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Sample records for zr-cd substituted strontium

  1. Effect of bismuth substitution in strontium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, M. R.; Kuila, S.; Sweta, K.; Barik, A.; Vishwakarma, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    Bismuth (Bi) substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite (Sr1-xBix Fe12O19, x=0 and 0.02) are synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows increase in lattice parameter and particle size (500 nm to 3 micron) respectively, for Bi substituted sample. Magnetization via M-H shows decrease in magnetic hardness for Bi substituted samples. M-T data for parent (x=0) sample shows an antiferromagnetic transition in the ZFC plot at 495 °C. This antiferromagnetic transition is replaced by a ferromagnetic transition for FCW measurement. Similar behavior is displayed by the Bi substituted sample with transition temperature reduced to 455 °C.

  2. Enhancement of thermoelectric performance in strontium titanate by praseodymium substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevsky, A. V.; Yaremchenko, A. A.; Populoh, S.; Weidenkaff, A.; Frade, J. R.

    2013-02-01

    In order to identify the effects of Pr additions on thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate, crystal structure, electrical and thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of Sr1-xPrxTiO3 (x = 0.02-0.30) materials were studied at 400 < T < 1180 K under highly reducing atmosphere. The mechanism of electronic transport was found to be similar up to 10% of praseodymium content, where generation of the charge carriers upon substitution resulted in significant increase of the electrical conductivity, moderate decrease in Seebeck coefficient, and general improvement of the power factor. Formation of point defects in the course of substitution led to suppression of the lattice thermal conductivity, whilst the contribution from electronic component was increasing with carrier concentration. Possible formation of layered structures and growing distortion of the perovskite lattice resulted in relatively low thermoelectric performance for Sr0.80Pr0.20TiO3 and Sr0.70Pr0.30TiO3. The maximum dimensionless figure of merit was observed for Sr0.90Pr0.10TiO3 and amounted to ˜0.23 at 670 K and ˜0.34 at 1170 K, close to the values, obtained in similar conditions for the best bulk thermoelectrics, based on rare-earth substituted SrTiO3.

  3. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. In 1995, U.S. strontium imports and consumption increased nearly 30 percent due to increased domestic production of color television picture tube glass. However, strontium compound exports fell during 1995. Strontium is also used in the production of permanent ceramic ferrite magnets. Strontium nitrate, strontium chromate, and strontium chloride are also commonly used materials. Although the development of an affordable flatscreen display could eliminate the need for strontium in television production, this technology is not expected to be perfected in the immediate future.

  4. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Mexico is the leading producer of celestite, the most common strontium ore. Chemical Products is the only major US maker of strontium compounds. It produces all of its strontium carbonate from imported Mexican celestite. Mexico is also a large producer of strontium carbonate, as are China, Germany, Japan and the Republic of Korea. There has been no celestite production in the United States since 1959.

  5. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    China, Mexico, Spain and Turkey are the world's leading producers of celestite (strontium sulphate). These countries accounted for 98% of the total world production in 2005. For the same period, US apparent consumption of strontium decreased to 12.3 kt. Imports were 21.2 kt, of which 84% came from Mexico. Imports of celestite and strontium carbonate decreased 71% and 24% respectively.

  6. Pulsed electrodeposition for the synthesis of strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings with improved dissolution properties.

    PubMed

    Drevet, Richard; Benhayoune, Hicham

    2013-10-01

    Strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings are synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Experimental conditions of the process are optimized in order to obtain a coating with a 5% atomic substitution of calcium by strontium which corresponds to the best observations on the osteoblast cells activity and on the osteoclast cells proliferation. The physical and chemical characterizations of the obtained coating are carried out by scanning electron microscopy associated to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) for X-ray microanalysis and the structural characterization of the coating is carried out by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro dissolution/precipitation properties of the coated substrates are investigated by immersion into Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) from 1h to 14 days. The calcium, phosphorus and strontium concentrations variations in the biological liquid are assessed by Induced Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for each immersion time. The results show that under specific experimental conditions, the electrodeposition process is suitable to synthesize strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings. Moreover, the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into the electrolytic solution used in the process allows us to observe a control of the strontium release during the immersion of the prosthetic materials into DMEM. © 2013.

  7. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Production figures are not published for stronium carbonate because there is only one company producing strontium carbonate domestically. Strontium carbonate is produced in the U.S. from imported celestite. Consumption can be estimated from trade data published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Consumption is estimated at approximately 24.5 kt of strontium. The largest end-use of strontium carbonate is in the production of faceplate glass for color television picturetubes. Other applications and markets for strontium are discussed.

  8. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) decreased to 16.7 kt (18,400 st) from 17.3 kt (19,100 st) in 2011. Gross weight of imports was 34.3 kt (37,800 st), 86 percent of which originated in Mexico.

  9. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) decreased by 11 percent to 10.4 kt (11,460 st) from 11.8 kt (13,000 st) in 2009. Gross weight of imports totaled 20.9 kt (23,000 st), of which 65 percent originated from Mexico.

  10. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) increased markedly to 18.4 kt (20,300 st) from 10.4 kt (11,500 st) in 2010. Gross weight of imports was 34.4 kt (38,000 st), of which 76 percent originated from Mexico.

  11. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) increased to 16 kt (17,600 st) from 10.6 kt (11,700 st) in 2008, an increase of 52 percent. This increase was attributed primarily to an increase in imported celestite. Gross weight of imports totaled 25.3 kt (27,900 st), of which 91 percent came from Mexico. Imports in 2009 were 18 percent more than in 2008. Exports of strontium compounds in 2009 decreased 15 percent to 9.3 kt (10,250 st) from 10.9 kt (12,000 st) in 2008. In 2009, the U.S. Customs value of imported strontium carbonate was 65 cents/kg (29 cents/lb); for strontium nitrate, the unit value was $ 1/kg (45 cents/lb). The unit value of imported celestite, all of which was from Mexico, was about $47/t ($43/st).

  12. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section reviewing the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Imports of celestite (strontium ore) reached nearly 45 kt, which represents an increase of 35 percent over 1991. Mexico supplied almost all of the celestite. Nearly 70 percent of the strontium consumed in the U.S. is used in television picture tube faceplate glass to block X-ray emissions.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Matteo; Cristofaro, Francesco; Sglavo, Vincenzo M; Dirè, Sandra; Callone, Emanuela; Ceccato, Riccardo; Bruni, Giovanna; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Visai, Livia

    2017-02-01

    The production of stable suspensions of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) nanopowders, as Sr ions vector for bone tissue regeneration, was carried out in the present work. Sr-HA nanopowders were synthesized via aqueous precipitation methods using Sr 2+ amount from 0 to 100mol% and were characterized by several complementary techniques such as solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, N 2 physisorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The substitution of Ca 2+ with Sr 2+ in HA is always isomorphic with gradual evolution between the two limit compositions (containing 100% Ca and 100% Sr), this pointing out the homogeneity of the synthesized nanopowders and the complete solubility of strontium in HA lattice. Strontium addition is responsible for an increasing c/a ratio in the triclinic unit cell. A significant variation of the nanopowders shape and dimension is also observed, a preferential growth along the c-axis direction being evident at higher strontium loads. Modifications in the local chemical environment of phosphate and hydroxyl groups in the apatite lattice are also observed. Stable suspensions were produced by dispersing the synthesized nanopowders in bovine serum albumin. Characterization by Dynamic Light Scattering and ζ-potential determination allowed to show that Ca 2+ →Sr 2+ substitution influences the hydrodynamic diameter, which is always twice the particles size determined by TEM, the nanoparticles being always negatively charged as a result from the albumin rearrangement upon the interaction with nanoparticles surface. The biocompatibility of the suspensions was studied in terms of cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation and morphology, using osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2. The data pointed out an increased cell proliferation for HA nanoparticles containing larger Sr 2+ load, the cells morphology remaining essentially unaffected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Mexico and Spain are the leading producers of celestite, the most common strontium ore. Those countries produced nearly 80 percent of the estimated 360 kt (397,000 st) of celestite produced worldwide during 2002. China and Turkey are other significant celestite producers.

  15. Strontium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Strontium ; CASRN 7440 - 24 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  16. Effects of Gd substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2007-09-01

    The effect of Gd substitution in M-type strontium hexaferrites has been examined in two series of samples, (Sr1-xGdx)O·5.25Fe2O3 and Sr1-xGdxFe12-xCoxO19, both prepared by the ceramic method, where x=0-0.40. The samples have been characterized by XRD, VSM and SEM-EDAX techniques. All substituted samples present primarily the hexaferrite structure. Sample (Sr0.95Gd)O·5.25Fe2O3 is single phase. Formation of impurity phases is affected by stoichiometry and presence of Co. In Sr-Gd samples, coercivity showed a maximum value of 305 kA/m (3.8 kOe) for x=0.20, while remanence and saturation magnetization did not decrease. Coercivity and magnetization in the Sr-Gd-Co series decreased steadily with substitution degree.

  17. Site preference and magnetic properties of Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon, E-mail: kimsg@ccs.msstate.edu

    2015-11-28

    The first-principles density functional theory has been used to study Ga/In-substituted strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}). Based on the calculation of the substitution energy of Ga and In in SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and the formation probability analysis, we conclude that in SrFe{sub 12−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 19} the substituted Ga atoms prefer to occupy the 12k, 2a, and 4f{sub 1} sites, while In atoms in SrFe{sub 12−x}In{sub x}O{sub 19} occupy the 12k, 4f{sub 2}, and 4f{sub 1} sites. We used the site occupation probabilities to calculate the magnetic properties of the substituted SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. It was found that as the fractionmore » of Ga atoms in SrFe{sub 12−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 19} increases, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) as well as magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) decrease, while the anisotropy field (H{sub a}) increases. In the case of SrFe{sub 12−x}In{sub x}O{sub 19}, M{sub s}, MAE, and H{sub a} decrease with an increase of the concentration of In atoms.« less

  18. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim; Pyare, Ram; S P Singh

    2016-12-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO2 in Na2O-CaO-SrO-P2O5-SiO2 system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO2 has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO2. The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of La-Mn substitutions on magnetic properties of M-type strontium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, Z. F.; Ma, X. H.; Wei, Y. Y.; Liu, Q. C.; Zhang, M.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2018-05-01

    M-type strontium hexaferrites of Sr1-xLaxFe12-xMnxO19 (0.0≤x≤0.4) were synthesized by the chemical coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that the samples are single-phase with the space group of P63/mmc. The results of field-emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM) show that the grains are regular hexagonal platelets with sizes from 0.7 to 1.4 μm. It is observed that the value of Hc increases at low substitution (x ≤ 0.1), reaches a maximum at x = 0.1 and then decreases at x ≥ 0.1, while the value of Ms decreases monotonously with increasing x. The variations of magnetic properties can be tentatively attributed to the effects of La-Mn substitutions. The results above indicate that our samples might be promising candidates for permanent magnets in the future.

  20. The Phase Transformation and Crystal Structure Studies of Strontium Substituted Barium Monoferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyawan, A.; Adi, W. A.; Mustofa, S.; Fisli, A.

    2017-03-01

    Unlike other AFe2O4 ferrite materials, Barium Monoferrite (BaFe2O4) have an orthorhombic structure which is very interesting to further study the crystal structure and phase formation. In this study, Strontium substituted Barium Monoferrite in the form of Ba(1-x)Sr(x)Fe2O4 has successfully been synthesized through solid state reaction method which includes BaCO3, SrCO3, and Fe2O3 as starting materials. Ba(1-x)Sr(x)Fe2O4 was made by varying the dopant composition of Strontium (Sr2+) from x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5. Each composition was assisted by ethanol and continued to the milling process for 5 hours then followed by sintering process at 900 °C for 5 hours. The phase transformation was studied by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Rietveld refinement using General Structure Analysis System (GSAS) also 3D crystal visualization using VESTA. Referring to the refinement results, a single phase of BaFe2O4 was formed in x = 0 and 0.1. The composition has orthorhombic structure, space group B b21m, and lattice parameters of a = 19.0229, b = 5.3814 c = 8.4524 Å, α = β = γ = 90° and a = 18.9978, b = 5.3802 c = 8.4385 Å, α = β = γ = 90° respectively. In the composition of x = 0.3 it was found that the phase of BaSrFe4O8 begin to form due to the overload expansion of the Sr2+ occupancy which made the distortion of the initial lattice parameters and finally in the x = 0.5 composition the single phase of BaSrFe4O8 was clearly formed. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm the change of the material structure by measuring the elemental compound composition ratio. The result of EDS spectra clearly exhibited the dominant elements were Barium (Ba), Strontium (Sr), Iron (Fe), and Oxygen (O) with the compound ratio (Atomic percentage and mass percentage) correspond to the BaFe2O4 and BaSrFe4O8 phase.

  1. Site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon, E-mail: kimsg@ccs.msstate.edu

    2015-06-28

    We use first-principles total-energy calculations based on density functional theory to study the site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite SrFe{sub 12−x}Al{sub x}O{sub 19} with x = 0.5 and x = 1.0. We find that the non-magnetic Al{sup 3+} ions preferentially replace Fe{sup 3+} ions at two of the majority spin sites, 2a and 12k, eliminating their positive contribution to the total magnetization causing the saturation magnetization M{sub s} to be reduced as Al concentration x is increased. Our formation probability analysis further provides the explanation for increased magnetic anisotropy field when the fraction of Al is increased. Although Al{sup 3+}more » ions preferentially occupy the 2a sites at a low temperature, the occupation probability of the 12k site increases with the rise of the temperature. At a typical annealing temperature (>700 °C) Al{sup 3+} ions are much more likely to occupy the 12k site than the 2a site. Although this causes the magnetocrystalline anisotropy K{sub 1} to be reduced slightly, the reduction in M{sub s} is much more significant. Their combined effect causes the anisotropy field H{sub a} to increase as the fraction of Al is increased, consistent with recent experimental measurements.« less

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Si and Sr co-substituted hydroxyapatite nanowires using strontium containing calcium silicate as precursors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Zhai, Dong; Chen, Lei; Zou, Zhaoyong; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    In the absence of any organic surfactants and solvents, the silicon (Si) and strontium (Sr) co-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, Si/Sr-HAp] nanowires were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-containing calcium silicate (Sr-CS) powders as the precursors in trisodium phosphate (Na3PO4) aqueous solution. The morphology, phase, chemical compositions, lattice constants and the degradability of the products were characterized. The Si/Sr-HAp nanowires with diameter of about 60nm and up to 2μm in length were obtained after hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-CS precursors. The Sr and Si substitution amount of the HAp nanowires could be well regulated by facile tailoring the Sr substitution level of the precursors and the reaction ratio of the precursor/solution, respectively. The SiO4 tetrahedra and Sr(2+) ions occupied the crystal sites of the HAp, and the lattice constants increased apparently with the increase of the substitution amount. EDS mapping also suggested the uniform distribution of Si and Sr in the synthetic nanowires. Moreover, the Si/Sr-substitution apparently improved the degradability of the HAp materials. Our study suggested that the precursor transformation method provided a facile approach to synthesize the Si/Sr co-substituted HAp nanowires with controllable substitution amount, and the synthetic Si/Sr-HAp nanowires might be used as bioactive materials for hard tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced osteoporotic bone regeneration by strontium-substituted calcium silicate bioactive ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaili; Xia, Lunguo; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Xinquan; Pan, Haobo; Xu, Yuanjin; Lu, William W; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chang, Jiang

    2013-12-01

    The regeneration capacity of the osteoporotic bones is generally lower than that of the normal bones. Current methods of bone defect treatment for osteoporosis are not always satisfactory. Recent studies have shown that the silicate based biomaterials can stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis due to the silicon (Si) ions released from the materials, and enhance bone regeneration in vivo. Other studies showed that strontium (Sr) plays a distinct role on inhibiting bone resorption. Based on the hypothesis that the combination of Si and Sr may have synergetic effects on osteoporotic bone regeneration, the porous Sr-substituted calcium silicate (SrCS) ceramic scaffolds combining the functions of Sr and Si elements were developed with the goals to promote osteoporotic bone defect repair. The effects of the ionic extract from SrCS on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from ovariectomized rats (rBMSCs-OVX), angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. The in vitro results showed that Sr and Si ions released from SrCS enhanced cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-related genes of rBMSCs-OVX and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) without addition of extra osteogenic and angiogenic reagents. The activation in extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways were observed in rBMSCs-OVX cultured in the extract of SrCS, and these effects could be blocked by ERK inhibitor PD98059, and P38 inhibitor SB203580, respectively. Furthermore, the ionic extract of SrCS stimulated HUVECs proliferation, differentiation and angiogenesis process. The in vivo experiments revealed that SrCS dramatically stimulated bone regeneration and angiogenesis in a critical sized OVX calvarial defect model, and the enhanced bone regeneration might be attributed to the modulation of osteogenic differentiation of

  4. Strength reliability and in vitro degradation of three-dimensional powder printed strontium-substituted magnesium phosphate scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Meininger, Susanne; Mandal, Sourav; Kumar, Alok; Groll, Jürgen; Basu, Bikramjit; Gbureck, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Strontium ions (Sr(2+)) are known to prevent osteoporosis and also encourage bone formation. Such twin requirements have motivated researchers to develop Sr-substituted biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. The present study demonstrates a new concept of developing Sr-substituted Mg3(PO4)2 - based biodegradable scaffolds. In particular, this work reports the fabrication, mechanical properties with an emphasis on strength reliability as well as in vitro degradation of highly biodegradable strontium-incorporated magnesium phosphate cements. These implantable scaffolds were fabricated using three-dimensional powder printing, followed by high temperature sintering and/or chemical conversion, a technique adaptable to develop patient-specific implants. A moderate combination of strength properties of 36.7MPa (compression), 24.2MPa (bending) and 10.7MPa (tension) were measured. A reasonably modest Weibull modulus of up to 8.8 was recorded after uniaxial compression or diametral tensile tests on 3D printed scaffolds. A comparison among scaffolds with varying compositions or among sintered or chemically hardened scaffolds reveals that the strength reliability is not compromised in Sr-substituted scaffolds compared to baseline Mg3(PO4)2. The micro-computed tomography analysis reveals the presence of highly interconnected porous architecture in three-dimension with lognormal pore size distribution having median in the range of 17.74-26.29μm for the investigated scaffolds. The results of extensive in vitro ion release study revealed passive degradation with a reduced Mg(2+) release and slow but sustained release of Sr(2+) from strontium-substituted magnesium phosphate scaffolds. Taken together, the present study unequivocally illustrates that the newly designed Sr-substituted magnesium phosphate scaffolds with good strength reliability could be used for biomedical applications requiring consistent Sr(2+)- release, while the scaffold degrades in physiological medium. The

  5. Hydrothermal Preparation and Characterization of Ultralong Strontium-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Whiskers Using Acetamide as Homogeneous Precipitation Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianqiang; Yang, Yaoqi; Wan, Rong; Zhang, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    The ultralong strontium- (Sr-) substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHAp) whiskers were successfully prepared using acetamide as homogeneous precipitation reagent. The effect of the Sr substitution amount on the lattice constants and proliferation of human osteoblast cells (MG-63) was further investigated. The results showed that the SrHAp whiskers with diameter of 0.2–12 μm and ultralong length up to 200 μm were obtained and the Sr substitution level could be facilely tailored by regulating the initial molar ratio of Sr/(Sr + Ca) in raw materials. The Sr2+ replaced part of Ca2+ and the lattice constants increased apparently with the increase of the Sr substitution amount. Compared with the pure HAp whiskers, the Sr substitution apparently stimulated the proliferation of MG-63 at certain extracted concentrations. Our study suggested that the obtained SrHAp whiskers might be used as bioactive and mechanical reinforcement materials for hard tissue regeneration applications. PMID:24592192

  6. Tailoring the degradation and biological response of a magnesium-strontium alloy for potential bone substitute application.

    PubMed

    Han, Junjie; Wan, Peng; Ge, Ye; Fan, Xinmin; Tan, Lili; Li, Jianjun; Yang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Bone defects are very challenging in orthopedic practice. There are many practical and clinical shortcomings in the repair of the defect by using autografts, allografts or xenografts, which continue to motivate the search for better alternatives. The ideal bone grafts should provide mechanical support, fill osseous voids and enhance the bone healing. Biodegradable magnesium-strontium (Mg-Sr) alloys demonstrate good biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties, which are promising biomaterials for bone substitutes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and pair the degradation of Mg-Sr alloys for grafting with their clinical demands. The microstructure and performance of Mg-Sr alloys, in vitro degradation and biological properties including in vitro cytocompatibility and in vivo implantation were investigated. The results showed that the as-cast Mg-Sr alloy exhibited a rapid degradation rate compared with the as-extruded alloy due to the intergranular distribution of the second phase and micro-galvanic corrosion. However, the initial degradation could be tailored by the coating protection, which was proved to be cytocompatible and also suitable for bone repair observed by in vivo implantation. The integrated fracture calluses were formed and bridged the fracture gap without gas bubble accumulation, meanwhile the substitutes simultaneously degraded. In conclusion, the as-cast Mg-Sr alloy with coating is potential to be used for bone substitute alternative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of strontium/magnesium-co-substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhen; Wang, Renfeng; Li, Zhaoyang; Cui, Zhenduo; Zhu, Shengli; Liang, Yanqin; Liu, Yunde; Huijing, Bao; Li, Xue; Huo, Qianyu; Liu, Zhili; Yang, Xianjin

    2016-07-01

    The present study aims to investigate the contribution of two biologically important cations, Mg(2+) and Sr(2+), when co-substituted into the structure of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HA). The substituted samples were synthesized by a hydrothermal method that involved the addition of Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) containing precursors to partially replace Ca(2+) in the apatite structure. Four co-substituted HA samples with different concentrations of Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) ((Mg + Sr)/(Mg + Sr + Ca) = 30%) were investigated, and they were compared with pure HA. Experimental results showed that only a limited amount of Mg (Mg/(Mg + Ca + Sr) < 14%) could successfully substitute for Ca in HA. In addition, Mg substitution resulted in reduced crystallinity, thermal stability and lattice parameters of HA. In contrast, Sr could fully substitute for Ca. Furthermore, the addition of Sr increased the lattice parameters of HA. Here, we obtained the cation leach liquor by immersing the prepared samples in a culture medium for cell experiments. The in vitro study showed that 10Mg20Sr promoted better MG63 cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than HA. Thus, the presence of an appropriate proportion of Mg and Sr could play a significant role in the increased biocompatibility of HA. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Nanocomposite Porous Microcarriers Based on Strontium-Substituted HA- g-Poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shifeng; Xia, Pengfei; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Kunxi; Li, Guifei; Cui, Lei; Yin, Jingbo

    2018-05-04

    Porous microcarriers have aroused increasing attention recently, which can create a protected environment for sufficient cell seeding density, facilitate oxygen and nutrient transfer, and well support the cell attachment and growth. In this study, porous microcarriers fabricated from the strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite- graft-poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) (Sr10-HA- g-PBLG) hybrid nanocomposite were developed. The surface grating of PBLG, the micromorphology and element distribution, mechanical strength, in vitro degradation, and Sr 2+ ion release of the obtained Sr10-HA- g-PBLG porous microcarriers were investigated, respectively. The grafting ratio and the molecular weight of the grafted PBLG of Sr10-HA- g-PBLG could be effectively controlled by varying the initial ratio of BLG-NCA to Sr10-HA-NH 2 . The microcarriers exhibited a highly porous and interconnected microstructure with the porosity of about 90% and overall density of 1.03-1.06 g/cm 3 . Also, the degradation rate of Sr10-HA-PBLG microcarriers could be effectively controlled and long-term Sr 2+ release was obtained. The Sr10-HA-PBLG microcarriers allowed cells adhesion, infiltration, and proliferation and promoted the osteogenic differentiation of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Successful healing of femoral bone defect was proved by injection of the ADSCs-seeded Sr10-HA-PBLG microcarriers in a rabbit model.

  9. Optical Properties of Nitrogen-Substituted Strontium Titanate Thin Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Marozau, Ivan; Shkabko, Andrey; Döbeli, Max; Lippert, Thomas; Logvinovich, Dimitri; Mallepell, Marc; Schneider, Christof W.; Weidenkaff, Anke; Wokaun, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Perovskite-type N‑substituted SrTiO3 thin films with a preferential (001) orientation were grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented MgO and LaAlO3 substrates. Application of N2 or ammonia using a synchronized reactive gas pulse produces SrTiO3-x:Nx films with a nitrogen content of up to 4.1 at.% if prepared with the NH3 gas pulse at a substrate temperature of 720 °C. Incorporating nitrogen in SrTiO3 results in an optical absorption at 370‑460 nm associated with localized N(2p) orbitals. The estimated energy of these levels is ≈2.7 eV below the conduction band. In addition, the optical absorption increases gradually with increasing nitrogen content.

  10. Theory of magnetic enhancement in strontium hexaferrite through Zn-Sn pair substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Liyanage, LSI; Kim, S; Hong, YK

    2013-12-01

    We study the site occupancy and magnetic properties of Zn-Sn substituted M-type Sr-hexaferrite SrFe12-x(Zn0.5Sn0.5)(x)O-19 with x=1 using first-principles total-energy calculations. We find that in the lowest-energy configuration Zn2+ and Sn4+ ions preferentially occupy the 4f(1) and 4f(2) sites, respectively, in contrast to the model previously suggested by Ghasemi et al. [J. Appl. Phys, 107, 09A734 (2010)], where Zn2+ and Sn4+ ions occupy the 2b and 4f(2) sites. Density-functional theory calculations show that our model has a lower total energy by more than 0.2 eV per unit cell compared to Ghasemi's model. More importantly, the latter does not show an increasemore » in saturation magnetization (M-s) compared to the pure M-type Sr-hexaferrite, in disagreement with the experiment. On the other hand, our model correctly predicts a rapid increase in M-s as well as a decrease in magnetic anisotropy compared to the pure M-type Sr-hexaferrite, consistent with experimental measurements. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  11. Influence of nickel substitution on crystal structure and magnetic properties of strontium ferrite preparation via sol-gel auto-combustion route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohani, Ebrahim; Arabi, Hadi; Sarhaddi, Reza

    2018-01-01

    In this research, SrFe12-xNixO19 (x = 0 - 1) hexagonal ferrites were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method. Effect of Ni substitution on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The XRD results confirmed that all samples with x ≤ 0.5 have single phase M-type strontium ferrite structure, whereas for the SrFe12-xNixO19 samples with x > 0.5, the spinel NiFe2O4 phase has also appeared. The lattice parameters and crystallite sizes of the powders were concluded from the XRD data and Williamson-Hall method. Magnetic analyses showed that the coercivity of powders decreased from 5672 Oe to 639 Oe while the saturation magnetization increased from 74 emu/g to 81 emu/g with nickel substitution. The results of this study suggest that the strontium hexaferrites doped with Ni are suitable for applications in high density magnetic recording media as well as microwave devices because of their promising magnetic properties.

  12. Evaluation of the osteo-inductive potential of hollow three-dimensional magnesium-strontium substitutes for the bone grafting application.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Yang, Xuan; Wang, Weidan; Zhang, Yu; Wan, Peng; Yang, Ke; Han, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Regeneration of bone defects is a clinical challenge that usually necessitates bone grafting materials. Limited bone supply and donor site morbidity limited the application of autografting, and improved biomaterials are needed to match the performance of autografts. Osteoinductive materials would be the perfect candidates for achieving this task. Strontium (Sr) is known to encourage bone formation and also prevent osteoporosis. Such twin requirements have motivated researchers to develop Sr-substituted biomaterials for orthopedic applications. The present study demonstrated a new concept of developing biodegradable and hollow three-dimensional magnesium-strontium (MgSr) devices for grafting with their clinical demands. The microstructure and performance of MgSr devices, in vitro degradation and biological properties including in vitro cytocompatibility and osteoinductivity were investigated. The results showed that our MgSr devices exhibited good cytocompatibility and osteogenic effect. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, RT-PCR and Western Blotting assays were taken to analyze the expression level of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins, respectively. The results showed that our MgSr devices could both up-regulate the genes and proteins expression of the transcription factors of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Osterix (OSX), as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Osteopontin (OPN), Collagen I (COL I) and Osteocalcin (OCN) significantly. Taken together, our innovation presented in this work demonstrated that the hollow three-dimensional MgSr substitutes had excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis and could be potential candidates for bone grafting for future orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of strontium and magnesium substituted porous hydroxyapatite/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) coating on surgical grade stainless steel and its bioactivity on osteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Gopi, D; Ramya, S; Rajeswari, D; Surendiran, M; Kavitha, L

    2014-02-01

    The present study deals with the successful development of bilayer coatings by electropolymerisation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on surgical grade stainless steel (316L SS) followed by the electrodeposition of strontium (Sr) and magnesium (Mg) substituted porous hydroxyapatite (Sr, Mg-HA). The bilayer coatings were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). Corrosion resistance of the obtained coatings was investigated in Ringer's solution by electrochemical techniques and the results were in good agreement with those obtained from chemical analysis, namely inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Also, the mechanical and biological properties of the bilayer coatings were analyzed. From the obtained results it was evident that the PEDOT/Sr, Mg-HA bilayer exhibited greater adhesion strength than the Sr, Mg-HA coated 316L SS. In vitro cell adhesion test of the Sr, Mg-HA coating on PEDOT coated specimen is found to be more bioactive compared to that of the single substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr or Mg-HA) on the PEDOT coated 316L SS. Thus, the PEDOT/Sr, Mg-HA bilayer coated 316L SS can serve as a prospective implant material for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Substitution of strontium and boron into hydroxyapatite crystals: Effect on physicochemical properties and biocompatibility with human Wharton-Jelly stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kolmas, Joanna; Velard, Frédéric; Jaguszewska, Aneta; Lemaire, Flora; Kerdjoudj, Halima; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kaflak, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) enriched with strontium and boron ions was synthesized using two different methods: the precipitation method (Sr,B-HAw) and the dry method (Sr,B-HAd). Additionally, for the sake of comparison, the "pure" unsubstituted HA was prepared together with HAs substituted only with one type of a foreign ion. The obtained materials were subjected to physicochemical analysis with the use of various analytical methods, such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H ssNMR). All the obtained materials were also biologically tested for their potential cytotoxicity. The obtained materials (Sr,B-HAw and Sr,B-HAd) were homogeneous and respectively showed nano- and microcrystal apatitic structures. The simultaneous introduction of Sr 2+ and BO 3 3- ions turned out to be more effective in respect of the dry method. Of importance, doped materials obtained using both synthesis routes have been demonstrated to be biocompatible, opening the way for medical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological therapy of strontium-substituted bioglass for soft tissue wound-healing: responses to oxidative stress in ovariectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Jebahi, S; Oudadesse, H; Jardak, N; Khayat, I; Keskes, H; Khabir, A; Rebai, T; El Feki, H; El Feki, A

    2013-07-01

    New synthetic biomaterials are constantly being developed for wound repair and regeneration. Bioactive glasses (BG) containing strontium have shown successful applications in tissue engineering account of their biocompatibility and the positive biological effects after implantation. This study aimed to assess whether BG-Sr was accepted by the host tissue and to characterize oxidative stress biomarker and antioxidant enzyme profiles during muscle and skin healing. Wistar rats were divided into five groups (six animals per group): the group (I) was used as negative control (T), after ovariectomy, groups II, III, IV and V were used respectively as positive control (OVX), implanted tissue with BG (OVX-BG), BG-Sr (OVX-BG-Sr) and presented empty defects (OVX-NI). Soft tissues surrounding biomaterials were used to estimate superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Our results show that 60 days after operation, treatment of rats with BG-Sr significantly increased MDA concentration and caused an increase of SOD, CAT and GPx activities in both skin and muscular tissues. BG-Sr revealed maturation of myotubes followed a normal appearance of muscle regenerated with high density and mature capillary vessels. High wound recovery with complete re-epithelialization and regeneration of skin was observed. The results demonstrate that the protective action against reactive oxygen species (ROS) was clearly observed in soft tissue surrounding BG-Sr. Moreover, the potential use of BG-Sr rapidly restores the wound skin and muscle structural and functional properties. The BG advantages such as ion release might make BG-Sr an effective biomaterial choice for antioxidative activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Al and Ti substitution on the structural and magnetotransport properties of Lanthanum-Strontium manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadav, G. D.; Kanjariya, P. V.; Chavda, S. K.; Bhalodia, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    Manganite systems have been of considerable interest in the recent past due to their potential to operate in wide property range and also to serve as effective magnetic sensing and storing devices. We report a novel hybrid method, by which La0.7Sr0.3Mn1-xAxO3 (A = Al and Ti, x = 0.00 and 0.06) samples were synthesized at temperature 1100 °C. La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 was selected as a parent material because it has metal to insulator transition near to room temperature. The XRD confirms that all the samples were in single phase (with no detectable secondary phases) having a rhombohedral structure in hexagonal lattice having a space group R3¯c. Unit cell volume is affected by Al+3 and Ti+4 ions and this structural variation slows down the electron transfer through the Mn+3-O-2-Mn+4 network seriously. EDAX analysis shows that the weight percentage of prepared samples matches with the calculated weight percentage of all the samples. Scanning electron microscopy shows that each sample has fine and clear grain boundaries (GBs). Metal-insulator transition (TMI) was increased from 230 K to 275 K in Ti+4 doped sample while TMI remain unchanged in Al+3 substituted sample under the 8 T applied magnetic field. As a positive effect, enhancement in MR % was observed at room temperature. These results prove that Al and Ti substitution at Mn site enhances the various properties of this manganite system. These properties are important for application point of view.

  17. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  18. Optimization of a Strontium Aluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Bone, Alexandria N.

    2017-08-01

    Strontium aluminate with Eu 2+ and Dy 3+ has been at the forefront of emerging applications for storage phosphors since its discovery in 1996. In this study, the emission intensity and luminescence lifetime of SrAl 2O 4: Eu 2+, Dy 3+ were enhanced by partial substitution of Ca 2+ into Sr 2+ sites in the matrix.

  19. Magnesium- and strontium-co-substituted hydroxyapatite: the effects of doped-ions on the structure and chemico-physical properties.

    PubMed

    Aina, Valentina; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Annaz, Basil; Gibson, Iain R; Imrie, Flora E; Malavasi, Gianluca; Menabue, Ledi; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Martra, Gianmario

    2012-12-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating the contribution of two biologically important cations, Mg(2+) and Sr(2+), when substituted into the structure of hydroxyapatite (Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2),HA). The substituted samples were synthesized by an aqueous precipitation method that involved the addition of Mg(2+)- and Sr(2+)-containing precursors to partially replace Ca(2+) ions in the apatite structure. Eight substituted HA samples with different concentrations of single (only Mg(2+)) or combined (Mg(2+) and Sr(2+)) substitution of cations have been investigated and the results compared with those of pure HA. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, specific surface area and porosity measurements (N(2) adsorption at 77 K), FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the co-substitution gives rise to the formation of HA and β-TCP structure types, with a variation of their cell parameters and of the crystallinity degree of HA with varying levels of substitution. An evaluation of the amount of substituents allows us to design and prepare BCP composite materials with a desired HA/β-TCP ratio.

  20. Study of the dual effect of gamma irradiation and strontium substitution on bioactivity, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial properties of 45S5 bioglass.

    PubMed

    Farag, M M; Abd-Allah, W M; Ahmed, Hanaa Y A

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we studied simultaneous effect of gamma irradiation and SrO substitution for Na 2 O on bioactivity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties of 45S5 glass. Gamma irradiation was mainly introduced in this work as an effective sterilizing technique, improvement of bulk properties and surface modification of glass. Where, gamma irradiation is considered a modifier for glass network due to generation of defects resulted from this irradiation. Furthermore, SrO was introduced into the glass structure in place of Na 2 O in order to reduce a probable toxic effect of Na 2 O for surrounding tissue by decreasing its percentage. Where, Sr 2+ is characterized by its antibacterial properties, as well as, it induces formation of bone tissue and inhibits its resorption. The cell viability was studied for selected samples using Vero cells. As well as, antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The results showed that substitution of Na 2 O by SrO in glass composition decreased the glass dissolution in SBF. However, the glass dissolution increased after irradiation of such glass due to generation of nonbridgingoxygens (NBOs) throughout glass network by gamma irradiation, and this effect was more obvious for Sr-contained glass. On the other hand, two selected Sr-containing glasses (gamma irradiated at 0 and 25 kGy) showed a good ability to stimulate cell proliferation of normal fibroblast cells, as well as, they represented a potential ability to inhibit the growth of or kill bacteria, which is considered an important issue commonly found in a clinical situation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1646-1655, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Strontium-90 in hair.

    PubMed

    HOPKINS, B J; TUTTLE, L W; PORIES, W J; STRAIN, W H

    1963-03-15

    The hair of rats injected with strontium-90 retains a significant amount of the radionuclide. Although the strontium-90 content of hair is variable in these rats and appears to be subject to a variety of influences, determination of the radionuclide content of hair may offer a nondestructive method of estimating strontium-90 in bone.

  2. Structural and Magnetic Properties Evolution of Co-Nd Substituted M-type Hexagonal Strontium Ferrites Synthesized by Ball-Milling-Assisted Ceramic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Wu, Wenwei; Zhou, Chong; Zhou, Shifang; Li, Miaoyu; Ning, Yu

    2018-03-01

    M-type hexagonal Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24) has been synthesized by ball milling, followed by calcination in air. The calcined products have been characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra, and vibrating sample magnetometry. XRD and SEM analyses confirm the formation of M-type Sr hexaferrite with platelet-like morphology when Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24) precursors are calcined at 950°C in air for 2.5 h. Lattice parameters " a" and " c" values of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 reflect a very small variation after doping of Nd3+ and Co2+ ions. Average crystallite size of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 sample, calcined at 1150°C, decreased obviously after doping of Co2+ and Nd3+ ions. This is because the bond energy of Nd3+-O2- is much larger than that of Sr2+-O2-. Magnetic characterization indicates that all the samples exhibit good magnetic properties. Substitution of Sr2+ and Fe3+ ions by Nd3+ and Co2+ ions can improve the specific saturation magnetizations and remanence of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19. Sr0.84Co0.16Nd0.16Fe11.84O19, calcined at 1050°C, has the highest specific saturation magnetization value (74.75 ± 0.60 emu/g), remanence (45.15 ± 0.32 emu/g), and magnetic moment (14.34 ± 0.11 μ B); SrFe12O19, calcined at 1150°C, has the highest coercivity value (4037.01 ± 42.39 Oe). These magnetic parameters make this material a promising candidate for applications such as high-density magnetic recording and microwave absorbing materials.

  3. Recovery of strontium activity from a strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Phillips, Dennis R.; Sosnowski, Kenneth M.

    1999-10-12

    Strontium-82 is recovered from spent strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators to provide a source of strontium-82 for additional strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators. The process involves stripping of the strontium-82 from used strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators followed by purification of the strontium-82 material to remove additional metal contaminants to desired levels.

  4. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, N.; Fayyaz, M.; Iqbal, W.; Irfan, M.; Alam, S.

    2014-06-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15% Sr2+ into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results.

  5. Magnetic phase composition of strontium titanate implanted with iron ions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulov, E.N., E-mail: evgeny.dulov@ksu.ru; Ivoilov, N.G.; Strebkov, O.A.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The origin of RT-ferromagnetism in iron implanted strontium titanate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallic iron nanoclusters form during implantation and define magnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paramagnetic at room temperature iron-substituted strontium titanate identified. -- Abstract: Thin magnetic films were synthesized by means of implantation of iron ions into single-crystalline (1 0 0) substrates of strontium titanate. Depth-selective conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (DCEMS) indicates that origin of the samples magnetism is {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles. Iron-substituted strontium titanate was also identified but with paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (SMOKE) confirms that the films reveal superparamagnetism (the low-fluence sample) or ferromagnetism (themore » high-fluence sample), and demonstrate absence of magnetic in-plane anisotropy. These findings highlight iron implanted strontium titanate as a promising candidate for composite multiferroic material and also for gas sensing applications.« less

  6. Structural studies of human alkaline phosphatase in complex with strontium: Implication for its secondary effect in bones

    PubMed Central

    Llinas, Paola; Masella, Michel; Stigbrand, Torgny; Ménez, André; Stura, Enrico A.; Le Du, Marie Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Strontium is used in the treatment of osteoporosis as a ranelate compound, and in the treatment of painful scattered bone metastases as isotope. At very high doses and in certain conditions, it can lead to osteomalacia characterized by impairment of bone mineralization. The osteomalacia symptoms resemble those of hypophosphatasia, a rare inherited disorder associated with mutations in the gene encoding for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Human alkaline phosphatases have four metal binding sites—two for zinc, one for magnesium, and one for calcium ion—that can be substituted by strontium. Here we present the crystal structure of strontium-substituted human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), a related isozyme of TNAP, in which such replacement can have important physiological implications. The structure shows that strontium substitutes the calcium ion with concomitant modification of the metal coordination. The use of the flexible and polarizable force-field TCPEp (topological and classical polarization effects for proteins) predicts that calcium or strontium has similar interaction energies at the calcium-binding site of PLAP. Since calcium helps stabilize a large area that includes loops 210–228 and 250–297, its substitution by strontium could affect the stability of this region. Energy calculations suggest that only at high doses of strontium, comparable to those found for calcium, can strontium substitute for calcium. Since osteomalacia is observed after ingestion of high doses of strontium, alkaline phosphatase is likely to be one of the targets of strontium, and thus this enzyme might be involved in this disease. PMID:16815919

  7. [Strontium and calcium metabolism. Interaction of strontium and vitamin D].

    PubMed

    Rousselet, F; El Solh, N; Maurat, J P; Gruson, M; Girard, M L

    1975-01-01

    Oral administration of strontium to calcium wellfed rats blocks the intestinal absorption of calcium. When high doses of vitamine D are given over long period, the inhibition of calcium intestinal absorption disapears. Under these conditions the absorption of strontium is increased. It is suggested that there is only one absorption mechanism for these two cations. An overdose of the vitamine D increases the renal elimination of strontium but under these conditions the plasma concentration of the strontium is unchanged. Vitamine D brings about the some action on the bone fixation of the strontium as it does on the bone fixation of calcium. The bone fixation is increased with low dosages. The bone fixation is decreased with high dosages.

  8. Effect of strontium substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of La1.8Sr0.2MMnO6 (M = Ni, Co)-layered manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimunnesa, Syeda; Ahmmad, Bashir; Basith, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Sr-substituted perovskites, La1.8Sr0.2MMnO6 (M = Ni, Co), were synthesized using the solid-state reaction technique to present a systematic study on their morphological, structural and magnetic properties. The average grain size of the as-prepared La1.8Sr0.2NiMnO6 samples are in the range of 0.2-0.7 µm and those for La1.8Sr0.2CoMnO6 manganites are 0.1-2.8 μm, which is significantly less than that of unsubstituted La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) and La2CoMnO6 (LCMO) manganites. The XPS analysis enlightened about phase purity, binding energy and oxygen vacancy of La1.8Sr0.2MMnO6 manganites. The Sr-substituted LNMO has revealed a sharp ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition at 160 ± 2 K, which is about 120 K less than that of parent LNMO. The Sr-substituted LCMO exhibited such a transition at 220 ± 2 K, which is 8 K less than that of parent LCMO. The temperature-dependent magnetization measurements suggest that the effect of Sr on the transition temperature in LNMO is more significant than that of LCMO.

  9. Biocompatibility property of 100% strontium-substituted SiO2 -Al2 O3 -P2 O5 -CaO-CaF2 glass ceramics over 26 weeks implantation in rabbit model: Histology and micro-Computed Tomography analysis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Bikramjit; Sabareeswaran, A; Shenoy, S J

    2015-08-01

    One of the desired properties for any new biomaterial composition is its long-term stability in a suitable animal model and such property cannot be appropriately assessed by performing short-term implantation studies. While hydroxyapatite (HA) or bioglass coated metallic biomaterials are being investigated for in vivo biocompatibility properties, such study is not extensively being pursued for bulk glass ceramics. In view of their inherent brittle nature, the implant stability as well as impact of long-term release of metallic ions on bone regeneration have been a major concern. In this perspective, the present article reports the results of the in vivo implantation experiments carried out using 100% strontium (Sr)-substituted glass ceramics with the nominal composition of 4.5 SiO2 -3Al2 O3 -1.5P2 O5 -3SrO-2SrF2 for 26 weeks in cylindrical bone defects in rabbit model. The combination of histological and micro-computed tomography analysis provided a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the bone regeneration around the glass ceramic implants in comparison to the highly bioactive HA bioglass implants (control). The sequential polychrome labeling of bone during in vivo osseointegration using three fluorochromes followed by fluorescence microscopy observation confirmed homogeneous bone formation around the test implants. The results of the present study unequivocally confirm the long-term implant stability as well as osteoconductive property of 100% Sr-substituted glass ceramics, which is comparable to that of a known bioactive implant, that is, HA-based bioglass. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Presynaptic strontium dynamics and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Xu-Friedman, M A; Regehr, W G

    1999-01-01

    Strontium can replace calcium in triggering neurotransmitter release, although peak release is reduced and the duration of release is prolonged. Strontium has therefore become useful in probing release, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. Here we study the action of strontium at the granule cell to Purkinje cell synapse in mouse cerebellar slices. Presynaptic residual strontium levels were monitored with fluorescent indicators, which all responded to strontium (fura-2, calcium orange, fura-2FF, magnesium green, and mag-fura-5). When calcium was replaced by equimolar concentrations of strontium in the external bath, strontium and calcium both entered presynaptic terminals. Contaminating calcium was eliminated by including EGTA in the extracellular bath, or by loading parallel fibers with EGTA, enabling the actions of strontium to be studied in isolation. After a single stimulus, strontium reached higher peak free levels than did calcium (approximately 1.7 times greater), and decayed more slowly (half-decay time 189 ms for strontium and 32 ms for calcium). These differences in calcium and strontium dynamics are likely a consequence of greater strontium permeability through calcium channels, lower affinity of the endogenous buffer for strontium, and less efficient extrusion of strontium. Measurements of presynaptic divalent levels help to explain properties of release evoked by strontium. Parallel fiber synaptic currents triggered by strontium are smaller in amplitude and longer in duration than those triggered by calcium. In both calcium and strontium, release consists of two components, one more steeply dependent on divalent levels than the other. Strontium drives both components less effectively than does calcium, suggesting that the affinities of the sensors involved in both phases of release are lower for strontium than for calcium. Thus, the larger and slower strontium transients account for the prominent slow component of release triggered by

  11. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  12. Sugar Substitutes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substitutes Share Print Sugar substitutes are chemical or plant-based substances used to sweeten or enhance the ... made with saccharin. Stevia sweeteners Stevia is a plant-based sugar substitute that has no calories. The ...

  13. The effect of carrier strontium on the absorption of oral doses of radioactive strontium in rats

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, G. E.; Jones, H. G.; Sutton, A.

    1957-01-01

    Carrier strontium had relatively little effect on the retention of an oral dose of radioactive strontium by the rat when it was administered immediately after the radioactive dose. The proportion of the radioactive dose which was excreted in the urine, on the other hand, increased progressively with the carrier dose. There was a decreased uptake of radioactive strontium in rats fed on a special low strontium diet. The effects of dietary strontium are discussed. Evidence was found of a discrimination by the rat against strontium in favour of calcium which was accounted for, at least in part, by a preferential urinary excretion of strontium. PMID:13460240

  14. Effects of oral supplementation with stable strontium

    PubMed Central

    Skoryna, Stanley C.

    1981-01-01

    The biologic effects of stable strontium, a naturally occurring trace element in the diet and the body, have been little investigated. This paper discusses the effects of oral supplementation with stable strontium in laboratory studies and clinical investigations. The extent of intestinal absorption of various doses of orally administered strontium was estimated by determining serum and tissue levels with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The central observation is that increased oral intake produces a direct increase in serum levels and intracellular uptake of strontium. The results of these studies, as well as those of other investigators, demonstrate that a moderate dosage of stable strontium does not adversely affect the level of calcium either in the serum or in soft tissues. In studies of patients receiving 1 to 1.5 g/d of strontium gluconate, a sustained increase in the serum level of strontium produced a 100-fold increase in the strontium:calcium ratio. In rats, studies indicate that an increase in intracellular strontium content following supplementation may exert a protective effect on mitochondrial structure, probably by means of a stabilizing effect of strontium on membranes. The strontium:calcium ratio in animals receiving a standard diet is higher in the cell than in the extracellular fluid; this may be of physiologic significance. An increase in density that corresponded to the deposition of stable strontium was observed in areas of bone lesions due to metastatic cancer in patients receiving stable strontium supplementation. This suggests the possibility of using strontium to mineralize osteophenic areas and to relieve bone pain. Also, because of reports of an inverse relation between the incidence of dental caries and a high strontium content in drinking water, the use of natural water containing relatively high levels of stable strontium should be considered. In each of these instances it is important to maintain a normal dietary intake of

  15. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed.

  16. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. 1 fig.

  17. Strontium-doped calcium silicate bioceramic with enhanced in vitro osteogenic properties.

    PubMed

    No, Young Jung; Roohaniesfahani, Seyediman; Lu, Zufu; Shi, Jeffrey; Zreiqat, Hala

    2017-06-05

    Gehlenite (GLN, Ca 2 SiAl 2 O 7 ) is a bioceramic that has been recently shown to possess excellent mechanical strength and in vitro osteogenic properties for bone regeneration. Substitutional incorporation of strontium in place of calcium is an effective way to further enhance biological properties of calcium-based bioceramics and glasses. However, such strategy has the potential to affect other important physicochemical parameters such as strength and degradation due to differences in the ionic radius of strontium and calcium. This study is the first to investigate the effect of a range of concentrations of strontium substitution of calcium at 1, 2, 5, 10 mol% (S1-GLN, S2-GLN, S5-GLN and S10-GLN) on the physicochemical and biological properties of GLN. We showed that up to 2 mol% strontium ion substitution retains the monophasic GLN structure when sintered at 1450 °C, whereas higher concentrations resulted in presence of calcium silicate impurities. Increased strontium incorporation resulted in changes in grain morphology and reduced densification when the ceramics were sintered at 1450 °C. Porous GLN, S1-GLN and S2-GLN scaffolds (∼80% porosity) showed compressive strengths of 2.05 ± 0.46 MPa, 1.76 ± 0.79 MPa and 1.57 ± 0.52 MPa respectively. S1-GLN and S2-GLN immersed in simulated body fluid showed increased strontium ion release but reduced calcium and silicon ion release compared to GLN without affecting overall weight loss and pH over a 21 d period. The bioactivity of the S2-GLN ceramics was significantly improved as reflected in the significant upregulation of HOB proliferation and differentiation compared to GLN. Overall, these results suggest that increased incorporation of strontium presents a trade-off between bioactivity and mechanical strength for GLN bioceramics. This is an important consideration in the development of strontium-doped bioceramics.

  18. STRONTIUM-90 IN THE TOTAL DIET

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Food, milk, and drinking water representative of the total diet of a hungry teen-ager were collected in 24 cities throughout the United States and one in Canada. The diets were analyzed for strontium-90 content. Results are compared with the strontium-90 levels in milk samples collected in the same cities. Results indicate that milk furnished only slightly more than half of the strontium-90 consumed in the total diet. (C.H.)

  19. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  20. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  1. Strontium-90 deposition in New York City.

    PubMed

    Volchok, H L

    1967-06-16

    Measurements of strontium-90 deposited in New York City over the past 12 years make for broader understanding of the fallout phenomenon. The data indicate a stratospheric half-residence time of 8 to 10 months. The seasonal oscillation of strontium-90 fallout is very symmetrical and consistent from year to year and completely independent of the timing and magnitude of nuclear tests. The predicted fallout of strontium-90 in 1970 is less than 1 percent of that during the peak year 1963.

  2. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    DOEpatents

    Kester, Dianne K.

    1995-01-01

    A method of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. After the sample is reduced, dissociated, and carried on a first precipitate of actinides, the first precipitate is removed to leave a supernate. Next, oxalic acid is added to the supernate to cause a second precipitate of strontium and calcium. Then, after separating the second precipitate, nitric acid is added to the second precipitate to cause a third precipitate of strontium. The calcium remains in solution and is discarded to leave essentially the precipitate of strontium.

  3. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    DOEpatents

    Kester, D.K.

    1995-01-03

    A method is presented of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. After the sample is reduced, dissociated, and carried on a first precipitate of actinides, the first precipitate is removed to leave a supernate. Next, oxalic acid is added to the supernate to cause a second precipitate of strontium and calcium. Then, after separating the second precipitate, nitric acid is added to the second precipitate to cause a third precipitate of strontium. The calcium remains in solution and is discarded to leave essentially the precipitate of strontium.

  4. METHOD OF REMOVING STRONTIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, D.W.; McHenry, J.R.; Ames, L.L. Jr.

    1962-05-01

    A method is given for removing trace amounts of Sr/sup 90/ from solutions. Phosphate ion is added to the solution and it is then brought into contact with a solid salt such as calcium carbonate which will react methathetically with the phosphate ion to form a salt such as calcium phosphate. During this reaction, strontium will be absorbed to a high degree within the newly formed lattice. (AEC)

  5. Composite solid oxide fuel cell anode based on ceria and strontium titanate

    DOEpatents

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2008-12-23

    An anode and method of making the same wherein the anode consists of two separate phases, one consisting of a doped strontium titanate phase and one consisting of a doped cerium oxide phase. The strontium titanate phase consists of Sr.sub.1-xM.sub.xTiO.sub.3-.delta., where M is either yttrium (Y), scandium (Sc), or lanthanum (La), where "x" may vary typically from about 0.01 to about 0.5, and where .delta. is indicative of some degree of oxygen non-stoichiometry. A small quantity of cerium may also substitute for titanium in the strontium titanate lattice. The cerium oxide consists of N.sub.yCe.sub.1-yO.sub.2-.delta., where N is either niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), antimony (Sb) or tantalum (Ta) and where "y" may vary typically from about 0.001 to about 0.1 and wherein the ratio of Ti in said first phase to the sum of Ce and N in the second phase is between about 0.2 to about 0.75. Small quantities of strontium, yttrium, and/or lanthanum may additionally substitute into the cerium oxide lattice. The combination of these two phases results in better performance than either phase used separately as an anode for solid oxide fuel cell or other electrochemical device.

  6. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88.

    PubMed

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ( 88 Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium. Based on the strontium content of that water, the plants were divided into five groups (treatments) and strontium content of the soil, and 30-day-old plants were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy instrument (ICP-AES). Data on the strontium content of soil and plants enabled the development of a model using MATLAB, a mathematical software package, which included curve fitting and problem solving using regression equations and differential equations. Although strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of Chinese cabbage were not exactly the same, all showed a non-linear increase when compared with the increase in the content of strontium in soil. Strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of spinach were very similar and showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. Strontium concentrations in both Chinese cabbage and spinach were initially related to the concentrations of sodium and sulfur, the next two relevant nuclides being calcium and magnesium. The relationship between calcium and strontium in Chinese cabbage was different from that in spinach. By using 88 Sr to simulate the transfer of radionuclide 90 Sr from soil to a crop, the relevant data required to deal with accidental release of strontium can be obtained using a fitting curve and regression equations, thereby providing some experimental basis for evaluating the potential hazards posed by such accidents to the food chain.

  7. Strontium-90 content of deciduous human incisors.

    PubMed

    ROSENTHAL, H L; GILSTER, J E; BIRD, J T

    1963-04-12

    The concentrations of strontium-90 in deciduous incisor teeth of children born in St. Louis between 1949 to 1957 are in accord with estimated bone levels, suggesting that human deciduous teeth are useful as an index of strontium-90 accumulation during the time the teeth are formed.

  8. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzewska, E.

    1976-01-01

    With the development of modern methods of surgery, anaesthesia, and pre- and postoperative care the requirement for blood substitutes is continuously increasing. We present a review of the different blood substitutes which are already in clinical use or in an advanced stage of experimental investigation for possible practical administration. Our own clinical experience with dextrans and experimental studies on stroma-free haemoglobin and hydroxyethyl starch solutions are described. PMID:57736

  9. Strontium Iodide Radiation Instrumentation (SIRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Lee J.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Woolf, Richard S.; Finne, Theodore T.; Johnson, W. Neil; Jackson, Emily G.

    2017-08-01

    The Strontium Iodide Radiation Instrumentation (SIRI) is designed to space-qualify new gamma-ray detector technology for space-based astrophysical and defense applications. This new technology offers improved energy resolution, lower power consumption and reduced size compared to similar systems. The SIRI instrument consists of a single europiumdoped strontium iodide (SrI2:Eu) scintillation detector. The crystal has an energy resolution of 3% at 662 keV compared to the 6.5% of traditional sodium iodide and was developed for terrestrial-based weapons of mass destruction (WMD) detection. SIRI's objective is to study the internal activation of the SrI2:Eu material and measure the performance of the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readouts over a 1-year mission. The combined detector and readout measure the gammaray spectrum over the energy range of 0.04 - 4 MeV. The SIRI mission payoff is a space-qualified compact, highsensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer with improved energy resolution relative to previous sensors. Scientific applications in solar physics and astrophysics include solar flares, Gamma Ray Bursts, novae, supernovae, and the synthesis of the elements. Department of Defense (DoD) and security applications are also possible. Construction of the SIRI instrument has been completed, and it is currently awaiting integration onto the spacecraft. The expected launch date is May 2018 onboard STPSat-5. This work discusses the objectives, design details and the STPSat-5 mission concept of operations of the SIRI spectrometer.

  10. Aminotroponiminate calcium and strontium complexes.

    PubMed

    Datta, Simmi; Gamer, Michael T; Roesky, Peter W

    2008-06-07

    Heteroleptic aminotroponiminate complexes of calcium and strontium have been prepared. The monomeric calcium complex [((iPr)2ATI)CaI(THF)3] 1 ((iPr)2ATI = N-isopropyl-2-(isopropylamino)troponiminate) and the corresponding dimeric strontium compound [( (iPr)2ATI)SrI(THF)2]2 2 were obtained by reaction of [((iPr)2ATI)K] and MI2. Whereas the mixed ligand compound of composition [((iPr)2ATI)Ca(iPrAT)]2 3 (iPrAT = 2-(isopropylamino)troponate) was not obtained via a salt metathesis but by reaction of [Ca(N(SiMe3)2)2(THF)2] with ( (iPr)2ATI)H and (iPrAT)H, the diphosphanylamido complex [( (iPr)2ATI)Ca((Ph2P)2N)(THF)2] was obtained by reaction of CaI2 with the potassium compounds [( (iPr)2ATI)K] and [K(THF)n][N(PPh2)2]. The single crystal X-ray structures of all compounds were established and the latter compound shows a eta2-coordination mode of the ligand via the nitrogen and one phosphorus atom.

  11. STRONTIUM 90: ESTIMATION OF WORLDWIDE DEPOSITION.

    PubMed

    VOLCHOK, H L

    1964-09-25

    The relation between the worldwide deposition of strontium-90, as calculated by many investigators over the last decade, and that observed in rainfall in New York City has been relatively constant. On the average, for each millicurie of strontium-90 per square mile deposited in New York City, 0.055 megacurie has been deposited on the earth's total surface. Cumulative deposits of strontium-90 on the earth's surface at various intervals over the last 10 years have been computed from this ratio. From the mean quarterly fraction of the annual strontium-90 fallout in New York City for the last 9 years, the worldwide deposition of this nuclide, equal to 2.48 megacuries, is predicted for 1964.

  12. Strontium-90 in newborns and childhood disease.

    PubMed

    Mangano, J J; Sternglass, E J; Gould, J M; Sherman, J D; Brown, J; McDonnell, W

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive strontium-90 concentrations in baby teeth obtained from Suffolk County, New York, rose steadily during the 1980s. Recent levels of strontium-90 are similar to those reported for babies born in the late 1950s-at the height of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Nevada. Strontium-90 concentrations increased concomitantly with increases in cancer incidence among Suffolk children under the age of 5 y, a result that mimicked parallel trends observed in the 1950s and early 1960s. Given that effects of strontium-90 on developing cells are most pronounced during the fetal and infant periods, escalating levels should be viewed as a factor in the recent decline in various child health status measures.

  13. Mineral resource of the month: strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2008-01-01

    Last month as Americans sat transfixed watching fireworks on July 4, they were probably unaware that strontium was responsible for the beautiful reds in the display. Strontium, a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that turns yellow when exposed to air (and red when it burns), is prized for its brilliant red flame. Because it reacts with air and water, the metal is only present naturally in compounds, such as celestite and strontianite.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10598 - Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead strontium titanium zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10598 Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead strontium...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10598 - Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead strontium titanium zirconium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10598 Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lead strontium...

  19. Strontium-89 and Strontium-90 Levels in Breast Milk and in Mineral-Supplement Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Anita A.; Brown, John R.; Tiefenbach, Bella

    1963-01-01

    Strontium-90, strontium-89 and S.U. values were determined in human milk before and after the resumption of atmospheric nuclear testings in 1961, and the levels were compared to cows' milk values reported during the same time. S.U.90 levels in human milk were approximately one-fifth of those found in cows' milk. Assuming an average dietary intake of 11-13 S.U.90 during the period tested, the mean strontium/calcium ratio of 1.78 found in human milk represents an Observed Ratio milk-diet of approximately 0.14-0.16. Although strontium-89 was present in cows' milk already in September 1961, it did not appear in human milk until November 1961. It seems, therefore, that there was a two-month lag period between the appearance of fresh fallout in cows' milk and human milk. Calcium-supplement mineral preparations used by pregnant and lactating women were tested to find their strontium-89, strontium-90 and S.U. levels, because strontium isotopes, if present in these products, will be transferred to the fetus and to breast-fed infants. The compounds tested had S.U.90 levels of 0.13-2.62; in none of the preparations was Sr89 present. PMID:14041888

  20. Strontium-89 and strontium-90 levels in breast milk and in mineral-suplement preparations.

    PubMed

    JARVIS, A A; BROWN, J R; TIEFENBACH, B

    1963-01-19

    Strontium-90, strontium-89 and S.U. values were determined in human milk before and after the resumption of atmospheric nuclear testings in 1961, and the levels were compared to cows' milk values reported during the same time. S.U.(90) levels in human milk were approximately one-fifth of those found in cows' milk. Assuming an average dietary intake of 11-13 S.U.(90) during the period tested, the mean strontium/calcium ratio of 1.78 found in human milk represents an Observed Ratio milk-diet of approximately 0.14-0.16. Although strontium-89 was present in cows' milk already in September 1961, it did not appear in human milk until November 1961. It seems, therefore, that there was a two-month lag period between the appearance of fresh fallout in cows' milk and human milk. Calcium-supplement mineral preparations used by pregnant and lactating women were tested to find their strontium-89, strontium-90 and S.U. levels, because strontium isotopes, if present in these products, will be transferred to the fetus and to breast-fed infants. The compounds tested had S.U.(90) levels of 0.13-2.62; in none of the preparations was Sr(89) present.

  1. Alveolar bone repair with strontium- containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Carmo, André Boziki Xavier do; Sartoretto, Suelen Cristina; Alves, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Miguel, Fúlvio Borges; Calasans-Maia, Jose; Calasans-Maia, Monica Diuana

    2018-01-18

    This study aimed to evaluate bone repair in rat dental sockets after implanting nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate (CHA) and nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate containing 5% strontium microspheres (SrCHA) as bone substitute materials. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups: CHA and SrCHA (n=5/period/group). After one and 6 weeks of extraction of the right maxillary central incisor and biomaterial implantation, 5 μm bone blocks were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. The parameters evaluated were remaining biomaterial, loose connective tissue and newly formed bone in a standard area. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Withney and and Wilcoxon tests at 95% level of significance. The histomorphometric results showed that the microspheres showed similar fragmentation and bio-absorbation (p>0.05). We observed the formation of new bones in both groups during the same experimental periods; however, the new bone formation differed significantly between the weeks 1 and 6 (p=0.0039) in both groups. The CHA and SrCHA biomaterials were biocompatible, osteoconductive and bioabsorbable, indicating their great potential for clinical use as bone substitutes.

  2. Alveolar bone repair with strontium- containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, André Boziki Xavier; Sartoretto, Suelen Cristina; Alves, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Miguel, Fúlvio Borges; Calasans-Maia, Jose; Calasans-Maia, Monica Diuana

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to evaluate bone repair in rat dental sockets after implanting nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate (CHA) and nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate containing 5% strontium microspheres (SrCHA) as bone substitute materials. Methods Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups: CHA and SrCHA (n=5/period/group). After one and 6 weeks of extraction of the right maxillary central incisor and biomaterial implantation, 5 μm bone blocks were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. The parameters evaluated were remaining biomaterial, loose connective tissue and newly formed bone in a standard area. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Withney and and Wilcoxon tests at 95% level of significance. Results The histomorphometric results showed that the microspheres showed similar fragmentation and bio-absorbation (p>0.05). We observed the formation of new bones in both groups during the same experimental periods; however, the new bone formation differed significantly between the weeks 1 and 6 (p=0.0039) in both groups. Conclusion The CHA and SrCHA biomaterials were biocompatible, osteoconductive and bioabsorbable, indicating their great potential for clinical use as bone substitutes. PMID:29364342

  3. Strontium-90 in antlers of red deer: an indicator of environmental contamination by strontium-90.

    PubMed

    Schönhofer, F; Tataruch, F; Friedrich, M

    1994-12-11

    The sampling procedures in connection with a very sensitive analytical method are described. Results from different areas in Austria are presented and an interpretion of the results is attempted. Some findings are in accordance with measurements from other substances, some are not. The differences most probably depend on several factors like soil type, precipitation, migration of strontium-90, concentration of stable strontium and calcium. No significant rise in the concentration could be found after 1986 thus in accordance with other measurements of strontium-90 contamination after the Chernobyl accident.

  4. Synchrotron Study of Strontium in Modern and Ancient Human Bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.

    2001-05-01

    Archaeologists use the strontium in human bone to reconstruct diet and migration in ancient populations. Because mammals discriminate against strontium relative to calcium, carnivores show lower bone Sr/Ca ratios than herbivores. Thus, in a single population, bone Sr/Ca ratios can discriminate a meat-rich from a vegetarian diet. Also, the ratio of 87-Sr to 86-Sr in soils varies with the underlying geology; incorporated into the food chain, this local signature becomes embedded in our bones. The Sr isotopic ratio in the bones of individuals or populations which migrate to a different geologic terrane will gradually change as bone remodels. In contrast, the isotopic ratio of tooth enamel is fixed at an early age and is not altered later in life. Addition of Sr to bone during post-mortem residence in moist soil or sediment compromises application of the Sr/Ca or Sr-isotope techniques. If this post-mortem Sr resides in a different atomic environment than the Sr deposited in vivo, x-ray absorption spectroscopy could allow us to distinguish pristine from contaminated, and thus unreliable, samples. Initial examination of a suite of modern and ancient human and animal bones by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) showed no obvious differences between the fresh and buried materials. We note, with obvious concern, that the actual location of Sr in modern bone is controversial: there is evidence both that Sr substitutes for Ca and that Sr is sorbed on the surfaces of bone crystallites. Additional material is being studied.

  5. Morphology Tuning of Strontium Tungstate Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, S.; George, T.; George, K. C.

    2007-08-22

    Strontium tungstate nanocrystals in two different morphologies are successfully synthesized by controlled precipitation in aqueous and in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) medium. Structural characterizations are carried out by XRD and SEM. The average particle size calculated for the SrWO4 prepared in the two different solvents ranges 20-24 nm. The SEM pictures show that the surface morphologies of the SrWO4 nanoparticles in aqueous medium resemble mushroom and the SrWO4 nanoparticles in PVA medium resemble cauliflower. Investigations on the room temperature luminescent properties of the strontium tungstate nanoparticles prepared in aqueous and PVA medium shows strong emissions around 425 nm.

  6. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  7. The negative ions of strontium and barium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwan, M. A.; Kilius, L. R.; Litherland, A. E.; Nadeau, M.-J.; Zhao, X.-L.

    1990-12-01

    Recent theoretical calculations have predicted a tendency toward higher electron affinities for heavier alkaline elements. Experimental evidence has been obtained for the existence of strontium and barium negative ions created from pure elements in a caesium sputter ion source. Accelerator mass spectrometric techniques were employed to resolve the above elemental negative ions from the interfering molecular species.

  8. Influence of strontium on the synthesis and surface properties of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, Ponnusamy; Sekar, Chinnathambi

    2010-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics are suitable for synthetic bone applications. The strontium substituted calcium phosphate ceramics have potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Aim of the present work is to introduce strontium into BCP (composed of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate) ceramics and to study their bioactivity and mechanical properties. BCP ceramics have been synthesized at room temperature under the physiological pH of 7.4 by gel method in the presence of strontium (5, 10 M %). The appropriate choice of anhydrous CaCl₂ as precursor solution has promoted the formation of BCP instead of pure HA for CaCl₂.2H₂O. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of BCP with different HA and ß -TCP ratios depending upon the Sr content. The presence of Sr has reduced the nucleation and growth rate of BCP when compared to pure system. The SEM micrographs showed that the microstructural morphology of BCP changes from fibrous to platelet. Nanoindentation studies indicate a significant decrease in the hardness and elastic modulus values of BCP ceramics due to Sr doping. In vitro bioactivity study has revealed the formation of apatite layer on the Sr doped BCP samples and the doping enhanced its bioactivity.

  9. Effects of calcium and magnesium on strontium distribution coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Hemming, C.H.; Welhan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of calcium and magnesium on the distribution of strontium between a surficial sediment and simulated wastewater solutions were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium transport properties of surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium linear sorption isotherms and distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) using simulated wastewater solutions prepared at pH 8.0??0.1 with variable concentrations of calcium and magnesium. Strontium linear sorption isotherm K(d)'s ranged from 12??1 to 85??3 ml/g, increasing as the concentration of calcium and magnesium decreased. The concentration of sorbed strontium and the percentage of strontium retained by the sediment were correlated to aqueous concentrations of strontium, calcium, and magnesium. The effect of these cation concentrations on strontium sorption was quantified using multivariate least-squares regression techniques. Analysis of data from these experiments indicates that increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium in wastewater discharged to waste disposal ponds at the INEL increases the availability of strontium for transport beneath the ponds by decreasing strontium sorption to the surficial sediment.

  10. Specific activity and isotope abundances of strontium in purified strontium-82

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, J. M.; Medvedev, D. G.; Mausner, L. F.

    2015-11-12

    A linear accelerator was used to irradiate a rubidium chloride target with protons to produce strontium-82 (Sr-82), and the Sr-82 was purified by ion exchange chromatography. The amount of strontium associated with the purified Sr-82 was determined by either: ICP-OES or method B which consisted of a summation of strontium quantified by gamma spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The summation method agreed within 10% to the ICP-OES for the total mass of strontium and the subsequent specific activities were determined to be 0.25–0.52 TBq mg -1. Method B was used to determine the isotope abundances by weight% of the purified Sr-82, andmore » the abundances were: Sr-82 (10–20.7%), Sr-83 (0–0.05%), Sr-84 (35–48.5%), Sr-85 (16–25%), Sr-86 (12.5–23%), Sr-87 (0%), and Sr-88 (0–10%). The purified strontium contained mass amounts of Sr-82, Sr-84, Sr-85, Sr-86, and Sr-88 in abundances not associated with natural abundance, and 90% of the strontium was produced by the proton irradiation. A comparison of ICP-OES and method B for the analysis of Sr-82 indicated analysis by ICP-OES would be easier to determine total mass of strontium and comply with regulatory requirements. An ICP-OES analytical method for Sr-82 analysis was established and validated according to regulatory guidelines.« less

  11. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  12. XANES study of Fe-implanted strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobacheva, O.; Goncharova, L. V.; Chavarha, M.; Sham, T. K.

    2014-03-01

    Properties of strontium titanate SrTiO3 (STO) depend to a great extent on the substitutional dopants and defects of crystal structure. The ion beam implantation method was used for doping STO (001) crystals with Fe at different doses. Implanted samples were then annealed at 350°C in oxygen to induce recrystallization and remove oxygen vacancies produced during ion implantation process. The effect of Fe doping and post-implantation annealing was studied by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) method and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). XANES allowed to monitor the change in structure of STO crystals and in the local environment of Fe following the implantation and annealing steps. SQUID measurements revealed correlation between magnetic moment and Fe implantation dose. Ferromagnetic hysteresis was observed on selected Fe-implanted STO at 5 K. The observed magnetic properties can be correlated with the several Fe oxide phases in addition to the presence of O/Ti vacancies.

  13. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  14. Removal of Strontium from Drinking Water by Conventional ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. There is very little data available on strontium removal from drinking water. As a result, there is an immediate need to perform treatment studies. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional and lime-soda ash softening treatments to remove strontium from surface and ground waters. Conventional drinking water treatment with aluminum and iron coagulants were able to achieve 12% and 5.9% strontium removal at best, while lime softening removed as much as 78% from natural strontium-containing ground water. Systematic fundamental experiments showed that strontium removal during the lime-soda ash softening was related to pH, calcium concentration and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. Final strontium concentration was also directly associated with initial strontium concentration. Precipitated solids showed well-formed crystals or agglomerates of mixed solids, two polymorphs of calcium carbonate (vaterite and calcite), and strontianite, depending on initial water quality conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that strontium likely replaced calcium inside the crystal lattice and was likely mainly responsible for removal during lime softening. To inform the public.

  15. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  16. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic modelmore » for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.« less

  17. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  19. STRONTIUM AS AN EFFICIENT PROMOTER FOR SUPPORTED PALLADIUM HYDROGENATION CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of strontium promotion is studied for a series of supported palladium catalysts such as Pd/zeolite-β, Pd/Al2O3, Pd/SiO2, Pd/hydrotalcite and Pd/MgO. Strontium is found to be an effective promoter for enhancing the metal area, perce...

  20. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  1. Strontium-90: concentrations in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bowen, V T; Noshkin, V E; Volchok, H L; Sugihara, T T

    1969-05-16

    From the large body of analyses of strontium-90 in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean, annual average concentrations (from 10 degrees N to 70 degrees N) have been compared to those predicted. The data indicate higher fall-out over ocean than over land and confirm the rapid rates of down-mixing shown by most studies of subsurface strontium-90.

  2. Strontium-90 Accumulation on Plant Foliage During Rainfall.

    PubMed

    Menzel, R G; Roberts, H; Stewart, E H; Mackenzie, A J

    1963-11-01

    Accumulation of strontium-90 in field-grown crops was measured during the spring of 1962. Each rainfall markedly increased the strontium-90 content of the crops, except when the plants were very small. Accumulation between rains was comparatively small, about equal to the expected uptake from the soil.

  3. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  4. Strontium-90 concentration factors of lake plankton, macrophytes, and substrates.

    PubMed

    Kalnina, Z; Polikarpov, G

    1969-06-27

    The ratio of concentration of strontium-90 in living and inert lake components to that in lake water (concentration factors) was determined for plankton, macrophytes, and substrates in eutrophic, mesotropric-eutrophic, and dystrophic Latgalian lakes. Concentration factors of strontium-90 in aquatic organisms and substrates are higher in a dystrophic lake than in the other types.

  5. Distribution of strontium-90 in a 1959 wheat sample.

    PubMed

    RIVERA, J

    1961-03-17

    At least 22 percent of the strontium-90 found in a sample of wheat harvested in 1959 was due to direct deposition. Twenty-seven percent of the total strontium-90 content of this wheat sample was contained in the outermost bran layer.

  6. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  7. Investigation of strontium accumulation on ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rat tibia by micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Li, Y.; Jin, W.; Zheng, Y.; Rong, C.; Lyu, H.; Shen, H.

    2014-08-01

    Strontium ranelate is a newly developed drug effective in osteoporosis treatment by depressing bone resorption and maintaining bone formation. Strontium accumulation and distribution are determined in bones of rat after strontium ranelate administration by using micro-PIXE. The investigated rats are divided into four groups: (A) control, (B) ovariectomized, (C) ovariectomized followed with strontium chloride, (D) ovariectomized followed with strontium ranelate. It was found that strontium ranelate would result in increasing trabecular volume and decreasing bone resorption to treat osteoporosis. There are similar contours of calcium and strontium in two-dimensional images, while the strontium is not evenly distributed in the bone. It supports the conclusion that strontium has an affinity for bone and it is capable of replacing calcium atoms as a part of the strontium mechanism in the osteoporosis treatment. The results related to biochemistry are also discussed.

  8. Immunization against strontium-90 induction of bone tumors with inactivated FBJ virus and irradiated syngeneic strontium-90-induced tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, A.E.; Triest, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    Three hundred six C57BL/6J female mice were subdivided into a control group left untreated and an experimental group treated intraperitoneally with 1.0 ..mu..Ci strontium-90/g of body weight at an age of 66 days. Treatments for the groups were as follows: none, 6 injections of formalin-inactivated FBJ viral preparation, 6 injections of active FBJ viral preparation, and 2 injections of 10,000 rad irradiated transplantable osteosarcoma previously induced in C57BL/6J mice by strontium-90. In addition to the above groups, two other groups were treated with respectively 0.032 and 0.10 ..mu..Ci strontium-90/g body weight in order to obtain information on the dose-response relationshipmore » between the injection of strontium-90 and the yield of bone tumors. In the groups not treated with strontium-90, only 1 bone tumor developed; this occurred in the group injected with FBJ virus. The incidence of bone tumors in the groups treated with 1.0 ..mu..Ci strontium-90 was significantly lower (18.5% or 18.2%) in the two groups that had received injections of inactivated FBJ virus or irradiated isogenic osteosarcoma when compared to the group left uninjected, which developed 43.5% tumors. In contrast, the strontium-90-treated group that also received injections of active FBJ virus developed 63.0% tumors. Only a single bone tumor developed in the groups treated solely with intermediate doses of strontium-90. The results indicate that immunization with inactivated FBJ virus or with irradiated syngeneic strontium-90-induced tumor cells can significantly decrease the development of strontium-90-induced tumors.« less

  9. Simple test of intestinal calcium absorption measured by stable strontium.

    PubMed Central

    Milsom, S; Ibbertson, K; Hannan, S; Shaw, D; Pybus, J

    1987-01-01

    A clinical test of intestinal calcium absorption has been developed using non-radioactive stable strontium as a calcium tracer. In nine elderly subjects there was a close correlation between the fractional absorption of strontium and radioactive calcium (45Ca) during a five hour period after the simultaneous oral administration of the two tracers. Comparable precision was achieved with each tracer in six subjects in whom the test was repeated after two weeks. The effect of food on strontium absorption was examined in a further 33 normal subjects (age 21-60 years), and the administration of the strontium with a standard breakfast was shown to reduce the variance at individual time points. A simplified test in which serum strontium concentration was measured four hours after the oral dose given with a standard breakfast was adopted as the routine procedure. The normal range (mean (2 SD], established over 97 tests in 53 patients, was 7.0-18.0% of the dose in the extracellular fluid. A further 30 patients with possible disorders of calcium absorption (10 with primary hyperparathyroidism and 20 with coeliac disease) were studied by this standard test. In both groups of patients the mean four hour strontium values were significantly different from normal. This standard strontium absorption test allows assessment of calcium absorption with sufficient sensitivity and precision to have a wide application in clinical practice. PMID:3115389

  10. Groundwater transport of strontium 90 in a glacial outwash environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kipp, Kenneth L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Grove, David B.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the investigation of groundwater contamination at a uranium-scrap recovery plant at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, laboratory experiments led to the development of a model for predicting the transport of strontium 90 in glacial outwash sediments based on an approximate mechanism for ion exchange. The multicomponent system was simplified to two components by regarding all exchangeable cations other than strontium 90 as a single component. The binary ion-exchange parameter was a function of the variable, total ion concentration. A one-dimensional solute transport model was formulated to evaluate the time necessary for natural groundwater flow to remove the strontium 90 contamination plume from the groundwater system to the Pawcatuck River. The finite difference transport equations were solved sequentially for total ion concentrations, then strontium 90 concentrations. Clay-free quartz and feldspar sands at the study site have little potential for strontium 90 sorption, and high calcium, magnesium, and sodium concentrations compete for the few ion exchange sites. As the total ion concentration plume moves out of the system, ion exchange of strontium 90 increases, reducing the strontium 90 concentration in the groundwater. Cleanout times predicted using the binary ion exchange mechanism were about two thirds of those predicted using a constant distribution coefficient. It is suggested that this type of model can simulate solute transport more realistically in many groundwater systems where the total ion concentration is not constant.

  11. Sparse feature selection methods identify unexpected global cellular response to strontium-containing materials

    PubMed Central

    Autefage, Hélène; Littmann, Elena; Hedegaard, Martin A. B.; Von Erlach, Thomas; O’Donnell, Matthew; Burden, Frank R.; Winkler, David A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing sophistication of biomaterials design and functional characterization studies, little is known regarding cells’ global response to biomaterials. Here, we combined nontargeted holistic biological and physical science techniques to evaluate how simple strontium ion incorporation within the well-described biomaterial 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) influences the global response of human mesenchymal stem cells. Our objective analyses of whole gene-expression profiles, confirmed by standard molecular biology techniques, revealed that strontium-substituted BG up-regulated the isoprenoid pathway, suggesting an influence on both sterol metabolite synthesis and protein prenylation processes. This up-regulation was accompanied by increases in cellular and membrane cholesterol and lipid raft contents as determined by Raman spectroscopy mapping and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy analyses and by an increase in cellular content of phosphorylated myosin II light chain. Our unexpected findings of this strong metabolic pathway regulation as a response to biomaterial composition highlight the benefits of discovery-driven nonreductionist approaches to gain a deeper understanding of global cell–material interactions and suggest alternative research routes for evaluating biomaterials to improve their design. PMID:25831522

  12. Crystallization of carbonate hydroxyapatite in the presence of strontium ranelate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, R. R.; Golovanova, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of strontium ranelate on the crystallization of carbonate hydroxyapatite from a prototype of synovial fluid of humans has been investigated. The synthesis products are studied by IR Fourier spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. The amount of strontium in the samples is determined by atomic emission analysis. The sizes of crystallites in the synthesized phases are calculated from the Selyakov-Scherrer formula; the lattice parameters are also determined. The phases obtained are found to be species of calcium-deficient strontium-containing carbonate hydroxyapatite of mixed A and B types. Schemes of chemical reactions occurring during heat treatment are proposed.

  13. Could binary mixture of Nd-Ni ions control the electrical behavior of strontium-barium M-type hexaferrite nanoparticles?

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed, E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com; Farooq, Saima

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Strontium-barium hexaferrites (Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) in single magnetoplumbite phase solid structure are synthesized by the co-precipitation method. {yields} Structural and electrical properties of Nd-Ni substituted ferrites are investigated. {yields} These ferrite materials possess high electrical resistivity (108 {Omega} cm) that is essential to curb the eddy current loss, which is pre-requisite for surface mount devices. -- Abstract: Cationic substitution in M-type hexaferrites is considered to be an important tool for modification of their electrical properties. This work is part of our comprehensive study on the synthesis and characterization of Nd-Ni doped strontium-barium hexaferrite nanomaterials ofmore » nominal composition Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5-x}Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 12-y}Ni{sub y}O{sub 19} (x = 0.00-0.10; y = 0.00-1.00). Doping with this binary mixture modulates the physical and electrical properties of strontium-barium hexaferrite nanoparticles. Structural and electrical properties of the co-precipitated ferrites are investigated using state-of-the-art techniques. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that the lattice parameters and cell volume are inversely related to the dopant content. Temperature dependent DC-electrical resistivity measurements infer that resistivity of strontium-barium hexaferrites decreases from 1.8 x 10{sup 10} to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} {Omega} cm whereas the drift mobility, dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent are directly related to the Nd-Ni content. The results of the study demonstrate a relationship between the modulation of electrical properties of substituted ferrites and nature of cations and their lattice site occupancy.« less

  14. A novel strontium(II)-modified calcium phosphate bone cement stimulates human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, M; Lode, A; Helth, A; Gelinsky, M

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the in vitro effects of novel strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs), prepared using two different approaches on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), were evaluated. Strontium ions, known to stimulate bone formation and therefore already used in systemic osteoporosis therapy, were incorporated into a hydroxyapatite-forming calcium phosphate bone cement via two simple approaches: incorporation of strontium carbonate crystals and substitution of Ca(2+) by Sr(2+) ions during cement setting. All modified cements released 0.03-0.07 mM Sr(2+) under in vitro conditions, concentrations that were shown not to impair the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, strontium modification led to a reduced medium acidification and Ca(2+) depletion in comparison to the standard calcium phosphate cement. In indirect and direct cell culture experiments with the novel SrCPCs significantly enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation were observed. In conclusion, the SrCPCs described here could be beneficial for the local treatment of defects, especially in the osteoporotic bone. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Removal of Arsenic and Strontium from Wastewater: AN Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ding-Wei

    The emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique has been successfully applied on the removal of arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastewater and the removal of strontium (Sr) from radioactive wastewater. This study consisted of experimental work and mathematical modeling. Extraction of arsenic by an emulsion liquid membrane was firstly investigated. The liquid membrane used was composed of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (2EHA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant, and Exxsol D-80 solvent (or heptane) as the diluent. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions were used as the external and internal phases, respectively. The arsenic removal efficiency reached 92% within 15 minutes in one stage. Extraction and stripping chemistries were postulated and investigated. It was observed that extraction efficiency and rate increase with the increase of acidic strength and alkali strength in the external and internal phases, respectively. It was also observed that the removal selectivity of arsenic over copper is extremely high. Strontium-90 is one of the major radioactive metals appearing in nuclear wastewater. The emulsion liquid membrane process was investigated as a separation method by using the non-radioactive ^{87}Sr as its substitute. In our study, the membrane phase was composed of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant and Exxsol D-80 as the diluent. A sulfuric acid solution was used in the internal phase as the stripping agent. The pH range in the external phase was determined by the extraction isotherm. Under the most favorable operating condition, the strontium removal efficiency can reach 98% in two minutes. Mass transfer of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system was modeled mathematically. Our model took into account the following: mass transfer of solute across the film between the external phase and the membrane phase, chemical equilibrium of the extraction reaction at the external phase-membrane interface

  16. Strontium-90 Error Discovered in Subcontract Laboratory Spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Brown A. S. Nagel

    1999-07-31

    West Valley Demonstration Project health physicists and environment scientists discovered a series of errors in a subcontractor's spreadsheet being used to reduce data as part of their strontium-90 analytical process.

  17. Strontium-85 Scanning of Suspected Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Victor; Williams, Margery; Hill, David; Frost, Pamela; Lapham, Avril

    1969-01-01

    Strontium-85 scanning of suspected bone lesions in 81 patients has added to the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant and other lesions of bone. Of 46 patients with a previous history of malignant disease and skeletal symptoms negative radiological findings were recorded in 19, but nine of these had positive scans, eight of which when followed up over periods of up to four years proved to be metastatic. A similar prevalence of positive scans occurred in patients without a previous history of malignancy. Because of the anatomical localization of lesions made possible by this technique a tissue diagnosis was made in six patients, while fields of radiotherapy were altered in another seven. This technique can improve the management of patients with suspected bone disease. PMID:5761888

  18. Worldwide deposition of strontium-90 through 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Monetti, M.A.

    1996-03-01

    Strontium-90 results from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s (EML) Global Fallout Program (GFP) are presented for the years 1987 through 1990. Quarterly {sup 90}Sr deposition results for the 66 sampling locations of EML`s GFP were generally low, indicating that there was no significant release of fission products into the atmosphere during this period. The global {sup 90}Sr deposition during these 4 years was lower than it has been for any similar period since this program began in 1958. Since there was no major atmospheric source of {sup 90}Sr during this period, the global cumulative deposit of {sup 90}Sr continued to decreasemore » by radioactive decay to a 27 year low of 311.4 Pbq.« less

  19. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-03-31

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

  20. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  1. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  2. Strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Campos, Andrea P C; Martins Ferreira, Erlon H; San Gil, Rosane A S; Rossi, Alexandre M; Farina, Marcos

    2014-09-01

    We evaluate the effects of strontium ranelate on the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures, a system that gave us the advantage of obtaining mineral samples produced exclusively during treatment. Cells were treated with strontium ranelate at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 mM Sr(2+). Mineral substances were isolated and analyzed by using a combination of methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The minerals produced in all cell cultures were typical bone-like apatites. No changes occurred in the local structural order or crystal size of the minerals. However, we noticed several relevant changes in the mineral produced under 0.5 mM Sr(2+): (1) increase in type-B CO3 (2-) substitutions, which often lead to the creation of vacancies in Ca(2+) and OH(-) sites; (2) incorporation of Sr(2+) by substituting slightly less than 10 % of Ca(2+) in the apatite crystal lattice, resulting in an increase in both lattice parameters a and c; (3) change in the PO4 (3-) environments, possibly because of the expansion of the lattice; (4) the Ca/P ratio of this mineral was reduced, but its (Ca+Sr)/P ratio was the same as that of the control, indicating that its overall cation/P ratio was preserved. Thus, strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures.

  3. No Substitute for Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    School leaders are trying pay incentives, consortia, and temp firms to assuage their need for qualified substitute teachers. Five coping strategies include making the job more attractive, increasing the candidate pool, hiring some permanent subs, using automated calling systems, and examining systemic issues. Substitutes are unionizing in some…

  4. Managing Substitute Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin R.

    1999-01-01

    This news brief presents information on managing substitute teaching. The information is based on issues discussed at a summit meeting which included public school administrators and personnel directors from around the nation. The main topics of concern focused around four core components related to the management of substitute teaching:…

  5. Strontium-90 at the Hanford Site and its ecological implications

    SciTech Connect

    RE Peterson; TM Poston

    2000-05-22

    Strontium-90, a radioactive contaminant from historical operations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, enters the Columbia River at several locations associated with former plutonium production reactors at the Site. Strontium-90 is of concern to humans and the environment because of its moderately long half-life (29.1 years), its potential for concentrating in bone tissue, and its relatively high energy of beta decay. Although strontium-90 in the environment is not a new issue for the Hanford Site, recent studies of near-river vegetation along the shoreline near the 100 Areas raised public concern about the possibility of strontium-90-contaminated groundwater reachingmore » the riverbed and fall chinook salmon redds. To address these concerns, DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to prepare this report on strontium-90, its distribution in groundwater, how and where it enters the river, and its potential ecological impacts, particularly with respect to fall chinook salmon. The purpose of the report is to characterize groundwater contaminants in the near-shore environment and to assess the potential for ecological impact using salmon embryos, one of the most sensitive ecological indicators for aquatic organisms. Section 2.0 of the report provides background information on strontium-90 at the Hanford Site related to historical operations. Public access to information on strontium-90 also is described. Section 3.0 focuses on key issues associated with strontium-90 contamination in groundwater that discharges in the Hanford Reach. The occurrence and distribution of fall chinook salmon redds in the Hanford Reach and characteristics of salmon spawning are described in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 describes the regulatory standards and criteria used to set action levels for strontium-90. Recommendations for initiating additional monitoring and remedial action associated with strontium-90 contamination at the Hanford Site are presented in

  6. Synthesis of strontium substituted barium titanate nanoparticles by mechanical alloying and high power ultrasonication destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Yustanti, Erlina, E-mail: erlina.yustanti@ui.ac.id; Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering University of Sultan AgengTirtayasa Jl. Jenderal Sudirman KM 03 Cilegon-Banten 65134; Hafizah, Mas Ayu Elita, E-mail: kemasayu@yahoo.com

    2016-04-19

    This paper reports the particle and crystallite size characterizations of mechanically alloyed Ba{sub (1-x)}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) with x = 0.3 and 0.7 prepared with the assistance of a high-power sonicator. Analytical grade BaCO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and SrCO{sub 3} precursors with a purity of greater than 99 wt.% were mixed and milled using a planetary ball mill to a powder weight ratio of 10:1. Powders obtained after 20 hours of milling time were then sintered at 1200°C for 4 hours to form crystalline powders.These powders were further treated ultrasonically under a fixed 6.7 gr/l particle concentration in demineralized watermore » for 1, 3, 5, 7 hours and a fixed ultrasonic irradiation time of 1 hour to the dispersion of 6.7; 20; 33.3 gr/l concentrations. As to the results of crystallite size characterization, it is demonstrated that the mean crystallite size of BST with x = 0.3 and 0.7 undergo a slight change after the first 1 hour irradiation time and then remain almost unchanged. This was in contrary to the particle size in which the mean particle size of BST with x = 0.3 increased from 765 nm to 1405 nm after 7 hours irradiation time, while that of x = 0.7 increased from 505 nm to 1298 nm after 3 hours and then reduced back to the initial size after 7 hours ultra sonication time. The increase in particle size was due to large of cohesive forces among fine particles. It is also demonstrated that the concentration of particles in a dispersion with anionic surfactant do not effective to reduce the particle sizes ultrasonically. Nanoparticles with the mean size respectively 40 and 10 times larger than their respective crystallite size were successfully obtained respectively in x = 0.3 and x = 0.7.« less

  7. Synthesis of strontium substituted barium titanate nanoparticles by mechanical alloying and high power ultrasonication destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yustanti, Erlina; Hafizah, Mas Ayu Elita; Manaf, Azwar

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the particle and crystallite size characterizations of mechanically alloyed Ba(1-x)SrxTiO3 (BST) with x = 0.3 and 0.7 prepared with the assistance of a high-power sonicator. Analytical grade BaCO3, TiO2 and SrCO3 precursors with a purity of greater than 99 wt.% were mixed and milled using a planetary ball mill to a powder weight ratio of 10:1. Powders obtained after 20 hours of milling time were then sintered at 1200°C for 4 hours to form crystalline powders.These powders were further treated ultrasonically under a fixed 6.7 gr/l particle concentration in demineralized water for 1, 3, 5, 7 hours and a fixed ultrasonic irradiation time of 1 hour to the dispersion of 6.7; 20; 33.3 gr/l concentrations. As to the results of crystallite size characterization, it is demonstrated that the mean crystallite size of BST with x = 0.3 and 0.7 undergo a slight change after the first 1 hour irradiation time and then remain almost unchanged. This was in contrary to the particle size in which the mean particle size of BST with x = 0.3 increased from 765 nm to 1405 nm after 7 hours irradiation time, while that of x = 0.7 increased from 505 nm to 1298 nm after 3 hours and then reduced back to the initial size after 7 hours ultra sonication time. The increase in particle size was due to large of cohesive forces among fine particles. It is also demonstrated that the concentration of particles in a dispersion with anionic surfactant do not effective to reduce the particle sizes ultrasonically. Nanoparticles with the mean size respectively 40 and 10 times larger than their respective crystallite size were successfully obtained respectively in x = 0.3 and x = 0.7.

  8. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject to...

  12. STRONTIUM-90 LIQUID CONCENTRATION SOLUBILITY CORRELATION IN THE HANFORD TANK WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    HOHL, T.; PLACE, D.; WITTMAN, R.

    2004-08-05

    A new correlation was developed to estimate the concentration of strontium-90 in a waste solution based on total organic carbon. This correlation replaces the strontium-90 wash factors, and when applied in the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator, significantly reduced the estimated quantity of strontium-90 in the delivered low-activity waste feed. This is thought to be a more realistic estimate of strontium-90 than using the wash-factor method.

  13. Binding of Dissolved Strontium by Micrococcus luteus

    PubMed Central

    Faison, Brendlyn D.; Cancel, Carmen A.; Lewis, Susan N.; Adler, Howard I.

    1990-01-01

    Resting cells of Micrococcus luteus have been shown to remove strontium (Sr) from dilute aqueous solutions of SrCl2 at pH 7. Loadings of 25 mg of Sr per g of cell dry weight were achieved by cells exposed to a solution containing 50 ppm (mg/liter) of Sr. Sr binding occurred in the absence of nutrients and did not require metabolic activity. Initial binding was quite rapid (<0.5 h), although a slow, spontaneous release of Sr was observed over time. Sr binding was inhibited in the presence of polyvalent cations but not monovalent cations. Ca and Sr were bound preferentially over all other cations tested. Sr-binding activity was localized on the cell envelope and was sensitive to various chemical and physical pretreatments. Bound Sr was displaced by divalent ions or by H+. Other monovalent ions were less effective. Bound Sr was also removed by various chelating agents. It was concluded that Sr binding by M. luteus is a reversible equilibrium process. Both ion exchange mediated by acidic cell surface components and intracellular uptake may be involved in this activity. PMID:16348370

  14. 10 CFR 31.10 - General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices... MATERIAL § 31.10 General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices. (a) A general license is hereby issued to own, receive, acquire, possess, use, and transfer strontium 90 contained in ice detection...

  15. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the treatment...

  16. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the treatment...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10008 - Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10008 Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese strontium oxide...

  18. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the source...

  19. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the source...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10008 - Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10008 Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese strontium oxide...

  1. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the source...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10600 - Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10600 Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide. (a... calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10008 - Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10008 Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese strontium oxide...

  4. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the source...

  5. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the treatment...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10600 - Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10600 Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide. (a... calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS No. 1262279-30-0) is subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10008 - Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10008 Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese strontium oxide...

  8. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the treatment...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10008 - Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10008 Manganese strontium oxide (MnSrO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese strontium oxide...

  10. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the treatment...

  11. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the source...

  12. 10 CFR 31.10 - General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices... MATERIAL § 31.10 General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices. (a) A general license is hereby issued to own, receive, acquire, possess, use, and transfer strontium 90 contained in ice detection...

  13. 10 CFR 31.10 - General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices... MATERIAL § 31.10 General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices. (a) A general license is hereby issued to own, receive, acquire, possess, use, and transfer strontium 90 contained in ice detection...

  14. 10 CFR 31.10 - General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices... MATERIAL § 31.10 General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices. (a) A general license is hereby issued to own, receive, acquire, possess, use, and transfer strontium 90 contained in ice detection...

  15. 10 CFR 31.10 - General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices... MATERIAL § 31.10 General license for strontium 90 in ice detection devices. (a) A general license is hereby issued to own, receive, acquire, possess, use, and transfer strontium 90 contained in ice detection...

  16. Magnetic study of M-type Ru–Ti doped strontium hexaferrite nanocrystalline particles

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmadi, A. M.; Bsoul, I.; Mahmood, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We carried out a systematic study on the effect of the substitution of Ti2+ and Ru4+ ions for Fe3+ ions on the structural and magnetic properties of the strontium ferrite SrFe12-2xRuxTixO19 nanoparticles with (0 <= x <= 0: 3), using x-ray diffraction, Quantum Design PPMS-9 magnetometry, and electrical resistivity. A clear irreversibility between the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled curves was observed below room temperature and the zero-field-cooled magnetization curves displayed a broad peak at a temperature TM. These results were discussed within the framework of random particle assembly model and associated with the magnetic domain wall motion. The resistivity data showedmore » some kind of a transition from insulator to perfect insulator around TM. The high-temperature magnetization measurements exhibited sharp peaks just below T-c indicating a superparamagnetic behavior. With Ru-Ti substitution, the saturation magnetization at 5 K showed small variations were it slightly increased with increasing x up to 0.2, and then decrease for x = 0.3, while the coercivity decreased monotonically, recording a reduction of about 78% at x = 0.3. These results were discussed in light of the cationic distributions based on the results of the structural refinements.« less

  17. Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoclastic Resorption of Tricalcium Phosphate: Effect of Strontium and Magnesium Doping

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mangal; Bose, Susmita

    2012-01-01

    Bone substitute materials are required to support the remodeling process, which consists of osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic synthesis. Osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, generate from differentiation of hemopoietic mononuclear cells. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of 1.0 wt% strontium (Sr) and 1.0 wt% magnesium (Mg) doping in beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the differentiation of mononuclear cells into osteoclast-like cells and its resorptive activity. In vitro osteoclast-like cell formation, adhesion, and resorption were studied using osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cell, supplemented with receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL). Osteoclast-like cell formation was noticed on pure and Sr doped β-TCP samples at day 8 which was absent on Mg doped β-TCP samples indicating decrease in initial osteoclast differentiation due to Mg doping. After 21 days of culture, osteoclast-like cell formation was evident on all samples with osteoclastic markers such as actin ring, multiple nuclei, and presence of vitronectin receptor αvβ3 integrin. After osteoclast differentiation, all substrates showed osteoclast-like cell mediated degradation, however; significantly restricted for Mg doped β-TCP samples. Our present results indicated substrate chemistry controlled osteoclast differentiation and resorptive activity which can be used in designing TCP based resorbable bone substitutes with controlled degradation properties. PMID:22566212

  18. Osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic resorption of tricalcium phosphate: effect of strontium and magnesium doping.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Bose, Susmita

    2012-09-01

    Bone substitute materials are required to support the remodeling process, which consists of osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic synthesis. Osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, generate from differentiation of hemopoietic mononuclear cells. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of 1.0 wt % strontium (Sr) and 1.0 wt % magnesium (Mg) doping in beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the differentiation of mononuclear cells into osteoclast-like cells and its resorptive activity. In vitro osteoclast-like cell formation, adhesion, and resorption were studied using osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cell, supplemented with receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL). Osteoclast-like cell formation was noticed on pure and Sr-doped β-TCP samples at day 8, which was absent on Mg-doped β-TCP samples indicating decrease in initial osteoclast differentiation due to Mg doping. After 21 days of culture, osteoclast-like cell formation was evident on all samples with osteoclastic markers such as actin ring, multiple nuclei, and presence of vitronectin receptor α(v)β(3) integrin. After osteoclast differentiation, all substrates showed osteoclast-like cell-mediated degradation, however, significantly restricted for Mg-doped β-TCP samples. Our present results indicated that substrate chemistry controlled osteoclast differentiation and resorptive activity, which can be used in designing TCP-based resorbable bone substitutes with controlled degradation properties. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi

    2016-10-04

    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  20. Ferroelectric properties of substituted barium titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parveen; Singh, Sangeeta; Juneja, J. K.; Prakash, Chandra; Raina, K. K.

    2009-06-01

    Barium titanate (BT) is among the most studied ferroelectric material which has been used in various forms, e.g. bulk, thin and thick film, powder, in a number of applications. In order to achieve a material with desired properties, it is modified with a variety of substituents. Most common substituents have been strontium, calcium and zirconium. Here we report studies on lead and zirconium substituted BT. The material series with compositional formula Ba 0.80Pb 0.20Ti 1-xZr xO 3 with, 0< x<0.1 was chosen for investigations. The material was synthesized by solid state reaction method. Reacted powder compacted in form of circular discs were sintered in the range of 1300 °C. All the samples were subjected to X-ray analysis and found to be single phase. Ferroelectric properties were studied as a function of composition and temperature. Pr/ Ps ratio was determined. It was found to decrease with increase in x.

  1. Continental fragmentation and the strontium isotopic evolution of seawater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eric, H.; Jean Pascal, C.

    2008-12-01

    The time evolution of the strontium isotopic composition of seawater over the last 600 million years has the form of an asymmetric trough. The values are highest in the Cambrian and recent and lowest in the Jurassic. Superimposed on this trend are a number of smaller oscillations. The mechanisms responsible for these global isotopic fluctuations are subject to much debates. In order to get a quantitative picture of the changing paleogeography, we have characterized land-ocean distributions over Late Proterozoic to Phanerozoic times from measurement of perimeters and areas of continental fragments, based on paleomagnetic reconstructions. These measurements served to calculate geophysically constrainted breakup and scatter indexes of continental land masses from 0 to 1100 Ma (Cogne and Humler, 2008). Both parameters (strontium isotopic ratios of seawater and continental fragmentation indexes) are obviously highly correlated during the last 600 Ma. Low continental dispersion (that is large continental land masses) are associated with low seawater strontium isotopic ratios (that is when the continental inputs to oceans are minimum) and high continental dispersion (that is relatively small and widely distributed continents) with high seawater strontium isotopic ratios (that is when the continental input to ocean is maximum). Importantly, this first order evolution appears to conflict with the common idea of mountains erosion as a source for radiogenic strontium to oceans because high strontium isotopic ratios in seawater correspond to period of maximum dispersion of continents and not with period of general collisions. At first glance, it would seem that continental erosion increases with the degree of continental dispersion. Models showing that continental precipitation increases when continental masses are smaller and more widely dispersed and/or the length of continental margins available for rivers to carry continental material to oceans are thus favoured in order

  2. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2–Al2O3–Y2O3–SrO–Na2O–K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O–P2O5–F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F – pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  3. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2-Al2O3-Y2O3-SrO-Na2O-K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O-P2O5-F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F - pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F - Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite - pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). These

  4. Development, characterization and comparison of two strontium doped nano hydroxyapatite molecules for enamel repair/regeneration.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vinod; Bhatia, Ankit; Varma, Harikrishna

    2016-05-01

    Enamel damage resulting or arising from/associated with orthodontic treatment such as white spot lesions and surface deterioration after debonding brackets along with incipient carious lesions are considered problems not amenable for routine restorations due to its invasive nature. The present study was aimed at synthesizing and characterizing nHAp and 25 and 50 mol% strontium nHAp as a surface application modality for dental enamel remineralization/repair. 25 and 50 mol% Sr nHAp was synthesized and characterized in comparison with custom made pure nHAp initially with the help of transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as toxicological assessment. Further, comparative evaluation of these novel synthesized strontium substituted particles was assessed for its efficacy in repairing damaged enamel with the help of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and micro indentation testing. There is increase in crystallinity and reduced particle size favoring dissolution and re-precipitation through small incipient carious lesions and soft white spot areas with 25% Sr-nHAp. Sr doped specimens showed more cell viability in comparison with pure nHAP make it less cytotoxic and hence a biologically friendly material which can be safely applied in patient's mouth. AFM images obtained from 25% and 50% Sr nHAp treated specimens clearly indicated increased roughness in surface topography and performed well with micro indentation test. The novel synthesized Sr doped nHAp forms an improved treatment modality to tackle the long standing quest for solving the problem of enamel loss with incipient carious lesions and WSL from orthodontic procedures. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical composition, crystal size and lattice structural changes after incorporation of strontium into biomimetic apatite.

    PubMed

    Li, Z Y; Lam, W M; Yang, C; Xu, B; Ni, G X; Abbah, S A; Cheung, K M C; Luk, K D K; Lu, W W

    2007-03-01

    Recently, strontium (Sr) as ranelate compound has become increasingly popular in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the lattice structure of bone crystal after Sr incorporation is yet to be extensively reported. In this study, we synthesized strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) with different Sr content (0.3%, 1.5% and 15% Sr-HA in mole ratio) to simulate bone crystals incorporated with Sr. The changes in chemical composition and lattice structure of apetite after synthetic incorporation of Sr were evaluated to gain insight into bone crystal changes after incorporation of Sr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that 0.3% and 1.5% Sr-HA exhibited single phase spectrum, which was similar to that of HA. However, 15% Sr-HA induced the incorporation of HPO4(2-) and more CO3(2-), the crystallinity reduced dramatically. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the crystal length and width of 0.3% and 1.5% Sr-HA increased slightly. Meanwhile, the length and width distribution were broadened and the aspect ratio decreased from 10.68+/-4.00 to 7.28+/-2.80. The crystal size and crystallinity of 15% Sr-HA dropped rapidly, which may suggest that the fundamental crystal structure is changed. The findings from this work indicate that current clinical dosage which usually results in Sr incorporation of below 1.5% may not change chemical composition and lattice structure of bone, while it will broaden the bone crystal size distribution and strengthen the bone.

  6. All-alkoxide synthesis of strontium-containing metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for making strontium-containing metal-oxide ceramic thin films from a precursor liquid by mixing a strontium neo-pentoxide dissolved in an amine solvent and at least one metal alkoxide dissolved in a solvent, said at least one metal alkoxide selected from the group consisting of alkoxides of calcium, barium, bismuth, cadmium, lead, titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, antimony, chromium and thallium, depositing a thin film of the precursor liquid on a substrate, and heating the thin film in the presence of oxygen at between 550 and 700.degree. C.

  7. Strontium cobaltite oxygen sponge catalyst and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Choi, Woo Seok; Biegalski, Michael; Folkman, Chad M.; Tung, I-Cheng; Fong, Dillon D.; Freeland, John W.; Shin, Dongwon; Ohta, Hiromichi; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2017-01-24

    Rapid, reversible redox activity may be accomplished at significantly reduced temperatures, as low as about 200.degree. C., from epitaxially stabilized, oxygen vacancy ordered SrCoO.sub.2.5 and thermodynamically unfavorable perovskite SrCoO.sub.3-.delta.. The fast, low temperature redox activity in SrCoO.sub.3-.delta. may be attributed to a small Gibbs free energy difference between the two topotactic phases. Epitaxially stabilized thin films of strontium cobaltite provide a catalyst adapted to rapidly transition between oxidation states at substantially low temperatures. Methods of transitioning a strontium cobaltite catalyst from a first oxidation state to a second oxidation state are described.

  8. Control of magnetization reversal in oriented strontium ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Debangsu, E-mail: debangsu@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2014-02-21

    Oriented Strontium Ferrite films with the c axis orientation were deposited with varying oxygen partial pressure on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The angle dependent magnetic hysteresis, remanent coercivity, and temperature dependent coercivity had been employed to understand the magnetization reversal of these films. It was found that the Strontium Ferrite thin film grown at lower (higher) oxygen partial pressure shows Stoner-Wohlfarth type (Kondorsky like) reversal. The relative importance of pinning and nucleation processes during magnetization reversal is used to explain the type of the magnetization reversal with different oxygen partial pressure during growth.

  9. Strontium-90 Fallout: Comparison of Rates over Ocean and Land.

    PubMed

    Volchok, H L; Broecker, W S; Rocco, G G

    1966-04-29

    Measurements of strontium-90 in waters residing on the Bahama Banks for periods between 12 and 180 days suggest that fallout rates onto these waters are substantially the same as the average rates at all fallout collection stations between 20 degrees and 30 degrees north latitude. If the amount of preciptation on the Bahama Banks is reasonably representative of the oceanic areas in this latitude band, our results support the conclusion that the amount of strontium-90 deposited per unit area of ocean surface is within a factor of 2 of that on land.

  10. Strontium ranelate for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, S; Cranney, A; Wells, G A; Adachi, J D; Reginster, J Y

    2006-07-19

    Strontium ranelate is a new anti-osteoporosis therapy therefore, its benefits and harms need to be known. To determine the efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We searched MEDLINE (1996 to March 2005), EMBASE (1996 to week 9 2005), the Cochrane Library (1996 to Issue 1 2005), reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings from the last two years. Additional data was sought from authors and industry sponsors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year duration comparing strontium ranelate versus placebo reporting fracture incidence, bone mineral density (BMD), health related quality of life and/or safety outcomes in postmenopausal women. Treatment (versus prevention) population was defined as women with prevalent vertebral fractures and/or lumbar spine BMD T score < -2.5 SD. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility, assessed trial quality and extracted the relevant data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. RCTs were grouped by dose of strontium ranelate and treatment duration. Where possible, meta-analysis was conducted using the random effects model. A total of four trials met our inclusion criteria, three of which investigated the effects of strontium ranelate compared to placebo in a treatment population (doses ranged from 0.5 to 2 g daily) and one, in a prevention population (doses 0.125, 0.5 and 1 g daily). In osteoporotic, postmenopausal women a 37% reduction in vertebral fractures (two trials, n = 5082, RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.71) and a 14% reduction in non-vertebral fractures (two trials, n = 6572, RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.98) was demonstrated over a three year period with 2 g of strontium ranelate daily. An increase in BMD at all sites was shown with the same dose: lumbar spine BMD (two trials, n = 1614, WMD adjusted for strontium content 5.44, 95% CI 3.41 to 7.46 and WMD not adjusted 11.29, 95% CI 10.22 to 12.37 over two

  11. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  12. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  13. The substitutability of reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E.

    1993-01-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  14. The substitutability of reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E

    1993-07-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included.

  15. Strontium ranelate for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, S; Cranney, A; Wells, G A; Adachi, J D; Reginster, J Y

    2006-10-18

    Strontium ranelate is a new treatment for osteoporosis therefore, its benefits and harms need to be known. To determine the efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We searched MEDLINE (1996 to March 2005), EMBASE (1996 to week 9 2005), the Cochrane Library (1996 to Issue 1 2005), reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings from the last two years. Additional data was sought from authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year duration comparing strontium ranelate versus placebo reporting fracture incidence, bone mineral density (BMD), health related quality of life or safety in postmenopausal women. Treatment (versus prevention) population was defined as women with prevalent vertebral fractures and/or lumbar spine BMD T score < -2.5 SD. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility, assessed trial quality and extracted the relevant data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. RCTs were grouped by dose of strontium ranelate and treatment duration. Where possible, meta-analysis was conducted using the random effects model. Four trials met the inclusion criteria. Three included a treatment population (0.5 to 2 g of strontium ranelate daily) and one a prevention population (0.125 g, 0.5 g and 1 g daily). A 37% reduction in vertebral fractures (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.56, 0.71) and a 14% reduction in non-vertebral fractures (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98) were demonstrated over three years with 2 g of strontium ranelate daily in a treatment population. An increase in BMD was shown at all BMD sites after two to three years in both populations. Lower doses of strontium ranelate were superior to placebo and the highest dose demonstrated the greatest reduction in vertebral fractures and increase in BMD. An increased risk of diarrhea with 2 g of strontium ranelate was found; however, adverse events did not affect the risk of discontinuing treatment nor

  16. Tracing the Geographical Origin of Onions by Strontium Isotope Ratio and Strontium Content.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Hisaaki; Morita, Sakie; Izawa, Atsunobu; Aoyama, Keisuke; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Nakano, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    The strontium (Sr) isotope ratio ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) and Sr content were used to trace the geographical origin of onions from Japan and other countries, including China, the United States of America, New Zealand, Australia, and Thailand. The mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio and Sr content (dry weight basis) for onions from Japan were 0.70751 and 4.6 mg kg(-1), respectively, and the values for onions from the other countries were 0.71199 and 12.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to classify onions produced in Japan from those produced in the other countries based on the Sr data. The discriminant equation derived from linear discriminant analysis was evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. As a result, the origins of 92% of onions were correctly classified between Japan and the other countries.

  17. Variation in strontium isotope ratios of archaeological fauna in the Midwestern United States: a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedman, Kristin M.; Curry, B. Brandon; Johnson, Thomas M.; Fullagar, Paul D.; Emerson, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Strontium isotope values (87Sr/86Sr) in bone and tooth enamel have been used increasingly to identify non-local individuals within prehistoric human populations worldwide. Archaeological research in the Midwestern United States has increasingly highlighted the role of population movement in affecting interregional cultural change. However, the comparatively low level of geologic variation in the Midwestern United States might suggest a corresponding low level of strontium variation, and calls into question the sensitivity of strontium isotopes to identify non-local individuals in this region. Using strontium isotopes of archaeological fauna, we explore the degree of variability in strontium ratios across this region. Our results demonstrate measurable variation in strontium ratios and indicate the potential of strontium analysis for addressing questions of origin and population movement in the Midwestern United States.

  18. [Delegation yes, substitution no!].

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes.

  19. Aryl substitution of pentacenes

    PubMed Central

    Waterloo, Andreas R; Sale, Anna-Chiara; Lehnherr, Dan; Hampel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Summary A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films), thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA), cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives). X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices. PMID:25161729

  20. Influence of SrO substitution for CaO on the properties of bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Massera, Jonathan; Hupa, Leena

    2014-03-01

    Commercial melt-quenched bioactive glasses consist of the oxides of silicon, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Doping of the glasses with oxides of some other elements is known to affect their capability to support hydroxyapatite formation and thus bone tissue healing but also to modify their high temperature processing parameters. In the present study, the influence of gradual substitution of SrO for CaO on the properties of the bioactive glass S53P4 was studied. Thermal analysis and hot stage microscopy were utilized to measure the thermal properties of the glasses. The in vitro bioactivity and solubility was measured by immersing the glasses in simulated body fluid for 6 h to 1 week. The formation of silica rich and hydroxyapatite layers was assessed from FTIR spectra analysis and SEM images of the glass surface. Increasing substitution of SrO for CaO decreased all characteristic temperatures and led to a slightly stronger glass network. The initial glass dissolution rate increased with SrO content. Hydroxyapatite layer was formed on all glasses but on the SrO containing glasses the layer was thinner and contained also strontium. The results suggest that substituting SrO for CaO in S53P4 glass retards the bioactivity. However, substitution greater than 10 mol% allow for precipitation of a strontium substituted hydroxyapatite layer.

  1. Ionic Substitutions in Non-Apatitic Calcium Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Laskus, Aleksandra; Kolmas, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials (CaPs) are similar to inorganic part of human mineralized tissues (i.e., bone, enamel, and dentin). Owing to their high biocompatibility, CaPs, mainly hydroxyapatite (HA), have been investigated for their use in various medical applications. One of the most widely used ways to improve the biological and physicochemical properties of HA is ionic substitution with trace ions. Recent developments in bioceramics have already demonstrated that introducing foreign ions is also possible in other CaPs, such as tricalcium phosphates (amorphous as well as α and β crystalline forms) and brushite. The purpose of this paper is to review recent achievements in the field of non-apatitic CaPs substituted with various ions. Particular attention will be focused on tricalcium phosphates (TCP) and “additives” such as magnesium, zinc, strontium, and silicate ions, all of which have been widely investigated thanks to their important biological role. This review also highlights some of the potential biomedical applications of non-apatitic substituted CaPs. PMID:29186932

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  3. Active Calcium and Strontium Transport in Human Erythrocyte Ghosts

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Erik J.; Cazort, Ralph J.

    1969-01-01

    Both calcium and strontium could be transported actively from erythrocytes if adenosine triphosphate, guanosine triphosphate, or inosine triphosphate were included in the hypotonic medium used to infuse calcium or strontium into the cells. Acetyl phosphate and pyrophosphate were not energy sources for the transport of either ion. Neither calcium nor strontium transport was accompanied by magnesium exchange, and the addition of Mg++ to the reaction medium in a final concentration of 3.0 mmoles/liter did not promote the transport of either ion. In the absence of nucleotide triphosphates, the addition of 1.5 mmoles/liter of Sr++ to the reaction solution did not bring about active calcium transport and similarly 1.5 mmoles/liter of Ca++ did not bring about active strontium transport. The inclusion of 1.5 mmoles/liter of Ca++ or Sr++ in the reaction medium did not interfere with the transport of the other ion when the erythrocytes were infused with adenosine triphosphate. PMID:4304202

  4. Possible benefits of strontium ranelate in complicated long bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Duarte Nuno; Ribeiro, Costa; Sousa, Carlos; Correia, João; Silva, Luís; de Almeida, Luís

    2012-02-01

    Osteoporosis drugs are prescribed to prevent fragility fractures, which is the principal aim of the management of osteoporosis. However, if fracture does occur, then it is also important to promote a fast and uneventful healing process. Despite this, little is known about the effect of osteoporosis drugs on bone healing in humans. Strontium ranelate is an osteoporosis agent that increases bone formation and reduces bone resorption and may therefore be beneficial in fracture healing. We report four cases of fracture non-union for up to 20 months. Treatment with strontium ranelate (2 g/day) for between 6 weeks and 6 months appeared to contribute to bone consolidation in the four cases. Animal studies support beneficial effects of strontium ranelate on bone healing via improvement of bone material properties and microarchitecture in the vicinity of the fracture. The clinical cases described herein provide new information on these effects, in the absence of randomized controlled studies on the clinical efficacy of pharmacological treatments in osteoporosis in fracture repair. Further studies are necessary. Fracture healing is an important topic in orthopedic research and is also a concern for patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Evidence from case reports and animal studies suggests that strontium ranelate improves bone microarchitecture and accelerates fracture healing. A positive effect of osteoporosis treatments on bone healing is an interesting possibility and merits further clinical research.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo...

  7. Strontium Incorporation Into Calcite Generated by Bacterial Ureolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Y.; Ingram, J. A.; Cortez, M. M.; Redden, G. D.; Smith, R. W.

    2002-12-01

    Strontium incorporation into calcite generated by bacterial ureolytic activity was investigated as part of a larger effort to evaluate the use of in situ urea hydrolysis for accelerating co-precipitation of trace metals and radionuclides in contaminated aquifers. 90Sr, a uranium fission product with a half-life of 29 years, is a significant subsurface contaminant at several Department of Energy facilities and could be immobilized using this remediation strategy. Experiments were conducted in a medium designed to simulate the groundwater of the Snake River Plain Aquifer in eastern Idaho, amended with strontium. Initially the solution was undersaturated with respect to calcite. As a model ureolytic organism, we used Bacillus pasteurii, a well-characterized bacterium known for high urease activity and previously shown to induce calcite precipitation in urea-amended medium. To gain information on the effect of the bacterial surfaces, we also looked at precipitation in the presence of a bacterial species that did not hydrolyze urea, as well as in the absence of bacteria. In the absence of bacterial ureolysis, carbonate precipitation was induced by addition of ammonium carbonate. All products were identified as calcite by X-ray diffraction. Strontium uptake was observed in all cases, but was greatest in the system including bacterial ureolysis. Sputter depth element profiling by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) confirmed this finding, showing highest Sr:Ca ratios in the bacterially generated calcite throughout the depth (~350 nm) investigated. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) of the solids revealed regular crystals containing the outlines of embedded or entombed bacterial cells, suggesting that calcite precipitated directly on the cell surfaces when present. Analysis by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) indicated that in both the biotically and abiotically generated calcites the Sr was incorporated into the calcite

  8. Performing Substitute Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bletzer, Keith V.

    2010-01-01

    Formal education is both a right and an obligation bestowed on young people in most all nations of the world. Teachers (adults) and students (youth) form a co-present dyadic contract that must be maintained within the classroom. Substitute teachers fill a role in sustaining the integrity of this teacher-student link, whenever teachers are absent.…

  9. The Age of Substitutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeller, H. E.; Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1976-01-01

    Dwindling mineral resources might cause a shift from nonrenewable resources to renewable resources and inexhaustible elements such as iron and aluminum. Alternative energy sources such as breeder, fusion, solar, and geothermal power must be developed for production and recycling of materials. Substitution and, hence, living standards ultimately…

  10. Translocation and incorporation of strontium carbonate derived strontium into calcium oxalate crystals by the wood decay fungus Resinicium bicolor

    Treesearch

    Jon H. Connolly; Walter C. Shortle; Jody Jellison

    1999-01-01

    The white-rot wood decay fungus Resinicium bicolor (Abertini & Schwein.: Fr.) Parmasto was studied for its ability to solubilize and translocate ions from the naturally occurring mineral strontianite. Resinicium bicolor colonized a soil mixture culture medium containing strontianite sand, solubilized strontium ions from this...

  11. Dissolved strontium and calcium levels in the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Zvi; Sarkar, Amit; Turchyn, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of seawater alkalinity and dissolved calcium concentrations along oceanic transects are often used to calculate calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution rates. Given that the distribution coefficient of strontium in CaCO3 varies greatly between different groups of organisms, adding precise measurements of dissolved strontium concentrations provides opportunities to also track relative contributions of these different groups to the regional CaCO3 cycle. However, there are several obstacles to this approach. These obstacles include unresolved systematic discrepancies between seawater calcium and alkalinity data, very large analytical noise around the calcium concentration measurements and the unconstrained role of acantharia (radiolarian precipitating SrSO4 skeletons) in the marine strontium cycle. During the first cruise of the second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2) water samples were collected along 67°E from 9°N to 5°S to explore the dissolution rate of calcium carbonate in the water. The dissolution rate can be calculated by combining measurements of water column potential alkalinity with calcium and strontium concentrations measured by ICP-OES and calcium concentration measurements using isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). CaCO3 mineral saturation state calculated using pH and total alkalinity suggests that along 67°E, the aragonite saturation horizon lays at depth of 500 m on both sides of the equator. Across the cruise transect, dissolved strontium concentrations increase by 2-3% along the thermocline suggesting rapid recycling of strontium rich phases. This is particularly evident just below the thermocline at 8-9°N and below 1000 m water depth, south of the equator. The deep, southern enrichment in strontium does not involve a change in the Sr/Ca ratio, suggesting that this strontium enrichment is related to CaCO3 dissolution. In contrast, in the intermediate waters of the northern part of

  12. [Generic drug substitution].

    PubMed

    Tamir, Orly; Halkin, Hillel; Shemer, Joshua

    2006-09-01

    The rapidly rising health care expenditures, attributed mainly to the high cost of prescription drugs, have led governments around the world to look to generics as a means of containing costs in the pharmaceutical market. Generic drugs provide a less expensive alternative to brand name drugs due to the elimination of the need to perform lengthy and costly clinical trials, as required for innovative drugs. Essentially, generic substitution of drugs may be performed only after showing unequivocally that the generic formulation is identical in its active ingredients, strength, and route of administration as its innovative counterpart, and that they are bioequivalent to each other. Although the two are in essence the same, generic substitution is occasionally a controversial matter.

  13. A strontium-90 sequestrant for first-aid treatment of radiation emergency.

    PubMed

    Haratake, Mamoru; Hatanaka, Eisuke; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Akashi, Makoto; Nakayama, Morio

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hydrophilic porous polymer beads with phosphonic acid groups (PGMA-EGDMA-TTA-MP) were synthesized, and assessed as a radioactive strontium-90 sequestrant for the treatment of the radiation emergency. Strontium ions were rapidly absorbed into the blood from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after oral administration to rats, and distributed to the target organ, i.e., bones. Over 40% of the administered strontium was absorbed into the blood, while the remainder was discharged in the feces within 48 h after the administration. When the PGMA-EGDMA-TTA-MP beads were administered to rats subsequent to the strontium solution, the strontium had accumulated less in the femur. Consequently, the oral administration of the PGMA-EGDMA-TTA-MP beads was effective in suppressing the absorption of strontium from the GI tract.

  14. Strontium is required for statolith development and thus normal swimming behaviour of hatchling cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, R T; Bidwell, J P; Tait, R

    1989-01-01

    When cephalopod eggs were incubated in artificial sea water it was found that they sometimes resulted in hatchlings with defects of the statocyst suprastructure, leading to the severe behavioural defect of uncontrolled swimming. Experiments in defined media (seven basic salts mixed in deionized water) with seven species of cephalopods demonstrated clearly that there is 100% normal development of the aragonite statoliths when strontium levels were 8 mg l-1. Conversely, statoliths did not develop when strontium was absent. In cuttlefish, the growth of the cuttlebone was also affected adversely when strontium was absent. In mariculture production tanks, supplementing commercial artificial sea water with strontium to normal levels of 8 mg l-1 almost eliminated the occurrence of abnormal hatchlings. Circumstantial evidence indicates that there is a critical window in development during which strontium is required for normal development. The role of strontium in biomineralization during embryogenesis is unknown, but it appears to be important in the Mollusca.

  15. [The diet, fortified with fluorine and its influence on strontium accumulation in bone tissue of animals].

    PubMed

    Dubtsov, G G; Novikova, Zh V; Komleva, V A

    2007-01-01

    The research work was devoted to accumulation of strontium-90 (Sr-90) in bone tissue of animals (white rats) and its dependence on the diet, enriched with Fluorine (F). Totally each rat received 18,5 MBk of strontium-90. Insertion of rusks, fortified with sodium fluoride to the rats dietary intake, reduces accumulation of strontium-90 in bone tissue for 26% comparatively to control group of animals. Stimulation action of fluorine on hematopoietic function of irradiated animals were also determined.

  16. Calcination temperature effect on the microstructure and dielectric properties of M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, J.; Sharma, Jyoti; Kumar, Sachin; Trudel, T. T. Carol; Srivastava, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    M-type hexagonal ferrites have found wide application in electronics industry due to the possibility of tuning properties such as dielectric properties. An improved dielectric property is useful in high frequency application. In this paper, we studied the effect of calcination temperature on structural and dielectric properties of Al-Mn substituted M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites with chemical composition Sr1-xAlxFe12-yMnyO19 (x=0.3 and y=0.6) synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The prepared sample was sintered at four different temperatures (T=750°C, 850°C, 950°C and 1050°C) for 5 hours. Characterisations of the synthesized samples were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), impedance analyser, field emission electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The dielectric properties were explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory and Maxwell Wagner theory. The sample calcinated at 750°C shows the highest value of dielectric constant and AC conductivity whereas that calcinated at 1050°C exhibit the lowest dielectric losses.

  17. Three-dimensional printing of strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Shichang; Zhu, Yufang; Huang, Yinjun; Zhu, Min; Tao, Cuilian; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we fabricated strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds with controlled architecture and enhanced mechanical strength using a three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique. The study showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds had uniform interconnected macropores and high porosity, and their compressive strength was ∼170 times that of polyurethane foam templated MBG scaffolds. The physicochemical and biological properties of Sr-MBG scaffolds were evaluated by ion dissolution, apatite-forming ability and proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteogenic expression and extracelluar matrix mineralization of osteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1. The results showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds exhibited a slower ion dissolution rate and more significant potential to stabilize the pH environment with increasing Sr substitution. Importantly, Sr-MBG scaffolds possessed good apatite-forming ability, and stimulated osteoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation. Using dexamethasone as a model drug, Sr-MBG scaffolds also showed a sustained drug delivery property for use in local drug delivery therapy, due to their mesoporous structure. Therefore, the 3-D printed Sr-MBG scaffolds combined the advantages of Sr-MBG such as good bone-forming bioactivity, controlled ion release and drug delivery and enhanced mechanical strength, and had potential application in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Strontium-doped hydroxyapatite polysaccharide materials effect on ectopic bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Aid-Launais, R.; Sagardoy, T.; Siadous, R.; Bareille, R.; Rey, S.; Pechev, S.; Etienne, L.; Kalisky, J.; de Mones, E.; Letourneur, D.; Amedee Vilamitjana, J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies performed using polysaccharide-based matrices supplemented with hydroxyapatite (HA) particles showed their ability to form in subcutaneous and intramuscular sites a mineralized and osteoid tissue. Our objectives are to optimize the HA content in the matrix and to test the combination of HA with strontium (Sr-HA) to increase the matrix bioactivity. First, non-doped Sr-HA powders were combined to the matrix at three different ratios and were implanted subcutaneously for 2 and 4 weeks. Interestingly, matrices showed radiolucent properties before implantation. Quantitative analysis of micro-CT data evidenced a significant increase of mineralized tissue formed ectopically with time of implantation and allowed us to select the best ratio of HA to polysaccharides of 30% (w/w). Then, two Sr-substitution of 8% and 50% were incorporated in the HA powders (8Sr-HA and 50Sr-HA). Both Sr-HA were chemically characterized and dispersed in matrices. In vitro studies performed with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) demonstrated the absence of cytotoxicity of the Sr-doped matrices whatever the amount of incorporated Sr. They also supported osteoblastic differentiation and activated the expression of one late osteoblastic marker involved in the mineralization process i.e. osteopontin. In vivo, subcutaneous implantation of these Sr-doped matrices induced osteoid tissue and blood vessels formation. PMID:28910401

  19. Studies of Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium

    PubMed Central

    Skoryna, Stanley C.; Paul, T. M.; Waldron-Edward, Deirdre

    1965-01-01

    A method is reported which permits selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, allowing calcium to be available to the body. Studies were carried out on the inhibitory effect of various amounts of sodium alginate and the dose-response relationship of Sr89 and bone uptake. The results obtained indicated that under laboratory conditions sodium alginate effectively reduces Sr89 uptake in a constant proportion. This effect was observed at the three levels of administration of 1.4%, 12% and 24% of sodium alginate. The linear relationship between the dosage of the radioisotope and the bone uptake in the presence of sodium alginate suggests that the same proportion is maintained at the lower levels of intake of radioactive strontium. Previous studies with small constant doses of sodium alginate were extended in rats to a period corresponding approximately to three years of human life span. Low doses were sufficient to reduce appreciably bone uptake of radiostrontium. PMID:14341649

  20. Layered metal sulfides: Exceptionally selective agents for radioactive strontium removal

    PubMed Central

    Manos, Manolis J.; Ding, Nan; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we report the family of robust layered sulfides K2xMnxSn3-xS6 (x = 0.5–0.95) (KMS-1). These materials feature hexagonal [MnxSn3-xS6]2x− slabs of the CdI2 type and contain highly mobile K+ ions in their interlayer space that are easily exchangeable with other cations and particularly strontium. KMS-1 display outstanding preference for strontium ions in highly alkaline solutions containing extremely large excess of sodium cations as well as in acidic environment where most alternative adsorbents with oxygen ligands are nearly inactive. The implication of these results is that simple layered sulfides should be considered for the efficient remediation of certain nuclear wastes. PMID:18316731

  1. Strontium eluting graphene hybrid nanoparticles augment osteogenesis in a 3D tissue scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sachin; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium particles. Thermal gravimetric analysis further confirmed the composition of the hybrid particles as 22 wt% of strontium. Macroporous tissue scaffolds were prepared by incorporating RGO_Sr particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL/RGO_Sr scaffolds were found to elute strontium ions in aqueous medium. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was significantly higher in the PCL scaffolds containing the RGO_Sr particles in contrast to neat PCL and PCL/RGO scaffolds. The increased biological activity can be attributed to the release of strontium ions from the hybrid nanoparticles. This study demonstrates that composites prepared using hybrid nanoparticles that elute strontium ions can be used to prepare multifunctional scaffolds with good mechanical and osteoinductive properties. These findings have important implications for designing the next generation of biomaterials for use in tissue regeneration.The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium

  2. Seawater strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdougall, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in seawater at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the seawater strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes.

  3. Economic aspects of drug substitution

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Hossein; Schweitzer, Stuart O.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major directions of health policy is the attempt to contain expenditures on pharmaceuticals by encouraging substitution of generic for brand name drug products. Yet, a major marketing survey of prescribing and dispensing patterns in California in 1977 found relatively little drug substitution occurring, and in fact substitution of more expensive products occurred more frequently than did substitution of less expensive products. This article tests alternative models of pharmacy dispensing behavior to better explain substitution patterns and it estimates price functions to measure the extent to which cost savings on generic products are passed on to consumers. PMID:10311162

  4. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jr., Milton W.; Bowers, Jr., Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

  5. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Davis, M.W. Jr.; Bowers, C.B. Jr.

    1988-06-07

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5[prime]) [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. 3 figs.

  6. P-type conductivity in annealed strontium titanate

    DOE PAGES

    Poole, Violet M.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2015-12-17

    In this study, Hall-effect measurements indicate p-type conductivity in bulk, single-crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO 3, or STO) samples that were annealed at 1200°C. Room temperature mobilities above 100 cm 2/Vs were measured, an order of magnitude higher than those for electrons (5-10 cm 2/Vs). Average hole densities were in the 10 9-10 10 cm -3 range, consistent with a deep acceptor.

  7. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.981 Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  8. Strontium borate glass: potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pan, H B; Zhao, X L; Zhang, X; Zhang, K B; Li, L C; Li, Z Y; Lam, W M; Lu, W W; Wang, D P; Huang, W H; Lin, K L; Chang, J

    2010-07-06

    Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid release of boron, but also induce the adhesion of osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2, thus significantly increasing the cyto-compatibility of borate glass. The formation of multilayers of apatite with porous structure indicates that complete degradation is optimistic, and the spread of SaOS-2 covered by apatite to form a sandwich structure may induce bone-like tissue formation at earlier stages. Therefore, such novel strontium-incorporated borosilicate may act as a new generation of biomaterial for bone regeneration, which not only renders boron as a nutritious element for bone health, but also delivers strontium to stimulate formation of new bones.

  9. Strontium borate glass: potential biomaterial for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pan, H. B.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, K. B.; Li, L. C.; Li, Z. Y.; Lam, W. M.; Lu, W. W.; Wang, D. P.; Huang, W. H.; Lin, K. L.; Chang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid release of boron, but also induce the adhesion of osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2, thus significantly increasing the cyto-compatibility of borate glass. The formation of multilayers of apatite with porous structure indicates that complete degradation is optimistic, and the spread of SaOS-2 covered by apatite to form a sandwich structure may induce bone-like tissue formation at earlier stages. Therefore, such novel strontium-incorporated borosilicate may act as a new generation of biomaterial for bone regeneration, which not only renders boron as a nutritious element for bone health, but also delivers strontium to stimulate formation of new bones. PMID:20031984

  10. Studies on Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium

    PubMed Central

    Paul, T. M.; Edward, Deirdre Waldron; Skoryna, Stanley C.

    1964-01-01

    A method is reported that enables selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, permitting calcium to remain available to the body. Studies were carried out by measuring blood levels and bone uptake of Sr89 and Ca45 at different time intervals after orogastric intubation of rats. The addition of sodium alginate, derived from brown marine algae, to the radioactive isotopes increased the overall physiological discrimination against strontium by amounts up to 60% after 24 hours. This discrimination was further increased by feeding sodium alginate mixed with standard diet in the proportions of 20:80 and 30:70. The observed ratio was reduced by administration of sodium alginate from 0.25 to 0.09. Determination of the limiting dosage in rats is restricted to the amounts which rats will consume. In the event of an inadvertent release of radioactive strontium, human subjects probably could increase their intake of alginate at will, permitting a greater effectiveness of sodium alginate than could be obtained in experimental animals. PMID:14176062

  11. TRPV3 channels mediate strontium-induced mouse egg activation

    PubMed Central

    Carvacho, Ingrid; Lee, Hoi Chang; Fissore, Rafael A.; Clapham, David E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In mammals, calcium influx is required for oocyte maturation and egg activation. The molecular identities of the calcium-permeant channels that underlie the initiation of embryonic development are not established. Here, we describe a Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channel current activated by TRP agonists that is absent in TrpV3−/− eggs. TRPV3 current is differentially expressed during oocyte maturation, reaching a peak of maximum density and activity at metaphase of meiosis II (MII), the stage of fertilization. Selective activation of TRPV3 channels provokes egg activation by mediating massive calcium entry. Widely used to activate eggs, strontium application is known to yield normal offspring in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer. We show that TRPV3 is required for strontium influx, as TrpV3−/− eggs failed to permeate Sr2+ or undergo strontium-induced activation. We propose that TRPV3 is the major mediator of calcium influx in mouse eggs and is a putative target for artificial egg activation. PMID:24316078

  12. Methodologies in Creating Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    The creation of skin substitutes has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality of skin wounds. Although there are still a number of disadvantages of currently available skin substitutes, there has been a significant decline in research advances over the past several years in improving these skin substitutes. Clinically most skin substitutes used are acellular and do not use growth factors to assist wound healing, key areas of potential in this field of research. This article discusses the five necessary attributes of an ideal skin substitute. It comprehensively discusses the three major basic components of currently available skin substitutes: scaffold materials, growth factors, and cells, comparing and contrasting what has been used so far. It then examines a variety of techniques in how to incorporate these basic components together to act as a guide for further research in the field to create cellular skin substitutes with clinically better results. PMID:27154041

  13. An evaluation of strontium chloride, Rappaport and strontium selenite enrichment for the isolation of salmonellas from man, animals, meat products and abbattoir effluents

    PubMed Central

    Iveson, J. B.; Mackay-Scollay, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Strontium chloride enrichment broth was found to be comparable to Rappaport broth for the recovery of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes from man, animals, meat products and effluents. With the exception of cloacal samples from reptiles, both procedures were superior to selenite F. The performance of strontium chloride Mand selenite F enrichment was improved when effluent samples were incubated at 43° C. Strontium chloride M and Rappaport enrichment were superior to selenite F for the isolation of Arizona species from reptiles. Strontium chloride B, strontium selenite and Rappaport broths were found suitable for the isolation of multiple Salmonella serotypes from sea water contaminated with abattoir effluents. The strontium chloride B and strontium selenite enrichment media were superior to Rappaport broth when samples were incubated at 43° C. Modified bismuth sulphite agar was found superior to Salmonella—Shigella agar as a solid subculture medium. The investigation of a food poisoning outbreak due to Salmonella typhimurium phage type 21 is reported. The significance of the choice of sampling and isolation techniques in salmonellosis in man and animals is discussed. PMID:4503874

  14. Trifluoromethyl-substituted polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Current work sponsored by the grant at Southwest Texas State University is directed toward the synthesis and characterization of: (1) N-alkylated polyamides derived from o-fluorinated diacids; (2) highly fluorinated polyethers; (3) polyesters derived from 2-hydroxy-2-propyl substituted arenes and/or 2,5-difluoroterephthalic acid; and (4) silicon-containing fluoropolymers. Work during the period from 1 July to 31 Dec. 1993 focused primarily on items 3 and 4 and on the development of a phosphorus containing modification of '12F-PEK.'

  15. Soluble Ethylmercapto Substituted Polythiophenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    r - * aS 7 C- CgSnrmnue on reverse if necessary ari a envtiy OY aOCK numnoer) Polymners o -vmrat and 3’.4-bis(ethyirrercapto’ thiophenes have been...svrnthesized and Cn’ara’cserized. These polymers are soluble in com mon organic soivents such as mehlen c0oie cirrr and T1{F. Su-ucsjr...icharacserizanion using FT-ER and NMNR specuaoscopy show that these polymners have a * ve~~Jer~ed( tnlimercamto substituted 1.5-(thienylene) ocjivmeric structure

  16. Hexavalent Chromium Substitution Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-12

    Hexavalent Chromium Substitution Projects Date (12 May 2011) Gene McKinley ASC/WNV (937) 255-3596 Gene.McKinley@wpafb.af.mil Aeronautical Systems...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 12 MAY 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hexavalent ...A-10) – AETC (T-6, T-38 and T1A) • Both Cr Primers & Non-Cr primers as well as Cr Surface Treatment – F-22 8 Non- Chrome Tie-coat & touch-up

  17. Forage grasses with lower uptake of caesium and strontium could provide ‘safer’ crops for radiologically contaminated areas

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Nicholas A.; Crout, Neil M. J.; Lovatt, J. Alan; Thomson, Russell; Broadley, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Substitution of a species or cultivar with higher uptake of an element by one with lower uptake has been proposed as a remediation strategy following accidental releases of radioactivity. However, despite the importance of pasture systems for radiological dose, species/cultivar substitution has not been thoroughly investigated for forage grasses. 397 cultivars from four forage grass species; hybrid ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. x Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.); were sampled from 19 field-based breeding experiments in Aberystwyth and Edinburgh (UK) in spring 2013 and analysed for caesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) concentrations. In order to calculate concentration ratios (CRs; the concentration of an element in a plant in relation to the concentration in the soil), soils from the experiments were also analysed to calculate extractable concentrations of Cs and Sr. To test if cultivars have consistently low Cs and Sr concentration ratios, 17 hybrid ryegrass cultivars were sampled from both sites again in summer 2013 and spring and summer 2014. Tall fescue cultivars had lower Cs and Sr CRs than the other species. Three of the selected 17 hybrid ryegrass cultivars had consistently low Cs CRs, two had consistently low Sr CRs and one had consistently low Cs and Sr CRs. Cultivar substitution could reduce Cs CRs by up to 14-fold and Sr CRs by 4-fold in hybrid ryegrass. The identification of species and cultivars with consistently low CRs suggests that species or cultivar substitution could be an effective remediation strategy for contaminated areas. PMID:28459808

  18. 40 CFR 721.5253 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, strontium salt (PMN P-99-1341; CAS No. 235083-90-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt. 721.5253 Section 721.5253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5253 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, strontium salt (PMN P-99-1341; CAS No. 235083-90-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt. 721.5253 Section 721.5253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5253 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, strontium salt (PMN P-99-1341; CAS No. 235083-90-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt. 721.5253 Section 721.5253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5253 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, strontium salt (PMN P-99-1341; CAS No. 235083-90-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt. 721.5253 Section 721.5253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, strontium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting...

  2. 10 CFR 32.61 - Ice detection devices containing strontium-90; requirements for license to manufacture or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ice detection devices containing strontium-90... Generally Licensed Items § 32.61 Ice detection devices containing strontium-90; requirements for license to... ice detection devices containing strontium-90 for distribution to persons generally licensed under...

  3. 10 CFR 32.61 - Ice detection devices containing strontium-90; requirements for license to manufacture or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ice detection devices containing strontium-90... Generally Licensed Items § 32.61 Ice detection devices containing strontium-90; requirements for license to... ice detection devices containing strontium-90 for distribution to persons generally licensed under...

  4. 10 CFR 32.61 - Ice detection devices containing strontium-90; requirements for license to manufacture or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ice detection devices containing strontium-90... Generally Licensed Items § 32.61 Ice detection devices containing strontium-90; requirements for license to... ice detection devices containing strontium-90 for distribution to persons generally licensed under...

  5. 10 CFR 32.61 - Ice detection devices containing strontium-90; requirements for license to manufacture or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ice detection devices containing strontium-90... Generally Licensed Items § 32.61 Ice detection devices containing strontium-90; requirements for license to... ice detection devices containing strontium-90 for distribution to persons generally licensed under...

  6. Explicit Substitutions and All That

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar; Busnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the Lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda(sigma)- and lambda(s(e))-calculi.

  7. Explicit Substitutions and All That

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar

    2000-01-01

    Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda sigma- and lambda S(e)-calculi.

  8. Why does trigonometric substitution work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Daniel W.

    2018-05-01

    Modern calculus textbooks carefully illustrate how to perform integration by trigonometric substitution. Unfortunately, most of these books do not adequately justify this powerful technique of integration. In this article, we present an accessible proof that establishes the validity of integration by trigonometric substitution. The proof offers calculus instructors a simple argument that can be used to show their students that trigonometric substitution is a valid technique of integration.

  9. Full-Scale and Bench-Scale Studies on the Removal of Strontium from Water (abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strontium (Sr) is a natural and commonly occurring alkaline earth metal which has an oxidation state of +2 under normal environmental conditions. Stable strontium is suspended in water and is dissolved after water runs through rocks and soil. It behaves very similar to calcium. G...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10423 - Complex strontium aluminate, rare earth doped (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... earth doped (generic). 721.10423 Section 721.10423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10423 Complex strontium aluminate, rare earth doped... substances identified generically as complex strontium aluminate, rare earth doped (PMNs P-12-22, P-12-23, P...

  11. The use of synthesized aqueous solutions for determining strontium sorption isotherms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liszewski, M.J.; Bunde, R.L.; Hemming, C.; Rosentreter, J.; Welhan, J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of synthesized aqueous solutions for determining experimentally derived strontium sorption isotherms of sediment was investigated as part of a study accessing strontium chemical transport properties. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium sorption isotherms using synthesized aqueous solutions designed to chemically represent water from a natural aquifer with respect to major ionic character and pH. A strontium sorption isotherm for a sediment derived using a synthesized aqueous solution was found to be most comparable to an isotherm derived using natural water when the synthesized aqueous solution contained similar concentrations of calcium and magnesium. However, it is difficult to match compositions exactly due to the effects of disequilibrium between the solution and the sediment. Strong linear relations between sorbed strontium and solution concentrations of calcium and magnesium confirm that these cations are important co-constituents in these synthesized aqueous solutions. Conversely, weak linear relations between sorbed strontium and solution concentrations of sodium and potassium indicate that these constituents do not affect sorption of strontium. The addition of silica to the synthesized aqueous solution does not appreciably affect the resulting strontium sorption isotherm.

  12. Intestinal absorption of strontium chloride in healthy volunteers: pharmacokinetics and reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    SIPS, A. J. A. M.; van der VIJGH, W. J. F.; BARTO, R.; NETELENBOS, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    1The absorption kinetics of orally administered strontium chloride and its reproducibility were investigated in healthy volunteers after administering strontium either under fasting conditions (study I, n=8) or in combination with a standardized meal (study II, n=8). Each subject received strontium orally at day 0, 14, and 28 and intravenously at day 42. The study was performed as part of a project in which a simple clinical test for measuring intestinal calcium absorption is being developed, based on the use of stable strontium as a marker. 2Plasma strontium concentration–time curves were analysed by noncompartment analysis and a four compartment disposition model. Within a volunteer each oral curve was fitted simultaneously with the intravenous curve, by which means a two segment model for absorption was revealed. 3Mean absolute bioavailability of strontium was 25% without a meal and 19% with a meal, whereas the intraindividual variation was 24% and 20%, respectively. 4Various limited sampling absorption parameters were determined in order to select a potential test parameter for measuring intestinal calcium absorption using strontium as a marker. Fractional absorption at 4 h (Fc240), obtained after co-ingestion of strontium with a meal, appeared to be the best test parameter, because it represented bioavailability well (r=0.90). PMID:8799520

  13. Sorption of strontium-90 from fresh waters during sulfate modification of barium manganite

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhen`kov, A.P.; Egorov, Yu.V.

    1995-11-01

    Recovery of strontium-90 with barium manganite from fresh waters (natural fresh waters of open basins) can be increased by adding agents that contain sulfate ions and thus modify the sorbent and chemically bind the sorbate. The treatment results in a heterogeneous anion-exchange transformation of barium manganite into barium sulfate-manganese dioxide and in simultaneous absorptive coprecipitation of strontium sulfate (microcomponent).

  14. STRONTIUM-90 IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS OF ARCTIC ALASKA, 1959-61.

    PubMed

    WATSON, D G; HANSON, W C; DAVIS, J J

    1964-05-22

    The strontium-90 content of the biota near Cape Thompson, Alaska, was related to environmental factors. In plants, perennials with persistent aerial parts had maximum and similar concentrations of strontium-90. The content of caribou muscle varied seasonally and was highest in winter when lichens were an important caribou food.

  15. Determination of variables in the prediction of strontium distribution coefficients for selected sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pace, M.N.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Idaho State University and the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, conducted a study to determine and evaluate strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of subsurface materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Kds were determined to aid in assessing the variability of strontium Kds and their effects on chemical transport of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer system. Data from batch experiments done to determine strontium Kds of five sediment-infill samples and six standard reference material samples were analyzed by using multiple linear regression analysis and the stepwise variable-selection method in the statistical program, Statistical Product and Service Solutions, to derive an equation of variables that can be used to predict strontium Kds of sediment-infill samples. The sediment-infill samples were from basalt vesicles and fractures from a selected core at the INEEL; strontium Kds ranged from ???201 to 356 ml g-1. The standard material samples consisted of clay minerals and calcite. The statistical analyses of the batch-experiment results showed that the amount of strontium in the initial solution, the amount of manganese oxide in the sample material, and the amount of potassium in the initial solution are the most important variables in predicting strontium Kds of sediment-infill samples.

  16. Quantitative bioanalysis of strontium in human serum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Somarouthu, Srikanth; Ohh, Jayoung; Shaked, Jonathan; Cunico, Robert L; Yakatan, Gerald; Corritori, Suzana; Tami, Joe; Foehr, Erik D

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A bioanalytical method using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to measure endogenous levels of strontium in human serum was developed and validated. Results & methodology: This article details the experimental procedures used for the method development and validation thus demonstrating the application of the inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method for quantification of strontium in human serum samples. The assay was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability. Significant endogenous levels of strontium are present in human serum samples ranging from 19 to 96 ng/ml with a mean of 34.6 ± 15.2 ng/ml (SD). Discussion & conclusion: Calibration procedures and sample pretreatment were simplified for high throughput analysis. The validation demonstrates that the method was sensitive, selective for quantification of strontium (88Sr) and is suitable for routine clinical testing of strontium in human serum samples. PMID:28031925

  17. THE BEHAVIOR OF STRONTIUM-90 IN SOILS AND PLANTS AND AGRICULTURAL PRECAUTIONS FOR LESSENING THE STRONTIUM-90 CONTAMINATION OF FOOD (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffer, F.; Ludwieg, F.

    The development of dirty atom bombs (hydrogen bombs with a uranium mantle) and the resultant high radioactive fall-out have made the strontium-90 contamination of foodstuffs a serious problem for humanity. The literature of recent years is used to survey the behavior of strontium-90 in plants and soil, and to discuss agricultural measures which could be taken to lessen the contamination of foodstuffs in case of atomic warfare. (auth)

  18. Strontium iodide gamma ray spectrometers for planetary science (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Rowe, Emmanuel; Butler, Jarrhett; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Lambert, James L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Beck, Patrick R.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Feldman, Sabrina M.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-09-01

    Gamma rays produced passively by cosmic ray interactions and by the decay of radioelements convey information about the elemental makeup of planetary surfaces and atmospheres. Orbital missions mapped the composition of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Vesta, and now Ceres. Active neutron interrogation will enable and/or enhance in situ measurements (rovers, landers, and sondes). Elemental measurements support planetary science objectives as well as resource utilization and planetary defense initiatives. Strontium iodide, an ultra-bright scintillator with low nonproportionality, offers significantly better energy resolution than most previously flown scintillators, enabling improved accuracy for identification and quantification of key elements. Lanthanum bromide achieves similar resolution; however, radiolanthanum emissions obscure planetary gamma rays from radioelements K, Th, and U. The response of silicon-based optical sensors optimally overlaps the emission spectrum of strontium iodide, enabling the development of compact, low-power sensors required for space applications, including burgeoning microsatellite programs. While crystals of the size needed for planetary measurements (>100 cm3) are on the way, pulse-shape corrections to account for variations in absorption/re-emission of light are needed to achieve maximum resolution. Additional challenges for implementation of large-volume detectors include optimization of light collection using silicon-based sensors and assessment of radiation damage effects and energetic-particle induced backgrounds. Using laboratory experiments, archived planetary data, and modeling, we evaluate the performance of strontium iodide for future missions to small bodies (asteroids and comets) and surfaces of the Moon and Venus. We report progress on instrument design and preliminary assessment of radiation damage effects in comparison to technology with flight heritage.

  19. Effect of strontium ranelate on fracture healing in rat tibia.

    PubMed

    Cebesoy, Oguz; Tutar, Ediz; Kose, Kamil Cagri; Baltaci, Yasemin; Bagci, Cahit

    2007-12-01

    Various anti-osteoporotic agents are available for clinical use. In contrast to other anti-osteoporotic drugs, strontium ranelate has anti-resorptive and bone-forming effects (dual action). Our objective in the present study is to investigate the efficacy of strontium ranelate (SR) on fracture healing in rat tibia. Forty-two male Wistar rats randomized into two groups (groups 1 and 2, n=21 for each). Left tibiae of all animals were broken in a closed manner using a manual three-point bending technique through mid-tibia following deep anesthesia with ketamine. The animals in group 1 were fed 25g/day specially produced food containing 450mg/kg SR starting from the first post-operative day. Group 2 were given 25g/day normal food. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th post-operative weeks (each week 7 animals were sacrificed from each group) and the broken tibiae were removed. The tibiae were examined first radiographically and second, histopathologically. Radiologically, callus maturity and bone union increased with time in both groups. But no significant differences were found regarding callus maturity and bone union in weekly comparisons (p=0.52, p=0.19, p=0.74). Histopathologically, it was seen that the fractures remarkably healed steadily in both groups on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th post-operative weeks. But no significant differences were found regarding the progression of fracture callus in weekly comparison (p=1.0, p=0.52, p=1.0). In the present study, we were unable to find any beneficial or harmful effects of strontium ranelate on fracture healing.

  20. Frequency stability measurement of pulsed superradiance from strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norcia, Matthew; Cline, Julia; Robinson, John; Ye, Jun; Thompson, James

    2017-04-01

    Superradiant laser light from an ultra-narrow optical transition holds promise as a next-generation of active frequency references. We have recently demonstrated pulsed lasing on the milliHertz linewidth clock transition in strontium. Here, we present the first frequency comparisons between such a superradiant source and a state of the art stable laser system. We characterize the stability of the superradiant system, and demonstrate a reduction in sensitivity to cavity frequency fluctuations of nearly five orders of magnitude compared to a conventional laser. DARPA QUASAR, NIST, NSF PFC.

  1. Photoluminescence properties of non-stoichiometric strontium zirconate powder phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarý, V.; Boháček, P.; Mihóková, E.; Havlák, L.; Trunda, B.; Nikl, M.

    2013-03-01

    Excitation and emission spectra and decay kinetics of non-stoichiometric strontium zirconate powder phosphor were measured in the 8-500 K temperature interval. Phenomenological model was applied to extract quantitative parameters of the excited state levels and nonradiative quenching pathways related to the luminescence centre. Delayed recombination integrals measurement was employed to investigate the occurrence of thermally induced ionization of the excited state of the emission centre. The nature of the emission centre itself is suggested. Suitability for phosphor and scintillation application is discussed.

  2. Synthesis and thermal properties of strontium and calcium peroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H.; Kraft, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    A practical synthesis and a discussion of some chemical properties of pure strontium peroxide and calcium peroxide are presented. The general synthesis of these peroxides involves precipitation of their octahydrates by addition of H2O2 to aqueous ammoniacal Sr(NO3)2 or CaCl2. The octahydrates are converted to the anhydrous peroxides by various dehydration techniques. A new x-ray diffraction powder pattern for CaO2 x 8H2O is given from which lattice parameters a=6.212830 and c=11.0090 were calculated on the basis of the tetragonal crystal system.

  3. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.

    2014-05-19

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  4. Diode-laser-based RIMS measurements of strontium-90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushaw, B. A.; Cannon, B. D.

    1998-12-01

    Double- and triple-resonance excitation schemes for the ionization of strontium are presented. Use of single-mode diode lasers for the resonance excitations provides a high degree of optical isotopic selectivity: with double-resonance, selectivity of >104 for 90Sr against the stable Sr isotopes has been demonstrated. Measurement of lineshapes and stable isotope shifts in the triple-resonance process indicate that optical selectivity should increase to ˜109. When combined with mass spectrometer selectivity this is sufficient for measurement of 90Sr at background environmental levels. Additionally, autoionizing resonances have been investigated for improving ionization efficiency with lower power lasers.

  5. Study on the Key Technology of High Purity Strontium Titanate Powder Synthesized from Oxalic Acid Co-sediment Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaoguo; Dong, Yingnan; Li, Yingjie; Niu, Wei; Tang, Jian; Ding, Shuang; Li, Meiyang

    2017-09-01

    Oxalate coprecipitation is applied in this paper, high purity titanium tetrachloride, and after the purification of strontium chloride, match with a certain concentration of solution, oxalate and strontium chloride and titanium tetrachloride in 1.005:1.000 make strontium titanium mixture ratio, slowly under 60°C to join in oxalic acid solution, aging around 4 h, get oxygen titanium strontium oxalate (SrTiO(C2O4)2 • 4H2 ) precipitation, after washing, drying and other process made oxygen titanium strontium oxalate powder.

  6. Substitution in recreation choice behavior

    Treesearch

    George L. Peterson; Daniel J. Stynes; Donald H. Rosenthal; John F. Dwyer

    1985-01-01

    This review discusses concepts and theories of substitution in recreation choice. It brings together the literature of recreation research, psychology, geography, economics, and transportation. Parallel and complementary developments need integration into an improved theory of substitution. Recreation decision behavior is characterized as a nested or sequential choice...

  7. Why Does Trigonometric Substitution Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Daniel W.

    2018-01-01

    Modern calculus textbooks carefully illustrate how to perform integration by trigonometric substitution. Unfortunately, most of these books do not adequately justify this powerful technique of integration. In this article, we present an accessible proof that establishes the validity of integration by trigonometric substitution. The proof offers…

  8. Generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Sander, Josemir W; Ryvlin, Philippe; Stefan, Hermann; Booth, Daniel R; Bauer, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    Substitution of antiepileptic drugs with generic formulations may affect individual people, as well as healthcare systems. Analyses of large medical claims databases suggest that generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs is associated with increased morbidity and greater use of healthcare resources. While a single brand-to-generic switch may be associated with a slight increase in overall medical costs, multiple switches may be associated with higher costs, perhaps because different generic agents are not required to be bioequivalent to each other. Generic substitution also affects the individual: along with the possible increased risk of seizures or adverse events, inconsistency of supply may make the medication appear unfamiliar, thus discouraging adherence. Importantly, substitution is often carried out at the dispensing level, without the knowledge or consent of physicians and affected individuals. Therefore, regulatory and professional bodies advocate that substitution should not be carried out without specific counseling of the individual by healthcare professionals on the details and implications of the change.

  9. Red cell substitutes.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen-carrying plasma expanders (blood substitutes) have been sought for over a century. Development of current products is a result of evolution in the understanding of proteins in general, of hemoglobin in particular, and of how cell-free hemoglobin interacts with the control of local blood flow to ensure adequate tissue oxygenation. Hemoglobin-based products are considered in four "generations" corresponding to major improvements. First-generation products consisted of hemoglobin, freed of red cell membranes (stroma-free hemoglobin [SFH]), which was renal toxic and vasoactive. Second-generation products were polymerized with aldehyde reagents to reduce or eliminate the renal toxicity, but the products were heterogeneous and still vasoactive. Third-generation products employed more specific intramolecular crosslinking to eliminate polymerization and promote homogeneity, but they also remained vasoactive. Fourth-generation products are based on a new understanding of the way in which microvascular blood flow is controlled and the influence of O(2) delivery to vascular walls. After more than a century of research, one of these new solutions should find use as an alternative to red cells for transfusion in certain clinical settings.

  10. How Do Substitute Teachers Substitute? An Empirical Study of Substitute-Teacher Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the daily labor supply of a potentially important, but often overlooked, source of instruction in U.S. public schools: substitute teachers. I estimate a sequential binary-choice model of substitute teachers' job-offer acceptance decisions using data on job offers made by a randomized automated calling system. Importantly, this…

  11. Tuning the physical properties in strontium iridate heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, John; Meyer, Tricia; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2015-03-01

    Strontium iridate (Srn+1IrnO3n+1) has received lots of attention recently for its potential to reveal novel physical phenomena due to strong spin-orbital coupling with an interaction energy comparable to that of the on-site Coulomb interaction and crystal field splitting. The coexistence of fundamental interactions has created an exotic Jeff = 1/2 antiferromagnetic insulating ground state in Sr2IrO4. In particular, it is known that this system can be driven into a metallic state with the simultaneous increase in dimensionality (n) and strain. We have investigated the effects of electron confinement by interfacing strontium iridates with other perovskite oxides. We have synthesized thin film heterostructures, SrIrO3/AMO3 (A = Sr, La; B = Ti, Mn, Rh), layer-by-layer with pulsed laser deposition equipped with reflection high-energy electron diffraction. Based on investigations with x-ray diffraction, dc transport, SQUID magnetometry, and various spectroscopic measurements, we will present that the physical properties of the heterostructures are strongly dependent on spatial confinement and epitaxial strain. *This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  12. Studies on the Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium

    PubMed Central

    Waldron-Edward, Deirdre; Paul, T. M.; Skoryna, Stanley C.

    1964-01-01

    A method is reported which permits selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, permitting calcium to be available to the body. Studies were carried out by measuring bone uptake of Sr89 and Ca45 when various amounts of sodium alginate were fed with the diet. Long-term studies were made in which two different levels of radioactivity were used, to determine the pattern of Sr89 deposition with continuous intake of binding agent. It was found that administration of sodium alginate as a jelly overcomes the problem of constipation and effectively reduces Sr89 uptake, up to 83%. This fact represents a significant finding with respect to the use of the compound in human subjects. Addition of sodium alginate to drinking water is effective with low levels of Sr89 intake. This naturally occurring water-soluble macromolecular substance possesses several advantages in use for the suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium when compared with synthetic ion exchange resins: there is no disturbance of electrolyte balance; efficiency is not reduced by treatment over a prolonged period of time; and finally, the product is palatable. PMID:14222668

  13. Studies on Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium

    PubMed Central

    Skoryna, Stanley C.; Paul, T. M.; Edward, Deirdre Waldron

    1964-01-01

    A method is reported which permits selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, permitting the calcium to be available to the body. Studies were carried out in vivo by injection of Sr89 and Ca45 in the presence of inert carrier into ligated intestinal segments in rats, and the amount of absorption was measured by standard monitoring techniques. The pattern of absorption of both ions is very similar but the rate of absorption is different. It was found that the polyelectrolyte, sodium alginate, obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), injected simultaneously with radiostrontium effectively reduces the absortion of Sr89 from all segments of the intestine by as much as 50-80% of the control values. No significant reduction in absorption of Ca45 was observed in equivalent concentrations. The reduction in blood levels of Sr89 and in bone uptake corresponded to the absorption pattern. The difference in the effect on strontium and calcium absorption may be due to differences in the binding capacity of sodium alginate from the two metal ions under the conditions present in vivo. PMID:14180534

  14. Characterization of Filters Loaded With Reactor Strontium Carbonate - 13203

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Walter S.; Steen, Franciska H.

    A collection of three highly radioactive filters containing reactor strontium carbonate were being prepared for disposal. All three filters were approximately characterized at the time of manufacture by gravimetric methods. The first filter had been partially emptied, and the quantity of residual activity was uncertain. Dose rate to activity modeling using the Monte-Carlo N Particle (MCNP) code was selected to confirm the gravimetric characterization of the full filters, and to fully characterize the partially emptied filter. Although dose rate to activity modeling using MCNP is a common technique, it is not often used for Bremsstrahlung-dominant materials such as reactor strontium.more » As a result, different MCNP modeling options were compared to determine the optimum approach. This comparison indicated that the accuracy of the results were heavily dependent on the MCNP modeling details and the location of the dose rate measurement point. The optimum model utilized a photon spectrum generated by the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion (ORIGEN) code and dose rates measured at 30 cm. Results from the optimum model agreed with the gravimetric estimates within 15%. It was demonstrated that dose rate to activity modeling can be successful for Bremsstrahlung-dominant radioactive materials. However, the degree of success is heavily dependent on the choice of modeling techniques. (authors)« less

  15. Quality control assurance of strontium-90 in foodstuffs by LSC.

    PubMed

    Lopes, I; Mourato, A; Abrantes, J; Carvalhal, G; Madruga, M J; Reis, M

    2014-11-01

    A method based on the separation of Sr-90 by extraction chromatography and beta determination by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique was used for strontium analysis in food samples. The methodology consisted in prior sample treatment (drying and incineration) followed by radiochemical separation of Sr-90 by extraction chromatography, using the Sr-resin. The chemical yield was determined by gravimetric method, adding stable strontium to the matrix. Beta activity (Sr-90/Y-90) was determined using a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer (Tri-Carb 3170 TR/SL, Packard). The accuracy and the precision of the method, was performed previously through recovery trials with Sr-90 spiked samples, using the same type of matrices (milk, complete meals, meat and vegetables). A reference material (IAEA_321) was now used to measure the accuracy of the procedure. Participation in interlaboratory comparison exercises was also performed in order to establish an external control on the measurements and to ensure the adequacy of the method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pore-Scale Transport of Strontium During Dynamic Water Content Changes in the Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, W.; Kibbey, T. C. G.; Papelis, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic water content changes in the unsaturated zone caused by natural and manmade processes, such as evaporation, rainfall, and irrigation, have an effect on contaminant mobility. In general, in the unsaturated zone, evaporation causes an increase in contaminant concentrations, potentially leading to sorption of contaminants on aquifer materials or precipitation of crystalline or amorphous phases. On the other hand, increase of water content may result in dissolution of precipitated phases and increased mobility of contaminants. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative model for the transport of strontium through sand under dynamic water content conditions, as a function of strontium concentration, pH, and ionic strength. Strontium was selected as a surrogate for strontium-90, a by-product of nuclear reactions. The dynamic water content was determined using an automated device for rapidly measuring the hysteretic capillary pressure—saturation relationship, followed by ambient air evaporation, and gravimetric water content measurement. Strontium concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow interruption experiments were conducted to determine whether equilibrium conditions existed for a given flowrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize the treated quartz sand particles and the distribution of strontium on sand grains was determined using elemental maps created by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Strontium behavior appears to be pH dependent as well as ionic strength dependent under these conditions.

  17. Organic composite-mediated surface coating of human acellular bone matrix with strontium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Wang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yong-Can; Wu, Cheng-Guang; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chao-Liang; Bai, Lin; Xie, Hui-Qi; Li, Zhao-Yang; Deng, Li

    2018-03-01

    Acellular bone matrix (ACBM) provides an osteoconductive scaffold for bone repair, but its osteoinductivity is poor. Strontium (Sr) improves the osteoinductivity of bone implants. In this study, we developed an organic composite-mediated strontium coating strategy for ACBM scaffolds by using the ion chelating ability of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and the surface adhesion ability of dopamine (DOPA). The organic coating composite, termed the CMC-DOPA-Sr composite, was synthesized under a mild condition, and its chemical structure and strontium ion chelating ability were then determined. After surface decoration, the physicochemical properties of the strontium-coated ACBM (ACBM-Sr) scaffolds were characterized, and their biocompatibility and osteoinductivity were determined in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the CMC-DOPA-Sr composite facilitated strontium coating on the surface of ACBM scaffolds. The ACBM-Sr scaffolds possessed a sustained strontium ion release profile, exhibited good cytocompatibility, and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Furthermore, the ACBM-Sr scaffolds showed good histocompatibility after subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Taken together, this study provided a simple and mild strategy to realize strontium coating for ACBM scaffolds, which resulted in good biocompatibility and improved osteoinductivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Li-Juan; Tang, Lu-Ying; The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630

    2012-01-15

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th,more » 75th) {mu}g/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42-3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53-33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.« less

  19. Intravenous strontium gluconate as a kinetic marker for calcium in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, M E; Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G

    1991-01-01

    1. We have studied the pharmacokinetics of stable strontium in 10 healthy male volunteers. We gave each volunteer 5 mmol strontium gluconate by intravenous infusion over 1 h and measured strontium concentrations in plasma and urine samples for 20 days. The plasma strontium concentration vs time data for each volunteer were fitted by a triexponential function using NONLIN. Compartmental model-dependent and model-independent pharmacokinetic variables were then calculated. 2. The mean half-life we report (5.4 days) is longer than that previously reported (about 2 days), since we continued sampling for 20 days. However, the rates of clearance (CL 9.4 ml min-1. CLR 5.4 ml min-1, and CLNR 4.0 ml min-1) are similar to those previously reported, and the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (64 l) is similar to the values previously reported for the size of the exchangeable pool of both strontium and calcium. 3. The similarities in the pharmacokinetic behavior of strontium and calcium suggest that the in vivo disposition of strontium may be used as a marker of calcium disposition and for studying the effects of drugs such as the calcium antagonists. PMID:2049251

  20. Osteogenic efficacy of strontium hydroxyapatite micro-granules in osteoporotic rat model.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Sunitha; Babu S, Suresh; Vs, Hari Krishnan; Varma, H K; John, Annie

    2016-10-01

    Excessive demineralization in osteoporotic bones impairs its self-regeneration potential following a defect/fracture and is of great concern among the aged population. In this context, implants with inherent osteogenic ability loaded with therapeutic ions like Strontium (Sr 2+ ) may bring forth promising outcomes. Micro-granular Strontium incorporated Hydroxyapatite scaffolds have been synthesized and in vivo osteogenic efficacy was evaluated in a long-term osteoporosis-induced aged (LOA) rat model. Micro-granules with improved surface area are anticipated to resorb faster and together with the inherent bioactive properties of Hydroxyapatite with the leaching of Strontium ions from the scaffold, osteoporotic bone healing may be promoted. Long-term osteoporosis-induced aged rat model was chosen to extrapolate the results to clinical osteoporotic condition in the aged. Micro-granular 10% Strontium incorporated Hydroxyapatite synthesized by wet precipitation method exhibited increased in vitro dissolution rate and inductively coupled plasma studies confirmed Strontium ion release of 0.01 mM, proving its therapeutic potential for osteoporotic applications. Wistar rats were induced to long-term osteoporosis-induced aged model by ovariectomy along with a prolonged induction period of 10 months. Thereafter, osteogenic efficacy of Strontium incorporated Hydroxyapatite micro-granules was evaluated in femoral bone defects in the long-term osteoporosis-induced aged model. Post eight weeks of implantation in vivo regeneration efficacy ratio was highest in the Strontium incorporated Hydroxyapatite implanted group (0.92 ± 0.04) compared to sham and Hydroxyapatite implanted group. Micro CT evaluation further substantiated the improved osteointegration of Strontium incorporated Hydroxyapatite implants from the density histograms. Thus, the therapeutical potential of micro-granular Strontium incorporated Hydroxyapatite scaffolds becomes relevant, especially as bone void

  1. Phase Equilibria of the Brine Systems Containing Strontium and Calcium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xia; Zhao, Kaiyu; Li, Long; Guo, Yafei; Meng, Lingzong; Deng, Tianlong

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the comprehensive utilization of the Salt Lake resources successfully must be guided corresponding to the aqueous phase equilibria and phase diagrams. Researches on the phase relationships of brine systems containing calcium and strontium ions are essential to promote the development for the relative resources discovered in China at recent years. In this paper, the phase equilibria of calcium-containing systems, strontium-containing systems and calcium-strontium coexisted brine systems around the world were reviewed. The problems existed recently and new trends in future were point out.

  2. Strontium-90 in deciduous teeth in Finland. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, L; Rytömaa, I

    1975-01-01

    Deciduous teeth of Finnish children born in 1958-1967 were analysed for strontium-90 by means of Cerenkov radiation. The strontium-90 content was about 9 pCi/gCa in children born in 1963--1964; the values decreased strongly in the subsequent cohorts of children. The strontium-90 content of the deciduous teeth varied in perfect unison with that of cow's milk (r=+0.99). The results confirm that deciduous teeth provide a practical and accurate indicator of the total body burden of bone-seeking environmental pollutants.

  3. Fast, low-level detection of strontium-90 and strontium-89 in environmental samples by collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monz, L.; Hohmann, R.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kunze, S.; Lantzsch, J.; Otten, E. W.; Passler, G.; Senne, P.; Stenner, J.; Stratmann, K.; Swendt, K.; Zimmer, K.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Walter, K.

    1993-12-01

    Environmental assessment in the wake of a nuclear accident requires the rapid determination of the radiotoxic isotopes 89Sr and 90Sr. Useful measurements must be able to detect 10 8 atoms in the presence of about 10 18 atoms of the stable, naturally occurring isotopes. This paper describes a new approach to this problem using resonance ionization spectroscopy in collinear geometry, combined with classical mass separation. After collection and chemical separation, the strontium from a sample is surface-ionized and the ions are accelerated to an energy of about 30 keV. Initially, a magnetic mass separator provides an isotopic selectivity of about 10 6. The ions are then neutralized by charge exchange and the resulting fast strontium atoms are selectively excited into high-lying atomic Rydberg states by narrow-band cw laser light in collinear geometry. The Rydberg atoms are then field-ionized and detected. Thus far, a total isotopic selectivity of S > 10 10 and an overall efficiency of ξ = 5 × 10 -6 have been achieved. The desired detection limit of 10 8 atoms 90Sr has been demonstrated with synthetic samples.

  4. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the signing of 1987 Montreal Protocol, reducing and eliminating the use of harmful solvents has become an internationally imminent environmental protection mission. Solvent substitution is an effective way to achieve this goal. The Program for Assisting the Replacement of...

  5. Removal of strontium from drinking water by conventional treatment and lime softening in bench-scale studies.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Alissa J; Lytle, Darren A; Harmon, Stephen; Vu, Kevin; Chait, Hannah; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-10-15

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. Very limited data is available on strontium removal from drinking water and as a result, there is an immediate need for treatment information. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of coagulation/filtration and lime-soda ash softening treatment methods to remove strontium from surface and ground waters. Coagulation/filtration jar test results on natural waters showed that conventional treatment with aluminum and iron coagulants were able to achieve only 12% and 5.9% strontium removal, while lime softening removed as high as 78% from natural strontium-containing ground water. Controlled batch experiments on synthetic water showed that strontium removal during the lime-soda ash softening was affected by pH, calcium concentration and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. In all softening jar tests, the final strontium concentration was directly related to the initial strontium concentration and the removal of strontium was directly associated with calcium removal. Precipitated solids showed well-formed crystals or agglomerates of mixed solids, two polymorphs of calcium carbonate (vaterite and calcite), and strontianite, depending on initial water quality conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that strontium was likely incorporated in the calcium carbonate crystal lattice and was likely responsible for removal during lime softening. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Interactive effects of vitamin D3 and strontium on performance, nutrient retention and bone mineral composition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Browning, Linda C; Cowieson, Aaron J

    2015-03-30

    Strontium is currently prescribed for patients with osteoporosis to increase bone density and reduce bone fractures but its relevance in animal nutrition is obscure. In order to investigate the effect of supplemental strontium and vitamin D3 on performance, egg quality and skeletal integrity in poultry a total of 108 laying hens, 99 weeks of age, were fed three levels of strontium (0, 500, 1000 mg kg(-1) ) and two levels of vitamin D3 (2500, 5,000 iu kg(-1)) over a 12-week period. There was an improvement (P < 0.05) in egg production and feed conversion efficiency with strontium at 500 mg kg(-1) and a significant increase in egg weight in those hens fed additional vitamin D3 . Supplemental strontium increased phosphorus, sodium and strontium retention in birds fed 2500 iu D3 kg(-1) but reduced phosphorus, sodium and strontium retention in birds fed 5000 iu D3 kg(-1), resulting in an interaction (P < 0.01) between strontium and vitamin D3 . Addition of 5000 iu D3 kg(-1) increased egg weight (P < 0.05); predominantly by increased albumen content (P < 0.05), whereas strontium supplementation reduced egg weight (P < 0.001). Similarly, 5000 iu kg(-1) D3 increased apparent metabolizable energy (P < 0.05); in contrast, strontium supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) apparent metabolizable energy. The addition of 500 mg kg(-1) strontium significantly improved egg production and feed efficiency; however, further investigation needs to be undertaken to refine the optimum level of strontium required to maximize hen performance. The interrelationship between strontium and vitamin D3 requires further exploratory study. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis and strontium in prevention of osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Wang, Pu-jie; Guo, Wen-jun; Yan, Ya-bo; Zhang, Yang; Lei, Wei

    2011-10-01

    The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) and strontium ranelate on ovariectomized osteopenic rats was studied in this paper. After the rats were treated orally with C. sinensis, strontium, and C. sinensis rich in strontium ranelate (CSS) respectively, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine, C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX), estradiol, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) level were examined. The beneficial effects of CSS on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, CTX level, and IFN-γ level. At the same time, CSS also increase the OC and estradiol level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. This study demonstrates the value of C. sinensis rich in strontium ranelate in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis in humans.

  8. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals andd scintillators implementing the same

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A; Cherepy, Nerine J; Hull, Giulia E; Drobshoff, Alexander D; Burger, Arnold

    2013-11-12

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector according to another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, wherein a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 A method for manufacturing a crystal suitable for use in a scintillator includes mixing strontium iodide-containing crystals with a source of Eu.sup.2+, heating the mixture above a melting point of the strontium iodide-containing crystals, and cooling the heated mixture near the seed crystal for growing a crystal. Additional materials, systems, and methods are presented.

  9. Strontium-90: effects of chronic ingestion on farrowing performance of miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W J; Palmer, R F; Howard, E B; Hackett, P L; Thomas, J M

    1970-08-07

    In experiments involving the ingestion of strontium-90 by nearly 800 female miniature swine and extending over three generations, no significant differences in litter size, percentage of stillborn, or birth weight were observed between controls and animals ingesting up to 625 microcuries of strontium-90 per day. At 625 microcuries per day, these animals were ingesting more than a million times the peak value of strontium-90 ever reported in the American diet. Animals on 3100 microcuries per day did not survive the gestation period. From these studies, it is evident that feeding levels of strontium-90 high enough to affect fetal or neonatal mortality in this species will not permit maternal survival long enough for the bearing of young.

  10. Management of canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma with lamellar keratectomy and strontium 90 plesiotherapy: 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Nevile, Jessica C; Hurn, Simon D; Turner, Andrew G; McCowan, Christina

    2015-05-01

    To report three cases of canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with strontium 90 beta radiation as an adjunct to surgical excision. Corneal SCC was excised with lamellar keratectomy. This was followed by local application of strontium 90 beta radiation. Available case follow-up times range from 3 to 50 months. One case suffered a recurrence 5 months following initial excision and strontium 90 treatment. Strontium 90 beta radiation has been used extensively as an adjunctive treatment for equine corneal SCC and in other canine ocular tumors; however, there is a paucity of information regarding use in canine corneal SCC. The cases presented here suggest its use following keratectomy may be helpful in preventing disease recurrence. At the dosage used, severe adverse effects were not observed. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of potassium strontium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Wei, H.; Melcher, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, potassium strontium bromide activated with divalent europium, (KSr2Br5:Eu) has been studied. It has a monoclinic crystal structure and a density of 3.98 g/cm3. Two single crystals of KSr2Br5 doped with 5% Eu2+, with diameters of 13 mm and 22 mm, were grown in a two zone transparent furnace via the Bridgman technique. The X-ray excited emission spectrum consisted of a single peak at ∼427 nm due to the 5d-4f transition in Eu2+. The measured light yield and energy resolution at 662 keV was 75,000 ph/MeV and 3.5%. At low energies KSr2Br5:Eu 5% also displays good energy resolution, 6.7% at 122 keV and 7.9% at 59.5 keV.

  12. Multisite occupation of divalent dopants in barium and strontium titanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Yohandys A.; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2018-10-01

    Based on recent experimental and theoretical proofs of calcium multisite occupation in barium titanate, we investigated a mixed incorporation mechanism for divalent dopants in barium and strontium titanates (BaTiO3 and SrTiO3). Our present theoretical results demonstrated the multisite occupation of divalent dopants in both perovskite structures. We determined the dependences of the solution, binding energies, and final solution energies with respect to the ionic radii of the dopants. Calculated results obtained based on classical simulations showed that the divalent dopants can occupy both A- and Ti- cation sites in ATiO3 perovskite structures. Such a multisite occupation has direct implications for other experimental findings regarding BaTiO3, such as non-stabilization of the tetragonal phase, shifts in the Curie temperature, intensification of the diffuse phase transition, and shifts in the absorption of ultraviolet light to the visible range in photocatalytic applications related to solar cells for producing energy.

  13. Strontium and barium iodide high light yield scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Hull, Giulia; Drobshoff, Alexander D.; Payne, Stephen A.; van Loef, Edgar; Wilson, Cody M.; Shah, Kanai S.; Roy, Utpal N.; Burger, Arnold; Boatner, Lynn A.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.

    2008-02-01

    Europium-doped strontium and barium iodide are found to be readily growable by the Bridgman method and to produce high scintillation light yields. SrI2(Eu ) emits into the Eu2+ band, centered at 435nm, with a decay time of 1.2μs and a light yield of ˜90000photons/MeV. It offers energy resolution better than 4% full width at half maximum at 662keV, and exhibits excellent light yield proportionality. BaI2(Eu ) produces >30000photons/MeV into the Eu2+ band at 420nm (<1μs decay). An additional broad impurity-mediated recombination band is present at 550nm (>3μs decay), unless high-purity feedstock is used.

  14. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysismore » times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.« less

  15. Supercritical fluid route for synthesizing crystalline Barium Strontium Titanate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Reverón, H; Elissalde, C; Aymonier, C; Bidault, O; Maglione, M; Cansell, F

    2005-10-01

    Pure and well-crystallized Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) nanoparticles with controlled Ba/Sr ratio have been successfully synthesized under supercritical conditions using a continuous-flow reactor in the temperature range of 150-380 degrees C at 26 MPa. To synthesize the Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 composition, alkoxides, ethanol and water were used. The resulting nanopowder consists of fine particles with an average particle size of 23 nm. The results show that the Ba/Sr ratio of this powder can be accurately controlled from the composition of precursor. The characterization of the as-synthesized Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 solid-solution and the dielectric properties of the sintered ceramics are here reported.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate and bismuth titanate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huiwen

    Hydrothermal processing facilitates the synthesis of crystalline ceramic materials of varying composition or complex crystal structure. The present work can be divided into two parts. First is to study the low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of bismuth titanate. Second is to study both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the hydrothermally synthesized barium strontium titanate. A chelating agent was used to form a Bi-Ti gel precursor. By hydrothermally treating the Bi-Ti gel, crystalline bismuth titanate has been synthesized at 160°C for the first time. Microstructural evolution during the low temperature synthesis of bismuth titanate can be divided into two stages, including condensation of Bi-Ti gel particles and crystallization of bismuth titanate. Crystallization of bismuth titanate occurred by an in situ transformation mechanism at an early stage followed by a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. Phase separation was observed in hydrothermally synthesized barium strontium titanate (BST). By hydrothermally treating BST powders between 250°C--300°C, an asymmetrical miscibility gap was found in the BaTiO3-SrTiO 3 system at low temperatures (T ≤ 320°C). A subregular solid solution model was applied to calculate the equilibrium compositions and the Gibbs free energy of formation of BST solid solution at low temperatures (T ≤ 320°C). The Gibbs free energy of formation of Sr-rich BST phase is larger than that of Ba-rich BST phase. Kinetic studies of single phase BST solid solution at 80°C show that, compared to the BaTiO3 or Ba-rich BST, SrTiO3 and Sr-rich BST powders form at lower reaction rates.

  17. The Strontium Filament within the Homunculus of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Hartman, H.; Zethson, T.; Johansson, S.; Ishibashi, K.; Davidson, K.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During a series of HST/STIS observations of Eta Carinae and associated ejecta, we noticed a peculiar emission filament located a few arcseconds north of the central source. While bright in nebular standards, it is submerged in a sea of scattered starlight until moderately high dispersion, long-slit spectroscopy with the STIS (R- 8000) brings the emission lines out. The initial spectrum, centered on 6768A with the STIS G750M grating, led to identification of twenty lines from singly-Ionized species including [Sr II], [Fe II], [Ti II], [Ni II], [Mn II], and [Co II] (Zethson, etal., 2001, AJ 122,322). No Balmer emission is detected from this filament and the Fe II 2507,9 lines, known to be pumped by Lyman alpha radiation in other regions near the central source, are not detected. Followup observations have led to detection of hundreds more emission lines from iron group elements in neutral and singly-ionized states. Thus far all are excited by less than 10 eV. This peculiar nebular emission is thought to be due to very intense stellar radiation, stripped of uv flux shortward of Lyman alpha, bathing a neutral structure. We are systematically identifying the many lines (over 90% identified) and measuring line intensities that will then be modeled to determine excitation mechanisms, temperature and density. Two [Sr II] and two Sr II lines have now been measured. Bautista, etal. (in preparation) have modeled the strontium flux ratios and find that large radiation fluxes and/or high strontium abundances may account for the detected emission. These observations were supported by STIS GTO funding and GO funding through the STScI

  18. SKELETAL DYNAMICS IN MAN MEASURED BY NONRADIOACTIVE STRONTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, E.; Gordan, G.S.

    Skeletal dynamics were calculated by usual dilution formulas, using stable strontium as a tracer, in 25 normal subjects, 14 athletes, 26 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, 28 with primary hyperparathyroidism, 3 with hyperadrenocorticism 8 with acromegaly, 7 with thyrotoxicosis, 11 with urclithiasis, 5 with Paget's disease of bone. and 1 with vitamin D poisoning. The technic requires that 10 mEq of strontium gluconate be injected intravenously and blood and urine concentrations be measured for 4 to 6 days. In normal subjects the rapidly miscible pool was equivalent to 42.7 + 1.1 L of serum, turning over at a rate of 13.5more » plus or minus 0.6 L daily, of which 3.9 + 0.2 L was excreted by the kidney and 9.6 + 0.4 L went to bone. Since only approximately 2.5% of the pool is excreted in the feces daily, fecal excretion was not measured routinely. Good reproducibility was found in 21 duplicate studies. Intense muscular exercise (athletes) was found to expand the pool greatly and to accelerate the rate of deposition in bone. Kinetically, two divergent types of osteoporosis were differentiated. A small pool and low rate of bone deposition were found in postmenopausal osteoporosis and Cushing's disease of long duration. The large pool and rapid rate of bone deposition in thyrotoxicosis was confirmed and also found in acromegaly. In these two, excessive bone resorption is postulated. Urinary excretion rate was excessive in Cushing's disease, thyrotoxicosis, and acromegaly. In hyperparathyroidism with clinically evident osteitis, expanded pools, greatly increased turnover, urinary excretion, and bone deposition rates were confirmed. In patients with normal roentgenographic appearance and phosphatase, bone involvement was shown by slight increase in bone deposition rate and microscopic foci of resorption on iliac crest biopsy. In seven patients without histological foci of resorption, the bone deposition rate was not increased. (auth)« less

  19. Physical and magnetic properties of (Ba/Sr) substituted magnesium nano ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ateia, Ebtesam E.; Takla, E.; Mohamed, Amira T.

    2017-10-01

    In the presented paper, strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) nano ferrites were synthesized by citrate auto combustion method. The investigated samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The structural properties of the obtained samples were examined by XRD analysis showing that the synthesized nanoparticles are in cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite sizes are in the range of 22.66 and 21.95 nm for Mg0.7Ba0.3Fe2O4 and Mg0.7 Sr0.3Fe2O4 respectively. The VSM analysis confirms the existence of ferromagnetic nature of Sr2+/Ba2+ substituted magnesium nano particles. Exchange interaction between hard (Sr/Ba) and soft (Mg) magnetic phases improves the structural and magnetic properties of nano ferrite particles. Rigidity modulus, longitudinal and shear wave velocities are predicted theoretically from Raman spectroscopy and structural data of the investigated spinel ferrite. The magnetic and structural properties of magnesium are enhanced by doping with barium and strontium nano particles. The saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity reported on vibrating sample magnetometer curve illustrate the promising industrial and magnetic recording applications of the prepared samples.

  20. Physicochemical Properties and Cellular Responses of Strontium-Doped Gypsum Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Pouria, Amir; Bandegani, Hadis; Pourbaghi-Masouleh, Milad; Hesaraki, Saeed; Alizadeh, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes some physical, structural, and biological properties of gypsum bioceramics doped with various amounts of strontium ions (0.19–2.23 wt%) and compares these properties with those of a pure gypsum as control. Strontium-doped gypsum (gypsum:Sr) was obtained by mixing calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder and solutions of strontium nitrate followed by washing the specimens with distilled water to remove residual salts. Gypsum was the only phase found in the composition of both pure and gypsum:Sr, meanwhile a shift into lower diffraction angles was observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns of doped specimens. Microstructure of all gypsum specimens consisted of many rod-like small crystals entangled to each other with more elongation and higher thickness in the case of gypsum:Sr. The Sr-doped sample exhibited higher compressive strength and lower solubility than pure gypsum. A continuous release of strontium ions was observed from the gypsum:Sr during soaking it in simulated body fluid for 14 days. Compared to pure gypsum, the osteoblasts cultured on strontium-doped samples showed better proliferation rate and higher alkaline phosphatase activity, depending on Sr concentration. These observations can predict better in vivo behavior of strontium-doped gypsum compared to pure one. PMID:22719270

  1. Powder XRD, TEM, FTIR and thermal studies of strontium tartrate nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathiya, U. M.; Jethva, H. O.; Joshi, M. J.; Vyas, P. M.

    2017-05-01

    Strontium tartrate finds several applications, e.g., as non-linear optical and dielectric material, in tracer composition and ammunition unit, in treating structural integrity of bone. The growth of single crystals of strontium tartrate in silica gel has been widely reported. In the present study, strontium tartrate nano particles were synthesized by wet chemical method using strontium chloride, tartaric acid and sodium meta-silicate solutions in the presence of Triton X -100 surfactant. It was found that the presence of sodium meta-silicate facilitated the reaction for strontium tartrate product. The powder XRD study of strontium tartrate nano-particles suggested monoclinic crystal system and the average crystallite size was found to be 40 nm determined by applying Scherrer's formula. The TEM analysis indicated that the nano particles were spherical in nature. The FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of various functional groups such as O-H,C-H, and C=O stretching mode. The thermal analysis was carried out by using TGA and DTA studies. The nano-particles were found to be stable up to 175°C and then decomposed through various stages. The results are compared with the bulk crystalline material available in the literature.

  2. 14 CFR 1260.55 - Reports substitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.55 Reports substitution. Reports Substitution October 2000 Technical Reports may be substituted for the required Performance Reports. The title page of such reports... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports substitution. 1260.55 Section 1260...

  3. 14 CFR 1260.55 - Reports substitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.55 Reports substitution. Reports Substitution October 2000 Technical Reports may be substituted for the required Performance Reports. The title page of such reports... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports substitution. 1260.55 Section 1260...

  4. 14 CFR 1260.55 - Reports substitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.55 Reports substitution. Reports Substitution October 2000 Technical Reports may be substituted for the required Performance Reports. The title page of such reports... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Reports substitution. 1260.55 Section 1260...

  5. 14 CFR 1260.55 - Reports substitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.55 Reports substitution. Reports Substitution October 2000 Technical Reports may be substituted for the required Performance Reports. The title page of such reports... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports substitution. 1260.55 Section 1260...

  6. Deposition of strontium-90 through October 1958; the global deposition of strontium-90 is discussed in relation to the absorption of the isotope by man.

    PubMed

    EISENBUD, M

    1959-07-10

    It is estimated that the global deposition of strontium-90 increased from 1.9 to 2.6 megacuries during the period from June 1957 to October 1958. During this time the stratospheric reservoir of strontium-90 increased from 1.4 to 4.3 megacuries. Approximately 90 percent of the deposition of debris now stored in the stratosphere will have occurred by 1970. In 1958, the strontium-90 content of powdered milk in the New York area averaged 5.9 micromicrocuries per gram of calcium in comparison with 3.9 micromicrocuries per gram of calcium for the previous year. For this region of the country, the strontium-90 content of milk appears to be increasing in proportion to the strontium-90 content of the soils from which the cows derive their forage. The upper limit of foreseeable contamination in milk can be estimated by assuming that this proportionality will continue until all of the strontium-90 has been deposited from the upper atmosphere. This procedure should yield estimates which tend to err on the side of safety. In this manner, it is estimated that the maximum foreseeable sustained level of milk contamination in the New York area is 11 micromicrocuries per gram of calcium. A child deriving its calcium from dairy sources may be expected to develop a skeleton having 5.5 micromicrocuries per gram of calcium. This estimate is double that made in June 1957 and reflects the increased stratospheric inventory due to U.S.S.R. detonations in 1958. The radiological dose to the skeleton from natural sources such as cosmic rays, radium, potassium, and so forth, is approximately 125 millirems per year. A skeletal burden of 5.5 micromicrocuries of strontium-90 per gram of calcium will deliver a dose of approximately 5.5 millirems per year to the bone marrow. The maximum foreseeable dose from strontium-90 in the New York area is thereby estimated to be about 5 percent of the dose due to natural radioactivity.

  7. Thermal properties and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid of new strontium ion-containing phosphate glasses.

    PubMed

    Massera, J; Petit, L; Cardinal, T; Videau, J J; Hupa, M; Hupa, L

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of SrO substitution for CaO in 50P₂O₅-10Na₂-(40-x)CaO-xSrO glass system (x from 0 to 40) on the thermal and structural properties and also on the glass reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) in order to find new glass candidates for biomedical glass fibers. The addition of SrO at the expense of CaO seems to restrain the leaching of phosphate ions in the solution limiting the reduction of the solution pH. We observed the formation of an apatite layer at the surface of the glasses when in contact with SBF. SrO and MgO were found in the apatite layer of the strontium ion-containing glasses, the concentration of which increases with an increase of SrO content. We think that it is the presence of MgO and SrO in the layer which limits the leaching of phosphate in the solution and thus the glass dissolution in SBF.

  8. Structural, electrical and magnetic study of Nd-Ni substituted W-type Hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Sadiq, Imran; Ali, Irshad; Rana, Mazhar-Ud-Din; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Shah, Afzal; Shakir, Imran; Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A series of Nd-Ni substituted W-type hexaferrites with composition Sr1-xNdxCo2NiyFe16-yO27 (where x=0.0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.1 and y=0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) has been prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method. The effect of rare earth Nd substitution at strontium site while Ni at iron site on microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties has been investigated. All the XRD patterns of the synthesized materials show single W-type hexagonal phase without any other intermediate phases. SEM images show that the particles are homogeneous and hexagonal platelet-like shape. DC electrical resistivity measurements were carried out in temperature range of 298-673 K showing metal-to-semiconductor transition when doped with Nd-Ni. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, remanence, squareness ratio and coercivity were calculated from hysteresis loops and were observed to increase with the increase in Nd-Ni concentration up to a certain substitution level which is beneficial for high density recording media.

  9. In vitro dissolution of strontium titanate to estimate clearance rates in human lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jeri Lynn

    At the In-Tank Precipitation facility (ITP) of the Savannah River Site, strontium and other radionuclides are removed from high-level radioactive waste and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Strontium removal is accomplished by ion-exchange using monosodium titanate slurry which creates a form of strontium titanate with unknown solubility characteristics. In the case of accidental inhalation of a compound containing radioactive strontium, the ICRP, in Publication 66, recommends using default values for rates of absorption into body fluids at the lungs in the absence of reliable human or animal data. The default value depends on whether the absorption is considered to be fast, moderate, or slow (Type F, M, or S). Current dose assessment for an individual upon inadvertent exposure to airborne radioactive strontium assumes that all strontium compounds are Type F (soluble) or Type S (insoluble). Pure high-fired strontium titanate (SrTiOsb3) is considered Type S. The purpose of this project was to determine the solubility of strontium titanate in the form created at the ITP facility. An in vitro dissolution study was done with a precipitate simulant and with several types of strontium titanate and the results were compared. An in vivo study was also performed with high-fired SrTiOsb3 in rats. The data from both studies were used independently to assign the compounds to absorption type based on criteria specified in ICRP 71. Results of the in vitro studies showed that the DWPF simulant should be assigned to Type M and the strontium titanate should be assigned to Type S. It is possible the difference in the DWPF simulant is due to the other chemicals present. Results of the in vivo study verified that SrTiOsb3 should be assigned to Type S. Lung clearance data of SrTiOsb3 from rats showed that 85% cleared within the first 24 hours and the remaining 15% with a half-time of 130 days. The initial rapid clearance is attributed to deposition in airways as

  10. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl...

  11. Substituted decision making: elder guardianship.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, Martha E; Goethe, Katherine E

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this column is to help experienced clinicians navigate the judicial system when they are confronted with requests for capacity evaluations that involve guardianship (conservatorship). The interface between the growing elderly medical population and increasing requests for substituted decision making is becoming more complex. This column will help practicing psychiatrists understand the medical, legal, and societal factors involved in adult guardianship. Such understanding is necessary in order to effectively perform guardianship evaluations and adequately inform courts, patients, and families about the psychiatric diagnoses central to substituted decision making.

  12. Substitution determination of Fmoc‐substituted resins at different wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Kley, Markus; Bächle, Dirk; Loidl, Günther; Meier, Thomas; Samson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In solid‐phase peptide synthesis, the nominal batch size is calculated using the starting resin substitution and the mass of the starting resin. The starting resin substitution constitutes the basis for the calculation of a whole set of important process parameters, such as the number of amino acid derivative equivalents. For Fmoc‐substituted resins, substitution determination is often performed by suspending the Fmoc‐protected starting resin in 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF to generate the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct that is quantified by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The spectrometric measurement is performed at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct, that is, at 301.0 nm. The recorded absorption value, the resin weight and the volume are entered into an equation derived from Lambert–Beer's law, together with the substance‐specific molar absorption coefficient at 301.0 nm, in order to calculate the nominal substitution. To our knowledge, molar absorption coefficients between 7100 l mol−1 cm−1 and 8100 l mol−1 cm−1 have been reported for the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct at 301.0 nm. Depending on the applied value, the nominal batch size may differ up to 14%. In this publication, a determination of the molar absorption coefficients at 301.0 and 289.8 nm is reported. Furthermore, proof is given that by measuring the absorption at 289.8 nm the impact of wavelength accuracy is reduced. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28635051

  13. Substitution determination of Fmoc-substituted resins at different wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Eissler, Stefan; Kley, Markus; Bächle, Dirk; Loidl, Günther; Meier, Thomas; Samson, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In solid-phase peptide synthesis, the nominal batch size is calculated using the starting resin substitution and the mass of the starting resin. The starting resin substitution constitutes the basis for the calculation of a whole set of important process parameters, such as the number of amino acid derivative equivalents. For Fmoc-substituted resins, substitution determination is often performed by suspending the Fmoc-protected starting resin in 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF to generate the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct that is quantified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The spectrometric measurement is performed at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct, that is, at 301.0 nm. The recorded absorption value, the resin weight and the volume are entered into an equation derived from Lambert-Beer's law, together with the substance-specific molar absorption coefficient at 301.0 nm, in order to calculate the nominal substitution. To our knowledge, molar absorption coefficients between 7100 l mol -1  cm -1 and 8100 l mol -1  cm -1 have been reported for the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct at 301.0 nm. Depending on the applied value, the nominal batch size may differ up to 14%. In this publication, a determination of the molar absorption coefficients at 301.0 and 289.8 nm is reported. Furthermore, proof is given that by measuring the absorption at 289.8 nm the impact of wavelength accuracy is reduced. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Biosorption of the strontium ion by irradiated Saccharomyces cerevisiae under culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liang; Feng, Jundong; Dai, Yaodong; Chang, Shuquan

    2017-06-01

    As a new-emerging method for strontium disposal, biosorption has shown advantages such as high sorption capacity; low cost. In this study, we investigated the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) in strontium disposal under culture conditions and the effects of irradiation on their biosorption capabilities. We found that S. cerevisiae can survive irradiation and grow. Pre-exposure to irradiation rendered S. cerevisiae resistant to further irradiation. Surprisingly, the pre-exposure to irradiation can increase the biosorption capability of S. cerevisiae. We further investigated the factors that influenced the biosorption efficiency, which were (strongest to weakest): pH > strontium concentration > time > temperature. In our orthogonal experiment, the optimal conditions for strontium biosorption by irradiated S. cerevisiae were: pH 7, 150 mg L -1 strontium at the temperature of 32 °C with 30 h. The equilibrium of strontium biosorption was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models, from which the formal model is found to provide a better fit for the experimental results. The kinetics of strontium biosorption by living irradiated S. cerevisiae was found to be comprised of three phases: dramatically increased during 0-9 h, decreased during 12-24 h, and increased during 30-50 h. These results provide a systematic understanding of the biosorption capabilities of irradiated S. cerevisiae, which can contribute to the development of remediating nuclear waste water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Endotrophic Calcium, Strontium, and Barium Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus1

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Harold F.; Foster, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Foerster, Harold F. (The University of Texas, Austin), and J. W. Foster. Endotrophic calcium, strontium, and barium spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus. J. Bacteriol. 91:1333–1345. 1966.—Spores were produced by washed vegetative cells suspended in deionized water supplemented with CaCl2, SrCl2, or BaCl2. Normal, refractile spores were produced in each case; a portion of the barium spores lost refractility and darkened. Thin-section electron micrographs revealed no apparent anatomical differences among the three types of spores. Analyses revealed that the different spore types were enriched specifically in the metal to which they were exposed during sporogenesis. The calcium content of the strontium and the barium spores was very small. From binary equimolar mixtures of the metal salts, endotrophic spores accumulated both metals to nearly the same extent. Viability of the barium spores was considerably less than that of the other two types. Strontium and barium spores were heat-resistant; however, calcium was essential for maximal heat resistance. Significant differences existed in the rates of germination; calcium spores germinated fastest, strontium spores were slower, and barium spores were slowest. Calcium-barium and calcium-strontium spores germinated readily. Endotrophic calcium and strontium spores germinated without the prior heat activation essential for growth spores. Chemical germination of the different metal-type spores with n-dodecylamine took place at the same relative rates as physiological germination. Heat-induced release of dipicolinic acid occurred much faster with barium and strontium spores than with calcium spores. The washed “coat fraction” from disrupted spores contained little of the spore calcium but most of the spore barium. The metal in this fraction was released by dilute acid. The demineralized coats reabsorbed calcium and barium at neutral pH. Images PMID:4956334

  16. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    PubMed

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-05

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation andmore » decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at

  18. Potential for structural lumber substitutes

    Treesearch

    Theodore L. Laufenberg

    1985-01-01

    The potential for substitution of structural wood composites into solid-sawn lumber markets is presented from the technological viewpoint. Technological limitations of existing composite processes and products are reviewed in the context of the present laminated veneer lumber (LVL), flakeboard, and fiber/ paper industries. The limits of mechanical property potential...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Use Conditions Substitutes Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments Electronics Cleaning w.... Electronics cleaning w/CFC-113 Dibromomethane Unacceptable High ODP; other alternatives exist. Electronics...

  20. Strontium Co-precipitation During Biomineralization of Calcite in Porous Media Using Differing Treatment Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauchnor, E. G.; Schultz, L.; Mitchell, A.; Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.

    2013-12-01

    The process of ureolytically-induced calcium carbonate mineralization has been shown in laboratory studies to be effective in co-precipitation of heavy metals and radionuclides. During this process, the microbially catalyzed hydrolysis of urea increases alkalinity and pH, thus promoting CaCO3 precipitation in the presence of dissolved calcium. One proposed application of biomineralization includes the remediation of radionuclides such as strontium, which can be co-precipitated in situ within calcite. Strontium is of concern at several US DOE sites where it is a radioactive product of uranium fission and groundwater contaminant. Our research focuses on promoting attached bacteria, or biofilms, in subsurface environments where they serve as immobilized catalysts in biomineralization and can aide in co-precipitation of some contaminants. In this work, flat plate reactors with 1 mm etched flow channels designed to mimic a porous medium environment were used. Reactors were inoculated with the model ureolytic bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii and addition of urea, calcium and strontium containing fluid was performed to induce biomineralization. Continuous flow and stopped-flow injection strategies were investigated to evaluate differences in strontium co-precipitation efficiency. During stopped-flow experiments, injection of cementation fluid containing urea, Ca2+ and Sr2+ was alternated with growth nutrients for stimulation of microbial activity. Control parameters such as urea and calcium concentration and injection flow rate are currently being varied to optimize rate and efficiency of strontium co-precipitation. Ureolytically induced calcite precipitation and strontium incorporation in the calcite was verified by chemical and mineralogical analyses, including X-ray diffraction and ICP-MS. Strontium co-precipitation efficiency was similar under different injection strategies. Alternating calcium-containing fluid with growth nutrients allowed for continued viability of

  1. The IRHUM database - bioavailable strontium isotope ratios of France for geochemical fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmes, Malte; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer; Armstrong, Richard; Kinsley, Les; McMorrow, Linda

    2013-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) are used as a geochemical tracer in a wide range of fields including archaeology, ecology, soil, food and forensic sciences. These applications are based on the principle that strontium isotopic ratios of materials reflect the geological sources of the strontium, which were available during its formation. Geologic regions with distinct strontium isotope ranges, which depend on their age and composition, can be differentiated. A major constraint for current studies is the lack of robust reference maps to evaluate the strontium isotope ratios measured in the samples. The aim of the IRHUM (isotopic reconstruction of human migration) database is to provide a reference map of bioavailable strontium isotope ratios for continental France. The current dataset contains 400 sample locations covering the major geologic units of the Paris and Aquitaine Basin, the Massif Central, and the Pyrenees. At each site soil and plant samples have been collected to cover the whole range of strontium ratios at a specific location. The database is available online at www.rses.anu.edu.au/research-areas/archaeogeochemistry and contains the bioavailable strontium isotope data as well as major and trace element concentrations for soil and plant samples. Strontium isotopes were analysed using a Neptune multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations with a Varian Vista Pro Axial ICP-AES (inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer). In addition, IRHUM provides spatial context for each sample, including background geology, field observations and soil descriptions. This metadata allows users to evaluate the suitability of a specific data point for their study. The IRHUM database fills an important gap between high resolution studies from specific sites (e.g. archaeological sites), to the very broad geochemical mapping of Europe. Thus it provides an excellent tool to evaluate the regional context

  2. Macro- and microscopic properties of strontium doped indium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaenko, Y. M.; Kuzovlev, Y. E.; Medvedev, Y. V.; Mezin, N. I.; Fasel, C.; Gurlo, A.; Schlicker, L.; Bayer, T. J. M.; Genenko, Y. A.

    2014-07-01

    Solid state synthesis and physical mechanisms of electrical conductivity variation in polycrystalline, strontium doped indium oxide In2O3:(SrO)x were investigated for materials with different doping levels at different temperatures (T = 20-300 °C) and ambient atmosphere content including humidity and low pressure. Gas sensing ability of these compounds as well as the sample resistance appeared to increase by 4 and 8 orders of the magnitude, respectively, with the doping level increase from zero up to x = 10%. The conductance variation due to doping is explained by two mechanisms: acceptor-like electrical activity of Sr as a point defect and appearance of an additional phase of SrIn2O4. An unusual property of high level (x = 10%) doped samples is a possibility of extraordinarily large and fast oxygen exchange with ambient atmosphere at not very high temperatures (100-200 °C). This peculiarity is explained by friable structure of crystallite surface. Friable structure provides relatively fast transition of samples from high to low resistive state at the expense of high conductance of the near surface layer of the grains. Microscopic study of the electro-diffusion process at the surface of oxygen deficient samples allowed estimation of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies in the friable surface layer at room temperature as 3 × 10-13 cm2/s, which is by one order of the magnitude smaller than that known for amorphous indium oxide films.

  3. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, Nurul; Free, Charles

    2015-04-24

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangentmore » for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.« less

  4. Dimensionality-strain phase diagram of strontium iridates superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongjae; Liu, Peitao; Franchini, Cesare

    Using ab initio approach, we study the electronic and magnetic behavior of strontium iridates as a function of dimensionality and epitaxial strain by employing a (SrIrO3)m/(SrTiO3) superlattice structure. We quantitatively evaluate the dimensional and strain-dependent change of the interaction parameters U and J using the constraint random phase approximation and construct a comprehensive phase diagram describing the evolution of the electronic and magnetic ground state upon strain and dimensionality. We find that compressive strain and increasing the dimensionality perturb the insulating relativistic Mott Jeff = 1 / 2 state, a characteristic of the m = 1 system, and induce two distinct types of insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) that can be explained from the entanglement of U and the bandwidth of the Ir-t2 g manifold. The IMTs are associated with distinctive changes of the spin ordering manifested by spin-flop transitions, correlated with the modulation of the interlayer exchange interaction, and with a complete quenching of any spin-ordered state in the m -> ∞ limit. The fundamental origin of these electronic and magnetic transitions will be discussed and compared with the corresponding situation in the Ruddlesden-Popper series.

  5. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of strontium iodide scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    van Loef, Edgar; Wilson, Cody; Cherepy, Nerine

    2009-06-01

    Single crystals of SrI{sub 2}:Eu and SrI{sub 2}:Ce/Na were grown from anhydrous iodides by the vertical Bridgman technique in evacuated silica ampoules. Growth rates were of the order of 5-30 mm/day. Radioluminescence spectra of SrI{sub 2}:Eu and SrI{sub 2}:Ce/Na exhibit a broad band due to Eu{sup 2+} and Ce{sup 3+} emission, respectively. The maximum in the luminescence spectrum of SrI{sub 2}:Eu is found at 435 nm. The spectrum of SrI{sub 2}:Ce/Na exhibits a doublet peaking at 404 and 435 nm attributed to Ce{sup 3+} emission, while additional impurity - or defected - related emission is present at approximately 525 nm.more » The strontium iodide scintillators show very high light yields of up to 120,000 photons/MeV, have energy resolutions down to 3% at 662 keV (Full Width Half Maximum) and exhibit excellent light yield proportionality with a standard deviation of less than 5% between 6 and 460 keV.« less

  6. History and current status of strontium iodide scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Beck, Patrick R.; Payne, Stephen A.

    Eu-doped strontium iodide single crystal growth has reached maturity and prototype SrI 2(Eu)-based gamma ray spectrometers provide detection performance advantages over standard detectors. SrI 2(Eu) offers a high, proportional light yield of >80,000 photons/MeV. Energy resolution of <3% at 662 keV with 1.5” x 1.5” SrI2(Eu) crystals is routinely achieved, by employing either a small taper at the top of the crystal or a digital readout technique. These methods overcome light-trapping, in which scintillation light is re-absorbed and re-emitted in Eu 2+-doped crystals. As a result, its excellent energy resolution, lack of intrinsic radioactivity or toxicity, and commercial availability makemore » SrI 2(Eu) the ideal scintillator for use in handheld radioisotope identification devices. A 6-lb SrI 2(Eu) radioisotope identifier is described.« less

  7. History and current status of strontium iodide scintillators

    DOE PAGES

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Beck, Patrick R.; Payne, Stephen A.; ...

    2017-09-15

    Eu-doped strontium iodide single crystal growth has reached maturity and prototype SrI 2(Eu)-based gamma ray spectrometers provide detection performance advantages over standard detectors. SrI 2(Eu) offers a high, proportional light yield of >80,000 photons/MeV. Energy resolution of <3% at 662 keV with 1.5” x 1.5” SrI2(Eu) crystals is routinely achieved, by employing either a small taper at the top of the crystal or a digital readout technique. These methods overcome light-trapping, in which scintillation light is re-absorbed and re-emitted in Eu 2+-doped crystals. As a result, its excellent energy resolution, lack of intrinsic radioactivity or toxicity, and commercial availability makemore » SrI 2(Eu) the ideal scintillator for use in handheld radioisotope identification devices. A 6-lb SrI 2(Eu) radioisotope identifier is described.« less

  8. High-frequency strontium vapor laser for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvorostovsky, A.; Kolmakov, E.; Kudashev, I.; Redka, D.; Kancer, A.; Kustikova, M.; Bykovskaya, E.; Mayurova, A.; Stupnikov, A.; Ruzankina, J.; Tsvetkov, K.; Lukyanov, N.; Paklinov, N.

    2018-02-01

    Sr-laser with high pulse repetition rate and high peak radiation power is a unique tool for studying rapidly occurring processes in time (plasma diagnostics, photoablation, etc.). In addition, the study of the frequency characteristics of the active medium of the laser helps to reveal the physics of the formation of an inverse medium in metal vapor lasers. In this paper, an experimental study of an Sr-laser with an active volume of 5.8 cm3 in the pulse repetition frequency range from 25 to 200 kHz is carried out, and a comparison with the frequency characteristics of media with large active volumes is given. We considered the frequency characteristics of the active medium in two modes: at a constant energy in the excitation pulse CU2 / 2 and at a constant average power consumed by the rectifier. In the presented work with a small-volume GRT using the TASITR-5/12 TASITRON switch, a laser was generated for Pairs of strontium at a CSF of 200 kHz. The behavior of the characteristics of the generation lines of 6.456 μm, 1 μm, and 3 μm at increased repetition frequencies is considered. Using the example of large-volume GRT, it is shown that tubes with a large active volume increase their energy characteristics with the growth of the CSF. The possibility of laser operation at pulse repetition rates above 200 kHz is shown.

  9. Strontium ranelate, a promising disease modifying osteoarthritis drug.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiyu; Fan, Shicai; Bai, Xiaochun; Ding, Changhai

    2017-03-01

    The articular cartilage and subchondral bone may have potential crosstalk in the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Strontium ranelate (SrR) has the ability to dissociate the bone remodeling process and to change the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. Its effect on subchondral bone makes it a potential disease- modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) in the treatment of OA. The aim of the current review is to summarize up-to-date pharmacological and clinical data of SrR for OA treatment. Areas covered: A literature search was performed on PubMed and European Medicines Agency (EMA) website for all publications and documents related to SrR and OA. References of related studies were searched by hand. Treatment with SrR, especially at the dosage of 2 g/day, was associated with reduced radiographic knee OA progression, and with meaningful clinical improvement. It was also significantly associated with decreased MRI-assessed cartilage volume loss (CVL) and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Expert opinion: SrR could be a promising DMOAD particularly for OA patients with bone phenotypes. The clinical efficacy and side effects of SrR for OA treatment need to be further investigated in future clinical trials before clinical application.

  10. Barium-strontium-titanate etching characteristics in chlorinated discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Luc; Margot, Joëlle; Langlois, Olivier; Chaker, Mohamed

    2003-07-01

    The etching characteristics of barium-strontium-titanate (BST) were investigated using a high-density plasma sustained by surface waves at 190 MHz in Ar/Cl2 gas mixtures. The etch rate was examined as a function of both the total gas pressure and the Cl2 fraction in Ar/Cl2 using a wafer temperature of 10 °C. The results were correlated to positive ion density and plasma composition obtained from Langmuir probes and mass spectrometry. The BST etch rate was found to increase linearly with the positive ion density and to decrease with increasing chlorine atom concentration. This result indicates that for the temperature conditions used, the interaction between chlorine and BST yields compounds having a volatility that is lower than the original material. As a consequence, the contribution of neutral atomic Cl atoms to the etch mechanism is detrimental, thereby reducing the etch rate. As the wafer temperature increases, the role of chemistry in the etching process is enhanced.

  11. Thermoluminescent properties of rare earth doped lithium strontium borate phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakathamani, S.; Annalakshmi, O.; Jose, M. T.

    2018-04-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) of borates is remarkable in the field of radiation dosimetry because they can detect both neutron and gamma radiations. Usually, the TL efficiency of pure borates is low and hence dopants have to be added to increase their TL output. Their sensitivity and thermal stability vary widely and depend strongly on the preparation method. In this study polycrystalline powders of different rare earth doped thermoluminescent phosphors of Lithium Strontium borate (LSB) were synthesized by solid state sintering technique. Among the different rare earth dopants, the phosphor doped with cerium was found to have a simple glow curve structure with a dosimetric peak at around 265°C for a heating rate of 5°C/s. In order to study the effect of dopant on the TL characteristics, LSB phosphor with different concentrations of Ce dopant was synthesized and the TL intensity was found to be maximum for a dopant concentration of 0.7 mol%. All other important dosimetric characteristics like dose response and fading were carried out for the LSB:Ce (0.7 mol%) phosphor. Kinetic parameters like trap depth and frequency factor were determined using Peak shape method from Chen's equation.

  12. Exchange of potassium and strontium in adult bone

    PubMed Central

    MALTBY, BARRIE; LEMON, GERARD J.; BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, JAMES B.; KELLY, PATRICK J.

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of exchange of strontium (85Sr) and potassium (42K) were studied in the midtibial cortical bone of 37 adult dogs. After injection of these two tracer cations and tracer-labeled albumin into the tibial nutrient artery, two types of observations were made: 1) collection of sequential venous samples to provide the outflow indicator-dilution curves and to calculate the extraction and retention at early times; and 2) detection of energy-selected gamma emissions via a detector over the tibia to give the time course of content of 42K and 85Sr in the tibia. Extractions of K+ and Sr2+ were 50 and 60% during a single transcapillary passage. More Sr2+ than K+ was retained in the first minutes. Their rates of washout over a 3-h period were similar. The interpretation is that the rate of uptake at extravascular sites is faster for Sr2+ than for K+, as is the rate of release, and that the extravascular volume of distribution for Sr2+ (adsorption sites in the interstitium or on bone) is much larger than that for K+ (intracellular). PMID:7065283

  13. First Principles Investigation of Fluorine Based Strontium Series of Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erum, Nazia; Azhar Iqbal, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory is used to explore structural, elastic, and mechanical properties of SrLiF3, SrNaF3, SrKF3 and SrRbF3 fluoroperovskite compounds by means of an ab-initio Full Potential-Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method. Several lattice parameters are employed to obtain accurate equilibrium volume (Vo). The resultant quantities include ground state energy, elastic constants, shear modulus, bulk modulus, young's modulus, cauchy's pressure, poisson's ratio, shear constant, ratio of elastic anisotropy factor, kleinman's parameter, melting temperature, and lame's coefficient. The calculated structural parameters via DFT as well as analytical methods are found to be consistent with experimental findings. Chemical bonding is used to investigate corresponding chemical trends which authenticate combination of covalent-ionic behavior. Furthermore electron density plots as well as elastic and mechanical properties are reported for the first time which reveals that fluorine based strontium series of perovskites are mechanically stable and posses weak resistance towards shear deformation as compared to resistance towards unidirectional compression while brittleness and ionic behavior is dominated in them which decreases from SrLiF3 to SrRbF3. Calculated cauchy's pressure, poisson's ratio and B/G ratio also proves ionic nature in these compounds. The present methodology represents an effective and influential approach to calculate the whole set of elastic and mechanical parameters which would support to understand various physical phenomena and empower device engineers for implementing these materials in numerous applications.

  14. Strain control of oxygen vacancies in epitaxial strontium cobaltite films

    DOE PAGES

    Jeen, Hyoung Jeen; Choi, Woo Seok; Reboredo, Fernando A.; ...

    2016-01-25

    In this study, the ability to manipulate oxygen anion defects rather than metal cations in complex oxides can facilitate creating new functionalities critical for emerging energy and device technologies. However, the difficulty in activating oxygen at reduced temperatures hinders the deliberate control of important defects, oxygen vacancies. Here, strontium cobaltite (SrCoO x) is used to demonstrate that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen vacancy concentration even under highly oxidizing environments and at annealing temperatures as low as 300 °C. By applying a small biaxial tensile strain (2%), the oxygen activation energy barrier decreases by ≈30%, resultingmore » in a tunable oxygen deficient steady-state under conditions that would normally fully oxidize unstrained cobaltite. These strain-induced changes in oxygen stoichiometry drive the cobaltite from a ferromagnetic metal towards an antiferromagnetic insulator. The ability to decouple the oxygen vacancy concentration from its typical dependence on the operational environment is useful for effectively designing oxides materials with a specific oxygen stoichiometry.« less

  15. Strontium isotopes as an indicator for groundwater salinity sources in the Kirkuk region, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Sahib, Layth Y; Marandi, Andres; Schüth, Christoph

    2016-08-15

    The Kirkuk region in northern Iraq hosts some of the largest oil fields in the Middle East. Several anticline structures enabled vertical migration and entrapment of the oil. Frequently, complex fracture systems and faults cut across the Eocene and middle Oligocene reservoirs and the cap rock, the Fatha Formation of Miocene age. Seepage of crude oil and oil field brines are therefore a common observation in the anticline axes and contamination of shallow groundwater resources is a major concern. In this study, 65 water samples were collected in the Kirkuk region to analyze and distinguish mixing processes between shallow groundwater resources, uprising oil field brines, and dissolution of gypsum and halite from the Fatha Formation. Hydrochemical analyses of the water samples included general hydrochemistry, stable water isotopes, as well as strontium concentrations and for 22 of the samples strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr). Strontium concentrations increased close to the anticline axes with highest concentrations in the oil field brines (300mg/l). Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes as isotope signatures of the oil field brines and of waters from the Fatha Formation are significantly different. It could be shown, that mixing of shallow groundwater with oil field brines is occurring close to the major fault zones in the anticlines but high concentrations of strontium in the water samples are mainly due to dissolution from the Fatha Formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Strontium ranelate: a novel mode of action leading to renewed bone quality.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Various bone resorption inhibitors and bone stimulators have been shown to decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, there is still a need for agents promoting bone formation by inducing positive uncoupling between bone formation and bone resorption. In vitro studies have suggested that strontium ranelate enhances osteoblast cell replication and activity. Simultaneously, strontium ranelate dose-dependently inhibits osteoclast activity. In vivo studies indicate that strontium ranelate stimulates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption and prevents bone loss and/or promotes bone gain. This positive uncoupling between bone formation and bone resorption results in bone gain and improvement in bone geometry and microarchitecture, without affecting the intrinsic bone tissue quality. Thus, all the determinants of bone strength are positively influenced. In conclusion, strontium ranelate, a new treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, acts through an innovative mode of action, both stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption, resulting in the rebalancing of bone turnover in favor of bone formation. Strontium ranelate increases bone mass while preserving the bone mineralization process, resulting in improvement in bone strength and bone quality.

  17. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Strontium enhances osseointegration of calcium phosphate cement: a histomorphometric pilot study in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Baier, Martin; Staudt, Patric; Klein, Roman; Sommer, Ulrike; Wenz, Robert; Grafe, Ingo; Meeder, Peter Jürgen; Nawroth, Peter P; Kasperk, Christian

    2013-06-07

    Calcium phosphate cements are used frequently in orthopedic and dental surgeries. Strontium-containing drugs serve as systemic osteoblast-activating medication in various clinical settings promoting mechanical stability of the osteoporotic bone. Strontium-containing calcium phosphate cement (SPC) and calcium phosphate cement (CPC) were compared regarding their local and systemic effects on bone tissue in a standard animal model for osteoporotic bone. A bone defect was created in the distal femoral metaphysis of 60 ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. CPC and SPC were used to fill the defects in 30 rats in each group. Local effects were assessed by histomorphometry at the implant site. Systemic effects were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD) measurements at the contralateral femur and the spine. Faster osseointegration and more new bone formation were found for SPC as compared to CPC implant sites. SPC implants exhibited more cracks than CPC implants, allowing more bone formation within the implant. Contralateral femur BMD and spine BMD did not differ significantly between the groups. The addition of strontium to calcium phosphate stimulates bone formation in and around the implant. Systemic release of strontium from the SPC implants did not lead to sufficiently high serum strontium levels to induce significant systemic effects on bone mass in this rat model.

  19. Decomposition pathways of polytetrafluoroethylene by co-grinding with strontium/calcium oxides.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; He, Xiaoman; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong; Saito, Fumio

    2017-06-01

    Waste polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) could be easily decomposed by co-grinding with inorganic additive such as strontium oxide (SrO), strontium peroxide (SrO 2 ) and calcium oxide (CaO) by using a planetary ball mill, in which the fluorine was transformed into nontoxic inorganic fluoride salts such as strontium fluoride (SrF 2 ) or calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ). Depending on the kind of additive as well as the added molar ratio, however, the reaction mechanism of the decomposition was found to change, with different compositions of carbon compounds formed. CO gas, the mixture of strontium carbonate (SrCO 3 ) and carbon, only SrCO 3 were obtained as reaction products respectively with equimolar SrO, excess SrO and excess SrO 2 to the monomer unit CF 2 of PTFE were used. Excess amount of CaO was needed to effectively decompose PTFE because of its lower reactivity compared with strontium oxide, but it promised practical applications due to its low cost.

  20. Removal of Strontium from Drinking Water by Conventional Treatment and Lime Softening in Bench-Scale Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. There is very little data available on strontium removal from drinking water. As a result, there is an immedia...

  1. Bone healing and bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason

    2002-02-01

    With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.

  2. Ecological Dose Modeling of Aquatic and Riparian Receptors to Strontium-90 with an Emphasis on Radiosensitive Organs

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, Ted M.; Traub, Richard J.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2011-07-20

    The 100-NR-2 site is the location of elevated releases of strontium-90 to the Columbia River via contaminated groundwater. The resulting dose to aquatic and riparian receptors was evaluated in 2005 (DOE 2009) and compared to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) dose guidance values. We have conducted additional dose assessments for a broader spectrum of aquatic and riparian organisms using RESRAD Biota and specific exposure scenarios. Because strontium-90 accumulates in bone, we have also modeled the dose to the anterior kidney, a blood-forming and immune system organ that lies close to the spinal column of fish. The resulting dose is primarilymore » attributable to the yttrium-90 progeny of strontium-90 and very little of the dose is associated with the beta emission from strontium-90. All dose modeling results were calculated with an assumption of secular equilibrium between strontium-90 and yttrum-90.« less

  3. Phase transition studies in barium and strontium titanates at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahiya, Jai N.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives were the following: to understand the phase transformations in barium and strontium titanates as the crystals go from one temperature to the other; and to study the dielectric behavior of barium and strontium titanate crystals at a microwave frequency of 9.12 GHz and as a function of temperature. Phase transition studies in barium and strontium titanate are conducted using a cylindrical microwave resonant cavity as a probe. The cavity technique is quite successful in establishing the phase changes in these crystals. It appears that dipole relaxation plays an important role in the behavior of the dielectric response of the medium loading the cavity as phase change takes place within the sample. The method of a loaded resonant microwave cavity as applied in this work has proven to be sensitive enough to monitor small phase changes of the cavity medium.

  4. Cesium and Strontium Retentions Governed by Aluminosilicate Gel in Alkali-Activated Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jeong Gook; Park, Sol Moi; Lee, Haeng Ki

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the retention mechanisms of cesium and strontium for alkali-activated cements. Retention mechanisms such as adsorption and precipitation were examined in light of chemical interactions. Batch adsorption experiments and multi-technical characterizations by using X-ray diffraction, zeta potential measurements, and the N2 gas adsorption/desorption methods were conducted for this purpose. Strontium was found to crystalize in alkali-activated cements, while no cesium-bearing crystalline phases were detected. The adsorption kinetics of alkali-activated cements having relatively high adsorption capacities were compatible with pseudo-second-order kinetic model, thereby suggesting that it is governed by complex multistep adsorption. The results provide new insight, demonstrating that characteristics of aluminosilicate gel with a highly negatively charged surface and high micropore surface area facilitated more effective immobilization of cesium and strontium in comparison with calcium silicate hydrates. PMID:28772803

  5. [Recurrence rate following adjuvant strontium-90 brachytherapy after excision of conjunctival melanoma].

    PubMed

    Krause, L; Ritter, C; Wachtlin, J; Kreusel, K-M; Höcht, S; Foerster, M H; Bechrakis, N E

    2008-07-01

    Because of the high local recurrence rates after excision of conjunctival melanomas, adjuvant local chemotherapy or irradiation is recommended. Strontium-90 brachytherapy is one radiotherapeutic option due to its low penetration depth. 15 patients with conjunctival melanoma were treated with adjuvant strontium-90 brachytherapy after tumour excision. The treatment was fractionated into 9 irradiation sessions with 6 Gy each. The mean follow-up was 35 months (12-60 months). Seven patients (46%) had no recurrence during the follow-up. Three patients (20%) had a recurrence in the treated or adjacent area. Eight patients (53%) developed new tumours in non-treated areas. Strontium-90 brachytherapy is a useful adjuvant in the treatment of conjunctival melanomas. Regular ophthalmoscopic controls are necessary because of the high rate of new tumours in non-irradiated areas, especially in cases with primary acquired melanosis.

  6. Assessment of strontium oxide functionalized graphene nanoflakes for enhanced photocatalytic activity: A density functional theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divya, A.; Mathavan, T.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Archana, J.; Hayakawa, Y.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    A series of strontium oxide functionalized graphene nanoflakes were designed and their optoelectronic properties were studied for enhanced photocatalytic activity. The efficiency of designed molecules was studied using various parameters such as HOMO-LUMO energy gap, light harvesting efficiency and exciton binding energy. The computed results show that by increasing the degree of functionalization of strontium oxide leads to lowering the band gap of hydrogen terminated graphene nanoflakes. Furthermore, the study explores the role of strontium oxide functionalization in Frontier Molecular Orbitals, ionization potential, electron affinity, exciton binding energy and light harvesting efficiency of designed molecules. The infrared and Raman spectra were simulated for pure and SrO functionalized graphene nanoflakes. The electron rich and electron deficient regions which are favorable for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks respectively were analyzed using molecular electrostatic potential surface analysis.

  7. Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in…

  8. Establishing a Child Care Substitute Caregiver System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Lynne

    Substitute caregivers are needed by day care centers in every state. Indeed, some areas are experiencing severe shortages of applicants for child care positions and short-term substitute work. This article describes problems encountered in current substitute caregiver systems and suggests ways of dealing with such problems. Specifically discussed…

  9. Permanent Teacher Preparation for Substitute Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Steve; Tippetts, Zachary

    2001-01-01

    Presents information about what should be communicated to substitute teachers and why it is important, focusing on the substitute teacher's role, classroom management tools, curriculum management, and preparing students for the substitute teacher by creating bridges that will help minimize the sense of separation students feel when they have a…

  10. Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and their synthesis are disclosed. These polysulfones are thermally cured to induce cross-linking and chain extension, producing a polymer system with improved solvent resistance and use temperatures. Also disclosed are substituted 4-ethynylbenzoyl chlorides as precursors to the substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and a process for preparing the same.

  11. Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and a process for preparing the same are disclosed. These polysulfones are thermally cured to induce cross-linking and chain extension, producing a polymer system with improved solvent resistance and use temperature. Also disclosed are substituted 4-ethynylbenzoyl chlorides as precursors to the substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and a process for preparing the same.

  12. 40 CFR 721.4420 - Substituted hydroxylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted hydroxylamine. 721.4420... Substances § 721.4420 Substituted hydroxylamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted hydroxylamine (PMN P-84-492) is...

  13. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents.

  14. Biodistribution of strontium and barium in the developing and mature skeleton of rats.

    PubMed

    Panahifar, Arash; Chapman, L Dean; Weber, Lynn; Samadi, Nazanin; Cooper, David M L

    2018-06-19

    Bone acts as a reservoir for many trace elements. Understanding the extent and pattern of elemental accumulation in the skeleton is important from diagnostic, therapeutic, and toxicological perspectives. Some elements are simply adsorbed to bone surfaces by electric force and are buried under bone mineral, while others can replace calcium atoms in the hydroxyapatite structure. In this article, we investigated the extent and pattern of skeletal uptake of barium and strontium in two different age groups, growing, and skeletally mature, in healthy rats. Animals were dosed orally for 4 weeks with either strontium chloride or barium chloride or combined. The distribution of trace elements was imaged in 3D using synchrotron K-edge subtraction micro-CT at 13.5 µm resolution and 2D electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Bulk concentration of the elements in serum and bone (tibiae) was also measured by mass spectrometry to study the extent of uptake. Toxicological evaluation did not show any cardiotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. Both elements were primarily deposited in the areas of active bone turnover such as growth plates and trabecular bone. Barium and strontium concentration in the bones of juvenile rats was 2.3 times higher, while serum levels were 1.4 and 1.5 times lower than adults. In all treatment and age groups, strontium was preferred to barium even though equal molar concentrations were dosed. This study displayed spatial co-localization of barium and strontium in bone for the first time. Barium and strontium can be used as surrogates for calcium to study the pathological changes in animal models of bone disease and to study the effects of pharmaceutical compounds on bone micro-architecture and bone remodeling in high spatial sensitivity and precision.

  15. Non-Fickian dispersive transport of strontium in laboratory-scale columns: Modelling and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongxu; Jivkov, Andrey P.; Wang, Lichun; Si, Gaohua; Yu, Jing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of environmental remediation of contaminated sites and safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the near-surface zone, we investigate the leaching and non-Fickian dispersive migration with sorption of strontium (mocking strontium-90) through columns packed with sand and clay. Analysis is based on breakthrough curves (BTCs) from column experiments, which simulated rainfall infiltration and source term release scenario, rather than applying constant tracer solution at the inlet as commonly used. BTCs are re-evaluated and transport parameters are estimated by inverse modelling using two approaches: (1) equilibrium advection-dispersion equation (ADE); and (2) continuous time random walk (CTRW). Firstly, based on a method for calculating leach concentration, the inlet condition with an exponential decay input is identified. Secondly, the results show that approximately 39%-58% of Br- and 16%-49% of Sr2+ are eluted from the columns at the end of the breakthrough experiments. This suggests that trapping mechanisms, including diffusion into immobile zones and attachment of tracer on mineral surfaces, are more pronounced for Sr2+ than for Br-. Thirdly, we demonstrate robustness of CTRW-based truncated power-law (TPL) model in capturing non-Fickian reactive transport with 0 < β < 2, and Fickian transport with β > 2. The non-Fickian dispersion observed experimentally is explained by variations of local flow field from preferential flow paths due to physical heterogeneities. Particularly, the additional sorption process of strontium on clay minerals contributes to the delay of the peak concentration and the tailing features, which leads to an enhanced non-Fickian transport for strontium. Finally, the ADE and CTRW approaches to environmental modelling are evaluated. It is shown that CTRW with a sorption term can describe non-Fickian dispersive transport of strontium at laboratory scale by identifying appropriate parameters, while the traditional ADE with

  16. Erosion and landscape development decouple strontium and sulfur in the transition to dominance by atmospheric inputs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, C.R.; Porder, S.; Townsend, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Weathering and leaching can progressively deplete the pools of soluble, rock-derived elements in soils and ecosystems over millennial time-scales, such that productivity increasingly relies on inputs from atmospheric deposition. This transition has been explored using strontium isotopes, which have been widely assumed to be a proxy for the provenance of other rock-derived elements. We compared rock versus atmospheric proportions of strontium to those for sulfur, a plant macronutrient, at several tropical forest sites in Hawaii and Costa Rica. Isotopic analyses reveal that sulfur is often decoupled from strontium in the transition to atmospheric dependence. Decoupling is likely the result of differences in chemical factors such as atmospheric input rates, mobility in the soil environment, and mineral weathering susceptibility. Strontium and sulfur decoupling appears to be accentuated by the physical process of erosion. Erosion rates are presumed to be high on the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica, where the recent onset of rapid tectonic uplift has placed the landscape in a transient state. Decoupling is strong there, as erosion has rejuvenated the supply of rock-derived strontium but not sulfur. The landscape response to changes in tectonic uplift on the Osa Peninsula has produced decoupling at the landscape scale. Decoupling is more variable along a Hawaiian catena, presumably due to smaller scale variations in erosion rates and their influence on rejuvenation of rock-strontium inputs. These results illustrate how chemical and physical processes can interact to produce contrasting origins for different nutrient elements in soils and the ecosystems they support. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    that caused by osteoporosis in humans. For both mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopes, the isotopic value of the albumen is the highest natural value yet measured. The offset between the δ88/86Sr values of the albumen and shell is 0.45%, less than half that of the δ44/42Ca offset value (1.29%), as predicted by the relative mass differences. However, the yolk is 0.35% heavier than the shell in δ44/42Ca but 0.70% lighter in δ88/86Sr. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr value of the shell (0.70854 ±0.000012, 2σ) is statistically the same as the albumen (0.70856 ±0.000018), but slightly offset from the yolk (0.70830 ±0.000014). The apparent decoupling of Ca and Sr, and the radiogenic offset between yolk and shell, may reflect differences in the residence time of calcium and strontium in different reproductive organs, as well as the contribution of medullary bone to shell formation. In addition, it may also reflect differential discrimination against Sr versus Ca in oviduct and uterus. Further studies could extend to thinning eggshells in wild avian populations, biochemical mechanisms of bone formation, and the mechanism of strontium ranelate in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  6. Research on disposal of copper(II)-containing wastewater by secondary strontium residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Duowen; Xu, Longjun; Cui, Caixi

    2018-01-01

    Secondary strontium residue (SSR) was used as absorbent to remove Cu2+ in solution and the effects of experimental conditions on absorption of Cu2+ were investigated. The results showed that the absorption process reached balance in around 40 min. The absorption capacity achieved the maximum when PH value reached 6, and the maximum adsorption of Cu2+-containing wastewater by secondary strontium residue was 5.46 mg/g. Removal ratio of Cu2+ was in relation to initial concentration of Cu2+ in solution. Adsorptive process tallied with Langmuir Isothermal adsorption model.

  7. Comparison of Two Methods for Determination of Strontium Isotopes in Pore Water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. D.; Futa, K.; Scofield, K. M.

    2002-12-01

    The proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada would be constructed in the high-silica rhyolite member of the Topopah Spring Tuff, an ash-flow tuff within the ~500-m-thick unsaturated zone. Dry-drilled rock cores from this unit have been packaged to preserve their water content. Two methods have been used to extract the strontium contained in the pore water for isotopic measurements. In the first method, samples of dried core were crushed, and the 0.25 to 2.4 mm size fractions were leached with ultra-pure water for about 1 hour to dissolve the salts left behind by the evaporated pore water. Concentrations of strontium in the pore water were calculated from determinations of porosity and saturation on adjacent core and the measured strontium concentration in the leachate. In the second method, pore water was extracted from sealed core using an ultracentrifuge, minimizing evaporation of water from the core at all steps in the process. The centrifugation of 150 to 200 g of welded tuff at 15,000 rpm for 6 hours typically results in the recovery of as much as 3 ml of pore water for analysis. Strontium isotope compositions were determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry; 87Sr /86Sr ratios have a reproducibility of 0.00005. The ranges of 87Sr/86Sr ratios determined by the two methods are identical: 0.71215 to 0.71267 in the leachates (n = 35) and 0.71214 to 0.71266 in the extracted pore waters (n = 21). However, the calculated strontium concentrations in the leachates average 300 μg/L, whereas those in the extracted pore water average 1440 μg/L, indicating that a substantial portion of the pore-water salts remain in the crushed rock after leaching. The strontium data determined on extracted pore water shows that the leaching of pore-water salts results in accurate 87Sr/86Sr, but that a substantial correction to the strontium concentration is required due to the inefficiency of the leaching procedure and the small pore sizes in the welded

  8. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of silver, cobalt, and strontium from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths and alligator weeds demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from an aqueous system by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.439 mg of silver, 0.568 mg of cobalt, and 0.544 mg of strontium in an ionized form per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. Alligator weeds removed a maximum of 0.439 mg of silver, 0.130 mg of cobalt, and 0.161 mg of strontium per gram of dry plant material per day.

  9. Diode laser based resonance ionization mass spectrometric measurement of strontium-90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushaw, B. A.; Cannon, B. D.

    1997-10-01

    A diode laser based scheme for the isotopically selective excitation and ionization of strontium is presented. The double-resonance excitation 5s 21S 0→5s5p 3P 1→5s6s 3S 1 is followed by photoionization at 488 nm. The isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the resonance transitions have been accurately measured for the stable isotopes and 90Sr, with the measurement of the 90Sr shifts using sub-pg samples. Analytical tests, using graphite crucible atomization, demonstrated 90Sr detection limits of 0.8 fg and overall (optical+mass spectrometer) isotopic selectivity of >10 10 against stable strontium.

  10. Biosorption of cesium-137 and strontium-90 by mucilaginous seeds of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Maji, Samir; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Basu, Sukalyan

    2007-11-01

    Mucilaginous seeds of Ocimum basilicum were used in uptake studies with cesium-137 and strontium-90. Results showed that uptake was dependent on the structural integrity of the mucilage fibrils. Water imbibed seeds showed higher adsorption of both 137Cs and 90Sr in comparison to seeds pretreated with NaOH, HCl and Na-periodate solution. The uptake was pH dependent and while some divalent metal ions had no or little detrimental effect, the alkali metal ions Li+, Na+ and K+ decreased the uptake. The maximum adsorption capacity was 160 mg cesium g(-1) and 247 mg strontium g(-1) seed dry weight.

  11. [Blastomogenic effect following single and chronic exposure to a mixture of cesium-137 and strontium-90].

    PubMed

    Danetskaia, E V; Lavrent'ev, L N; Zapol'skaia, N A

    1976-01-01

    The rate of tumor incidence in different rhythms of rat stomach exposure to cesium-137 and strontium-90 was analysed. The correlative values of the administered nucleids activity were selected by analogy with their content in global natural fall-out. In single exposure to the concentrations of 400 and 100 mc/per rat of cesium-137 and strontium-90 mixture accordingly, osteogenic osteosarcomas developed approximatley 4 times as frequently as in chronic administration of the same radionucleids in concentrations of 2 and 8 mc/per rat, correspondingly.

  12. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Neves, Nuno; Campos, Bruno B; Almeida, Isabel F; Costa, Paulo C; Cabral, Abel Trigo; Barbosa, Mário A; Ribeiro, Cristina C

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium(Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35%w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N.Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation.

  13. Strontium and Trace Metals in the Mississippi River Mixing Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Marcantonio, F.

    2001-12-01

    Strontium is generally believed to be a conservative element, i.e., it is assumed that dissolved Sr moves directly from rivers through estuaries to the ocean. More recently, however, detailed sampling of rivers suggests a weak non-conservative behavior for Sr. Here, we present dissolved and suspended load Sr and trace metal data for samples retrieved along salinity transects in the estuarine mixing zone of the Mississippi River. Our cruises took place during times representing high, falling, and low Mississippi River discharge. Sr concentration and isotopic composition were analyzed for both dissolved particulate loads. Selected particle-reactive or redox-sensitive trace metals (Mn, Fe, U, V, Mo, Ti, and Pb) were analyzed simultaneously. In the dissolved load, Sr showed conservative behavior in both high- and low- discharge periods. Non-conservative behavior of Sr predominated during falling discharge in the summer. Significant positive correlations were found between Sr, Mo and Ti. U and V distributions were found to be essentially controlled by mixing of river water and seawater, but with significantly lower riverine concentrations during high-flow stage. Particulate element concentrations can be quite variable and heterogeneous. In this study, strong correlations were found between particulate Mn (and Fe) concentrations and particulate concentrations of Ti, U, V, and Pb. No such correlations with Mn (or Fe) were found for particulate Sr and Mo. There is a vast hypoxic zone along the coast of Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico that exists during the summer months. Based on the Sr isotope systematics and the relationships between Sr and trace metals, we believe that this eutrophication may contribute to the non-conservative behaviors of Sr and other trace metals. We discuss the potential implications of this hypothesis on the Sr mass balance of present-day and past seawater.

  14. SR90, strontium shaped-charge critical ionization velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, Eugene M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans; Swift, Daniel W.; Valenzuela, Arnoldo; Rees, David

    1990-01-01

    In May 1986 an experiment was performed to test Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect in free space, using the first high explosive shaped charge with a conical liner of strontium metal. The release, made at 540 km altitude at dawn twilight, was aimed at 48 deg to B. The background electron density was 1.5 x 10(exp 4) cu cm. A faint field-aligned Sr(+) ion streak with tip velocity of 2.6 km/s was observed from two optical sites. Using two calibration methods, it was calculated that between 4.5 x 10(exp 20) and 2 x 10(exp 21) ions were visible. An ionization time constant of 1920 s was calculated for Sr from the solar UV spectrum and ionization cross section which combined with a computer simulation of the injection predicts 1.7 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions in the low-velocity part of the ion streak. Thus all the observed ions are from solar UV ionization of the slow (less than critical) velocity portion of the neutral jet. The observed neutral Sr velocity distribution and computer simulations indicate that 2 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions would have been created from the fast (greater than critical) part of the jet. They would have been more diffuse, and were not observed. Using this fact it was estimated that any CIV ions created were less than 10(exp 21). It was concluded that future Sr CIV free space experiments should be conducted below the UV shadow height and in much larger background plasma density.

  15. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1-100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cellular Response of Shewanella oneidensis to Strontium Stress†

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Steven D.; Martin, Madhavi; Deshpande, Sameer; Seal, Sudipta; Huang, Katherine; Alm, Eric; Yang, Yunfeng; Wu, Liyou; Yan, Tingfen; Liu, Xueduan; Arkin, Adam; Chourey, Karuna; Zhou, Jizhong; Thompson, Dorothea K.

    2006-01-01

    The physiology and transcriptome dynamics of the metal ion-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 in response to nonradioactive strontium (Sr) exposure were investigated. Studies indicated that MR-1 was able to grow aerobically in complex medium in the presence of 180 mM SrCl2 but showed severe growth inhibition at levels above that concentration. Temporal gene expression profiles were generated from aerobically grown, mid-exponential-phase MR-1 cells shocked with 180 mM SrCl2 and analyzed for significant differences in mRNA abundance with reference to data for nonstressed MR-1 cells. Genes with annotated functions in siderophore biosynthesis and iron transport were among the most highly induced (>100-fold [P < 0.05]) open reading frames in response to acute Sr stress, and a mutant (SO3032::pKNOCK) defective in siderophore production was found to be hypersensitive to SrCl2 exposure, compared to parental and wild-type strains. Transcripts encoding multidrug and heavy metal efflux pumps, proteins involved in osmotic adaptation, sulfate ABC transporters, and assimilative sulfur metabolism enzymes also were differentially expressed following Sr exposure but at levels that were several orders of magnitude lower than those for iron transport genes. Precipitate formation was observed during aerobic growth of MR-1 in broth cultures amended with 50, 100, or 150 mM SrCl2 but not in cultures of the SO3032::pKNOCK mutant or in the abiotic control. Chemical analysis of this precipitate using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and static secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated extracellular solid-phase sequestration of Sr, with at least a portion of the heavy metal associated with carbonate phases. PMID:16391131

  17. Optically-Induced Persistent Magnetization in Oxygen Deficient Strontium Titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooker, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Interest in electronics and spintronics based on complex oxide materials has exploded in recent years, fueled by the ability to grow atomically-precise heterostructures of various oxides 1. A foundational material in this burgeoning field is strontium titanate, a (nominally) non-magnetic wide-bandgap semiconductor. Owing to its ubiquity in oxide materials science, studies of SrTiO3's interesting dielectric, lattice, and optical properties represent mature research areas. However, renewed interest in SrTiO3 was recently sparked by observations of unexpected spin and magnetization phenomena at interfaces between SrTiO3 and other nonmagnetic oxides 1. The formation and distribution of oxygen vacancies (VO) in SrTiO3 are widely thought to play an essential but as-yet-incompletely understood role in these emergent phenomena. Here we demonstrate a surprising new aspect to the phenomenology of magnetism in SrTiO3 by reporting the observation of an optically-induced and persistent magnetization in slightly oxygen-deficient SrTiO3-δ bulk crystals, using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and optically-coupled SQUID studies 2. This magnetization appears below 18K, persists for hours below 10K, and is tunable via the polarization and wavelength of sub-bandgap (400-500 nm) light. As such, magnetic patterns can be ``written'' into SrTiO3-δ, and subsequently read out, using light alone. This magnetism occurs only in crystals containing VO, and is consistent with a metastable spin polarization of VO-related defect complexes. These data reveal a detailed interplay between magnetism, lattice defects, and light in an archetypal complex oxide material, which may yield new insights into the recent exciting spin physics observed at oxide interfaces.

  18. Rate of strontium sorption and the effects of variable aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium on strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The rate of strontium sorption and the effects of variable aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium on strontium sorption were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium chemical transport properties of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine the rate of strontium sorption and strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)s) between aqueous and solid phases. Rate experiments indicate that strontium in solution reached an apparent equilibrium with the sediment in 26 h. K(d)s were derived using the linear isotherm model at initial sodium concentrations from 100 to 5,000 mg/l and initial potassium concentrations from 2 to 150 mg/l. K(d)s ranged from 56 ?? 2 to 62 ?? 3 ml/g at initial aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium equal to or less than 300 and 150 mg/l, respectively. K(d)s hinged from 4.7 ?? 0.2 to 19 ?? 1 ml/g with initial aqueous concentrations of sodium between 1,000 and 5,000 mg/l. These data indicate that sodium concentrations greater than 300 mg/l in wastewater increase the availability of strontium for transport beneath waste disposal ponds at the INEL by decreasing strontium sorption on the surficial sediment. Wastewater concentrations of sodium and potassium less than 300 and 150 mg/l, respectively, have little effect on the availability of strontium for transport.The rate of strontium sorption and the effects of variable aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium on strontium sorption were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium chemical transport properties of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine the rate of strontium sorption and strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) between aqueous and solid phases. Rate experiments indicate that strontium in solution reached an apparent equilibrium with the sediment in 26

  19. Structural analysis of strontium in human teeth treated with surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler eluate by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2017-03-31

    The bioactive effects of strontium released from surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) fillers may aid in caries prevention. In this study, the local structure of strontium taken up by teeth was estimated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. Immersing teeth into S-PRG filler eluate increased the strontium content in enamel and dentin by more than 100 times. The local structure of strontium in enamel and dentin stored in distilled water was the same as that in synthetic strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (SrHAP). Moreover, the local structure of strontium in enamel and dentin after immersion in the S-PRG filler eluate was also similar to that of SrHAP. After immersion in the S-PRG filler eluate, strontium was suggested to be incorporated into the hydroxyapatite (HAP) of enamel and dentin at the calcium site in HAP.

  20. Nano-domain states of strontium ferrites SrFe{sub 1−y}M{sub y}O{sub 2.5+x} (M=V, Mo; y≤0.1; x≤0.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Ancharova, Uliana V., E-mail: ancharova@gmail.com; Cherepanova, Svetlana V., E-mail: svch@catalysis.ru; Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova st., 2, Novosibirsk 630090

    Series of the oxygen-deficient strontium ferrites SrFe{sub 1−y}M{sub y}O{sub 2.5+x} (M=V, Mo, y<0.1; x<0.2) substituted with high-charged cations have been investigated by HRTEM and synchrotron radiation XRD. For artificial lowering of x, all the compounds were treated and quenched in vacuum from 950 °C, which led to the formation of the vacancy-ordered brownmillerite phase at local order. Depending on y, the substituted strontium ferrites have three differently disordered nano-domain states. At y≤0.03 there are twinned lamellar 1D nano-domain structures. At 0.04≤y≤0.05 and 0.06≤y≤0.08 the intergrown 3D nano-domain structures with two different types of disorder are formed. The higher the y,more » the lower the domain size. Disordering phenomena of the 3D nano-domain states were examined with local structure simulations followed by the Debye calculation of XRD patterns. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of nano-domain structure with an increase in the substitution degree y in strontium ferrites SrFe{sub 1−y}M{sub y}O{sub 2.5+x} (M=V, Mo; y≤0.1; x≤0.2): an increase in y decreases the average size of domains and increases the degree of disorder, thus producing the lamellar (1D) or 3D nano-domains. - Highlights: • Two major nanodomain states were found for SrFe{sub 1−y}M{sub y}O{sub 2.5+x} (M=V, Mo, y<0.1; x<0.2). • Both contain vacancy-ordered orthorhombic domains intergrown with cubic matrix. • First (y≤0.03) shows orthorhombic and second (0.04≤y≤0.08) – cubic XRD patterns. • First contains 1D twinned lamellar domains with low-angle boundaries and deformations. • Second contains intergrown isotropic in 3D domains perpendicular oriented in matrix.« less

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of strontium-containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate for sinus lift in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Valiense, Helder; Barreto, Mauricio; Resende, Rodrigo F; Alves, Adriana T; Rossi, Alexandre M; Mavropoulos, Elena; Granjeiro, José M; Calasans-Maia, Mônica D

    2016-02-01

    Various synthetic bone substitutes have been developed to reconstruct bone defects. One of the most prevalent ceramics in bone treatment is hydroxyapatite (HA) that is a useful material as bone substitute, however, with a low rate of biodegradation. Its structure allows isomorphic cationic and anionic substitutions to be easily introduced, which can alter the crystallinity, morphology, biocompatibility, and osteoconductivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to strontium-containing nanostructured carbonated HA/sodium alginate (SrCHA) spheres (425<ϕ <600 μm) that were used for sinus lifts in rabbits using nanostructured carbonated HA/sodium alginate (CHA) as a reference. Cytocompatibility was determined using a multiparametric assay after exposing murine preosteoblasts to the extracts of these materials. Twelve male and female rabbits underwent bilateral sinus lift procedures and were divided into two groups (CHA or SrCHA) and in two experimental periods (4 and 12 weeks), for microscopic and histomorphometric analyses. The in vitro test revealed the overall viability of the cells exposed to the CHA and SrCHA extracts; thus, these extracts were considered cytocompatible, which was confirmed by three different parameters in the in vitro tests. The histological analysis showed chronic inflammation with a prevalence of macrophages around the CHA spheres after 4 weeks, and this inflammation decreased after 12 weeks. Bone formation was observed in both groups, and smaller quantities of SrCHA spheres were observed after 12 weeks, indicating greater bioresorption of SrCHA than CHA. SrCHA spheres are biocompatible and osteoconductive and undergo bioresorption earlier than CHA spheres. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Strontium hydroxyapatite and strontium carbonate as templates for the precipitation of calcium-phosphates in the absence and presence of fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternitzke, Vanessa; Janousch, Markus; Heeb, Michèle B.; Hering, Janet G.; Johnson, C. Annette

    2014-06-01

    The heterogeneous precipitation of calcium-phosphates on calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 or HAP) in the presence and absence of fluoride is important in the formation of bone and teeth, protection against tooth decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis and defluoridation of drinking water. Strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr10(PO4)6(OH)2 or SrHAP) and strontium carbonate (SrCO3) were used as calcium-free seed templates in precipitation experiments conducted with varying initial calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) or calcium-to-phosphate-to-fluoride (Ca/P/F) ratios. Suspensions of SrHAP or SrCO3 seed templates (which were calcium-limited for both templates and phosphate-limited in the case of SrCO3) were reacted at pH 7.3 (25 °C) over 3 days. The resulting solids were examined with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Calcium apatite was the predominant phase identified by all techniques independent of the added Ca/P ratios and of the presence of fluoride. It was not possible to make an unambiguous distinction between HAP and fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2, FAP). The apatite was calcium-deficient and probably contained some strontium.

  3. Niobium Doped Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite as A Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingwei; Wei, Bo; Cao, Zhiqun; Yue, Xing; Zhang, Yaxin; Lü, Zhe

    2018-01-10

    The Nb-doped lanthanum strontium ferrite perovskite oxide La 0.8 Sr 0.2 Fe 0.9 Nb 0.1 O 3-δ (LSFNb) is evaluated as an anode material in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The effects of Nb partial substitution in the crystal structure, the electrical conductivity, and the valence of Fe ions are studied. LSFNb exhibits good structural stability in a severe reducing atmosphere at 800 °C, suggesting that high-valent Nb can effectively promote the stability of the lattice structure. The concentration of Fe 2+ increases after Nb doping, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The maximum power density of a thick Sc-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) electrolyte-supported single cell reached 241.6 mW cm -2 at 800 °C with H 2 as fuel. The cell exhibited excellent stability for 100 h continuous operation without detectable degeneration. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed exsolution on the LSFNb surface after operation. Meanwhile, LSFNb particles agglomerated significantly during long-term stability testing. Impedance spectra suggested that both the LSFNb anode and the (La 0.75 Sr 0.25 ) 0.95 MnO 3-δ /ScSZ cathode underwent an activation process during long-term testing, through which the charge transfer ability increased significantly. Meanwhile, low-frequency resistance (R L ) mainly attributed to the anode (80 %) significantly increased, probably due to the agglomeration of LSFNb particles. The LSFNb anode exhibits excellent anti-sulfuring poisoning ability and redox stability. These results demonstrate that LSFNb is a promising anode material for SOFCs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Strontium-Doped Calcium Phosphate and Hydroxyapatite Granules Promote Different Inflammatory and Bone Remodelling Responses in Normal and Ovariectomised Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei; Emanuelsson, Lena; Norlindh, Birgitta; Omar, Omar; Thomsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The healing of bone defects may be hindered by systemic conditions such as osteoporosis. Calcium phosphates, with or without ion substitutions, may provide advantages for bone augmentation. However, the mechanism of bone formation with these materials is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process in bone defects implanted with hydroxyapatite (HA) or strontium-doped calcium phosphate (SCP) granules, in non-ovariectomised (non-OVX) and ovariectomised (OVX) rats. After 0 (baseline), six and 28d, bone samples were harvested for gene expression analysis, histology and histomorphometry. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), at six days, was higher in the HA, in non-OVX and OVX, whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6), at six and 28d, was higher in SCP, but only in non-OVX. Both materials produced a similar expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Higher expression of osteoclastic markers, calcitonin receptor (CR) and cathepsin K (CatK), were detected in the HA group, irrespective of non-OVX or OVX. The overall bone formation was comparable between HA and SCP, but with topological differences. The bone area was higher in the defect centre of the HA group, mainly in the OVX, and in the defect periphery of the SCP group, in both non-OVX and OVX. It is concluded that HA and SCP granules result in comparable bone formation in trabecular bone defects. As judged by gene expression and histological analyses, the two materials induced different inflammatory and bone remodelling responses. The modulatory effects are associated with differences in the spatial distribution of the newly formed bone. PMID:24376855

  5. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd. Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing. PMID:21321652

  6. A comparison of adverse event and fracture efficacy data for strontium ranelate in regulatory documents and the publication record

    PubMed Central

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recently, the European Medicines Agency reported that strontium ranelate increases myocardial infarction risk in postmenopausal women, 8.5 years after it was registered for use in osteoporosis. Unreported serious adverse events in clinical trials for other pharmaceuticals have been described in recent years. We assessed reporting of adverse events and fracture efficacy of strontium. Methods We compared data on adverse effects (myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism) and fracture efficacy of strontium in publicly available regulatory documents with data in publications retrieved from searching PubMed. Results We identified 5 regulatory documents and 9 primary publications of 7 randomised, placebo-controlled trials of strontium that reported relevant data. We identified several areas of concern in these reports: the increased risk of myocardial infarction with strontium was not identified in a pivotal phase 3 clinical trial despite specific regulatory review of cardiovascular events; data on myocardial infarction were not included in any primary publication; increased risks of venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism with strontium were not reported in either of the phase 3 clinical trials; data on venous thromboembolism were reported in only 5 of 9 primary publications, data on pulmonary embolism in only 2 of 9 primary publications, and either was discussed in <50% of subsequent review articles. There were differences in participant numbers, fracture cases and venous thromboembolism cases between regulatory documents and primary publications. Based on all available data from primary publications and regulatory documents, the number of fractures prevented by strontium use is similar to the number of extra cases of venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction caused by strontium use. Conclusions The risks of strontium use are similar to the benefits. Full disclosure of the clinical trial data and

  7. A comparison of adverse event and fracture efficacy data for strontium ranelate in regulatory documents and the publication record.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew

    2014-10-07

    Recently, the European Medicines Agency reported that strontium ranelate increases myocardial infarction risk in postmenopausal women, 8.5 years after it was registered for use in osteoporosis. Unreported serious adverse events in clinical trials for other pharmaceuticals have been described in recent years. We assessed reporting of adverse events and fracture efficacy of strontium. We compared data on adverse effects (myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism) and fracture efficacy of strontium in publicly available regulatory documents with data in publications retrieved from searching PubMed. We identified 5 regulatory documents and 9 primary publications of 7 randomised, placebo-controlled trials of strontium that reported relevant data. We identified several areas of concern in these reports: the increased risk of myocardial infarction with strontium was not identified in a pivotal phase 3 clinical trial despite specific regulatory review of cardiovascular events; data on myocardial infarction were not included in any primary publication; increased risks of venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism with strontium were not reported in either of the phase 3 clinical trials; data on venous thromboembolism were reported in only 5 of 9 primary publications, data on pulmonary embolism in only 2 of 9 primary publications, and either was discussed in <50% of subsequent review articles. There were differences in participant numbers, fracture cases and venous thromboembolism cases between regulatory documents and primary publications. Based on all available data from primary publications and regulatory documents, the number of fractures prevented by strontium use is similar to the number of extra cases of venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction caused by strontium use. The risks of strontium use are similar to the benefits. Full disclosure of the clinical trial data and regulatory documents would allow

  8. Comparison of the effects of filtration and preservation methods on analyses for strontium-90 in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, L.L.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    From 1952 to 1988, about 140 curies of strontium-90 were discharged in liquid waste to disposal ponds and wells at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory). Water from four wells was sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's quality-assurance program to evaluate the effects of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in ground water at the INEL. Water from each well was filtered through eithera 0.45- or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered water samples were collected at each well. One of the two sets of water samples was field acidified. Strontium-90 concentrations ranged from below the reporting level to 52 ?? 4 picocuries per liter. Descriptive statistics were used to determine reproducibility of the analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from each well. Comparisons were made with unfiltered, acidified samples at each well. Analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from well 88 were not in statistical agreement between the unfiltered, acidified sample and the filtered (0.45 micrometer), acidified sample. The strontium-90 concentration for water from well 88 was less than the reporting level. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94 percent or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collection do not significantly affect reproducibility of strontium-90 analyses in ground water at the INEL.

  9. Comparison of the effects of filtration and preservation methods on analyses for strontium-90 in ground water.

    PubMed

    Knobel, L L; Cecil, L D; Wegner, S J; Moore, L L

    1992-01-01

    From 1952 to 1988, about 140 curies of strontium-90 were discharged in liquid waste to disposal ponds and wells at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory). Water from four wells was sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's quality-assurance program to evaluate the effects of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in ground water at the INEL. Water from each well was filtered through either a 0.45- or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered water samples were collected at each well. One of the two sets of water samples was field acidified.Strontium-90 concentrations ranged from below the reporting level to 52±4 picocuries per liter. Descriptive statistics were used to determine reproducibility of the analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from each well. Comparisons were made with unfiltered, acidified samples at each well. Analytical results for strontium-90 concentrations in water from well 88 were not in statistical agreement between the unfiltered, acidified sample and the filtered (0.45 micrometer), acidified sample. The strontium-90 concentration for water from well 88 was less than the reporting level.For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94 percent or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collection do not significantly affect reproducibility of strontium-90 analyses in ground water at the INEL.

  10. Physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on diffusivity of cesium and strontium.

    PubMed

    Jang, J G; Park, S M; Lee, H K

    2016-11-15

    The present study investigates the physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on leaching behavior of cesium and strontium. Fly ash-based geopolymers and slag-blended geopolymers were used as solidification agents. The leaching behavior of cesium and strontium from geopolymers was evaluated in accordance with ANSI/ANS-16.1. The diffusivity of cesium and strontium in a fly ash-based geopolymer was lower than that in Portland cement by a factor of 10(3) and 10(4), respectively, showing significantly improved immobilization performance. The leaching resistance of fly ash-based geopolymer was relatively constant regardless of the type of fly ash. The diffusivity of water-soluble cesium and strontium ions were highly correlated with the critical pore diameter of the binder. The critical pore diameter of the fly ash-based geopolymer was remarkably smaller than those of Portland cement and slag-blended geopolymer; consequently, its ability physically to retard the diffusion of nuclides (physical barrier effect) was superior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium in a Spanish population (Canary Islands, Spain).

    PubMed

    González-Weller, Dailos; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel José; González, Gara Luis; Caballero Mesa, José María; Revert Gironés, Consuelo; Burgos Ojeda, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium contents in food and beverages consumed by the population of the Canary Islands (Spain) as well as determine dietary intake of these metals in the archipelago as a whole and in its individual islands. To this end, 440 samples were analyzed by ICP-OES and GFAAS. Barium concentrations ranged from 5.210 ± 2.117 mg/kg in nuts to 0.035 ± 0.043 mg/L in water. Viscera exhibited the highest levels of bismuth (38.07 ± 36.80 mg/kg). The cold meat and sausages group stood out for its high chromium concentrations (0.494 ± 0.257 mg/kg). The highest concentration of lithium and strontium came out in nuts (8.761 ± 5.368 mg/kg and 9.759 ± 5.181 mg/kg, respectively). The total intakes of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium were 0.685, 1.274, 0.087, 3.674, and 1.923 mg/day, respectively. Cereals turned out to contribute most to the dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, and lithium in the Canary Islands, while fruit contributes most to the strontium intake. We also performed a metal intake study by age and sex of the population and compared the outcome with data from other regions, both national and international.

  12. Strontium Isotopes and the Reconstruction of the Chaco Regional System: Evaluating Uncertainty with Bayesian Mixing Models

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Brandon Lee; Wills, Wirt H.; Hamilton, Marian I.; Dorshow, Wetherbee

    2014-01-01

    Strontium isotope sourcing has become a common and useful method for assigning sources to archaeological artifacts. In Chaco Canyon, an Ancestral Pueblo regional center in New Mexico, previous studies using these methods have suggested that significant portion of maize and wood originate in the Chuska Mountains region, 75 km to the East. In the present manuscript, these results were tested using both frequentist methods (to determine if geochemical sources can truly be differentiated) and Bayesian methods (to address uncertainty in geochemical source attribution). It was found that Chaco Canyon and the Chuska Mountain region are not easily distinguishable based on radiogenic strontium isotope values. The strontium profiles of many geochemical sources in the region overlap, making it difficult to definitively identify any one particular geochemical source for the canyon's pre-historic maize. Bayesian mixing models support the argument that some spruce and fir wood originated in the San Mateo Mountains, but that this cannot explain all 87Sr/86Sr values in Chaco timber. Overall radiogenic strontium isotope data do not clearly identify a single major geochemical source for maize, ponderosa, and most spruce/fir timber. As such, the degree to which Chaco Canyon relied upon outside support for both food and construction material is still ambiguous. PMID:24854352

  13. HIGH TEMPERATURE SORPTION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM ON DISPERSED KAOLINITE POWDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of cesium and strontium on kaolinite powders was investigated as a means to minimize the emissions of these metals during certain high-temperature processes currently being developed to isolate and dispose of radiological and mixed wastes. In this work, nonradioactive aq...

  14. Use of barium-strontium carbonatite for flux welding and surfacing of mining machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Usoltsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The results of application of barium-strontium carbonatite for modifying and refining iron-carbon alloys, used for welding and surfacing in ore mining and smelting industry, are generalized. The technology of manufacturing a flux additive containing 70 % of barium-strontium carbonatite and 30 % of liquid glass is proposed. Several compositions of welding fluxes based on silicomanganese slag were tested. The flux additive was introduced in an amount of 1, 3, 5 %. Technological features of welding with the application of the examined fluxes are determined. X-ray spectral analysis of the chemical composition of examined fluxes, slag crusts and weld metal was carried out, as well as metallographic investigations of welded joints. The principal possibility of applying barium-strontium carbonatite as a refining and gas-protective additive for welding fluxes is shown. The use of barium-strontium carbonatite reduces the contamination of the weld seam with nonmetallic inclusions: non-deforming silicates, spot oxides and brittle silicates, and increases the desulfurizing capacity of welding fluxes.

  15. Magnetic CuHCNPAN nano composite as an efficient adsorbent for strontium uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobtaker, Hossein Ghasemi; Pakzad, Seyed Mohammadreza; Yousefi, Taher

    2018-06-01

    An excellent composite was synthesized for sorption of strontium from solution. The composite (CuHCNPAN) components were copper hexacyanoferrate, magnetite and PAN. The XRD method confirmed the formation and presence of two crystalline phases of magnetite and copper hexacyanoferrate in composite. Particle sizes were determined by XRD and SEM methods. It was found that the particles were nano size. Some other methods such as FT IR, BET and TG methods were also used to determine the properties of the composite. The composite was used for sorption of strontium from solution. It was found that the kinetic of strontium sorption by the composite could be modeled by pseudo-second order. Among the isotherms applied to modeling the sorption in various concentrations, the Langmuir isotherm was founded to be more appropriate to fitting the experimental data. An excellent correlation coefficient was obtained (R2 > 0.98). The qmax for sorption of strontium ions which was calculated by Langmuir model was 80 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated by determination of sorption in various temperatures and using the Vant Hoff plot. ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° were calculated as -19.15, 2.28 and 0.071 kJ/mol respectively.

  16. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. 35.491 Section 35.491 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... radiotherapy. The training must include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection...

  17. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. 35.491 Section 35.491 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... radiotherapy. The training must include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection...

  18. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. 35.491 Section 35.491 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... radiotherapy. The training must include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection...

  19. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. 35.491 Section 35.491 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy... radiotherapy. The training must include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection...

  20. Long-term results of fractionated strontium-90 radiation therapy for pterygia.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Y; Nakai, A; Yoshimasu, T; Yagyu, Y; Nakamatsu, K; Shindo, H; Ishida, O

    2000-01-01

    The long-term safety and effectiveness of fractionated strontium-90 radiation therapy (RT) for pterygium were reviewed retrospectively. Between 1984 and 1996, 399 patients with 490 pterygia were treated with a strontium-90 eye applicator following surgical removal of the pterygium. The median follow-up period was 61 months (range 2-178). Of the 490 pterygia, 452 were fresh, 17 were recurrences after surgical removal alone, and 21 were recurrences after surgical removal plus postoperative RT. Fractionated RT of 31-42 Gy/4-5 fractions/22-29 days was given for 95.1% of the pterygia. In total, 58 (11.8%) local recurrences of pterygia were noted. The median time of local recurrences was 10 months, ranging from 2 to 93 months, and 16 recurrences (28%) were noted later than 24 months after treatment. The interval between surgery and the start of RT (1-3 days vs. >3 days) and recurrent pterygia were significant variables for local control in the multivariate analysis, while total RT dose (7-29 Gy vs. 31-50 Gy) was a marginally significant variable. Late toxicities that may be associated with strontium-90 RT were scleromalacia (scleral thinning) in 4 eyes, adhesion of eyelids in 3 eyes, and scleral ulcer in 2 eyes. Fractionated strontium-90 RT of approximately 40 Gy/4-5 fractions was safe and effective for preventing recurrence of pterygia, when RT was started within 3 days of surgery.

  1. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  2. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.; Mason, Caroline F. V.; Rais, Jiri

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  3. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

    1997-09-09

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  4. The reduction in inflammation and impairment in wound healing by using strontium chloride hexahydrate.

    PubMed

    Berksoy Hayta, Sibel; Durmuş, Kasim; Altuntaş, Emine Elif; Yildiz, Esin; Hisarciklıo, Mehmet; Akyol, Melih

    2018-03-01

    Numerous growth factors, cytokine, mitogen and chemotactic factors are involved in wound healing. Even though inflammation is important for the stimulation of proliferative phase, excessive inflammation also causes impairment in wound healing. Strontium salts suppress keratinocyte-induced TNF-alpha and interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 in in vitro cultures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of administration of topical strontium chloride hexahydrate on wound healing through TNF-alpha and TGF-beta in surgical wound healing model of in-vivo rat skin. Twenty-four rats were used in the study. After approximately 2 cm cutaneous-subcutaneous incision was horizontally carried out on the mid-neckline of the rats, the incision was again closed using 2.0 vicryl. The rats were assigned into three groups including eight rats in each group. Placebo emollient ointment and also the ointments, which were containing 5% and 10% strontium chloride hexahydrate and were prepared at the same base with placebo ointment, were administered to the groups by a blind executor twice a day for a week. At the end of seventh day, the rats were sacrificed and cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue of their wound site was resected for histopathological examination. Scoring of histopathological wound healing and scoring of tissue TNF-alpha and TGF-beta level with immunohistochemical staining were performed. The groups, to which both 5% and 10% strontium chloride hexahydrate was administered, had lower immunohistochemical TNF-alpha levels and histopathological wound scores compared to controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Strontium chloride hexahydrate can lead to impairment in wound healing by suppressing inflammation through TNF-alpha.

  5. Development of a strontium chronic effects benchmark for aquatic life in freshwater.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Cathy A; Lawrence, Gary S; Elphick, James R; Chapman, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    There are no national water-quality guidelines for strontium for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in North America or elsewhere. Available data on the acute and chronic toxicity of strontium to freshwater aquatic life were compiled and reviewed. Acute toxicity was reported to occur at concentrations ranging from 75 mg/L to 15 000 mg/L. The majority of chronic effects occurred at concentrations above 11 mg/L; however, calculation of a representative benchmark was confounded by results from 4 studies indicating that chronic effects occurred at lower concentrations than all other studies, in 2 cases below background concentrations reported for US and European streams. Two of these studies, including 1 reporting effects below background concentrations, were repeated and found not to be reproducible; chronic effects occurred at considerably higher strontium concentrations than in the original studies. Studies with narrow-mouthed toad and goldfish were not repeated; both studies reported chronic effects below background concentrations, and both studies had been conducted by the authors of 1 of the 2 studies that were repeated and shown to be nonreproducible. Studies by these authors (3 of the 4 confounding studies), conducted over 30 yr ago, lacked detail in reporting of methods and results. It is thus likely that repeating the toad and goldfish studies would also have resulted in a higher strontium effects concentration. A strontium chronic effects benchmark of 10.7 mg/L that incorporates the results of additional testing summarized in the present study is proposed for freshwater environments. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Effects of ocular surface strontium-90 beta radiotherapy in dogs latently infected with canine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Nicklin, Amanda M; McEntee, Margaret C; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2014-12-05

    Latent canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infections are common in domestic dogs, but stimuli causing viral reactivation and recrudescent disease are poorly understood. Immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals are currently the only experimentally established triggers for recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection in dogs; however, ocular CHV-1 shedding has been reported clinically following strontium-90 beta radiotherapy of the ocular surface and it has been speculated that radiotherapy can directly induce viral reactivation. Strontium-90 is used as a beta radiation source for the treatment of a variety of neoplastic and immune-mediated canine ocular surface diseases. In the present study, the effects of ocular surface strontium-90 beta radiotherapy in dogs latently infected with CHV-1 were evaluated. Ten mature dogs with experimentally induced latent CHV-1 infections were randomly divided into two groups: one group received a single fraction 50 Gy radiation dose in one application from a strontium-90 ophthalmic applicator and the second group received sham radiotherapy. Dogs were then monitored for 45 days for recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection using clinical and virological outcome measures. Clinical ophthalmic examinations, ocular sample CHV-1 PCR assays, and serum CHV-1 virus neutralizing antibody assays were performed at specified intervals. No abnormalities suggestive of recurrent CHV-1 ocular disease were observed on clinical examination in any dog during the study. Ocular viral shedding was not detected and CHV-1 virus neutralizing titers remained stable in all dogs. A single fraction 50 Gy radiation dose administered to the ocular surface by strontium-90 beta radiotherapy did not result in detectable recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection in mature dogs with experimentally induced latent infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sr-89 therapy: strontium kinetics in disseminated carcinoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Blake, G M; Zivanovic, M A; McEwan, A J; Ackery, D M

    1986-01-01

    Strontium kinetics were investigated in a group of 14 patients receiving 89Sr palliation for metastatic bone disease secondary to prostatic carcinoma. Using 85Sr as a tracer, total body strontium retention R(t) was monitored for a 3 month period following 89Sr administration, and at 90 days was found to vary from 11% to 88% and to correlate closely with the fraction of the skeleton showing scintigraphic evidence of osteoblastic metastatic involvement. Strontium renal plasma clearance varied from 1.6 l/day to 11.6 l/day, and in nine patients was significantly reduced compared with values found in healthy adult men, probably due to increased renal tubular reabsorption associated with the disturbance of calcium homoeostasis. Renal clearance rate was the principal factor determining R(t) for t less than 6 days, and was an important secondary factor at later times. Over the interval 30 days less than t less than 90 days, R(t) was closely fitted by the power law function R(t) = R30 (t/30)-b, with R30 and b showing the close correlation expected from the effect of R(t) on strontium recycling. The correction of the data for this effect to determine the true skeletal release rate is described. Measurement of localized strontium turnover in individual metastatic deposits from whole body profiles and scintigraphic images gave retention curves that typically rose to a plateau by 10 days after therapy, and then decreased very slowly. In contrast, retention curves for adjacent normal trabecular bone showed more rapid turnover, peaking at 1 day and subsequently decreasing following a t-0.2 power law function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Dehalogenation of aromatics by nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    Sadowsky, Daniel; McNeill, Kristopher; Cramer, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution has been implicated as a mechanism for both the biotic and abiotic hydrodehalogenation of aromatics. Two mechanisms for the aqueous dehalogenation of aromatics involving nucleophilic aromatic substitution with hydride as a nucleophile are investigated using a validated density functional and continuum solvation protocol. For chlorinated and brominated aromatics, nucleophilic addition ortho to carbon-halogen bonds via an anionic intermediate is predicted to be the preferred mechanism in the majority of cases, while concerted substitution is predicted to be preferred for most fluorinated aromatics. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions with the hydroxide and hydrosulfide anions as nucleophiles are also investigated and compared.

  9. Statistical Physics of Complex Substitutive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qing

    Diffusion processes are central to human interactions. Despite extensive studies that span multiple disciplines, our knowledge is limited to spreading processes in non-substitutive systems. Yet, a considerable number of ideas, products, and behaviors spread by substitution; to adopt a new one, agents must give up an existing one. This captures the spread of scientific constructs--forcing scientists to choose, for example, a deterministic or probabilistic worldview, as well as the adoption of durable items, such as mobile phones, cars, or homes. In this dissertation, I develop a statistical physics framework to describe, quantify, and understand substitutive systems. By empirically exploring three collected high-resolution datasets pertaining to such systems, I build a mechanistic model describing substitutions, which not only analytically predicts the universal macroscopic phenomenon discovered in the collected datasets, but also accurately captures the trajectories of individual items in a complex substitutive system, demonstrating a high degree of regularity and universality in substitutive systems. I also discuss the origins and insights of the parameters in the substitution model and possible generalization form of the mathematical framework. The systematical study of substitutive systems presented in this dissertation could potentially guide the understanding and prediction of all spreading phenomena driven by substitutions, from electric cars to scientific paradigms, and from renewable energy to new healthy habits.

  10. Coralline hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes.

    PubMed

    Elsinger, E C; Leal, L

    1996-01-01

    The authors present a review of the various bone grafts currently available with special attention to coral bone grafts. Several of the benefits of coralline hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes, such as safety and biocompatibility, will be addressed in this article, part of an ongoing investigation of coral bone grafts used in triple arthrodesis procedures. To date, eight cases have been performed. In seven cases, granular chips were employed to pack the subtalar joint. The final case, presented in this article, represents a 26-year-old male who, 2 years previously, sustained a calcaneal fracture with resultant shortening along the lateral column. A coralline hydroxyapatite block was used at the calcaneocuboid joint to achieve distraction. Clinically, the patient is progressing well at 10 months postoperatively. Radiographically, one can still clearly appreciate the margins of the bone graft at 5 months.

  11. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Substituted Phenylnitrenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeratne, Neloni R.; Da Fonte, Maria; Wenthold, Paul G.

    2009-06-01

    Nitrenes are unusual molecular structures with unfilled electronic valences that are isoelectronic with carbenes. Although, both can be generated by either thermal or photochemical decomposition of appropriate precursors they usually exhibit different reactivities. In this work, we carry out spectroscopic studies of substituted phenylnitrene to determine how the introduction of substituents will affect the reactivity and its thermochemical properties. All studies were carried out by using the newly constructed time-of-flight negative ion photoelectron spectrometer (NIPES) at Purdue University. The 355 nm photoelectron spectra of the o-, m-, and p-chlorophenyl nitrene anions are fairly similar to that measured for phenylnitrene anion. All spectra show low energy triplet state and a high energy singlet state. The singlet state for the meta isomer is well-resolved, with a well defined origin and observable vibrational structure. Whereas the singlet states for the ortho and para isomers have lower energy onsets and no resolved structure. The isomeric dependence suggests that the geometry differences result from the resonance interaction between the nitrogen and the substituent. Quinoidal resonance structures are possible for the open-shell singlet states of the o- and p-chlorinated phenyl nitrenes. The advantages of this type of electronic structures for the open-shell singlet states is that the unpaired electrons can be more localized on separate atoms in the molecules, minimizing the repulsion between. Because the meta position is not in resonance with the nitrenes, substitution at that position should not affect the structure of the open-shell singlet state. The measured electron affinities (EA) of the triplet phenylnitrenes are in excellent agreement with the values predicted by electronic structure calculations. The largest EA, 1.82 eV is found for the meta isomer, with para being the smallest, 1.70 eV.

  12. Results of Several Years Experiments on the Absorption of Radioactive Strontium and Cesium by Cultivated Plants; COMPTE RENDU D'EXPERIENCES DE PLUSIEURS ANNEES SUR L'ABSORPTION DU STRONTIUM ET DU CESIUM RADIOACTIES PAR DES PLANTES CULTIVEES

    SciTech Connect

    Huguet, F. et al.

    1962-01-01

    The absorption of cesium-137 and strontium-90 by vines, permanent pasture, potatoes, green vegetables, tomatoes, onions, cabbage, and beans in France in 1960 is presented. The strontium coefficient has varied very little from one year to the next and that of cesium has slightly diminished. The values obtained suggest that the concentrations in irrigation water should not exceed one fifth of the maximum permissible concentration in drinking water. (auth)

  13. Electrical properties of zinc-oxide-based thin-film transistors using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-Hang; Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Hong; Jiang, Da-Peng; Liu, Xing-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Strontium-zinc-oxide (SrZnO) films forming the semiconductor layers of thin-film transistors (TFTs) are deposited by using ion-assisted electron beam evaporation. Using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors, the off-state current can be dramatically reduced by three orders of magnitude. This dramatic improvement is attributed to the incorporation of strontium, which suppresses carrier generation, thereby improving the TFT. Additionally, the presence of strontium inhibits the formation of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the hexagonal wurtzite phase and permits the formation of an unusual phase of ZnO, thus significantly changing the surface morphology of ZnO and effectively reducing the trap density of the channel. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 6140031454) and the Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications.

  14. Hazardous Waste Management System - Removal of Strontium Sulfide From the List of Hazardous Waste - Federal Register Notice, February 25, 1991

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency is correcting an amendment to regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to remove strontium sulfide (CAS No. 1314-96-1) from 40 CFR 261.33.

  15. Radiochemical determination of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas

    SciTech Connect

    Borisenko, G.S.; Kandinskii, P.A.; Gedeonov, L.I.

    1987-03-01

    Depending on the salinity of the water, two versions of strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentration from water samples are presented. Cesium-137 was concentrated by precipitating sparingly soluble mixed hexacyanoferrates (II), and strontium-90 by precipitating carbonates together with calcium. A scheme has been given for radiochemical analysis of the concentrates. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas have been determined by the radiochemical method described. The levels of radionuclide content in the water and atmospheric precipitations have been shown to be inter-related. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the surface water of the northwestern Pacificmore » were found to be much lower in 1980 than in the early seventies. The area of technogenic radioactive pollution was found to persist in the region of the Columbia mouth into the Pacific Ocean.« less

  16. Morphology, Composition, and Bioactivity of Strontium-Doped Brushite Coatings Deposited on Titanium Implants via Electrochemical Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yongqiang; Li, Haoyan; Xu, Jiang; Li, Xin; Qi, Mengchun; Hu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Surface modification techniques have been applied to generate titanium implant surfaces that promote osseointegration for use in dental applications. In this study, strontium-doped brushite coatings were deposited on titanium by electrochemical deposition. The phase composition of the coating was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface morphologies of the coatings were studied through scanning electron microscopy, and the cytocompatibility and bioactivity of the strontium-doped brushite coatings were evaluated using cultured osteoblasts. Osteoblast proliferation was enhanced by the addition of strontium, suggesting a possible mechanism by which strontium incorporation in brushite coatings increased bone formation surrounding the implants. Cell growth was also strongly influenced by the composition of the deposited coatings, with a 10% Sr-doped brushite coating inducing the greatest amount of bone formation among the tested materials. PMID:24901526

  17. Educators Take Another Look at Substitutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    The mythology surrounding the substitute teacher is not a pretty one: Paper airplanes, lost learning, bullying. But as schools collect more information about teacher absenteeism and its consequences, districts and schools are exploring ways to professionalize substitute teaching--or experiment with alternative ways of coping with teacher absences.…

  18. 25 CFR 522.9 - Substitute approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute approval. 522.9 Section 522.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.9 Substitute approval. If the Chairman fails to...

  19. Substitute Your Way to a Real Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    For some, substitute teaching is a career choice. However, for the majority of new teachers, it is often a necessary gateway to landing a first job. Either way, it is a great way to sharpen one's skills. This article presents tips from principals, teachers, and human resource directors to make the most of the substitute teaching experience…

  20. Carboranylmethylene-substituted phosphazenes and polymers thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allcock, H. R.; Scopelianos, A. G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Carboranylmethylene-substituted cyclophosphazenes are described which can be thermally polymerized into carboranylmethylene-substituted phosphazene polymers. The polymers are useful as thermally stable coatings. Also, due to the characteristics of these polymers in acting as a ligand for transition metals, metalocarboranylmethylene phosphazene polymers are described which can act as immobilized catalyst systems, and are electrically conductive and superconductive.

  1. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-04-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, visual rehabilitation, and multisensory processes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Scale-free effect of substitution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziyu; Yu, Zhouyu; Xi, Lifeng

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we construct the growing networks in terms of substitution rule. Roughly speaking, we replace edges of different colors with different initial graphs. Then the evolving networks are constructed. We obtained the free-scale effect of our substitution networks.

  3. Rapid determination of strontium-90 by solid phase extraction using DGA Resin® for seawater monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazoe, H.; Obata, H.; Yamagata, T.; Karube, Z.; Yamada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Strontium-90 concentrations in seawater exceeding the background level have been observed at the accidents of nuclear facilities, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. However, analytical procedure for strontium-90 in seawater is still quite complicated and challenging. Here we show a simple and rapid analytical technique for the determination of strontium-90 in seawater samples without time-consuming separation of strontium from calcium. The separation with DGA Resin® is used to determine the abundance of strontium-90, which selectively collects yttrium-90, progeny of strontium-90. Naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (such as potassium, lead, bismuth, uranium, and thorium) and anthropogenic radionuclides (such as cesium, barium, lanthanum, and cerium) were separated from yttrium. Through a sample separation procedure, a high chemical yield of yttrium-90 was achieved at 93.9 % for seawater. The result of IAEA 443 certified seawater analysis was in good agreement with the certified value. At 20 hrs counting a lower detection limit of 1.5 mBq L-1 was obtained from 3 L of seawater. The proposed method can finish analyzing 8 samples per day, which is a reasonably fast throughput in actual seawater monitoring. Reproducibility was found to be 3.4 % according to 10 separate analyses of natural seawater samples from the vicinity of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in September 2013.

  4. The incorporation of fluoride and strontium in hydroxyapatite affects the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of human cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Christoph; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Zustin, Jozef; Niecke, Manfred; Amling, Michael; Grynpas, Marc; Busse, Björn

    2017-02-01

    Strontium ranelate and fluoride salts are therapeutic options to reduce fracture risk in osteoporosis. Incorporation of these elements in the physiological hydroxyapatite matrix of bone is accompanied by changes in bone remodeling, composition, and structure. However, a direct comparison of the effectiveness of strontium and fluoride treatment in human cortical bone with a focus on the resulting mechanical properties remains to be established. Study groups are composed of undecalcified specimens from healthy controls, treatment-naïve osteoporosis cases, and strontium ranelate or fluoride-treated osteoporosis cases. Concentrations of both elements were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Backscattered electron imaging was carried out to investigate the calcium content and the cortical microstructure. In comparison to osteoporotic patients, fluoride and strontium-treated patients have a lower cortical porosity indicating an improvement in bone microstructure. Mechanical properties were assessed via reference point indentation as a measure of bone's resistance to deformation. The strontium-incorporation led to significantly lower total indentation distance values compared to osteoporotic cases; controls have the highest resistance to indentation. In conclusion, osteoporosis treatment with strontium and fluoride showed positive effects on the microstructure and the mechanical characteristics of bone in comparison to treatment-naïve osteoporotic bone. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 433-442, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dietary Strontium Increases Bone Mineral Density in Intact Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model System for Bone Research

    PubMed Central

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  6. Effect of strontium addition and chitosan concentration variation on cytotoxicity of chitosan-alginate-carbonate apatite based bone scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkasa, Rilis Eka; Umniati, B. Sri; Sunendar, Bambang

    2017-09-01

    Bone scaffold is one of the most important component in bone tissue engineering. Basically, bone scaffold is a biocompatible structure designed to replace broken bone tissue temporarily. Unlike conventional bone replacements, an advanced bone scaffold should be bioactive (e.g: supporting bone growth) and biodegradable as new bone tissue grow, while retain its mechanical properties similarity with bone. It is also possible to add more bioactive substrates to bone scaffold to further support its performance. One of the substrate is strontium, an element that could improve the ability of the bone to repair itself. However, it must be noted that excessive consumption of strontium could lead to toxicity and diseases, such as osteomalacia and hypocalcemia. This research aimed to investigate the effect of strontium addition to the cytotoxic property of chitosan-alginate-carbonate apatite bone scaffold. The amount of strontium added to the bone scaffold was 5% molar of the carbonate apatite content. As a control, bone scaffold without stronsium (0% molar) were also made. The effect of chitosan concentration variation on the cytotoxicity were also observed, where the concentration varies on 1% and 3% w/v of chitosan solution. The results showed an optimum result on bone scaffold sample with 5% molar of strontium and 3% chitosan, where 87.67% cells in the performed MTS-Assay cytotoxicity testing survived. This showed that the use of up to 5% molar addition of strontium and 3% chitosan could enhance the survivability of the cell.

  7. Uproar over Milk Substitutes Act.

    PubMed

    1993-11-15

    Health policy activists lobbied 7 years for the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Bill. Proponents of the bill say that it basically curtails unethical marketing practices, not the sales of baby foods, and argue that it was conceived to reduce the trend of mothers over-diluting commercial milk in order to reduce household expenses as well as stem the potential erosion of knowledge on locally available weaning foods. Even though the bill will become an Act only after its rules and regulations have been finalized, the government has already banned baby food advertisements on television and in other electronic media under its control. Women's groups now argue that the bill tends to focus almost exclusively upon the welfare of children and compromises the position of women who can not lactate adequately. Moreover, they hold that the bill may be used to compel wives to stay out of the formal workforce so that they may feed their babies. The intention of the bill may be meaningless without complementary legislation addressing the problems of working mothers. Specifically, amendments to the Maternity Benefits Act of 1961 would extend maternity leave to 4 months after delivery and lengthen the duration of nursing breaks. It is, however, feared that these changes may reduce employment prospects for women.

  8. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  9. Local environments and transport properties of heavily doped strontium barium niobates Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottini, Riccardo; Tealdi, Cristina; Tomasi, Corrado; Tredici, Ilenia G.; Soffientini, Alessandro; Burriel, Ramón; Palacios, Elías; Castro, Miguel; Anselmi-Tamburini, Umberto; Ghigna, Paolo; Spinolo, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    Undoped as well as K-doped (40%), Y-doped (40%), Zr-doped (10%), and Mo-doped (12.5%) strontium barium niobate Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 (SBN50) materials have been investigated to explore the effect of heavy doping on the structural and functional properties (thermo-power, thermal and electrical conductivities) both in the as prepared (oxidized) and reduced states. For all materials, the EXAFS spectra at the Nb - K edge can be consistently analyzed with the same model of six shells around the Nb sites. Doping mostly gives a simple size effect on the structural parameters, but doping on the Nb sites weakens the Nb-O bond regardless of dopant size and charge. Shell sizes and Debye-Waller factors are almost unaffected by temperature and oxidation state, and the disorder is of static nature. The functional effects of heavy doping do not agree with a simple model of hole or electron injection by aliovalent substitutions on a large band gap semiconductor. With respect to the undoped samples, doping with Mo depresses the thermal conductivity by 30%, Y doping enhances the electrical conductivity by an order of magnitude, while Zr doping increases the Seebeck coefficient by a factor of 2-3. Globally, the ZT efficiency factor of the K-, Y-, and Zr-doped samples is enhanced at least by one order of magnitude with respect to the undoped or Mo-doped materials.

  10. Functional links between stability and reactivity of strontium ruthenate single crystals during oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seo Hyoung; Danilovic, Nemanja; Chang, Kee-Chul; Subbaraman, Ram; Paulikas, Arvydas P.; Fong, Dillon D.; Highland, Matthew J.; Baldo, Peter M.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Freeland, John W.; Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2014-06-01

    In developing cost-effective complex oxide materials for the oxygen evolution reaction, it is critical to establish the missing links between structure and function at the atomic level. The fundamental and practical implications of the relationship on any oxide surface are prerequisite to the design of new stable and active materials. Here we report an intimate relationship between the stability and reactivity of oxide catalysts in exploring the reaction on strontium ruthenate single-crystal thin films in alkaline environments. We determine that for strontium ruthenate films with the same conductance, the degree of stability, decreasing in the order (001)>(110)>(111), is inversely proportional to the activity. Both stability and reactivity are governed by the potential-induced transformation of stable Ru4+ to unstable Run>4+. This ordered(Ru4+)-to-disordered(Run>4+) transition and the development of active sites for the reaction are determined by a synergy between electronic and morphological effects.

  11. A critical velocity interaction between fast barium and strontium atoms and the terrestial ionospheric plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deehr, C. S.; Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.; Romick, G. J.; Hallinan, T. J.; Foeppl, H.

    1982-01-01

    A disk of barium and strontium vapor traveling radially outward, perpendicular to the geomagnetic field lines, may be created by the detonation of a high-explosive, radially shaped charge with a liner composed of the two metals in the upper atmosphere. Because of solar radiation resonance, both the barium and the strontium may be optically tracked. Observations indicate the early formation of the metal ions thus evolved into a disk-shaped, stellate structure with a dark hole at the center of a radial structure. The results of these experiments indicate that the process could occur on a cosmic scale, and that unconfirmed aspects of the theory relating to this process could be determined through variation of the parameters in future radial rocket experiments.

  12. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  13. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Ebra, Martha A.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  14. Sintered bentonite ceramics for the immobilization of cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Luis Humberto

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is a Department of Energy (DOE) program, that has been investigating technologies to improve fuel cycle sustainability and proliferation resistance. One of the program's goals is to reduce the amount of radioactive waste requiring repository disposal. Cesium and strontium are two primary heat sources during the first 300 years of spent nuclear fuel's decay, specifically isotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90. Removal of these isotopes from spent nuclear fuel will reduce the activity of the bulk spent fuel, reducing the heat given off by the waste. Once the cesium and strontium are separated from the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel, the isotopes must be immobilized. This study is focused on a method to immobilize a cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive liquid waste stream. While there are various schemes to remove these isotopes from spent fuel, this study has focused on a nitric acid based liquid waste. The waste liquid was mixed with the bentonite, dried then sintered. To be effective sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200°C were required, and waste concentrations must be at least 25 wt%. The product is a leach resistant ceramic solid with the waste elements embedded within alumino-silicates and a silicon rich phase. The cesium is primarily incorporated into pollucite and the strontium into a monoclinic feldspar. The simulated waste was prepared from nitrate salts of stable ions. These ions were limited to cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium. Barium and rubidium will be co-extracted during separation due to similar chemical properties to cesium and strontium. The waste liquid was added to the bentonite clay incrementally with drying steps between each addition. The dry powder was pressed and then sintered at various temperatures. The maximum loading tested is 32 wt. percent waste, which refers to 13.9 wt. percent cesium, 12.2 wt. percent barium, 4.1 wt. percent strontium, and 2.0 wt. percent rubidium. Lower loadings of waste

  15. Three dimensional mapping of strontium in bone by dual energy K-edge subtraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. M. L.; Chapman, L. D.; Carter, Y.; Wu, Y.; Panahifar, A.; Britz, H. M.; Bewer, B.; Zhouping, W.; Duke, M. J. M.; Doschak, M.

    2012-09-01

    The bones of many terrestrial vertebrates, including humans, are continually altered through an internal process of turnover known as remodeling. This process plays a central role in bone adaptation and disease. The uptake of fluorescent tetracyclines within bone mineral is widely exploited as a means of tracking new tissue formation. While investigation of bone microarchitecture has undergone a dimensional shift from 2D to 3D in recent years, we lack a 3D equivalent to fluorescent labeling. In the current study we demonstrate the ability of synchrotron radiation dual energy K-edge subtraction (KES) imaging to map the 3D distribution of elemental strontium within rat vertebral samples. This approach has great potential for ex vivo analysis of preclinical models and human tissue samples. KES also represents a powerful tool for investigating the pharmokinetics of strontium-based drugs recently approved in many countries around the globe for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  16. Investigation of the tunnel magnetoresistance in junctions with a strontium stannate barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althammer, Matthias; Mishra, Rohan; Borisevich, Albina J.; Singh, Amit Vikam; Keshavarz, Sahar; Yurtisigi, Mehmet Kenan; Leclair, Patrick; Gupta, Arunava

    We experimentally investigate the structural, magnetic and electrical transport properties of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 based magnetic tunnel junctions with a SrSnO3 barrier. Our results show that despite the high density of defects in the strontium stannate barrier the observed tunnel magnetoresistance is comparable to tunnel junctions with a better lattice matched SrTiO3 barrier, reaching values of up to 350 % at T = 5 K . Further analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of the junction and the bias voltage dependence of the observed tunnel magnetoresistance show a decrease of the TMR with increasing bias voltage. Our results suggest that by reducing the structural defects in the strontium stannate barrier, even larger TMR ratios might be possible in the future. We gratefully acknowledge financial support via NSF-ECCS Grant No. 1509875.

  17. Strontium isotopes delineate fine-scale natal origins and migration histories of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Cerling, Thure E.; McPhee, Megan V.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Highly migratory organisms present major challenges to conservation efforts. This is especially true for exploited anadromous fish species, which exhibit long-range dispersals from natal sites, complex population structures, and extensive mixing of distinct populations during exploitation. By tracing the migratory histories of individual Chinook salmon caught in fisheries using strontium isotopes, we determined the relative production of natal habitats at fine spatial scales and different life histories. Although strontium isotopes have been widely used in provenance research, we present a new robust framework to simultaneously assess natal sources and migrations of individuals within fishery harvests through time. Our results pave the way for investigating how fine-scale habitat production and life histories of salmon respond to perturbations—providing crucial insights for conservation.

  18. Measurements of Strontium Levels in Human Bone In Vivo Using Portable X-ray Fluorescence (XRF).

    PubMed

    Specht, Aaron J; Mostafaei, Farshad; Lin, Yanfen; Xu, Jian; Nie, Linda H

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of bone strontium (Sr) is vital to determining the effectiveness of Sr supplementation, which is commonly used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Previous technology uses radioisotope sources and bulky equipment to measure bone Sr. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for bone Sr measurement and validates it using data from a population of 238 children. We identified correlations between bone Sr and age in our participants.

  19. Application of TREECS (trademark) to Strontium 90 for Borschi Watershed near Chernobyl, Ukraine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    near Chernobyl , Ukraine by Mark S. Dortch PURPOSE: The Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS™) (http... Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine. At this site, TREECS™ was used as a modeling tool to predict the fate of radionuclides. This application also...Web site noted above. Borschi watershed is located 3 km south of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Figure 1). Radio- strontium-90, 90Sr, which is a

  20. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Bialy, Agata; Jensen, Peter B.; Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej 311, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby

    Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage—applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stablemore » materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides, and with a practically accessible volumetric ammonia densities in excess of 99% of liquid ammonia. - Graphical abstract: Thermal desorption curves of ammonia from Ba{sub x}Sr{sub (1−x)}Cl{sub 2} mixtures with x equal to 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 and atomic structure of Sr(NH{sub 3}){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of strontium and barium chloride were synthesized by spray drying. • Adjusting molar ratios led to different crystallographic phases and compositions. • Different molar ratios led to different ammonia ab-/desorption properties. • 35–50 mol% BaCl{sub 2} in SrCl{sub 2} yields higher ammonia density than any other metal halide. • DFT calculations can be used to predict properties of the mixtures.« less

  1. Crystal structures and optical properties of new quaternary strontium europium aluminate luminescent nanoribbons

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xufan; Budai, John D.; Liu, Feng; ...

    2014-11-12

    We report the synthesis and characterizations of three series of quaternary strontium europium aluminate (Sr-Eu-Al-O; SEAO) luminescent nanoribbons that show blue, green, and yellow luminescence from localized Eu2+ luminescent centers. These three series of SEAO nanoribbons are: blue luminescent, tetragonal Sr1-xEuxAl6O10 (01-xEu xAl 2O 4 (01-xEu xAl 2O 4 (0

  2. Rubidium-strontium date of possibly 3 billion years for a granitic rock from antarctica.

    PubMed

    Halpern, M

    1970-09-04

    A single total rock sample of biotite granite from Jule Peaks, Antarctica, has been dated by the rubidium-strontium method at about 3 billion years. The juxtaposition of this sector of Antarctica with Africa in the Dietz and Sproll continental drift reconstruction results in a possible geochronologic fit of the Princess Martha Coast of Antarctica with a covered possible notheastern extension of the African Swaziland Shield, which contains granitic rocks that are also 3 billion years old.

  3. Off Axis Growth of Strontium Titanate Films with High Dielectric Constant Tuning and Low Loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-03

    80309, U.S.A. ABSTRACT We have measured the nonlinear dielectric properties of strontium titanate (STO) thin films grown on neodymium gallate (NGO...and lanthanum aluminate (LAO) substrates. The films prepared by off-axis pulsed laser deposition were characterized by their dielectric constant and...performed on the films prepared with the off axis growth. EXPERIMENTAL Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to deposit STO films on lanthanum

  4. Modification of gray iron produced by induction melting with barium strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modzelevskaya, G.; Feoktistov, A. V.; Selyanin, I. F.; Kutsenko, A. I.; Kutsenko, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article provides analysis of results of gray iron experimental melts in induction furnace and the following melt modification with barium-strontium carbonate (BSC-2). It is shown that modification positively affects mechanical and casting properties and as-cast iron structure. It was established that BSC-2 granulated immediately prior to use has greater impact on melt than BSC-2 of the same faction, supplied by the manufacturer.

  5. Laser Cooling and Trapping of Neutral Strontium for Spectroscopic Measurements of Casimir-Polder Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Eryn C.

    Casimir and Casimir-Polder effects are forces between electrically neutral bodies and particles in vacuum, arising entirely from quantum fluctuations. The modification to the vacuum electromagnetic-field modes imposed by the presence of any particle or surface can result in these mechanical forces, which are often the dominant interaction at small separations. These effects play an increasingly critical role in the operation of micro- and nano-mechanical systems as well as miniaturized atomic traps for precision sensors and quantum-information devices. Despite their fundamental importance, calculations present theoretical and numeric challenges, and precise atom-surface potential measurements are lacking in many geometric and distance regimes. The spectroscopic measurement of Casimir-Polder-induced energy level shifts in optical-lattice trapped atoms offers a new experimental method to probe atom-surface interactions. Strontium, the current front-runner among optical frequency metrology systems, has demonstrated characteristics ideal for such precision measurements. An alkaline earth atom possessing ultra-narrow intercombination transitions, strontium can be loaded into an optical lattice at the "magic" wavelength where the probe transition is unperturbed by the trap light. Translation of the lattice will permit controlled transport of tightly-confined atomic samples to well-calibrated atom-surface separations, while optical transition shifts serve as a direct probe of the Casimir-Polder potential. We have constructed a strontium magneto-optical trap (MOT) for future Casimir-Polder experiments. This thesis will describe the strontium apparatus, initial trap performance, and some details of the proposed measurement procedure.

  6. Adjunctive radiotherapy with strontium-90 in the treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kearsley, J.H.; Fitchew, R.S.; Taylor, R.G.

    1988-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the ocular conjunctiva is a relatively rare malignancy which is attended by a high rate of local recurrence following simple surgical excision. To date, the management of conjunctival squamous cell cancer has been controversial. From 1950 to 1985, 146 consecutive patients with superficial conjunctival squamous cell cancer were treated at the Queensland Radium Institute. All patients were treated by simple surgical excision of the visible conjunctival lesion followed by adjunctive radiotherapy. Of 140 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell cancer, 123 were treated with a strontium-90 source, 10 with a radon ring, and 7 with superficialmore » X ray therapy. Standard policy since 1960 has been to deliver an incident dose of 30 Gy in a single fraction within the first 48 post-operative hours to the surgical bed using a strontium-90 source on a stand-off eye applicator. This report will largely focus on the 123 patients who were treated with a strontium-90 source, of whom 107 received 30 Gy, 14 received 40 Gy (pre 1960) and one patient each received 20 and 25 Gy incident dose. Of 131 evaluable patients, there were only 3 who developed local recurrence. All 3 local recurrences developed in elderly men who had presented with extensive superficial primary tumors. Two of the three recurrences occurred in the two patients who were treated with doses less than 30 Gy. Both early and late radiation-induced complications following ablative surgery and treatment with strontium-90 were very uncommon. Three patients developed unsightly conjunctival telangiectasia, 2 patients developed a persistent scleral ulcer and 2 patients developed clinically significant cataracts.« less

  7. A preliminary bioavailable strontium isotope soil map of Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogewerff, Jurian; Reimann, Clemens; Ueckermann, Henriette; Frei, Robert; Frei, Karin; van Aswegen, Thalita; Stirling, Claudine; Reid, Malcolm; Clayton, Aaron; Gemas Project Team

    2017-04-01

    The GEMAS project collected samples from grazing land (n=2118, 0-20cm depth) and agricultural soil (n=2211, 0-10cm depth) at a scale of 1 site/2500km2 in most of Europe1. Elemental analysis using different extractions (Aqua Regia and MMI), whole soil XRF data and Q-ICPMS lead isotope data have been published1. Here we report high-precision 87Sr/86Sr results for the first 1000+ samples. To best represent Sr in plants and animals an ammonium nitrate soil extraction was chosen2. Samples were measured in three laboratories and shared QC samples demonstrated the robustness of the complete extraction and measurement protocol. Observed 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.7038 to 0.7597 with the majority of samples centring about the median of 0.7092. Spatial interpolation of the data shows some major trends over Europe with high 87Sr/86Sr in known old intrusive terrains in Scandinavia, Iberia and the Alps. To improve the spatial resolution we investigated relations between measured 87Sr/86Sr values and other parameters for which higher spatial density (interpolated) data exists in geological and lithological databases like IGME50003 and GLiM4. For each sampling site matching geological age data and lithology were obtained by overlaying sampling locations on the IGME5000 and GLiM maps and extracting age and lithology information. All statistical and geospatial manipulations were performed using the R statistical package. Overall the 87Sr/86Sr values show a moderate correlation (Pearson R=0.54) with age but demonstrate varying homogeneity in different lithological units. Within the GEMAS dataset the strontium isotope ratios correlate most strongly with the lead isotope results,206Pb/208Pb (R=0.56) indicating a combined age and "crustalinity" effect. Whole soil Rb (XRF) is slightly higher correlated (R=0.26) with 87Sr/86Sr than extracted Rb (AR) at R=0.12 indicating some influence of the long term Rb signal in the soil parent material. Sodium is the highest correlated whole soil

  8. Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M., E-mail: muthu@polysci.umass.edu

    2015-12-28

    We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longermore » than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution.« less

  9. Effect of 10% Strontium Chloride and 5% Potassium Nitrate with Fluoride on Bleached Bovine Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, Cristiane de Melo; Pedrinha, Victor Feliz; Araújo, Jesuína Lamartine Nogueira; Esteves, Renata Antunes; Silva da Silveira, Ana Daniela; Silva, Cecy Martins

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dental whitening has been increasingly sought out to improve dental aesthetics, but may cause chemical and morphological changes in dental enamel surfaces. Objective: This study evaluated in vitro the effect of 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate with fluoride on bovine enamel, through tristimulus colorimetry, Knoop microhardness (KHN), and roughness after bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). Methods: The specimens were divided into three groups (n=15): GControl received bleaching treatment with 35% HP; GNitrate received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 5% potassium nitrate with 2% sodium fluoride; and GStrontium received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 10% strontium chloride on the enamel. Next, five specimens of each experimental group were subjected to KHN and tristimulus colorimetry tests, and 10 specimens were subjected to surface roughness (SR) tests. The values obtained for the different groups were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test in addition to Student’s T-test for paired data. Results: In the intergroup comparison, KHN final differed statistically (p<0.05). The mean SR final of the experimental groups differed statistically from the GControl group (p<0.05). In addition, the groups did not differ in color variation (p>0.05). Conclusion: 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate combined with 2% fluoride downplayed morphological changes to the enamel, without interfering with the effectiveness of the bleaching process. PMID:28979576

  10. The concentration of manganese, iron and strontium in bone of red fox Vulpes vulpes (L. 1758).

    PubMed

    Budis, Halina; Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I

    2013-12-01

    The aims of the study were to determine manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and strontium (Sr) concentrations in fox bone samples from north-western Poland and to examine the relationships between the bone Mn, Fe and Sr concentrations and the sex and age of the foxes. In the studied samples of fox cartilage, cartilage with adjacent compact bone, compact bone and spongy bone, the concentrations of the analysed metals had the following descending order: Fe > Sr > Mn. The only exception was in compact bone, in which the concentrations were arranged in the order Sr > Fe > Mn. Manganese concentrations were significantly higher in cartilage, compact bone and cartilage with compact bone than in spongy bone. Iron concentrations were higher in cartilage and spongy bone compared with compact bone. Strontium concentrations were greater in compact bone than in cartilage and spongy bone. The manganese, iron and strontium concentrations in the same type of bone material in many cases correlated with each other, with the strongest correlation (r > 0.70) between Mn and Fe in almost all types of samples. In addition, concentrations of the same metals in different bone materials were closely correlated for Mn and Fe in cartilage and cartilage with adjacent compact bone, and for Sr in compact bone and cartilage with compact bone. In the fox from NW Poland, there were no statistically significant differences in Mn, Fe and Sr in any of the types of bone material between the sexes and immature and adult foxes.

  11. Precipitation of Calcium, Magnesium, Strontium and Barium in Tissues of Four Acacia Species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory. PMID:22848528

  12. Estimating westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) movements in a river network using strontium isoscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Simon R. Thorrold,; Thomas E. McMahon,; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We used natural variation in the strontium concentration (Sr:Ca) and isotope composition (87Sr:86Sr) of stream waters and corresponding values recorded in otoliths of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) to examine movements during their life history in a large river network. We found significant spatial differences in Sr:Ca and 87Sr:86Sr values (strontium isoscapes) within and among numerous spawning and rearing streams that remained relatively constant seasonally. Both Sr:Ca and 87Sr:86Sr values in the otoliths of juveniles collected from nine natal streams were highly correlated with those values in the ambient water. Strontium isoscapes measured along the axis of otolith growth revealed that almost half of the juveniles had moved at least some distance from their natal streams. Finally, otolith Sr profiles from three spawning adults confirmed homing to natal streams and use of nonoverlapping habitats over their migratory lifetimes. Our study demonstrates that otolith geochemistry records movements of cutthroat trout through Sr isoscapes and therefore provides a method that complements and extends the utility of conventional tagging techniques in understanding life history strategies and conservation needs of freshwater fishes in river networks.

  13. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  14. Electrospun strontium titanata nanofibers incorporated with nickel oxide nanoparticles for improved photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-03-01

    The inexpensive sources of fossil fuels in the world are limited, and will deplete soon because of the huge demand on the energy and growing economies worldwide. Thus, many research activities have been focused on the non-fossil fuel based energy sources, and this will continue next few decades. Water splitting using photocatalysts is one of the major alternative energy technologies to produce hydrogen directly from water using photon energy of the sun. Numerous solid photocatalysts have been used by researchers for water splitting. In the present study, nickel oxide and strontium titanata were chosen as photocatalysts for water splitting. Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) was incorporated with nickel oxide [Ni2O3] (co-catalyst), while poly (vinyl acetate) (PVAc) was mixed with titanium (IV) isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2]. Then, two solutions were electrospun using coaxial electrospinning technique to generate nanoscale fibers incorporated with NiOx nanoparticles. The fibers were then heat treated at elevated temperatures for 2hr in order to transform the strontium titanata and nickel oxide into crystalline form for a better photocatalytic efficiency. The morphology of fibers was characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the surface hydrophobicity was determined using water contact angle goniometer. The UV-vis spectrophotometer was also used to determine the band gap energy values of the nanofibers. This study may open up new possibilities to convert water into fuel directly using the novel photocatalysts.

  15. Strontium ranelate: short- and long-term benefits for post-menopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is a bone-seeking element that has been assessed in post-menopausal osteoporosis in two large double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. This treatment is able to decrease the risk of vertebral fractures, by 41% over 3 yrs, and by 49% within the first year of treatment. This risk of non-vertebral fractures is decreased by 16% and, in patients at high risk for such a fracture, the risk of hip fracture is decreased by 36% over 3 yrs. Recent 5-yr data from these double-blind, placebo-controlled studies show that the anti-fracture efficacy is maintained over time. Treatment efficacy with strontium ranelate has been documented across a wide range of patient profiles: age, number of prevalent vertebral fractures, BMI, as well as family history of osteoporosis and addiction to smoking are not determinants of anti-fracture efficacy. During these clinical trials, safety was good. Its large spectrum of efficacy allows the use of strontium ranelate in the different subgroups of patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:18556647

  16. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals and scintillators implementing the same

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Hull, Giulia E.; Drobshoff, Alexander D.; Burger, Arnold

    2016-11-29

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV, where the strontium iodide material is characterized by a volume not less than 1 cm.sup.3. In another embodiment, a scintillator optic includes europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV, where the europium in the crystal is primarily Eu.sup.2+, and the europium is present in an amount greater than about 1.6%. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, where a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 and 1.0, the scintillator optic is a crystal that provides at least 50,000 scintillation photons per MeV and energy resolution of less than about 5% at 662 keV, and the crystal has a volume of 1 cm.sup.3 or more; the scintillator optic contains more than about 2% europium.

  17. Controlling the strontium-doping in calcium phosphate microcapsules through yeast-regulated biomimetic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miaojun; Li, Tianjie; Pan, Ting; Zhao, Naru; Yao, Yongchang; Zhai, Zhichen; Zhou, Jiaan; Du, Chang; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-10-01

    Yeast cells have controllable biosorption on metallic ions during metabolism. However, few studies were dedicated to using yeast-regulated biomimetic mineralization process to control the strontium-doped positions in calcium phosphate microcapsules. In this study, the yeast cells were allowed to pre-adsorb strontium ions metabolically and then served as sacrificing template for the precipitation and calcination of mineral shell. The pre-adsorption enabled the microorganism to enrich of strontium ions into the inner part of the microcapsules, which ensured a slow-release profile of the trace element from the microcapsule. The co-culture with human marrow stromal cells showed that gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase and Collagen-I were promoted. The promotion of osteogenic differentiation was further confirmed in the 3D culture of cell-material complexes. The strategy using living microorganism as 'smart doping apparatus' to control incorporation of trace element into calcium phosphate paved a pathway to new functional materials for hard tissue regeneration.

  18. Synthesis and optimization of the magnetic properties of aligned strontium ferrite nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh, E-mail: F.Ebrahimi@ma.iut.ac.ir; Bakhshi, Saeed Reza; Ashrafizadeh, Fakhreddin

    Highlights: • Dip coating method was used to synthesize strontium ferrite nanowires in template. • Size of nanowires was controlled via anodization parameters. • Fe/Sr ratio was optimized in precursor. • Magnetic properties of nanowires and nanopowders were compared. - Abstract: High aspect ratio strontium hexaferrite nanowires were fabricated by dip coating in alumina template. Fe/Sr ratio was changed from 10 to 12 in precursor, and the samples were annealed at a range of temperatures 500–900 °C in order to optimize the magnetic properties of strontium ferrite in the form of nanowires. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) proved themore » formation of nanowires in the templates, while TEM images revealed a high degree of crystallinity. The ferrites were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Magnetic properties of the specimens were studied by a SQUID at 10–300 K. The results showed that the coercivity of packed density nanowires in the template was much less than that of the nanopowders. On the other hand, the coercivity of nanowires at ambient temperature was less than low temperature coercivity.« less

  19. Effect of 10% Strontium Chloride and 5% Potassium Nitrate with Fluoride on Bleached Bovine Enamel.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Cristiane de Melo; Pedrinha, Victor Feliz; Araújo, Jesuína Lamartine Nogueira; Esteves, Renata Antunes; Silva da Silveira, Ana Daniela; Silva, Cecy Martins

    2017-01-01

    Dental whitening has been increasingly sought out to improve dental aesthetics, but may cause chemical and morphological changes in dental enamel surfaces. This study evaluated in vitro the effect of 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate with fluoride on bovine enamel, through tristimulus colorimetry, Knoop microhardness (KHN), and roughness after bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). The specimens were divided into three groups (n=15): GControl received bleaching treatment with 35% HP; GNitrate received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 5% potassium nitrate with 2% sodium fluoride; and GStrontium received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 10% strontium chloride on the enamel. Next, five specimens of each experimental group were subjected to KHN and tristimulus colorimetry tests, and 10 specimens were subjected to surface roughness (SR) tests. The values obtained for the different groups were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test in addition to Student's T-test for paired data. In the intergroup comparison, KHN final differed statistically ( p <0.05). The mean SR final of the experimental groups differed statistically from the GControl group ( p <0.05). In addition, the groups did not differ in color variation ( p >0.05). 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate combined with 2% fluoride downplayed morphological changes to the enamel, without interfering with the effectiveness of the bleaching process.

  20. Reversed phase HPLC for strontium ranelate: Method development and validation applying experimental design.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Béla; Kántor, Lajos Kristóf; Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Kelemen, Éva Katalin; Obreja, Mona; Nagy, Előd Ernő; Székely-Szentmiklósi, Blanka; Gyéresi, Árpád

    2018-06-01

    A reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method was developed for strontium ranelate using a full factorial, screening experimental design. The analytical procedure was validated according to international guidelines for linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision. A separate experimental design was used to demonstrate the robustness of the method. Strontium ranelate was eluted at 4.4 minutes and showed no interference with the excipients used in the formulation, at 321 nm. The method is linear in the range of 20-320 μg mL-1 (R2 = 0.99998). Recovery, tested in the range of 40-120 μg mL-1, was found to be 96.1-102.1 %. Intra-day and intermediate precision RSDs ranged from 1.0-1.4 and 1.2-1.4 %, resp. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.06 and 0.20 μg mL-1, resp. The proposed technique is fast, cost-effective, reliable and reproducible, and is proposed for the routine analysis of strontium ranelate.

  1. Isotopic composition of strontium in three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedge, C.E.; Lewis, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Si87/Sr86 ratios have been determined for lavas and py lastic rocks from three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc-Mt. Misery on the island of St. Kitts, Soufriere on the island of St. Vincent, and Carriacou, an island of The Grenadines. The average Si87/Sr86 content of these rocks is 0.7038 for Mt. Misery, 0.7041 for Soufriere, and 0.7053 for Carriacou. All the Sr87/Sr86 values from each center are the same within analytical uncertainty (??0.0002). The constancy of strontium isotopic data within each center supports the hypothesis that basalts and andesites for each specific center investigated are generated from the same source - in agreement with petrographic and major- and minor-element data. Strontium isotopic compositions and elemental concentrations, particularly of strontium and nickel, indicate that this source was mantle peridotite and that the relationship between the respective basalts and andesites is probably fractional crystallization. ?? 1971 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  3. Thermoelectric Power Generation from Lanthanum Strontium Titanium Oxide at Room Temperature through the Addition of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue; Norman, Colin; Srivastava, Deepanshu; Azough, Feridoon; Wang, Li; Robbins, Mark; Simpson, Kevin; Freer, Robert; Kinloch, Ian A

    2015-07-29

    The applications of strontium titanium oxide based thermoelectric materials are currently limited by their high operating temperatures of >700 °C. Herein, we show that the thermal operating window of lanthanum strontium titanium oxide (LSTO) can be reduced to room temperature by the addition of a small amount of graphene. This increase in operating performance will enable future applications such as generators in vehicles and other sectors. The LSTO composites incorporated one percent or less of graphene and were sintered under an argon/hydrogen atmosphere. The resultant materials were reduced and possessed a multiphase structure with nanosized grains. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites decreased upon the addition of graphene, whereas the electrical conductivity and power factor both increased significantly. These factors, together with a moderate Seebeck coefficient, meant that a high power factor of ∼2500 μWm(-1)K(-2) was reached at room temperature at a loading of 0.6 wt % graphene. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) was achieved when 0.6 wt % graphene was added (ZT = 0.42 at room temperature and 0.36 at 750 °C), with >280% enhancement compared to that of pure LSTO. A preliminary 7-couple device was produced using bismuth strontium cobalt oxide/graphene-LSTO pucks. This device had a Seebeck coefficient of ∼1500 μV/K and an open voltage of 600 mV at a mean temperature of 219 °C.

  4. Surveillance of Strontium-90 in Foods after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, various radionuclides were released into the environment. In this study, we surveyed strontium-90 ((90)Sr) concentrations in several foodstuffs. Strontium-90 is thought to be the third most important residual radionuclide in food collected after the Fukushima Daiichi, NPP accident after following cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and cesium-134 ((134)Cs). Results of (90)Sr analyses indicated that (90)Sr was detect in 25 of the 40 radioactive cesium (r-Cs) positive samples collected in areas around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, ranging in distance from 50 to 250 km. R-Cs positive samples were defined as containing both (134)Cs and (137)Cs which are considered to be indicators of the after-effects of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. We also detected (90)Sr in 8 of 13 r-Cs negative samples, in which (134)Cs was not detected. Strontium-90 concentrations in the r-Cs positive samples did not significantly exceed the (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs negative samples or the (90)Sr concentration ranges in comparable food groups found in previous surveys before the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Thus, (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs positive samples were indistinguishable from the background (90)Sr concentrations arising from global fallout prior to the Fukushima accident, suggesting that no marked increase of (90)Sr concentrations has occurred in r-Cs positive samples as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

  5. Long-Term Results and Prognostic Factors of Fractionated Strontium-90 Eye Applicator for Pterygium

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo; Stefano, Eduardo Jose; Fendi, Ligia Issa de

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term safety, effectiveness, and prognostic factors of fractionated postoperative {beta}-irradiation. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2005, 623 patients with 737 pterygium lesions were treated with a strontium-90 eye applicator after surgical excision. The median follow-up period was 60 months (range, 6.7-139.5). Of the 737 lesions, 644 were primary and 93 were recurrences after surgical removal alone. Fractionated radiotherapy (RT) to a total dose of 35 Gy in five to seven fractions was used. Results: A total of 73 local pterygium recurrences (9.9%) were noted. Of the recurrent cases, 80% were noted within 3 years aftermore » treatment. The 5- and 10-year probability of local control was 90% and 88%, respectively. The multivariate analysis for all cases demonstrated that gender, age, total radiation dose, recurrent pterygia, and interval between surgery and RT affected the overall local control rate. Late toxicities that might have been associated with strontium-90 RT included scleromalacia (scleral thinning) in nine eyes, adhesion of the eyelids in eight, cataracts in six, and scleral ulcer in five eyes. Conclusion: Fractionated strontium-90 RT to a total dose of approximately 35 Gy in five to seven fractions results in a similar local control rate as higher doses in other series, with an acceptable complication rate.« less

  6. Long-term results and prognostic factors of fractionated strontium-90 eye applicator for pterygium.

    PubMed

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; Stefano, Eduardo Jose; De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara

    2008-11-15

    To evaluate the long-term safety, effectiveness, and prognostic factors of fractionated postoperative beta-irradiation. Between 1993 and 2005, 623 patients with 737 pterygium lesions were treated with a strontium-90 eye applicator after surgical excision. The median follow-up period was 60 months (range, 6.7-139.5). Of the 737 lesions, 644 were primary and 93 were recurrences after surgical removal alone. Fractionated radiotherapy (RT) to a total dose of 35 Gy in five to seven fractions was used. A total of 73 local pterygium recurrences (9.9%) were noted. Of the recurrent cases, 80% were noted within 3 years after treatment. The 5- and 10-year probability of local control was 90% and 88%, respectively. The multivariate analysis for all cases demonstrated that gender, age, total radiation dose, recurrent pterygia, and interval between surgery and RT affected the overall local control rate. Late toxicities that might have been associated with strontium-90 RT included scleromalacia (scleral thinning) in nine eyes, adhesion of the eyelids in eight, cataracts in six, and scleral ulcer in five eyes. Fractionated strontium-90 RT to a total dose of approximately 35 Gy in five to seven fractions results in a similar local control rate as higher doses in other series, with an acceptable complication rate.

  7. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Decollogny, Anne; Eggli, Yves; Halfon, Patricia; Lufkin, Thomas M

    2011-01-26

    Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not) was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups) and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments) and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.). The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments) was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and beliefs are probably the main determinant of generic

  8. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    PubMed

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  9. Variation of Strontium (Sr) in the Ferroelectric Material Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba1-xSrxTiO3) by Co precipitation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subarwanti, Y.; Safitri, R. D.; Supriyanto, A.; Iriani, Y.; Jamaludin, A.

    2017-02-01

    Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) have been made with variation strontium (Sr) 10%, 30% and 50% by co-precipitation method. This study aims to determine influence addition Sr against the crystal structure, crystallite size, lattice parameter, grain size and dielectric constant. Samples have been made by co-precipitation method and then the samples were sintered by furnace at 1100°C with holding time 4 hours. Characterization of BST use X-Ray Diffraction instrument, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Resistance Capacitance Inductance (RCL meter). Based on result obtained, the larger Sr content cause the diffraction angle shift to the right (the greater) and crystallinity increasing. But, the value of dielectric constant, crystallite size and grain size decreasing with additional Sr content. Measurement of dielectric constant (K) performed in the frequency range 1 kHz to 100 kHz and the highest value at Sr content 0.1 i.e. 258.35. The addition of Sr content 30% and 50% change the crystal structure from tetragonal to cubic which has paraelectric phase.

  10. Histopathological evaluation of the effect of locally administered strontium on healing time in mandibular fractures: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Durmuş, Kasım; Turgut, Nergiz Hacer; Doğan, Mehtap; Tuncer, Ersin; Özer, Hatice; Altuntaş, Emine Elif; Akyol, Melih

    2017-10-01

    Mandibular fractures are the most common facial fractures. They can be treated by conservative techniques or by surgery. The authors hypothesized that the application of a single local dose of strontium chloride would accelerate the healing of subcondylar mandibular fractures, shorten the recovery time and prevent complications. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate the effects of a single local dose of strontium chloride on the healing of subcondylar mandibular fractures in rats. This randomized experimental study was carried out on 24 male Wistar albino rats. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: experimental group 1, receiving 3% strontium chloride; experimental group 2, receiving 5% strontium chloride; and the control group. A full thickness surgical osteotomy was created in the subcondylar area. A single dose of strontium solution (0.3 cc/site) was administered locally by injection on the bone surfaces of the fracture line created. Nothing was administered to the control group. The mandibles were dissected on postoperative day 21. The fractured hemimandibles were submitted to histopathological examination. The median bone fracture healing score was 9 (range: 7-9) in experimental group 1; 8 (range: 7-10) in experimental group 2; and 7.50 (range: 7-8) in the control group. When the groups were compared in terms of bone healing scores, there was a statistically significant difference between experimental group 1 and the control group (p < 0.05). This study is the first to show that local strontium may have positive effects on the healing of subcondylar mandibular fractures. In the authors' opinion, 3% strontium was beneficial for accelerating facial skeleton consolidation and bone regeneration in rat subcondylar mandibular fractures. This treatment procedure may be combined with closed fracture treatment or a conservative approach.

  11. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in patients with osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Ego; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Lorenc, Roman; Spector, Timothy; Brixen, Kim; Balogh, Adam; Stucki, Gerold; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2008-03-01

    Many fractures occur in women with moderate fracture risk caused by osteopenia. Strontium ranelate was studied in 1431 postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Vertebral fracture risk reduction of 41-59% was shown depending on the site and fracture status at baseline. This is the first report of antivertebral fracture efficacy in women with vertebral osteopenia. Women with osteoporosis are at high risk for fracture. However, more than one half of all fractures in the community originate from the larger population at more moderate risk of fracture caused by osteopenia. Despite this, evidence for antifracture efficacy in these persons is limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether strontium ranelate, a new drug that reduces fracture risk in women with osteoporosis, is also effective in women with osteopenia. Data from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention study (SOTI; n = 1649) and the TReatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis (TROPOS; n = 5091) were pooled to evaluate the antivertebral fracture efficacy of strontium ranelate in women with lumbar spine (LS) osteopenia with any BMD value at the femoral neck (FN; N = 1166) and in 265 women with osteopenia at both sites (intention-to-treat analysis). The women were randomized to strontium ranelate 2 g/d orally or placebo for 3 yr. No group differences were present in baseline characteristics that may influence fracture outcome independent of therapy. In women with LS osteopenia, treatment reduced the risk of vertebral fracture by 41% (RR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43-0.82), by 59% (RR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99) in the 447 patients with no prevalent fractures, and by 38% (RR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88) in the 719 patients with prevalent fractures. In women with osteopenia at both sites, treatment reduced the risk of fracture by 52% (RR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.96). Strontium ranelate safely reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in women with osteopenia with or without a prevalent fracture.

  12. Adjunctive radiotherapy with strontium-90 in the treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, J H; Fitchew, R S; Taylor, R G

    1988-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the ocular conjunctiva is a relatively rare malignancy which is attended by a high rate of local recurrence following simple surgical excision. To date, the management of conjunctival squamous cell cancer has been controversial. From 1950 to 1985, 146 consecutive patients with superficial conjunctival squamous cell cancer were treated at the Queensland Radium Institute. All patients were treated by simple surgical excision of the visible conjunctival lesion followed by adjunctive radiotherapy. Of 140 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell cancer, 123 were treated with a strontium-90 source, 10 with a radon "ring," and 7 with superficial X ray therapy. Standard policy since 1960 has been to deliver an incident dose of 30 Gy in a single fraction within the first 48 post-operative hours to the surgical bed using a strontium-90 source on a stand-off eye applicator. This report will largely focus on the 123 patients who were treated with a strontium-90 source, of whom 107 received 30 Gy, 14 received 40 Gy (pre 1960) and one patient each received 20 and 25 Gy incident dose. Of 131 evaluable patients, there were only 3 who developed local recurrence. All 3 local recurrences developed in elderly men who had presented with extensive superficial primary tumors. Two of the three recurrences occurred in the two patients who were treated with doses less than 30 Gy. Both early and late radiation-induced complications following ablative surgery and treatment with strontium-90 were very uncommon. Three patients developed unsightly conjunctival telangiectasia, 2 patients developed a persistent scleral ulcer and 2 patients developed clinically significant cataracts. This negligible degree of treatment-related side effects contrasts with the experience of 10 patients who had previously been treated with a radon ring, 8 of whom developed serious complications, although none developed local recurrence. On the basis of our excellent local control

  13. Multiple heteroatom substitution to graphene nanoribbon

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ernst

    2018-01-01

    Substituting heteroatoms into nanostructured graphene elements, such as graphene nanoribbons, offers the possibility for atomic engineering of electronic properties. To characterize these substitutions, functionalized atomic force microscopy (AFM)—a tool to directly resolve chemical structures—is one of the most promising tools, yet the chemical analysis of heteroatoms has been rarely performed. We synthesized multiple heteroatom-substituted graphene nanoribbons and showed that AFM can directly resolve elemental differences and can be correlated to the van der Waals radii, as well as the modulated local electron density caused by the substitution. This elemental-sensitive measurement takes an important step in the analysis of functionalized two-dimensional carbon materials. PMID:29662955

  14. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lactitol Honey Sucralose (Splenda) Maltitol Maple syrup Mannitol Molasses Sorbitol Xylitol Advantame The topic of sugar substitutes ... for consumption are fruit juices and nectars, honey, molasses, and maple syrup. Natural sweeteners have a variety ...

  15. Research of Energy Substitution Strategy of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; kai, Chen

    For a long time, China's energy endowment structure determines the production structure and consumption structure of energy are coal-based.This situation is difficult to change for quite a long time. With the rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization, the demand for energy, especially for oil, natural gas will continue to increase. But the oil and gas supply can not meet the needs of rapid growth. The most direct way is to import, and imports will be charged by the international energy situation, and will affect energy and economic security. In view of our country abundant coal resources, we can consider to use coal substituting oil and natural gas to reduce dependence on foreign energy, to strengthen energy and economic security. Therefore, using translog production function, the text forecasts substitution elasticity and the marginal substitution rate between the capital, coal, oil and natural gas, and puts forward substitution program.

  16. Competition Among Near-Substitutable Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    the context of the dominant “Weapon System Franchise ” model of competition for major defense acquisition programs (MDAPs). Competition between near...leading to the award of a franchise . AoAs or other cost-effectiveness analyses can be pivotal in bringing attention to near-substitute systems. However...dominant ?Weapon System Franchise ? model of competition for major defense acquisition programs (MDAPs). Competition between near-substitutes can occur

  17. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  18. Oxygen and strontium isotope tracing of human migration at the Bell Beaker site Le Tumulus des Sables, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmes, Malte; James, Hannah; Boel, Ceridwen; Courtaud, Patrice; Chancerel, Antoine; McMorrow, Linda; Armstrong, Richard; Kinsley, Les; Aubert, Maxime; Eggins, Stephen; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes were used as tools to investigate human migration at the early Bell Beaker site (2500-2000 BC) Le Tumulus des Sables, Saint-Laurent-Médoc, south-west France. The O and Sr isotope ratios measured in tooth enamel record the average dietary isotope signature ingested by that individual during their childhood. When this data is compared to the isotope signature of the burial site it can be used to indicate if the individual migrated into this area during their lifetime. The O isotopic composition of meteoric water changes depending on climate, temperature and quantity of precipitation. O isotope ratios in skeletal and dental remains are related to body water, which in turn is influenced by diet, physiology and climate. Most of the water consumed by large mammals comes from drinking water, typically sourced locally. Sr isotope ratios on the other hand vary between different geologic regions, depending on their age and composition. Sr is released through weathering and transported into the soil, ground and surface water, where it becomes available for uptake by plants, enters the food cycle and eventually ends up in skeletal and dental tissue where it substitutes for calcium. We analysed the teeth of 18 adult and 8 juvenile disarticulated skeletons from Le Tumulus des Sables. O isotopes were analysed in-situ by Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro Probe (SHRIMP).The Sr isotope analysis involved drilling a 0.2-0.5 mg sample of enamel from the tooth. The Sr was then chemically separated and analysed by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS). These results were then compared to the O isoscape of Europe and bioavailable Sr isotope data (fauna, plants, soils) from the IRHUM database. We found that most of the individuals at Le Tumulus des Sables show O and Sr isotope ratios corresponding to the local environmental signal and we interpret these as part of the local population. 3 adults however show slightly higher 87Sr/86

  19. Do Strontium Isotope Ratios of Animal Bone and Teeth Really Reflect the Isotope Ratios of its birth- and growth-places?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, M.; Goto, A.; Suzuki, K.; Kato, T.; Watanabe, K.; Hasegawa, T.

    2007-12-01

    Strontium enters the human body through the food chain as nutrients pass from bedrock through soil and water to plants and animals. Strontium substitutes for calcium in the hydroxyapatite mineral of skeletal tissue, and is stored there. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in an individual's bone and teeth could directly reflect the isotopic ratios found in the plants and animals that she or he consumed, which reflect the isotope ratios found in the soil and bedrock of that geologic region. Therefore, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of human skeletons could be useful tools for assessing human residential mobility in prehistory, and many studies on them have been often made. In this study, to evaluate whether the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of a bone or teeth really reflects the isotopic ratios of its birth and growth places, several bone and teeth samples were measured for 87Sr/86Sr ratios, compared with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of geological samples in their growth-places. Bone and teeth samples were leached with 5% acetic acid. After drying, samples were ashed in a muffle furnace at 825°C for 8h, and then digested in nitric acid, followed by cation exchange chromatography with 2.4M hydrochloric acid. 87Sr/86Sr ratios were measured using a thermal ionization mass Spectrometer (VG Sector 54) or an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Finnigan ELEMENT2). A modern boar bone collected at Asuke, Toyota City, Aichi prefecture, Japan showed a 87Sr/86Sr of 0.71001±0.00002 (2 σ), while stream sediments in the Asuke area showed around 0.710 (Asahara et al., 2006). The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of a modern black bass bone collected from Lake Biwa, Shiga prefecture, Japan was 0.71215±0.00002, while those of surface water in Lake Biwa was 0.71233±0.00002. The similar 87Sr/86Sr ratios between bone and its provenance geology could indicate that the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of bones reflect the isotopic ratios of the birth- and growth-places. The more results of modern and fossil skeletons will be shown in our presentation.

  20. Ischaemic cardiac events and use of strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a nested case-control study in the CPRD.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; Fox, K M; Borer, J S

    2014-02-01

    We explored the cardiac safety of the osteoporosis treatment strontium ranelate in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. While known cardiovascular risk factors like obesity and smoking were associated with increased cardiac risk, use of strontium ranelate was not associated with any increase in myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. It has been suggested that strontium ranelate may increase risk for cardiac events in postmenopausal osteoporosis. We set out to explore the cardiac safety of strontium ranelate in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and linked datasets. We performed a nested case-control study. Primary outcomes were first definite myocardial infarction, hospitalisation with myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. Cases and matched controls were nested in a cohort of women treated for osteoporosis. The association with exposure to strontium ranelate was analysed by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Of the 112,445 women with treated postmenopausal osteoporosis, 6,487 received strontium ranelate. Annual incidence rates for first definite myocardial infarction (1,352 cases), myocardial infarction with hospitalisation (1,465 cases), and cardiovascular death (3,619 cases) were 3.24, 6.13, and 14.66 per 1,000 patient-years, respectively. Obesity, smoking, and cardiovascular treatments were associated with significant increases in risk for cardiac events. Current or past use of strontium ranelate was not associated with increased risk for first definite myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.68-1.61 and OR 1.12, 95 % CI 0.79-1.58, respectively), hospitalisation with myocardial infarction (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.54-1.30 and OR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.83-1.66), or cardiovascular death (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.76-1.21 and OR 1.16, 95 % CI 0.94-1.43) versus patients who had never used strontium ranelate. Analysis in the CPRD did not find evidence for a higher risk for cardiac events associated

  1. Bone tissue reactions to biomimetic ion-substituted apatite surfaces on titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Ahmed M; Xia, Wei; Palmquist, Anders; Lindahl, Carl; Emanuelsson, Lena; Lausmaa, Jukka; Engqvist, Håkan; Thomsen, Peter

    2012-07-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone tissue response to strontium- and silicon-substituted apatite (Sr-HA and Si-HA) modified titanium (Ti) implants. Sr-HA, Si-HA and HA were grown on thermally oxidized Ti implants by a biomimetic process. Oxidized implants were used as controls. Surface properties, i.e. chemical composition, surface thickness, morphology/pore characteristics, crystal structure and roughness, were characterized with various analytical techniques. The implants were inserted in rat tibiae and block biopsies were prepared for histology, histomorphometry and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Histologically, new bone formed on all implant surfaces. The bone was deposited directly onto the Sr-HA and Si-HA implants without any intervening soft tissue. The statistical analysis showed significant higher amount of bone-implant contact (BIC) for the Si-doped HA modification (P = 0.030), whereas significant higher bone area (BA) for the Sr-doped HA modification (P = 0.034), when compared with the non-doped HA modification. The differences were most pronounced at the early time point. The healing time had a significant impact for both BA and BIC (P < 0.001). The present results show that biomimetically prepared Si-HA and Sr-HA on Ti implants provided bioactivity and promoted early bone formation.

  2. Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI-two types of X grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Davis, Andrew M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Rost, Detlef; Savina, Michael R.; Jadhav, Manavi; Kelly, Christopher H.; Gyngard, Frank; Hoppe, Peter; Dauphas, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    We used CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis of small samples, to analyze strontium, zirconium, and barium isotopes in 22 presolar silicon carbide grains. Twenty of the grains showed detectable strontium and barium, but none of the grains had enough zirconium to be detected with CHILI. Nine grains were excluded from further consideration since they showed very little signals (<1000 counts) for strontium as well as for barium. Among the 11 remaining grains, we found three X grains. The discovery of three supernova grains among only 22 grains was fortuitous, because only ∼1% of presolar silicon carbide grains are type X, but was confirmed by silicon isotopic measurements of grain residues with NanoSIMS. While one of the X grains showed strontium and barium isotope patterns expected for supernova grains, the two other supernova grains have 87Sr/86Sr < 0.5, values never observed in any natural sample before. From their silicon isotope ratios, the latter two grains can be classified as X2 grains, while the former grain belongs to the more common X1 group. The differences of these grains in strontium and barium isotopic composition constrain their individual formation conditions in Type II supernovae.

  3. Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI—two types of X grains

    DOE PAGES

    Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Davis, Andrew M.; ...

    2017-05-10

    Here, we used CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis of small samples, to analyze strontium, zirconium, and barium isotopes in 22 presolar silicon carbide grains. Twenty of the grains showed detectable strontium and barium, but none of the grains had enough zirconium to be detected with CHILI. Nine grains were excluded from further consideration since they showed very little signals (<1000 counts) for strontium as well as for barium. Among the 11 remaining grains, we found three X grains. The discovery of three supernova grains among only 22 grainsmore » was fortuitous, because only ~1% of presolar silicon carbide grains are type X, but was confirmed by silicon isotopic measurements of grain residues with NanoSIMS. And while one of the X grains showed strontium and barium isotope patterns expected for supernova grains, the two other supernova grains have 87Sr/86Sr < 0.5, values never observed in any natural sample before. From their silicon isotope ratios, the latter two grains can be classified as X2 grains, while the former grain belongs to the more common X1 group. The differences of these grains in strontium and barium isotopic composition constrain their individual formation conditions in Type II supernovae.« less

  4. Barium strontium titanate thin film growth with variation of lanthanum dopant compatibility as sensor prototype in the satellite technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyadi; Wahyuni, Rika; Hardhienata, Hendradi; Irzaman

    2018-05-01

    Electrical properties of barium strontium titanate thin films were investigated. Three layers of barium strontium titanate thin films have been prepared by chemical solution deposition method and spin coating technique at 8000 rpm rotational speed for 30 seconds and temperature of annealing at 850°C for eight hours with temperature increment of 1.67°C/minute. Materials produced by the process of lanthanum dopant with doping variations of 2%, 4% and 6% above type-p silicon (100) substrates. Film obtained was then carried out the characterization using USB 2000 VIS-NIR and tauc plot method. As a result, the barium strontium titanate thin film has the value of band gap energy of 1.58 eV, 1.92 eV and 2.24 eV respectively. The characterization of electrical properties shows that the band gap value of barium strontium titanate thin film with lanthanum dopant was in the range of semiconductor value. Barium strontium titanate thin films with lanthanum dopant are sensitive to temperature changes, so it potentially to be applied to temperature monitoring on satellite technology.

  5. Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI—two types of X grains

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Davis, Andrew M.

    Here, we used CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis of small samples, to analyze strontium, zirconium, and barium isotopes in 22 presolar silicon carbide grains. Twenty of the grains showed detectable strontium and barium, but none of the grains had enough zirconium to be detected with CHILI. Nine grains were excluded from further consideration since they showed very little signals (<1000 counts) for strontium as well as for barium. Among the 11 remaining grains, we found three X grains. The discovery of three supernova grains among only 22 grainsmore » was fortuitous, because only ~1% of presolar silicon carbide grains are type X, but was confirmed by silicon isotopic measurements of grain residues with NanoSIMS. And while one of the X grains showed strontium and barium isotope patterns expected for supernova grains, the two other supernova grains have 87Sr/86Sr < 0.5, values never observed in any natural sample before. From their silicon isotope ratios, the latter two grains can be classified as X2 grains, while the former grain belongs to the more common X1 group. The differences of these grains in strontium and barium isotopic composition constrain their individual formation conditions in Type II supernovae.« less

  6. Programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae and ashing analysis: A decrement solution for nuclide and heavy metal disposal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Xiaoqin; Sun, Shiyong; Wei, Hongfu; Luo, Lang; Xiang, Sha; Zhang, Gege

    2016-08-15

    One of the waste disposal principles is decrement. The programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae regarding bioremoval and ashing process for decrement were studied in present research. The results indicated that S. cerevisiae cells showed valid biosorption for strontium ions with greater than 90% bioremoval efficiency for high concentration strontium ions under batch culture conditions. The S. cerevisiae cells bioaccumulated approximately 10% of strontium ions in the cytoplasm besides adsorbing 90% strontium ions on cell wall. The programmed gradient descent biosorption presented good performance with a nearly 100% bioremoval ratio for low concentration strontium ions after 3 cycles. The ashing process resulted in a huge volume and weight reduction ratio as well as enrichment for strontium in the ash. XRD results showed that SrSO4 existed in ash. Simulated experiments proved that sulfate could adjust the precipitation of strontium ions. Finally, we proposed a technological flow process that combined the programmed gradient descent biosorption and ashing, which could yield great decrement and allow the supernatant to meet discharge standard. This technological flow process may be beneficial for nuclides and heavy metal disposal treatment in many fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Guidelines for substitution treatments in prison populations].

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Maguet, O

    2005-01-01

    Care access for the drug addict patients in prison (in particular for the treatments of substitution) in France is very unequal from one establishment to another. This reflects the great variability of the practices of substitution and especially the absence of consensus on the methods of adaptation of these practices to the prison environment. Because of difficulties expressed by prisoners and medical staff on this subject and of stakes (let us recall that approximately 30% of the prisoners are dependent or abusers of one or more psychoactive substances), the formulation of recommendations or of a good practices guide of substitution in prison appeared necessary. Work that we detail here answers a ordering of the Advisory Commission of the Treatments of Substitution (September 2001) whose authors are members. It was presented at the session April 2003. It results from the confrontation of a review of the literature (including legal texts and official reports concerning substitution, the organization of the care in prison environment and the lawful framework), with a vast investigation. The latter was carried out near medical staff (22 prisons), penitentiary staff (3 prisons, 27 people met including directors of these establishments) and prisoners (7 establishments, 28 prisoners met) in the form of individual talks (semi-directing interviews with evaluation of the type of existing device and its knowledge by the penitentiary staff and the prisoners; statement of the suggestions, needs and requests of the medical, penitentiary staffs and of the prisoners). In the whole visited prisons, 7.8% (870) of the prisoners received substitution treatments (6.35% by buprenorphine, 1.44% by methadone), representing a proportion of substituted drug addicts (870 substituted for an evaluation of 3,350 prisoners drug addicts among the 11,168 prisoners of the 22 visited prisons) notably lower than that in free environment (56%, ie 96,000 substituted for an evaluated population of

  8. Effect of ph Value and Calcination Temperature on Structure and Magnetic Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanaghi, A.

    2012-02-01

    Strontium hexaferrite was widely used in the fabrication of commercial permanent magnets and certain microwave devices. In this study, the strontium hexaferrite nanoparticle coatings were prepared by sol-gel method and using spin coating process on silicon substrate, then the effect of pH value, such as 5, 7 and 9, and calcination temperatures, such as 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C, on structural and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite thin films were investigated by XRD, SEM and VSM measurements. The maximum saturation magnetization value of 57.43 emu/g and coercivity value of 3908 Oe were achieved for the thin film with crystallite size approximately 41 nm, prepared at pH value of 7 and calcinations temperature of 800°C.

  9. 14 CFR § 1260.55 - Reports substitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.55 Reports substitution. Reports Substitution October 2000 Technical Reports may be substituted for the required Performance Reports. The title page of such reports... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports substitution. § 1260.55 Section Â...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (generic). 721.2577 Section 721.2577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6920 Butyl... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  13. A Strontium-Modified Titanium Surface Produced by a New Method and Its Biocompatibility In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chundong; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lichao; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Qiuyue; Wu, Buling

    2015-01-01

    To present a new and effective method of producing titanium surfaces modified with strontium and to investigate the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified with strontium (Sr) for bone implant applications. Sr-modified Ti surfaces were produced by sequential treatments with NaOH, strontium acetate, heat and water. The surface characteristics and the concentration of the Sr ions released from the samples were examined. Cell adhesion, morphology and growth were investigated using osteoblasts isolated from the calvaria of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins was examined to assess the effect of the Sr-modified Ti surfaces on osteoblasts. The modified titanium surface had a mesh structure with significantly greater porosity, and approximately5.37±0.35at.% of Sr was incorporated into the surface. The hydrophilicity was enhanced by the incorporation of Sr ions and water treatment. The average amounts of Sr released from the Sr-modified plates subjected to water treatment were slight higher than the plates without water treatment. Sr promoted cellular adhesion, spreading and growth compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The Sr-modified Ti plates also promoted expression of osteogenesis-related genes,and expression of OPN and COL-І by osteoblasts. Ti plates heat treated at 700°C showed increased bioactivity in comparison with those treated at 600°C. Water treatment upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. These results show that Sr-modification of Ti surfaces may improve bioactivity in vitro. Water treatment has enhanced the response of osteoblasts. The Sr-modified Ti heat-treated at 700°C exhibited better bioactivity compared with that heated at 600°C.

  14. Structure and properties of strontium-doped phosphate-based glasses

    PubMed Central

    Abou Neel, Ensanya A.; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Pickup, David M.; O'Dell, Luke A.; Mordan, Nicola J.; Newport, Robert J.; Smith, Mark E.; Knowles, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to similarity in both ionic size and polarity, strontium (Sr2+) is known to behave in a comparable way to calcium (Ca2+), and its role in bone metabolism has been well documented as both anti-resorptive and bone forming. In this study, novel quaternary strontium-doped phosphate-based glasses, containing 1, 3 and 5 mol% SrO, were synthesized and characterized. 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance results showed that, as the Sr2+ content is increased in the glasses, there is a slight increase in disproportionation of Q2 phosphorus environments into Q1 and Q3 environments. Moreover, shortening and strengthening of the phosphorus to bridging oxygen distance occurred as obtained from FTIR. The general broadening of the spectral features with Sr2+ content is most probably due to the increased variation of the phosphate–cation bonding interactions caused by the introduction of the third cation. This increased disorder may be the cause of the increased degradation of the Sr-containing glasses relative to the Sr-free glass. As confirmed from elemental analysis, all Sr-containing glasses showed higher Na2O than expected and this also could be accounted for by the higher degradation of these glasses compared with Sr-free glasses. Measurements of surface free energy (SFE) showed that incorporation of strontium had no effect on SFE, and samples had relatively higher fractional polarity, which is not expected to promote high cell activity. From viability studies, however, the incorporation of Sr2+ showed better cellular response than Sr2+-free glasses, but still lower than the positive control. This unfavourable cellular response could be due to the high degradation nature of these glasses and not due to the presence of Sr2+. PMID:18826914

  15. Determining the sources of calcium for migratory songbirds using stable strontium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Blum, Joel D; Taliaferro, E Hank; Holmes, Richard T

    2001-02-01

    We investigated natural variations in the stable isotopic composition of strontium (a surrogate for calcium) in the bones of a single species of breeding migratory songbird, as well as in their eggshells, egg contents, and food sources. We use this information to determine the sources of calcium to these migratory songbirds and their offspring. Samples were collected from two locations in the northeastern USA (Hubbard Brook, NH, and Downer Forest, VT.) that differed in soil geochemistry. The mean 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of food items (caterpillars and snails), eggshells, and egg contents were indistinguishable within each site, but significantly different between the two sites. Mean 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the bones of adult females were significantly different between the two sites, but values were significantly lower than those of food items and eggshells at each site. Two of four adult individuals studied at each site had 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios lower than the entire range of values for local food sources. Mixing calculations indicate that up to 60% of skeletal strontium and calcium was derived from foods consumed in the winter grounds where lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios predominate. At each study site, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of eggshells differed significantly between clutches, but the mean clutch 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios were unrelated to the skeletal 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the laying adult. These findings suggest that strontium (and hence calcium) for eggshell production in this species is derived predominantly from local food sources in breeding areas. Thus, reductions in available calcium in northern temperate ecosystems due to the influences of acid deposition could be potentially harmful to this and other species of migratory bird.

  16. A Strontium-Modified Titanium Surface Produced by a New Method and Its Biocompatibility In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chundong; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lichao; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Qiuyue; Wu, Buling

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present a new and effective method of producing titanium surfaces modified with strontium and to investigate the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified with strontium (Sr) for bone implant applications. Materials and Methods Sr-modified Ti surfaces were produced by sequential treatments with NaOH, strontium acetate, heat and water. The surface characteristics and the concentration of the Sr ions released from the samples were examined. Cell adhesion, morphology and growth were investigated using osteoblasts isolated from the calvaria of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins was examined to assess the effect of the Sr-modified Ti surfaces on osteoblasts. Results The modified titanium surface had a mesh structure with significantly greater porosity, and approximately5.37±0.35at.% of Sr was incorporated into the surface. The hydrophilicity was enhanced by the incorporation of Sr ions and water treatment. The average amounts of Sr released from the Sr-modified plates subjected to water treatment were slight higher than the plates without water treatment. Sr promoted cellular adhesion, spreading and growth compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The Sr-modified Ti plates also promoted expression of osteogenesis-related genes,and expression of OPN and COL-І by osteoblasts. Ti plates heat treated at 700°C showed increased bioactivity in comparison with those treated at 600°C. Water treatment upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. Conclusions These results show that Sr-modification of Ti surfaces may improve bioactivity in vitro. Water treatment has enhanced the response of osteoblasts. The Sr-modified Ti heat-treated at 700°C exhibited better bioactivity compared with that heated at 600°C. PMID:26529234

  17. Model study of atmospheric transport using carbon 14 and strontium 90 as inert tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnison, D.E.; Johnston, H.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The observed excess carbon 14 in the atmosphere from 1963 to 1970 provides unique, but limited, data up to an altitude of about 35 km for testing the air motions calculated by 11 multidimensional atmospheric models. Strontium 90 measurements in the atmosphere from 1964 to mid-1967 provide data that have more latitude coverage than those of carbon 14 and are useful for testing combined models of air motions and aerosol settling. Model calculations for carbon 14 begin at October 1963, 9 months after the conclusion of the nuclear bomb tests; the initial conditions for the calculations are derived by threemore » methods, each of which agrees fairly well with measured carbon 14 in October 1963 and each of which has widely different values in regions of the stratosphere where there were no carbon 14 measurements. The model results are compared to the stratospheric measurements, not as if the observed data were absolute standards, but in an effort to obtain new insight about the models and about the atmosphere. The measured carbon 14 vertical profiles at 31 deg N are qualitatively different from all of the models; the measured vertical profiles show a maximum mixing ratio in the altitude range of 20 to 25 km from October 1963 through July 1966, but all modeled profiles show mixing ratio maxima that increase in altitude from 20 km in October 1963 to greater than 40 km by April 1966. Both carbon 14 and strontium 90 data indicate that the models differ substantially among themselves with respect to stratosphere-troposphere exchange rate, but the modeled carbon 14 stratospheric residence times indicate that differences among the models are small with respect to transport rate between the middle stratosphere and the lower stratosphere. Strontium 90 data indicate that aerosol settling is important up to at least 35 km altitude. (Abstract Truncated)« less

  18. Evaluation of Chlorella as a Decorporation Agent to Enhance the Elimination of Radioactive Strontium from Body.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Fukuda, Tadahisa; Han, Jaegab; Kitamura, Yoji; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Odani, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Release of radionuclides, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, into the atmosphere and the ocean presents an important problem because internal exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr could be very harmful to humans. Chlorella has been reported to be effective in enhancing the excretion of heavy metals; thus, we hypothesized that Chlorella could also enhance the elimination of 137Cs or 90Sr from the body. We evaluated the potential of Chlorella as a decorporation agent in vitro and in vivo, using 85Sr instead of 90Sr. In vitro experiments of adsorption of 137Cs and 85Sr to Chlorella were performed under wide pH conditions. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was estimated using the Langmuir model. A 85Sr solution was orally administrated to mice pretreated with Chlorella. At 48 h after 85Sr administration, the biodistribution of radioactivity was determined. In the in vitro experiments, although 85Sr barely adsorbed to Chlorella at low pH, the 85Sr adsorption ratio to Chlorella increased with increasing pH. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was 9.06 mg / g. 137Cs barely adsorbed to Chlorella under any pH conditions. In the biodistribution experiments, bone accumulation of radioactivity after 85Sr administration was significantly decreased in the Chlorella pretreatment group compared with the non-treatment control group. In conclusion, these results indicated that Chlorella could inhibit the absorption of 90Sr into the blood and enhance the elimination of 90Sr from the body through adsorption in intestine. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism and the components of Chlorella needed for adsorption to strontium and could promote the development of more effective decorporation agents.

  19. Evaluation of Chlorella as a Decorporation Agent to Enhance the Elimination of Radioactive Strontium from Body

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Fukuda, Tadahisa; Han, Jaegab; Kitamura, Yoji; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Odani, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background Release of radionuclides, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, into the atmosphere and the ocean presents an important problem because internal exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr could be very harmful to humans. Chlorella has been reported to be effective in enhancing the excretion of heavy metals; thus, we hypothesized that Chlorella could also enhance the elimination of 137Cs or 90Sr from the body. We evaluated the potential of Chlorella as a decorporation agent in vitro and in vivo, using 85Sr instead of 90Sr. Methods In vitro experiments of adsorption of 137Cs and 85Sr to Chlorella were performed under wide pH conditions. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was estimated using the Langmuir model. A 85Sr solution was orally administrated to mice pretreated with Chlorella. At 48 h after 85Sr administration, the biodistribution of radioactivity was determined. Results In the in vitro experiments, although 85Sr barely adsorbed to Chlorella at low pH, the 85Sr adsorption ratio to Chlorella increased with increasing pH. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was 9.06 mg / g. 137Cs barely adsorbed to Chlorella under any pH conditions. In the biodistribution experiments, bone accumulation of radioactivity after 85Sr administration was significantly decreased in the Chlorella pretreatment group compared with the non-treatment control group. Conclusions In conclusion, these results indicated that Chlorella could inhibit the absorption of 90Sr into the blood and enhance the elimination of 90Sr from the body through adsorption in intestine. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism and the components of Chlorella needed for adsorption to strontium and could promote the development of more effective decorporation agents. PMID:26828430

  20. Optimal ordering quantities for substitutable deteriorating items under joint replenishment with cost of substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vinod Kumar

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we develop an inventory model, to determine the optimal ordering quantities, for a set of two substitutable deteriorating items. In this inventory model the inventory level of both items depleted due to demands and deterioration and when an item is out of stock, its demands are partially fulfilled by the other item and all unsatisfied demand is lost. Each substituted item incurs a cost of substitution and the demands and deterioration is considered to be deterministic and constant. Items are order jointly in each ordering cycle, to take the advantages of joint replenishment. The problem is formulated and a solution procedure is developed to determine the optimal ordering quantities that minimize the total inventory cost. We provide an extensive numerical and sensitivity analysis to illustrate the effect of different parameter on the model. The key observation on the basis of numerical analysis, there is substantial improvement in the optimal total cost of the inventory model with substitution over without substitution.

  1. Deposition of Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (LSCF) Using Suspension Plasma Spraying for Oxygen Transport Membrane Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, E. S. C.; Kesler, O.

    2015-08-01

    Suspension plasma spray deposition was utilized to fabricate dense lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxygen separation membranes (OSMs) on porous metal substrates for mechanical support. The as-sprayed membranes had negligible and/or reversible material decomposition. At the longer stand-off distance (80 mm), smooth and dense membranes could be manufactured using a plasma with power below approximately 81 kW. Moreover, a membrane of 55 μm was observed to have very low gas leakage rates desirable for OSM applications. This thickness could potentially be decreased further to improve oxygen diffusion by using metal substrates with finer surface pores.

  2. Efficient ionisation of calcium, strontium and barium by resonant laser pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Efficient ionization has been observed when an atomic vapor of strontium, barium or calcium was illuminated with a long pulse tunable laser at the frequency of the atomic resonance line. The variation in the degree of ionization with neutral density and laser intensity has been measured using the 'hook' method. The maximum ionization observed was 94%. Excited state populations were measured yielding an excitation temperature (depending on exact experimental conditions) in the region of 0.4 eV. The decay of ion density after the laser pulse was monitored and the recombination coefficients determined. The results are interpreted in terms of an electron heating model.

  3. Structural, topographical and electrical properties of cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN60) ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, S. Gokul; Mathivanan, V.; Mohan, R.

    2016-05-06

    Tungsten bronze type cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN - Sr{sub 0.6}B{sub 0.4}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) ceramics were synthesized by solid state process. Cerium was used as dopant to improve its electrical properties. Influence of Ce{sup +} ions on the photoluminescence properties was investigated in detail. The grain size topographical behavior of SBN powders and their associated abnormal grain growth (AGG) were completely analyzed through SEM studies. Finally dielectric, measurement discusses about the broad phase transition observed due to cerium dopant The results were discussed in detail.

  4. Ultrashort pulse chirp measurement via transverse second-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.

    2015-06-01

    Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system.

  5. Production of plutonium, yttrium and strontium tracers for using in environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzumanov, A.; Batischev, V.; Berdinova, N.; Borissenko, A.; Chumikov, G.; Lukashenko, S.; Lysukhin, S.; Popov, Yu.; Sychikov, G.

    2001-12-01

    Summary of cyclotron production methods of 237Pu (45,2 d), 88Y (106,65 d) and 85Sr (64,84 d) tracers via nuclear reactions with protons and alphas on 235U, 88Sr and 85Rb targets in wide energy range is given. Chemical methods of separation and purification of the tracers from the irradiated uranium, strontium and rubidium targets are described. The tracers were used for determination of Pu (239-240), Sr-90 and Am-241 in the samples (soil, plants, underground waters) from Semipalatinsk Test Site. Obtained results are discussed.

  6. High Throughput Method of Extracting and Counting Strontium-90 in Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I.; Kaminski, M.; Mertz, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for the rapid extraction of Sr-90 from the urine of individuals exposed to radiation in a terrorist attack. The method employs two chromatographic ion-exchange materials: Diphonix resin and Sr resin, both of which are commercially available. The Diphonix resin reduces the alkali ion concentrations below 10 mM, and the Sr resin concentrates and decontaminates strontium-90. Experimental and calculational data are given for a variety of test conditions. On the basis of these results, a flowsheet has been developed for the rapid concentration and extraction of Sr-90 from human urine samples for subsequent beta-counting.

  7. Sorption Modeling of Strontium, Plutonium, Uranium and Neptunium Adsorption on Monosodium Titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2003-10-30

    We examined the ability of various equilibrium isotherms to replicate the available data for the adsorption of strontium (Sr), plutonium (Pu), uranium (U) and neptunium (Np) on monosodium titanate (MST) during the treatment of simulated and actual Savannah River Site high-level waste. The analysis considered 29 isotherm models from the literature. As part of this study, we developed a general method for selecting the best isotherm models. The selection criteria for rating the isotherms considered the relative error in predicting the experimental data, the complexity of the mathematical expressions, the thermodynamic validity of the expressions, and statistical significance for themore » expressions. The Fowler Guggenheim-Jovanovic Freundlich (FG-JF), the Fowler Guggenheim-Langmuir Freundlich (FG-LF) and the Dubinin-Astashov (DA) models each reliably predicted the actinide and strontium adsorption on MST. The first two models describe the adsorption process by single layer formation and later al interactions between adsorbed sorbates while the Dubinin-Astashov model assumes volume filling of micropores (by osmotic pressure difference). These two mechanisms include mutually exclusive assumptions. However, we can not determine which model best represents the various adsorption mechanisms on MST. Based on our analysis, the DA model predicted the data well. The DA model assumes that an initial sorption layer forms after which networking begins in the pore spaces, filling the volume by a second mechanism. If this mechanism occurs in MST, as the experimental data suggests, then we expect all the empty and closed spaces of MST to contain actinides and strontium when saturated. Prior microstructure analyses determined that the MST surface is best described as heterogeneous (i.e., a semi-crystalline outer layer on an amorphous core) or composite material for adsorption. Therefore, we expect the empty spaces (of nanometer size) between the crystalline units in the fibrous

  8. Thermostable ferroelectric capacitors based on graded films of barium strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumarkin, A. V.; Razumov, S. V.; Volpyas, V. A.; Gagarin, A. G.; Odinets, A. A.; Zlygostov, M. V.; Sapego, E. N.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the pressure of working gas during the ion-plasma sputtering on properties of deposited ferroelectric barium strontium titanate coatings has been experimentally studied. Variations in the of pressure of the working gas during deposition allows the component composition of the deposited layer to be changed, which leads to the diffusion of the phase transition and the improvement of temperature stability of properties of ferroelectric film. The gradation of layers has an impact on the temperature of the dielectric permittivity maximum, the shape of the dependence of the capacity on temperature, and the capacitance-voltage characteristics of the capacitor structures.

  9. Transcapillary Exchange and Retention of Fluoride, Strontium, EDTA, Sucrose, and Antipyrine in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Gerard J.; Davies, David R.; Hughes, Sean P.F.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Kelly, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The extractions of 85Sr2+, 18F−, sucrose-14C, EDTA-51Cr, and antipyrine-14C in bone were determined by the multiple indicator-dilution method. Fluoride and strontium extractions were 18 to 70% during a single transcapillary passage, and those of EDTA and sucrose were from 11 to 59%, whereas extraction of antipyrine was 87%. Injections of 85Sr2+ and 18F− made when perfusion was done alternately with blood and plasma resulted in similar fractional extractions. When flow and extraction were measured simultaneously, extraction was related inversely to flow. PMID:6770980

  10. Properties of barium strontium titanate and niobate nanoparticles produced in gas discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyaka, Pavel; Kazaryan, Mishik; Pavlenko, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    Dust particles produced in the gas-discharge plasma by barium-strontium titanate and niobate targets sputtering have been investigated in the paper. Particles shape, size and chemical composition were identified. It have been established by Raman scattering investigation and X-ray structure analysis that a part of the collected dust particles retained original crystal structure of the sputtering target. For electro-physical investigations two discs were formed by pressuring from produced particles, and electrodes were deposited on disc flat surface. Capacitance and dielectric loss temperature dependences measurement resulted in the frequency range proving the ferroelectric properties of assembled nanoparticles, similar to the sputtered material.

  11. Use of strontium-90 plesiotherapy for the treatment of a lingual plasmacytoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ware, K; Gieger, T

    2011-04-01

    A 12-year-old, 25 kg, intact male St Bernard crossbreed was presented for treatment of a 538 mm ulcerated tumour on the dorsal tongue. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a plasmacytoma. The dog staged negative for evidence of local metastatic or systemic disease. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Treatment with one 150 Gy dose of radiation delivered with strontium-90 plesiotherapy was performed. Side effects were not noted and there was no visible evidence of tumour remaining at 2 months and 1 year after therapy. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Effect of crystal size distribution on thermoelectric performance for Lanthanum-doped strontium titanate bulk material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Boyu; Wang, Jun; Yaer, Xinba; Huo, Zhenzhen; Wu, Yin; Li, Yan; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Zou, Tao; Ma, Wen

    2015-07-01

    Effect of crystal size distribution on thermoelectric performance of Lanthanum-doped strontium titanate (La-SrTiO3) ceramics are investigated in this study. Thermoelectric performance measurement, coupled with microstructure studies, shows that the electrical conductivity strongly depends on the crystal size, potential barrier on the grain boundary and porosity. Meantime, because the average potential barriers height are increased along with the reduction of crystal size, the Seebeck coefficients are increased by energy filtering effect at the large number of grain boundaries. As a result, by controlling of crystal size distribution, ZT value of La-SrTiO3 is improved.

  13. MOVEMENT OF STRONTIUM AND CAESIUM IN SOILS AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN STUDIES ON THE CONTAMINATION OF FOOD CHAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.S.; Shone, M.G.T.

    ABS>Experimental results are given of a long term study on the migration and fixation of strontium and cesium in several types of soil The investigations were designed to approximate to field conditions in which the soil remained undisturbed by cultivation. The effects of the addition of nutrients and of a permanent crop of ryegrass grown on the artificially contaminated soils were also examined. The relevance of processes of migration and fixation to assessments of the uptake of strontium and cesium by crop plants is considered in the light of field experiments. (auth)

  14. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; ...

    2015-08-22

    Here, the PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compactsmore » and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional

  15. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  16. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  17. Vitreous Substitutes: The Present and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Caprani, Simona Maria; Airaghi, Giulia; Bartalena, Luigi; Testa, Francesco; Mariotti, Cesare; Porta, Giovanni; Simonelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery has advanced in numerous directions during recent years. The removal of the vitreous body is one of the main characteristics of this surgical procedure. Several molecules have been tested in the past to fill the vitreous cavity and to mimic its functions. We here review the currently available vitreous substitutes, focusing on their molecular properties and functions, together with their adverse effects. Afterwards we describe the characteristics of the ideal vitreous substitute. The challenges facing every ophthalmology researcher are to reach a long-term intraocular permanence of vitreous substitute with total inertness of the molecule injected and the control of inflammatory reactions. We report new polymers with gelification characteristics and smart hydrogels representing the future of vitreoretinal surgery. Finally, we describe the current studies on vitreous regeneration and cell cultures to create new intraocular gels with optimal biocompatibility and rheological properties. PMID:24877085

  18. Biomaterials in search of a meniscus substitute.

    PubMed

    Rongen, Jan J; van Tienen, Tony G; van Bochove, Bas; Grijpma, Dirk W; Buma, Pieter

    2014-04-01

    The menisci fulfill key biomechanical functions in the tibiofemoral (knee) joint. Unfortunately meniscal injuries are quite common and most often treated by (partial) meniscectomy. However, some patients experience enduring symptoms, and, more importantly, it leads to an increased risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis. Over the past decades, researchers have put effort in developing a meniscal substitute able to prevent osteoarthritis and treat enduring clinical symptoms. Grossly, two categories of substitutes are observed: First, a resorbable scaffold mimicking biomechanical function which slowly degrades while tissue regeneration and organization is promoted. Second, a non resorbable, permanent implant which mimics the biomechanical function of the native meniscus. Numerous biomaterials with different (material) properties have been used in order to provide such a substitute. Nevertheless, a clinically applicable cartilage protecting material is not yet emerged. In the current review we provide an overview, and discuss, these different materials and extract recommendations regarding material properties for future developmental research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Breast milk substitutes in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E A S; Chan, C W; Yu, C M

    2004-07-01

    In 1981 the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes (the Code) to support breastfeeding. Despite improving trends, Hong Kong has low rates of breastfeeding compared to other developed countries. We surveyed companies marketing breast milk substitutes in Hong Kong to determine self-reported adherence to the Code. Companies were informed that individual responses would not be published and seven of nine companies responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents promoted infant and follow-on formula in hospitals and provided free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. Follow-on formula and weaning foods were promoted in shops and to the general public and free samples were given to mothers reflecting a belief that, despite WHA resolutions, follow-on formula is not a breast milk substitute. Transnational companies should follow the Code and subsequent WHA resolutions equally in all countries.

  20. Substituting freshwater: Can ocean desalination and water recycling capacities substitute for groundwater depletion in California?

    PubMed

    Badiuzzaman, Pierre; McLaughlin, Eoin; McCauley, Darren

    2017-12-01

    While the sustainability of resource depletion is a longstanding environmental concern, wider attention has recently been given to growing water scarcity and groundwater depletion. This study seeks to test the substitutability assumption embedded in weak sustainability indicators using a case study of Californian water supply. The volume of groundwater depletion is used as a proxy for unsustainable water consumption, and defined by synthesising existing research estimates into low, medium and high depletion baselines. These are compared against projected water supply increases from ocean desalination and water recycling by 2035, to determine whether new, drought-proof water sources can substitute for currently unsustainable groundwater consumption. Results show that the maximum projected supply of new water, 2.47 million acre-feet per year (MAF/yr), is sufficient to meet low depletion estimates of 2.02 MAF/yr, but fails to come near the high depletion estimate of 3.44 MAF/yr. This does not necessarily indicate physical limitations of substitutability, but more so socio-economic limitations influenced by high comparative costs. By including capacities in demand-substitutability via urban water conservation, maximum predicted capacities reach 5.57 MAF/yr, indicating wide room for substitution. Based on these results, investment in social and institutional capital is an important factor to enhance demand-side substitutability of water and other natural resources, which has been somewhat neglected by the literature on the substitutability of natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.