeds and PVS geometry. This technique enables future studies of CSF flow disturbances on a new scale and will pave the way for evaluating the role of these fluxes in neurodegenerative disease. R01NS100366 (to M.N.).

  2. Ion specific correlations in bulk and at biointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Kalcher, I; Horinek, D; Netz, R R; Dzubiella, J

    2009-10-21

    Ion specific effects are ubiquitous in any complex colloidal or biological fluid in bulk or at interfaces. The molecular origins of these 'Hofmeister effects' are not well understood and their theoretical description poses a formidable challenge to the modeling and simulation community. On the basis of the combination of atomistically resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations and statistical mechanics approaches, we present a few selected examples of specific electrolyte effects in bulk, at simple neutral and charged interfaces, and on a short α-helical peptide. The structural complexity in these strongly Coulomb-correlated systems is highlighted and analyzed in the light of available experimental data. While in general the comparison of MD simulations to experiments often lacks quantitative agreement, mostly because molecular force fields and coarse-graining procedures remain to be optimized, the consensus as regards trends provides important insights into microscopic hydration and binding mechanisms.

  3. Direct Observation of Twisted Surface skyrmions in Bulk Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. L.; van der Laan, G.; Wang, W. W.; Haghighirad, A. A.; Hesjedal, T.

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric helimagnets with Dn symmetry are Bloch-type magnetization swirls with a helicity angle of ±9 0 ° . At the surface of helimagnetic thin films below a critical thickness, a twisted skyrmion state with an arbitrary helicity angle has been proposed; however, its direct experimental observation has remained elusive. Here, we show that circularly polarized resonant elastic x-ray scattering is able to unambiguously measure the helicity angle of surface skyrmions, providing direct experimental evidence that a twisted skyrmion surface state also exists in bulk systems. The exact surface helicity angles of twisted skyrmions for both left- and right-handed chiral bulk Cu2 OSeO3 , in the single as well as in the multidomain skyrmion lattice state, are determined, revealing their detailed internal structure. Our findings suggest that a skyrmion surface reconstruction is a universal phenomenon, stemming from the breaking of translational symmetry at the interface.

  4. Bulk from bi-locals in Thermo field CFT

    DOE PAGES

    Jevicki, Antal; Yoon, Junggi

    2016-02-15

    For this research, we study the Large N dynamics of the O(N) field theory in the Thermo field dynamics approach. The question of recovering the high temperature phase and the corresponding O(N) gauging is clarified. Through the associated bi-local representation we discuss the emergent bulk space-time and construction of (Higher spin) fields. In addition, we note the presence of ‘evanescent’ modes in this construction and also the mixing of spins at finite temperature.

  5. Surface and Bulk Nanostructuring of Insulators by Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-05

    investigating the non-perturbative scaling of the generated harmonics with the laser field and their bandstructure dependence since recent experimental and...the experimental pro- cedure used to write graphitic electrodes inside diamond bulk by laser irradiation [2–4] for the fabrication of three-dimensional...their bandstructure dependence since recent experimental and theoretical investigations in the literature show that high harmonic generation HHG in wide

  6. Bulk charging and breakdown in electron-irradiated polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    High energy electron irradiations were performed in an experimental and theoretical study of ten common polymers. Breakdowns were monitored by measuring currents between the electrodes on each side of the planar samples. Sample currents as a function of time during irradiation are compared with theory. Breakdowns are correlated with space charge electric field strength and polarity. Major findings include evidence that all polymers tested broke down, breakdowns remove negligible bulk charge and no breakdowns are seen below 20 million V/m.

  7. Fluoride Glasses for Bulk Optical and Waveguide Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    optics or for ultra low-loss OWG fibers . A new glass family was discovered and explored under this research program. This new fluoride composition...optical fibers for infrared transmission can be met using this new glass . During the course of this study, the CLAP glasses were identified, patented...the work is to use such glasses for bulk IR optics or for ultra-low-loss OWG fibers , further characterization was required. It remained to establish

  8. Cubic optical nonlinearity of free electrons in bulk gold.

    PubMed

    Zheludev, N I; Bennett, P J; Loh, H; Popov, S V; Shatwell, I R; Svirko, Y P; Gusev, V E; Kamalov, V F; Slobodchikov, E V

    1995-06-15

    A fast (Tau(response) <90 fs) free-electron spin-f lipping frequency-degenerate nonlinearity with a signif icant value of|chi((3))(xxyy)(omega,omega,omega,-omega)chi((3))(xxyy)(omega,omega,omega,-omega)|~10(-)(8)esu has been observed in bulk gold at 1260 nm by use of a new pump-probe polarization-sensitive technique.

  9. Microgravity metal processing: from undercooled liquids to bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Roberts, Scott N

    2015-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a novel class of metal alloys that are poised for widespread commercialization. Over 30 years of NASA and ESA (as well as other space agency) funding for both ground-based and microgravity experiments has resulted in fundamental science data that have enabled commercial production. This review focuses on the history of microgravity BMG research, which includes experiments on the space shuttle, the ISS, ground-based experiments, commercial fabrication and currently funded efforts. PMID:28725709

  10. Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks

    SciT

    Mantsinen, M. J., E-mail: mervi.mantsinen@bsc.es; Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona; Bilato, R.

    2015-12-10

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER and DEMO operation. This is of particular importance for the bulk ion heating capabilities of ICRF waves. Efficient bulk ion heating with the standard ITER ICRF scheme, i.e. the second harmonic heating of tritium with or without {sup 3}He minority, was demonstrated in experiments carried out in deuterium-tritium plasmas on JET and TFTR andmore » is confirmed by ICRF modelling. This paper focuses on recent experiments with {sup 3}He minority heating for bulk ion heating on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak with ITER-relevant all-tungsten PFCs. An increase of 80% in the central ion temperature T{sub i} from 3 to 5.5 keV was achieved when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central {sup 3}He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the T{sub i} profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LT{sub i} of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG plasmas. The large changes in the T{sub i} profiles were accompanied by significant changes in measured plasma toroidal rotation, plasma impurity profiles and MHD activity, which indicate concomitant changes in plasma properties with the application of ICRF waves. When the {sup 3}He concentration was increased above the optimum range for bulk ion heating, a weaker peaking of the ion temperature profile was observed, in line with theoretical expectations.« less

  11. Interfacing planar superconducting qubits with high overtone bulk acoustic phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervinen, Mikael; Rissanen, Ilkka; Sillanpää, Mika

    2018-05-01

    Mechanical resonators are a promising way for interfacing qubits in order to realize hybrid quantum systems that offer great possibilities for applications. Mechanical systems can have very long energy lifetimes, and they can be further interfaced to other systems. Moreover, integration of a mechanical oscillator with qubits creates a potential platform for the exploration of quantum physics in macroscopic mechanical degrees of freedom. The utilization of high overtone bulk acoustic resonators coupled to superconducting qubits is an intriguing platform towards these goals. These resonators exhibit a combination of high-frequency and high-quality factors. They can reach their quantum ground state at dilution refrigeration temperatures and they can be strongly coupled to superconducting qubits via their piezoelectric effect. In this paper, we demonstrate our system where bulk acoustic phonons of a high overtone resonator are coupled to a transmon qubit in a planar circuit architecture. We show that the bulk acoustic phonons are interacting with the qubit in a simple design architecture at the quantum level, representing further progress towards the quantum control of mechanical motion.

  12. Topological mechanical metamaterials have perfectly directional bulk response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocklin, D. Zeb

    The elastic response of typical materials to a local load is stress and strain in all directions. Here, we show contrariwise that mechanical frames with balanced numbers of constraints and degrees of freedom (the ''Maxwell'' condition) can experience stress and/or strain on only one side of a load. Kane and Lubensky showed, in a recent, seminal work, that such systems possess a topologically nontrivial phonon band structure corresponding to the electronic modes of topological insulators. Applying bulk-boundary correspondence, they demonstrated a signature physical consequence: the shifting of zero modes resultant from missing bonds from one edge to another. We now show that the same topological invariant governs such a system's bulk response: when bonds are swollen at one point the lattice does not distort evenly around it but instead only on one side dictated by the topological polarization. Similarly, when general forces are applied to a polarized lattice tension is induced in bonds only on one side of the applied force. Hence, topological polarization represents a sharp and robust way to direct force and motion and the response (Green's) function is a fundamental bulk signature of topological polarization. Bethe/KIC Fellowship, and the National Science Foundation Grant No. NSF DMR- 1308089.

  13. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    SciT

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012; Ishihara, Atsushi

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulkmore » magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.« less

  14. Shear and bulk viscosity of high-temperature gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) to entropy density (s) ratios η/s and ζ/s of a gluon plasma system in kinetic theory, including both the elastic {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the inelastic soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} processes. Due to the suppressed contribution to η and ζ in the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the effective g≤ftrightarrow {gg} gluon splitting, Arnold, Moore and Yaffe (AMY) and Arnold, Dogan and Moore (ADM) have got the leading order computations for η and ζ in high-temperature QCD matter. In this paper, we calculate the correction to η and ζ in the soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} process with an analytic method. We find that the contribution of the collision term from the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} soft gluon bremsstrahlung process is just a small perturbation to the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} scattering process and that the correction is at ∼5% level. Then, we obtain the bulk viscosity of the gluon plasma for the number-changing process. Furthermore, our leading-order result for bulk viscosity is the formula \\zeta \\propto \\tfrac{{α }s2{T}3}{ln}{α }s-1} in high-temperature gluon plasma. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MSTC) under the “973” Project (2015CB856904(4)) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11735007, 11521064)

  15. Measured acoustic properties of variable and low density bulk absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, M. D.; Rice, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data were taken to determine the acoustic absorbing properties of uniform low density and layered variable density samples using a bulk absober with a perforated plate facing to hold the material in place. In the layered variable density case, the bulk absorber was packed such that the lowest density layer began at the surface of the sample and progressed to higher density layers deeper inside. The samples were placed in a rectangular duct and measurements were taken using the two microphone method. The data were used to calculate specific acoustic impedances and normal incidence absorption coefficients. Results showed that for uniform density samples the absorption coefficient at low frequencies decreased with increasing density and resonances occurred in the absorption coefficient curve at lower densities. These results were confirmed by a model for uniform density bulk absorbers. Results from layered variable density samples showed that low frequency absorption was the highest when the lowest density possible was packed in the first layer near the exposed surface. The layers of increasing density within the sample had the effect of damping the resonances.

  16. Optimally achieving milk bulk tank somatic cell count thresholds.

    PubMed

    Troendle, Jason A; Tauer, Loren W; Gröhn, Yrjo T

    2017-01-01

    High somatic cell count in milk leads to reduced shelf life in fluid milk and lower processed yields in manufactured dairy products. As a result, farmers are often penalized for high bulk tank somatic cell count or paid a premium for low bulk tank somatic cell count. Many countries also require all milk from a farm to be lower than a specified regulated somatic cell count. Thus, farms often cull cows that have high somatic cell count to meet somatic cell count thresholds. Rather than naïvely cull the highest somatic cell count cows, a mathematical programming model was developed that determines the cows to be culled from the herd by maximizing the net present value of the herd, subject to meeting any specified bulk tank somatic cell count level. The model was applied to test-day cows on 2 New York State dairy farms. Results showed that the net present value of the herd was increased by using the model to meet the somatic cell count restriction compared with naïvely culling the highest somatic cell count cows. Implementation of the model would be straightforward in dairy management decision software. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bulk heating effects as tests for collapse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Stephen L.; Vinante, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    We discuss limits on the noise strength parameter in mass-proportional-coupled wave-function collapse models implied by bulk heating effects and examine the role of the noise power spectrum in comparing experiments of different types. This comparison utilizes a calculation of the rate of heating through phonon excitation implied by a general noise power spectrum λ (ω ) . We find that, in the standard heating formula, the reduction rate λ is replaced by λeff=2/3 π3 /2 ∫d3w e-w⃗2w⃗2λ ( ωL(w ⃗/rc) ) , with ωL(q ⃗) being the longitudinal acoustic-phonon frequency as a function of wave number q ⃗, and with rC being the noise correlation length. Hence if the noise power spectrum is cut off below ωL(| q ⃗|˜rc-1) , the bulk heating rate is sharply reduced, allowing compatibility with current experimental results. We suggest possible new bulk heating experiments that can be performed subject to limits placed by natural heating from radioactivity and cosmic rays. The proposed experiments exploit the vanishing of thermal transport in the low-temperature limit.

  18. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    PubMed

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  19. Bulk and boundary unitary gravity in 3D: MMG2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekin, Bayram

    2015-07-01

    We construct a massive spin-2 theory in 2 +1 dimensions that is immune to the bulk-boundary unitarity conflict in anti-de Sitter space and hence amenable to holography. The theory is an extension of topologically massive gravity (TMG), just like the recently found minimal massive gravity (MMG), but it has two massive helicity modes instead of a single one. The theory admits all the solutions of TMG with a redefined topological parameter. We calculate the Shapiro time delay and show that flat-space (local) causality is not violated. We show that there is an interesting relation between the theory we present here (which we call MMG2 ), MMG, and the earlier new massive gravity (NMG): namely, field equations of these theories are nontrivially related. We study the bulk excitations and boundary charges of the conformal field theory that could be dual to gravity. We also find the chiral gravity limit for which one of the massive modes becomes massless. The virtue of the model is that one does not have to go to the chiral limit to achieve unitarity in the bulk and on the boundary, and the log-terms that appear in the chiral limit and cause instability do not exist in the generic theory.

  20. Strange kinetics of bulk-mediated diffusion on lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Campagnola, Grace; Nepal, Kanti; Peersen, Olve B.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion at solid-liquid interfaces is crucial in many technological and biophysical processes. Although its behavior seems deceivingly simple, recent studies showing passive superdiffusive transport suggest diffusion on surfaces may hide rich complexities. In particular, bulk-mediated diffusion occurs when molecules are transiently released from the surface to perform three-dimensional excursions into the liquid bulk. This phenomenon bears the dichotomy where a molecule always return to the surface but the mean jump length is infinite. Such behavior is associated with a breakdown of the central limit theorem and weak ergodicity breaking. Here, we use single-particle tracking to study the statistics of bulk-mediated diffusion on a supported lipid bilayer. We find that the time-averaged mean square displacement (MSD) of individual trajectories, the archetypal measure in diffusion processes, does not converge to the ensemble MSD but it remains a random variable, even in the long observation-time limit. The distribution of time averages is shown to agree with a Lévy flight model. Our results also unravel intriguing anomalies in the statistics of displacements. The time averaged MSD is shown to depend on experimental time and investigations of fractional moments show a scaling 〈|r(t)|q〉 ∼ tqv(q) with non-linear exponents, i.e. v(q) ≠ const. This type of behavior is termed strong anomalous diffusion and is rare among experimental observations. PMID:27095275

  1. Superconducting RF materials other than bulk niobium: a review

    DOE PAGES

    Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie

    2016-09-26

    For the last five decades, bulk niobium (Nb) has been the material of choice for Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity applications. Thin film alternatives such as Nb and other higher-Tc materials, mainly Nb compounds and A15 compounds, have been investigated with moderate effort in the past. In recent years, RF cavity performance has approached the theoretical limit for bulk Nb. For further improvement of RF cavity performance for future accelerator projects, research interest is renewed towards alternatives to bulk Nb. Institutions around the world are now investing renewed efforts in the investigation of Nb thin films and superconductors with higher transitionmore » temperature Tc for application to SRF cavities. Our paper gives an overview of the results obtained so far and challenges encountered for Nb films as well as other materials, such as Nb compounds, A15 compounds, MgB2, and oxypnictides, for SRF cavity applications. An interesting alternative using a Superconductor-Insulator- Superconductor multilayer approach has been recently proposed to delay the vortex penetration in Nb surfaces. This could potentially lead to further improvement in RF cavities performance using the benefit of the higher critical field Hc of higher-Tc superconductors without being limited with their lower Hc1.« less

  2. Superconducting RF materials other than bulk niobium: a review

    SciT

    Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie

    For the last five decades, bulk niobium (Nb) has been the material of choice for Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity applications. Thin film alternatives such as Nb and other higher-Tc materials, mainly Nb compounds and A15 compounds, have been investigated with moderate effort in the past. In recent years, RF cavity performance has approached the theoretical limit for bulk Nb. For further improvement of RF cavity performance for future accelerator projects, research interest is renewed towards alternatives to bulk Nb. Institutions around the world are now investing renewed efforts in the investigation of Nb thin films and superconductors with higher transitionmore » temperature Tc for application to SRF cavities. Our paper gives an overview of the results obtained so far and challenges encountered for Nb films as well as other materials, such as Nb compounds, A15 compounds, MgB2, and oxypnictides, for SRF cavity applications. An interesting alternative using a Superconductor-Insulator- Superconductor multilayer approach has been recently proposed to delay the vortex penetration in Nb surfaces. This could potentially lead to further improvement in RF cavities performance using the benefit of the higher critical field Hc of higher-Tc superconductors without being limited with their lower Hc1.« less

  3. Integrated amplifying nanowire FET for surface and bulk sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Chi On; Shin, Kyeong-Sik

    2011-10-01

    For over one decade, numerous research have been performed on field-effect transistor (FET) sensors with a quasi-onedimensional (1D) nanostructure channel demonstrating highly sensitive surface and bulk sensing. The high surface and bulk sensing sensitivity respectively arises from the inherently large surface area-to-volume ratio and tiny channel volume. The generic nanowire FET sensors, however, have limitations such as impractically low output current levels especially near the limit of detection (LOD) that would require downstream remote amplification with an appreciable amount of added noise. We have recently proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative amplifying nanowire FET sensor structure that seamlessly integrates therein a sensing nanowire and a nanowire FET amplifier. This novel sensor structure embraces the same geometrical advantage in quasi-1D nanostructure yet it offers unprecedented closeproximity signal amplification with the lowest possible added noise. In this paper, we review the device operating principle and amplification mechanism. We also present the prototype fabrication procedures, and surface and bulk sensing experimental results showing significantly enhanced output current level difference as predicted.

  4. Bulk nucleation and growth of inorganic nanowires and nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shashank

    The nanometer scale materials such as nanowires and nanotubes will be of particular interest as building blocks for designing novel sensors, catalysts, electronic, optical, and optoelectronic devices. However, in order to realize these applications, bulk amounts of nanowires and nanotubes need to be synthesized with precise control over the nanostructure characteristics. In addition, the structure-property relationships for one-dimensional structures are expected to be different than their bulk when their diameters are less than a characteristic Bohr exciton radius. This fundamental curiosity also necessitates bulk synthesis of nanostructures. The current bulk nanowire synthesis methods utilize either nanometer scale porous molds or nanometer scale transition metal clusters to template one-dimensional growth. All these techniques have inherent limitations in terms of control over the nanowire diameter distribution, composition, the growth direction, and the ability to generate abrupt interfaces within individual nanowires. In this dissertation, a new concept for bulk nucleation and growth of one-dimensional nanostructures is proposed and demonstrated for a variety of inorganic material systems. In this technique, multiple nanowires nucleate and grow from pools of low-melting metal melts when exposed to an activated gas phase containing the necessary precursors. This concept, hereby termed Low Melting Metals and Activated Gas phase (LMAG) mediated method, is specifically demonstrated for the synthesis of, (a) silicon nanowires grown using molten gallium and silane precursors; (b) silicon compound nanowires using solution of molten gallium and appropriate gas phase precursors, and (c) metal-oxide nanostructures grown using direct reaction of the respective metal melts and oxygen precursors. Nanowires resulted from the same molten gallium pool at high densities (>1011/cm2) and with narrow diameter distribution. The silicon nanowires synthesized using the LMAG

  5. On the crystallization kinetics of Zr-(Co,Ni)-Al bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, X. M.; Zhang, Q. F.; Duan, X. Y.; Wang, X. C.; Jiang, Y. H.; Zhou, R.; Tan, J.

    2017-07-01

    Zr-based amorphous alloys are promising materials applied in engineering field, due to their strong glass-forming ability, outstanding mechanical properties and relatively low cost. In this work, the crystallization kinetics of Zr56Co18-xNixAl16 (x = 0, 2, 4 and 8; marked as Ni0, Ni2, Ni4 and Ni8, respectively) alloys are investigated in detail. The results show that, due to the addition of Ni, the glass transition of the alloys presents obvious dynamic characteristics, i.e., with the increasing heating rate, all characteristic temperatures are shifted to higher temperature. By fitting the Kissinger equation, the glass transition activation energy of Ni8 is the highest, indicating that Ni8 is much more difficult to crystallize. Therefore, the Ni8 alloy has the strongest anti-crystallization ability in the Zr56Co18-xNixAl16 alloys investigated.

  6. Work-Hardening Induced Tensile Ductility of Bulk Metallic Glasses via High-Pressure Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Soo-Hyun; Pi, Dong-Hai; Setyawan, Albertus Deny Heri; Kato, Hidemi; Janecek, Milos; Kim, Yong Chan; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of engineering materials are key for ensuring safety and reliability. However, the plastic deformation of BMGs is confined to narrow regions in shear bands, which usually result in limited ductilities and catastrophic failures at low homologous temperatures. The quasi-brittle failure and lack of tensile ductility undercut the potential applications of BMGs. In this report, we present clear tensile ductility in a Zr-based BMG via a high-pressure torsion (HPT) process. Enhanced tensile ductility and work-hardening behavior after the HPT process were investigated, focusing on the microstructure, particularly the changed free volume, which affects deformation mechanisms (i.e., initiation, propagation, and obstruction of shear bands). Our results provide insights into the basic functions of hydrostatic pressure and shear strain in the microstructure and mechanical properties of HPT-processed BMGs. PMID:25905686

  7. [Energy saving achieved by limited filamentous bulking under low dissolved oxygen: derivation, originality and theoretical basis].

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong-zhen; Guo, Jian-hua; Wang, Shu-ying; Chen, Ying

    2008-12-01

    How to prevent and control filamentous bulking sludge has being a research focus and attracted much attention. To date despite the extensive research that has been done on bulking sludge, filamentous bulking still occurs world-wide and a comprehensive solution does not seem to be available. Particularly, there are few studies about making use of the characteristics of filamentous bacteria and achieving energy saving by filamentous bulking. Limited filamentous bulking, a novel method for energy saving while equal or better treatment performance by allowing slight and controlled filamentous bulking sludge at low dissolved oxygen (DO), was proposed based on full-scale field observations. The practical operation showed that limited filamentous bulking resulted from a decline in DO concentration. COD, SS and TP removal could be enhanced and energy saving could be achieved by limited filamentous bulking at low DO. The derivation of limited filamentous bulking is introduced firstly, and then the theoretical fundamentals of the technique of limited filamentous bulking are presented and analyzed, including the occurrence of limited filamentous bulking caused by low DO, the enhanced effect of filamentous bacteria on pollutants removal and the energy saving mechanism by using limited filamentous bulking. Besides, the paper provides some new perspectives about the application and research direction of limited filamentous bulking in future.

  8. Numerical studies on the force characteristic of superconducting linear synchronous motor with HTS bulk magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Junjie; Li, Jing; Li, Xiang; Han, Le

    2018-03-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) bulks have significant potential use in linear motor application act as quasi-permanent magnet to replace traditional magnets. Force characteristic between HTS bulk magnet and traveling magnetic field was investigated with numerical simulation and experimental measurement in this paper. Influences of bulk height and number on the force characteristic were studied by the finite element model considering the nonlinear E-J relationship. Study was also made on addition of a back iron plate to the bulk magnet. Besides, force characteristic of bulk was compared with the permanent magnet results. The small initial decrease of the thrust could be explained by inside superconducting current redistribution. It was found that efficiency of linear motor did not increase by adding more bulk magnets. The bulk magnet will be remagnetized instead of erasing trapped field with the increase of the traveling magnetic field strength. The conclusions are helpful in prediction and design the linear motor with HTS bulk magnet.

  9. Bulk specific gravity round-robin using the Corelok vacuum sealing device

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-11-01

    This project conducted an evaluation of the Corelok device for the determination of the bulk specific gravity of compacted hot mix asphalt samples. The project consisted of the bulk specific gravity determination for compacted HMA mixes utilizing the...

  10. Cadmium Isotope Variations in Bulk Chondrites: The Effect of Thermal Neutron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, E. R.; Schönbächler, M.; Friebel, M.; Fehr, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Cadmium isotope data will be presented for bulk carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites, and acid leachates of Jbilet Winselwan (CM). Results of bulk samples show Cd isotope variations that are in good agreement with models of thermal neutron capture.

  11. 46 CFR 97.12-5 - Bulk solid cargoes that may liquefy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk solid cargoes that may liquefy. 97.12-5 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Bulk Solid Cargoes § 97.12-5 Bulk solid cargoes that may liquefy. If the information provided in § 97.12-3(a) or (b) indicates that the bulk solid cargo to be carried is prone to liquefy...

  12. On-surface synthesis on a bulk insulator surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Antje; Floris, Andrea; Bechstein, Ralf; Kantorovich, Lev; Kühnle, Angelika

    2018-04-01

    On-surface synthesis has rapidly emerged as a most promising approach to prepare functional molecular structures directly on a support surface. Compared to solution synthesis, performing chemical reactions on a surface offers several exciting new options: due to the absence of a solvent, reactions can be envisioned that are otherwise not feasible due to the insolubility of the reaction product. Perhaps even more important, the confinement to a two-dimensional surface might enable reaction pathways that are not accessible otherwise. Consequently, on-surface synthesis has attracted great attention in the last decade, with an impressive number of classical reactions transferred to a surface as well as new reactions demonstrated that have no classical analogue. So far, the majority of the work has been carried out on conducting surfaces. However, when aiming for electronic decoupling of the resulting structures, e.g. for the use in future molecular electronic devices, non-conducting surfaces are highly desired. Here, we review the current status of on-surface reactions demonstrated on the (10.4) surface of the bulk insulator calcite. Besides thermally induced C-C coupling of halogen-substituted aryls, photochemically induced [2  +  2] cycloaddition has been proven possible on this surface. Moreover, experimental evidence exists for coupling of terminal alkynes as well as diacetylene polymerization. While imaging of the resulting structures with dynamic atomic force microscopy provides a direct means of reaction verification, the detailed reaction pathway often remains unclear. Especially in cases where the presence of metal atoms is known to catalyze the corresponding solution chemistry reaction (e.g. in the case of the Ullmann reaction), disclosing the precise reaction pathway is of importance to understand and generalize on-surface reactivity on a bulk insulator surface. To this end, density-functional theory calculations have proven to provide atomic

  13. EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT

    SciT

    Flach, G.

    2012-02-27

    The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose ofmore » this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.« less

  14. Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting

    SciT

    Adhikari, Bijaya K.; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, Jose

    2009-01-15

    Rather than landfilling, composting the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes recycles the waste as a safe and nutrient enriched soil amendment, reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and generates less leachate. The objective of this project was to investigate the composting effectiveness of three bulking agents, namely chopped wheat (Triticum) straw, chopped mature hay consisting of 80% timothy (milium) and 20% clover (triphullum) and pine (pinus) wood shavings. These bulking agents were each mixed in duplicates at three different ratios with food waste (FW) and composted for 10 days using prototype in-vessel composters to observe their temperature and pH trends.more » Then, each mixture was matured in vertical barrels for 56 days to measure their mass loss and final nutrient content and to visually evaluate their level of decomposition. Chopped wheat straw (CWS) and chopped hay (CH) were the only two formulas that reached thermophilic temperatures during the 10 days of active composting when mixed with FW at a wet mass ratio of 8.9 and 8.6:1 (FW:CWS and FW:CH), respectively. After 56 days of maturation, these two formulas were well decomposed with no or very few recognizable substrate particles, and offered a final TN exceeding the original. Wood shavings (WS) produced the least decomposed compost at maturation, with wood particles still visible in the final product, and with a TN lower than the initial. Nevertheless, all bulking agents produced compost with an organic matter, TN, TP and TK content suitable for use as soil amendment.« less

  15. Polder maps: Improving OMIT maps by excluding bulk solvent

    DOE PAGES

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; ...

    2017-02-01

    The crystallographic maps that are routinely used during the structure-solution workflow are almost always model-biased because model information is used for their calculation. As these maps are also used to validate the atomic models that result from model building and refinement, this constitutes an immediate problem: anything added to the model will manifest itself in the map and thus hinder the validation. OMIT maps are a common tool to verify the presence of atoms in the model. The simplest way to compute an OMIT map is to exclude the atoms in question from the structure, update the corresponding structure factorsmore » and compute a residual map. It is then expected that if these atoms are present in the crystal structure, the electron density for the omitted atoms will be seen as positive features in this map. This, however, is complicated by the flat bulk-solvent model which is almost universally used in modern crystallographic refinement programs. This model postulates constant electron density at any voxel of the unit-cell volume that is not occupied by the atomic model. Consequently, if the density arising from the omitted atoms is weak then the bulk-solvent model may obscure it further. A possible solution to this problem is to prevent bulk solvent from entering the selected OMIT regions, which may improve the interpretative power of residual maps. This approach is called a polder (OMIT) map. Polder OMIT maps can be particularly useful for displaying weak densities of ligands, solvent molecules, side chains, alternative conformations and residues both in terminal regions and in loops. As a result, the tools described in this manuscript have been implemented and are available in PHENIX.« less

  16. Bulk Viscous Anisotropic Cosmological Models with Variable G and Λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Dolgov, A.

    The Einstein field equations with bulk viscosity and variable G and Λ for Bianchi-type universes are studied under the assumption of a power-law time variation of the expansion factor, achieved via a suitable power-law assumption for the Hubble parameter suggested by M. S. Berman. All the models have a power-law variation of pressure and density and are singular at the epoch t = 0. The variation of G(t) as (1)/(t) and Λ(t) as (1)/(t2) is consistent with these models.

  17. Ductilizing bulk metallic glass composite by tailoring stacking fault energy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Zhou, D Q; Song, W L; Wang, H; Zhang, Z Y; Ma, D; Wang, X L; Lu, Z P

    2012-12-14

    Martensitic transformation was successfully introduced to bulk metallic glasses as the reinforcement micromechanism. In this Letter, it was found that the twinning property of the reinforcing crystals can be dramatically improved by reducing the stacking fault energy through microalloying, which effectively alters the electron charge density redistribution on the slipping plane. The enhanced twinning propensity promotes the martensitic transformation of the reinforcing austenite and, consequently, improves plastic stability and the macroscopic tensile ductility. In addition, a general rule to identify effective microalloying elements based on their electronegativity and atomic size was proposed.

  18. Bulk crystal growth of Ga2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramata, Akito; Koshi, Kimiyoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Yamaoka, Yu; Masui, Takekazu; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the bulk crystal growth of β-Ga2O3 using edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) process. We first describe the method of the crystal growth and show that large-size crystal with width of up to 6 inch can be grown. Then, we discuss the way to control electrical properties. In the discussion, we give some experimental results of residual impurity measurement, intentional doping using Si and Sn for n-type doping and Fe for insulating doping.

  19. Bulk silicon as photonic dynamic infrared scene projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutenko, V. K.; Bogatyrenko, V. V.; Malyutenko, O. Yu.

    2013-04-01

    A Si-based fast (frame rate >1 kHz), large-scale (scene area 100 cm2), broadband (3-12 μm), dynamic contactless infrared (IR) scene projector is demonstrated. An IR movie appears on a scene because of the conversion of a visible scenario projected at a scene kept at elevated temperature. Light down conversion comes as a result of free carrier generation in a bulk Si scene followed by modulation of its thermal emission output in the spectral band of free carrier absorption. The experimental setup, an IR movie, figures of merit, and the process's advantages in comparison to other projector technologies are discussed.

  20. Antiferromagnetism in Bulk Rutile RuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlijn, T.; Snijders, P. C.; Kent, P. R. C.; Maier, T. A.; Zhou, H.-D.; Cao, H.-B.; Delaire, O.; Wang, Y.; Koehler, M.; Weitering, H. H.

    While bulk rutile RuO2 has long been considered to be a Pauli paramagnet, we conclude it to host antiferromagnetism based on our combined theoretical and experimental study. This constitutes an important finding given the large amount of applications of RuO2 in the electrochemical and electronics industry. Furthermore the high onset temperature of the antiferromagnetism around 1000K together with the high electrical conductivity makes RuO2 unique among the ruthenates and among oxide materials in general. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  1. On binding energy of trions in bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2018-03-01

    We study the negatively T- and positively T+ charged trions in bulk materials in the effective mass approximation within the framework of a potential model. The binding energies of trions in various semiconductors are calculated by employing Faddeev equation in configuration space. Results of calculations of the binding energies for T- are consistent with previous computational studies and are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements, while the T+ is unbound for all considered cases. The mechanism of formation of the binding energy of trions is analyzed by comparing contributions of a mass-polarization term related to kinetic energy operators and a term related to the Coulomb repulsion of identical particles.

  2. Exact edge, bulk, and bound states of finite topological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Callum W.; Öhberg, Patrik; Valiente, Manuel

    2018-05-01

    Finite topologically nontrivial systems are characterized, among many other unique properties, by the presence of bound states at their physical edges. These topological edge modes can be distinguished from usual Shockley waves energetically, as their energies remain finite and in gap even when the boundaries of the system represent an effectively infinite and sharp energetic barrier. Theoretically, the existence of topological edge modes can be shown by means of the bulk-edge correspondence and topological invariants. On a clean one-dimensional lattice and reducible two-dimensional models, in either the commensurate or semi-infinite case, the edge modes can be essentially obtained analytically, as shown previously [Y. Hatsugai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3697 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.3697; D. Hügel and B. Paredes, Phys. Rev. A 89, 023619 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.023619]. In this work, we put forward a method for obtaining the spectrum and wave functions of topological edge modes for arbitrary finite lattices, including the incommensurate case. A small number of parameters are easily determined numerically, with the form of the eigenstates remaining fully analytical. We also obtain the bulk modes in the finite system analytically and their associated eigenenergies, which lie within the infinite-size limit continuum. Our method is general and can be easily applied to obtain the properties of nontopological models and/or extended to include impurities. As an example, we consider a relevant case of an impurity located next to one edge of a one-dimensional system, equivalent to a softened boundary in a separable two-dimensional model. We show that a localized impurity can have a drastic effect on the original topological edge modes of the system. Using the periodic Harper and Hofstadter models to illustrate our method, we find that, on increasing the impurity strength, edge states can enter or exit the continuum, and a trivial Shockley state bound to the impurity

  3. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  4. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components. PMID:27471073

  5. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2016-07-29

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  6. Bulk and monolayer ordering of block copolymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onikoyi, Adetunji J.

    The control of the nanoscale structure or morphology of a block copolymer is a desired goal for nanolithography applications. In this work, we are particularly interested in providing guides for controlling domain size, domain shape and defect densities in block copolymers and their blends for thin film applications. To reach this goal, a sphere forming PS-b-P2VP (having a PS majority block) and its blends with PS homopolymer or cylinder forming PS-b-P2VP are studied in both the bulk and thin films. Structure characterization is performed using a variety of experimental techniques including small angle X-ray scattering, scanning force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the bulk, the spherical domains of the pure, sphere forming PS-b-P2VP arrange on a BCC lattice. On adding PS homopolymer (hPS), the lattice parameter of the BCC spheres increases, while the order-to-disorder temperature (ODT) of the BCC lattice simultaneously decreases. At a given hPS composition, the use of larger sized hPS leads to larger increases in the lattice parameter and larger decreases in the ODT. In bulk blends of cylinder forming PS-b-P2VP with sphere forming PS-b-P2VP, the ordered morphology changes (e.g., cylindrical morphology → coexisting spherical and cylindrical morphologies → spherical morphology) as the sphere forming PS-b-P2VP volume fraction phis increases, while the ODT of the cylindrical morphology decreases. The phase boundaries of these morphologies in monolayers shift to lower phis compared to those of the bulk, apparently caused by a selective adsorption of the cylindrical PS-b-P2VP to form a brush on the substrate. This selective adsorption leads to a preference for spherical domains in diamond-shaped lateral confinements when cylindrical domains are stabilized outside the confinements on the same substrate. Finally, we explore the use of graphoepitaxy to order monolayers of sphere forming PS-b-P2VP and its blends with hPS. The probability of forming

  7. Phase transitions and dynamics of bulk and interfacial water.

    PubMed

    Franzese, G; Hernando-Martínez, A; Kumar, P; Mazza, M G; Stokely, K; Strekalova, E G; de los Santos, F; Stanley, H E

    2010-07-21

    New experiments on water at the surface of proteins at very low temperature display intriguing dynamic behaviors. The extreme conditions of these experiments make it difficult to explore the wide range of thermodynamic state points needed to offer a suitable interpretation. Detailed simulations suffer from the same problem, where equilibration times at low temperature become extremely long. We show how Monte Carlo simulations and mean field calculations using a tractable model of water help interpret the experimental results. Here we summarize the results for bulk water and investigate the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of supercooled water at an interface.

  8. Supply of reactants for Redox bulk energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    World resources, reserves, production, and costs of reactant materials, iron, chromium, titanium and bromine for proposed redox cell bulk energy storage systems are reviewed. Supplying required materials for multimegawatt hour systems appears to be feasible even at current production levels. Iron and chromium ores are the most abundant and lowest cost of four reactants. Chromium is not a domestic reserve, but redox system installations would represent a small fraction of U.S. imports. Vast quantities of bromine are available, but present production is low and therefore cost is high. Titanium is currently available at reasonable cost, with ample reserves available for the next fifty years.

  9. Visible Light Communication System Using an Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photodetector

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Belén; Romero, Beatriz; Pena, José Manuel Sánchez; Fernández-Pacheco, Agustín; Alonso, Eduardo; Vergaz, Ricardo; de Dios, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    A visible light communication (VLC) system using an organic bulk heterojunction photodetector (OPD) is presented. The system has been successfully proven indoors with an audio signal. The emitter consists of three commercial high-power white LEDs connected in parallel. The receiver is based on an organic photodetector having as active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The OPD is opto-electrically characterized, showing a responsivity of 0.18 A/W and a modulation response of 790 kHz at −6 V. PMID:24036584

  10. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; ...

    2016-07-29

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr 51Ti 5Ni 10Cu 25Al 9 and Zr 50.7Cu 28Ni 9Al 12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. In conclusion, the liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  11. Efficient Bulk Data Replication for the Earth System Grid

    SciT

    Sim, Alex; Gunter, Dan; Natarajan, Vijaya

    2010-03-10

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) community faces the difficult challenge of managing the distribution of massive data sets to thousands of scientists around the world. To move data replicas efficiently, the ESG has developed a data transfer management tool called the Bulk Data Mover (BDM). We describe the performance results of the current system and plans towards extending the techniques developed so far for the up- coming project, in which the ESG will employ advanced networks to move multi-TB datasets with the ulti- mate goal of helping researchers understand climate change and its potential impacts on world ecology and society.

  12. Bulk functionalization of graphene using diazonium compounds and amide reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chang; Xiong, Yuzi; Liu, Zhibo; Zhang, Fan; Ou, Encai; Qian, Jiangtao; Xiong, Yuanqin; Xu, Weijian

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and convenient method is applied to introduce varieties of simple functionalities onto the graphene surface for the bulk preparation, which begins with pristine graphite that does not require initial oxidative damage of the graphene basal planes. Diazonium compounds functionalized reaction is demonstrated and it successfully prevented the aggregation of graphene for which providing solubility in high polar organic media or even in volatile solvents such as ethanol and acetone. This approach is complemented by the phenyl carboxylic diazonium salt functionalized graphene (PCFG) attachment of a symmetrically substituted zinc phthalocyanine (PCFG-Pc) using the amide reaction, which is used for the covalent introduction of a complex phthalocyanine molecule.

  13. Fabrication of Large Bulk High Temperature Superconducting Articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczor, Ronald (Inventor); Hiser, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of fabricating large bulk high temperature superconducting articles which comprises the steps of selecting predetermined sizes of crystalline superconducting materials and mixing these specific sizes of particles into a homogeneous mixture which is then poured into a die. The die is placed in a press and pressurized to predetermined pressure for a predetermined time and is heat treated in the furnace at predetermined temperatures for a predetermined time. The article is left in the furnace to soak at predetermined temperatures for a predetermined period of time and is oxygenated by an oxygen source during the soaking period.

  14. The impact of compaction, moisture content, particle size and type of bulking agent on initial physical properties of sludge-bulking agent mixtures before composting.

    PubMed

    Huet, J; Druilhe, C; Trémier, A; Benoist, J C; Debenest, G

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to experimentally acquire evolution profiles between depth, bulk density, Free Air Space (FAS), air permeability and thermal conductivity in initial composting materials. The impact of two different moisture content, two particle size and two types of bulking agent on these four parameters was also evaluated. Bulk density and thermal conductivity both increased with depth while FAS and air permeability both decreased with it. Moreover, depth and moisture content had a significant impact on almost all the four physical parameters contrary to particle size and the type of bulking agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil bulk density changes caused by mechanized harvesting: A case study in central Appalachia

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Pam Edwards; Mark Jones; Mark Jones

    2005-01-01

    A mechanized harvesting system consisting of a feller-buncher and a grapple skidder was examined to quantify soil bulk density changes in a central Appalachian hardwood forest site. Soil bulk density was measured using a nuclear gauge pre-harvest and post-harvest systematically across the harvest unit and on transects across skid trails. Bulk density also was measured...

  16. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  17. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  18. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  19. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  20. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  1. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons holding...

  2. 46 CFR 153.900 - Certificates and authorization to carry a bulk liquid hazardous material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ship must have a Subchapter D or I Certificate of Inspection that is endorsed to allow the cargo tank... requirements for the bulk liquid cargo; and (2) The ship— (i) Has a Certificate of Inspection, Certificate of...) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...

  3. 49 CFR 173.37 - Hazardous Materials in Flexible Bulk Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an external visual inspection by the person filling the Flexible Bulk Container to ensure: (1) The... transported in cargo transport units when offered for transportation by vessel. (7) Flexible Bulk Containers... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous Materials in Flexible Bulk Containers...

  4. 49 CFR 173.37 - Hazardous Materials in Flexible Bulk Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an external visual inspection by the person filling the Flexible Bulk Container to ensure: (1) The... transported in cargo transport units when offered for transportation by vessel. (7) Flexible Bulk Containers... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous Materials in Flexible Bulk Containers...

  5. 46 CFR 97.12-1 - Bulk ores and similar cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk ores and similar cargoes. 97.12-1 Section 97.12-1... OPERATIONS Cargo Stowage § 97.12-1 Bulk ores and similar cargoes. (a) The owners or operators of general cargo vessels which carry bulk cargoes such as ore, ore concentrates, and similar cargoes shall furnish...

  6. 76 FR 16263 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...'s Reliability Standards Development Process, to revise its definition of the term ``bulk electric... definition of ``bulk electric system'' through the NERC Standards Development Process to address the... undertake the process of revising the bulk electric system definition to address the Commission's concerns...

  7. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Bulk Grown Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK GROWN INDIUM- GALLIUM -ARSENIDE ALLOYS THESIS...Government. AFIT/GAP/ENP/10-M02 OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK GROWN INDIUM- GALLIUM -ARSENIDE ALLOYS THESIS Presented to...ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK GROWN INDIUM- GALLIUM -ARSENIDE ALLOYS Austin C Bergstrom, BS 2 nd Lieutenant, USAF

  8. Site preparation effects on soil bulk density and pine seedling growth

    John J. Stransky

    1981-01-01

    Soil bulk density was sampled the first and third growing seasons after site preparation and pine planting on three clearcut pine-hardwood forest sites in eastern Texas. Bulk density was measured 10 cm below the surface of mineral soil using a surface moisture-density probe. Plots that had been KG-bladed and chopped had significanlty higher bulk density than those that...

  9. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  10. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  11. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  12. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  13. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  14. Chirality-dependent friction of bulk molecular solids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dian; Cohen, Adam E

    2014-08-26

    We show that the solid-solid friction between bulk chiral molecular solids can depend on the relative chirality of the two materials. In menthol and 1-phenyl-1-butanol, heterochiral friction is smaller than homochiral friction, while in ibuprofen, heterochiral friction is larger. Chiral asymmetries in the coefficient of sliding friction vary with temperature and can be as large as 30%. In the three compounds tested, the sign of the difference between heterochiral and homochiral friction correlated with the sign of the difference in melting point between racemate (compound or conglomerate) and pure enantiomer. Menthol and ibuprofen each form a stable racemic compound, while 1-phenyl-1-butanol forms a racemic conglomerate. Thus, a difference between heterochiral and homochiral friction does not require the formation of a stable interfacial racemic compound. Measurements of chirality-dependent friction provide a unique means to distinguish the role of short-range intermolecular forces from all other sources of dissipation in the friction of bulk molecular solids.

  15. Mechanical characterization of bulk Sylgard 184 for microfluidics and microengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, I. D.; McCluskey, D. K.; Tan, C. K. L.; Tracey, M. C.

    2014-03-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are extensively used for soft lithographic replication of microstructures in microfluidic and micro-engineering applications. Elastomeric microstructures are commonly required to fulfil an explicit mechanical role and accordingly their mechanical properties can critically affect device performance. The mechanical properties of elastomers are known to vary with both curing and operational temperatures. However, even for the elastomer most commonly employed in microfluidic applications, Sylgard 184, only a very limited range of data exists regarding the variation in mechanical properties of bulk PDMS with curing temperature. We report an investigation of the variation in the mechanical properties of bulk Sylgard 184 with curing temperature, over the range 25 °C to 200 °C. PDMS samples for tensile and compressive testing were fabricated according to ASTM standards. Data obtained indicates variation in mechanical properties due to curing temperature for Young's modulus of 1.32-2.97 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 3.51-7.65 MPa, compressive modulus of 117.8-186.9 MPa and ultimate compressive strength of 28.4-51.7 GPa in a range up to 40% strain and hardness of 44-54 ShA.

  16. Organization of bulk power markets: A concept paper

    SciT

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.

    The electricity industry in the US today is at a crossroads. The restructuring debate going on in most regions has made it clear that the traditional model of vertically integrated firms serving defined franchise areas and regulated by state commissions may not be the pattern for the future. The demands of large customers seeking direct access to power markets, the entry of new participants, and proposed reforms of the regulatory process all signify a momentum for fundamental change in the organization of the industry. This paper addresses electricity restructuring from the perspective of bulk power markets. The authors focus attentionmore » on the organization of electricity trade and the various ways it has been and might be conducted. Their approach concentrates on conceptual models and empirical case studies, not on specific proposals made by particular utilities or commissions. They review literature in economics and power system engineering that is relevant to the major questions. The objective is to provide conceptual background to industry participants, e.g. utility staff, regulatory staff, new entrants, who are working on specific proposals. While they formulate many questions, they do not provide definitive answers on most issues. They attempt to put the industry restructuring dialogue in a neutral setting, translating the language of economists for engineers and vice versa. Towards this end they begin with a review of the basic economic institutions in the US bulk power markets and a summary of the engineering practices that dominate trade today.« less

  17. Multivalent-Ion-Activated Protein Adsorption Reflecting Bulk Reentrant Behavior.

    PubMed

    Fries, Madeleine R; Stopper, Daniel; Braun, Michal K; Hinderhofer, Alexander; Zhang, Fajun; Jacobs, Robert M J; Skoda, Maximilian W A; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Roth, Roland; Schreiber, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Protein adsorption at the solid-liquid interface is an important phenomenon that often can be observed as a first step in biological processes. Despite its inherent importance, still relatively little is known about the underlying microscopic mechanisms. Here, using multivalent ions, we demonstrate the control of the interactions and the corresponding adsorption of net-negatively charged proteins (bovine serum albumin) at a solid-liquid interface. This is demonstrated by ellipsometry and corroborated by neutron reflectivity and quartz-crystal microbalance experiments. We show that the reentrant condensation observed within the rich bulk phase behavior of the system featuring a nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on salt concentration c_{s} is reflected in an intriguing way in the protein adsorption d(c_{s}) at the interface. Our findings are successfully described and understood by a model of ion-activated patchy interactions within the framework of the classical density functional theory. In addition to the general challenge of connecting bulk and interface behavior, our work has implications for, inter alia, nucleation at interfaces.

  18. Ectopic expression of dentin sialoprotein during amelogenesis hardens bulk enamel.

    PubMed

    White, Shane N; Paine, Michael L; Ngan, Amanda Y W; Miklus, Vetea G; Luo, Wen; Wang, HongJun; Snead, Malcolm L

    2007-02-23

    Dentin sialophosphpoprotein (Dspp) is transiently expressed in the early stage of secretory ameloblasts. The secretion of ameloblast-derived Dspp is short-lived, correlates to the establishment of the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ), and is consistent with Dspp having a role in producing the specialized first-formed harder enamel adjacent to the DEJ. Crack diffusion by branching and dissipation within this specialized first-formed enamel close to the DEJ prevents catastrophic interfacial damage and tooth failure. Once Dspp is secreted, it is subjected to proteolytic cleavage that results in two distinct proteins referred to as dentin sialoprotein (Dsp) and dentin phosphoprotein (Dpp). The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological and mechanical contribution of Dsp and Dpp to enamel formation. Transgenic mice were engineered to overexpress either Dsp or Dpp in their enamel organs. The mechanical properties (hardness and toughness) of the mature enamel of transgenic mice were compared with genetically matched and age-matched nontransgenic animals. Dsp and Dpp contributions to enamel formation greatly differed. The inclusion of Dsp in bulk enamel significantly and uniformly increased enamel hardness (20%), whereas the inclusion of Dpp weakened the bulk enamel. Thus, Dsp appears to make a unique contribution to the physical properties of the DEJ. Dsp transgenic animals have been engineered with superior enamel mechanical properties.

  19. An estimate of the bulk viscosity of the hadronic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, Golam; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Alam, Jane

    2017-05-01

    The bulk viscosity (ζ) of the hadronic medium has been estimated within the ambit of the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model including the Hagedorn density of states. The HRG thermodynamics within a grand canonical ensemble provides the mean hadron number as well as its fluctuation. The fluctuation in the chemical composition of the hadronic medium in the grand canonical ensemble can result in non-zero divergence of the hadronic fluid flow velocity, allowing us to estimate the ζ of the hadronic matter up to a relaxation time. We study the influence of the hadronic spectrum on ζ and find its correlation with the conformal symmetry breaking measure, ε -3P. We estimate ζ along the contours with constant, S/{N}B (total entropy/net baryon number) in the T-μ plane (temperature-baryonic chemical potential) for S/{N}B=30,45 and 300. We also assess the value of ζ on the chemical freeze-out curve for various centers of mass energy (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}) and find that the bulk viscosity to entropy density ratio, \\zeta /s is larger in the energy range of the beam energy scan program of RHIC, low energy SPS run, AGS, NICA and FAIR, than LHC energies.

  20. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-02-21

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single-or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies onmore » real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and 'nitrogen doping' of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.« less

  1. Investigating the Existence of Bulk Nanobubbles with Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Valentin; Norisuye, Tomohisa

    2016-09-19

    Nanobubbles are expected to dissolve in milliseconds. Experimental evidence of nanobubbles that were stable for days had thus been first received with circumspection. If the large number of experimental confirmations has now made clear that surface nanobubbles could exist, bulk nanobubbles are still subject to debate. When observations are reported, the main problem is to make sure the observed particles are really made of gas. We show that ultrasound is an ideal tool for investigating the existence of bulk nanobubbles: 1) it is sensitive to minute quantities of gas, 2) it allows one to determine the bubble size distribution, 3) it discriminates unambiguously between gaseous and solid/liquid inclusions. To illustrate the efficiency of ultrasonic detection, we performed size measurements of bubbles produced by a commercial nano-/microbubble generator. No nanobubble was detected with this device. It would be insightful to use ultrasonic detection in experimental situations for which stable nanobubbles were reported. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ashish; Drüppel, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert; Deilmann, Thorsten; Schneider, Robert; Molas, Maciej R; Marauhn, Philipp; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Potemski, Marek; Rohlfing, Michael; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2017-09-21

    Bound electron-hole pairs called excitons govern the electronic and optical response of many organic and inorganic semiconductors. Excitons with spatially displaced wave functions of electrons and holes (interlayer excitons) are important for Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, dissipationless current flow, and the light-induced exciton spin Hall effect. Here we report on the discovery of interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor. They form due to strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers. By combining high-field magneto-reflectance experiments and ab initio calculations for 2H-MoTe 2 , we explain their salient features: the positive sign of the g-factor and the large diamagnetic shift. Our investigations solve the long-standing puzzle of positive g-factors in transition metal dichalcogenides, and pave the way for studying collective phenomena in these materials at elevated temperatures.Excitons, quasi-particles of bound electron-hole pairs, are at the core of the optoelectronic properties of layered transition metal dichalcogenides. Here, the authors unveil the presence of interlayer excitons in bulk van der Waals semiconductors, arising from strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers.

  3. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciT

    Farbaniec, L., E-mail: lfarban1@jhu.edu; Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr; Krawczynska, A.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ∼ 135 μm) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ∼ 1.5 μm) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ∼ 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (∼ 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim weremore » observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: • Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. • Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities • Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. • Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. • In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.« less

  4. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4 mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single- or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies on real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and ‘nitrogen doping’ of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.

  5. The desorptivity model of bulk soil-water evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Available models of bulk evaporation from a bare-surfaced soil are difficult to apply to field conditions where evaporation is complicated by two main factors: rate-limiting climatic conditions and redistribution of soil moisture following infiltration. Both factors are included in the "desorptivity model', wherein the evaporation rate during the second stage (the soil-limiting stage) of evaporation is related to the desorptivity parameter, A. Analytical approximations for A are presented. The approximations are independent of the surface soil moisture. However, calculations using the approximations indicate that both soil texture and soil moisture content at depth significantly affect A. Because the moisture content at depth decreases in time during redistribution, it follows that the A parameter also changes with time. Consequently, a method to calculate a representative value of A was developed. When applied to field data, the desorptivity model estimated cumulative evaporation well. The model is easy to calculate, but its usefulness is limited because it requires an independent estimate of the time of transition between the first and second stages of evaporation. The model shows that bulk evaporation after the transition to the second stage is largely independent of climatic conditions.

  6. Multivalent-Ion-Activated Protein Adsorption Reflecting Bulk Reentrant Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Madeleine R.; Stopper, Daniel; Braun, Michal K.; Hinderhofer, Alexander; Zhang, Fajun; Jacobs, Robert M. J.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Roth, Roland; Schreiber, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Protein adsorption at the solid-liquid interface is an important phenomenon that often can be observed as a first step in biological processes. Despite its inherent importance, still relatively little is known about the underlying microscopic mechanisms. Here, using multivalent ions, we demonstrate the control of the interactions and the corresponding adsorption of net-negatively charged proteins (bovine serum albumin) at a solid-liquid interface. This is demonstrated by ellipsometry and corroborated by neutron reflectivity and quartz-crystal microbalance experiments. We show that the reentrant condensation observed within the rich bulk phase behavior of the system featuring a nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on salt concentration cs is reflected in an intriguing way in the protein adsorption d (cs) at the interface. Our findings are successfully described and understood by a model of ion-activated patchy interactions within the framework of the classical density functional theory. In addition to the general challenge of connecting bulk and interface behavior, our work has implications for, inter alia, nucleation at interfaces.

  7. Method of fabricating an optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction

    DOEpatents

    Shtein, Max [Princeton, NJ; Yang, Fan [Princeton, NJ; Forrest, Stephen R [Princeton, NJ

    2008-09-02

    A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction comprises the steps of: depositing a first layer over a first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, wherein the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material; depositing a second layer on the first layer such that the second layer is in physical contact with the first layer, wherein the interface of the second layer on the first layer forms a bulk heterojunction; and depositing a second electrode over the second layer to form the optoelectronic device. In another embodiment, a first layer having protrusions is deposited over the first electrode, wherein the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material. For example, when the first layer is an electron donor layer, the first electrode is an anode, the second layer is an electron acceptor layer, and the second electrode is a cathode. As a further example, when the first layer is an electron acceptor layer, the first electrode is a cathode, the second layer is an electron donor layer, and the second electrode is an anode.

  8. Ignition and combustion of bulk metals in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, J. W.; Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxidation, ignition, and combustion of bulk metals is important for fire safety in the production, management, and utilization of liquid and gaseous oxygen for ground based and space applications. This report summarizes research under NASA support to investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of bulk metals under varying gravity conditions. Metal ignition and combustion have not been studied previously under these conditions and the results are important not only for improved fire safety but also to increase knowledge of basic ignition and combustion mechanisms. The studies completed to date have led to the development of a clean and reproducible ignition source and diagnostic techniques for combustion measurements and have provided normal gravity combustion data on ten different pure metals. Metal specimens were ignited using a xenon short-arc lamp and measurements were made of the radiant energy flux, surface temperature history, spectroscopy of surface and gas products, and surface morphology and chemistry. Elevated gravity was provided by the University of Colorado Geotechnical Centrifuge.

  9. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    SciT

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals;more » new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  10. Surface and Bulk Carbide Transformations in High-Speed Steel

    PubMed Central

    Godec, M.; Večko Pirtovšek, T.; Šetina Batič, B.; McGuiness, P.; Burja, J.; Podgornik, B.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the transformation of carbides in AISI M42 high-speed steels in the temperature window used for forging. The annealing was found to result in the partial transformation of the large, metastable M2C carbides into small, more stable grains of M6C, with an associated change in the crystal orientation. In addition, MC carbides form during the transformation of M2C to M6C. From the high-speed-steel production point of view, it is beneficial to have large, metastable carbides in the cast structure, which later during annealing, before the forging, transform into a structure of polycrystalline carbides. Such carbides can be easily decomposed into several small carbides, which are then randomly distributed in the microstructure. The results also show an interesting difference in the carbide-transformation reactions on the surface versus the bulk of the alloy, which has implications for in-situ studies of bulk phenomena that are based on surface observations. PMID:26537780

  11. Magnetic force microscopy studies in bulk polycrystalline iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuthahir, J.; Kumar, Anish

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents magnetic force microscopy (MFM) studies on the effect of crystallographic orientation and external magnetic field on magnetic microstructure in a bulk polycrystalline iron specimen. The magneto crystalline anisotropic effect on the domain structure is characterized with the support of electron backscatter diffraction study. The distinct variations in magnetic domain structure are observed based on the crystallographic orientation of the grain surface normal with respect to the cube axis i.e. the easy axis of magnetization. Further, the local magnetization behavior is studied in-situ by MFM in presence of external magnetic field in the range of -2000 to 2000 Oe. Various micro-magnetization phenomena such as reversible and irreversible domain wall movements, expansion and contraction of domains, Barkhausen jump, bowing of a pinned domain wall and nucleation of a spike domain are visualized. The respective changes in the magnetic microstructure are compared with the bulk magnetization obtained using vibrating sample magnetometer. Bowing of a domain wall, pinned at two points, upon application of magnetic field is used to estimate the domain wall energy density. The MFM studies in presence of external field applied in two perpendicular directions are used to reveal the influence of the crystalline anisotropy on the local micro-magnetization.

  12. Bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    SciT

    Patt, M., E-mail: m.patt@fz-juelich.de; Wiemann, C.; Weber, N.

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has now matured into a well-established technique as a bulk sensitive probe of the electronic structure due to the larger escape depth of the highly energetic electrons. In order to enable HAXPES studies with high lateral resolution, we have set up a dedicated energy-filtered hard x-ray photoemission electron microscope (HAXPEEM) working with electron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. It is based on the NanoESCA design and also preserves the performance of the instrument in the low and medium energy range. In this way, spectromicroscopy can be performed from threshold to hard x-ray photoemission. Themore » high potential of the HAXPEEM approach for the investigation of buried layers and structures has been shown already on a layered and structured SrTiO{sub 3} sample. Here, we present results of experiments with test structures to elaborate the imaging and spectroscopic performance of the instrument and show the capabilities of the method to image bulk properties. Additionally, we introduce a method to determine the effective attenuation length of photoelectrons in a direct photoemission experiment.« less

  13. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    SciT

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single-or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies onmore » real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and 'nitrogen doping' of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.« less

  14. X-Ray Nanoscopy of a Bulk Heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Nilesh; Torbjørn, Eirik; Skjønsfjell, Bakken; Van den Brande, Niko; Chavez Panduro, Elvia Anabela; Claessens, Raf; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Van Mele, Bruno; Breiby, Dag Werner

    2016-07-01

    Optimizing the morphology of bulk heterojunctions is known to significantly improve the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells, but available quantitative imaging techniques are few and have severe limitations. We demonstrate X-ray ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging applied to all-organic blends. Specifically, the phase-separated morphology in bulk heterojunction photoactive layers for organic solar cells, prepared from a 50:50 blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and thermally treated for different annealing times is imaged to high resolution. Moreover, using a fast-scanning calorimetry chip setup, the nano-morphological changes caused by repeated thermal annealing applied to the same sample could be monitored. X-ray ptychography resolves to better than 100 nm the phase-segregated domains of electron donor and electron acceptor materials over a large field of view within the active layers. The quantitative phase contrast images further allow us to estimate the local volume fraction of PCBM across the photovoltaically active layers. The volume fraction gradient for different regions provides insight on the PCBM diffusion across the depletion zone surrounding PCBM aggregates. Phase contrast X-ray microscopy is under rapid development, and the results presented here are promising for future studies of organic-organic blends, also under in situ conditions, e.g., for monitoring the structural stability during UV-Vis irradiation.

  15. X-Ray Nanoscopy of a Bulk Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilesh; Skjønsfjell, Eirik Torbjørn Bakken; Van den Brande, Niko; Chavez Panduro, Elvia Anabela; Claessens, Raf; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Van Mele, Bruno; Breiby, Dag Werner

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the morphology of bulk heterojunctions is known to significantly improve the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells, but available quantitative imaging techniques are few and have severe limitations. We demonstrate X-ray ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging applied to all-organic blends. Specifically, the phase-separated morphology in bulk heterojunction photoactive layers for organic solar cells, prepared from a 50:50 blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and thermally treated for different annealing times is imaged to high resolution. Moreover, using a fast-scanning calorimetry chip setup, the nano-morphological changes caused by repeated thermal annealing applied to the same sample could be monitored. X-ray ptychography resolves to better than 100 nm the phase-segregated domains of electron donor and electron acceptor materials over a large field of view within the active layers. The quantitative phase contrast images further allow us to estimate the local volume fraction of PCBM across the photovoltaically active layers. The volume fraction gradient for different regions provides insight on the PCBM diffusion across the depletion zone surrounding PCBM aggregates. Phase contrast X-ray microscopy is under rapid development, and the results presented here are promising for future studies of organic-organic blends, also under in situ conditions, e.g., for monitoring the structural stability during UV-Vis irradiation.

  16. Combinatorial Strategies for the Development of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shiyan

    The systematic identification of multi-component alloys out of the vast composition space is still a daunting task, especially in the development of bulk metallic glasses that are typically based on three or more elements. In order to address this challenge, combinatorial approaches have been proposed. However, previous attempts have not successfully coupled the synthesis of combinatorial libraries with high-throughput characterization methods. The goal of my dissertation is to develop efficient high-throughput characterization methods, optimized to identify glass formers systematically. Here, two innovative approaches have been invented. One is to measure the nucleation temperature in parallel for up-to 800 compositions. The composition with the lowest nucleation temperature has a reasonable agreement with the best-known glass forming composition. In addition, the thermoplastic formability of a metallic glass forming system is determined through blow molding a compositional library. Our results reveal that the composition with the largest thermoplastic deformation correlates well with the best-known formability composition. I have demonstrated both methods as powerful tools to develop new bulk metallic glasses.

  17. Magnetic small-angle neutron scattering of bulk ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Michels, Andreas

    2014-09-24

    We summarize recent theoretical and experimental work in the field of magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) of bulk ferromagnets. The response of the magnetization to spatially inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy and magnetostatic stray fields is computed using linearized micromagnetic theory, and the ensuing spin-misalignment SANS is deduced. Analysis of experimental magnetic-field-dependent SANS data of various nanocrystalline ferromagnets corroborates the usefulness of the approach, which provides important quantitative information on the magnetic-interaction parameters such as the exchange-stiffness constant, the mean magnetic anisotropy field, and the mean magnetostatic field due to jumps ΔM of the magnetization at internal interfaces. Besides the value of the applied magnetic field, it turns out to be the ratio of the magnetic anisotropy field Hp to ΔM, which determines the properties of the magnetic SANS cross-section of bulk ferromagnets; specifically, the angular anisotropy on a two-dimensional detector, the asymptotic power-law exponent, and the characteristic decay length of spin-misalignment fluctuations. For the two most often employed scattering geometries where the externally applied magnetic field H0 is either perpendicular or parallel to the wave vector k0 of the incoming neutron beam, we provide a compilation of the various unpolarized, half-polarized (SANSPOL), and uniaxial fully-polarized (POLARIS) SANS cross-sections of magnetic materials.

  18. Ultrasonic measurements of the bulk flow field in foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauber, Richard; Büttner, Lars; Eckert, Kerstin; Fröhlich, Jochen; Czarske, Jürgen; Heitkam, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    The flow field of moving foams is relevant for basic research and for the optimization of industrial processes such as froth flotation. However, no adequate measurement technique exists for the local velocity distribution inside the foam bulk. We have investigated the ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV), providing the first two-dimensional, non-invasive velocity measurement technique with an adequate spatial (10 mm ) and temporal resolution (2.5 Hz ) that is applicable to medium scale foam flows. The measurement object is dry aqueous foam flowing upward in a rectangular channel. An array of ultrasound transducers is mounted within the channel, sending pulses along the main flow axis, and receiving echoes from the foam bulk. This results in a temporally and spatially resolved, planar velocity field up to a measurement depth of 200 mm , which is approximately one order of magnitude larger than those of optical techniques. A comparison with optical reference measurements of the surface velocity of the foam allows to validate the UDV results. At 2.5 Hz frame rate an uncertainty below 15 percent and an axial spatial resolution better than 10 mm is found. Therefore, UDV is a suitable tool for monitoring of industrial processes as well as the scientific investigation of three-dimensional foam flows on medium scales.

  19. Perovskite-type oxides - Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, E.

    1988-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  20. Two space scatterer formalism calculation of bulk parameters of thunderclouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phanord, Dieudonne D.

    1994-01-01

    In a previous study, we used a modified two-space scatterer formalism of Twersky to establish for a cloud modeled as a statistically homogeneous distribution of spherical water droplets, the dispersion relations that determine its bulk propagation numbers and bulk indexes of refraction in terms of the vector equivalent scattering amplitude and the dyadic scattering amplitude of the single water droplet in isolation. The results were specialized to the forward direction of scattering while demanding that the scatterers preserve the incident polarization. We apply this approach to obtain specific numerical values for the macroscopic parameters of the cloud. We work with a cloud of density rho = 100 cm(exp -3), a wavelength lambda = 0.7774 microns, and with spherical water droplets of common radius alpha = 10 microns. In addition, the scattering medium is divided into three parts, the medium outside the cloud, moist air (the medium inside the cloud but outside the droplets), and the medium inside the spherical water droplets. The results of this report are applicable to a cloud of any geometry since the boundary does not interfere with the calculations. Also, it is important to notice the plane wave nature of the incidence wave in the moist atmosphere.

  1. Harmonic effects on ion-bulk waves and simulation of stimulated ion-bulk-wave scattering in CH plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Q. S.; Zheng, C. Y.; Liu, Z. J.; Cao, L. H.; Xiao, C. Z.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, H. C.; He, X. T.

    2017-08-01

    Ion-bulk (IBk) wave, a novel branch with a phase velocity close to the ion’s thermal velocity, discovered by Valentini et al (2011 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53 105017), is recently considered as an important electrostatic activity in solar wind, and thus of great interest to space physics and also inertial confinement fusion. The harmonic effects on IBk waves has been researched by Vlasov simulation for the first time. The condition of excitation of the large-amplitude IBk waves is given. The nature of nonlinear IBk waves in the condition of k< {k}{{lor}}/2 (k lor is the wave number at loss-of-resonance point) is undamped Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal-like waves with harmonic superposition. Only when the wave number k of IBk waves satisfies {k}{{lor}}/2≲ k≤slant {k}{{lor}}, can a large-amplitude and mono-frequency IBk wave be excited. A novel stimulated scattering from IBk modes called stimulated ion-bulk-wave scattering (SIBS) or stimulated Feng scattering (SFS) has been proposed and also verified by Vlasov-Maxwell code. In CH plasmas, in addition to the stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi ion-acoustic waves, there exists SIBS simultaneously. This research gives an insight into the SIBS in the field of laser plasma interaction.

  2. Estimating Bulk Entrainment With Unaggregated and Aggregated Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Tobias; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Hohenegger, Cathy; Stevens, Bjorn

    2018-01-01

    To investigate how entrainment is influenced by convective organization, we use the ICON (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic) model in a radiative-convective equilibrium framework, with a 1 km spatial grid mesh covering a 600 by 520 km2 domain. We analyze two simulations, with unaggregated and aggregated convection, and find that, in the lower free troposphere, the bulk entrainment rate increases when convection aggregates. The increase of entrainment rate with aggregation is caused by a strong increase of turbulence in the close environment of updrafts, masking other effects like the increase of updraft size and of static stability with aggregation. Even though entrainment rate increases with aggregation, updraft buoyancy reduction through entrainment decreases because aggregated updrafts are protected by a moist shell. Parameterizations that wish to represent mesoscale convective organization would need to model this moist shell.

  3. Applications of surface acoustic and shallow bulk acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Colin K.

    1989-10-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device coverage includes delay lines and filters operating at selected frequencies in the range from about 10 MHz to 11 GHz; modeling with single-crystal piezoelectrics and layered structures; resonators and low-loss filters; comb filters and multiplexers; antenna duplexers; harmonic devices; chirp filters for pulse compression; coding with fixed and programmable transversal filters; Barker and quadraphase coding; adaptive filters; acoustic and acoustoelectric convolvers and correlators for radar, spread spectrum, and packet radio; acoustooptic processors for Bragg modulation and spectrum analysis; real-time Fourier-transform and cepstrum processors for radar and sonar; compressive receivers; Nyquist filters for microwave digital radio; clock-recovery filters for fiber communications; fixed-, tunable-, and multimode oscillators and frequency synthesizers; acoustic charge transport; and other SAW devices for signal processing on gallium arsenide. Shallow bulk acoustic wave device applications include gigahertz delay lines, surface-transverse-wave resonators employing energy-trapping gratings, and oscillators with enhanced performance and capability.

  4. Bulk Preparation of Holey Graphene via Controlled Catalytic Oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John (Inventor); Watson, Kent (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A scalable method allows preparation of bulk quantities of holey carbon allotropes with holes ranging from a few to over 100 nm in diameter. Carbon oxidation catalyst nanoparticles are first deposited onto a carbon allotrope surface in a facile, controllable, and solvent-free process. The catalyst-loaded carbons are then subjected to thermal treatment in air. The carbons in contact with the carbon oxidation catalyst nanoparticles are selectively oxidized into gaseous byproducts such as CO or CO.sub.2, leaving the surface with holes. The catalyst is then removed via refluxing in diluted nitric acid to obtain the final holey carbon allotropes. The average size of the holes correlates strongly with the size of the catalyst nanoparticles and is controlled by adjusting the catalyst precursor concentration. The temperature and time of the air oxidation step, and the catalyst removal treatment conditions, strongly affect the morphology of the holes.

  5. GALAXY CLUSTER BULK FLOWS AND COLLISION VELOCITIES IN QUMOND

    SciT

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy; Teuben, Peter

    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in {Lambda}CDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas {Lambda}CDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet Cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in {Lambda}CDM, potentially providing an explanation for ''pink elephants''more » like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.« less

  6. Galaxy Cluster Bulk Flows and Collision Velocities in QUMOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy; Teuben, Peter; Angus, G. W.

    2013-07-01

    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in ΛCDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain ~1000 km s-1 by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas ΛCDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet Cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in ΛCDM, potentially providing an explanation for "pink elephants" like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.

  7. High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jitang

    2017-03-24

    High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses from a cylinder into an intact sheet achieved by impact loading is investigated. Such a large deformation is caused by plastic flow, accompanied with geometrical confinement, shear banding/slipping, thermo softening, melting and joining. Temperature rise during the high-rate squeezing process makes a main effect. The inherent mechanisms are illustrated. Like high-pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT) for refining grain of metals, High-Rate Squeezing (HRS), as a multiple-functions technique, not only creates a new road of processing metallic glasses and other metallic alloys for developing advanced materials, but also directs a novel technology of processing, grain refining, coating, welding and so on for treating materials.

  8. Application of holographic optical techniques to bulk memory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. K.

    1971-01-01

    Current efforts to exploit the spatial redundancy and built-in imaging of holographic optical techniques to provide high information densities without critical alignment and tight mechanical tolerances are reviewed. Read-write-erase in situ operation is possible but is presently impractical because of limitations in available recording media. As these are overcome, it should prove feasible to build holographic bulk memories with mechanically replaceable hologram plates featuring very fast (less than 2 microsec) random access to large (greater than 100 million bit) data blocks and very high throughput (greater than 500 Mbit/sec). Using volume holographic storage it may eventually be possible to realize random-access mass memories which require no mechanical motion and yet provide very high capacity.

  9. Electron Bulk Acceleration and Thermalization at Earth's Quasiperpendicular Bow Shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, L-J; Wang, S; Wilson, L B; Schwartz, S; Bessho, N; Moore, T; Gershman, D; Giles, B; Malaspina, D; Wilder, F D; Ergun, R E; Hesse, M; Lai, H; Russell, C; Strangeway, R; Torbert, R B; F-Vinas, A; Burch, J; Lee, S; Pollock, C; Dorelli, J; Paterson, W; Ahmadi, N; Goodrich, K; Lavraud, B; Le Contel, O; Khotyaintsev, Yu V; Lindqvist, P-A; Boardsen, S; Wei, H; Le, A; Avanov, L

    2018-06-01

    Electron heating at Earth's quasiperpendicular bow shock has been surmised to be due to the combined effects of a quasistatic electric potential and scattering through wave-particle interaction. Here we report the observation of electron distribution functions indicating a new electron heating process occurring at the leading edge of the shock front. Incident solar wind electrons are accelerated parallel to the magnetic field toward downstream, reaching an electron-ion relative drift speed exceeding the electron thermal speed. The bulk acceleration is associated with an electric field pulse embedded in a whistler-mode wave. The high electron-ion relative drift is relaxed primarily through a nonlinear current-driven instability. The relaxed distributions contain a beam traveling toward the shock as a remnant of the accelerated electrons. Similar distribution functions prevail throughout the shock transition layer, suggesting that the observed acceleration and thermalization is essential to the cross-shock electron heating.

  10. Electron Bulk Acceleration and Thermalization at Earth's Quasiperpendicular Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.-J.; Wang, S.; Wilson, L. B.; Schwartz, S.; Bessho, N.; Moore, T.; Gershman, D.; Giles, B.; Malaspina, D.; Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R. E.; Hesse, M.; Lai, H.; Russell, C.; Strangeway, R.; Torbert, R. B.; F.-Vinas, A.; Burch, J.; Lee, S.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J.; Paterson, W.; Ahmadi, N.; Goodrich, K.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Boardsen, S.; Wei, H.; Le, A.; Avanov, L.

    2018-06-01

    Electron heating at Earth's quasiperpendicular bow shock has been surmised to be due to the combined effects of a quasistatic electric potential and scattering through wave-particle interaction. Here we report the observation of electron distribution functions indicating a new electron heating process occurring at the leading edge of the shock front. Incident solar wind electrons are accelerated parallel to the magnetic field toward downstream, reaching an electron-ion relative drift speed exceeding the electron thermal speed. The bulk acceleration is associated with an electric field pulse embedded in a whistler-mode wave. The high electron-ion relative drift is relaxed primarily through a nonlinear current-driven instability. The relaxed distributions contain a beam traveling toward the shock as a remnant of the accelerated electrons. Similar distribution functions prevail throughout the shock transition layer, suggesting that the observed acceleration and thermalization is essential to the cross-shock electron heating.

  11. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOEpatents

    Luo, Ping

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 .mu.m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogenous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided.

  12. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOEpatents

    Luo, P.

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 {micro}m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogeneous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided. 26 figs.

  13. Simulation and fabrication of thin film bulk acoustic wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xixi, Han; Yi, Ou; Zhigang, Li; Wen, Ou; Dapeng, Chen; Tianchun, Ye

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present the simulation and fabrication of a thin film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR). In order to improve the accuracy of simulation, an improved Mason model was introduced to design the resonator by taking the coupling effect between electrode and substrate into consideration. The resonators were fabricated by the eight inch CMOS process, and the measurements show that the improved Mason model is more accurate than a simple Mason model. The Q s (Q at series resonance), Q p (Q at parallel resonance), Q max and k t 2 of the FBAR were measured to be 695, 814, 1049, and 7.01% respectively, showing better performance than previous reports. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274119, 61306141, 61335008) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20131099).

  14. Bulk synthesis of polypyrrole nanofibers by a seeding approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Manohar, Sanjeev K

    2004-10-13

    The morphology of doped polypyrrole.Cl powder changes dramatically from granular to nanofibrillar when a very small amount (1-4 mg) of V2O5 nanofibers are added to a chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in aq 1.0 M HCl using (NH4)2S2O8 as the oxidant. Unlike the polyaniline system, a key synthetic requirement in the polypyrrole system is for the seed template to be "active", i.e., to be capable of independently oxidizing the pyrrole monomer. Thin, strongly adherent films can be obtained on inert surfaces such as glass, plastics, etc., directly from the polymerization mixture without any bulk product isolation steps, significantly simplifying the processing of these nanofibers.

  15. Ternary bulk heterojunction for wide spectral range organic photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hojung; Kim, Jaehoon; Lee, Changhee

    2017-08-01

    Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) system, dual electron donors and an acceptor, was studied for developing wide spectral range organic photodetectors (OPDs). With two electron donor polymers with different bandgaps and an efficient electron acceptor of [6,6]-Phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM), different blend ratios for ternary BHJ OPD were examined to achieve high photoresponsivity over a wide spectral range. OPDs based on ternary BHJ showed improved photovoltage response compared to binary BHJ. Current-voltage (J-V) characteristics as a function of external bias and light illumination were measured to reveal the underlying charge recombination mechanism which is found to be dominantly ruled by space charge limit (SCL) effect. Additional in-depth analyses including absorbance, cross-section scanning electron microscope (SEM), incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) were performed.

  16. Effect of bulk Lorentz violation on anisotropic brane cosmologies

    SciT

    Heydari-Fard, Malihe, E-mail: heydarifard@qom.ac.ir

    2012-04-01

    The effect of Lorentz invariance violation in cosmology has attracted a considerable amount of attention. By using a dynamical vector field assumed to point in the bulk direction, with Lorentz invariance holding on the brane, we extend the notation of Lorentz violation in four dimensions Jacobson to a five-dimensional brane-world. We obtain the general solution of the field equations in an exact parametric form for Bianchi type I space-time, with perfect fluid as a matter source. We show that the brane universe evolves from an isotropic/anisotropic state to an isotropic de Sitter inflationary phase at late time. The early timemore » behavior of anisotropic brane universe is largely dependent on the Lorentz violating parameters β{sub i},i = 1,2,3 and the equation of state of the matter, while its late time behavior is independent of these parameters.« less

  17. Optical characteristics of novel bulk and nanoengineered laser host materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sova, Stacey; Kelly, Lisa; Bevan, Talon; Arnold, Bradley; Cooper, Christopher; Choa, Fow-Sen; Singh, N. B.

    2018-02-01

    The hexagonal apatite single crystals have been investigated for their applications as laser host materials. Czochralksi and flux growth methods have been utilized to obtain single crystals. For low temperature processing (<100 0C), several techniques for crystal growth have been developed. The hexagonal apatite structure (space group P63/m) is characteristic of several compounds, some of which have extremely interesting and useful properties as laser hosts and bone materials. Calcium lanthanum silicate (Nd-doped) and lanthanum aluminate material systems were studied in detail. Nanoengineered calcium and lanthanum based silicates were synthesized by a solution method and their optical and morphological characteristics were compared with Czochralski grown bulk hydroxyapatite single crystals. Materials were evaluated by absorbance, fluorescence and Raman characteristics. Neodymium, iron and chromium doped crystals grown by a solution method showed weak but similar optical properties to that of Czochralski grown single crystals.

  18. High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jitang

    2017-01-01

    High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses from a cylinder into an intact sheet achieved by impact loading is investigated. Such a large deformation is caused by plastic flow, accompanied with geometrical confinement, shear banding/slipping, thermo softening, melting and joining. Temperature rise during the high-rate squeezing process makes a main effect. The inherent mechanisms are illustrated. Like high-pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT) for refining grain of metals, High-Rate Squeezing (HRS), as a multiple-functions technique, not only creates a new road of processing metallic glasses and other metallic alloys for developing advanced materials, but also directs a novel technology of processing, grain refining, coating, welding and so on for treating materials. PMID:28338092

  19. High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jitang

    2017-03-01

    High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses from a cylinder into an intact sheet achieved by impact loading is investigated. Such a large deformation is caused by plastic flow, accompanied with geometrical confinement, shear banding/slipping, thermo softening, melting and joining. Temperature rise during the high-rate squeezing process makes a main effect. The inherent mechanisms are illustrated. Like high-pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT) for refining grain of metals, High-Rate Squeezing (HRS), as a multiple-functions technique, not only creates a new road of processing metallic glasses and other metallic alloys for developing advanced materials, but also directs a novel technology of processing, grain refining, coating, welding and so on for treating materials.

  20. Progress Toward a Bulk Micromachined Tunneling Tip Microaccelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank T. Hartley, Ben Dolgen, Paul M. Zavracky

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasensitive accelerometers are needed for microgravity measurement of orbital drag and active isolation systems. We have designed an accelerometer capable of measuring accelerations of the order of 10(i) g. A tunneling tip sensor can be used as a position sensor with a potential performance advantage of two orders of magnitude over capacitive sensors. In this paper, we disclose our progress in the fabrication and measurement of a bulk microaccelerometer which employs a tunneling tip. Fully assembled accelerometers consisting of four separate die have been fabricated. The device employs a unique folded spring system with a low spring constant. To protect the tunneling tip, we have employed electrostatic clamping. Stiction has not been observed, but the required clamping voltage is greater than expected. We have developed a simple model to analyze our results.

  1. Empirically based device modeling of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Adrien; Lu, Shaofeng; Howard, Ian A.; Facchetti, Antonio; Arias, Ana Claudia

    2013-10-01

    An empirically based, open source, optoelectronic model is constructed to accurately simulate organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Bulk heterojunction OPV devices based on a new low band gap dithienothiophene- diketopyrrolopyrrole donor polymer (P(TBT-DPP)) are blended with PC70BM and processed under various conditions, with efficiencies up to 4.7%. The mobilities of electrons and holes, bimolecular recombination coefficients, exciton quenching efficiencies in donor and acceptor domains and optical constants of these devices are measured and input into the simulator to yield photocurrent with less than 7% error. The results from this model not only show carrier activity in the active layer but also elucidate new routes of device optimization by varying donor-acceptor composition as a function of position. Sets of high and low performance devices are investigated and compared side-by-side.

  2. Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates

    SciT

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Young, Erin C.; Robertson, Christian A.

    2016-07-21

    We investigate the bow of free standing (0001) oriented hydride vapor phase epitaxy grown GaN substrates and demonstrate that their curvature is consistent with a compressive to tensile stress gradient (bottom to top) present in the substrates. The origin of the stress gradient and the curvature is attributed to the correlated inclination of edge threading dislocation (TD) lines away from the [0001] direction. A model is proposed and a relation is derived for bulk GaN substrate curvature dependence on the inclination angle and the density of TDs. The model is used to analyze the curvature for commercially available GaN substratesmore » as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction. The results show a close correlation between the experimentally determined parameters and those predicted from theoretical model.« less

  3. Correlated motion in the bulk of dense granular flows.

    PubMed

    Staron, Lydie

    2008-05-01

    Numerical simulations of two-dimensional stationary dense granular flows are performed. We check that the system obeys the h_{stop} phenomenology. Focusing on the spatial correlations of the instantaneous velocity fluctuations of the grains, we give evidence of the existence of correlated motion over several grain diameters in the bulk of the flow. Investigating the role of contact friction and restitution, we show that the associated typical length scale lambda is essentially independent of the grain properties. Moreover, we show that lambda is not controlled by the packing compacity. However, in agreement with previous experimental work, we observe that the correlation length decreases with the shear rate. Computing the flows inertia number I , we show a first-order dependence of lambda on I .

  4. Detection of isotype switch rearrangement in bulk culture by PCR.

    PubMed

    Max, E E; Mills, F C; Chu, C

    2001-05-01

    When a B lymphocyte changes from synthesizing IgM to synthesizing IgG, IgA, or IgE, this isotype switch is generally accompanied by a unique DNA rearrangement. The protocols in this unit describe two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategies for detecting switch rearrangements in bulk culture. The first involves direct PCR across the switch junctions, providing the opportunity for characterizing the recombination products by nucleotide sequence analysis; however, because of characteristics inherent to the PCR methodology this strategy cannot easily be used as a quantitative assay for recombination. A support protocol details the preparation of the 5' Su PCR probe for this protocol. The second basic protocol describes a method known as digestion-circularization PCR (DCPCR) that is more amenable to quantitation but yields no information on structure of the recombination products. Both techniques should be capable of detecting reciprocal deletion circles as well as functional recombination products remaining on the expressed chromosome.

  5. Dynamic characteristics of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenko, S. D.; Balakai, A. A.; Moskvin, Yu. L.; Simbirtseva, G. V.; Troshin, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Transient characteristics of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells have been studied using pulsed laser probing. An analysis of the photoresponse waveforms of a typical solar cell measured by varying load resistance within broad range at different values of the bias voltage provided detailed information on the photocell parameters that characterize electron-transport properties of active layers. It is established that the charge carrier mobility is sufficient to ensure high values of the fill factor (˜0.6) in the obtained photocells. On approaching the no-load voltage, the differential capacitance of the photocell exhibits a sixfold increase as compared to the geometric capacitance. A possible mechanism of recombination losses in the active medium is proposed.

  6. Analytical Applications of Transport Through Bulk Liquid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Ioana; Ruse, Elena; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Bunaciu, Andrei A

    2016-07-03

    This review discusses the results of research in the use of bulk liquid membranes in separation processes and preconcentration for analytical purposes. It includes some theoretical aspects, definitions, types of liquid membranes, and transport mechanism, as well as advantages of using liquid membranes in laboratory studies. These concepts are necessary to understand fundamental principles of liquid membrane transport. Due to the multiple advantages of liquid membranes several studies present analytical applications of the transport through liquid membranes in separation or preconcentration processes of metallic cations and some organic compounds, such as phenol and phenolic derivatives, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and drugs. This review presents coupled techniques such as separation through the liquid membrane coupled with flow injection analysis.

  7. Towards a bulk approach to local interactions of hydrometeors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Manuel; Spichtinger, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The growth of small cloud droplets and ice crystals is dominated by the diffusion of water vapor. Usually, Maxwell's approach to growth for isolated particles is used in describing this process. However, recent investigations show that local interactions between particles can change diffusion properties of cloud particles. In this study we develop an approach for including these local interactions into a bulk model approach. For this purpose, a simplified framework of local interaction is proposed and governing equations are derived from this setup. The new model is tested against direct simulations and incorporated into a parcel model framework. Using the parcel model, possible implications of the new model approach for clouds are investigated. The results indicate that for specific scenarios the lifetime of cloud droplets in subsaturated air may be longer (e.g., for an initially water supersaturated air parcel within a downdraft). These effects might have an impact on mixed-phase clouds, for example in terms of riming efficiencies.

  8. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    PubMed

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E

    2014-10-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.

  9. Theoretical Insights to Bulk Activity Towards Oxygen Evolution in Oxyhydroxides

    SciT

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Bajdich, Michal; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    The nature of the electrochemical water splitting activity of layered pure and Fe-doped NiOOH is investigated using density functional theory calculations. We find similar thermodynamics for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) intermediates between the layers of oxyhydroxides, that is, in the bulk of the materials as on the (001) surface. The effect of interlayer spacing on adsorption energy is affected by both the crystal structure and the level of hydrogenation of the active sites. For the Fe-doped NiOOH, we observe general weakening of binding between the different OER intermediates and the catalyst material. The calculated OER activity depends both onmore » doping and interlayer spacing, and our results are generally congruent with available experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that such interlayer “bulk” sites may contribute to measured OER activity for both the pure and Fe-doped NiOOH catalysts.« less

  10. First Observation of Bright Solitons in Bulk Superfluid ^{4}He.

    PubMed

    Ancilotto, Francesco; Levy, David; Pimentel, Jessica; Eloranta, Jussi

    2018-01-19

    The existence of bright solitons in bulk superfluid ^{4}He is demonstrated by time-resolved shadowgraph imaging experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The initial liquid compression that leads to the creation of nonlinear waves is produced by rapidly expanding plasma from laser ablation. After the leading dissipative period, these waves transform into bright solitons, which exhibit three characteristic features: dispersionless propagation, negligible interaction in a two-wave collision, and direct dependence between soliton amplitude and the propagation velocity. The experimental observations are supported by DFT calculations, which show rapid evolution of the initially compressed liquid into bright solitons. At high amplitudes, solitons become unstable and break down into dispersive shock waves.

  11. Theoretical Insights to Bulk Activity Towards Oxygen Evolution in Oxyhydroxides

    DOE PAGES

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Bajdich, Michal; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2017-04-07

    The nature of the electrochemical water splitting activity of layered pure and Fe-doped NiOOH is investigated using density functional theory calculations. We find similar thermodynamics for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) intermediates between the layers of oxyhydroxides, that is, in the bulk of the materials as on the (001) surface. The effect of interlayer spacing on adsorption energy is affected by both the crystal structure and the level of hydrogenation of the active sites. For the Fe-doped NiOOH, we observe general weakening of binding between the different OER intermediates and the catalyst material. The calculated OER activity depends both onmore » doping and interlayer spacing, and our results are generally congruent with available experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that such interlayer “bulk” sites may contribute to measured OER activity for both the pure and Fe-doped NiOOH catalysts.« less

  12. Possible charge analogues of spin transfer torques in bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garate, Ion

    2014-03-01

    Spin transfer torques (STT) occur when electric currents travel through inhomogeneously magnetized systems and are important for the motion of magnetic textures such as domain walls. Since superconductors are easy-plane ferromagnets in particle-hole (charge) space, it is natural to ask whether any charge duals of STT phenomena exist therein. We find that the superconducting analogue of the adiabatic STT vanishes in a bulk superconductor with a momentum-independent order parameter, while the superconducting counterpart of the nonadiabatic STT does not vanish. This nonvanishing superconducting torque is induced by heat (rather than charge) currents and acts on the charge (rather than spin) degree of freedom. It can become significant in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, where it generates a net quasiparticle charge and alters the dispersion and linewidth of low-frequency collective modes. This work has been financially supported by Canada's NSERC.

  13. Phase space analysis for anisotropic universe with nonlinear bulk viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss phase space analysis of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model by taking a noninteracting mixture of dust like and viscous radiation like fluid whose viscous pressure satisfies a nonlinear version of the Israel-Stewart transport equation. An autonomous system of equations is established by defining normalized dimensionless variables. In order to investigate stability of the system, we evaluate corresponding critical points for different values of the parameters. We also compute power-law scale factor whose behavior indicates different phases of the universe model. It is found that our analysis does not provide a complete immune from fine-tuning because the exponentially expanding solution occurs only for a particular range of parameters. We conclude that stable solutions exist in the presence of nonlinear model for bulk viscosity with different choices of the constant parameter m for anisotropic universe.

  14. Dynamic fracture instability of tough bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J. X.; Ling, Z.; Jiang, M. Q.; Zhang, H. S.; Dai, L. H.

    2008-04-01

    We report the observations of a clear fractographic evolution from vein pattern, dimple structure, and then to periodic corrugation structure, followed by microbranching pattern, along the crack propagation direction in the dynamic fracture of a tough Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (Vit.1) bulk metallic glass (BMGs) under high-velocity plate impact. A model based on fracture surface energy dissipation and void growth is proposed to characterize this fracture pattern transition. We find that once the dynamic crack propagation velocity reaches a critical fraction of Rayleigh wave speed, the crack instability occurs; hence, crack microbranching goes ahead. Furthermore, the correlation between the critical velocity of amorphous materials and their intrinsic strength such as Young's modulus is uncovered. The results may shed new insight into dynamic fracture instability for BMGs.

  15. Towards a bulk description of higher spin SYK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Hernán A.; Grumiller, Daniel; Salzer, Jakob

    2018-05-01

    We consider on the bulk side extensions of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model to Yang-Mills and higher spins. To this end we study generalizations of the Jackiw-Teitelboim (JT) model in the BF formulation. Our main goal is to obtain generalizations of the Schwarzian action, which we achieve in two ways: by considering the on-shell action supplemented by suitable boundary terms compatible with all symmetries, and by applying the Lee-Wald-Zoupas formalism to analyze the symplectic structure of dilaton gravity. We conclude with a discussion of the entropy (including log-corrections from higher spins) and a holographic dictionary for the generalized SYK/JT correspondence.

  16. A Bulk Microphysics Parameterization with Multiple Ice Precipitation Categories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Jerry M.; Mansell, Edward R.

    2005-04-01

    A single-moment bulk microphysics scheme with multiple ice precipitation categories is described. It has 2 liquid hydrometeor categories (cloud droplets and rain) and 10 ice categories that are characterized by habit, size, and density—two ice crystal habits (column and plate), rimed cloud ice, snow (ice crystal aggregates), three categories of graupel with different densities and intercepts, frozen drops, small hail, and large hail. The concept of riming history is implemented for conversions among the graupel and frozen drops categories. The multiple precipitation ice categories allow a range of particle densities and fall velocities for simulating a variety of convective storms with minimal parameter tuning. The scheme is applied to two cases—an idealized continental multicell storm that demonstrates the ice precipitation process, and a small Florida maritime storm in which the warm rain process is important.

  17. Microwave bulk-acoustic-wave reflection-grating resonators.

    PubMed

    Oates, D E; Pan, J Y

    1988-01-01

    A technique for fabrication of bulk-acoustic-wave (BAW) resonators operating at fundamental frequencies between 1 and 10 GHz is presented. The resonators utilize a reflection grating made by optical holographic methods in iron-doped lithium niobate. Q factors of 30000 at 1 GHz have been demonstrated. Extension to Q of 10000 at 10 GHz appears feasible. Projected limitations to performance are discussed. The high Q at the high fundamental frequency directly results in low-phase noise. Phase-noise measurements of BAW resonator-stabilized oscillators operating at 1.14 GHz are presented. The single-sideband noise floor of <-140 dBc/Hz is shown to be in agreement with an analytical model. Projected improvements in the devices and circuits promise performance of <-160 dBc/Hz.

  18. Predicting Novel Bulk Metallic Glasses via High- Throughput Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perim, E.; Lee, D.; Liu, Y.; Toher, C.; Gong, P.; Li, Y.; Simmons, W. N.; Levy, O.; Vlassak, J.; Schroers, J.; Curtarolo, S.

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are materials which may combine key properties from crystalline metals, such as high hardness, with others typically presented by plastics, such as easy processability. However, the cost of the known BMGs poses a significant obstacle for the development of applications, which has lead to a long search for novel, economically viable, BMGs. The emergence of high-throughput DFT calculations, such as the library provided by the AFLOWLIB consortium, has provided new tools for materials discovery. We have used this data to develop a new glass forming descriptor combining structural factors with thermodynamics in order to quickly screen through a large number of alloy systems in the AFLOWLIB database, identifying the most promising systems and the optimal compositions for glass formation. National Science Foundation (DMR-1436151, DMR-1435820, DMR-1436268).

  19. Film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs) as biosensors: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Luo, Jikui; Flewitt, Andrew J; Cai, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiubo

    2018-09-30

    Biosensors play important roles in different applications such as medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food safety, and the study of biomolecular interactions. Highly sensitive, label-free and disposable biosensors are particularly desired for many clinical applications. In the past decade, film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs) have been developed as biosensors because of their high resonant frequency and small base mass (hence greater sensitivity), lower cost, label-free capability and small size. This paper reviews the piezoelectric materials used for FBARs, the optimisation of device structures, and their applications as biosensors in a wide range of biological applications such as the detection of antigens, DNAs and small biomolecules. Their integration with microfluidic devices and high-throughput detection are also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comprehensive Two-moment Warm Microphysical Bulk Scheme :

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, D.; Wobrock, W.; Flossmann, A.; Chaumerliac, N.

    The microphysic properties of gaz, aerosol particles, and hydrometeors have impli- cations at local scale (precipitations, pollution peak,..), at regional scale (inundation, acid rains,...), and also, at global scale (radiative forcing,...). So, a multi-scale study is necessary to understand and forecast in a good way meteorological phenomena con- cerning clouds. However, it cannot be carried with detailed microphysic model, on account of computers limitations. So, microphysical bulk schemes have to estimate the n´ large scale z properties of clouds due to smaller scale processes and charac- teristics. So, the development of such bulk scheme is rather important to go further in the knowledge of earth climate and in the forecasting of intense meteorological phenomena. Here, a quasi-spectral microphysic warm scheme has been developed to predict the concentrations and mixing ratios of aerosols, cloud droplets and raindrops. It considers, explicitely and analytically, the nucleation of droplets (Abdul-Razzak et al., 2000), condensation/evaporation (Chaumerliac et al., 1987), the breakup and collision-coalescence processes with the Long (1974) Ss kernels and the Berry and ´ Reinhardt (1974) Ss autoconversion parameterization, but also, the aerosols and gaz ´ scavenging. First, the parameterization has been estimated in the simplest dynamic framework of an air parcel model, with the results of the detailed scavenging model, DESCAM (Flossmann et al., 1985). Then, it has been tested, in the dynamic frame- work of a kinematic model (Szumowski et al., 1998) dedicated to the HaRP cam- paign (Hawaiian Rainband Project, 1990), with the observations and with the results of the two dimensional detailed microphysic scheme, DESCAM 2-D (Flossmann et al., 1988), implement in the CLARK model (Clark and Farley, 1984).

  1. Convergence of electronic bands for high performance bulk thermoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanzhong; Shi, Xiaoya; LaLonde, Aaron; Wang, Heng; Chen, Lidong; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2011-05-05

    Thermoelectric generators, which directly convert heat into electricity, have long been relegated to use in space-based or other niche applications, but are now being actively considered for a variety of practical waste heat recovery systems-such as the conversion of car exhaust heat into electricity. Although these devices can be very reliable and compact, the thermoelectric materials themselves are relatively inefficient: to facilitate widespread application, it will be desirable to identify or develop materials that have an intensive thermoelectric materials figure of merit, zT, above 1.5 (ref. 1). Many different concepts have been used in the search for new materials with high thermoelectric efficiency, such as the use of nanostructuring to reduce phonon thermal conductivity, which has led to the investigation of a variety of complex material systems. In this vein, it is well known that a high valley degeneracy (typically ≤6 for known thermoelectrics) in the electronic bands is conducive to high zT, and this in turn has stimulated attempts to engineer such degeneracy by adopting low-dimensional nanostructures. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to direct the convergence of many valleys in a bulk material by tuning the doping and composition. By this route, we achieve a convergence of at least 12 valleys in doped PbTe(1-x)Se(x) alloys, leading to an extraordinary zT value of 1.8 at about 850 kelvin. Band engineering to converge the valence (or conduction) bands to achieve high valley degeneracy should be a general strategy in the search for and improvement of bulk thermoelectric materials, because it simultaneously leads to a high Seebeck coefficient and high electrical conductivity. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  2. Thermal Flammable Gas Production from Bulk Vitrification Feed

    SciT

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.

    2008-05-21

    The baseline bulk-vitrification (BV) process (also known as in-container vitrification ICV™) includes a mixer/dryer to convert liquid low-activity waste (LAW) into a dried, blended feed for vitrification. Feed preparation includes blending LAW with glass-forming minerals (GFMs) and cellulose and drying the mixture to a suitable dryness, consistency, and particle size for transport to the ICVTM container. The cellulose is to be added to the BV feed at a rate sufficient to destroy 75% of the nitrogen present as nitrate or nitrite. Concern exists that flammable gases may be produced during drying operations at levels that could pose a risk. Themore » drying process is conducted under vacuum in the temperature range of 60 to 80°C. These flammable gases could be produced either through thermal decomposition of cellulose or waste organics or as a by-product of the reaction of cellulose and/or waste organics with nitrate or the postulated small amount of nitrite present in the waste. To help address the concern about flammable gas production during drying, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed studies to identify the gases produced at dryer temperatures and at possible process upset conditions. Studies used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) up to 525°C and isothermal testing up to 120°C to determine flammable gas production resulting from the cellulose and organic constituents in bulk vitrification feed. This report provides the results of those studies to determine the effects of cellulose and waste organics on flammable gas evolution« less

  3. Iron phosphate glasses: Bulk properties and atomic scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.; Asuvathraman, R.; Dube, Charu L.; Gandy, Amy S.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Jolley, Kenny; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.; Smith, Roger

    2017-10-01

    Bulk properties such as glass transition temperature, density and thermal expansion of iron phosphate glass compositions, with replacement of Cs by Ba, are investigated as a surrogate for the transmutation of 137Cs to 137Ba, relevant to the immobilisation of Cs in glass. These studies are required to establish the appropriate incorporation rate of 137Cs in iron phosphate glass. Density and glass transition temperature increases with the addition of BaO indicating the shrinkage and reticulation of the iron phosphate glass network. The average thermal expansion coefficient reduces from 19.8 × 10-6 K-1 to 13.4 × 10-6 K-1, when 25 wt. % of Cs2O was replaced by 25 wt. % of BaO in caesium loaded iron phosphate glass. In addition to the above bulk properties, the role of Ba as a network modifier in the structure of iron phosphate glass is examined using various spectroscopic techniques. The FeII content and average coordination number of iron in the glass network was estimated using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The FeII content in the un-doped iron phosphate glass and barium doped iron phosphate glasses was 20, 21 and 22 ± 1% respectively and the average Fe coordination varied from 5.3 ± 0.2 to 5.7 ± 0.2 with increasing Ba content. The atomic scale structure was further probed by Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The average coordination number provided by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure was in good agreement with that given by the Mössbauer data.

  4. EHR-based phenotyping: Bulk learning and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Po-Hsiang; Hripcsak, George

    2017-06-01

    In data-driven phenotyping, a core computational task is to identify medical concepts and their variations from sources of electronic health records (EHR) to stratify phenotypic cohorts. A conventional analytic framework for phenotyping largely uses a manual knowledge engineering approach or a supervised learning approach where clinical cases are represented by variables encompassing diagnoses, medicinal treatments and laboratory tests, among others. In such a framework, tasks associated with feature engineering and data annotation remain a tedious and expensive exercise, resulting in poor scalability. In addition, certain clinical conditions, such as those that are rare and acute in nature, may never accumulate sufficient data over time, which poses a challenge to establishing accurate and informative statistical models. In this paper, we use infectious diseases as the domain of study to demonstrate a hierarchical learning method based on ensemble learning that attempts to address these issues through feature abstraction. We use a sparse annotation set to train and evaluate many phenotypes at once, which we call bulk learning. In this batch-phenotyping framework, disease cohort definitions can be learned from within the abstract feature space established by using multiple diseases as a substrate and diagnostic codes as surrogates. In particular, using surrogate labels for model training renders possible its subsequent evaluation using only a sparse annotated sample. Moreover, statistical models can be trained and evaluated, using the same sparse annotation, from within the abstract feature space of low dimensionality that encapsulates the shared clinical traits of these target diseases, collectively referred to as the bulk learning set. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of bulk collectors in monitoring wet deposition at high-altitude sites in winter

    Ranalli, A.J.; Turk, J.T.; Campbell, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved ions from samples collected by wet/dry collectors were compared to those collected by bulk collectors at Halfmoon Creek and Ned Wilson Lake in western Colorado to determine if bulk collectors can be used to monitor wet deposition chemistry in remote, high-altitude regions in winter. Hydrogen-ion concentration was significantly lower (p 0.05) at Halfmoon Creek. Wet deposition concentrations were predicated from bulk deposition concentrations through linear regression analysis. Results indicate that anions (chloride, nitrate and sulfate) can be predicted with a high degree of confidence. Lack of significant differences between seasonal (winter and summer) ratios of bulk to wet deposition concentrations indicates that at sites where operation of a wet/dry collector during the winter is not practical, wet deposition concentrations can be predicted from bulk collector samples through regression analysis of wet and bulk deposition data collected during the summer.

  6. Ignition and Combustion of Bulk Metals in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branch, M. C.; Daily, J. W.; Abbud-Madrid, A.

    1996-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the latest results obtained in a NASA-supported project to investigate the effect of gravity on the ignition and combustion of bulk metals. The experimental arrangement used for this purpose consists of a 1000-W xenon lamp that irradiates the top surface of cylindrical titanium and magnesium specimens, 4 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height, in a quiescent, pure-oxygen environment at 1 atm. Reduced gravity is obtained from the NASA LeRC DC-9 aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. Values of critical and ignition temperatures are obtained from thermocouple records. Qualitative observations and propagation rates are extracted from high-speed cinematography. Emission spectra of gas-phase reactions are obtained with an imaging spectrograph/diode array system. It was found that high applied heating rates and large internal conduction losses generate critical and ignition temperatures that are several hundred degrees above the values obtained from isothermal experiments. Because of high conduction and radiation heat losses, no appreciable effect on ignition temperatures with reduced convection in low gravity is detected. Lower propagation rates of the molten interface on titanium and of ignition waves on magnesium are obtained at reduced gravity. These rates are compared to theoretical results from heat conduction analyses with a diffusion/convection controlled reaction. The close agreement found between experimental and theoretical values indicates the importance of the influence of natural convection-enhanced oxygen transport on combustion rates. Lower oxygen flux and lack of oxide product removal in the absence of convective currents appear to be responsible for longer burning times of magnesium diffusion flames at reduced gravity. The accumulation of condensed oxide particles in the flame front at low gravity produces a previously unreported unsteady explosion phenomenon in bulk magnesium flames. This spherically symmetric explosion

  7. Non-CI refractory lithophile abundances in bulk planetary materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, N.

    2015-12-01

    Refractory inclusions in meteorites show evidence for fractionation of refractory lithophile elements relative to one another. For bulk planetary materials, it is most often assumed that refractory lithophile elements (e.g., Ca, Al, Ti, REEs) are in proportions similar to CI carbonaceous chondrites, which is taken to be a proxy for solar composition. A diagnostic feature of REE patterns in refractory inclusions in meteorites is the presence of thulium anomalies, arising from the fact that this heavy REE is more volatile than the highly refractory HREEs surrounding it (Tm/Tm* is defined relative to either Er-Yb or Er-Lu). Tm anomalies thus represent an excellent diagnostic tool to test the assumption that refractory lithophile elements have uniform relative abundances at a bulk planetary scale. Prior to this work, high precision Tm measurements were lacking because it is mono-isotopic and as such is not amenable to high-precision single spike measurements. We have developed a multi-collector REE abundance measurement technique to measure all REEs at high precision, including the mono-isotopic ones. This technique was used to revise the abundance of CI and PAAS REE abundances (Pourmand et al. 2012) and the CI composition agrees well with an independent study (Barrat et al. 2012). The same technique was applied to measure REE patterns in 41 chondrites as well as terrestrial rocks (Dauphas and Pourmand, 2015). Our results reveal the presence of Tm anomalies of about -4.5 % in terrestrial rocks, enstatite and ordinary chondrites, relative to carbonaceous chondrites including CIs. This demonstrates that the assumption that refractory lithophile elements are in constant proportions among planetary bodies is unwarranted. It also shows that carbonaceous chondrites cannot be a major constituent of the Earth. The presence of Tm anomalies in meteorites and terrestrial rocks suggests that either (i) the material in the inner part of the solar system was formed from a gas

  8. Influence of Bulk Carbonaceous Matter on Pluto's Structure and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Spencer, J. R.; Moore, J. M.; Young, L. A.; Olkin, C.

    2017-12-01

    The rock/ice mass ratio of the Pluto system is about 2/1 (McKinnon et al., Icarus 287, 2017) [1], though this neglects the potential role of bulk carbonaceous matter ("CHON"), an important cometary component and one likely important in the ancestral Kuiper belt. The wealth of measurements at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (a Jupiter-family comet and thus one formed in the same region of the outer Solar System as Pluto) by Rosetta are particularly instructive. E.g., Davidsson et al. (A&A 592, 2016) [2] propose in their "composition A" that 67P/Ch-G is 25% metal/sulfides, 42% rock/organics, and 32% ice by mass. For their assumed component densities, the overall grain density is 1820 kg/m3. Fulle et al. (MNRAS 462, 2016) [3] posit 5 ± 2 volume % Fe-sulfides of density 4600 kg/m3, 28 ± 5% Mg,Fe-olivines and -pyroxenes of density 3200 kg/m3, 52 ± 12% hydrocarbons of density 1200 kg/m3, and 15 ± 6% ices of 917 kg/m3. This composition yields a primordial grain density (dust + ice) of 1885 ± 240 kg/m3. Both of these cometary density estimates [2,3] are consistent with Pluto-Charon, especially as Pluto's uncompressed (STP) density is close to 1820 kg/m3 and that of the system as a whole is close to 1800 kg/m3 [1]. We consider the potential compositional and structural implications of these proposed 67P/Ch-G compositions when applied to Pluto and Charon. The amount of ice in model A of [2] is a good match to Pluto structural models. Their rock/organics component, however, is taken to be half graphite (2000 kg/m3) by volume. The composition in [3] is more divergent: very ice poor, and on the order of 50% light hydrocarbons by volume. Regardless of the differences between [2] and [3], the possibility of massive internal graphite or carbonaceous layers within Pluto is real. We discuss the possible consequences for Pluto's structure, rock/ice ratio, thermal and chemical evolution, and even interpretation of its gravity field from tectonics. For example, radiogenic heat

  9. Recent advances in magnetic nanoparticles with bulk-like properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlle, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) are an excellent example of nanostructured materials and exhibit fascinating properties with applications in high-density recording and biomedicine. Controlling the effects of the nanostructure and surface chemistry and magnetism at the monolayer level have become relevant issues. As the size is reduced below 100 nm, deviations from bulk behavior have been attributed to finite-size effects and changes in the magnetic ordering at the surface, thus giving rise to a significant decrease in the magnetization and increase in the magnetic anisotropy. The existence of a surface spin glass-like state due to magnetic frustration has been widely suggested in ferrimagnetic NP. However, in this talk, we will show that high crystal quality magnetite Fe3-xO4 NP of about a few nanometers in diameter and coated with different organic surfactants display bulk-like structural, magnetic and electronic properties. Magnetic measurements, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism and Monte Carlo simulations, evidenced that none of the usual particle-like behavior is observed in high quality NP of a few nm. Consequently, the magnetic and electronic disorder phenomena typically observed in those single-phase ferrimagnetic NP should not be considered as an intrinsic effect. We also performed a real-space characterization at the sub-nanometer scale, combining scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and electron magnetic chiral dichroism. For the first time, we found that the surface magnetization is as high as about 70% of that of the core. The comparison to density functional theory suggested the relevance of the strong surface bond between the Fe ions and the organic surfactant. All the foregoing demonstrates the key role of both the crystal quality and surface bond on the physical properties of ferrimagnetic NP and paves the way to the fabrication of the next generation of NP with

  10. Nanopatterned bulk metallic glass-based biomaterials modulate macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Mahdis; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Morris, Aaron H; Cheung, Bettina; Smith, Ryan; Schroers, Jan; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2018-06-01

    Polarization of macrophages by chemical, topographical and mechanical cues presents a robust strategy for designing immunomodulatory biomaterials. Here, we studied the ability of nanopatterned bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a new class of metallic biomaterials, to modulate murine macrophage polarization. Cytokine/chemokine analysis of IL-4 or IFNγ/LPS-stimulated macrophages showed that the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-12, CCL-2 and CXCL1 was significantly reduced after 24-hour culture on BMGs with 55 nm nanorod arrays (BMG-55). Additionally, under these conditions, macrophages increased phagocytic potential and exhibited decreased cell area with multiple actin protrusions. These in vitro findings suggest that nanopatterning can modulate biochemical cues such as IFNγ/LPS. In vivo evaluation of the subcutaneous host response at 2 weeks demonstrated that the ratio of Arg-1 to iNOS increased in macrophages adjacent to BMG-55 implants, suggesting modulation of polarization. In addition, macrophage fusion and fibrous capsule thickness decreased and the number and size of blood vessels increased, which is consistent with changes in macrophage responses. Our study demonstrates that nanopatterning of BMG implants is a promising technique to selectively polarize macrophages to modulate the immune response, and also presents an effective tool to study mechanisms of macrophage polarization and function. Implanted biomaterials elicit a complex series of tissue and cellular responses, termed the foreign body response (FBR), that can be influenced by the polarization state of macrophages. Surface topography can influence polarization, which is broadly characterized as either inflammatory or repair-like. The latter has been linked to improved outcomes of the FBR. However, the impact of topography on macrophage polarization is not fully understood, in part, due to a lack of high moduli biomaterials that can be reproducibly processed at the nanoscale. Here, we studied

  11. Understanding bulk behavior of particulate materials from particle scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoliang

    Particulate materials play an increasingly significant role in various industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, food, mining, and civil engineering. The objective of this research is to better understand bulk behaviors of particulate materials from particle scale simulations. Packing properties of assembly of particles are investigated first, focusing on the effects of particle size, surface energy, and aspect ratio on the coordination number, porosity, and packing structures. The simulation results show that particle sizes, surface energy, and aspect ratio all influence the porosity of packing to various degrees. The heterogeneous force networks within particle assembly under external compressive loading are investigated as well. The results show that coarse-coarse contacts dominate the strong network and coarse-fine contacts dominate the total network. Next, DEM models are developed to simulate the particle dynamics inside a conical screen mill (comil) and magnetically assisted impaction mixer (MAIM), both are important particle processing devices. For comil, the mean residence time (MRT), spatial distribution of particles, along with the collision dynamics between particles as well as particle and vessel geometries are examined as a function of the various operating parameters such as impeller speed, screen hole size, open area, and feed rate. The simulation results can help better understand dry coating experimental results using comil. For MAIM system, the magnetic force is incorporated into the contact model, allowing to describe the interactions between magnets. The simulation results reveal the connections between homogeneity of mixture and particle scale variables such as size of magnets and surface energy of non-magnets. In particular, at the fixed mass ratio of magnets to non-magnets and surface energy the smaller magnets lead to better homogeneity of mixing, which is in good agreement with previously published experimental results. Last but not

  12. Bulk Lorentz factors of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Nappo, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Marcarini, G.; Nava, L.; Salafia, O. S.; Campana, S.; Salvaterra, R.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allows us to compute their comoving frame properties shedding light on their physics. Upon collisions with the circumburst matter, the fireball of a GRB starts to decelerate, producing a peak or a break (depending on the circumburst density profile) in the light curve of the afterglow. Considering all bursts with known redshift and with an early coverage of their emission, we find 67 GRBs (including one short event) with a peak in their optical or GeV light curves at a time tp. For another 106 GRBs we set an upper limit tpUL. The measure of tp provides the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 of the fireball before deceleration. We show that tp is due to the dynamics of the fireball deceleration and not to the passage of a characteristic frequency of the synchrotron spectrum across the optical band. Considering the tp of 66 long GRBs and the 85 most constraining upper limits, we estimate Γ0 or a lower limit Γ0LL. Using censored data analysis methods, we reconstruct the most likely distribution of tp. All tp are larger than the time Tp,γ when the prompt γ-ray emission peaks, and are much larger than the time Tph when the fireball becomes transparent, that is, tp>Tp,γ>Tph. The reconstructed distribution of Γ0 has median value 300 (150) for a uniform (wind) circumburst density profile. In the comoving frame, long GRBs have typical isotropic energy, luminosity, and peak energy ⟨ Eiso ⟩ = 3(8) × 1050 erg, ⟨ Liso ⟩ = 3(15) × 1047 erg s-1, and ⟨ Epeak ⟩ = 1(2) keV in the homogeneous (wind) case. We confirm that the significant correlations between Γ0 and the rest frame isotropic energy (Eiso), luminosity (Liso), and peak energy (Ep) are not due to selection effects. When combined, they lead to the observed Ep-Eiso and Ep-Liso correlations. Finally, assuming a typical opening angle of 5 degrees, we derive the distribution of the jet baryon loading which is centered around a few 10-6M⊙.

  13. Bulk microstructure and local elastic properties of carbon nanocomposites studied by impulse acoustic microscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V.; Petronyuk, Yu.; Morokov, E.; Chernozatonskii, L.; Kuzhir, P.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.; Bellucci, S.; Bistarelli, S.; Mastrucci, M.; Tabacchioni, I.

    2016-05-01

    Bulk microstructure and elastic properties of epoxy-nanocarbon nanocomposites for diverse types and different content of carbon nanofiller has been studied by using impulse acoustic microscopy technique. It has been shown occurrence of various types of mesoscopic structure formed by nanoparticles inside the bulk of nanocomposite materials, including nanoparticle conglomerates and nanoparticle aerogel systems. In spite of the bulk microstructure, nanocarbon composites demonstrate elastic uniformity and negligible influence of nanofiller on elastic properties of carbon nanocomposite materials.

  14. Microtensile bond strength of bulk-fill restorative composites to dentin.

    PubMed

    Mandava, Jyothi; Vegesna, Divya-Prasanna; Ravi, Ravichandra; Boddeda, Mohan-Rao; Uppalapati, Lakshman-Varma; Ghazanfaruddin, M D

    2017-08-01

    To facilitate the easier placement of direct resin composite in deeper cavities, bulk fill composites have been introduced. The Mechanical stability of fillings in stress bearing areas restored with bulk-fill resin composites is still open to question, since long term clinical studies are not available so far. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the microtensile bond strength of three bulk-fill restorative composites with a nanohybrid composite. Class I cavities were prepared on sixty extracted mandibular molars. Teeth were divided into 4 groups (n= 15 each) and in group I, the prepared cavities were restored with nanohybrid (Filtek Z250 XT) restorative composite in an incremental manner. In group II, III and IV, the bulk-fill composites (Filtek, Tetric EvoCeram, X-tra fil bulk-fill restoratives) were placed as a 4 mm single increment and light cured. The restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling and bond strength testing was done using instron testing machine. The mode of failure was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The bond strength values obtained in megapascals (MPa) were subjected to statistical analysis, using SPSS/PC version 20 software.One-way ANOVA was used for groupwise comparison of the bond strength. Tukey's Post Hoc test was used for pairwise comparisons among the groups. The highest mean bond strength was achieved with Filtek bulk-fill restorative showing statistically significant difference with Tetric EvoCeram bulk-fill ( p < 0.003) and X-tra fil bulk-fill ( p <0.001) composites. Adhesive failures are mostly observed with X-tra fil bulk fill composites, whereas mixed failures are more common with other bulk fill composites. Bulk-fill composites exhibited adequate bond strength to dentin and can be considered as restorative material of choice in posterior stress bearing areas. Key words: Bond strength, Bulk-fill restoratives, Configuration factor, Polymerization shrinkage.

  15. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  20. Unpaired Majorana modes in Josephson-Junction Arrays with gapless bulk excitations

    DOE PAGES

    Pino, M.; Tsvelik, A.; Ioffe, L. B.

    2015-11-06

    In this study, the search for Majorana bound states in solid-state physics has been limited to materials that display a gap in their bulk spectrum. We show that such unpaired states appear in certain quasi-one-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays with gapless bulk excitations. The bulk modes mediate a coupling between Majorana bound states via the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida-Kasuya mechanism. As a consequence, the lowest energy doublet acquires a finite energy difference. For a realistic set of parameters this energy splitting remains much smaller than the energy of the bulk eigenstates even for short chains of length L~10.