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Sample records for zr2ni intermetallic compound

  1. New twisted intermetallic compound superconductor: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.; Brown, G. V.; Laurence, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Method for processing Nb3Sn and other intermetallic compound superconductors produces a twisted, stabilized wire or tube which can be used to wind electromagnetics, armatures, rotors, and field windings for motors and generators as well as other magnetic devices.

  2. Chemical effect on diffusion in intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ting

    With the trend of big data and the Internet of things, we live in a world full of personal electronic devices and small electronic devices. In order to make the devices more powerful, advanced electronic packaging such as wafer level packaging or 3D IC packaging play an important role. Furthermore, ?-bumps, which connect silicon dies together with dimension less than 10 ?m, are crucial parts in advanced packaging. Owing to the dimension of ?-bumps, they transform into intermetallic compound from tin based solder after the liquid state bonding process. Moreover, many new reliability issues will occur in electronic packaging when the bonding materials change; in this case, we no longer have tin based solder joint, instead, we have intermetallic compound ?-bumps. Most of the potential reliability issues in intermetallic compounds are caused by the chemical reactions driven by atomic diffusion in the material; thus, to know the diffusivities of atoms inside a material is significant and can help us to further analyze the reliability issues. However, we are lacking these kinds of data in intermetallic compound because there are some problems if used traditional Darken's analysis. Therefore, we considered Wagner diffusivity in our system to solve the problems and applied the concept of chemical effect on diffusion by taking the advantage that large amount of energy will release when compounds formed. Moreover, by inventing the holes markers made by Focus ion beam (FIB), we can conduct the diffusion experiment and obtain the tracer diffusivities of atoms inside the intermetallic compound. We applied the technique on Ni3Sn4 and Cu3Sn, which are two of the most common materials in electronic packaging, and the tracer diffusivities are measured under several different temperatures; moreover, microstructure of the intermetallic compounds are investigated to ensure the diffusion environment. Additionally, the detail diffusion mechanism was also discussed in aspect of diffusion

  3. Electromigration in Sn-Cu intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C. C.; Chen, C. F.; Liu, P. C.; Chen, Chih

    2009-01-01

    As the shrinking in bump size continues, the effect of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) on electromigration becomes more pronounced. Electromigration in Sn-Cu intermetallic compounds was examined using edge displacement method. It was found that Cu6Sn5 compounds are more susceptible to electromigration than Cu3Sn compounds. The lower solidus temperature and higher resistivity of the Cu6Sn5 IMCs are responsible for its higher electromigration rate. Length-dependent electromigration behavior was found in the stripes of various lengths and the critical length was determined to be between 5 and 10 μm at 225 °C, which corresponded to a critical product between 2.5 and 5 A/cm. Furthermore, the Sn-Cu compounds were proven to have better electromigration resistance than eutectic SnAgCu solder.

  4. Intermetallic compounds in heterogeneous catalysis—a quickly developing field

    PubMed Central

    Armbrüster, Marc; Schlögl, Robert; Grin, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The application of intermetallic compounds for understanding in heterogeneous catalysis developed in an excellent way during the last decade. This review provides an overview of concepts and developments revealing the potential of intermetallic compounds in fundamental as well as applied catalysis research. Intermetallic compounds may be considered as platform materials to address current and future catalytic challenges, e.g. in respect to the energy transition. PMID:27877674

  5. Containerless automated processing of intermetallic compounds and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Joslin, S. M.; Reviere, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    An automated containerless processing system has been developed to directionally solidify high temperature materials, intermetallic compounds, and intermetallic/metallic composites. The system incorporates a wide range of ultra-high purity chemical processing conditions. The utilization of image processing for automated control negates the need for temperature measurements for process control. The list of recent systems that have been processed includes Cr, Mo, Mn, Nb, Ni, Ti, V, and Zr containing aluminides. Possible uses of the system, process control approaches, and properties and structures of recently processed intermetallics are reviewed.

  6. Unique intermetallic compounds prepared by shock wave synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G.; Reece, O. Y.; Roy, U.

    1971-01-01

    Technique compresses fine ground metallic powder mixture beyond crystal fusion point. Absence of vapor pressure voids and elimination of incongruous effects permit application of technique to large scale fabrication of intermetallic compounds with specific characteristics, e.g., semiconduction, superconduction, or magnetic properties.

  7. Factors determining the average atomic volumes in intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Pauling, L

    1987-07-01

    In formation of an intermetallic compound from the elementary metals there is usually a contraction in volume. Electron transfer leading to the charge states M(+) and M(-) with increase in valence and decrease in volume explains the more than 2-fold range in contraction for different compounds in the same binary system. In a more thorough analysis, the better packing of atoms of different sizes also needs to be considered.

  8. Factors determining the average atomic volumes in intermetallic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1987-01-01

    In formation of an intermetallic compound from the elementary metals there is usually a contraction in volume. Electron transfer leading to the charge states M+ and M- with increase in valence and decrease in volume explains the more than 2-fold range in contraction for different compounds in the same binary system. In a more thorough analysis, the better packing of atoms of different sizes also needs to be considered. PMID:16578809

  9. A review of rapid solidification studies of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A review of rapid solidification studies of high-temperature ordered intermetallic compounds is presented. Emphasis is on the nickel - and iron- aluminides which are of potential interest as structural materials. The nickel-base aluminides which have been rapidly solidified exhibit changes in grain size, compositional segregation, and degree of long range order (as reflected in APB size and distribution) which markedly affect mechanical properties. Some experiments indicate the formation of a metastable L1(2) phase in rapidly solidified Fe-(Ni,Mn)-Al-C alloys, while other work observes only a metastable fcc phase in the same composition range. The metastable phases and/or microstructures in both nickel and iron aluminides are destroyed by annealing at temperatures above 750 K, with subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. Rapid solidification studies of several other intermetallic compounds are briefly noted.

  10. Fine Structure in Multi-Phase Zr8Ni21-Zr7Ni10-Zr2Ni7 Alloy Revealed by Transmission Electron Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haoting; Bendersky, Leonid A.; Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of an annealed alloy with a Zr8Ni21 composition was studied by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presence of three phases, Zr8Ni21, Zr2Ni7, and Zr7Ni10, was confirmed by SEM/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy compositional mapping and TEM electron diffraction. Distribution of the phases and their morphology can be linked to a multi-phase structure formed by a sequence of reactions: (1) L → Zr2Ni7 + L’; (2) peritectic Zr2Ni7 + L’ → Zr2Ni7 + Zr8Ni21 + L”; (3) eutectic L” → Zr8Ni21 + Zr7Ni10. The effect of annealing at 960 °C, which was intended to convert a cast structure into a single-phase Zr8Ni21 structure, was only moderate and the resulting alloy was still multi-phased. TEM and crystallographic analysis of the Zr2Ni7 phase show a high density of planar (001) defects that were explained as low-energy boundaries between rotational variants and stacking faults. The crystallographic features arise from the pseudo-hexagonal structure of Zr2Ni7. This highly defective Zr2Ni7 phase was identified as the source of the broad X-ray diffraction peaks at around 38.4° and 44.6° when a Cu-K was used as the radiation source. PMID:28793460

  11. Magnetic susceptibilities of actinide 3d-metal intermetallic compounds

    SciT

    Muniz, R.B.; d'Albuquerque e Castro, J.; Troper, A.

    1988-04-15

    We have numerically calculated the magnetic susceptibilities which appear in the Hartree--Fock instability criterion for actinide 3d transition-metal intermetallic compounds. This calculation is based on a previous tight-binding description of these actinide-based compounds (A. Troper and A. A. Gomes, Phys. Rev. B 34, 6487 (1986)). The parameters of the calculation, which starts from simple tight-binding d and f bands are (i) occupation numbers, (ii) ratio of d-f hybridization to d bandwidth, and (iii) electron-electron Coulomb-type interactions.

  12. Electronic Structure of GdCuGe Intermetallic Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukoyanov, A. V.; Knyazev, Yu. V.; Kuz'min, Yu. I.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic structure of GdCuGe intermetallic compound has been studied. Spin-polarized energy spectrum calculations have been performed by the band method with allowance for strong electron correlations in the 4 f-shell of gadolinium ions. Antiferromagnetic ordering of GdCuGe at low temperatures has been obtained in a theoretical calculation, with the value of the effective magnetic moment of gadolinium ions reproduced in fair agreement with experimental data. The electronic density of states has been analyzed. An optical conductivity spectrum has been calculated for GdCuGe; it reveals specific features that are analogous to the ones discovered previously in the GdCuSi compound with a similar hexagonal structure.

  13. Experimental formation enthalpies for intermetallic phases and other inorganic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, George; Meschel, S. V.; Nash, Philip; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The standard enthalpy of formation of a compound is the energy associated with the reaction to form the compound from its component elements. The standard enthalpy of formation is a fundamental thermodynamic property that determines its phase stability, which can be coupled with other thermodynamic data to calculate phase diagrams. Calorimetry provides the only direct method by which the standard enthalpy of formation is experimentally measured. However, the measurement is often a time and energy intensive process. We present a dataset of enthalpies of formation measured by high-temperature calorimetry. The phases measured in this dataset include intermetallic compounds with transition metal and rare-earth elements, metal borides, metal carbides, and metallic silicides. These measurements were collected from over 50 years of calorimetric experiments. The dataset contains 1,276 entries on experimental enthalpy of formation values and structural information. Most of the entries are for binary compounds but ternary and quaternary compounds are being added as they become available. The dataset also contains predictions of enthalpy of formation from first-principles calculations for comparison. PMID:29064466

  14. Ultra-high vacuum compatible preparation chain for intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Benka, G.; Regnat, A.; Franz, C.; Pfleiderer, C.

    2016-11-01

    We report the development of a versatile material preparation chain for intermetallic compounds, which focuses on the realization of a high-purity growth environment. The preparation chain comprises an argon glovebox, an inductively heated horizontal cold boat furnace, an arc melting furnace, an inductively heated rod casting furnace, an optically heated floating-zone furnace, a resistively heated annealing furnace, and an inductively heated annealing furnace. The cold boat furnace and the arc melting furnace may be loaded from the glovebox by means of a load-lock permitting to synthesize compounds starting with air-sensitive elements while handling the constituents exclusively in an inert gas atmosphere. All furnaces are all-metal sealed, bakeable, and may be pumped to ultra-high vacuum. We find that the latter represents an important prerequisite for handling compounds with high vapor pressure under high-purity argon atmosphere. We illustrate the operational aspects of the preparation chain in terms of the single-crystal growth of the heavy-fermion compound CeNi2Ge2.

  15. Hydrogen Ordering in Hexagonal Intermetallic AB5 Type Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, W.; Kuna, A.

    2008-04-01

    Intermetallic compounds AB5 type (A = rare-earth atoms, B = transition metal) are known to store reversibly large amounts of hydrogen and as that are discussed in this work. It was shown that the alloy cycling stability can be significantly improved by employing the so-called non-stoichiometric compounds AB5+x and that is why analysis of change of structure turned out to be interesting. A tendency for ordering of hydrogen atoms is one of the most intriguing problems for the unsaturated hydrides. The symmetry analysis method in the frame of the theory of space group and their representation gives opportunity to find all possible transformations of the parent structure. In this work symmetry analysis method was applied for AB5+x structure type (P6/mmm parent symmetry space group). There were investigated all possible ordering types and accompanying atom displacements in positions 1a, 2c, 3g (fully occupied in stoichiometric compounds AB5), in positions 2e, 6l (where atom B could appear in non-stoichiometric compounds) and also 4h, 6m, 6k, 12n, 12o, which could be partly occupied by hydrogen as a result of hydrides. An analysis was carried out of all possible structures of lower symmetry, following from P6/mmm for we k=(0, 0, 0). Also the way of getting the structure described by the P63mc space group with double cell along the z-axiswe k=(0, 0, 0.5), as it is suggested in the work of Latroche et al. is discussed by the symmetry analysis. The analysis was obtained by computer program MODY. The program calculates the so-called basis vectors of irreducible representations of a given symmetry group, which can be used for calculation of possible ordering modes.

  16. Formation of intermetallic compound coating on magnesium AZ91 cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianping; Gao, Wei

    2009-08-01

    This study describes an intermetallic compound coating formed on AZ91 Mg cast alloy. The Al sputtered on AZ91 cast alloy reacted with substrate during a short period of heat treatment at 435°C, resulting in the formation of a continuous intermetallic compound layer. The short period treatment has the advantage of minimizing the negative effect on the microstructure of substrate and the mechanical properties, comparing with the reported diffusion coatings. DSC measurement and examination on the cross-section of Al sputtered samples show that local melting occurred along the Al/substrate interface at the temperature range between 430~435°C. The formation mechanism of intermetallic compound coating is proposed in terms of the local melting at Al/substrate interface. The salt water immersion test showed significant improvement in corrosion resistance of the intermetallic compound coated AZ91 cast alloy compared with the as-cast alloys.

  17. Microstructure and tribological properties of TiCu2Al intermetallic compound coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chun; Zhou, Jiansong; Zhao, Jierong; Wang, Linqian; Yu, Youjun; Chen, Jianmin; Zhou, Huidi

    2011-04-01

    TiCu2Al ternary intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding. Tribological properties of the prepared TiCu2Al intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that the friction coefficient and wear rate was closely related to the normal load and sliding speed, i.e., the friction coefficient of the prepared TiCu2Al intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the TiCu2Al intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate first increased and then decreased at normal load from 5 to 15 N.

  18. Clusters, Assemble: Growth of Intermetallic Compounds from Metal Flux Reactions.

    PubMed

    Latturner, Susan E

    2018-01-16

    Metal flux synthesis involves the reaction of metals and metalloids in a large excess of a low-melting metal that acts as a solvent. This technique makes use of an unusual temperature regime (above the temperatures used for solvothermal methods and below the temperatures used in traditional solid state synthesis) and facilitates the growth of products as large crystals. It has proven to be a fruitful method to discover new intermetallic compounds. However, little is known about the chemistry occurring within a molten metal solvent; without an understanding of the nature of precursor formation and assembly, it is difficult to predict product structures and target properties. Organic chemists have a vast toolbox of well-known reagents and reaction mechanisms to use in directing their synthesis toward a desired molecular structure. This is not yet the case for the synthesis of inorganic extended structures. We have carried out extensive explorations of the growth of new magnetic intermetallic compounds from a variety of metal fluxes. This Account presents a review of some of our results and recent reports by other groups; this work indicates that products with common building blocks and homologous series with identical structural motifs are repeatedly seen in metal flux chemistry. For instance, fluorite-type layers comprised of transition metals coordinated by eight main group metal atoms are found in the Th 2 (Au x Si 1-x )[AuAl 2 ] n Si 2 and R[AuAl 2 ] n Al 2 (Au x Si 1-x ) 2 series grown from aluminum flux, the Ce n PdIn 3n+2 series grown from indium flux, and CePdGa 6 and Ce 2 PdGa 10 grown from gallium flux. Similarly, our investigations of reactions of heavy main group metals, M, in rare earth/transition metal eutectic fluxes reveal that the R/T/M/M' products usually feature M-centered rare earth clusters M@R 8-12 , which share faces to form layers and networks that surround transition metal building blocks. These structural trends, temperature dependence of

  19. Large positive magnetoresistance in intermetallic compound NdCo2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Chowdhury, R.; Dhara, S.; Das, I.; Bandyopadhyay, B.; Rawat, R.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic, magneto-transport and magnetocaloric properties of antiferromagnetic intermetallic compound NdCo2Si2 (TN = 32K) have been studied. The compound yields a positive magnetoresistance (MR) of about ∼ 123 % at ∼ 5K in 8 T magnetic field. The MR value is significantly large vis - a - vis earlier reports of large MR in intermetallic compounds, and possibly associated with the changes in magnetic structure of the compound. The large MR value can be explained in terms of field induced pseudo-gaps on Fermi surface.

  20. Surface integrity on grinding of gamma titanium aluminide intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagian, Gregorio Roberto

    Gamma-TiAl is an ordered intermetallic compound characterized by high strength to density ratio, good oxidation resistance, and good creep properties at elevated temperatures. However, it is intrinsically brittle at room temperature. This thesis investigates the potential for the use of grinding to process TiAl into useful shapes. Grinding is far from completely understood, and many aspects of the individual mechanical interactions of the abrasive grit with the material and their effect on surface integrity are unknown. The development of new synthetic diamond superabrasives in which shape and size can be controlled raises the question of the influence of those variables on the surface integrity. The goal of this work is to better understand the fundamentals of the abrasive grit/material interaction in grinding operations. Experimental, analytical, and numerical work was done to characterize and predict the resultant deformation and surface integrity on ground lamellar gamma-TiAl. Grinding tests were carried out, by analyzing the effects of grit size and shape, workpiece speed, wheel depth of cut, and wear on the subsurface plastic deformation depth (PDD). A practical method to assess the PDD is introduced based on the measurement of the lateral material flow by 3D non-contact surface profilometry. This method combines the quantitative capabilities of the microhardness measurement with the sensitivity of Nomarski microscopy. The scope and limitations of this technique are analyzed. Mechanical properties were obtained by quasi-static and split Hopkinson bar compression tests. Residual stress plots were obtained by x-ray, and surface roughness and cracking were evaluated. The abrasive grit/material interaction was accounted by modeling the force per abrasive grit for different grinding conditions, and studying its correlation to the PDD. Numerical models of this interaction were used to analyze boundary conditions, and abrasive size effects on the PDD. An explicit 2D

  1. Microstructure and tribological properties of TiAg intermetallic compound coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chun; Chen, Jianmin; Zhou, Jiansong; Zhao, Jierong; Wang, Linqian; Yu, Youjun; Zhou, Huidi

    2011-10-01

    TiAg intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding using Ag powder as the precursor. It has been found that the prepared coating mainly comprised TiAg and Ti phases. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy results further conform the existence of TiAg intermetallic compound in the prepared coating. The magnified high resolution transmission electron microscopy images shown that the laser cladding coating contains TiAg nanocrystalline with the size of about 4 nm. Tribological properties of the prepared TiAg intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that the friction coefficient and wear rate was closely related to the normal load and sliding speed, i.e., the friction coefficient of the prepared TiAg intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the TiAg intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate increased as the normal load increased.

  2. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  3. Micromechanisms of intergranular brittle ftacture in intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitek, V.

    1991-06-01

    Grain boundaries in intermetallic compounds such as Ni3A1 are inherently brittle. The reason is usually sought in grain boundary cohesion but in metals even brittle fracture is accompanied by some local plasticity and thus not only cohesion but also dislocation mobility in the boundary region need to be studied. We first discuss here the role of an irreversible shear deformation at the crack tip during microcrack propagation assuming that these two processes are concomitant. It is shown that a pre-existing crack cannot propagate in a brittle manner once the dislocation emission occurs. However, if a microcrack nucleates during loading it can propagate concurrently with the development of the irreversible shear deformation at the crack tip. The latter is then the major energy dissipating process. In the second part of this paper we present results of atomistic studies of grain boundaries in Ni3A1 and CU3Au which suggest that substantial structural differences exist between strongly and weakly ordered L12 alloys. We discuss then the consequence of these differences for intergranular brittleness in the framework of the above model for microcrack propagation. On this basis we propose an explanation for the intrinsic intergranular brittleness in some L12 alloys and relate it directly to the strength of ordering. Les joints de grains dans les composés intermétalliques de type Ni3AI sont de nature fragile. L'origine de cette fragilité est habituellement dans la cohésion des joints de grains. Dans les métaux, cependant, même la rupture fragile est accompagnée d'une certaine déformation plastique locale, de telle sorte que non seulement la cohésion mais aussi la mobilité des dislocations près des joints doit être étudiée. Nous discutons d'abord le rôle d'une déformation en cisaillement irréversible en tête de fissure pendant la propagation de cette fissure, en supposant que les deux processus sont concomitants. Nous montrons qu'une fissure préexistante ne

  4. Properties of TiNi intermetallic compound industrially produced by combustion synthesis

    SciT

    Kaieda, Yoshinari

    Most TiNi shape memory intermetallic compounds are conventionally produced by the process including high frequency induction vacuum melting and casting. A gravity segregation occurs in a cast TiNi ingot because of the big difference in the specific gravity between Ti and Ni. It is difficult to control accurately the phase transformation temperature of TiNi shape memory intermetallic compound produced by the conventional process, because the martensitic transformation temperature shifts by 10K due to the change in 0.1 % of Ni content. Homogeneous TiNi intermetallic compound is produced by the industrial process including combustion synthesis method, which is a newly developedmore » manufacturing process. In the new process, phase transformation temperatures of TiNi can be controlled accurately by controlling the ratio of Ti and Ni elemental starting powders. The chemical component, the impurities and the phase transformation temperatures of the TiNi products industrially produced by the process are revealed. These properties are vitally important when combustion synthesis method is applied to an industrial mass production process for producing TiNi shape memory intermetallic compounds. TiNi shape memory products are industrially and commercially produced today the industrial process including combustion synthesis. The total production weight in a year is 30 tins in 1994.« less

  5. Preparation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tsutomu; Fukui, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    Sintered compacts of single phase Ti3Al intermetallic compound, which have excellent potential as refractory materials, were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). A raw powder of Ti3Al intermetallic compound with an average powder diameter of 176 ± 56 μm was used in this study; this large powder diameter is disadvantageous for sintering because of the small surface area. The samples were prepared at sintering temperatures (Ts) of 1088, 1203, and 1323 K, sintering stresses (σs) of 16, 32, and 48 MPa, and a sintering time (ts) of 10 min. The calculated relative densities based on the apparent density of Ti3Al provided by the supplier were approximately 100% under all sintering conditions. From the experimental results, it was evident that SPS is an effective technique for dense sintering of Ti3Al intermetallic compounds in a short time interval. In this report, the sintering characteristics of Ti3Al intermetallic compacts are briefly discussed and compared with those of pure titanium compacts.

  6. Computer simulations of disordering kinetics in irradiated intermetallic compounds

    SciT

    Spaczer, M.; Caro, A.; Victoria, M.

    1994-11-01

    Molecular-dynamics computer simulations of collision cascades in intermetallic Cu[sub 3]Au, Ni[sub 3]Al, and NiAl have been performed to study the nature of the disordering processes in the collision cascade. The choice of these systems was suggested by the quite accurate description of the thermodynamic properties obtained using embedded-atom-type potentials. Since melting occurs in the core of the cascades, interesting effects appear as a result of the superposition of the loss (and subsequent recovery) of the crystalline order and the evolution of the chemical order, both processes being developed on different time scales. In our previous simulations on Ni[sub 3]Al andmore » Cu[sub 3]Au [T. Diaz de la Rubia, A. Caro, and M. Spaczer, Phys. Rev. B 47, 11 483 (1993)] we found a significant difference between the time evolution of the chemical short-range order (SRO) and the crystalline order in the cascade core for both alloys, namely the complete loss of the crystalline structure but only partial chemical disordering. Recent computer simulations in NiAl show the same phenomena. To understand these features we study the liquid phase of these three alloys and present simulation results concerning the dynamical melting of small samples, examining the atomic mobility, the relaxation time, and the saturation value of the chemical short-range order. An analytic model for the time evolution of the SRO is given.« less

  7. High-Pressure Synthesis: A New Frontier in the Search for Next-Generation Intermetallic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Walsh, James P S; Freedman, Danna E

    2018-06-19

    The application of high pressure adds an additional dimension to chemical phase space, opening up an unexplored expanse bearing tremendous potential for discovery. Our continuing mission is to explore this new frontier, to seek out new intermetallic compounds and new solid-state bonding. Simple binary elemental systems, in particular those composed of pairs of elements that do not form compounds under ambient pressures, can yield novel crystalline phases under compression. Thus, high-pressure synthesis can provide access to solid-state compounds that cannot be formed with traditional thermodynamic methods. An emerging approach for the rapid exploration of composition-pressure-temperature phase space is the use of hand-held high-pressure devices known as diamond anvil cells (DACs). These devices were originally developed by geologists as a way to study minerals under conditions relevant to the earth's interior, but they possess a host of capabilities that make them ideal for high-pressure solid-state synthesis. Of particular importance, they offer the capability for in situ spectroscopic and diffraction measurements, thereby enabling continuous reaction monitoring-a powerful capability for solid-state synthesis. In this Account, we provide an overview of this approach in the context of research we have performed in the pursuit of new intermetallic compounds. We start with a discussion of pressure as a fundamental experimental variable that enables the formation of intermetallic compounds that cannot be isolated under ambient conditions. We then introduce the DAC apparatus and explain how it can be repurposed for use as a synthetic vessel with which to explore this phase space, going to extremes of pressure where no chemist has gone before. The remainder of the Account is devoted to discussions of recent experiments we have performed with this approach that have led to the discovery of novel intermetallic compounds in the Fe-Bi, Cu-Bi, and Ni-Bi systems, with a focus

  8. Correlation between valence electronic structure and magnetic properties in RCo5 (R = rare earth) intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Qin, Xue; Yong-Quan, Guo

    2016-06-01

    The magnetisms of RCo5 (R = rare earth) intermetallics are systematically studied with the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET). The theoretical moments and Curie temperatures agree well with experimental ones. The calculated results show strong correlations between the valence electronic structure and the magnetic properties in RCo5 intermetallic compounds. The moments of RCo5 intermetallics originate mainly from the 3d electrons of Co atoms and 4f electrons of rare earth, and the s electrons also affect the magnetic moments by the hybridization of d and s electrons. It is found that moment of Co atom at 2c site is higher than that at 3g site due to the fact that the bonding effect between R and Co is associated with an electron transformation from 3d electrons into covalence electrons. In the heavy rare-earth-based RCo5 intermetallics, the contribution to magnetic moment originates from the 3d and 4f electrons. The covalence electrons and lattice electrons also affect the Curie temperature, which is proportional to the average moment along the various bonds. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274110).

  9. Increasing strength and conductivity of Cu alloy through abnormal plastic deformation of an intermetallic compound

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Jehyun; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Hyung Giun; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation strengthening of Cu alloys inevitably accompanies lowering of their electric conductivity and ductility. We produced bulk Cu alloys arrayed with nanofibers of stiff intermetallic compound through a precipitation mechanism using conventional casting and heat treatment processes. We then successfully elongated these arrays of nanofibers in the bulk Cu alloys to 400% of original length without breakage at room temperature using conventional rolling process. By inducing such an one-directional array of nanofibers of intermetallic compound from the uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the bulk Cu alloys, the trade-off between strength and conductivity and between strength and ductility could be significantly reduced. We observed a simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity by 1.3 times and also tensile strength by 1.3 times in this Cu alloy bulk compared to the conventional Cu alloys. PMID:27488621

  10. Discovery of a Superconducting Cu-Bi Intermetallic Compound by High-Pressure Synthesis

    SciT

    Clarke, Samantha M.; Walsh, James P. S.; Amsler, Maximilian

    A new intermetallic compound, the first to be structurally identified in the Cu-Bi binary system, is reported. This compound is accessed by high-pressure reaction of the elements. Its detailed characterization, physical property measurements, and ab initio calculations are described. The commensurate crystal structure of Cu 11Bi 7 is a unique variation of the NiAs structure type. Temperature-dependent electrical resistivity and heat capacity measurements reveal a bulk superconducting transition at T c=1.36 K. Density functional theory calculations further demonstrate that Cu 11Bi 7 can be stabilized (relative to decomposition into the elements) at high pressure and temperature. These results highlight themore » ability of high-pressure syntheses to allow for inroads into heretofore-undiscovered intermetallic systems for which no thermodynamically stable binaries are known.« less

  11. Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds in solder-substrate reactions due to limited supply of the active element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. C.; Ho, C. E.; Chang, C. W.; Kao, C. R.

    2007-04-01

    Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds has been reported in the literature for several solder/substrate systems, including SnAgCu soldered on Ni substrate, SnZn on Cu, high-Pb PbSn on Cu, and high-Pb PbSn on Ni. In this work, a unified thermodynamic argument is proposed to explain this rather unusual phenomenon. According to this argument, two necessary conditions must be met. The number one condition is that at least one of the reactive constituents of the solder must be present in a limited amount, and the second condition is that the soldering reaction has to be very sensitive to its concentration. With the growth of intermetallic, more and more atoms of this constituent are extracted out of the solder and incorporated into the intermetallic. As the concentration of this constituent decreases, the original intermetallic at the interface becomes a nonequilibrium phase, and the spalling of the original intermetallic occurs.

  12. Point Defects in Quenched and Mechanically-Milled Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Praveen

    Investigations were made of structural and thermal point defects in the highly-ordered B2 compound PdIn and deformation-induced defects in PdIn and NiAl. The defects were detected through the quadrupole interactions they induce at nearby ^{111}In/Cd probe atoms using the technique of perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations (PAC). Measurements on annealed PdIn on both sides of stoichiometry show structural defects that are the Pd vacancies on the Pd-poor side of the stoichiometry and Pd antisite atoms on the Pd-rich side. Signals were attributed to various defect configurations near the In/Cd probes. In addition to the first-shell Pd vacancy and second-shell Pd antisite atom configurations previously observed by Hahn and Muller, we observed two Pd-divacancy configurations in the first shell, a fourth-shell Pd vacancy, a second-shell In vacancy and the combination of a first -shell Pd vacancy and fourth-shell Pd vacancy. Vacancies on both the Pd and In sublattices were detected after quenching. Fractions of probe atoms having each type of neighboring vacancy defect were observed to increase monotonically with quenching temperature over the range 825-1500 K. For compositions very close to 50.15 at.% Pd, nearly equal site fractions were observed for Pd and In vacancies, indicating that the Schottky vacancy-pair defect is the thermal defect at high temperature. The formation enthalpy of the Schottky defect was determined from measurements of the Pd-vacancy site fraction to be 1.30(18) eV from analysis of quenching data in the range 825-1200 K, using the law of mass action and assuming a random distribution. Above 1200 K, the Pd-vacancy concentration was observed to be saturated at a value of 1.3(2) atomic percent. For more Pd-rich compositions, evidence was also obtained for a defect reaction in which a Pd antisite atom and Pd vacancy react to form an In vacancy, thereby increasing the In vacancy concentration and decreasing the Pd vacancy concentration. Analysis of

  13. Brittle intermetallic compound makes ultrastrong low-density steel with large ductility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Hansoo; Kim, Nack J

    2015-02-05

    Although steel has been the workhorse of the automotive industry since the 1920s, the share by weight of steel and iron in an average light vehicle is now gradually decreasing, from 68.1 per cent in 1995 to 60.1 per cent in 2011 (refs 1, 2). This has been driven by the low strength-to-weight ratio (specific strength) of iron and steel, and the desire to improve such mechanical properties with other materials. Recently, high-aluminium low-density steels have been actively studied as a means of increasing the specific strength of an alloy by reducing its density. But with increasing aluminium content a problem is encountered: brittle intermetallic compounds can form in the resulting alloys, leading to poor ductility. Here we show that an FeAl-type brittle but hard intermetallic compound (B2) can be effectively used as a strengthening second phase in high-aluminium low-density steel, while alleviating its harmful effect on ductility by controlling its morphology and dispersion. The specific tensile strength and ductility of the developed steel improve on those of the lightest and strongest metallic materials known, titanium alloys. We found that alloying of nickel catalyses the precipitation of nanometre-sized B2 particles in the face-centred cubic matrix of high-aluminium low-density steel during heat treatment of cold-rolled sheet steel. Our results demonstrate how intermetallic compounds can be harnessed in the alloy design of lightweight steels for structural applications and others.

  14. Cu-Sn Intermetallic Compound Joints for High-Temperature Power Electronics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung-Suk; Yoon, Jeong-Won

    2018-01-01

    Cu-Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonded joints were fabricated using a Sn-Cu solder paste and Cu for high-temperature power electronics applications. The interfacial reaction behaviors and the mechanical properties of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn SLID-bonded joints were compared. The intermetallic compounds formed at the interfaces in the Cu-Sn SLID-bonded joints significantly affected the die shear strength of the joint. In terms of thermal and mechanical properties, the Cu3Sn SLID-bonded joint was superior to the conventional solder and the Cu6Sn5 SLID-bonded joints.

  15. A review on the synthesis, crystal growth, structure and physical properties of rare earth based quaternary intermetallic compounds

    SciT

    Mumbaraddi, Dundappa; Sarkar, Sumanta; Peter, Sebastian C., E-mail: sebastiancp@jncasr.ac.in

    2016-04-15

    This review highlights the synthesis and crystal growth of quaternary intermetallic compounds based on rare earth metals. In the first part of this review, we highlight briefly about intermetallics and their versatile properties in comparison to the constituent elements. In the next part, we have discussed about various synthesis techniques with more focus on the metal flux technique towards the well shaped crystal growth of novel compounds. In the subsequent parts, several disordered quaternary compounds have been reviewed and then outlined most known ordered quaternary compounds with their complex structure. A special attention has been given to the ordered compoundsmore » with structural description and relation to the parent binary and ternary compounds. The importance of electronic and structural feature is highlighted as the key roles in designing these materials for emerging applications. - Graphical abstract: Rare earth based quaternary intermetallic compounds crystallize in complex novel crystal structures. The diversity in the crystal structure may induce unique properties and can be considered them as future materials. - Highlights: • Crystal growth and crystal structure of quaternary rare earth based intermetallics. • Structural complexity of quaternary compounds in comparison to the parent compounds. • Novel quaternary compounds display unique crystal structure.« less

  16. High hardness in the biocompatible intermetallic compound β-Ti3Au

    PubMed Central

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevsi; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wang, Jiakui K.; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Mani, Sendurai; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Morosan, E.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging, but strongly motivated by the vast application potential such materials hold. Ti3Au exhibits high hardness values (about four times those of pure Ti and most steel alloys), reduced coefficient of friction and wear rates, and biocompatibility, all of which are optimal traits for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications. In addition, the ability of this compound to adhere to ceramic parts can reduce both the weight and the cost of medical components. The fourfold increase in the hardness of Ti3Au compared to other Ti–Au alloys and compounds can be attributed to the elevated valence electron density, the reduced bond length, and the pseudogap formation. Understanding the origin of hardness in this intermetallic compound provides an avenue toward designing superior biocompatible, hard materials. PMID:27453942

  17. High hardness in the biocompatible intermetallic compound β-Ti3Au.

    PubMed

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M Fevsi; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wang, Jiakui K; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Mani, Sendurai; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Morosan, E

    2016-07-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging, but strongly motivated by the vast application potential such materials hold. Ti3Au exhibits high hardness values (about four times those of pure Ti and most steel alloys), reduced coefficient of friction and wear rates, and biocompatibility, all of which are optimal traits for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications. In addition, the ability of this compound to adhere to ceramic parts can reduce both the weight and the cost of medical components. The fourfold increase in the hardness of Ti3Au compared to other Ti-Au alloys and compounds can be attributed to the elevated valence electron density, the reduced bond length, and the pseudogap formation. Understanding the origin of hardness in this intermetallic compound provides an avenue toward designing superior biocompatible, hard materials.

  18. The corrosion behavior of the T1 (Al2CuLi) intermetallic compound in aqueous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchheit, R. G.; Stoner, G. E.

    1989-01-01

    The intermetallic compound T1 (Al2CuLi) is suspected to play an important role in the localized corrosion at subgrain boundaries in Al-Li-Cu alloys. The intermetallic was synthesized for characterization of its corrosion behavior. Experiments performed included open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization, and corrosion rate vs. pH in solutions whose pH was varied over the range of 3 to 11. Subgrain boundary pitting and continuous subgrain boundary corrosion are discussed in terms of the data obtained. Evidence suggesting the dealloying of copper from this compound is also presented.

  19. Discovery of Intermetallic Compounds from Traditional to Machine-Learning Approaches.

    PubMed

    Oliynyk, Anton O; Mar, Arthur

    2018-01-16

    Intermetallic compounds are bestowed by diverse compositions, complex structures, and useful properties for many materials applications. How metallic elements react to form these compounds and what structures they adopt remain challenging questions that defy predictability. Traditional approaches offer some rational strategies to prepare specific classes of intermetallics, such as targeting members within a modular homologous series, manipulating building blocks to assemble new structures, and filling interstitial sites to create stuffed variants. Because these strategies rely on precedent, they cannot foresee surprising results, by definition. Exploratory synthesis, whether through systematic phase diagram investigations or serendipity, is still essential for expanding our knowledge base. Eventually, the relationships may become too complex for the pattern recognition skills to be reliably or practically performed by humans. Complementing these traditional approaches, new machine-learning approaches may be a viable alternative for materials discovery, not only among intermetallics but also more generally to other chemical compounds. In this Account, we survey our own efforts to discover new intermetallic compounds, encompassing gallides, germanides, phosphides, arsenides, and others. We apply various machine-learning methods (such as support vector machine and random forest algorithms) to confront two significant questions in solid state chemistry. First, what crystal structures are adopted by a compound given an arbitrary composition? Initial efforts have focused on binary equiatomic phases AB, ternary equiatomic phases ABC, and full Heusler phases AB 2 C. Our analysis emphasizes the use of real experimental data and places special value on confirming predictions through experiment. Chemical descriptors are carefully chosen through a rigorous procedure called cluster resolution feature selection. Predictions for crystal structures are quantified by evaluating

  20. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  1. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules L.

    2015-11-20

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  2. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules L.

    2017-01-03

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  3. Epitaxial growth of Al9Ir2 intermetallic compound on Al(100): Mechanism and interface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadok, J.; Pussi, K.; Šturm, S.; Ambrožič, B.; Gaudry, É.; de Weerd, M.-C.; Fournée, V.; Ledieu, J.

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of Ir adatoms on Al(100) has been investigated under various exposures and temperature conditions. The experimental and theoretical results reveal a diffusion of Ir adatoms within the Al(100) surface selvedge already at 300 K. Above 593 K, two domains of a (√{5 }×√{5 }) R 26 .6∘ phase are identified by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. This phase corresponds to the initial growth of an Al9Ir2 compound at the Al(100) surface. The Al9Ir2 intermetallic domains are terminated by bulklike pure Al layers. The structural stability of Al9Ir2 (001) grown on Al(100) has been analyzed by density functional theory based calculations. Dynamical LEED analysis is consistent with an Ir adsorption leading to the growth of an Al9Ir2 intermetallic compound. We propose that the epitaxial relationship Al9Ir2(001 ) ∥Al (100) and Al9Ir2[100 ] ∥Al [031 ]/[013 ] originates from a matching of Al atomic arrangements present both on Al(100) and on pure Al(001) layers present in the Al9Ir2 compound. Finally, the interface between Al9Ir2 precipitates and the Al matrix has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy measurements. The cross-sectional observations are consistent with the formation of Al9Ir2 (001) compounds. These measurements indicate an important Ir diffusion within Al(100) near the surface region. The coherent interface between Al9Ir2 and the Al matrix is sharp.

  4. Intermetallic Compounds Formed in Sn-20In-2.8Ag Solder BGA Packages with Ag/Cu Pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, C. C.; Wang, S. S.; Huang, K. W.; Chuang, T. H.

    2009-03-01

    The interfacial reactions in a Sn-20In-2.8Ag solder ball grid array (BGA) package with immersion Ag surface finish are investigated. After reflow, the Ag thin film dissolves quickly into the solder matrix, and scallop-shaped intermetallic layers, with compositions of (Cu0.98Ag0.02)6(In0.59Sn0.41)5, appear at the interfaces between Sn-20In-2.8Ag solder ball and Cu pad. No evident growth of the (Cu0.98Ag0.02)6(Sn0.59In0.41)5 intermetallic compounds was observed after prolonged aging at 100 °C. However, the growth accelerated at 150 °C, with more intermetallic scallops floating into the solder matrix. The intermetallic thickness versus the square root of reaction time ( t 1/2) shows a linear relation, indicating that the growth of intermetallic compounds is diffusion-controlled. Ball shear tests show that the strength of Sn-20In-2.8Ag solder joints after reflow is 4.4 N, which increases to 5.18 N and 5.14 N after aging at 100 and 150 °C, respectively.

  5. Intermetallic compounds in 3D integrated circuits technology: a brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annuar, Syahira; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, Mohd; Tu, King-Ning

    2017-12-01

    The high performance and downsizing technology of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) for mobile consumer electronic products have gained much attention in the microelectronics industry. This has been driven by the utilization of chip stacking by through-Si-via and solder microbumps. Pb-free solder microbumps are intended to replace conventional Pb-containing solder joints due to the rising awareness of environmental preservation. The use of low-volume solder microbumps has led to crucial constraints that cause several reliability issues, including excessive intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formation and solder microbump embrittlement due to IMCs growth. This article reviews technologies related to 3D-ICs, IMCs formation mechanisms and reliability issues concerning IMCs with Pb-free solder microbumps. Finally, future outlook on the potential growth of research in this area is discussed.

  6. Intermetallic compounds in 3D integrated circuits technology: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Annuar, Syahira; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, Mohd; Tu, King-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The high performance and downsizing technology of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) for mobile consumer electronic products have gained much attention in the microelectronics industry. This has been driven by the utilization of chip stacking by through-Si-via and solder microbumps. Pb-free solder microbumps are intended to replace conventional Pb-containing solder joints due to the rising awareness of environmental preservation. The use of low-volume solder microbumps has led to crucial constraints that cause several reliability issues, including excessive intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formation and solder microbump embrittlement due to IMCs growth. This article reviews technologies related to 3D-ICs, IMCs formation mechanisms and reliability issues concerning IMCs with Pb-free solder microbumps. Finally, future outlook on the potential growth of research in this area is discussed. PMID:29057024

  7. Intermetallic compounds in 3D integrated circuits technology: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Annuar, Syahira; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, Mohd; Tu, King-Ning

    2017-01-01

    The high performance and downsizing technology of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) for mobile consumer electronic products have gained much attention in the microelectronics industry. This has been driven by the utilization of chip stacking by through-Si-via and solder microbumps. Pb-free solder microbumps are intended to replace conventional Pb-containing solder joints due to the rising awareness of environmental preservation. The use of low-volume solder microbumps has led to crucial constraints that cause several reliability issues, including excessive intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formation and solder microbump embrittlement due to IMCs growth. This article reviews technologies related to 3D-ICs, IMCs formation mechanisms and reliability issues concerning IMCs with Pb-free solder microbumps. Finally, future outlook on the potential growth of research in this area is discussed.

  8. Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Ellis, Timothy W.

    1994-01-01

    A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material.

  9. Single crystal growth of the Er2PdSi3 intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazilu, I.; Frontzek, M.; Löser, W.; Behr, G.; Teresiak, A.; Schultz, L.

    2005-02-01

    Single crystals of the Er2PdSi3 intermetallic compound melting congruently at 1648 ∘C, were grown by a floating zone method with radiation heating. The control of oxygen content was the key factor to avoid oxide precipitates, which can affect effective grain selection in the crystal growth process. Crystals grown at velocities of 5 mm/h with a preferred direction close to (1 0 0) with inclination angles of about 12 ∘ against the rod axis show very distinct facets at the rod surface. The crystals are Pd-depleted and Si-rich with respect to the nominal Er2PdSi3 stoichiometry, but exhibit inferior element segregation. Measurements on oriented single crystalline samples revealed antiferromagnetic ordering below 7 K, a magnetic easy axis parallel to the (0 0 1) axis of the AlB2-type hexagonal unit cell, and anisotropic electric properties.

  10. Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Ellis, T.W.

    1994-11-29

    A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material. 9 figures.

  11. Interaction of intermetallic compound formation in Cu/SnAgCu/NiAu sandwich solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yanghua; Lu, Chuanyan; Chang, Junling; Xie, Xiaoming

    2006-05-01

    The interaction between Cu/solder interface and solder/Ni interface at a Cu/SnAgCu/NiAu sandwich solder joint with various surface finishes and solder heights was investigated. The interfacial microstructure and composition of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The phase structure of IMC was identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that ternary (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMCs form at both interfaces. The composition, thickness, and morphology of the ternary IMCs depend not only on the interface itself, but also on the opposite interface. That is to say, strong coupling effects exist between the two interfaces. Lattice parameters of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 shrink with increasing Ni content, in agreement with Vegard’s law. The mechanism of ternary IMC formation and interface coupling effects are discussed in this paper.

  12. Intermetallic M--Sn.sub.5 (M=Fe, Cu, Co, Ni) compound and a method of synthesis thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Xiao-Liang; Han, Weiqiang

    2017-09-05

    Novel intermetallic materials are provided that are composed of tin and one or more additional metal(s) having a formula M.sub.(1-x)-Sn.sub.5, where -0.1.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, with 0.01.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.4 being more preferred and the second metallic element (M) is selected from iron (Fe), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and a combination of two or more of those metals. Due to low concentration of the second metallic element, the intermetallic compound affords an enhanced capacity applicable for electrochemical cells and may serve as an intermediate phase between Sn and MSn.sub.2. A method of synthesizing these intermetallic materials is also disclosed.

  13. Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds in solder-substrate reactions due to limited supply of the active element

    SciT

    Yang, S. C.; Ho, C. E.; Chang, C. W.

    2007-04-15

    Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds has been reported in the literature for several solder/substrate systems, including SnAgCu soldered on Ni substrate, SnZn on Cu, high-Pb PbSn on Cu, and high-Pb PbSn on Ni. In this work, a unified thermodynamic argument is proposed to explain this rather unusual phenomenon. According to this argument, two necessary conditions must be met. The number one condition is that at least one of the reactive constituents of the solder must be present in a limited amount, and the second condition is that the soldering reaction has to be very sensitive to its concentration. With themore » growth of intermetallic, more and more atoms of this constituent are extracted out of the solder and incorporated into the intermetallic. As the concentration of this constituent decreases, the original intermetallic at the interface becomes a nonequilibrium phase, and the spalling of the original intermetallic occurs.« less

  14. Effects of filling material and laser power on the formation of intermetallic compounds during laser-assisted friction stir butt welding of steel and aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xinjiang; Jin, Xiangzhong; Peng, Nanxiang; Ye, Ying; Wu, Sigen; Dai, Houfu

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, two kinds of materials, Ni and Zn, are selected as filling material during laser-assisted friction stir butt welding of Q235 steel and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, and their influences on the formation of intermetallic compounds on the steel/aluminum interface of the joints were first studied. SEM was used to analyze the profile of the intermetallic compound layer and the fractography of tensile fracture surfaces. In addition, EDS was applied to investigate the types of the intermetallic compounds. The results indicate that a thin iron-abundant intermetallic compound layer forms and ductile fracture mode occurs when Ni is added, but a thick aluminum-abundant intermetallic compound layer generates and brittle fracture mode occurs when Zn is added. So the tensile strength of the welds with Ni as filling material is greater than that with Zn as filling material. Besides, the effect of laser power on the formation of intermetallic compound layer when Ni is added was investigated. The preheated temperature field produced by laser beam in the cross section of workpiece was calculated, and the tensile strength of the joints at different laser powers was tested. Results show that only when suitable laser power is adopted, can suitable preheating temperature of the steel reach, then can thin intermetallic compound layer form and high tensile strength of the joints reach. Either excessive or insufficient laser power will reduce the tensile strength of the joints.

  15. Magnetic field controlled floating-zone single crystal growth of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, R.; Gerbeth, G.; Priede, J.

    2013-03-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) floating zone single crystal growth is an important technique for the preparation of single bulk crystals. The advantage of the floating-zone method is the crucible-free growth of single crystals of reactive materials with high melting points. The strong heat diffusion on the surface, as well as the melt convection in the molten zone due to induction heating, often leads to an undesired solid-liquid interface geometry with a concave (towards the solid phase) outer rim. These concave parts aggravate the single crystal growth over the full cross-section. A two-phase stirrer was developed at IFW Dresden in order to avoid the problems connected with these concave parts. It acts as a magnetic field pump and changes the typical double vortex structure to a single roll structure, thus pushing hot melt into the regions where the concave parts may arise. The current in the secondary coil is induced by the primary coil, and the capacitor and the resistance of the secondary circuit are adjusted to get a stable 90 degree phase-shift between the coil currents. Single crystal growth of industrial relevant RuAl and TiAl intermetallic compounds was performed based on the material parameters and using the adjusted two-phase stirrer. Very recently, the magnetic system was applied to the crystal growth of biocompatible TiNb alloys and antiferromagnetic Heusler MnSi compounds.

  16. Magnetic ordering in intermetallic La1-xTbxMn2Si2 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotin, Dm. M.; Streltsov, S. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Zhidkov, I. S.; Kukharenko, A. I.; Finkelstein, L. D.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kurmaev, E. Z.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions in intermetallic layered La1-xTbxMn2Si2 compounds (the ThCr2Si2-type structure) are investigated using the first-principles method and XPS measurements. The experimentally observed transition from ferromagnetic (FM) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of Mn sublattice with increase of terbium concentration is successfully reproduced in calculations for collinear magnetic moments model. The FM →AFM change of interplane magnetic ordering at small x is irrelevant to the number of f-electrons of the rare-earth ion. In contrast it was shown to be related to the Mn-Mn in-plane distance. Calculated Tb critical concentration for this transition x ≈ 0.14 corresponds to the Mn-Mn in-plane distance 0.289 nm, very close to the experimentally observed transition distance 0.287 nm. The crystal cell compression due to substitution increases an overlap between Mndxz,yz and the rare-earth ion d orbitals. Resulting hybridized states manifest themselves as an additional peak in the density of states. We suggest that a corresponding interlayer Mn-R-Mn superexchange interaction stabilizes AFM magnetic ordering in these compounds with Tb doping level x > 0.2 . The results of DFT calculations are in agreement with X-ray photoemission spectra for La1-xTbxMn2Si2 .

  17. Competition between magnetism and superconductivity in Eu-based intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinoha, Macy; Green, Lance; Chan, Julia; Morosan, Emilia

    Eu-based intermetallic compounds present a path to discover new correlated electronic behavior in quantum materials. Reports of superconductivity, intermediate valence behavior, and heavy fermions indicate that Eu-based compounds are promising routes to study the relationship between crystallography and electronic properties. The present work is focused on EuGa4, an antiferromagnet with TN = 16 K isostructural with the tetragonal RT2M2 (R = rare earth, T = transition metal, M = metal or metalloid) family that exhibits heavy fermion behavior and unconventional superconductivity. Single crystals of the doped series (Eu1-xLax)Ga4, (Eu1-xCax)Ga4, and Eu(Ga1-xAlx)4 have been grown using the self-flux method and tested for change in unit cell volume and magnetic susceptibility. Results show that doping with Ca (isoelectronic doping) and La (hole doping) reduce TN to 12.4 K and 2.3 K, respectively, for Ca doping up to x = 0.11 and La doping up to x = 0.74 without an associated change in unit cell volume. The series Eu(Ga1-xAlx)4 has shown incommensurate-to-commensurate magnetic transitions. Future studies will aim to further decrease TN and the unit cell volume using physical pressure and chemical pressure through doping. ICAM, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  18. Thermodynamic, electronic and magnetic properties of intermetallic compounds through statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadeville, M. C.; Pierron-Bohnes, V.; Bouzidi, L.; Sanchez, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Local and average electronic and magnetic properties of transition metal alloys are strongly correlated to the distribution of atoms on the lattice sites. The ability of some systems to form long range ordered structures at low temperature allows to discuss their properties in term of well identified occupation operators as those related to long range order (LRO) parameters. We show that using theoretical determinations of these LRO parameters through statistical models like the cluster variation method (CVM) developed to simulate the experimental phase diagrams, we are able to reproduce a lot of physical properties. In this paper we focus on two points: (i) a comparison between CVM results and an experimental determination of the LRO parameter by NMR at 59Co in a CoPt3 compound, and (ii) the modelling of the resistivity of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic intermetallic compounds belonging to Co-Pt, Ni-Pt and Fe-Al systems. All experiments were performed on samples in identified thermodynamic states, implying that kinetic effects are thoroughly taken into account.

  19. First-principles screening of structural properties of intermetallic compounds on martensitic transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohwi; Ikeda, Yuji; Tanaka, Isao

    2017-11-01

    Martensitic transformation with good structural compatibility between parent and martensitic phases are required for shape memory alloys (SMAs) in terms of functional stability. In this study, first-principles-based materials screening is systematically performed to investigate the intermetallic compounds with the martensitic phases by focusing on energetic and dynamical stabilities as well as structural compatibility with the parent phase. The B2, D03, and L21 crystal structures are considered as the parent phases, and the 2H and 6M structures are considered as the martensitic phases. In total, 3384 binary and 3243 ternary alloys with stoichiometric composition ratios are investigated. It is found that 187 alloys survive after the screening. Some of the surviving alloys are constituted by the chemical elements already widely used in SMAs, but other various metallic elements are also found in the surviving alloys. The energetic stability of the surviving alloys is further analyzed by comparison with the data in Materials Project Database (MPD) to examine the alloys whose martensitic structures may cause further phase separation or transition to the other structures.

  20. Effects of Fragmented Fe Intermetallic Compounds on Ductility in Al-Si-Mg Alloys.

    PubMed

    Kim, JaeHwang; Kim, DaeHwan

    2018-03-01

    Fe is intentionally added in order to form the Fe intermetallic compounds (Fe-IMCs) during casting. Field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was conducted to understand microstructural changes and chemical composition analyses. The needlelike Fe-IMCs based on two dimensional observation with hundreds of micro size are modified to fragmented particles with the minimum size of 300 nm through clod rolling with 80% thickness reduction. The ratio of Fe:Si on the fragmented Fe-IMCs after 80% reduction is close to 1:1, representing the β-Al5FeSi. The yield and tensile strengths are increased with increasing reduction rate. On the other hand, the elongation is decreased with the 40% reduction, but slightly increased with the 60% reduction. The elongation is dramatically increased over two times for the specimen of 80% reduction compared with that of the as-cast. Fracture behavior is strongly affected by the morphology and size of Fe-IMCs. The fracture mode is changed from brittle to ductile with the microstructure modification of Fe-IMCs.

  1. Intermetallic Compound Growth and Stress Development in Al-Cu Diffusion Couple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishler, M.; Ouvarov-Bancalero, V.; Chae, Seung H.; Nguyen, Luu; Kim, Choong-Un

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports experimental observations evidencing that the intermetallic compound phase interfaced with Cu in the Al-Cu diffusion couple is most likely α2-Cu3Al phase, not γ-Cu9Al4 phase as previously assumed, and that its growth to a critical thickness may result in interface failure by stress-driven fracture. These conclusions are made based on an interdiffusion study of a diffusion couple made of a thick Cu plate coated with ˜ 2- μm-thick Al thin film. The interface microstructure and lattice parameter were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Specimens aged at temperature between 623 K (350°C) and 723 K (450°C) for various hours produced consistent results supporting the main conclusions. It is found that disordered α2-Cu3Al phase grows in a similar manner to solid-state epitaxy, probably owing to its structural similarity to the Cu lattice. The increase in the interface strain that accompanies the α2-Cu3Al phase growth ultimately leads to interface fracture proceeding from crack initiation and growth along the interface. This mechanism provides the most consistent explanation for interface failures observed in other studies.

  2. Control Al/Mg intermetallic compound formation during ultrasonic-assisted soldering Mg to Al.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwu; Li, Zhengwei; Li, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhipeng; Yan, Jiuchun

    2018-09-01

    To prevent the formation of Al/Mg intermetallic compounds (IMCs) of Al 3 Mg 2 and Al 12 Mg 17 , dissimilar Al/Mg were ultrasonic-assisted soldered using Sn-based filler metals. A new IMC of Mg 2 Sn formed in the soldered joints during this process and it was prone to crack at large thickness. The thickness of Mg 2 Sn was reduced to 22 μm at 285 °C when using Sn-3Cu as the filler metal. Cracks were still observed inside the blocky Mg 2 Sn. The thickness of Mg 2 Sn was significantly reduced when using Sn-9Zn as the filler metal. A 17 μm Mg 2 Sn layer without crack was obtained at a temperature of 200 °C, ultrasonic power of Mode I, and ultrasonic time of 2 s. The shear strengths of the joints using Sn-9Zn was much higher than those using Sn-3Cu because of the thinner Mg 2 Sn layer in the former joints. Sn whiskers were prevented by using Sn-9Zn. A cavitation model during ultrasonic assisted soldering was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth Behavior of Intermetallic Compounds at SnAgCu/Ni and Cu Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Lihua; Huang, Jihua; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Xingke; Wang, Haitao; Cheng, Donghai

    2010-02-01

    The growth behavior of reaction-formed intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu/Ni and Cu interfaces under thermal-shear cycling conditions was investigated. The results show that the morphology of (Cu x Ni1- x )6Sn5 and Cu6Sn5 IMCs formed both at Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu/Ni and Cu interfaces gradually changed from scallop-like to chunk-like, and different IMC thicknesses developed with increasing thermal-shear cycling time. Furthermore, Cu6Sn5 IMC growth rate at the Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu/Cu interface was higher than that of (Cu x Ni1- x )6Sn5 IMC under thermal-shear cycling. Compared to isothermal aging, thermal-shear cycling led to only one Cu6Sn5 layer at the interface between SnAgCu solder and Cu substrate after 720 cycles. Moreover, Ag3Sn IMC was dispersed uniformly in the solder after reflow. The planar Ag3Sn formed near the interface changed remarkably and merged together to large platelets with increasing cycles. The mechanism of formation of Cu6Sn5, (Cu x Ni1- x )6Sn5 and Ag3Sn IMCs during thermal-shear cycling process was investigated.

  4. Mechanical Strength and Failure Characterization of Sn-Ag-Cu Intermetallic Compound Joints at the Microscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladani, Leila; Razmi, Jafar

    2012-03-01

    Continuous miniaturization of microelectronic devices has led the industry to develop interconnects on the order of a few microns for advanced superhigh-density and three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs). At this scale, interconnects that conventionally consist of solder material will completely transform to intermetallic compounds (IMCs) such as Cu6Sn5. IMCs are brittle, unlike conventional solder materials that are ductile in nature; therefore, IMCs do not experience large amounts of plasticity or creep before failure. IMCs have not been fully characterized, and their mechanical and thermomechanical reliability is questioned. This study presents experimental efforts to characterize such material. Sn-based microbonds are fabricated in a controlled environment to assure complete transformation of the bonds to Cu6Sn5 IMC. Microstructural analysis including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) is utilized to determine the IMC material composition and degree of copper diffusion into the bond area. Specimens are fabricated with different bond thicknesses and in different configurations for various tests. Normal strength of the bonds is measured utilizing double cantilever beam and peeling tests. Shear tests are conducted to quantify the shear strength of the material. Four-point bending tests are conducted to measure the fracture toughness and critical energy release rate. Bonds are fabricated in different sizes, and the size effect is investigated. The shear strength, normal strength, critical energy release rate, and effect of bond size on bond strength are reported.

  5. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  6. Theoretical investigation of thermoelectric and elastic properties of intermetallic compounds ScTM (TM = Cu, Ag, Au and Pd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, R.; Bilal, M.; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the structural, electronic, thermoelectric and elastic properties of intermetallic compounds ScTM (TM = Cu, Ag, Au and Pd) using density functional theory. The produced results show high values of Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivity for these materials. High power factor for these materials at room-temperature shows that these materials may be beneficial for low-temperature thermoelectric devices and alternative energy sources. Furthermore, elastic properties of these compounds are also calculated, which are used to evaluate their mechanical properties. The Cauchy’s pressure and B/G ratio figure out that these compounds are ductile in nature. The calculated results also predict that these compounds are stable against deforming force.

  7. The role of zinc on the chemistry of complex intermetallic compounds

    SciT

    Xie, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Combining experiments and electronic structure theory provides the framework to design and discover new families of complex intermetallic phases and to understand factors that stabilize both new and known phases. Using solid state synthesis and multiple structural determinations, ferromagnetic β-Mn type Co 8+xZn 12–x was analyzed for their crystal and electronic structures.

  8. Smart Solution Chemistry to Sn-Containing Intermetallic Compounds through a Self-Disproportionation Process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuelan; Li, Liping; Li, Qi; Fan, Jianming; Zheng, Jing; Li, Guangshe

    2016-09-26

    Developing new methods to synthesize intermetallics is one of the most critical issues for the discovery and application of multifunctional metal materials; however, the synthesis of Sn-containing intermetallics is challenging. In this work, we demonstrated for the first time that a self-disproportionation-induced in situ process produces cavernous Sn-Cu intermetallics (Cu3 Sn and Cu6 Sn5 ). The successful synthesis is realized by introducing inorganic metal salts (SnCl2 ⋅2 H2 O) to NaOH aqueous solution to form an intermediate product of reductant (Na2 SnO2 ) and by employing steam pressures that enhance the reduction ability. Distinct from the traditional in situ reduction, the current reduction process avoided the uncontrolled phase composition and excessive use of organic regents. An insight into the mechanism was revealed for the Sn-Cu case. Moreover, this method could be extended to other Sn-containing materials (Sn-Co, Sn-Ni). All these intermetallics were attempted in the catalytic effect on thermal decompositions of ammonium perchlorate. It is demonstrated that Cu3 Sn showed an outstanding catalytic performance. The superior property might be primarily originated from the intrinsic chemical compositions and cavernous morphology as well. We supposed that this smart solution reduction methodology reported here would provide a new recognition for the reduction reaction, and its modified strategy may be applied to the synthesis of other metals, intermetallics as well as some unknown materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Longitudinal recording on FePt and FePtX (X = B, Ni) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning

    1999-11-01

    Near field recording on high coercivity FePt intermetallic compound media using a high Bsat write element was investigated. Untextured FePt media were prepared by magnetron sputtering on ZrO2 disks at a substrate temperature of 450°C, with post annealing at 450°C for 8 hrs. Both multilayer and cosputtered precursors produced the ordered tetragonal L10 phase with high coercivity between 5kOe and 12kOe. To improve readback noise decrease magnetic domain size, FePtB media were subsequently prepared by cosputtering. Over-write, roll-off, signal to noise ratio and non-linear transition shift (NLTS) ere measured by both metal in gap (MIG) and merged MR heads. FePtB media showed similar NLTS to commercial CoCrPtTa longitudinal media, but 5dB lower signal to noise ratio. By operating recording transducers in near contact, reasonable values of (>30dB) could be obtained. VSM Rotational Transverse Magnetization has been used for measuring the anisotropy field of magnetic thin films. Magnetization reversal during rotation of a 2D isotropic an applied field is discussed. The relationship between the transverse magnetization My and the applied field H was numerically solved. An excellent approximation for the transverse magnetization is found to be: My/Ms=A(1- H/Hk) 2.5, where A = 1.1434, and Hk is the anisotropy field. For curve fitting to experimental data, both A and Hk were used as fitting parameters. Comparison between a constructed torque hysteresis method and this VSM RTM method have been made theoretically and experimentally. Both results showed that VSM RTM will give better extrapolation of the anisotropy field. The torque measurement will slightly overestimate the anisotropy field. The anisotropy fields of FePt and FePtX (X = B, Ni) films were characterized using this VSM RTM technique with comparison to a CoCrTaPt disk. Anisotropy energy was derived. Hc/Hk was used as an indicator for coherent rotation of a single domain. Interactions between magnetic domains were

  10. Hydrides of intermetallic compounds with a H/M ratio greater than unity obtained at high hydrogen pressures

    SciT

    Semenenko, K.N.; Klyamkin, S.N.

    1993-11-01

    Novel hydride phases with H/M > 1 based on Zr{sub 2}Pd, Hf{sub 2}Pd, and Hf{sub 2}Cu (structures of the MoSi{sub 2} type) have been synthesized at high H{sub 2} pressures. The X-ray diffraction investigations of the resulting hydrides have been carried out. Some factors determining the maximum hydrogen content in the hydrides of intermetallic compounds are discussed. A model structure of the hydrides obtained is proposed, which assumes the possibility of direct H-H interactions when the interatomic distances are less than 1 {angstrom}.

  11. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    SciT

    Sujan, G.K., E-mail: sgkumer@gmail.com; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Afifi, A.B.M., E-mail: amalina@um.edu.my

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticlemore » doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus

  12. Enthalpies of formation of Cd–Pr intermetallic compounds and thermodynamic assessment of the Cd–Pr system

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Thomas L.; Richter, Klaus W.; Delsante, Simona; Borzone, Gabriella; Ipser, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In the present study standard enthalpies of formation were measured by reaction and solution calorimetry at stoichiometric compositions of Cd2Pr, Cd3Pr, Cd58Pr13 and Cd6Pr. The corresponding values were determined to be −46.0, −38.8, −35.2 and −24.7 kJ/mol(at), respectively. These data together with thermodynamic data and phase diagram information from literature served as input data for a CALPHAD-type optimization of the Cd–Pr phase diagram. The complete composition range could be described precisely with the present models, both with respect to phase equilibria as well as to thermodynamic input data. The thermodynamic parameters of all intermetallic compounds were modelled following Neumann–Kopp rule. Temperature dependent contributions to the individual Gibbs energies were used for all compounds. Extended solid solubilities are well described for the low- and high-temperature modifications of Pr and also for the intermetallic compound CdPr. A quite good agreement with all viable data available from literature was found and is presented. PMID:25540475

  13. Unexpected Ground-State Structure and Mechanical Properties of Ir₂Zr Intermetallic Compound.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiguang; Cao, Rui; Zhao, Meijie; Du, Juan; Cheng, Ke

    2018-01-10

    Using an unbiased structure searching method, a new orthorhombic Cmmm structure consisting of ZrIr 12 polyhedron building blocks is predicted to be the thermodynamic ground-state of stoichiometric intermetallic Ir₂Zr in Ir-Zr systems. The formation enthalpy of the Cmmm structure is considerably lower than that of the previously synthesized Cu₂Mg-type phase, by ~107 meV/atom, as demonstrated by the calculation of formation enthalpy. Meanwhile, the phonon dispersion calculations further confirmed the dynamical stability of Cmmm phase under ambient conditions. The mechanical properties, including elastic stability, rigidity, and incompressibility, as well as the elastic anisotropy of Cmmm -Ir₂Zr intermetallic, have thus been fully determined. It is found that the predicted Cmmm phase exhibits nearly elastic isotropic and great resistance to shear deformations within the (100) crystal plane. Evidence of atomic bonding related to the structural stability for Ir₂Zr were manifested by calculations of the electronic structures.

  14. The Effect of Sn Orientation on Intermetallic Compound Growth in Idealized Sn-Cu-Ag Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Chris; Linares, Xioranny; Lee, Kyu-Oh; Morris, J. W.

    2013-04-01

    The work reported here explores the influence of crystal orientation on the growth of the interfacial intermetallic layer during electromigration in Cu||Sn||Cu solder joints. The samples were thin, planar Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder layers between Cu bars subject to a uniaxial current. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to characterize the microstructure before and after testing. The most useful representation of the EBSD data identifies the Sn grain orientation by the angle between the Sn c-axis and the current direction. The tested samples included single-crystal joints with c-axis nearly parallel to the current ("green" samples) and with c-axis perpendicular to the current ("red" samples). At current density of 104 A/cm2 (steady-state temperature of ~150°C), an intermetallic layer grew at an observable rate in the "green" samples, but not in the "red" ones. A current density of 1.15 × 104 A/cm2 (temperature ~160°C) led to measurable intermetallic growth in both samples. The growth fronts were nearly planar and the growth rates constant (after an initial incubation period); the growth rates in the "green" samples were about 10× those in the "red" samples. The Cu concentrations were constant within the joints, showing that the intermetallic growth is dominated by the electromigration flux. The measured growth rates and literature values for the diffusion of Cu in Sn were used to extract values for the effective charge, z *, that governs the electromigration of Cu. The calculated value of z * is significantly larger for current perpendicular to the c-axis than along it.

  15. Estimation of the composition of intermetallic compounds in LiCl-KCl molten salt by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya L; Liu, Kui; Yuan, Li Y; Chai, Zhi F; Shi, Wei Q

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the compositions of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds were estimated by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. At first, CV measurements were carried out at different reverse potentials to study the co-reduction processes of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi systems. The CV curves obtained were then re-plotted with the current as a function of time, and the coulomb number of each peak was calculated. By comparing the coulomb number of the related peaks, the compositions of the Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds formed in the co-reduction process could be estimated. The results showed that Al11Ce3, Al3Ce, Al2Ce and AlCe could be formed by the co-reduction of Ce(iii) and Al(iii). For the co-reduction of Er(iii) and Al(iii), Al3Er2, Al2Er and AlEr were formed. In a La(iii) and Bi(iii) co-existing system in LiCl-KCl melts, LaBi2, LaBi and Li3Bi were the major products as a result of co-reduction.

  16. The characteristics of hot swaged NiAl intermetallic compounds with ternary additions consolidated by HIP techniques

    SciT

    Ishiyama, S.; Eto, M.; Mishima, Y.

    Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric NiAl intermetallics with ternary additives, such as Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo or Mo/e, W, Mn, Fe, Cu and B, fabricated with the combination of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and hot swaging techniques have been investigated. The mechanical properties of hot swaged NiAl with various ternary additives, consolidated by ion beam casting or HIP techniques, have been tested at temperatures ranging from R.T. to 1,000 C. It is found that significant tensile elongation at room temperature can be achieved by hot swaged as-HIP`ed NiAl compounds with Mo or Mo/Re additives, whereas cast and hotmore » swaged compounds with Mo addition resulted in some elongation above 400 C.« less

  17. Ab-initio thermodynamic and elastic properties of AlNi and AlNi3 intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalameha, Shahram; Vaez, Aminollah

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, thermodynamic and elastic properties of the AlNi and AlNi3 were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (APW) in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation as used as implemented in the Wien2k package. The temperature dependence of thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus and heat capacity in a wide range of temperature (0-1600 K) were investigated. The calculated elastic properties of the compounds show that both intermetallic compounds of AlNi and AlNi3 have surprisingly negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR). The results were compared with other experimental and computational data.

  18. FP-LAPW based investigation of structural, electronic and mechanical properties of CePb{sub 3} intermetallic compound

    SciT

    Pagare, Gitanjali, E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Jain, Ekta, E-mail: jainekta05@gmail.com; Abraham, Jisha Annie, E-mail: disisjisha@yahoo.com

    A theoretical study of structural, electronic, elastic and mechanical properties of CePb{sub 3} intermetallic compound has been investigated systematically using first principles density functional theory. The calculations are carried out within the three different forms of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and LSDA for the exchange correlation potential. The ground state properties such as lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B′) are calculated and obtained lattice parameter of this compound shows well agreement with the experimental results. We have calculated three independent second order elastic constants (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44}), which has notmore » been calculated and measured yet. From energy dispersion curves, it is found that the studied compound is metallic in nature. Ductility of this compound is analyzed using Pugh’s criteria and Cauchy's pressure (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12}). The mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, shear modulus, anisotropic ratio, Poison's ratio have been calculated for the first time using the Voigt–Reuss–Hill (VRH) averaging scheme. The average sound velocities (v{sub m}), density (ρ) and Debye temperature (θ{sub D}) of this compound are also estimated from the elastic constants.« less

  19. Formation of Multi-Layer Structures in Bi3Pb7 Intermetallic Compounds under an Ultra-High Gravitational Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashimo, T.; Iguchi, Y.; Bagum, R.; Sano, T.; Sakata, O.; Ono, M.; Okayasu, S.

    2008-02-01

    Ultra-high gravitational field (Mega-gravity field) can promote sedimentation of atoms (diffusion) even in solids, and is expected to form a compositionally-graded structure and/or nonequilibrium phase in multi-component condensed matter. We had achieved sedimentation of substitutional solute atoms in miscible systems (Bi-Sb, In-Pb, etc.). In this study, a mega-gravity experiment at high temperature was performed on a thin-plate sample (0.7 mm in thickness) of the intermetallic compound Bi3Pb7. A visible four-layer structure was produced, which exhibited different microscopic structures. In the lowest-gravity region layer, Bi phase appeared. In the mid layers, a compositionally-graded structure was formed, with differences observed in the powder X-ray diffraction patterns. Such a multi-layer structure is expected to exhibit unique physical properties such as superconductivity.

  20. Fracture Behaviors of Sn-Cu Intermetallic Compound Layer in Ball Grid Array Induced by Thermal Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Zhai, Dajun; Cao, Zhongming; Zhao, Mali; Pu, Yayun

    2014-02-01

    In this work, thermal shock reliability testing and finite-element analysis (FEA) of solder joints between ball grid array components and printed circuit boards with Cu pads were used to investigate the failure mechanism of solder interconnections. The morphologies, composition, and thickness of Sn-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the interface of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder alloy and Cu substrates were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the experimental observations and FEA results, it can be recognized that the origin and propagation of cracks are caused primarily by the difference between the coefficient of thermal expansion of different parts of the packaged products, the growth behaviors and roughness of the IMC layer, and the grain size of the solder balls.

  1. Multiplet Splitting Effects on Core-Level Photoemission and Inverse-Photoemission Spectra of Uranium Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Kozo

    1999-03-01

    The present paper discusses the role of U 5f-5f exchange interaction (J) in the inverse photoemission spectrum (IPES) and the U 4f x-ray photoemission spectrum (XPS) of uranium intermetallic compounds. The origin of the broad main peak in the IPES of UPd3 and UPd2Al3, for instance, is ascribed to the exchange coupling effects of 5f electrons. In other words, whether the ground state is of high-spin or of low-spin is directly reflected in the width of the IPES. On the other hand, the interpretation for the U 4f photoemission spectrum is not so greatly influenced by J. The full-multiplet calculations are also performed for an U4+ ion for comparison.

  2. Exploring phase stability, electronic and mechanical properties of Ce–Pb intermetallic compounds using first-principles calculations

    SciT

    Tao, Xiaoma; Computational Alloy Design Group, IMDEA Materials Institute, Getafe, Madrid 28906; Wang, Ziru

    2016-05-15

    The phase stability, electronic and mechanical properties of Ce–Pb intermetallics have been investigated by using first-principles calculations. Five stable and four metastable phases of Ce–Pb intermetallics were verified. Among them, CePb{sub 2} has been confirmed as HfGa{sub 2}-type structure. For Ce{sub 5}Pb{sub 3}, the high pressure phase transformation from D8{sub m} to D8{sub 8} with trivalent Ce has been predicted to occur at P=1.2 GPa and a high temperature phase transformation has been predicted from D8{sub m} to D8{sub 8} with tetravalent Ce at 531.5 K. The calculated lattice constants of the five stable phases are in good agreement withmore » experimental values. The electronic density of states, charge density and electron localization function of Ce{sub 3}Pb have been calculated, which indicated that the Ce and Pb show ionic behavior. The polycrystalline bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio are also estimated from the calculated single crystalline elastic constants. All of the calculated elastic constants satisfy mechanical stability criteria. The microhardness and mechanical anisotropy are predicted. The anisotropic nature of the Ce–Pb intermetallic compounds are demonstrated by the three-dimensional orientation dependent surfaces of Young's moduli and linear compressibility are also demonstrated. The longitudinal, transverse and average sound velocities and the Debye temperatures are also obtained in this work. The Ce{sub 3}Pb has the largest Debye temperature of 192.6 K, which means the Ce{sub 3}Pb has a highest melting point and high thermal conductivity than other compounds. - Graphical abstract: The convex hull plots of the enthalpies of formation for Ce–Pb binary systems calculated at 0 K. - Highlights: • The five stable and four metastable phases in the Ce–Pb binary system were predicted. • The crystal structure of CePb{sub 2} has been confirmed as HfGa{sub 2}-type.« less

  3. Complex magnetic behaviour and evidence of a superspin glass state in the binary intermetallic compound Er5Pd2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit K.; Yadav, Kavita; Mukherjee, K.

    2018-05-01

    The binary intermetallic compound Er5Pd2 has been investigated using dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities, magnetic memory effect, isothermal magnetization, non-linear dc susceptibility, heat capacity and magnetocaloric effect studies. Interestingly, even though the compound does not show geometrical frustration it undergoes glassy magnetic phase transition below 17.2 K. Investigation of dc magnetization and heat capacity data divulged absence of long-ranged magnetic ordering. Through the magnetic memory effect, time dependent magnetization and ac susceptibility studies it was revealed that the compound undergoes glass-like freezing below 17.2 K. Analysis of frequency dependence of this transition temperature through scaling and Arrhenius law; along with the Mydosh parameter indicate, that the dynamics in Er5Pd2 are due to the presence of strongly interacting superspins rather than individual spins. This phase transition was further investigated by non-linear dc susceptibility and was characterized by static critical exponents γ and δ. Our results indicate that this compound shows the signature of superspin glass at low temperature. Additionally, both conventional and inverse magnetocaloric effect was observed with a large value of magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power. Our results suggest that Er5Pd2 can be classified as a superspin glass system with large magnetocaloric effect.

  4. Homogeneous (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compound joints rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system using ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase soldering process.

    PubMed

    Li, Z L; Dong, H J; Song, X G; Zhao, H Y; Tian, H; Liu, J H; Feng, J C; Yan, J C

    2018-04-01

    Homogeneous (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 intermetallic compound (IMC) joints were rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system by an ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase (TLP) soldering process. In the traditional TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system consisted of major (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 and minor Cu 3 Sn IMCs, and the grain morphology of (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs subsequently exhibited fine rounded, needlelike and coarse rounded shapes from the Ni side to the Cu side, which was highly in accordance with the Ni concentration gradient across the joints. However, in the ultrasound-induced TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system only consisted of the (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs which exhibited an uniform grain morphology of rounded shape with a remarkably narrowed Ni concentration gradient. The ultrasound-induced homogeneous intermetallic joints exhibited higher shear strength (61.6 MPa) than the traditional heterogeneous intermetallic joints (49.8 MPa). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Grain Structure on Intermetallic Compound Layer Growth Rates in Fe-Al Dissimilar Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Robson, Joseph D.; Wang, Li; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2018-02-01

    The thickness of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer that forms when aluminum is welded to steel is critical in determining the properties of the dissimilar joints. The IMC reaction layer typically consists of two phases ( η and θ) and many attempts have been made to determine the apparent activation energy for its growth, an essential parameter in developing any predictive model for layer thickness. However, even with alloys of similar composition, there is no agreement of the correct value of this activation energy. In the present work, the IMC layer growth has been characterized in detail for AA6111 aluminum to DC04 steel couples under isothermal annealing conditions. The samples were initially lightly ultrasonically welded to produce a metallic bond, and the structure and thickness of the layer were then characterized in detail, including tracking the evolution of composition and grain size in the IMC phases. A model developed previously for Al-Mg dissimilar welds was adapted to predict the coupled growth of the two phases in the layer, whilst accounting explicitly for grain boundary and lattice diffusion, and considering the influence of grain growth. It has been shown that the intermetallic layer has a submicron grain size, and grain boundary diffusion as well as grain growth plays a critical role in determining the thickening rate for both phases. The model was used to demonstrate how this explains the wide scatter in the apparent activation energies previously reported. From this, process maps were developed that show the relative importance of each diffusion path to layer growth as a function of temperature and time.

  6. The evolution of γ-Mg17Al12 intermetallic compound during accumulative back extrusion and subsequent ageing treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, M. H.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.; Shamsolhodaei, A.

    2015-11-01

    Accumulative back extrusion (ABE) processing, as a novel severe plastic deformation (SPD) method, has been recently justified to be capable of modifying the microstructural characteristics of alloys. In line to its ongoing researches, the present work has been planned to study the evolution of γ-Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase during ABE and subsequent ageing treatment in a high Al-bearing Mg-Al-Zn alloy. The behaviour of γ intermetallic has been systematically examined as following points of view: (i) strain-temperature-dependent morphology changes, (ii) strain-induced dissolution, and (iii) re-ageing behaviour as a function of time and temperature. Aiming to analyse the morphology of eutectic γ compound with respect to the strain and temperature, 2D projections of effective diameter, shape factor and globularity have been made in strain/temperature graphs. The processing conditions (strain and temperature) corresponding to the desired and undesired morphologies are introduced and microstructurally explained through underlying plasticity mechanisms, i.e., 'necking-thinning-particle separation' and 'brittle fragmentation.' The former mechanism is suggested to be in relation with partial strain-induced dissolution of eutectic γ phase, leading to generation of a supersaturated solid solution. This has resulted to the observation of 'off-stoichiometry' phenomena in Mg17Al12 phase and has been justified through dislocation-assisted deformation mechanism at elevated temperature. Surprisingly, a unique re-ageing behaviour has been found for the obtained solid solutions, where a modified kinetics and morphology of γ phase precipitation were characterized. The altered precipitation behaviour is attributed to the specific defect structure achieved by SPD acting as fast diffusion channel for Al solutes.

  7. TEM study of the martensitic phases in the ductile DyCu and YCu intermetallic compounds [The martensitic phase transformation in ductile DyCu and YCu intermetallic compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, G. H.; Oertel, C. -G.; Schaarschuch, R.; ...

    2017-05-03

    DyCu and YCu are representatives of the family of CsCl-type B2 rare earth intermetallic compounds that exhibit high room temperature ductility. Structure, orientation relationship, and morphology of the martensites in the equiatomic compounds DyCu and YCu are examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM studies show that the martensite structures in DyCu and YCu alloys are virtually identical. The martensite is of orthorhombic CrB-type B33 structure with lattice parameters a = 0.38 nm, b = 1.22 nm, and c = 0.40 nm. (021¯) twins were observed in the B33 DyCu and YCu martensites. The orientation relationship of B33 and B2more » phases is (111¯)[112]B33 || (110)[001]B2. The simulated electron diffraction patterns of the B33 phase are consistent with those of experimental observations. TEM investigations also reveal that a dominant orthorhombic FeB-type B27 martensite with lattice parameters a = 0.71 nm, b = 0.45 nm, and c = 0.54 nm exists in YCu alloy. (11¯ 1) twins were observed in the B27 YCu martensite. As a result, the formation mechanism of B2 to B33 and B2 to B27 phase transformation is discussed.« less

  8. Crystal field effects in the intermetallic R Ni3Ga9 (R =Tb , Dy, Ho, and Er) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, L. S.; Mercena, S. G.; Garcia, D. J.; Bittar, E. M.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Lora-Serrano, R.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and heat-capacity experiments in the family of intermetallic compounds R Ni3Ga9 (R = Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er). Single-crystalline samples were grown using Ga self-flux method. These materials crystallize in a trigonal ErNi3Al9 -type structure with space group R 32 . They all order antiferromagnetically with TN<20 K . The anisotropic magnetic susceptibility presents large values of the ratio χeasy/χhard indicating strong crystalline electric-field (CEF) effects. The evolution of the crystal-field scheme for each R was analyzed in detail by using a spin model including anisotropic nearest-neighbor Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction and the trigonal CEF Hamiltonian. Our analysis allows one to understand the distinct direction of the ordered moments along the series—the Tb-, Dy-, and Ho-based compounds have the ordered magnetic moments in the easy ab plane and the Er sample magnetization easy axis is along the c ̂ direction.

  9. Ab-initio study of B{sub 2}-type technetium AB (A=Tc, B=Nb and Ta) intermetallic compounds

    SciT

    Acharya, Nikita, E-mail: acharyaniks30@gmail.com; Fatima, Bushra; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-06

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of AB type (A = Tc, B = Nb and Ta) technetium intermetallic compounds are studied using full potential linearized plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated lattice parameters agree well with the experimental results. The elastic constants obey the stability criteria for cubic system. Ductility for these compounds has been analyzed using the Pugh’s rule and Cauchy’s pressure and found that all the compounds are ductile in nature. Bonding nature is discussed in terms of Fermi surface and band structures.

  10. The effect of steel chemistry on the formation of Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds of galvanneal-coated steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. S.; Meshii, M.

    1994-10-01

    The effects of steel chemistry on the formation of Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds in the galvanneal coatings have been investigated by examining the microstructure of galvanneal coat-ings on extra-low-carbon (ELC) steel, interstitial-free (IF) steel, and interstitial-free rephos-phorized (IFP) steel. The layer structure of the coatings was revealed by chemical etching. Phases present in each layer were then identified using electron diffraction in transmission elec-tron microscopy (TEM). A two-layer structure, one consisting of the δ phase with a small fraction of the ζ, phase dispersed on the surface and Γ phases and another consisting of the δ and Γ1 phases, was observed in the ELC sample and the IFP sample, respectively. A three-layer structure consisting of the δ, Γ1 + δ, and Γ phases was observed in the IF sample. The presence of C in the steel substrate retarded the alloying between Fe and Zn; while P in the steel favored the formation of the Γ1, phase over the Γ phase by its surface segregation in the steel substrate. The orientation relationship between coating and substrate was also studied by electron diffraction. Three α-Fe/Γ orientation relationships were frequently observed.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of novel intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sixuan; Mishra, Trinath; Wang, Man; Shatruk, Michael; Cao, Huibo; Latturner, Susan E

    2014-06-16

    The intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd) were prepared from the reaction of silicon and carbon in either Pr/Co or Nd/Co eutectic flux. These phases crystallize with a new stuffed variant of the W2CoB2 structure type in orthorhombic space group Immm with unit cell parameters a = 3.978(4) Å, b = 6.094(5) Å, c = 8.903(8) Å (Z = 2; R1 = 0.0302) for Nd2Co2SiC. Silicon, cobalt, and carbon atoms form two-dimensional flat sheets, which are separated by puckered layers of rare-earth cations. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that the rare earth cations in both analogues order ferromagnetically at low temperature (TC ≈ 12 K for Nd2Co2SiC and TC ≈ 20 K for Pr2Co2SiC). Single-crystal neutron diffraction data for Nd2Co2SiC indicate that Nd moments initially align ferromagnetically along the c axis around ∼12 K, but below 11 K, they tilt slightly away from the c axis, in the ac plane. Electronic structure calculations confirm the lack of spin polarization for Co 3d moments.

  12. In situ study on the effect of thermomigration on intermetallic compounds growth in liquid-solid interfacial reaction

    SciT

    Qu, Lin; Zhao, Ning; Ma, Haitao, E-mail: htma@dlut.edu.cn

    2014-05-28

    Synchrotron radiation real-time imaging technology was carried out in situ to observe and characterize the effect of thermomigration on the growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn/Cu solder joint during soldering. The thermomigration resulted in asymmetrical formation and growth of the interfacial IMCs. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Cu{sub 3}Sn IMCs formed at the cold end and grew rapidly during the whole soldering process. However, only Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC formed at the hot end and remained relatively thin until solidification. The IMCs at the cold end were nearly seven times thicker than that at the hot end aftermore » solidification. The Cu dissolution at the cold end was significantly restrained, while that at the hot end was promoted, which supplied Cu atoms to diffuse toward the cold end under thermomigration to feed the rapid IMC growth. Moreover, the thermomigration also caused asymmetrical morphology of the interfacial IMCs at the cooling stage, i.e., the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC at the cold end transformed into facet structure, while that at the hot end remained scallop-type. The asymmetrical growth behavior of the interfacial IMCs was analyzed from the view point of kinetics.« less

  13. First-principles study of Al2Sm intermetallic compound on structural, mechanical properties and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jingwu; Wang, Lei; Hu, Zhi; Li, Xiao; Yan, Hong

    2017-02-01

    The structural, thermodynamic, mechanical and electronic properties of cubic Al2Sm intermetallic compound are investigated by the first-principles method on the basis of density functional theory. In light of the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion between the highly localized 4f electrons of Sm atoms, the local spin density approximation approach paired with additional Hubbard terms is employed to achieve appropriate results. Moreover, to examine the reliability of this study, the experimental value of lattice parameter is procured from the analysis of the TEM image and diffraction pattern of Al2Sm phase in the AZ31 alloy to verify the authenticity of the results originated from the computational method. The value of cohesive energy reveals Al2Sm to be a stable in absolute zero Kelvin. According to the stability criteria, the subject of this work is mechanically stable. Afterward, elastic moduli are deduced by performing Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. Furthermore, elastic anisotropy and anisotropy of sound velocity are discussed. Finally, the calculation of electronic density of states is implemented to explore the underlying mechanism of structural stability.

  14. Formation of the Fe-Containing Intermetallic Compounds during Solidification of Al-5Mg-2Si-0.7Mn-1.1Fe Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Zhongping; Wang, Yun; Fan, Zhongyun

    2018-06-01

    Iron (Fe) is the most common and the most detrimental impurity element in Al alloys due to the formation of Fe-containing intermetallic compounds (IMCs), which are harmful to mechanical performance of the Al-alloy components. In this paper we investigate the formation of Fe-containing IMCs during solidification of an Al-5Mg-2Si-0.7Mn-1.1Fe alloy under varied solidification conditions. We found that the primary Fe-containing intermetallic compound (P-IMC) in the alloy is the BCC α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase and has a polyhedral morphology with {1 1 0} surface termination. The formation of the P-IMCs can be easily suppressed by increasing the melt superheat and/or cooling rate, suggesting that the nucleation of the α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase is difficult. In addition, we found that the IMCs with a Chinese script morphology is initiated on the {1 0 0} surfaces of the P-IMCs during the binary eutectic reaction with the α-Al phase. Both the binary and ternary eutectic IMCs are also identified as the BCC α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase. Furthermore, we found that the Fe content increases and the Mn content decreases in the Fe-containing intermetallic compounds with the decrease of the formation temperature, although the sum of the Fe and Mn contents in all of the IMCs is constant.

  15. Prediction of superconducting iron–bismuth intermetallic compounds at high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Amsler, Maximilian; Naghavi, S. Shahab

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of materials in high-pressure experiments has recently attracted increasing attention, especially since the discovery of record breaking superconducting temperatures in the sulfur–hydrogen and other hydrogen-rich systems. Commonly, the initial precursor in a high pressure experiment contains constituent elements that are known to form compounds at ambient conditions, however the discovery of high-pressure phases in systems immiscible under ambient conditions poses an additional materials design challenge. We performed an extensive multi component ab initio structural search in the immiscible Fe–Bi system at high pressure and report on the surprising discovery of two stable compounds at pressures above ≈36 GPa, FeBi2 and FeBi3. According to our predictions, FeBi2 is a metal at the border of magnetism with a conventional electron–phonon mediated superconducting transition temperature of T c = 1.3 K at 40 GPa. PMID:28507678

  16. Processing, phase equilibria and environmental degradation of molybdenum (silicom,aluminum)(2) intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Paul Duane

    The Mo(Si,Al)2 C40 compound was chosen for investigation as a possible high temperature structural material. To produce the C40 phase, several processing routes were explored with emphasis on obtaining microstructure/property relationships (i.e. control of grain size and minimization of secondary phases). To facilitate processing of single phase material, the phase equilibria of the Mo-Si-Al ternary system were reevaluated with respect to the phases adjacent to the C40 compound. An anomalous environmental degradation appeared to be the primary obstacle to further study of the compound and was investigated accordingly. Several processing routes were assessed for the production of dense, nearly single-phase Mo(Si,Al)2. Hot powder compaction was chosen as the method of sample production as is the case with many refractory silicide based materials. Therefore, variations in the processing techniques came from the choice of precursor materials and methods of powder production. Mechanical alloying, arc-melting and comminution, and blending of both elemental and compound powders were all employed to produce charges for hot uniaxial pressing. The final compacts were compared on the basis of density, grain size and presence of secondary phases. Establishment of a Mo-Si-Al ternary isothermal phase diagram at 1400°C was performed. Multiphase alloy compositions were selected to identify the phase boundaries of the C40, C54, T1 and Mo3Al8 phase fields, as well as to verify the existence of the C54 phase at 1400°C. The alloys were equilibrated by heat treatment and analyzed for phase identification and quantitative compositional information. The environmental degradation phenomenon was approached as a classical "pest" with an emphasis of study on grain boundary chemistry and atmospheric dependence of attack. Both Auger spectroscopy and electron microscopy revealed carbon-impurity-induced grain boundary segregation responsible for the embrittlement and material loss. Means of

  17. Synthesis of Xenon and Iron-Nickel Intermetallic Compounds at Earth's Core Thermodynamic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Yao, Yansun; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Lobanov, Sergey S.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Liu, Hanyu; Greenberg, Eran; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2018-03-01

    Using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in concert with first principles calculations we demonstrate the synthesis of stable Xe (Fe ,Fe /Ni )3 and XeNi3 compounds at thermodynamic conditions representative of Earth's core. Surprisingly, in the case of both the Xe-Fe and Xe-Ni systems Fe and Ni become highly electronegative and can act as oxidants. The results indicate the changing chemical properties of elements under extreme conditions by documenting that electropositive at ambient pressure elements could gain electrons and form anions.

  18. Synthesis of Xenon and Iron-Nickel Intermetallic Compounds at Earth’s Core Thermodynamic Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Yao, Yansun; Goncharov, Alexander F.; ...

    2018-02-28

    In this study, using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in concert with first principles calculations we demonstrate the synthesis of stable Xe(Fe ,Fe/Ni) 3 and XeNi 3 compounds at thermodynamic conditions representative of Earth’s core. Surprisingly, in the case of both the Xe-Fe and Xe-Ni systems Fe and Ni become highly electronegative and can act as oxidants. In conclusion, the results indicate the changing chemical properties of elements under extreme conditions by documenting that electropositive at ambient pressure elements could gain electrons and form anions.

  19. Prediction of superconducting iron–bismuth intermetallic compounds at high pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Amsler, Maximilian; Naghavi, S. Shahab; Wolverton, Chris

    2016-12-07

    The synthesis of materials in high-pressure experiments has recently attracted increasing attention, especially since the discovery of record breaking superconducting temperatures in the sulfur–hydrogen and other hydrogen-rich systems. Commonly, the initial precursor in a high pressure experiment contains constituent elements that are known to form compounds at ambient conditions, however the discovery of high-pressure phases in systems immiscible under ambient conditions poses an additional materials design challenge. We performed an extensive multi component ab initio structural search in the immiscible Fe–Bi system at high pressure and report on the surprising discovery of two stable compounds at pressures above ≈36 GPa,more » FeBi 2 and FeBi 3. According to our predictions, FeBi 2 is a metal at the border of magnetism with a conventional electron–phonon mediated superconducting transition temperature of T c = 1.3 K at 40 GPa.« less

  20. Effect of severe plastic deformation on the structure and crystal-lattice distortions in the Ni3(Al, X) ( X = Ti, Nb) intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. V.; Pilyugin, V. P.; Danilov, S. E.; Kolosov, V. Yu.

    2015-05-01

    A systematic combined study of crystal lattice distortions caused by doping and by severe plastic deformation (SPD) of Ti- and Nb-doped Ni3Al intermetallic compound has been carried out using methods of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and electrical-resistance measurements. The degree of imperfection of the alloys has been estimated based on the results obtained by all three methods. The degree of structural perfection of niobium-doped crystals was found to be higher than in the case of Ti doping. The character of stresses (tensile stresses after doping; and compressive stresses after SPD) in the crystal lattice has been established and their values have been calculated. A significant increase in the density of dislocations, point defects, and lattice curvature has been found after SPD. A nanocrystalline structure is formed in these alloys, but no complete disordering of the intermetallic phase is observed.

  1. Second-moment equality and the structural chemistry of the main-group intermetallic compounds

    SciT

    Lee, S.

    1991-01-02

    The authors determine electron counting rules for ZA{sub 2{minus}x}B{sub x} compounds, where Z is an electropositive atoms and A and B are main-group atoms. These rules are derived from a Huckel-type theory. Agreement between theory and experiment for all the major ZA{sub 2{minus}x}B{sub x} families, which include the MgCu{sub 2}, MoSi{sub 2}, CeCd{sub 2}, CeCu{sub 2}, MgAgAs, CaIn{sub 2}, AlB{sub 2}, ThSi{sub 2}, and Cu{sub 2}Sb structure types, is excellent. The results are interpreted by use of the method of moments.

  2. An ab-initio investigation on SrLa intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Ramesh; Jaiganesh, G.; Jayalakshmi, V.

    2018-05-01

    The electronic, elastic and thermodynamic property of CsCl-type SrLa are investigated through density functional theory. The energy-volume relation for this compound has been obtained. The band structure, density of states and charge density in (110) plane are also examined. The elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) of SrLa is computed, then, using these elastic constants, the bulk moduli, shear moduli, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratio are also derived. The calculated results showed that CsCl-type SrLa is ductile at ambient conditions. The thermodynamic quantities such as free energy, entropy and heat capacity as a function of temperature are estimated and the results obtained are discussed.

  3. Magnetocaloric effect in textured rare earth intermetallic compound ErNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Aparna; Chelvane, J. Arout; Morozkin, A. V.; Nigam, A. K.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.; Nirmala, R.

    2018-05-01

    Melt-spun ErNi crystallizes in orthorhombic FeB-type structure (Space group Pnma, no. 62) similar to the arc-melted ErNi compound. Room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments reveal the presence of texture and preferred crystal orientation in the melt-spun ErNi. The XRD data obtained from the free surface of the melt-spun ErNi show large intensity enhancement for (1 0 2) Bragg reflection. The scanning electron microscopy image of the free surface depicts a granular microstructure with grains of ˜1 μm size. The arc-melted and the melt-spun ErNi compounds order ferromagnetically at 11 K and 10 K (TC) respectively. Field dependent magnetization (M-H) at 2 K shows saturation behaviour and the saturation magnetization value is 7.2 μB/f.u. for the arc-melted ErNi and 7.4 μB/f.u. for the melt-spun ErNi. The isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSm) close to TC has been calculated from the M-H data. The maximum isothermal magnetic entropy change, -ΔSmmax, is ˜27 Jkg-1K-1 and ˜24 Jkg-1K-1 for the arc-melted and melt-spun ErNi for 50 kOe field change, near TC. The corresponding relative cooling power values are ˜440 J/kg and ˜432 J/kg respectively. Although a part of ΔSm is lost to crystalline electric field (CEF) effects, the magnetocaloric effect is substantially large at 10 K, thus rendering melt-spun ErNi to be useful in low temperature magnetic refrigeration applications such as helium gas liquefaction.

  4. R 5T 4 compounds - unique multifunctional intermetallics for basic research and applications

    SciT

    Mudryk, Yaroslav

    The unique properties of the rare-earth elements and their alloys have brought them from relative obscurity to high profile use in common high-tech applications. The broad technological impact of these remarkable materials may have never been known by the general public if not for the supply concerns that placed the rare-earth materials on the front page of newspapers and magazines. Neodymium and dysprosium, two essential components of Nd 2Fe 14B-based high-performance permanent magnets, have drawn much attention and have been deemed critical materials for many energy-related applications. Ironically, the notoriety of rare-earth elements and their alloys is the result ofmore » a global movement to reduce their use in industrial applications and, thus, ease concerns about their supply and ultimately to reduce their position in high-tech supply chains. Research into the applications of lanthanide alloys has been de-emphasized recently due to the perception that industry is moving away from the use of rare-earth elements in new products. While lanthanide supply challenges justify efforts to diversify the supply chain, a strategy to completely replace the materials overlooks the reasons rare earths became important in the first place -- their unique properties are too beneficial to ignore. Rare-earth alloys and compounds possess truly exciting potential for basic science exploration and application development such as solid-state caloric cooling. In this brief review, we touch upon several promising systems containing lanthanide elements that show important and interesting magnetism-related phenomena.« less

  5. Prediction and characterization of an Mg-Al intermetallic compound with potentially improved ductility via orbital-free and Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Chen, Mohan; Carter, Emily A.

    2017-10-01

    Magnesium-aluminum (Mg-Al) intermetallic compounds that form as precipitates can significantly influence the mechanical properties of Mg-Al alloys. A computational evaluation of known and unknown Mg-Al intermetallic compounds could help design new Mg-Al alloy microstructures with optimal properties. Here, we employ the cluster-expansion method with energies efficiently calculated with orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) and predict a new, metastable intermetallic compound Mg3Al with a D019 hexagonal structure that is slightly more stable than an alternative L12 cubic structure. We apply Kohn-Sham DFT (KSDFT) to accurately evaluate various metastability criteria for D019 and L12 Mg3Al, including Born’s criterion and phonon dispersion. We show that both Mg3Al crystalline phases satisfy the metastability criteria and hence should be at least metastable. We further compare ductility metrics for D019 and L12 Mg3Al to that of hexagonal-close-packed Mg by computing Pugh’s ratio and generalized stacking fault energies. The ductility is predicted to follow the order: D019 Mg3Al > L12 Mg3Al > Mg, based on the highest Pugh’s ratio and the lowest unstable stacking and twinning fault energies of D019 Mg3Al compared to that of Mg. We also predict a very low antiphase boundary energy for Mg3Al and therefore expect D019 Mg3Al to be beneficial for improving the ductility of Mg-rich Mg-Al alloys. A computational design of Mg-Al alloy microstructures may become possible by combining the strengths of both OFDFT and KSDFT, i.e., the efficiency of the former and the accuracy of the latter, as demonstrated here.

  6. Structure and mechanical properties of parts obtained by selective laser melting of metal powder based on intermetallic compounds Ni3Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smelov, V. G.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Nosova, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of samples are obtained from metal powder based on intermetallic compound by selective laser melting. The chemical analysis of the raw material and static tensile test of specimens were made. Change in the samples’ structure and mechanical properties after homogenization during four and twenty-four hours were investigated. A small-sized combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine was performed by the selective laser melting method. The print combustion chamber was subjected to the gas-dynamic test in a certain temperature and time range.

  7. First principle study on generalized-stacking-fault energy surfaces of B2-AlRE intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaorong; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Rui

    2011-12-01

    First-principles calculations are used to predict the generalized-stacking-fault energy (GSFE) surfaces of AlRE intermetallics. The calculations employ the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) using the density functional theory (DFT). GSFE curves along <1 1 1> {1 1 0} direction, <1 1 0> {1 1 0} direction and <1 0 0> {1 1 0} direction have been calculated. The fitted GSFE surfaces have been obtained from the Fourier series based on the translational symmetry. In order to illuminate the reasonable of our computational accuracy, we have compared our theoretical results of B2 intermetallics YCu with the previous calculated results. The unstable-stacking-fault energy (γus) on the {1 1 0} plane has the laws of AlPr, <1 1 0> and <1 1 1> directions. For the antiphase boundary (APB) energy, that of AlSc is the lowest in the calculated AlRE intermetallics. So the superdislocation with the Burgers vector along <1 1 1> direction of AlSc will easily split into two superpartials.

  8. A Study on the Effect of Ageing and Intermetallic Compound Growth on the Shear Strength of Surface Mount Technology Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Jyotishman; Mallik, Sabuj; Borah, Anil

    2015-04-01

    The effect of ageing and intermetallic compound formation on the surface mount solder joints and its shear strength behavior under extreme mechanical and thermal conditions have been discussed in this paper. The specimens used are solder paste (Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu), bench marker II printed circuit boards (PCB), resistors 1206 and the fabrication of solder joints makes use of conventional surface mount technology (SMT). Reflow process was carried out at a peak temperature of 250 °C and the test samples were exposed to isothermal ageing at a constant temperature of 150 °C for a period of 600 h. Shear test was conducted on the PCB's. The shear strength of the solder joints rapidly increased during isothermal ageing to a certain time period and then started decreasing. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrograph of the solder joint and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) was performed on the solder sample to verify the formation of intermetallic compounds.

  9. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn–Ag–Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ting Tan, Ai; Wen Tan, Ai; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn–Ag–Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided. PMID:27877786

  10. Interfacial reaction of intermetallic compounds of ultrasonic-assisted brazed joints between dissimilar alloys of Ti6Al4V and Al4Cu1Mg.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhipeng; Zhao, Weiwei; Yan, Jiuchun; Li, Dacheng

    2011-09-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted brazing of Al4Cu1Mg and Ti6Al4V using Zn-based filler metal (without and with Si) has been investigated. Before brazing, the Ti6Al4V samples were pre-treated by hot-dip aluminizing and ultrasonic dipping in a molten filler metal bath in order to control the formation of intermetallic compounds between the Ti6Al4V samples and the filler metal. The results show that the TiAl(3) phase was formed in the interface between the Ti6Al4V substrate and the aluminized coating. For the Zn-based filler metal without Si, the Ti6Al4V interfacial area of the brazed joint did not change under the effect of the ultrasonic wave, and only consisted of the TiAl(3) phase. For the Zn-based filler metal with Si, the TiAl(3) phase disappeared and a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase was formed at the interfacial area of the brazed joints under the effect of the ultrasonic wave. Due to the TiAl(3) phase completely changing to a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase, the morphology of the intermetallic compounds changed from a block-like shape into a lamellar-like structure. The highest shear strength of 138MPa was obtained from the brazed joint free of the block-like TiAl(3) phase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Ni-P Plating Temperature on Growth of Interfacial Intermetallic Compound in Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold/Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Wonil; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Young-Ho; Yoo, Sehoon

    2018-01-01

    The growth of interfacial intermetallic compound and the brittle fracture behavior of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5-Cu solder (SAC305) joints on electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) surface finish have been investigated using Ni-P plating solution at temperatures from 75°C to 85°C and fixed pH of 4.5. SAC305 solder balls with diameter of 450 μm were mounted on the prepared ENIG-finished Cu pads and reflowed with peak temperature of 250°C. The interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness after reflow decreased with increasing Ni-P plating temperature. After 800 h of thermal aging, the IMC thickness of the sample prepared at 85°C was higher than for that prepared at 75°C. Scanning electron microscopy of the Ni-P surface after removal of the Au layer revealed a nodular structure on the Ni-P surface. The nodule size of the Ni-P decreased with increasing Ni-P plating temperature. The Cu content near the IMC layer increased to 0.6 wt.%, higher than the original Cu content of 0.5 wt.%, indicating that Cu diffused from the Cu pad to the solder ball through the Ni-P layer at a rate depending on the nodule size. The sample prepared at 75°C with thicker interfacial IMC showed greater high-speed shear strength than the sample prepared at 85°C. Brittle fracture increased with decreasing Ni-P plating temperature.

  12. Crystallographic features of the martensitic transformation and their impact on variant organization in the intermetallic compound Ni50Mn38Sb12 studied by SEM/EBSD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyang; Zhang, Yudong; Esling, Claude; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical and magnetic properties of Ni-Mn-Sb intermetallic compounds are closely related to the martensitic transformation and martensite variant organization. However, studies of these issues are very limited. Thus, a thorough crystallographic investigation of the martensitic transformation orientation relationship (OR), the transformation deformation and their impact on the variant organization of an Ni 50 Mn 38 Sb 12 alloy using scanning electron microscopy/electron backscatter diffraction (SEM/EBSD) was conducted in this work. It is shown that the martensite variants are hierarchically organized into plates, each possessing four distinct twin-related variants, and the plates into plate colonies, each containing four distinct plates delimited by compatible and incompatible plate interfaces. Such a characteristic organization is produced by the martensitic transformation. It is revealed that the transformation obeys the Pitsch relation ({0[Formula: see text]} A // {2[Formula: see text]} M and 〈0[Formula: see text]1〉 A // 〈[Formula: see text]2〉 M ; the subscripts A and M refer to austenite and martensite, respectively). The type I twinning plane K 1 of the intra-plate variants and the compatible plate interface plane correspond to the respective orientation relationship planes {0[Formula: see text]} A and {0[Formula: see text]} A of austenite. The three {0[Formula: see text]} A planes possessed by each pair of compatible plates, one corresponding to the compatible plate interface and the other two to the variants in the two plates, are interrelated by 60° and belong to a single 〈11[Formula: see text]〉 A axis zone. The {0[Formula: see text]} A planes representing the two pairs of compatible plates in each plate colony belong to two 〈11[Formula: see text]〉 A axis zones having one {0[Formula: see text]} A plane in common. This common plane defines the compatible plate interfaces of the two pairs of plates. The transformation strains to form the

  13. Effect of elastic collisions and electronic excitation on lattice structure of NiTi bulk intermetallic compound irradiated with energetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, M.; Kojima, H.; Hori, F.; Kaneno, Y.; Semboshi, S.; Saitoh, Y.; Okamoto, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Iwase, A.

    2018-07-01

    NiTi bulk intermetallic compound with the B19‧ structure was irradiated with 1 MeV He, 5 MeV Al, 16 MeV Au and 200 MeV Xe ions, and the change in lattice structure near the surface by the ion bombardment was investigated by using the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The lattice structure transformation by the irradiation strongly depends on ion species and/or energies. For the 1 MeV He irradiation, the lattice structure changed from B19‧ to the A2 structure, but did not show an amorphization even after the high fluence irradiation. For the 5 MeV Al irradiation, the samples are partially amorphized. For the 16 MeV Au irradiation, the lattice structure of the NiTi samples changed nearly completely from the B19‧ structure to the amorphous state via the A2 structure. The value of dpa (displacement per atom) which is needed for the amorphization is, however, much smaller than the case of the Al ion irradiation. For the 200 MeV Xe ion irradiation, the lattice structure completely changed to the A2 structure even by a small ion fluence. The dependence of the lattice structure transformation on elastic collisions (dpa), the spectrum of the primary knock-on (PKA) atoms and the density of energy deposited through electronic excitation was discussed.

  14. Soldering-induced Cu diffusion and intermetallic compound formation between Ni/Cu under bump metallization and SnPb flip-chip solder bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2004-04-01

    Nickel-based under bump metallization (UBM) has been widely used as a diffusion barrier to prevent the rapid reaction between the Cu conductor and Sn-based solders. In this study, joints with and without solder after heat treatments were employed to evaluate the diffusion behavior of Cu in the 63Sn-37Pb/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structure. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated from the concentration profiles of Cu in solder joints. During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1015-1016 atoms/cm2s. However, in the assembly without solder, no Cu was detected on the surface of Ni even after ten cycles of reflow. The diffusion behavior of Cu during heat treatments was studied, and the soldering-process-induced Cu diffusion through Ni metallization was characterized. In addition, the effect of Cu content in the solder near the solder/intermetallic compound (IMC) interface on interfacial reactions between the solder and the Ni/Cu UBM was also discussed. It is evident that the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC might form as the concentration of Cu in the Sn-Cu-Ni alloy exceeds 0.6 wt.%.

  15. Growth of Interfacial Intermetallic Compound Layer in Diffusion-Bonded SAC-Cu Solder Joints During Different Types of Thermomechanical Excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjilal, Anwesha; Kumar, Praveen

    2018-01-01

    The effects of mechanical strain on the growth kinetics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) sandwiched between Cu substrate and Sn-1.0 wt.%Ag-0.5 wt.%Cu (SAC105) solder have been investigated. Isothermal aging (IA) at 70°C and 125°C, and thermal cycling (TC) as well as thermomechanical cycling (TMC) with shear strain of 12.8% per cycle between -25°C and 125°C were applied to diffusion-bonded solder joints to study the growth behavior of the interfacial IMC layer under various types of thermomechanical excursion (TME). The microstructure of the solder joint tested under each TME was observed at regular intervals. It was observed that the growth rate of the IMC layer was higher in the case of TMC compared with TC or IA. This increased growth rate of the IMC layer in the presence of mechanical strain suggests an additional driving force that enhances the growth kinetics of the IMC. Finite element analysis was performed to gain insight into the effect of TC and TMC on the stress field in the solder joint, especially near the interface between the solder and the substrate. Finally, an analytical model was developed to quantify the effect of strain on the effective diffusivity and express the growth kinetics for all three types of TME using a single expression.

  16. Effects of Electrical Current and External Stress on the Electromigration of Intermetallic Compounds Between the Flip-Chip Solder and Copper Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Jhen; Lee, Yue-Lin; Wu, Ti-Yuan; Chen, Tzu-Ching; Hsu, Chih-Hui; Lin, Ming-Tzer

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of electric current and external stress on electromigration of intermetallic compounds (IMC) between solder and copper substrate. Different samples were tested under three different sets of conditions: (1) thermal aging only, (2) thermal aging with electric current ,where resistivity changes were measured using four-point probe measurements, (3) thermal aging with electric current and external stress provided using a four-point bending apparatus. The micro-structural changes in the samples were observed. The results were closely examined; particularly the coupling effect of electric current and external stress to elucidate the electromigration mechanism, as well as the formation of IMC in the samples. For thermal-aging-only samples, the IMC growth mechanism was controlled by grain boundary diffusion. Meanwhile, for thermal aging and applied electric current samples, the IMC growth mechanism was dominated by volume diffusion and interface reaction. Lastly, the IMC growth mechanism in the electric current and external stress group was dominated by grain boundary diffusion with grain growth. The results reveal that the external stress/strain and electric current play a significant role in the electromigration of copper-tin IMC. The samples exposed to tensile stress have reduced electromigration, while those subjected under compressive stress have enhanced electromigration.

  17. Perpendicular Growth Characteristics of Cu-Sn Intermetallic Compounds at the Surface of 99Sn-1Cu/Cu Solder Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Liu, Changqing; Wu, Yiping; An, Bing

    2015-12-01

    The growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) on the free surface of 99Sn-1Cu solder joints perpendicular to the interdiffusion direction has been investigated in this work. The specimens were specifically designed and polished to reveal a flat free surface at the solder/Cu interface for investigation. After aging at 175°C for progressively increased durations, the height of the perpendicular IMCs was examined and found to follow a parabolic law with aging duration that could be expressed as y = 0.11√ t, where t is the aging duration in hours and y is the height of the perpendicular IMCs in μm. For comparison, the planar growth of IMCs along the interdiffusion direction was also investigated in 99Sn-1Cu/Cu solder joints. After prolonged aging at 175°C, the thickness of the planar interfacial IMC layers also increased parabolically with aging duration and could be expressed as h_{{IMC}} = 0.27√ t + 4.6, where h is the thickness in μm and t is the time in hours. It was found that both the planar and perpendicular growth of the IMCs were diffusion-controlled processes, but the perpendicular growth of the IMCs was much slower than their planar growth due to the longer diffusion distance. It is proposed that Cu3Sn forms prior to the formation of Cu6Sn5 in the perpendicular IMCs, being the reverse order compared with the planar IMC growth.

  18. Crystal structure and low-energy Einstein mode in ErV{sub 2}Al{sub 20} intermetallic cage compound

    SciT

    Winiarski, Michał J., E-mail: mwiniarski@mif.pg.gda.pl; Klimczuk, Tomasz

    Single crystals of a new ternary aluminide ErV{sub 2}Al{sub 20} were grown using a self-flux method. The crystal structure was determined by powder X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld refinement, and physical properties were studied by means of electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. These measurements reveal that ErV{sub 2}Al{sub 20} is a Curie-Weiss paramagnet down to 1.95 K with an effective magnetic moment μ{sub eff} =9.27(1) μ{sub B} and Curie-Weiss temperature Θ{sub CW} =−0.55(4) K. The heat capacity measurements show a broad anomaly at low temperatures that is attributed to the presence of a low-energy Einstein mode withmore » characteristic temperature Θ{sub E} =44 K, approximately twice as high as in the isostructural ‘Einstein solid’ VAl{sub 10.1}. - Graphical abstract: A low-energy Einstein mode is observed in a novel intermetallic cage compound ErV{sub 2}Al{sub 20} by specific heat and resistivity measurements. - Highlights: • Single crystals of a new compound ErV{sub 2}Al{sub 20} were grown by self-flux method. • Crystal structure is reported, based on powder x-ray diffraction. • ErV{sub 2}Al{sub 20} is a Curie-Weiss paramagnet. • Low-energy ‘rattling’ phonon mode (Θ{sub E}=44 K) is found in specific heat measurements.« less

  19. Electronic and Magnetic Structures, Magnetic Hyperfine Fields and Electric Field Gradients in UX3 (X = In, Tl, Pb) Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sajid; Yazdani-Kachoei, Majid; Jalali-Asadabadi, Saeid; Farooq, Muhammad Bilal; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2018-02-01

    Cubic uranium compounds such as UX3 (X is a non-transition element of groups IIIA or IVA) exhibit highly diverse magnetic properties, including Pauli paramagnetism, spin fluctuation and anti-ferromagnetism. In the present paper, we explore the structural, electronic and magnetic properties as well as the hyperfine fields (HFFs) and electric field gradients (EFGs) with quadrupole coupling constant of UX3 (X = In, Tl, Pb) compounds using local density approximation, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof parametrization of generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) including the Hubbard U parameter (GGA + U), a revised version of PBE-GGA that improves equilibrium properties of densely packed solids and their surfaces (PBEsol-GGA), and a hybrid functional (HF-PBEsol). The spin orbit-coupling calculations have been added to investigate the relativistic effect of electrons in these materials. The comparison between the experimental parameters and our calculated structural parameters we confirm the consistency and effectiveness of our theoretical tools. The computed magnetic moments show that magnetic moment increases from indium to lead in the UX3 family, and all these compounds are antiferromagnetic in nature. The EFGs and HFFs, as well as the quadrupole coupling constant of UX3 (X = In, Tl, Pb), are discussed in detail. These properties primarily originate from f and p states of uranium and post-transition sites.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Fe-Ti-Sb intermetallic compounds: Discovery of a new Slater-Pauling phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolashrafi, N.; Keshavarz, S.; Hegde, Vinay I.; Gupta, A.; Butler, W. H.; Romero, J.; Munira, K.; LeClair, P.; Mazumdar, D.; Ma, J.; Ghosh, A. W.; Wolverton, C.

    2016-03-01

    Compounds of Fe, Ti, and Sb were prepared using arc melting and vacuum annealing. Fe2TiSb , expected to be a full Heusler compound crystallizing in the L 21 structure, was shown by XRD and SEM analyses to be composed of weakly magnetic grains of nominal composition Fe1.5TiSb with iron-rich precipitates in the grain boundaries. FeTiSb, a composition consistent with the formation of a half-Heusler compound, also decomposed into Fe1.5TiSb grains with Ti-Sb rich precipitates and was weakly magnetic. The dominant Fe1.5TiSb phase appears to crystallize in a defective L 21 -like structure with iron vacancies. Based on this finding, a first-principles DFT-based binary cluster expansion of Fe and vacancies on the Fe sublattice of the L 21 structure was performed. Using the cluster expansion, we computationally scanned >103 configurations and predict a novel, stable, nonmagnetic semiconductor phase to be the zero-temperature ground state. This new structure is an ordered arrangement of Fe and vacancies, belonging to the space group R 3 m , with composition Fe1.5TiSb , i.e., between the full- and half-Heusler compositions. This phase can be visualized as alternate layers of L 21 phase Fe2TiSb and C 1b phase FeTiSb, with layering along the [111] direction of the original cubic phases. Our experimental results on annealed samples support this predicted ground-state composition, but further work is required to confirm that the R 3 m structure is the ground state.

  1. Synthesis of TiCr2 intermetallic compound from mechanically activated starting powders via calcio-thermic co-reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, O.; Khavandi, A. R.; Ghasemzadeh, R.

    2017-05-01

    Effect of mechanical activation of TiO2 and Cr2O3 oxides as starting materials was investigated for direct synthesis of TiCr2. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicated that increasing the ball milling time resulted in lower exothermic reaction temperatures between molten Ca-Cr2O3 and molten Ca-TiO2. A model-free Kissinger type method was applied to DTA data to evaluate the reaction kinetics. The results reveal that the activation energy of the exothermic reactions decreased with increasing the milling time. The structure, oxygen content, and average particle sizes of the obtained TiCr2 product were affected by the ball milling time of the starting materials. Increasing the milling time from 10 to 40 h decreased the average particle size and oxygen content of the obtained TiCr2 from 10 to 2 μm and from 1690 to 1290 ppm, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that TiCr2 compounds with metastable bcc phase can be produced using nano-sized starting materials, while only a slight amount of bcc phase can be obtained in the TiCr2 compounds, using micron-sized starting materials. The TiCr2 obtained by this method had a hydrogen absorption capability of 0.63 wt % and the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption increased for the 40 h milled sample.

  2. Effect of Mn Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compound Growth in Low-Ag Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu- xMn Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Luo, S. M.; Li, G. Y.; Yang, Z.; Chen, R.; Han, Y.; Hou, C. J.

    2018-02-01

    Interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth between Cu substrates and low-Ag Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu- xMn ( x = 0 wt.%, 0.02 wt.%, 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.15 wt.%) (SAC0307- xMn) solders was investigated under different isothermal aging temperatures of 100°C, 150°C, and 190°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the microstructural evolution of the solder joints and measure the IMC layer thickness. The IMC phases were identified by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that a Cu6Sn5 IMC layer formed in the as-soldered solder joints, while a duplex structure consisting of a Cu6Sn5 IMC layer near the solder matrix and a Cu3Sn IMC layer was observed after isothermal aging. A considerable drop in the IMC layer thickness was observed when 0.1 wt.% Mn nanoparticles were added. Beyond this amount, the thickness of the IMC layer only slightly increases. Adding Mn nanoparticles can increase the activation energy and thus reduce the interdiffusion rates of the Sn and Cu atoms, which suppresses excessive IMC growth. The solder joint containing 0.1 wt.% Mn nanoparticles has the highest activation energy. SEM images revealed that the number of small particles precipitated in the channels between the Cu6Sn5 IMC layers increases with an increasing proportion of Mn nanoparticles. Based on the microstructural evolution of the solder joints, this study revealed that grain boundary pinning is one of the most important mechanisms for IMC growth inhibition when Mn nanoparticles are added.

  3. Growth kinetics of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound at liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects under temperature gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, N.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, M.L.; Ma, H.T.; Dong, W.

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects during reflow at 250 °C and 280 °C on a hot plate was investigated. Being different from the symmetrical growth during isothermal aging, the interfacial IMCs showed clearly asymmetrical growth during reflow, i.e., the growth of Cu6Sn5 IMC at the cold end was significantly enhanced while that of Cu3Sn IMC was hindered especially at the hot end. It was found that the temperature gradient had caused the mass migration of Cu atoms from the hot end toward the cold end, resulting in sufficient Cu atomic flux for interfacial reaction at the cold end while inadequate Cu atomic flux at the hot end. The growth mechanism was considered as reaction/thermomigration-controlled at the cold end and grain boundary diffusion/thermomigration-controlled at the hot end. A growth model was established to explain the growth kinetics of the Cu6Sn5 IMC at both cold and hot ends. The molar heat of transport of Cu atoms in molten Sn was calculated as + 11.12 kJ/mol at 250 °C and + 14.65 kJ/mol at 280 °C. The corresponding driving force of thermomigration in molten Sn was estimated as 4.82 × 10−19 N and 6.80 × 10−19 N. PMID:26311323

  4. Effects of post-reflow cooling rate and thermal aging on growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compound between SAC305 solder and Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaowu; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Xiongxin; Li, Yulong; Liu, Yi; Min, Zhixian

    2016-04-01

    The interfacial reactions between Cu and Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder reflowed under various cooling rates were investigated. It is found that the cooling rate is an important parameter in solder reflow process because it influences not only microstructure of solder alloy but also the morphology and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed between solder and Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that only scallop-like Cu6Sn5 IMC layer is observed between solder and Cu substrate in case of water cooling and air cooling, while bilayer composed of scallop-like Cu6Sn5 and thin layer-like Cu3Sn is detected under furnace cooling due to sufficient reaction time to form Cu3Sn between Cu6Sn5 IMC and Cu substrate which resulted from slow cooling rate. Samples with different reflow cooling rates were further thermal-aged at 423 K. And it is found that the thickness of IMC increases linearly with square root of aging time. The growth constants of interfacial IMC layer during aging were obtained and compared for different cooling rates, indicating that the IMC layer thickness increased faster in samples under low cooling rate than in the high cooling rate under the same aging condition. The long prismatic grains were formed on the existing interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains to extrude deeply into solder matrix with lower cooling rate and long-term aging, and the Cu6Sn5 grains coarsened linearly with cubic root of aging time.

  5. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  6. Controlling intermetallic compound growth in SnAgCu/Ni-P solder joints by nanosized Cu6Sn5 addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Szu-Tsung; Lin, Yung-Chi; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2006-03-01

    Nanosized Cu6Sn5 dispersoids were incorporated into Sn and Ag powders and milled together to form Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu composite solders by a mechanical alloying process. The aim of this study was to investigate the interfacial reaction between SnAgCu composite solder and electroless Ni-P/Cu UBM after heating for 15 min. at 240°C. The growth of the IMCs formed at the composite solder/EN interface was retarded as compared to the commercial Sn3Ag0.5Cu solder joints. With the aid of the elemental distribution by x-ray color mapping in electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), it was revealed that the SnAgCu composite solder exhibited a refined structure. It is proposed that the Cu6Sn5 additives were pinned on the grain boundary of Sn after heat treatment, which thus retarded the movement of Cu toward the solder/EN interface to form interfacial compounds. In addition, wetting is an essential prerequisite for soldering to ensure good bonding between solder and substrate. It was demonstrated that the contact angles of composite solder paste was <25°, and good wettability was thus assured.

  7. RRh2Al10 (R = Ce, Yb): New intermetallic compounds in the 1 : 2 : 10 stoichiometry series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strydom, A. M.; Djoumessi, R. F.; Blinova, M.; Tursina, A.; Nesterenko, S.; Avzuragova, V.

    2018-05-01

    The orthorhombic, space group Cmcm YbFe2Al10 structure type series of compounds are known to form with practically the entire series of rare-earth elements R, but only with the three d - electron elements Fe, Ru, and Os. The Ce-derivatives in particular have been of much interest since the first reports of their highly unusual physical properties. Classified as Kondo insulators, CeRu2Al10 and CeOs2Al10 controversially order magnetically and with uncharacteristically high Néel temperatures of ≃ 28 K. CeFe2Al10 on the other hand shows pronounced semiconducting and Kondo features but remains paramagnetic. As part of our ongoing studies into the rich physics of this class of materials we have succeeded in synthesizing new members of the 1:2:10 stoichiometry involving the chemical element Rh for the first time. CeRh2Al10 is found to crystallize in the tetragonal system with space group I41 / amd . Yb Rh2Al10 on the other hand forms in the serial Cmcm orthorhombic structure type. We discuss important similarities between the two types. At 5.310 Å the shortest Ce-Ce distance is, likewise to the situation in CeRu2Al10 and CeOs2Al10 , also well above the Hill limit of 3.40 Å. Despite the cage-like structure and large rare-earth separation distances, this study reveals the onset of long-range magnetic ordering in CeRh2Al10 at 3.9 K. The magnetic ordering develops out of an incoherent Kondo state that dominates the electrical resistivity below about 40 K.

  8. Plastic behavior of two-phase intermetallic compounds based on L1{sub 2}-type (Al,Cr){sub 3}Ti

    SciT

    Park, J.Y.; Wee, D.M.; Oh, M.H.

    Plastic behavior of two-phase intermetallic compounds based on L1{sub 2}-type (Al,Cr){sub 3}Ti was investigated using compression test at R.T. and 77K. L1{sub 2} single phase alloys and two-phase alloys consisting of mainly L1{sub 2} phase and a few or 20% (mole percent) second phases were selected from Al-Ti-Cr phase diagram. In general, compared with L1{sub 2} single phase, two-phase alloys consisting of 20% second phase showed relatively high yield strength and poor ductility. Among the alloys, however, Al-21Ti-23Cr alloy consisting of 20% Cr{sub 2}Al phase showed available ductility as well as high yield strength. Plastic behavior of L1{sub 2} singlemore » phase alloys and two-phase alloys consisting of a few Cr{sub 2}Al was also investigated. Homogenization of arc melted ingots substantially reduced the amount of second phases but introduced extensive pore. When Cr content increased in L1{sub 2} single phase alloys after the homogenization, the volume fraction of pores in the alloys decreased, and no residual porosity was observed in two-phase alloys consisting of a few% Cr{sub 2}Al phase. Environmental effect on the ductility of the alloys was investigated using compression test at different strain rates (1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}/s and 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}/s). Environmental embrittlement was least significant in Al-25Ti-10Cr alloy consisting of L1{sub 2} single phase among the alloys tested in this study. However, based on the combined estimation of the pore formation, environmental embrittlement and ingot cast structure, it could be supposed that Al-21Ti-23Cr alloy consisting of 20% Cr{sub 2}Al as a second phase is expected to show the best tensile elongation behavior among the materials tested.« less

  9. Strain rate dependence in the nanoindentation-induced deformation of Mg-Al intermetallic compounds produced by packed powder diffusion coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Haiwei; Lu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Mingxing; Atrens, Andrej; Huang, Han

    2015-09-01

    Nanoindentation was performed on τ-Mg32(Al, Zn)49 and β-Mg17Al12 intermetallic coatings and on a AZ91E Mg alloy substrate using loading rates of 0.03 to 30 mNs-1. Pop-in phenomenon was observed during loading in the two intermetallic coatings and in the substrate. Both the magnitude of the pop-ins and the time interval between two consecutive pop-ins increased with increasing loads. The phenomenon was attributed to plastic instability, which is known as the Portevin-Le Châtelier effect. The morphologies of the indent impressions at different strain rates on the t phase, the β phase and the substrate were also investigated using atomic force microscopy. Pile-up occurred in the τ and β phases and was found independent of the strain rate; no obvious pile-up occurred on the AZ91E substrate. The AZ91E substrate exhibited creep rates greater than those of the intermetallic phases, and all of the creep rates increased with the loading rate.

  10. The effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of intermetallic compounds Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo in sodium chloride solutions

    SciT

    Priyotomo, Gadang, E-mail: gada001@lipi.go.id; Nuraini, Lutviasari, E-mail: Lutviasari@gmail.com; Kaneno, Yasuyuki, E-mail: kaneno@mtr.osakafu-u.ac.id

    The corrosion behavior of the intermetallic compounds, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) (L1{sub 2}: single phase) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo (L1{sub 2} and (L12 + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region), has been investigated using an immersion test, electrochemical method and surface analytical method (SEM; scanning electron microscope and EDAX: Energy Dispersive X-ray) in 0.5 kmol/m{sup 3} NaCl solutions at various pH. The corrosion behavior of nickel alloy C-276 was studied under the same experimental conditions as a reference. It was found that the uniform attack was observed on Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) for the immersion test at lower pH, while the pitting attack was observedmore » on this compound for this test at neutral solution. Furthermore, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo had the preferential dissolution of L1{sub 2} compared to (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at lower pH, while pitting attack occurred in (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at neutral solution. For both intermetallic compounds, the magnitude of pitting and uniform attack decrease with increasing pH of solutions. From the immersion test and polarization curves, the corrosion resistance of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo is lower than that of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti), while the nickel alloy C-276 is the highest one at various pH of solutions. On the other hand, in the lower pH of solutions, the corrosion resistance of tested materials decreased significantly compared to those in neutral and higher pH of solutions.« less

  11. Short-range order of undercooled melts of PdZr2 intermetallic compound studied by X-ray and neutron scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, S.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Herlach, D. M.; Mauro, N. A.; Kelton, K. F.

    2013-05-01

    The short-range order in undercooled melts of the intermetallic Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy is investigated by combining electrostatic levitation (ESL) with high-energy X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. Experimentally determined structure factors are measured and analyzed with respect to various structures of short-range order. The comparative X-ray and neutron scattering experiments allow for investigations of topological and chemical short-range order. Based on these studies, no preference of a specific short-range order is found for the liquid Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy, even in the metastable state of the deeply undercooled melt. This is in agreement with an earlier report from X-ray diffraction and molecular-dynamics studies of a Zr75.5Pd24.5 liquid, which showed a broad distribution of cluster types. The results for the Zr2Pd liquid are discussed with respect to the glass-forming ability of this melt.

  12. Copper/solder intermetallic growth studies.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, K W; Lucey, G K; Geis, J

    1993-08-01

    Copper samples, hot solder (eutectic) dipped and thermally aged, were cross-sectioned and placed in an environmental scanning electronic microscope (ESEM). While in the ESEM the samples were heated for approximately 2.5 h at 170 degrees C to stimulate the growth of additional Cu/Sn intermetallic compound. The intent of the study was to obtain a continuous real-time videotape record of the diffusion process and compare the observations to static SEM images reported to represent long-term, naturally aged intermetallic growth. The video obtained allows the observation of the diffusion process and relativistic growth phenomena at the Cu, Cu3Sn, Cu6Sn5, and solder interfaces as well as effects on the bulk Cu and solder. Effects contrary to earlier reports were observed; for example, growth rates of Cu3Sn were found to greatly exceed those of Cu6Sn5.

  13. Intermetallic compounds of the heaviest elements and their homologs: the electronic structure and bonding of MM', where M=Ge, Sn, Pb, and element 114, and M'=Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Sn, Pb, and element 114.

    PubMed

    Pershina, V; Anton, J; Fricke, B

    2007-10-07

    Fully relativistic (four-component) density-functional theory calculations were performed for intermetallic dimers MM', where M=Ge, Sn, Pb, and element 114, and MM'=group 10 elements (Ni, Pd, and Pt) and group 11 elements (Cu, Ag, and Au). PbM and 114M, where M are group 14 elements, were also considered. The results have shown that trends in spectroscopic properties-atomization energies D(e), vibrational frequencies omega(e), and bond lengths R(e), as a function of MM', are similar for compounds of Ge, Sn, Pb, and element 114, except for D(e) of PbNi and 114Ni. They were shown to be determined by trends in the energies and space distribution of the valence ns(MM')atomic orbitals (AOs). According to the results, element 114 should form the weakest bonding with Ni and Ag, while the strongest with Pt due to the largest involvement of the 5d(Pt) AOs. In turn, trends in the spectroscopic properties of MM' as a function of M were shown to be determined by the behavior of the np(1/2)(M) AOs. Overall, D(e) of the element 114 dimers are about 1 eV smaller and R(e) are about 0.2 a.u. larger than those of the corresponding Pb compounds. Such a decrease in bonding of the element 114 dimers is caused by the large SO splitting of the 7p orbitals and a decreasing contribution of the relativistically stabilized 7p(1/2)(114) AO. On the basis of the calculated D(e) for the dimers, adsorption enthalpies of element 114 on the corresponding metal surfaces were estimated: They were shown to be about 100-150 kJ/mol smaller than those of Pb.

  14. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Structural Feature and Solute Trapping of Rapidly Grown Ni3Sn Intermetallic Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Wei-Li; Wei, Bing-Bo

    2009-11-01

    The rapid dendritic growth of primary Ni3Sn phase in undercooled Ni-30.9%Sn-5%Ge alloy is investigated by using the glass fluxing technique. The dendritic growth velocity of Ni3Sn compound is measured as a function of undercooling, and a velocity of 2.47 m/s is achieved at the maximum undercooling of 251 K (0.17TL). The addition of the Ge element reduces its growth velocity as compared with the binary Ni75Sn25 alloy. During rapid solidification, the Ni3Sn compound behaves like a normal solid solution and it displays a morphological transition of “coarse dendrite-equiaxed grain-vermicular structure" with the increase of undercooling. Significant solute trapping of Ge atoms occurs in the whole undercooling range.

  15. Electron spin resonance of Gd3+ in the intermetallic Gd1-xYxNi3Ga9 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.90) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, E. C.; Silva, L. S.; Mercena, S. G.; Meneses, C. T.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Duque, J. G. S.; Souza, J. C.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Lora-Serrano, R.; Teixeira-Neto, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, experiments of X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacitance, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) carried out in the Gd1-xYxNi3Ga9 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.90) compounds grown through a Ga self flux method are reported. The X-ray diffraction data indicate that these compounds crystallize in a trigonal crystal structure with a space group R32. This crystal structure is unaffected by Y-substitution, which produces a monotonic decrease of the lattice parameters. For the x = 0 compound, an antiferromagnetic phase transition is observed at TN = 19.2 K, which is continuously suppressed as a function of the Y-doping and extrapolates to zero at x ≈ 0.85. The ESR data, taken in the temperature range 15 ≤ T ≤ 300 K, show a single Dysonian Gd3+ line with nearly temperature independent g-values. The linewidth follows a Korringa-like behavior as a function of temperature for all samples. The Korringa rates (b = ΔH /ΔT ) are Y-concentration-dependent indicating a "bottleneck" regime. For the most diluted sample (x = 0.90), when it is believed that the "bottleneck" effect is minimized, we have calculated the q-dependent effective exchange interactions between Gd3+ local moments and the c-e of 〈Jf-ce 2(q ) 〉 1 /2 = 18(2) meV and Jf -c e(q =0 ) = 90(10) meV.

  16. Synthesis, Crystal Chemistry, and Physical Properties of Ternary Intermetallic Compounds An2T2X( An=Pu, Am; X=ln, Sn; T=Co, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, L. C. J.; Wastin, F.; Winand, J. M.; Kanellakopoulos, B.; Rebizant, J.; Spirlet, J. C.; Almeida, M.

    1997-11-01

    The synthesis, structural, and physical characterization of nine new ternary intermetallic compounds belonging to the isostructural An2T2Xfamily with the transuranium Pu and Am elements, namely, Pu 2Ni 2In, Pu 2Pd 2In, Pu 2Pt 2In, Pu 2Rh 2In, Pu 2Ni 2Sn, Pu 2Pd 2Sn, Pu 2Pt 2Sn, Am 2Ni 2Sn, and Am 2Pd 2Sn, are reported. From these compounds only Pu 2Rh 2In, Am 2Ni 2Sn, and Am 2Pd 2Sn melt incongruently. All of these compounds crystallize in a tetragonal U 3Si 2-type structure, with the space group P4/ mbm, ( Z=2) as most of the U and Np 2-2-1 compounds already found. In this structure, Anatoms occupy the 4 h( x1, x1+0.5, 0.5), Tthe 4 g( x2, x2+0.5, 0), and Xthe 2 a(0, 0, 0) positions. The average values of x1and x2are, respectively, 0.17 and 0.37. Single-crystal X-ray data were refined to R/ RW=0.045/0.066, 0.043/0.072, 0.066/0.080, 0.070/0.098, 0.029/0.048, 0.055/0.080, 0.073/0.096, 0.048/0.086, 0.048/0.065 for Pu 2Ni 2In, Pu 2Pd 2In, Pu 2Pt 2In, Pu 2Rh 2In, Pu 2Ni 2Sn, Pu 2Pd 2Sn, Pu 2Pt 2Sn, Am 2Ni 2Sn, and Am 2Pd 2Sn, respectively, for seven variables. The variation of the lattice parameters and the range of stability of the 2-2-1 phase are discussed in terms of the substitution of different An(actinide), T(transition metal), and X( p-electron) elements in their crystal structure. The possible role of spin fluctuations in the low-temperature behavior of the Pu samples is indicated by magnetic and electrical resistivity measurements.

  17. Electron-Poor Polar Intermetallics: Complex Structures, Novel Clusters, and Intriguing Bonding with Pronounced Electron Delocalization

    SciT

    Lin, Qisheng; Miller, Gordon J.

    Intermetallic compounds represent an extensive pool of candidates for energy related applications stemming from magnetic, electric, optic, caloric, and catalytic properties. The discovery of novel intermetallic compounds can enhance understanding of the chemical principles that govern structural stability and chemical bonding as well as finding new applications. Valence electron-poor polar intermetallics with valence electron concentrations (VECs) between 2.0 and 3.0 e –/atom show a plethora of unprecedented and fascinating structural motifs and bonding features. Furthermore, establishing simple structure-bonding-property relationships is especially challenging for this compound class because commonly accepted valence electron counting rules are inappropriate.

  18. Electron-Poor Polar Intermetallics: Complex Structures, Novel Clusters, and Intriguing Bonding with Pronounced Electron Delocalization

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Qisheng; Miller, Gordon J.

    2017-12-18

    Intermetallic compounds represent an extensive pool of candidates for energy related applications stemming from magnetic, electric, optic, caloric, and catalytic properties. The discovery of novel intermetallic compounds can enhance understanding of the chemical principles that govern structural stability and chemical bonding as well as finding new applications. Valence electron-poor polar intermetallics with valence electron concentrations (VECs) between 2.0 and 3.0 e –/atom show a plethora of unprecedented and fascinating structural motifs and bonding features. Furthermore, establishing simple structure-bonding-property relationships is especially challenging for this compound class because commonly accepted valence electron counting rules are inappropriate.

  19. Large magnetocaloric effect and near-zero thermal hysteresis in the rare earth intermetallic Tb1-x Dy x Co2 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yuyang; Tian, Fanghua; Chang, Tieyan; Chen, Kaiyun; Yang, Sen; Cao, Kaiyan; Zhou, Chao; Song, Xiaoping

    2017-02-01

    We report the magnetocaloric effect in a Tb1-x Dy x Co2 compound which exhibits a wide working temperature window around the Curie temperature (T C) and delivers a large refrigerant capacity (RC) with near-zero thermal hysteresis. Specifically, the wide full width at half maxima ({δ\\text{WFHM}} ) can reach up to 62 K and the RC value changes from 216.5 to 274.3 J Kg-1 when the external magnetic field increases to 5 T. Such magnetocaloric effects are attributed to a magnetic and structural transition from a paramagnetic and cubic phase to a ferromagnetic (M S along [1 1 1] direction) and rhombohedral phase or ferromagnetic (M S along [0 0 1] direction) and tetragonal phase.

  20. Structure and magnetism of new rare-earth-free intermetallic compounds: Fe 3+xCo 3-xTi 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3)

    DOE PAGES

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Das, Bhaskar; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; ...

    2016-11-28

    Here, we report the fabrication of a set of new rare-earth-free magnetic compounds, which form the Fe 3Co 3Ti 2-type hexagonal structure with P-6m2 symmetry. Neutron powder diffraction shows a significant Fe/Co anti-site mixing in the Fe 3Co 3Ti 2 structure, which has a strong effect on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy as revealed by first-principle calculations. Increasing substitution of Fe atoms for Co in the Fe 3Co 3Ti 2 lattice leads to the formation of Fe 4Co 2Ti 2, Fe 5CoTi, and Fe 6Ti 2 with significantly improved permanent-magnet properties. A high magnetic anisotropy (13.0 Mergs/cm 3) and saturation magnetic polarizationmore » (11.4 kG) are achieved at 10 K by altering the atomic arrangements and decreasing Fe/Co occupancy disorder.« less

  1. Undercooling Behavior and Intermetallic Compound Coalescence in Microscale Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Balls and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Cu Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M. B.; Ma, X.; Zhang, X. P.

    2012-11-01

    The microstructure of microscale solder interconnects and soldering defects have long been known to have a significant influence on the reliability of electronic packaging, and both are directly related to the solidification behavior of the undercooled solder. In this study, the undercooling behavior and solidification microstructural evolution of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder balls with different diameters (0.76 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.30 mm) and the joints formed by soldering these balls on Cu open pads of two diameters (0.48 mm and 0.32 mm) on a printed circuit board (PCB) substrate were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) incorporated into the reflow process. Results show that the decrease in diameter of the solder balls leads to an obvious increase in the undercooling of the balls, while the undercooling of the solder joints shows a dependence on both the diameter of the solder balls and the diameter ratio of solder ball to Cu pad (i.e., D s/ D p), and the diameter of the solder balls has a stronger influence on the undercooling of the joints than the dimension of the Cu pad. Coarse primary intermetallic compound (IMC) solidification phases were formed in the smaller solder balls and joints. The bulk Ag3Sn IMC is the primary solidification phase in the as-reflowed solder balls. Due to the interfacial reaction and dissolution of Cu atoms into the solder matrix, the primary Ag3Sn phase can be suppressed and the bulk Cu6Sn5 IMC is the only primary solidification phase in the as-reflowed solder joints.

  2. Ag–Pt compositional intermetallics made from alloy nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Yung -Tin; Yan, Yuqi; Shao, Yu -Tsun; ...

    2016-09-07

    Intermetallics are compounds with long-range structural order that often lies in a state of thermodynamic minimum. They are usually considered as favorable structures for catalysis due to their high activity and robust stability. However, formation of intermetallic compounds is often regarded as element specific. For instance, Ag and Pt do not form alloy in bulk phase through the conventional metallurgy approach in almost the entire range of composition. Herein, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach to create a new Ag–Pt compositional intermetallic phase from nanoparticles. By thermally treating the corresponding alloy nanoparticles in inert atmosphere, we obtained an intermetallic material thatmore » has an exceptionally narrow Ag/Pt ratio around 52/48 to 53/47, and a structure of interchangeable closely packed Ag and Pt layers with 85% on tetrahedral and 15% on octahedral sites. This rather unique stacking results in wavy patterns of Ag and Pt planes revealed by scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Finally, this Ag–Pt compositional intermetallic phase is highly active for electrochemical oxidation of formic acid at low anodic potentials, 5 times higher than its alloy nanoparticles, and 29 times higher than the reference Pt/C at 0.4 V (vs RHE) in current density.« less

  3. Ag–Pt compositional intermetallics made from alloy nanoparticles

    SciT

    Pan, Yung -Tin; Yan, Yuqi; Shao, Yu -Tsun

    Intermetallics are compounds with long-range structural order that often lies in a state of thermodynamic minimum. They are usually considered as favorable structures for catalysis due to their high activity and robust stability. However, formation of intermetallic compounds is often regarded as element specific. For instance, Ag and Pt do not form alloy in bulk phase through the conventional metallurgy approach in almost the entire range of composition. Herein, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach to create a new Ag–Pt compositional intermetallic phase from nanoparticles. By thermally treating the corresponding alloy nanoparticles in inert atmosphere, we obtained an intermetallic material thatmore » has an exceptionally narrow Ag/Pt ratio around 52/48 to 53/47, and a structure of interchangeable closely packed Ag and Pt layers with 85% on tetrahedral and 15% on octahedral sites. This rather unique stacking results in wavy patterns of Ag and Pt planes revealed by scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Finally, this Ag–Pt compositional intermetallic phase is highly active for electrochemical oxidation of formic acid at low anodic potentials, 5 times higher than its alloy nanoparticles, and 29 times higher than the reference Pt/C at 0.4 V (vs RHE) in current density.« less

  4. Synthesis, structure, and bonding in K12Au21Sn4. A polar intermetallic compound with dense Au20 and open AuSn4 layers.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kim, Sung-Jin; Miller, Gordon J; Corbett, John D

    2009-12-07

    The new phase K(12)Au(21)Sn(4) has been synthesized by direct reaction of the elements at elevated temperatures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction established its orthorhombic structure, space group Pmmn (No. 59), a = 12.162(2); b = 18.058(4); c = 8.657(2) A, V = 1901.3(7) A(3), and Z = 2. The structure consists of infinite puckered sheets of vertex-sharing gold tetrahedra (Au(20)) that are tied together by thin layers of alternating four-bonded-Sn and -Au atoms (AuSn(4)). Remarkably, the dense but electron-poorer blocks of Au tetrahedra coexist with more open and saturated Au-Sn layers, which are fragments of a zinc blende type structure that maximize tetrahedral heteroatomic bonding outside of the network of gold tetrahedra. LMTO band structure calculations reveal metallic properties and a pseudogap at 256 valence electrons per formula unit, only three electrons fewer than in the title compound and at a point at which strong Au-Sn bonding is optimized. Additionally, the tight coordination of the Au framework atoms by K plays an important bonding role: each Au tetrahedra has 10 K neighbors and each K atom has 8-12 Au contacts. The appreciably different role of the p element Sn in this structure from that in the triel members in K(3)Au(5)In and Rb(2)Au(3)Tl appears to arise from its higher electron count which leads to better p-bonding (valence electron concentrations = 1.32 versus 1.22).

  5. Fundamentals of Mechanical Behavior in Intermetallic Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science Carnegie Mellon University Report No. MEMS-ALC-14 1 February 1991 TABILE OF CONTENTS ...Donlon: "Creep Behavior of Ti-6242: Tlhe Effect of Microstructure anid Sili1con Content ," in Proceedings of the Sixth World Conference on Titanium...press. 3. J. M. Howe, D. P. Basile , M. K. Hatalis and N. Prabhu, Acta Cryst. (1988) A44, 449. 4. A. Ourmazd, D. W. Taylor, J. Cunningham and C. W. Tu

  6. Intermetallic Compound Growth between Electroless Nickel/Electroless Palladium/Immersion Gold Surface Finish and Sn-3.5Ag or Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yukinori; Fukumuro, Naoki; Yae, Shinji

    2018-04-01

    Using an electroless nickel/electroless palladium/immersion gold (ENEPIG) surface finish with a thick palladium-phosphorus (Pd-P) layer of 1 μm, the intermetallic compound (IMC) growth between the ENEPIG surface finish and lead-free solders Sn-3.5Ag (SA) or Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) after reflow soldering and during solid-state aging at 150°C was investigated. After reflow soldering, in the SA/ENEPIG and SAC/ENEPIG interfaces, thick PdSn4 layers of about 2 μm to 3 μm formed on the residual Pd-P layers ( 0.5 μm thick). On the SA/ENEPIG interface, Sn was detected on the upper side of the residual Pd-P layer. On the SAC/ENEPIG interface, no Sn was detected in the residual Pd-P layer, and Cu was detected in the interface between the Pd-P and PdSn4 layers. After 300 h of aging at 150°C, the residual Pd-P layers had diffused completely into the solders. In the SA/ENEPIG interface, an IMC layer consisting of Ni3Sn4 and Ni3SnP formed between the PdSn4 layer and the nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) layer, and a (Pd,Ni)Sn4 layer formed on the lower side of the PdSn4 layer. On the SAC/ENEPIG interface, a much thinner (Pd,Ni)Sn4 layer was observed, and a (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 layer was observed between the PdSn4 and Ni-P layers. These results indicate that Ni diffusion from the Ni-P layer to the PdSn4 layer produced a thick (Pd,Ni)Sn4 layer in the SA solder case, but was prevented by formation of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 in the SAC solder case. This causes the difference in solder joint reliability between SA/ENEPIG and SAC/ENEPIG interfaces in common, thin Pd-P layer cases.

  7. Multi-component intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M; Trahey, Lynn; Vaughey, John T

    2015-03-10

    Multi-component intermetallic negative electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to composite intermetallic electrodes comprising two or more compounds containing metallic or metaloid elements, at least one element of which can react with lithium to form binary, ternary, quaternary or higher order compounds, these compounds being in combination with one or more other metals that are essentially inactive toward lithium and act predominantly, but not necessarily exclusively, to the electronic conductivity of, and as current collection agent for, the electrode. The invention relates more specifically to negative electrode materials that provide an operating potential between 0.05 and 2.0 V vs. metallic lithium.

  8. The growth of intermetallic compounds at Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Ni interfaces and the associated evolution of the solder microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, A.; Clark, A.; Zavalij, L.; Borgesen, P.; Cotts, E. J.

    2001-09-01

    The evolution of intermetallics at and near SnAgCu/Cu and SnAgCu/Ni interfaces was examined, and compared to the behavior, near PbSn/metal and Sn/metal interfaces. Two different solder compositions were considered, Sn93.6Ag4.7Cu1.7 and Sn95.5Ag3.5Cu1.0 (Sn91.8Ag5.1 Cu3.1 and Sn94.35Ag3.8Cu1.85 in atomic percent). In both cases, phase formation and growth at interfaces with Cu were very similar to those commonly observed for eutectic SnPb solder. However, the evolution of intermetallics at SnAgCu/Ni interfaces proved much more complex. The presence of the Cu in the solder dramatically altered the phase selectivity at the solder/Ni interface and affected the growth kinetics of intermetallics. As long as sufficient Cu was available, it would combine with Ni and Sn to form (Cu,Ni)6)Sn5 which grew instead of the Ni3Sn4 usually observed in PbSn/Ni and Sn/Ni diffusion couples. This growing phase would, however, eventually consume essentially all of the available Cu in the solder. Because the mechanical properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys, depend upon the Cu content, this consumption can be expected to alter the mechanical properties of these Pb-free solderjoints. After depletion of the Cu from the solder, further annealing then gradually transformed the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 phase into a (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 phase.

  9. Method for making devices having intermetallic structures and intermetallic devices made thereby

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Brian Kevin; Wilson, Richard Dean; Alman, David Eli

    2004-01-06

    A method and system for making a monolithic intermetallic structure are presented. The structure is made from lamina blanks which comprise multiple layers of metals which are patternable, or intermetallic lamina blanks that are patternable. Lamina blanks are patterned, stacked and registered, and processed to form a monolithic intermetallic structure. The advantages of a patterned monolithic intermetallic structure include physical characteristics such as melting temperature, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Applications are broad, and include among others, use as a microreactor, heat recycling device, and apparatus for producing superheated steam. Monolithic intermetallic structures may contain one or more catalysts within the internal features.

  10. Suppressors made from intermetallic materials

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W; Muth, Thomas R; Cler, Dan L

    2014-11-04

    Disclosed are several examples of apparatuses for suppressing the blast and flash produced as a projectile is expelled by gases from a firearm. In some examples, gases are diverted away from the central chamber to an expansion chamber by baffles. The gases are absorbed by the expansion chamber and desorbed slowly, thus decreasing pressure and increasing residence time of the gases. In other examples, the gases impinge against a plurality of rods before expanding through passages between the rods to decrease the pressure and increase the residence time of the gases. These and other exemplary suppressors are made from an intermetallic material composition for enhanced strength and oxidation resistance at high operational temperatures.

  11. Intermetallic structures with atomic precision for selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes

    DOE PAGES

    Pei, Yuchen; Qi, Zhiyuan; Goh, Tian Wei; ...

    2017-11-14

    It is essential to bridge the structure-properties relationship of bimetallic catalysts for the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts. Different from random alloys, intermetallic compounds (IMCs) present atomically-ordered structures, which is advantageous for catalytic mechanism studies. Here, we used Pt-based intermetallic nanoparticles (iNPs), individually encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells, as catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitroarenes to functionalized anilines. With the capping-free nature and ordered atomic structure, PtSn iNPs show >99% selectivity to hydrogenate the nitro group of 3-nitrostyrene albeit with a lower activity, in contrast to Pt 3Sn iNPs and Pt NPs. The geometric structure of PtSn iNPs in eliminatingmore » Pt threefold sites hampers the adsorption/dissociation of molecular H 2 and leads to a non-Horiuti-Polanyi hydrogenation pathway, while Pt 3Sn and Pt surfaces are saturated by atomic H. Calculations using density functional theory (DFT) suggest a preferential adsorption of the nitro group on the intermetallic PtSn surface contributing to its high selectivity.« less

  12. Structure Defect Property Relationships in Binary Intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medasani, Bharat; Ding, Hong; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin; Canning, Andrew; Haranczyk, Maciej; Asta, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Ordered intermetallics are light weight materials with technologically useful high temperature properties such as creep resistance. Knowledge of constitutional and thermal defects is required to understand these properties. Vacancies and antisites are the dominant defects in the intermetallics and their concentrations and formation enthalpies could be computed by using first principles density functional theory and thermodynamic formalisms such as dilute solution method. Previously many properties of the intermetallics such as melting temperatures and formation enthalpies were statistically analyzed for large number of intermetallics using structure maps and data mining approaches. We undertook a similar exercise to establish the dependence of the defect properties in binary intermetallics on the underlying structural and chemical composition. For more than 200 binary intermetallics comprising of AB, AB2 and AB3 structures, we computed the concentrations and formation enthalpies of vacancies and antisites in a small range of stoichiometries deviating from ideal stoichiometry. The calculated defect properties were datamined to gain predictive capabilities of defect properties as well as to classify the intermetallics for their suitability in high-T applications. Supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231 under the Materials Project Center grant (Award No. EDCBEE).

  13. Magnetic properties of Gd intermetallics

    DOE PAGES

    Petit, Leon; Szotek, Zdzislawa; Jackson, Jerome; ...

    2017-04-06

    Here, using first-principles calculations, based on disordered local moment theory, combined with the self-interaction corrected local spin density approximation, we study magnetic interactions in GdX intermetallics for X = Cu, Zn, Ga, Cd, and Mg. Our predicted magnetic orders and ordering temperatures both at zero and other pressures agree well with experiments including the large increase in the Curie temperature of GdCd under pressure that is shown by our own experimental measurements. From our results it emerges that the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction on its own can not explain the observed behaviour under pressure, and that the magnetic ordering mechanism is stronglymore » influenced by the occupations of both Gd and anion d-bands.« less

  14. Intermetallics for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's) will require improved Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) to achieve the ambitious goal of reducing the cost of delivering a payload to orbit by, at least, an order of magnitude. In this context, metallic materials are good candidates for their use in TPS and hot structures. Up to date, only two major type of materials have been considered and developed in Europe for such type of applications: Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) and intermetallics (ϒ-TiAl). INASMET, during last years, has been working with the orthorhombic titanium aluminides, whose specific properties are comparable, to those of ODS and ϒ-TiAl materials. The EXPERT mission represents a unique opportunity to test under re-entry conditions this material.

  15. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Plucknett, Kevin; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite.

  16. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Plucknett, K.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

    1999-05-18

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite. 2 figs.

  17. The chemical phenol extraction of intermetallic particles from casting AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy.

    PubMed

    Mrówka-Nowotnik, G; Sieniawski, J; Nowotnik, A

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a chemical extraction technique for determination of intermetallic phases formed in the casting AlSi5Cu1Mg aluminium alloy. Commercial aluminium alloys contain a wide range of intermetallic particles that are formed during casting, homogenization and thermomechanical processing. During solidification, particles of intermetallics are dispersed in interdendritic spaces as fine primary phases. Coarse intermetallic compounds that are formed in this aluminium alloy are characterized by unique atomic arrangement (crystallographic structure), morphology, stability, physical and mechanical properties. The volume fraction, chemistry and morphology of the intermetallics significantly affect properties and material behaviour during thermomechanical processing. Therefore, accurate determination of intermetallics is essential to understand and control microstructural evolution in Al alloys. Thus, in this paper it is shown that chemical phenol extraction method can be applied for precise qualitative evaluation. The results of optical light microscopy LOM, scanning electron microscopy SEM and X-ray diffraction XRD analysis reveal that as-cast AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy contains a wide range of intermetallic phases such as Al(4)Fe, gamma- Al(3)FeSi, alpha-Al(8)Fe(2)Si, beta-Al(5)FeSi, Al(12)FeMnSi.

  18. Intermetallics as innovative CRM-free materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Pavel; Jaworska, Lucyna; Cabibbo, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Many of currently used technical materials cannot be imagined without the use of critical raw materials. They require chromium (e.g. in stainless and tool steels), tungsten and cobalt (tool materials, heat resistant alloys), niobium (steels and modern biomaterials). Therefore there is a need to find substitutes to help the European economy. A promising solution can be the application of intermetallics. These materials offer wide variety of interesting properties, such as high hardness and wear resistance or high chemical resistance. In this paper, the overview of possible substitute materials among intermetallics is presented. Intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides are shown as corrosion resistant materials, composites composed of ceramics in intermetallic matrix as possible tool materials. The manufacturing processes are being developed to minimize the disadvantages of these materials, mainly the room-temperature brittleness.

  19. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo-40Ni-13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunyan; Wang, Shuhuan; Gui, Yongliang; Cheng, Zihao; Ni, Guolong

    2016-12-06

    Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo-40Ni-13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo-Ni-Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy-including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility-were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear.

  20. Microstructure Characterization and Wear-Resistant Properties Evaluation of an Intermetallic Composite in Ni-Mo-Si System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Boyuan; Song, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Gui, Yongliang

    2017-02-04

    Intermetallic compounds have been studied for their potential application as structural wear materials or coatings on engineering steels. In the present work, a newly designed intermetallic composite in a Ni-Mo-Si system was fabricated by arc-melting process with commercially pure metal powders as starting materials. The chemical composition of this intermetallic composite is 45Ni-40Mo-15Si (at %), selected according to the ternary alloy diagram. The microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and the wear-resistant properties at room temperature were evaluated under different wear test conditions. Microstructure characterization showed that the composite has a dense and uniform microstructure. XRD results showed that the intermetallic composite is constituted by a binary intermetallic compound NiMo and a ternary Mo₂Ni₃Si metal silicide phase. Wear test results indicated that the intermetallic composite has an excellent wear-resistance at room-temperature, which is attributed to the high hardness and strong atomic bonding of constituent phases NiMo and Mo₂Ni₃Si.

  1. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    SciT

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositionsmore » and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.« less

  2. Intermediate coupled superconductivity in yttrium intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Ahmed, Gulzar; Sharma, Yamini

    2017-09-01

    Non-magnetic YIn3, LaIn3 and LuIn3 with a superconducting transition temperature Tc of 0.78, 0.71 and 0.24 K were investigated for superconductivity. Similarly, rare-earth compound LaSn3 has been reported to exhibit superconductivity around 6.25 K, whereas the non-magnetic YSn3 is a superconductor with Tc of 7 K. The substitution of 13th group In-atoms by 14th group Sn-atoms is seen to enhance Tc by nearly one order, although the lattice parameters increase by ∼1.0% in YSn3 compared to YIn3 compound. It is observed from the ground state properties that the slight difference in the energy band structures of YIn3, YIn2Sn and YSn3 gives rise to various complex Fermi surfaces which are multiply connected and exhibit vast differences. The Fermi level lies on a sharp peak in YSn3 which has a higher density of states N(EF), whereas Fermi level lies on the shoulder of a sharp peak in YIn3. The electron localization function (ELF) and difference charge density maps clearly illustrate the difference in the nature of bonding; the Ysbnd Sn bonds are clearly more ionic (due to larger bond length) than Ysbnd In bonds. These results are consistent with the Bader charges which show loss of charges from Y-atoms and a gain of charges by In/Sn atoms. The dynamical properties also clearly illustrate the difference in the nature of bonds in YX3 intermetallics. A softening of the lowermost acoustic modes is observed in YIn3, whereas all the modes in YSn3 are observed to have positive frequencies which imply its greater stability. Since λel-ph < 1, both YIn3 and YSn3 compounds exhibit type I superconductivity according to BCS theory. However, the smaller N(EF) obtained from the density of states (DOS); the electron-phonon coupling constant λel-ph obtained from the temperature dependent specific heat as well as the instability in phonon modes due to stronger Ysbnd In and Insbnd In bonds in YIn3 may be the cause of lower Tc and filamentary nature of superconductivity. Insertion of Sn

  3. New intermetallic MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) and MgRuP compounds related with MoM'P (M'=Ni and Ru) superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kito, Hijiri; Iyo, Akira; Wada, Toshimi

    2011-01-01

    Using a cubic-anvil high-pressure apparatus, ternary iridium phosphides MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) and MgRuP have been prepared by reaction of stoichiometric amounts of each metal and phosphide powders at around 2 Gpa and above 1523 K for the first time. The structure of these compounds prepared at high-pressure has been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Diffraction lines of these compounds are assigned by the index of the Co2Si-type structure. The electrical resistivity and the d.c magnetic susceptibility of MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) have measured at low temperatures. Unfortunately, no superconducting transition for MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) and MgRuP are observed down to 2 K.

  4. Mg(1 + x)Ir(1 - x) (x = 0, 0.037 and 0.054), a binary intermetallic compound with a new orthorhombic structure type determined from powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Cerný, Radovan; Renaudin, Guillaume; Favre-Nicolin, Vincent; Hlukhyy, Viktor; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2004-06-01

    The new binary compound Mg(1 + x)Ir(1 - x) (x = 0-0.054) was prepared by melting the elements in the Mg:Ir ratio 2:3 in a sealed tantalum tube under an argon atmosphere in an induction furnace (single crystals) or by annealing cold-pressed pellets of the starting composition Mg:Ir 1:1 in an autoclave under an argon atmosphere (powder sample). The structure was independently solved from high-resolution synchrotron powder and single-crystal X-ray data: Pearson symbol oC304, space group Cmca, lattice parameters from synchrotron powder data a = 18.46948 (6), b = 16.17450 (5), c = 16.82131 (5) A. Mg(1 + x)Ir(1 - x) is a topologically close-packed phase, containing 13 Ir and 12 Mg atoms in the asymmetric unit, and has a narrow homogeneity range. Nearly all the atoms have Frank-Kasper-related coordination polyhedra, with the exception of two Ir atoms, and this compound contains the shortest Ir-Ir distances ever observed. The solution of a rather complex crystal structure from powder diffraction, which was fully confirmed by the single-crystal method, shows the power of powder diffraction in combination with the high-resolution data and the global optimization method.

  5. Spark plasma sintering of titanium aluminide intermetallics and its composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldoshan, Abdelhakim Ahmed

    Titanium aluminide intermetallics are a distinct class of engineering materials having unique properties over conventional titanium alloys. gamma-TiAl compound possesses competitive physical and mechanical properties at elevated temperature applications compared to Ni-based superalloys. gamma-TiAl composite materials exhibit high melting point, low density, high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is one of the powder metallurgy techniques where powder mixture undergoes simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. Unlike other sintering techniques such as hot iso-static pressing and hot pressing, SPS compacts the materials in shorter time (< 10 min) with a lower temperature and leads to highly dense products. Reactive synthesis of titanium aluminide intermetallics is carried out using SPS. Reactive sintering takes place between liquid aluminum and solid titanium. In this work, reactive sintering through SPS was used to fabricate fully densified gamma-TiAl and titanium aluminide composites starting from elemental powders at different sintering temperatures. It was observed that sintering temperature played significant role in the densification of titanium aluminide composites. gamma-TiAl was the predominate phase at different temperatures. The effect of increasing sintering temperature on microhardness, microstructure, yield strength and wear behavior of titanium aluminide was studied. Addition of graphene nanoplatelets to titanium aluminide matrix resulted in change in microhardness. In Ti-Al-graphene composites, a noticeable decrease in coefficient of friction was observed due to the influence of self-lubrication caused by graphene.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PROCESSING VARIABLES AND FABRICATION TECHNIQUES UPON THE PROPERTIES OF INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS. Technical Report No. 190-229. Progress Report No. 2 for July 1, 1960 to September 30, 1960

    SciT

    Truesdale, R.; Lympany, B.; Klein, J.

    1960-10-15

    The optimum sintering temperatures of cold pressed NbBe/sub 12/, Nb/sub 2/Be/sub 17/ and Nb/sub 2/Be/sub 19/ were established as 3090. and 3090 deg F, respectively. The compound Nb/sub 2/Be/sub 17/ sintered to 97.5% of theoretical density. Sound 4-in.-square by l-in.-thick blocks of Nb/sub 2/Be/sub 17/ were fabricated and cut into transverse-rupture bars. A modulus of rupture strength of over 46.000 psi was measured at 2500 deg F. In the metallurgical phase. tungsten was found to be a suitable jacket material for the mechanical working of the niobium beryllides at 3000 deg F if protected from oxidation. Cera-kote. a refractory coating,more » sufficiently reduced tungsten oxidation for periods up to 1- hr. Two Nb/sub 2/Be/sub 17/ specimens were upset at 2750 deg F and 7500 psi. An upset of 48% was achieved. causing a slight increase in density and grain size. (auth)« less

  7. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOEpatents

    Rabin, Barry H.; Wright, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  8. Novel Gold Intermetallics with Unique Properties and Bonding Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celania, Christopher Ranger

    Gold has drawn the fascination of society through its brilliant color, malleability, and chemical resistance (hence its chemical nobility) since its discovery in ancient times. Today, this material is still highly coveted by consumers, but also for research within the scientific realm. The inclusion of gold in intermetallics often leads to notably unique structural and bonding features due to the pronounced relativistic effects on its 5d and 6s orbitals. Examples include quasicrystals and their approximants, unique gold clusters such as isolated Au7 clusters in A4Au7X2 (A = K, Rb, Cs; X = Ge, Sn), one dimensional columns such as Au zig-zag chains through Ca3Au3In, two dimensional slabs, such as in K2 Au3, as well as three dimensional gold networks as observed in the interconnected trigonal bipyramids in KAu5, hexagonal diamond-like frameworks of Au tetrahedra in Au-rich Sr-Au-Al systems; and combinations of tetrahedral and fourfold planar Au atoms in Rb3Au7. In recent years, compounds in the gold-rich region of the R-Au- M system (R = rare earth, M = groups 13-15) have come under increased study. Many compounds within this system produce varied electronic and magnetic properties such as Pauli paramagnetism, superconductivity, thermoelectricity, etc. The shielded 4f electrons of the added rare earth elements provide the unpaired spins that lead to the wealth of interesting magnetic properties in their compounds. Metals and metalloids from groups 13-15 may then be used as a bank of available options useful in tuning the valence electron count of the R-Au system toward the formation of stable compounds. Exploration of the Gd-Au-Sb system by utilizing common solid state synthesis techniques frequently used for the production of intermetallics (such as arc melting and high-temperature furnaces for self-flux reactions with low melting components) has yielded rich outcomes. These results include the discovery of a new R3Au9Pn series of compounds (R = Y, Gd-Ho; Pn = Sb, Bi

  9. The Effects of Grain Refinement and Rare Earth Intermetallics on Mechanical Properties of As-Cast and Wrought Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbahari, Bita; Mirzadeh, Hamed; Emamy, Massoud

    2018-03-01

    The effects of rare earth intermetallics and grain refinement by alloying and hot extrusion on the mechanical properties of Mg-Gd-Al-Zn alloys have been studied to elucidate some useful ways to enhance the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. It was revealed that aluminum as an alloying element is a much better grain refining agent compared with gadolinium, but the simultaneous presence of Al and Gd can refine the as-cast grain size more efficiently. The presence of fine and widely dispersed rare earth intermetallics was found to be favorable to achieve finer recrystallized grains during hot deformation by extrusion. The presence of coarse dendritic structure in the GZ61 alloy, grain boundary eutectic containing Mg17Al12 phase in the AZ61 alloy, and rare earth intermetallics with unfavorable morphology in the Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn alloy was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of the alloy in the as-cast condition. As a result, the microstructural refinement induced by hot extrusion process resulted in a significant enhancement in strength and ductility of the alloys. The presence of intermetallic compounds in the extruded Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn and Mg-2Gd-4Al-1Zn alloys deteriorated tensile properties, which was related to the fact that such intermetallic compounds act as stress risers and microvoid initiation sites.

  10. Quaternary borocarbides: New class of intermetallic superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, L. C.; Dhar, S. K.; Mazumdar, Chandan; Hossain, Zakir; Godart, C.; Levy-Clement, C.; Padalia, B. D.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Our recent discovery of superconductivity (SC) in the four-element multiphase Y-Ni-B-C system at an elevated temperature (TC approximately 12 K) has opened up great possibilities of identifying new superconducting materials and generating new physics. Superconductivity with Tc (greater than 20 K) higher than that known so far in bulk intermetallics has been observed in multiphase Y-Pd-B-C and Th-Pd-B-C systems and a family of single phase materials RENi2B2C (RE= Y, rare earth) have been found. Our investigations show YNi2B2C to be a strong coupling hard type-II SC. HC2(T) exhibits an unconventional temperature dependence. Specific heat and magnetization studies reveal coexistence of SC and magnetism in RNi2B2C (R = Ho, Er, Tm) with magnetic ordering temperatures (Tc approximately 8 K, 10.5 K, 11 K and Tm approximately 5 K, approximately 7K, approximately 4 K respectively) that are remarkably higher than those in known magnetic superconductors . Mu-SR studies suggest the possibility of Ni atoms carrying a moment in TmNi2B2C. Resistivity results suggests a double re-entrant transition (SC-normal-SC) in HoNi2B2C. RENi2B2C (RE = Ce, Nd, Gd) do not show SC down to 4.2 K. The Nd- and Gd-compounds order magnetically at approximately 4.5 K and approximately 19.5 K, respectively. Two SC transitions are observed in Y-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 22 K, approximately 10 K) and in Th-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 20 K, approximately 14 K) systems, which indicate that there are at least two structures which support SC in these borocarbides. In our multiphase ThNi2B2C we observe SC at approximately 6 K. No SC was seen in multiphase UNi2B2C, UPd2B2C, UOs2Ge2C and UPd5B3C(0.35) down to 4.2 K. Tc in YNi2B2C is depressed by substitutions (Gd, Th and U at Y-sites and Fe, Co at Ni-sites).

  11. Electron-Poor Polar Intermetallics: Complex Structures, Novel Clusters, and Intriguing Bonding with Pronounced Electron Delocalization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qisheng; Miller, Gordon J

    2018-01-16

    Intermetallic compounds represent an extensive pool of candidates for energy related applications stemming from magnetic, electric, optic, caloric, and catalytic properties. The discovery of novel intermetallic compounds can enhance understanding of the chemical principles that govern structural stability and chemical bonding as well as finding new applications. Valence electron-poor polar intermetallics with valence electron concentrations (VECs) between 2.0 and 3.0 e - /atom show a plethora of unprecedented and fascinating structural motifs and bonding features. Therefore, establishing simple structure-bonding-property relationships is especially challenging for this compound class because commonly accepted valence electron counting rules are inappropriate. During our efforts to find quasicrystals and crystalline approximants by valence electron tuning near 2.0 e - /atom, we observed that compositions close to those of quasicrystals are exceptional sources for unprecedented valence electron-poor polar intermetallics, e.g., Ca 4 Au 10 In 3 containing (Au 10 In 3 ) wavy layers, Li 14.7 Mg 36.8 Cu 21.5 Ga 66 adopting a type IV clathrate framework, and Sc 4 Mg x Cu 15-x Ga 7.5 that is incommensurately modulated. In particular, exploratory syntheses of AAu 3 T (A = Ca, Sr, Ba and T = Ge, Sn) phases led to interesting bonding features for Au, such as columns, layers, and lonsdaleite-type tetrahedral frameworks. Overall, the breadth of Au-rich polar intermetallics originates, in part, from significant relativistics effect on the valence electrons of Au, effects which result in greater 6s/5d orbital mixing, a small effective metallic radius, and an enhanced Mulliken electronegativity, all leading to ultimate enhanced binding with nearly all metals including itself. Two other successful strategies to mine electron-poor polar intermetallics include lithiation and "cation-rich" phases. Along these lines, we have studied lithiated Zn-rich compounds in which structural

  12. The development of Nb-based advanced intermetallic alloys for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, P. R.; Mendiratta, M. G.; Dimiduk, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of refractory material systems with significant increases in temperature capability is required to meet the demands of future aerospace applications. Such materials require a balance of properties such as low-temperature damage tolerance, high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and superior environmental stability for implementation in advanced aerospace systems. Systems incorporating niobium-based beta alloys and intermetallic compounds have the potential for meeting these requirements.

  13. The μ3 model of acids and bases: extending the Lewis theory to intermetallics.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2012-04-02

    A central challenge in the design of new metallic materials is the elucidation of the chemical factors underlying the structures of intermetallic compounds. Analogies to molecular bonding phenomena, such as the Zintl concept, have proven very productive in approaching this goal. In this Article, we extend a foundational concept of molecular chemistry to intermetallics: the Lewis theory of acids and bases. The connection is developed through the method of moments, as applied to DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations. We begin by illustrating that the third and fourth moments (μ(3) and μ(4)) of the electronic density of states (DOS) distribution tune the properties of a pseudogap. μ(3) controls the balance of states above and below the DOS minimum, with μ(4) then determining the minimum's depth. In this way, μ(3) predicts an ideal occupancy for the DOS distribution. The μ(3)-ideal electron count is used to forge a link between the reactivity of transition metals toward intermetallic phase formation, and that of Lewis acids and bases toward adduct formation. This is accomplished through a moments-based definition of acidity which classifies systems that are electron-poor relative to the μ(3)-ideal as μ(3)-acidic, and those that are electron-rich as μ(3)-basic. The reaction of μ(3) acids and bases, whether in the formation of a Lewis acid/base adduct or an intermetallic phase, tends to neutralize the μ(3) acidity or basicity of the reactants. This μ(3)-neutralization is traced to the influence of electronegativity differences at heteroatomic contacts on the projected DOS curves of the atoms involved. The role of μ(3)-acid/base interactions in intermetallic phases is demonstrated through the examination of 23 binary phases forming between 3d metals, the stability range of the CsCl type, and structural trends within the Ti-Ni system.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of crushed titanium-beryllium intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    To develop a technique for the mass production of beryllide pebbles, a crushing method for the granulation of beryllides was used in this study. Two types of crushed Be12Ti pebbles were prepared using mortar-ground (MG) and planetary-ball-milled (PM) powders. A granulation yield of approximately 50 wt.% with sizes in the range of 0.85-1.18 mm was achieved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that the MG pebbles exhibited larger porosity because the larger size of the powder resulted in lower density with higher porosity. However, the considerably larger fraction of fine pores in the PM pebbles resulted in an increased Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, as clearly demonstrated by high-magnification SEM images. To evaluate the reactivity with water vapor, the weight gain and H2 generation rate were also investigated. The results suggested that the PM pebbles exhibited notably lower reactivity, weight gain, and H2 generation rate, which may be due to the dramatically decreased BET specific surface. The fine pores were filled with stable oxides followed by a significant decrease of the surface area during oxidation. Optimization was performed to improve the circularity of the crushed pebbles. Grinding tests using planetary milling without balls for different times clearly demonstrated that the circularity improved (with an estimated value of 0.8) by cutting and polishing the sharp edges; however, long-duration milling for 99 h resulted in attachment of the polished powders to the pebble surface, leading to surface color variation of the crushed pebbles.

  15. Addressing Machining Issues for the Intermetallic Compound 60-NITINOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Wozniak, Walter A.; McCue, Terry R.

    2012-01-01

    60-NITINOL (60 wt.% Ni - 40 wt.% Ti) is being studied as a material for advanced aerospace components. Frequent wire breakage during electrical-discharge machining of this material was investigated. The studied material was fabricated from hot isostatically pressed 60-NITINOL powder obtained through a commercial source. Bulk chemical analysis of the material showed that the composition was nominal but had relatively high levels of certain impurities, including Al and O. It was later determined that Al2O3 particles had contaminated the material during the hot isostatic pressing procedure and that these particles were the most likely cause of the wire breakage. The results of this investigation highlight the importance of material cleanliness to its further implementation.

  16. High Temperature Oxidation of Superalloys and Intermetallic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    such as nickel aluminides (NisAI and NiAl), iron aluminides (FeAl, and Fe3AI) and titanium aluminides (TiAl and Ti3AI) are a class of advanced...80um by YAI2 phase segregation at grain boundaries preventing grain growth [6,8], other work has suggested that oxidation of titanium aluminides ...strengthened Titanium aluminides of similar composition. In this work, a study of the oxidation behavior of ingot-metallurgy processes titanium

  17. cis-trans Germanium chains in the intermetallic compounds ALi{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Ge{sub 2} and A{sub 2}(Li{sub 1-x}In{sub x}){sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (A=Sr, Ba, Eu)-experimental and theoretical studies

    SciT

    You, Tae-Soo; Bobev, Svilen, E-mail: bobev@udel.ed

    Two types of strontium-, barium- and europium-containing germanides have been synthesized using high temperature reactions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All reported compounds also contain mixed-occupied Li and In atoms, resulting in quaternary phases with narrow homogeneity ranges. The first type comprises EuLi{sub 0.91(1)}In{sub 0.09}Ge{sub 2}, SrLi{sub 0.95(1)}In{sub 0.05}Ge{sub 2} and BaLi{sub 0.99(1)}In{sub 0.01}Ge{sub 2}, which crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (BaLi{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}Si{sub 2} structure type, Pearson code oP16). The lattice parameters are a=7.129(4)-7.405(4) A; b=4.426(3)-4.638(2) A; and c=11.462(7)-11.872(6) A. The second type includes Eu{sub 2}Li{sub 1.36(1)}In{sub 0.64}Ge{sub 3} and Sr{sub 2}Li{sub 1.45(1)}In{sub 0.55}Ge{sub 3}, whichmore » adopt the orthorhombic space group Cmcm (Ce{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} structure type, Pearson code oC28) with lattice parameters a=4.534(2)-4.618(2) A; b=19.347(8)-19.685(9) A; and c=7.164(3)-7.260(3) A. The polyanionic sub-structures in both cases feature one-dimensional Ge chains with alternating Ge-Ge bonds in cis- and trans-conformation. Theoretical studies using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method provide the rationale for optimizing the overall bonding by diminishing the {pi}-p delocalization along the Ge chains, accounting for the experimentally confirmed substitution of Li forIn. -- Graphical abstract: Presented are the single-crystal structures of two types of closely related intermetallics, as well as their band structures, calculated using tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO-ASA) method. Display Omitted« less

  18. Brushing up on the history of intermetallics in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterstrat, Richard M.

    1990-03-01

    Employing a silver-tin-mercury intermetallic to repair cavities may seem a little unusual, but intermetallics are quite common in dentistry, ranging from gold crowns to braces. Although the human mouth can be unfriendly territory for a brittle intermetallic alloy, dental amalgam has been around since 659 A.D., and its technology has been developed to the point where a filling can be expected to last 30 years or more.

  19. Intermetallic Precipitation in Low-Density Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Chakrabarti, D.

    2018-06-01

    Low-density steels (LDS) represent a relatively new class of material that contains a large concentration of aluminum. In the present work, we studied the effect of copper addition to these steels. Microanalysis and electron diffraction study were used to demonstrate that on the contrary to the theoretical expectation, copper formed a variety of intermetallic, instead of metallic, precipitates on reaction with aluminum. The precipitation led to a significant age-hardening response that imparted a special characteristic to this material, which had never been reported previously.

  20. Intermetallic Growth and Interfacial Properties of the Grain Refiners in Al Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei; Cheng, Nanpu; Chen, Zhiqian; Xie, Zhongjing; Hui, Liangliang

    2018-01-01

    Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) particles acting as effective grain refiners for Al alloys have been receiving extensive attention these days. In order to judge their nucleation behaviors, first-principles calculations are used to investigate their intermetallic and interfacial properties. Based on energy analysis, Al3Zr and Al3Sc are more suitable for use as grain refiners than the other two intermetallic compounds. Interfacial properties show that Al/Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) interfaces in I-ter interfacial mode exhibit better interface wetting effects due to larger Griffith rupture work and a smaller interface energy. Among these, Al/Al3Sc achieves the lowest interfacial energy, which shows that Sc atoms should get priority for occupying interfacial sites. Additionally, Sc-doped Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) interfacial properties show that Sc can effectively improve the Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) binding strength with the Al matrix. By combining the characteristics of interfaces with the properties of intermetallics, the core-shell structure with Al3Zr-core or Al3Zr(Sc1-1)-core encircled with an Sc-rich shell forms. PMID:29677155

  1. Strong, ductile, and thermally stable Cu-based metal-intermetallic nanostructured composites.

    PubMed

    Dusoe, Keith J; Vijayan, Sriram; Bissell, Thomas R; Chen, Jie; Morley, Jack E; Valencia, Leopolodo; Dongare, Avinash M; Aindow, Mark; Lee, Seok-Woo

    2017-01-09

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and nanocrystalline metals (NMs) have been extensively investigated due to their superior strengths and elastic limits. Despite these excellent mechanical properties, low ductility at room temperature and poor microstructural stability at elevated temperatures often limit their practical applications. Thus, there is a need for a metallic material system that can overcome these performance limits of BMGs and NMs. Here, we present novel Cu-based metal-intermetallic nanostructured composites (MINCs), which exhibit high ultimate compressive strengths (over 2 GPa), high compressive failure strain (over 20%), and superior microstructural stability even at temperatures above the glass transition temperature of Cu-based BMGs. Rapid solidification produces a unique ultra-fine microstructure that contains a large volume fraction of Cu 5 Zr superlattice intermetallic compound; this contributes to the high strength and superior thermal stability. Mechanical and microstructural characterizations reveal that substantial accumulation of phase boundary sliding at metal/intermetallic interfaces accounts for the extensive ductility observed.

  2. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo–40Ni–13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyan; Wang, Shuhuan; Gui, Yongliang; Cheng, Zihao; Ni, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo–40Ni–13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo–Ni–Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy—including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility—were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear. PMID:28774106

  3. First principles electronic and thermal properties of some AlRE intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vipul; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Rajagopalan, M.

    2008-10-01

    A study on structural and electronic properties of non-magnetic cubic B 2-type AlRE (RE=Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr and Lu) intermetallics has been done theoretically. The self-consistent tight binding linear muffin tin orbital method is used to describe the electronic properties of these intermetallics at ambient and at high pressure. These compounds show metallic behavior under ambient conditions. The variation of density of states under compression indicates some possibility of structural phase transformation in AlLa, AlCe and AlPr. Thermal properties like Debye temperature and Grüneisen constant are calculated at T=0 K and at ambient pressure within the Debye-Grüneisen model and compared with the others’ theoretical results. Our results are in good agreement. We have also performed a pressure-induced variation of Debye temperature and have found a decrease in Debye temperature around 40 kbar in AlRE (RE=La, Ce, Pr) intermetallics.

  4. Intermetallic Growth and Interfacial Properties of the Grain Refiners in Al Alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Cheng, Nanpu; Chen, Zhiqian; Xie, Zhongjing; Hui, Liangliang

    2018-04-20

    Al₃TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) particles acting as effective grain refiners for Al alloys have been receiving extensive attention these days. In order to judge their nucleation behaviors, first-principles calculations are used to investigate their intermetallic and interfacial properties. Based on energy analysis, Al₃Zr and Al₃Sc are more suitable for use as grain refiners than the other two intermetallic compounds. Interfacial properties show that Al/Al₃TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) interfaces in I-ter interfacial mode exhibit better interface wetting effects due to larger Griffith rupture work and a smaller interface energy. Among these, Al/Al₃Sc achieves the lowest interfacial energy, which shows that Sc atoms should get priority for occupying interfacial sites. Additionally, Sc-doped Al/Al₃(Zr, Sc) interfacial properties show that Sc can effectively improve the Al/Al₃(Zr, Sc) binding strength with the Al matrix. By combining the characteristics of interfaces with the properties of intermetallics, the core-shell structure with Al₃Zr-core or Al₃Zr(Sc1-1)-core encircled with an Sc-rich shell forms.

  5. Titanium aluminide intermetallic alloys with improved wear resistance

    DOEpatents

    Qu, Jun; Lin, Hua-Tay; Blau, Peter J.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2014-07-08

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy composition having an improved wear resistance, the method comprising heating a titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy material in an oxygen-containing environment at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a top oxide layer and underlying oxygen-diffused layer, followed by removal of the top oxide layer such that the oxygen-diffused layer is exposed. The invention is also directed to the resulting oxygen-diffused titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy, as well as mechanical components or devices containing the improved alloy composition.

  6. A ship-in-a-bottle strategy to synthesize encapsulated intermetallic nanoparticle catalysts: Exemplified for furfural hydrogenation

    DOE PAGES

    Maligal-Ganesh, Raghu V.; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian Wei; ...

    2016-01-28

    In this paper, intermetallic compounds are garnering increasing attention as efficient catalysts for improved selectivity in chemical processes. Here, using a ship-in-a-bottle strategy, we synthesize single-phase platinum-based intermetallic nanoparticles (NPs) protected by a mesoporous silica (mSiO 2) shell by heterogeneous reduction and nucleation of Sn, Pb, or Zn in mSiO 2-encapsulated Pt NPs. For selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol, a dramatic increase in activity and selectivity is observed when intermetallic NPs catalysts are used in comparison to Pt@mSiO 2. Among the intermetallic NPs, PtSn@mSiO 2 exhibits the best performance, requiring only one-tenth of the quantity of Pt usedmore » in Pt@mSiO 2 for similar activity and near 100% selectivity to furfuryl alcohol. A high-temperature oxidation–reduction treatment easily reverses any carbon deposition-induced catalyst deactivation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the importance of surface composition to the activity, whereas density functional theory calculations reveal that the enhanced selectivity on PtSn compared to Pt is due to the different furfural adsorption configurations on the two surfaces.« less

  7. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  8. Modeling of Substitutional Site Preference in Ordered Intermetallic Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Honecy, Frank

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the site substitution scheme of specific alloying elements in ordered compounds and the dependence of site occupancy on compound stoichiometry, alloy concentration. This basic knowledge, and the interactions with other alloying additions are necessary in order to predict and understand the effect of various alloying schemes on the physical properties of a material, its response to various temperature treatments, and the resulting mechanical properties. Many theoretical methods can provide useful but limited insight in this area, since most techniques suffer from constraints in the type of elements and the crystallographic structures that can be modeled. With this in mind, the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys was designed to overcome these limitations, with the intent of providing an useful tool for the theoretical prediction of fundamental properties and structure of complex systems. After a brief description of the BFS method, its use for the determination of site substitution schemes for individual as well as collective alloying additions to intermetallic systems is described, including results for the concentration dependence of the lattice parameter. Focusing on B2 NiAl, FeAl and CoAl alloys, the energetics of Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Hf, Ta and W alloying additions are surveyed. The effect of single additions as well as the result of two simultaneous additions, discussing the interaction between additions and their influence on site preference schemes is considered. Finally, the BFS analysis is extended to ternary L1(sub 2) (Heusler phase) alloys. A comparison between experimental and theoretical results for the limited number of cases for which experimental data is available is also included.

  9. Predicting the stability of ternary intermetallics with density functional theory and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jonathan; Chen, Liming; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2018-06-01

    We use a combination of machine learning techniques and high-throughput density-functional theory calculations to explore ternary compounds with the AB2C2 composition. We chose the two most common intermetallic prototypes for this composition, namely, the tI10-CeAl2Ga2 and the tP10-FeMo2B2 structures. Our results suggest that there may be ˜10 times more stable compounds in these phases than previously known. These are mostly metallic and non-magnetic. While the use of machine learning reduces the overall calculation cost by around 75%, some limitations of its predictive power still exist, in particular, for compounds involving the second-row of the periodic table or magnetic elements.

  10. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  11. Intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites for 815 to 1370 C (1500 to 2500 F) gas turbine engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1989-01-01

    Light weight and potential high temperature capability of intermetallic compounds, such as the aluminides, and structural ceramics, such as the carbides and nitrides, make these materials attractive for gas turbine engine applications. In terms of specific fuel consumption and specific thrust, revolutionary improvements over current technology are being sought by realizing the potential of these materials through their use as matrices combined with high strength, high temperature fibers. The U.S. along with other countries throughout the world have major research and development programs underway to characterize these composites materials; improve their reliability; identify and develop new processing techniques, new matrix compositions, and new fiber compositions; and to predict their life and failure mechanisms under engine operating conditions. The status is summarized of NASA's Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) and the potential benefits are described to be gained in 21st century transport aircraft by utilizing intermetallic and ceramic matrix composite materials.

  12. Microstructure and wear properties of laser clad Ti2Ni3Si/Ni3Ti multiphase intermetallic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. M.; Tang, H. B.; Cai, L. X.; Cao, F.; Zhang, L. Y.; Yu, R. L.

    2005-05-01

    Wear resistant Ti2Ni3Si/Ni3Ti multiphase intermetallic coatings with a microstructure consisting of Ti2Ni3Si primary dendrites and interdendritic Ti2Ni3Si/Ni3Ti eutectic were fabricated on a substrate of 0.2% C plain carbon steel by a laser cladding process with Ti-Ni-Si alloy powders. The Ti2Ni3Si/Ni3Ti coatings have excellent wear resistance and a low coefficient of friction under metallic dry sliding wear test conditions with hardened 0.45% C carbon steel as the silide-mating counterpart. The excellent tribological properties of the coating are attributed to the high hardness, strong covalent-dominant atomic bonds of the ternary metal silicide Ti2Ni3Si and to the high yield strength and strong yield anomaly of the intermetallic compound Ni3Ti.

  13. Multiconfigurational nature of 5f orbitals in uranium and plutonium intermetallics

    PubMed Central

    Booth, C.H.; Jiang, Yu; Wang, D.L.; Mitchell, J.N.; Tobash, P.H.; Bauer, E.D.; Wall, M.A.; Allen, P.G.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Torrez, M.A.; Sarrao, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium and plutonium’s 5f electrons are tenuously poised between strongly bonding with ligand spd-states and residing close to the nucleus. The unusual properties of these elements and their compounds (e.g., the six different allotropes of elemental plutonium) are widely believed to depend on the related attributes of f-orbital occupancy and delocalization for which a quantitative measure is lacking. By employing resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and making comparisons to specific heat measurements, we demonstrate the presence of multiconfigurational f-orbital states in the actinide elements U and Pu and in a wide range of uranium and plutonium intermetallic compounds. These results provide a robust experimental basis for a new framework toward understanding the strongly-correlated behavior of actinide materials. PMID:22706643

  14. Corrosion behavior of binary titanium aluminide intermetallics

    SciT

    Saffarian, H.M.; Gan, Q.; Hadkar, R.

    1996-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of arc-melted binary titanium aluminide intermetallics TiAl, Ti{sub 2}Al, and TiAl{sub 3} in aqueous sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions was measured and compared to that of pure Ti and Al. Effects of electrolyte composition (e.g., sulfate [0.25 M SO{sub 4}{sup 2}{sup {minus}}], chloride [0.1 to 1.0 M Cl{sup {minus}}], and pH [3 to 10]) were examined. Anodic polarization of titanium aluminides in aqueous SO{sub 4}{sup 2}{sup {minus}} solutions was similar (showing passive behavior), but no pitting or pitting potential (E{sub pit}) was observed. In aqueous NaCl, however, titanium aluminides were susceptible to pitting, and E{sub pit}more » decreased with increasing Al content (i.e., Ti{sub 3}Al had the highest E{sub pit} and, therefore, a greater resistance to pitting, followed by TiAl and TiAl{sub 3}). For TiAl, E{sub pit} was slightly dependent upon pH or Cl{sup {minus}} concentration. Pit morphology and E{sub pit} values were quite different for TiAl compared to Ti{sub 3}Al. TiAl showed numerous small pits, whereas Ti{sub 3}Al exhibited fewer but larger and deeper pits. The larger pit density for TiAl was associated with Al-rich interdendrite regions. One interesting feature of the anodic polarization curves for Ti{sub 3}Al was a small anodic peak frequently observed at {approximately}1.4 V{sub SCE} to 1.8 V{sub SCE}. Results suggested this peak was associated with pit initiation, since pitting initiated concurrently with the peak or immediately afterward.« less

  15. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOEpatents

    Rabin, B.H.; Wright, R.N.

    1993-12-14

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders is described. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe[sub 3] Al and FeAl. 25 figures.

  16. Intermetallic alloy welding wires and method for fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-11

    Welding wires for welding together intermetallic alloys of nickel aluminides, nickel-iron aluminides, iron aluminides, or titanium aluminides, and preferably including additional alloying constituents are fabricated as two-component, clad structures in which one component contains the primary alloying constituent(s) except for aluminum and the other component contains the aluminum constituent. This two-component approach for fabricating the welding wire overcomes the difficulties associated with mechanically forming welding wires from intermetallic alloys which possess high strength and limited ductilities at elevated temperatures normally employed in conventional metal working processes. The composition of the clad welding wires is readily tailored so that the welding wire composition when melted will form an alloy defined by the weld deposit which substantially corresponds to the composition of the intermetallic alloy being joined. 4 figs.

  17. Intermetallic alloy welding wires and method for fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1996-01-01

    Welding wires for welding together intermetallic alloys of nickel aluminides, nickel-iron aluminides, iron aluminides, or titanium aluminides, and preferably including additional alloying constituents are fabricated as two-component, clad structures in which one component contains the primary alloying constituent(s) except for aluminum and the other component contains the aluminum constituent. This two-component approach for fabricating the welding wire overcomes the difficulties associated with mechanically forming welding wires from intermetallic alloys which possess high strength and limited ductilities at elevated temperatures normally employed in conventional metal working processes. The composition of the clad welding wires is readily tailored so that the welding wire composition when melted will form an alloy defined by the weld deposit which substantially corresponds to the composition of the intermetallic alloy being joined.

  18. Up-and-coming IMCs. [Intermetallic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Randy; Noebe, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    While the good oxidation and environmental resistance, high melting points, and comparatively low densities of such ordered intermetallics as Ti3Al, NiAl, FeAl, and NbAl3 render them good candidates for advanced aerospace structures, their poor toughness at low temperatures and low strength at elevated temperatures have prompted the development of fiber-reinforced intermetallic-matrix composites (IMCs) with more balanced characteristics. Fabrication methods for continuous-fiber IMCs under development include the P/M 'powder cloth' method, the foil/fiber method, and thermal spraying. The ultimate success of IMCs depends on fibers truly compatible with the matrix materials.

  19. Femtosecond laser ablation and nanoparticle formation in intermetallic NiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, David J.; Titus, Michael S.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2015-10-01

    The ablation behavior of a stoichiometric intermetallic compound β-NiAl subjected to femtosecond laser pulsing in air has been investigated. The single-pulse ablation threshold for NiAl was determined to be 83 ± 4 mJ/cm2 and the transition to the high-fluence ablation regime occurred at 2.8 ± 0.3 J/cm2. Two sizes of nanoparticles consisting of Al, NiAl, Ni3Al and NiO were formed and ejected from the target during high-fluence ablation. Chemical analysis revealed that smaller nanoparticles (1-30 nm) tended to be rich in Al while larger nanoparticles (>100 nm) were lean in Al. Ablation in the low-fluence regime maintained this trend. Redeposited material and nanoparticles remaining on the surface after a single 3.7 J/cm2 pulse, one hundred 1.7 J/cm2 pulses, or one thousand 250 mJ/cm2 pulses were enriched in Al relative to the bulk target composition. Further, the surface of the irradiated high-fluence region was depleted in Al indicating that the fs laser ablation removal rate of the intermetallic constituents in this regime does not scale with the individual pure element ablation thresholds.

  20. Structural plasticity: how intermetallics deform themselves in response to chemical pressure, and the complex structures that result.

    PubMed

    Berns, Veronica M; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-10-06

    Interfaces between periodic domains play a crucial role in the properties of metallic materials, as is vividly illustrated by the way in which the familiar malleability of many metals arises from the formation and migration of dislocations. In complex intermetallics, such interfaces can occur as an integral part of the ground-state crystal structure, rather than as defects, resulting in such marvels as the NaCd2 structure (whose giant cubic unit cell contains more than 1000 atoms). However, the sources of the periodic interfaces in intermetallics remain mysterious, unlike the dislocations in simple metals, which can be associated with the exertion of physical stresses. In this Article, we propose and explore the concept of structural plasticity, the hypothesis that interfaces in complex intermetallic structures similarly result from stresses, but ones that are inherent in a defect-free parent structure, rather than being externally applied. Using DFT-chemical pressure analysis, we show how the complex structures of Ca2Ag7 (Yb2Ag7 type), Ca14Cd51 (Gd14Ag51 type), and the 1/1 Tsai-type quasicrystal approximant CaCd6 (YCd6 type) can all be traced to large negative pressures around the Ca atoms of a common progenitor structure, the CaCu5 type with its simple hexagonal 6-atom unit cell. Two structural paths are found by which the compounds provide relief to the Ca atoms' negative pressures: a Ca-rich pathway, where lower coordination numbers are achieved through defects eliminating transition metal (TM) atoms from the structure; and a TM-rich path, along which the addition of spacer Cd atoms provides the Ca coordination environments greater independence from each other as they contract. The common origins of these structures in the presence of stresses within a single parent structure highlights the diverse paths by which intermetallics can cope with competing interactions, and the role that structural plasticity may play in navigating this diversity.

  1. Impact resistance and energies of intermetallic bonded diamond composites and polycrystalline diamond compacts and their comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, Sai Prasanth

    Chemistry of intermetallic bonded diamond is studied. The impact resistance and energies of intermetallic bonded diamond is compared to current poly crystalline diamond compacts. IBD's are found to have high standards of hardness and have more impact energies absorbed. Intermetallic bonded diamond composite comprises of diamond particles dispersed in Tungsten carbide using Nickel aluminide (Ni3Al) as binder. In previous research conducted on IBD's, diamonds are successfully dispersed in intermetallic alloy of nickel aluminide and processed at 1350°C such that diamond particles remain intact without forming graphite. Composites are formed by milling, pressing the intermetallic binder and diamond particles and sintering at high temperature conditions.

  2. Investigation on thixojoining to produce hybrid components with intermetallic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyboldt, Christoph; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Current research activities at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology of the University of Stuttgart are focusing on the manufacturing of hybrid components using semi-solid forming strategies. One process investigated is the joining of different materials in the semi-solid state and is so called "thixojoining". In this process, metallic inlays are inserted into the semi-solid forming die before the actual forming process and are then joined with a material which was heated up to its semi-solid state. Earlier investigations have shown that using this process a very well-shaped form closure can be produced. Furthermore, it was found that sometimes intermetallic phases are built between the different materials, which decisively influence the part properties of such hybrid components for its future application. Within the framework presented in this paper, inlays made of aluminum, brass and steel were joined with aluminum in the semi-solid state. The aim of the investigations was to create an intermetallic bond between the different materials. For this investigations the liquid phase fraction of the aluminum and the temperature of the inlay were varied in order to determine the influence on the formation of the intermetallic phase. Forming trials were performed using a semi-solid forming die with a disk shaped design. Furthermore, the intermetallic phase built was investigated using microsections.

  3. Advances in processing of NiAl intermetallic alloys and composites for high temperature aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Kamil; Basista, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades intermetallic compounds such as NiAl have been considered as potential high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry. A large number of investigations have been reported describing complex fabrication routes, introducing various reinforcing/alloying elements along with theoretical analyses. These research works were mainly focused on the overcoming of main disadvantage of nickel aluminides that still restricts their application range, i.e. brittleness at room temperature. In this paper we present an overview of research on NiAl processing and indicate methods that are promising in solving the low fracture toughness issue at room temperature. Other material properties relevant for high temperature applications are also addressed. The analysis is primarily done from the perspective of NiAl application in aero engines in temperature regimes from room up to the operating temperature (over 1150 °C) of turbine blades.

  4. Oxidation of high-temperature intermetallics; Proceedings of the Workshop, Cleveland, OH, Sept. 22, 23, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, Toni (Editor); Doychak, Joseph (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on the high-temperature oxidation behavior of aerospace structures-applicable intermetallic compounds discusses the influence of reactive-element additions on the oxidation of Ni3Al base alloys, the effect of Ni3Al oxidation below 850 C on fracture behavior, the oxidation of FeAl + Hf, Zr, and B, the synergistic effect of Al and Si on the oxidation resistance of Fe alloys, and pack cementation coatings of Cr-Al on Fe, Ni, and Co alloys. Also discussed are the formation of alumina on Nb- and Ti-base alloys, the oxidation behavior of titanium aluminide alloys, silicide coatings for refractory metals, the oxidation of chromium disilicide, and the oxidation behavior of nickel beryllides.

  5. AN ATTEMPT TO LOCATE INTERMETALLIC PARTICLES IN ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS USING A BITTER FIGURE TECHNIQUE

    SciT

    Cox, B.; Harder, B.R.

    1961-10-01

    The compound ZrFe/sub 2/ is known to be ferromagnetic, and an attempt to locate particles of magnetic material in zircaloy-2 and dilute Zr- Fe alloys by a Bitter figure technlque is described. An Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ sol in water-soluble plastic was used to prepare Bitter figures of the alloy surfaces in the form of replicas, which were then examined in an electron microscope. No magnetic particles were located in either zircaloy-2 or a Zr-O.3% Fe alloy. Subsequent work on specimens of ZrFe/sub 2/ showed that the failure to detect it in the dilute alloys arose because the size of themore » intermetallic particles in the latter was smaller than the size of the magnetic domains. (auth)« less

  6. Antiferromagnetism, structural instability and frustration in intermetallic AFe4X2 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, Helge; Bergmann, Christoph; Weber, Katharina; Kraft, Inga; Mufti, N.; Klauss, Hans-Henning; Dellmann, T.; Woike, T.; Geibel, Christoph

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic systems with reduced dimensionality or frustration attract strong interest because these features lead to an increase of quantum fluctuations and often result in unusual properties. Here, we present a detailed study of the magnetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of the intermetallic AFe4X2 compounds (A=Sc,Y,Lu,Zr; X=Si,Ge) crystallizing in the ZrFe4Si2 structure type. Our results evidence that these compounds cover the whole regime from frustrated AFM order up to an AFM quantum critical point. Susceptibility χ(T), specific heat, resistivity, and T-dependent XRD measurements were performed on polycrystalline samples. In all compounds we observed a Curie-Weiss behavior in χ(T) at high T indicating a paramagnetic moment of about 3μB/Fe. Magnetic and structural transitions as previously reported for YFe4Ge2 occur in all compounds with trivalent A. However, transition temperatures, nature of the transition as well as the relation between structural and magnetic transitions change significantly with the A element. Low TN's and large θCW /TN ratios confirm the relevance of frustration. The results are analyzed and discussed with respect to electronic, structural and magnetic instabilities applying DFT calculations. Financial support from the DFG (GRK 1621) is acknowledged

  7. Electronic and optical properties of RESn{sub 3} (RE=Pr & Nd) intermetallics: A first principles study

    SciT

    Pagare, G., E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Abraham, Jisha A.; Department of Physics, National Defence Academy, Pune-411023

    2015-06-24

    A theoretical study of structural, electronic and optical properties of RESn{sub 3} (RE = Pr & Nd) intermetallics have been investigated systematically using first principles density functional theory. The calculations are carried out within the PBE-GGA and LSDA for the exchange correlation potential. The ground state properties such as lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B′) are calculated and the calculated lattice parameters show well agreement with the experimental results. We first time predict elastic constants for these compounds. From energy dispersion curves, it is found that these compounds are metallic in nature. The linearmore » optical response of these compounds are also studied and the higher value of static dielectric constant shows the possibility to use them as good dielectric materials.« less

  8. Discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites via XD synthesis. [exothermal dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of recent results obtained for discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites produced using the XD process. Intermetallic matrices investigated include NiAl, multiphase NiAl + Ni2AlTi, CoAl, near-gamma titanium aluminides, and Ll2 trialuminides containing minor amounts of second phase. Such mechanical properties as low and high temperature strength, compressive and tensile creep, elastic modulus, ambient ductility, and fracture toughness are discussed as functions of reinforcement size, shape, and volume fraction. Microstructures before and after deformation are examined and correlated with measured properties. An observation of interest in many of the systems examined is 'dispersion weakening' at high temperatures and high strain rates. This behavior is not specific to the XD process; rather similar observations have been reported in other discontinuous composites. Proposed mechanisms for this behavior are presented.

  9. An intermetallic forming steel under radiation for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, C.; Stergar, E.; Maloy, S. A.; Wang, Y. Q.; Hosemann, P.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we investigated the formation and stability of intermetallics formed in a maraging steel PH 13-8 Mo under proton radiation up to 2 dpa utilizing nanoindentation, microcompression testing and atom probe tomography. A comprehensive discussion analyzing the findings utilizing rate theory is introduced, comparing the aging process to radiation induced diffusion. New findings of radiation induced segregation of undersize solute atoms (Si) towards the precipitates are considered.

  10. Melt Spinning of Intermetallic Alloys: Heat Transfer and Microstructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-21

    newly emerging mdLerials such as titanium aluminides and other intermetallic alloys[4,5]. These materials must possess good mechanical and corrosion...alloys such as titanium aluminides with the surrounding atmosphere, it utilizes a tilting water-cooled copper hearth and the apparatus is in a 5 psi Argon... titanium aluminide in the form of filament or ribbon break olf into short segments. The solidified ribbons have lengths of 5 - 15 mm, widths of 0.5

  11. The influence of Sc addition on the welding microstructure of Zr-based bulk metallic glass: The stability of the amorphous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shing Hoa; Kuo, Pei Hung; Tsang, Hsiao Tsung; Jeng, Rong Ruey; Lin, Yu Lon

    2007-10-01

    Pulsed direct current autogeneous tungsten inert gas arc welding was conducted on rods of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 and (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 under two different cooling conditions. The crystalline precipitates in the fusion zone of BMG Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 were confirmed by microfocused x-ray diffraction pattern analysis as Zr2Ni and Zr2(Cu,Al) intermetallic compounds. In contrast, BMG with Sc addition (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 shows an excellent stable glass forming ability. The fusion zone of BMG (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10)99.98Sc0.02 remains in the same amorphous state as that of the amorphous base metal when the weld is cooled with accelerated cooling.

  12. Zirconium-nickel crystals—hydrogen accumulators: Dissolution and penetration of hydrogen atoms in alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysina, Z. A.; Zaginaichenko, S. Yu.; Shchur, D. V.; Gabdullin, M. T.; Kamenetskaya, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    The calculation of the free energy, thermodynamic equilibrium equations, and kinetic equations of the intermetallic compound Zr2NiH x has been carried out based on molecular-kinetic concepts. The equilibrium hydrogen concentration depending on the temperature, pressure, and energy parameters has been calculated. The absorption-desorption of hydrogen has been studied, and the possibility of the realization of the hysteresis effect has been revealed. The kinetics of the dissolution and permeability of hydrogen is considered, the time dependence of these values has been found, and conditions for the extremum character of their time dependence have been determined. Relaxation times of the dissolution and permeability of hydrogen into the alloy have been calculated. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data available in the literature.

  13. A diffraction based study of the deformation mechanisms in anomalously ductile B2 intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulay, Rupalee Prashant

    For many decades, the brittle nature of most intermetallic compounds (e.g. NiAl) has been the limiting factor in their practical application. Many B2 (CsCl prototypical structure) intermetallics are known to exhibit slip on the <001>{110} slip mode, which provides only 3 independent slip systems and, hence, is unable to satisfy the von Mises (a.k.a. Taylor) criterion for polycrystalline ductility. As a result, inherent polycrystalline ductility is unexpected. Recent discovery of a number of ductile B2 intermetallics has raised questions about possible violation of the von Mises criterion by these alloys. These ductile intermetallic compounds are MR (metal (M) combined with a rare earth metal or group IV refractory metal (R)) alloys and are stoichiometric, ordered compounds. Single crystal slip trace analyses have only identified the presence of <100>{011} or <100>{010} slip systems. More than 100 other B2 MR compounds are known to exist and many of them have already been shown to be ductile (e.g., CuY, AgY, CuDy, CoZr, CoTi, etc.). Furthermore, these alloys exhibit a large Bauschinger effect. The present work uses several diffraction based techniques including electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in-situ neutron diffraction; in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mechanical testing, and crystal plasticity modeling, to elucidate the reason for ductility in select B2 alloys, explore the spread of this ductility over the B2 family, and understand the Bauschinger effect in these alloys. Several possible explanations (e.g., slip of <111> dislocations, strong texture, phase transformations and twinning) for the anomalous ductility were explored. An X-ray diffraction based analysis ruled out texture, phase purity and departure from order as explanations for the anomalous ductility in MR alloys. In-situ neutron diffraction and post deformation SEM, EBSD, and TEM were unable to

  14. Phase transition of intermetallic TbPt at high temperature and high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fei; Wu, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Qin, Shan

    2018-04-01

    Here we present synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction experiments combined with diamond anvil cell and laser heating techniques on the intermetallic rare earth compound TbPt (Pnma and Z  =  4) up to 32.5 GPa and ~1800 K. The lattice parameters of TbPt exhibit continuous compression behavior up to 18.2 GPa without any evidence of phase transformation. Pressure-volume data were fitted to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with V 0  =  175.5(2) Å3, {{K}{{T0}}}   =  110(5) GPa and K{{T0}}\\prime   =  3.8(7). TbPt exhibits anisotropic compression with β a   >  β b   >  β c and the ratio of axial compressibility is 2.50:1.26:1.00. A new monoclinic phase of TbPt assigned to the Pc or P2/c space group was observed at 32.5 GPa after laser heating at ~1800 K. This new phase is stable at high pressure and presented a quenchable property on decompression to ambient conditions. The pressure-volume relationship is well described by the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, which yields V 0  =  672(4) Å3, {{K}{{T0}}}   =  123(6) GPa, which is about ~14% more compressible than the orthorhombic TbPt. Our results provide more information on the structure and elastic property view, and thus a better understanding of the physical properties related to magnetic structure in some intermetallic rare earth alloys.

  15. Quantum many-body intermetallics: Phase stability of Fe3Al and small-gap formation in Fe2VAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristanovski, Oleg; Richter, Raphael; Krivenko, Igor; Lichtenstein, Alexander I.; Lechermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Various intermetallic compounds harbor subtle electronic correlation effects. To elucidate this fact for the Fe-Al system, we perform a realistic many-body investigation based on a combination of density functional theory with dynamical mean-field theory in a charge self-consistent manner. A better characterization and understanding of the phase stability of bcc-based D 03-Fe3Al through an improved description of the correlated charge density and the magnetic energy is achieved. Upon replacement of one Fe sublattice with V, the Heusler compound Fe2VAl is realized, known to display bad-metal behavior and increased specific heat. Here we document a charge-gap opening at low temperatures in line with previous experimental work. The gap structure does not match conventional band theory and is reminiscent of (pseudo)gap characteristics in correlated oxides.

  16. FP-LAPW study of structural, electronic, elastic, mechanical and thermal properties of AlFe intermetallic

    SciT

    Jain, Ekta, E-mail: jainekta05@gmail.com; Pagare, Gitanjali, E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Sanyal, S. P., E-mail: sps.physicsbu@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    The structural, electronic, elastic, mechanical and thermal properties of AlFe intermetallic compound in B{sub 2}-type (CsCl) structure have been investigated using first-principles calculations. The exchange-correlation term was treated within generalized gradient approximation. Ground state properties i.e. lattice constants (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B) and first-order pressure derivative of bulk modulus (B’) are presented. The density of states are derived which show the metallic character of present compound. Our results for C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} agree well with previous theoretical data. Using Pugh’s criteria (B/G{sub H} < 1.75), brittle character of AlFe is satisfied. In addition shear modulusmore » (G{sub H}), Young’s modulus (E), sound wave velocities and Debye temperature (θ{sub D}) have also been estimated.« less

  17. Investigation of electronic structure and chemical bonding of intermetallic Pd2HfIn: An ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bano, Amreen; Gaur, N. K.

    2018-05-01

    Ab-initio calculations are carried out to study the electronic and chemical bonding properties of Intermetallic full Heusler compound Pd2HfIn which crystallizes in F-43m structure. All calculations are performed by using density functional theory (DFT) based code Quantum Espresso. Generalized gradient approximations (GGA) of Perdew- Burke- Ernzerhof (PBE) have been adopted for exchange-correlation potential. Calculated electronic band structure reveals the metallic character of the compound. From partial density of states (PDoS), we found the presence of relatively high intensity electronic states of 4d-Pd atom at Fermi level. We have found a pseudo-gap just abouve the Fermi level and N(E) at Fermi level is observed to be 0.8 states/eV, these finding indicates the existence of superconducting character in Pd2HfIn.

  18. Electronic structure, elasticity, bonding features and mechanical behaviour of zinc intermetallics: A DFT study

    SciT

    Fatima, Bushra, E-mail: bushrafatima25@gmail.com; Acharya, Nikita; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-06

    The structural stability, electronic structure, elastic and mechanical properties of TiZn and ZrZn intermetallics have been studied using ab-initio full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation potentials. The various structural parameters, such as lattice constant (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B), and its pressure derivative (B’) are analysed and compared. The investigation of elastic constants affirm that both TiZn and ZrZn are elastically stable in CsCl (B{sub 2} phase) structure. The electronic structures have been analysed quantitatively from the band structure which reveals the metallic nature of these compounds. To better illustratemore » the nature of bonding and charge transfer, we have also studied the Fermi surfaces. The three well known criterion of ductility namely Pugh’s rule, Cauchy’s pressure and Frantsevich rule elucidate the ductile nature of these compounds.« less

  19. Amino Acids Aided Sintering for the Formation of Highly Porous FeAl Intermetallic Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Karczewski, Krzysztof; Stepniowski, Wojciech J.

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication of metallic foams by sintering metal powders mixed with thermally degradable compounds is of interest for numerous applications. Compounds releasing gaseous nitrogen, minimizing interactions between the formed gases and metallic foam by diluting other combustion products, were applied. Cysteine and phenylalanine, were used as gas releasing agents during the sintering of elemental Fe and Al powders in order to obtain metallic foams. Characterization was carried out by optical microscopy with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and gas permeability tests. Porosity of the foams was up to 42 ± 3% and 46 ± 2% for sintering conducted with 5 wt % cysteine and phenylalanine, respectively. Chemical analyses of the formed foams revealed that the oxygen content was below 0.14 wt % and the carbon content was below 0.3 wt %. Therefore, no brittle phases could be formed that would spoil the mechanical stability of the FeAl intermetallic foams. The gas permeability tests revealed that only the foams formed in the presence of cysteine have enough interconnections between the pores, thanks to the improved air flow through the porous materials. The foams formed with cysteine can be applied as filters and industrial catalysts. PMID:28773106

  20. Electromigration induced high fraction of compound formation in SnAgCu flip chip solder joints with copper column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luhua; Han, Jung-Kyu; Liang, Jarrett Jun; Tu, K. N.; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2008-06-01

    To overcome the effect of current crowding on electromigration-induced pancake-type void formation in flip chip solder joints, two types of Cu column in 90μm flip chip SnAgCu solder joints have been studied. They were (1) the solder contacts the Cu column at bottom and side walls and (2) the solder wets only the bottom surface of the copper column. With a current density of 1.6×104A/cm2 at 135°C, no failure was detected after 1290h. However, the resistance increased by about 10% due to the formation of a large fraction of intermetallic compounds. We found that electromigration has accelerated the consumption rate of copper column and converted almost the entire solder joint into intermetallic compound. Mechanically, drop impact test indicates a brittle fracture failure in the intermetallic. The electromigration critical product for the intermetallic is discussed.

  1. Intermetallic nickel silicide nanocatalyst—A non-noble metal–based general hydrogenation catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Marga-Martina; Agapova, Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogenation reactions are essential processes in the chemical industry, giving access to a variety of valuable compounds including fine chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmachemicals. On an industrial scale, hydrogenations are typically performed with precious metal catalysts or with base metal catalysts, such as Raney nickel, which requires special handling due to its pyrophoric nature. We report a stable and highly active intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst that can be used for hydrogenations of a wide range of unsaturated compounds. The catalyst is prepared via a straightforward procedure using SiO2 as the silicon atom source. The process involves thermal reduction of Si–O bonds in the presence of Ni nanoparticles at temperatures below 1000°C. The presence of silicon as a secondary component in the nickel metal lattice plays the key role in its properties and is of crucial importance for improved catalytic activity. This novel catalyst allows for efficient reduction of nitroarenes, carbonyls, nitriles, N-containing heterocycles, and unsaturated carbon–carbon bonds. Moreover, the reported catalyst can be used for oxidation reactions in the presence of molecular oxygen and is capable of promoting acceptorless dehydrogenation of unsaturated N-containing heterocycles, opening avenues for H2 storage in organic compounds. The generality of the nickel silicide catalyst is demonstrated in the hydrogenation of over a hundred of structurally diverse unsaturated compounds. The wide application scope and high catalytic activity of this novel catalyst make it a nice alternative to known general hydrogenation catalysts, such as Raney nickel and noble metal–based catalysts. PMID:29888329

  2. Intermetallic nickel silicide nanocatalyst-A non-noble metal-based general hydrogenation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ryabchuk, Pavel; Agostini, Giovanni; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Lund, Henrik; Agapova, Anastasiya; Junge, Henrik; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogenation reactions are essential processes in the chemical industry, giving access to a variety of valuable compounds including fine chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmachemicals. On an industrial scale, hydrogenations are typically performed with precious metal catalysts or with base metal catalysts, such as Raney nickel, which requires special handling due to its pyrophoric nature. We report a stable and highly active intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst that can be used for hydrogenations of a wide range of unsaturated compounds. The catalyst is prepared via a straightforward procedure using SiO 2 as the silicon atom source. The process involves thermal reduction of Si-O bonds in the presence of Ni nanoparticles at temperatures below 1000°C. The presence of silicon as a secondary component in the nickel metal lattice plays the key role in its properties and is of crucial importance for improved catalytic activity. This novel catalyst allows for efficient reduction of nitroarenes, carbonyls, nitriles, N-containing heterocycles, and unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Moreover, the reported catalyst can be used for oxidation reactions in the presence of molecular oxygen and is capable of promoting acceptorless dehydrogenation of unsaturated N-containing heterocycles, opening avenues for H 2 storage in organic compounds. The generality of the nickel silicide catalyst is demonstrated in the hydrogenation of over a hundred of structurally diverse unsaturated compounds. The wide application scope and high catalytic activity of this novel catalyst make it a nice alternative to known general hydrogenation catalysts, such as Raney nickel and noble metal-based catalysts.

  3. The intermetallic formation and growth kinetics at the interface of near eutectic tin-silver-copper solder alloys and gold/nickel metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mao

    The formation of a one micron thick layer of an intermetallic compound between a solder alloy and a metallic substrate generally constitutes a good solder joint in an electronic device. However, if the compound grows too thick, and/or if multiple intermetallic compounds form, poor solder joint reliability may result. Thus significant interest has been focused on intermetallic compound phase selection and growth kinetics at such solder/metal interfaces. The present study focuses on one such specific problem, the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds at near eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy/Ni interfaces. Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder was reflowed on Au/Ni substrates, resulting in the initial formation and growth of (CuNi)6Sn 5 at Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu /Ni interfaces. (NiCu)3Sn4 formed between the (CuNi)6Sn5 and the Ni substrate when the concentration of Cu in the liquid SnAgCu solder decreased to a critical value which depended upon temperature: 0.37, 0.31 and 0.3(wt.%) at reflow temperatures of 260°C, 245°C and 230°C respectively. The growth rate of (CuNi)6Sn5 was found to be consistent with extrapolations of a diffusion limited growth model formulated for lower temperature, solid state diffusion couples. The long range diffusion of Cu did not limit growth rates. The spalling of (CuNiAu)6Sn5 from (NiCu)3 Sn4 surfaces during reflow was also examined. When the Cu concentration in the solder decreased to approximately 0.28wt.%, the (Cu,Ni,Au) 6Sn5 was observed to spall. Compressive stress in (CuNiAu) 6Sn5 and weak adhesion between (CuNiAu)6Sn 5 and (NiCu)3Sn4 was found to cause this effect.

  4. Incorporation of Interfacial Intermetallic Morphology in Fracture Mechanism Map for Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Kumar, P.; Dutta, I.; Sidhu, R.; Renavikar, M.; Mahajan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A fracture mechanism map (FMM) is a powerful tool which correlates the fracture behavior of a material to its microstructural characteristics in an explicit and convenient way. In the FMM for solder joints, an effective thickness of the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer ( t eff) and the solder yield strength ( σ ys,eff) are used as abscissa and ordinate axes, respectively, as these two predominantly affect the fracture behavior of solder joints. Earlier, a definition of t eff, based on the uniform thickness of IMC ( t u) and the average height of the IMC scallops ( t s), was proposed and shown to aptly explain the fracture behavior of solder joints on Cu. This paper presents a more general definition of t eff that is more widely applicable to a range of metallizations, including Cu and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). Using this new definition of t eff, mode I FMM for SAC387/Cu joints has been updated and its validity was confirmed. A preliminary FMM for SAC387/Cu joints with ENIG metallization is also presented.

  5. Characterization of ceramics and intermetallics fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Janet B.

    1989-01-01

    Three efforts aimed at investigating the process of self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) for the fabrication of structural ceramics and intermetallics are summarized. Of special interest was the influence of processing variables such as exothermic dopants, gravity, and green state morphology in materials produced by SHS. In the first effort directed toward the fabrication of SiC, exothermic dopants of yttrium and zirconium were added to SiO2 or SiO2 + NiO plus carbon powder mix and processed by SHS. This approach was unsuccessful since it did not produce the desired product of crystalline SiC. In the second effort, the influence of gravity was investigated by examining Ni-Al microstructures which were produced by SHS combustion waves traveling with and opposite the gravity direction. Although final composition and total porosities of the combusted Ni-Al compounds were found to be gravity independent, larger pores were created in those specimens which were combusted opposite to the gravity force direction. Finally, it was found that green microstructure has a significant effect on the appearance of the combusted piece. Severe pressing laminations were observed to arrest the combustion front for TiC samples.

  6. Synthesis, Structure and bonding Analysis of the Polar Intermetallic Phase Ca2Pt2Cd

    SciT

    Samal, Saroj L.; Corbett, John D.

    The polar intermetallic phase Ca2Pt2Cd was discovered during explorations of the Ca-Pt-Cd system. The compound was synthesized by high temperature reactions, and its structure refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as orthorhombic, Immm, a = 4.4514(5), b = 5.8415(6), c = 8.5976(9) Å, Z = 2. The structure formally contains infinite, planar networks of [Pt2Cd]4– along the ab plane, which can be described as tessellation of six and four-member rings of the anions, with cations stuffed between the anion layers. The infinite condensed platinum chains show a substantial long–short distortion of 0.52 Å, an appreciable difference between Ca2Pt2Cd (26 valence electrons)more » and the isotypic but regular Ca2Cu2Ga (29 VE). The relatively large cation proportion diminishes the usual dominance of polar (Pt–Cd) and 5d–5d (Pt–Pt) contributions to the total Hamilton populations.« less

  7. Metal- and intermetallic-matrix composites for aerospace propulsion and power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for high specific strength refractory materials of prospective military, civil, and space propulsion systems are presently addressed in the context of emerging capabilities in metal- and intermetallic-matrix composites. The candidate systems encompass composite matrix compositions of superalloy, Nb-Zr refractory alloy, Cu-base, and Ti-base alloy types, as well as such intermetallics as TiAl, Ti3Al, NiAl, and MoSi2. The brittleness of intermetallic matrices remains a major consideration, as does their general difficulty of fabrication.

  8. Formation of intermetallics at the interface of explosively welded Ni-Al multilayered composites during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogneva, T. S.; Lazurenko, D. V.; Bataev, I. A.; Mali, V. I.; Esikov, M. A.; Bataev, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The Ni-Al multilayer composite was fabricated using explosive welding. The zones of mixing of Ni and Al are observed at the composite interfaces after the welding. The composition of these zones is inhomogeneous. Continuous homogeneous intermetallic layers are formed at the interface after heat treatment at 620 °C during 5 h These intermetallic layers consist of NiAl3 and Ni2Al3 phases. The presence of mixed zones significantly accelerates the growth rate of intermetallic phases at the initial stages of heating.

  9. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  10. Influence of Al grain boundaries segregations and La-doping on embrittlement of intermetallic NiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Anatoly I.; Wainstein, Dmitry L.; Rashkovskiy, Alexander Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The microscopic nature of intergranular fracture of NiAl was experimentally investigated by the set of electron spectroscopy techniques. The paper demonstrates that embrittlement of NiAl intermetallic compound is caused by ordering of atomic structure that leads to formation of structural aluminum segregations at grain boundaries (GB). Such segregations contain high number of brittle covalent interatomic bonds. The alloying by La increases the ductility of material avoiding Al GB enrichment and disordering GB atomic structure. The influence of La alloying on NiAl mechanical properties was investigated. GB chemical composition, atomic and electronic structure transformations after La doping were investigated by AES, XPS and EELFS techniques. To qualify the interatomic bonds metallicity the Fermi level (EF) position and electrons density (neff) in conduction band were determined in both undoped and doped NiAl. Basing on experimental results the physical model of GB brittleness formation was proposed.

  11. Development of B2 Shape Memory Intermetallics Beyond NiAl, CoNiAl and CoNiGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstein, G.; Firstov, G. S.; Kosorukova, T. A.; Koval, Yu. N.; Maier, H. J.

    2018-06-01

    The present study describes the development of shape memory alloys based on NiAl. Initially, this system was considered a promising but unsuccessful neighbour of NiTi. Later, however, shape memory alloys like CoNiAl or CoNiGa were developed that can be considered as NiAl derivatives and already demonstrated good mechanical properties. Yet, these alloys were still inferior to NiTi in most respects. Lately, using a multi-component approach, a CoNiCuAlGaIn high entropy intermetallic compound was developed from the NiAl prototype. This new alloy featured a B2 phase and a martensitic transformation along with a remarkable strength in the as-cast state. In the long-term, this new approach might led to a breakthrough for shape memory alloys in general.

  12. 3D study of intermetallics and their effect on the corrosion morphology of rheocast aluminium alloy

    SciT

    Mingo, B.; Arrabal, R., E-mail: rarrabal@ucm.es; Pardo, A.

    In the present study, the effect of heat treatment T6.1 on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of rheocast aluminium alloy A356 is investigated on the basis of 2D/3D characterization techniques and electrochemical and SKPFM measurements. Heat treatment strengthens the α-Al matrix, modifies the intermetallic particles and spheroidizes eutectic Si. These changes do not modify significantly the corrosion behaviour of the alloy. 3D SEM-Tomography clearly shows that the corrosion advances in the shape of narrow paths between closely spaced intermetallics without a major influence of eutectic Si. - Highlights: • T6.1 spheroidizes Si, strengthens the matrix and modifies the intermetallics. •more » Electrochemical behaviour of untreated and heat-treated alloys is similar. • 3D SEM-Tomography provides additional information on the corrosion morphology. • Corrosion advances as paths between intermetallics with little influence of Si.« less

  13. From Structural Complexity to Structure-Property Relationships in Intermetallics: Development of Density Functional Theory-Chemical Pressure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelkemier, Joshua

    The unparalleled structural diversity of intermetallic compounds provides nearly unlimited potential for the discovery and optimization of materials with useful properties, such as thermoelectricity, superconductivity, magnetism, hydrogen storage, superelasticity, and catalysis. This same diversity, however, creates challenges for understanding and controlling the unpredictable structure of intermetallic phases. Moreover, the fundamental design principles that have proven so powerful in molecular chemistry do not have simple analogues for metallic, solid state materials. One of these basic principles is the concept of atomic size effects. Especially in densely packed crystal structures where the need to fill space is in competition with the atoms' preferences for ideal interatomic distances, substitution of one element in a compound for another with similar chemical properties yet different atomic size can have dramatic effects on the ordering of the atoms (which in turn affects the electronic structure, vibrational properties, and materials properties). But because the forces that hold metallic phases together are less easily understood from a local perspective than covalent or ionic interactions in other kinds of materials, it is usually unclear whether the atoms are organized to optimize stabilizing, bonding interactions or rather forced to be close together despite repulsive, steric interactions. This dissertation details the development of a theoretical method, called Density Functional Theory-Chemical Pressure (DFT-CP) analysis, to address this issue. It works by converting the distribution of total energy density from a DFT calculation into a map of chemical pressure through a numerical approximation of the first derivative of energy with respect to voxel volume. The CP distribution is then carefully divided into contact volumes between neighboring atoms, from which it is possible to determine whether atoms are too close together (positive CP) or too far

  14. Characterization of Impact Initiation of Aluminum-Based Intermetallic-Forming Reactive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    compressed intermetallic-forming aluminum-based reactive materials upon impact initiation, consisting of equi-volumetric tantalum-aluminum, tungsten-aluminum...18 2.3.4 Dynamic Energy Release Characterization using Pig Test . . . . . . 21 2.3.5 Shock Compression of Reactive Powder Mixtures...is to evaluate the reaction initiation characteristics of quasi-statically compressed intermetallic-forming aluminum-based reactive materials upon

  15. Spin reorientation transition and hard magnetic properties of MnBi intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Wu, X.; Ly, V.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Manabe, A.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of mechanical grinding (MG) on the crystallite size, the spin reorientation transition temperature (TSR) and the hard magnetic properties in melt-spun low temperature phase (LTP) MnBi have been investigated in order to understand the origin of magnetic hardening induced by MG. The room-temperature coercive field (μ0Hcj) is enhanced dramatically from 0.08 T before MG to 1.5 T after MG for 43.2 ks while TSR is concurrently suppressed from 110 to 38 K. The coercive force exhibits positive temperature dependence approximately 50-60 K above TSR and the lowered TSR after MG could result in magnetic hardening at room temperature. The room-temperature coercive force of LTP-MnBi is highly dependent on the crystallite size (D) and is found to be described phenomenologically by the following relationship: μ0Hcj = μ0Ha(δ/D)n, where μ0Ha is ˜ 4 T, the Bloch wall width δ is 7 nm, and the exponent n is approximately 0.7. Our results suggest that the grain refinement is the primary origin of the hardening effect induced by MG with a possible minor hardening effect due to the suppression of the spin reorientation transition temperature.

  16. Promoted-Ignition Testing to Determine the Gaseous Oxygen Compatibility of the Intermetallic Compound 60-NITINOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; Dellacorte, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The flammability of 60-NITINOL (60 weight percentage Ni and 40 weight percentage Ti) in an oxygen-rich atmosphere is assessed. It is determined that 60-NITINOL burns readily in gaseous oxygen and would not be a good candidate for components exposed to oxygen-rich environments where there may be an ignition source. The results are the same whether the material is tested without heat treatment, after a solution treatment or after furnace annealing. These results provide guidance for materials selection of aerospace turbomachinery components.

  17. Processing Issues for Preliminary Melts of the Intermetallic Compound 60-NITINOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The effect of various high temperature heat treatments and cooling rates on the hardness of cast 60-NITINOL (60wt%Ni- 40wt%Ti) was studied. The hardness ranged from approximately 33 HRC for annealed specimens to 63 HRC for water quenched specimens. Aging did not have a further effect on the hardness of the heat-treated and quenched material. The issue of material contamination and its possible effect on quench cracking during heat treatment above 1000 C was explored. The Charpy impact energy of the material was found to be relatively low (ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 J) and comparable to that of cast magnesium. Selection of service environments and applications for this material based on these findings should consider the processing route by which it was produced.

  18. Electronic and Spectral Properties of RRhSn (R = Gd, Tb) Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, Yu. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Kuz'min, Yu. I.; Gupta, S.; Suresh, K. G.

    2018-02-01

    The investigations of electronic structure and optical properties of GdRhSn and TbRhSn were carried out. The calculations of band spectrum, taking into account the spin polarization, were performed in a local electron density approximation with a correction for strong correlation effects in 4f shell of rare earth metal (LSDA + U method). The optical studies were done by ellipsometry in a wide range of wavelengths, and the set of spectral and electronic characteristics was determined. It was shown that optical absorption in a region of interband transitions has a satisfactory explanation within a scope of calculations of density of electronic states carried out.

  19. High Temperature Advanced Structural Composites. Book 1: Executive Summary and Intermetallic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-02

    Misiolek, W.Z. and German, R.M., "Economical Aspects of Experiment Design for Compaction of High Temperature Composites," Proceedings of the American...ten years, the computational capability should be available. For infiltrated matrix depositions, the research has shown that design fiber... designed for manufacturing, was not completed. However, even with present 2-D fabric composite preforms, a two-step deposition procedure, optimized for the

  20. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Microstructure and strengthening mechanism of Ni3Al intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chang-Sup; Han, Chang-Suk

    2013-09-01

    Structural studies have been performed on precipitation hardening found in Ni3Al-base ordered alloys using transmission electron microscopy. The γ' phase hardens appreciably by the fine precipitation of disordered γ. The strength of γ' increases over the temperature range of experiment by the precipitation of fine γ particles. The peak temperature where a maximum strength was obtained shifted to higher temperature. Superlattice dislocations dissociate into fourfold Shockley partial dislocations in a uniform supersaturated solid solution of the γ' phase. Dislocations are attracted into the disordered γ phase and dissociate further in the particles. At any stage of aging, dislocations cut through the particles and the Orowan bypassing process does not occur even in the overaged stage of this alloy system. When the applied stress is removed, the dislocations make cross slip into (010) plane, while those in γ precipitates remain on the (111) primary slip plane. The increase of high temperature strength in γ' containing γ precipitates is due to the restraint of cross slip of dislocations from (111) to (010) by the dispersion of disordered γ particles. The orientation dependence of strength is decreased by the fine precipitation of a disordered γ phase.

  1. A Sodium-Containing Quasicrystal: Using Gold To Enhance Sodium's Covalency in Intermetallic Compounds

    SciT

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Lin, Qisheng; Pratt, Daniel K.

    2013-09-26

    Gold macht stabil: Na 13Au 12Ga 15, ein natriumhaltiges thermodynamisch stabiles quasikristallines Material, wurde bei einer systematischen Studie des polaren Na-Au-Ga-Intermetallsystems entdeckt. Sein Elektron/Atom-Verhältnis von 1.75 ist für Bergman-Ikosaederphasen extrem klein, doch der substanzielle Au-Anteil sorgt für eine Hume-Rothery-Stabilisierung und neuartige polar-kovalente Na-Au-Wechselwirkungen.

  2. Environmental Effects in Niobium Base Alloys and Other Selected Intermetallic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-30

    formation of this surface layer requires that the oxide be more stable than the lowest oxide of the base metal. Figure 2 indicates the free energies of...such requirements for temperatures beyond 10500C are aluminum and silicon. Both of these elements form oxides with large, negative free energies of...Nb-Si, and Ta-Si systems. In attempting to develop alloys in which aluminum or silicon is selectively oxidized, the standard free energies of oxides

  3. Magnetic properties of intermetallic compounds La(Ni,Co,Cu)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazuke, Y.; Tanikawa, H.; Okano, A.; Miyaji, T.

    2006-09-01

    LaNi3 exhibited a metallic antiferromagnetic property with T N = 30 K. La(Ni1-x Cox )3 with x = 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 exhibited ferromagnetic properties, T C increasing linearly with increasing x . La(Ni1-2z Coz Cuz )3 with z = 0.015 exhibited a ferromagnetic property with a small T C. A La(Ni1-y Cuy )3 sample with y = 0.01 exhibited a Pauli-paramagnetic property; those with y = 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 exhibited gradual metamagnetic behavior and that with y = 0.05 exhibited a ferromagnetic property. The gradual metamagnetic M -H variations are numerically simulated by using Landau-type free energies. The results suggest that the gradual metamagnetic behavior occurs from an antiferromagnetic state to a ferromagnetic one.

  4. Codeformation processing of mechanically-dissimilar metal/intermetallic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marte, Judson Sloan

    A systematic and scientific approach has been applied to the study of codeformation processing. A series of composites having mechanically-dissimilar phases were developed in which the high temperature flow behavior of the reinforcement material could be varied independent of the matrix. This was accomplished through the use of a series of intermetallic matrix composites (IMCs) as discontinuous reinforcements in an otherwise conventional metal matrix composite. The IMCs are produced using an in-situ reaction synthesis technique, called the XD(TM) process. The temperature of the exothermic synthesis reaction, called the adiabatic temperature, has been calculated and shown to increase with increasing volume percentage of TiB2 reinforcement. Further, this temperature has been shown to effect the size and spacing of the TiB2, microstructural features which are often used in discontinuous composite strength models. Study of the high temperature flow behavior of the components of the metal/IMC composite is critical to the development of an understanding of codeformation. A series of compression tests performed at 1000° to 1200°C and strain-rates of 10-3 and 10-4 sec-1. Peak flow stresses were used to evaluate the influence of material properties and process conditions. These data were incorporated into phenomenologically-based constitutive equations that have been used to predict the flow behavior. It has been determined that plastic deformation of the IMCs occurs readily, and is largely TiB2 independent, at temperatures approaching the melting point of the intermetallic matrices. Ti-6Al-4V/IMC powder blends were extruded at high temperatures to achieve commensurately deformed microstructures. The results of codeformation processing were analyzed in terms of the plastic strain of the IMC particulates. IMC particle deformation was shown to increase with increasing IMC particle size, volume percentage of IMC, extrusion temperature, homologous temperature, extrusion

  5. Superconducting compounds and alloys research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G.

    1975-01-01

    Resistivity measurements as a function of temperature were performed on alloys of the binary material system In sub(1-x) Bi sub x for x varying between 0 and 1. It was found that for all single-phase alloys (the pure elements, alpha-In, and the three intermetallic compounds) at temperatures sufficiently above the Debye-temperature, the resistivity p can be expressed as p = a sub o T(n), where a sub o and n are composition-dependent constants. The same exponential relationship can also be applied for the sub-system In-In2Bi, when the two phases are in compositional equilibrium. Superconductivity measurements on single and two-phase alloys can be explained with respect to the phase diagram. There occur three superconducting phases (alpha-In, In2Bi, and In5Bi3) with different transition temperatures in the alloying system. The magnitude of the transition temperatures for the various intermetallic phases of In-Bi is such that the disappearance or occurrence of a phase in two component alloys can be demonstrated easily by means of superconductivity measurements.

  6. Structural building principles of complex face-centered cubic intermetallics.

    PubMed

    Dshemuchadse, Julia; Jung, Daniel Y; Steurer, Walter

    2011-08-01

    Fundamental structural building principles are discussed for all 56 known intermetallic phases with approximately 400 or more atoms per unit cell and space-group symmetry F43m, Fd3m, Fd3, Fm3m or Fm3c. Despite fundamental differences in chemical composition, bonding and electronic band structure, their complex crystal structures show striking similarities indicating common building principles. We demonstrate that the structure-determining elements are flat and puckered atomic {110} layers stacked with periodicities 2p. The atoms on this set of layers, which intersect each other, form pentagon face-sharing endohedral fullerene-like clusters arranged in a face-centered cubic packing (f.c.c.). Due to their topological layer structure, all these crystal structures can be described as (p × p × p) = p(3)-fold superstructures of a common basic structure of the double-diamond type. The parameter p, with p = 3, 4, 7 or 11, is determined by the number of layers per repeat unit and the type of cluster packing, which in turn are controlled by chemical composition.

  7. Investigation of Y6Mn23 and YMn12 intermetallic alloys under high hydrogen pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipek, S. M.; Sato, R.; Kuriyama, N.; Tanaka, H.; Takeichi, N.

    2010-03-01

    Among three intermetallic compounds existing in Y-Mn system the YMn2 and Y6Mn23 can easily form interstitial hydrides while for YMn12 existence of hydride has never been reported. At moderate hydrogen pressure YMn2 and Y6Mn23 transform into YMn2H4.5 and Y6Mn23H25 respectively. At high hydrogen pressure the YMn2 (C15 or C14 parent structure) forms a unique YMn2H6 (s.g. Fm3m) complex hydride of fluorite structure in which one Mn atom Mn(1) and Y randomly occupy the 8c sites while second manganese (Mn2) in position 4a forms complex anion with 6 hydrogen atoms located in positions 24e. Formation of YMn2H6 independently of the structure of parent phase (C14 or C15) as well as occupation of the same site (8c) by Y and Mn(1) atoms suggested that also Y6Mn23 and YMn12 could transform into YMn2H6 - type hydride in which suitable number of Y atoms will be substituted by Mn(1) in the 8c positions. This assumption was confirmed by exposing R6Mn23 and RMn12 to 1 GPa of hydrogen pressure at 1000C. Formation of (RxMn2-x)MnH6 (where x = 18/29 or 3/13 for R6Mn23 and RMn12 hydrides respectively) was confirmed by XRD. Hydrogen concentration in both R6Mn23 and RMn12 based hydrides reached H/Me = 2 thus value two times higher than in R6Mn23H25.

  8. Electromigration effect on intermetallic growth and Young's modulus in SAC solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luhua; Pang, John H. L.; Ren, Fei; Tu, K. N.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state intermetallic compound (IMC) growth behavior plays and important role in solder joint reliability of electronic packaging assemblies. The directional impact of electromigration (EM) on the growth of interfacial IMCs in Ni/SAC/Ni, Cu/SAC/Ni single BGA ball solder joint, and fine pitch ball-grid-array (FPBGA) at the anode and cathode sides is reported in this study. When the solder joint was subjected to a current density of 5,000 A/cm2 at 125°C or 150°C, IMC layer growth on the anode interface was faster than that on the cathode interface, and both were faster than isothermal aging due to the Joule heating effect. The EM affects the IMC growth rate, as well as the composition and mechanical properties. The Young’s modulus and hardness were measured by the nanoindentation continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) from planar IMC surfaces after EM exposure. Different values were observed at the anode and cathode. The energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) line scan analysis was conducted at the interface from the cathode to anode to study the presence of species; Ni was found in the anode IMC at SAC/Cu in the Ni/SAC/Cu joint, but not detected when the current was reverse. Electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) measurement on the Ni/SAC/Ni specimen also confirmed the polarized Ni and Cu distributions in cathode and anode IMCs, which were (Ni0.57Cu0.43)3Sn4 and (Cu0.73Ni0.27)6Sn5, respectively. Thus, the Young’s moduli of the IMC are 141 and 175 GPa, respectively.

  9. AA6082 to DX56-Steel Laser Brazing: Process Parameter-Intermetallic Formation Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narsimhachary, D.; Pal, S.; Shariff, S. M.; Padmanabham, G.; Basu, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, laser-brazed AA6082 to DX56-galvanized steel joints were investigated to understand the influence of process parameters on joint strength in terms of intermetallic layer formation. 1.5-mm-thick sheet of aluminum alloy (AA6082-T6) and galvanized steel (DX56) sheet of 0.7 mm thickness were laser-brazed with 1.5-mm-diameter Al-12% Si solid filler wire. During laser brazing, laser power (4.6 kW) and wire feed rate (3.4 m/min) were kept constant with a varying laser scan speed of 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, and 1 m/min. Microstructure of brazed joint reveals epitaxial growth at the aluminum side and intermetallic layer formation at steel interface. Intermetallic layer formation was confirmed by EDS analysis and XRD study. Hardness profile showed hardness drop in filler region, and failure during tensile testing was initiated through the filler region near the steel interface. As per both experimental study and numerical analysis, it was observed that intermetallic layer thickness decreases with increasing brazing speed. Zn vaporization from galvanized steel interface also affected the joint strength. It was found that high laser scan speed or faster cooling rate can be chosen for suppressing intermetallic layer formation or at least decreasing the layer thickness which results in improved mechanical properties.

  10. Intermetallic layers in temperature controlled Friction Stir Welding of dissimilar Al-Cu-joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marstatt, R.; Krutzlinger, M.; Luderschmid, J.; Constanzi, G.; Mueller, J. F. J.; Haider, F.; Zaeh, M. F.

    2018-06-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) can be performed to join dissimilar metal combinations like aluminium and copper, which is of high interest in modern production of electrical applications. The amount of intermetallic phases in the weld seam is significantly reduced compared to traditional fusion welding technologies. Because the solidus temperature is typically not reached during FSW, the growth of intermetallic phases is impeded and the intermetallic layer thicknesses typically remains on the scale of a few hundred nanometres. These layers provide a substance-to-substance bond, which is the main joining mechanism. Latest research confirms that the layer formation is most likely driven by the heat input during processing. Hence, the welding temperature is the key to achieve high quality joints. In this study, aluminium and copper sheets were welded in lap joint configuration using temperature-controlled FSW. An advanced in-tool measurement set-up was used to determine precise temperature data. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse metallurgical aspects (e.g. structure and composition of the intermetallic phases) of the joints. The results show a correlation between the welding temperature and the thickness of the intermetallic layer and its structure. The temperature control significantly improved the correlation compared to previous studies. This leads to an enhanced understanding of the dominating joining mechanisms.

  11. Influence of severe plastic deformation on intermetallic particles in Mg-12 wt.%Zn alloy investigated using transmission electron microscopy

    SciT

    Němec, M., E-mail: nemecm@fzu.cz

    exhibited a distinct behavior within the single-crystalline or nano-crystalline form of the parent Mg{sub 21}Zn{sub 25} microparticles. The Mg{sub 21}Zn{sub 25} + Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20} eutectic compound was confirmed for both forms of the parent Mg{sub 21}Zn{sub 25} microparticles, and the growth of Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20} nanoparticles is discussed. - Highlights: •Comprehensive microstructure characterization of Mg-12 wt.%Zn alloy after ECAP-BP •TEM analysis of changes of intermetallic phases caused by SPD •Mg{sub 21}Zn{sub 25} particles exhibit nano-crystalline regions with grain size below 100 nm. •MgZn{sub 2} preserved its orientation relationship toward highly deformed α-Mg after SPD. •Existence of Mg{sub 21}Zn{sub 25} + Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20} eutectic remained for each Mg{sub 21}Zn{sub 25} particle form.« less

  12. Intermetallic negative electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Fransson, Linda M.; Edstrom, Ester Kristina; Henriksen, Gary

    2004-05-04

    A method of operating an electrochemical cell is disclosed. The cell has an intermetallic negative electrode of Cu.sub.6-x M.sub.x Sn.sub.5, wherein x is .ltoreq.3 and M is one or more metals including Si and a positive electrode containing Li in which Li is shuttled between the positive electrode and the negative electrode during charge and discharge to form a lithiated intermetallic negative electrode during charge. The voltage of the electrochemical cell is controlled during the charge portion of the charge-discharge cycles so that the potential of the lithiated intermetallic negative electrode in the fully charged electrochemical cell is less than 0.2 V but greater than 0 V versus metallic lithium.

  13. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  14. Method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts for improved impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration and increased activity

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Randy B.

    1992-01-01

    Alternate, successive high temperature oxidation and reduction treatments, in either order, of intermetallic alloy hydrogenation and intermetallic alloy oxidation catalysts unexpectedly improves the impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration capacity and/or activity of the catalysts. The particular alloy, and the final high temperature treatment given alloy (oxidation or reduction) will be chosen to correspond to the function of the catalyst (oxidation or hydrogenation).

  15. A Self-Propagating Foaming Process of Porous Al-Ni Intermetallics Assisted by Combustion Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kobashi, Makoto; Kanetake, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    The self-propagating foaming process of porous Al-Ni intermetallics was investigated. Aluminum and nickel powders were blended, and titanium and boron carbide powders were added as reactive exothermic agents. The blended powder was extruded to make a rod-shape precursor. Only one end of the rod precursor was heated to ignite the reaction. The reaction propagated spontaneously throughout the precursor. Pore formation took place at the same time as the reaction occurred. Adding the exothermic agent was effective to increase the porosity. Preheating the precursor before the ignition was also very effective to produce porous Al-Ni intermetallics with high porosity.

  16. Metal- and intermetallic-matrix composites for aerospace propulsion and power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doychak, J.

    1992-06-01

    Successful development and deployment of metal-matrix composites and intermetallic- matrix composites are critical to reaching the goals of many advanced aerospace propulsion and power development programs. The material requirements are based on the aerospace propulsion and power system requirements, economics, and other factors. Advanced military and civilian aircraft engines will require higher specific strength materials that operate at higher temperatures, and the civilian engines will also require long lifetimes. The specific space propulsion and power applications require hightemperature, high-thermal-conductivity, and high-strength materials. Metal-matrix composites and intermetallic-matrix composites either fulfill or have the potential of fulfilling these requirements.

  17. Intermetallic Strengthened Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steels for Energy Applications

    SciT

    Hu, Bin; Baker, Ian

    2016-03-31

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 % for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, the materials required must be strong, corrosion-resistant at high temperatures (>700°C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase and L1 2 precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The creep resistance of these alloys is significantly improved through intermetallic strengthening (Laves-Fe 2Nb + L1 2-Ni 3Al precipitates) without harmful effects on oxidation resistance. Microstructural and microchemical analyses of the recently developed alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steels (Fe-14Cr-32Ni-3Nb-3Al-2Ti-based) indicated they are strengthened by Nimore » 3Al(Ti) L1 2, NiAl B 2, Fe 2Nb Laves phase and MC carbide precipitates. Different thermomechanical treatments (TMTs) were performed on these stainless steels in an attempt to further improve their mechanical properties. The thermo-mechanical processing produced nanocrystalline grains in AFA alloys and dramatically increased their yield strength at room temperature. Unfortunately, the TMTs didn’t increase the yield strengths of AFA alloys at ≥700ºC. At these temperatures, dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism for deformation of TMT alloys according to strain rate jump tests. After the characterization of aged AFA alloys, we found that the largest strengthening effect from L1 2 precipitates can be obtained by aging for less than 24 h. The coarsening behavior of the L1 2 precipitates was not influenced by carbon and boron additions. Failure analysis and post-mortem TEM analysis were performed to study the creep failure mechanisms of these AFA steels after creep tests. Though the Laves and B2-NiAl phase precipitated along the boundaries can improve the creep properties, cracks were still initiated and propagated along the boundaries, which suggests that the boundaries are

  18. Slater-Pauling behavior within quaternary intermetallic borides of the Ti{sub 3}Co{sub 5}B{sub 2} structure-type

    SciT

    Burghaus, Jens; Dronskowski, Richard, E-mail: drons@HAL9000.ac.rwth-aachen.d; Miller, Gordon J.

    2009-10-15

    First-principles, density-functional studies of several intermetallic borides of the general type M{sub 2}M'Ru{sub 5-n}Rh{sub n}B{sub 2} (n=0-5; M=Sc, Ti, Nb; M'=Fe, Co) show that the variation in saturation magnetic moment with valence-electron count follows a Slater-Pauling curve, with a maximum moment occurring typically at 66 valence electrons. The magnetic moments in these compounds occur primarily from the 3d electrons of the magnetically active M' sites, with some contribution from the Ru/Rh sites via magnetic polarization. Electronic DOS curves reveal that a rigid-band approach is a reasonable approximation for the estimation of saturation moments and the analysis of orbital interactions inmore » this family of complex borides. COHP analyses of the M'-M' orbital interactions indicate optimized interactions in the minority spin states for Co-containing phases, but strong bonding interactions remaining in Fe-containing phases. - Graphical abstract: Theoretically determined (spin-polarized LMTO-GGA) local magnetic moments as a function of the chemical valence Z for various intermetallic borides.« less

  19. Polar Intermetallics Pr 5Co 2Ge 3 and Pr 7Co 2Ge 4 With Planar Hydrocarbon-Like Metal Clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Qisheng; Aguirre, Kaiser; Saunders, Scott M.; ...

    2017-06-19

    Planar hydrocarbon-like metal clusters may foster new insights linking organic molecules with conjugated π-π bonding interactions and inorganic structures in terms of their bonding characteristics. However, such clusters are uncommon in polar intermetallics. Herein, we report two polar intermetallic phases, Pr 5Co 2Ge 3 and Pr 7Co 2Ge 4, both of which feature such planar metal clusters, viz., ethylene-like [Co 2Ge 4] clusters plus the concatenated forms and polyacene-like [Co 2Ge 2] n ribbons in Pr 5Co 2Ge 3, and 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene-like [Co4Ge6] cluster in Pr 7Co 2Ge 4. Just as in the related planar organic structures, these metal-metalloid species aremore » dominated by covalent bonding interactions. Both compounds magnetically order at low temperature with net ferromagnetic components: Pr 5Co 2Ge 3 via a series of transitions below 150 K; and Pr 7Co 2Ge 4 via a single ferromagnetic transition at 19 K. Spin-polarized electronic structure calculations for Pr 7Co 2Ge 4 reveal strong spin-orbit coupling within Pr and considerable magnetic contributions from Co atoms. This work suggests that similar structural chemistry can emerge for other rare earth-late transition metal-main group systems.« less

  20. Investigation of Laser Generation and Detection of Ultrasound in Ceramic Matrix Composites and Intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this program is to assess the feasibility of using laser based ultrasonic techniques for inspecting and characterizing materials of interest to NASA, specifically those used in propulsion and turbomachinery applications, such as ceramic composites, metal matrix composites, and intermetallics.

  1. Ni.sub.3 Al-based intermetallic alloys having improved strength above 850.degree. C.

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    2000-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys composed essentially of: 15.5% to 17.0% Al, 3.5% to 5.5% Mo, 4% to 8% Cr, 0.04% to 0.2% Zr, 0.04% to 1.5% B, balance Ni, are characterized by melting points above 1200.degree. C. and superior strengths at temperatures above 1000.degree. C.

  2. Reliable and cost effective design of intermetallic Ni2Si nanowires and direct characterization of its mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Zeon; Kang, Joonhee; Kim, Sung-Dae; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Hyung Giun; Lee, Jehyun; Kim, Kwangho; Lim, Sung Hwan; Han, Byungchan

    2015-10-01

    We report that a single crystal Ni2Si nanowire (NW) of intermetallic compound can be reliably designed using simple three-step processes: casting a ternary Cu-Ni-Si alloy, nucleate and growth of Ni2Si NWs as embedded in the alloy matrix via designing discontinuous precipitation (DP) of Ni2Si nanoparticles and thermal aging, and finally chemical etching to decouple the Ni2Si NWs from the alloy matrix. By direct application of uniaxial tensile tests to the Ni2Si NW we characterize its mechanical properties, which were rarely reported in previous literatures. Using integrated studies of first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) we accurately validate the experimental measurements. Our results indicate that our simple three-step method enables to design brittle Ni2Si NW with high tensile strength of 3.0 GPa and elastic modulus of 60.6 GPa. We propose that the systematic methodology pursued in this paper significantly contributes to opening innovative processes to design various kinds of low dimensional nanomaterials leading to advancement of frontiers in nanotechnology and related industry sectors.

  3. Reliable and cost effective design of intermetallic Ni2Si nanowires and direct characterization of its mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Zeon; Kang, Joonhee; Kim, Sung-Dae; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Hyung Giun; Lee, Jehyun; Kim, Kwangho; Lim, Sung Hwan; Han, Byungchan

    2015-10-12

    We report that a single crystal Ni2Si nanowire (NW) of intermetallic compound can be reliably designed using simple three-step processes: casting a ternary Cu-Ni-Si alloy, nucleate and growth of Ni2Si NWs as embedded in the alloy matrix via designing discontinuous precipitation (DP) of Ni2Si nanoparticles and thermal aging, and finally chemical etching to decouple the Ni2Si NWs from the alloy matrix. By direct application of uniaxial tensile tests to the Ni2Si NW we characterize its mechanical properties, which were rarely reported in previous literatures. Using integrated studies of first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) we accurately validate the experimental measurements. Our results indicate that our simple three-step method enables to design brittle Ni2Si NW with high tensile strength of 3.0 GPa and elastic modulus of 60.6 GPa. We propose that the systematic methodology pursued in this paper significantly contributes to opening innovative processes to design various kinds of low dimensional nanomaterials leading to advancement of frontiers in nanotechnology and related industry sectors.

  4. Reliable and cost effective design of intermetallic Ni2Si nanowires and direct characterization of its mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Zeon; Kang, Joonhee; Kim, Sung-Dae; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Hyung Giun; Lee, Jehyun; Kim, Kwangho; Lim, Sung Hwan; Han, Byungchan

    2015-01-01

    We report that a single crystal Ni2Si nanowire (NW) of intermetallic compound can be reliably designed using simple three-step processes: casting a ternary Cu-Ni-Si alloy, nucleate and growth of Ni2Si NWs as embedded in the alloy matrix via designing discontinuous precipitation (DP) of Ni2Si nanoparticles and thermal aging, and finally chemical etching to decouple the Ni2Si NWs from the alloy matrix. By direct application of uniaxial tensile tests to the Ni2Si NW we characterize its mechanical properties, which were rarely reported in previous literatures. Using integrated studies of first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) we accurately validate the experimental measurements. Our results indicate that our simple three-step method enables to design brittle Ni2Si NW with high tensile strength of 3.0 GPa and elastic modulus of 60.6 GPa. We propose that the systematic methodology pursued in this paper significantly contributes to opening innovative processes to design various kinds of low dimensional nanomaterials leading to advancement of frontiers in nanotechnology and related industry sectors. PMID:26456769

  5. Aging Studies of Cu-Sn Intermetallics in Cu Micropillars Used in Flip Chip Attachment onto Cu Lead Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roma, Maria Penafrancia C.; Kudtarkar, Santosh; Kierse, Oliver; Sengupta, Dipak; Cho, Junghyun

    2018-02-01

    Copper micropillars plated onto a silicon die and soldered with Sn-Ag solder to a copper lead frame in a flip chip on lead package have been subjected to high-temperature storage at 150°C and 175°C for 500 h, 1000 h, and 1500 h. Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallic compounds were found on both sides of the solder, but the growth rates were not the same as evidenced by different values of the growth exponent n. Cu and Sn diffusion controlled the Cu3Sn growth in the Cu pillar interface ( n ≈ 0.5), while interface reactions controlled the growth in the Cu lead frame interface ( n ≈ 0.8). Increasing the aging temperature increased the growth of Cu3Sn as well as the presence of microvoids in the Cu lead frame side. Adding Ni as a barrier layer on the Cu pillar prevented the growth of Cu3Sn in the Cu pillar interface and reduced its growth rate on the lead frame side, even at higher aging temperatures.

  6. Three Dimensional Characterization of Tin Crystallography and Cu6Sn5 Intermetallics in Solder Joints by Multiscale Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirubanandham, A.; Lujan-Regalado, I.; Vallabhaneni, R.; Chawla, N.

    2016-11-01

    Decreasing pitch size in electronic packaging has resulted in a drastic decrease in solder volumes. The Sn grain crystallography and fraction of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in small-scale solder joints evolve much differently at the smaller length scales. A cross-sectional study limits the morphological analysis of microstructural features to two dimensions. This study utilizes serial sectioning technique in conjunction with electron backscatter diffraction to investigate the crystallographic orientation of both Sn grains and Cu6Sn5 IMCs in Cu/Pure Sn/Cu solder joints in three dimensional (3D). Quantification of grain aspect ratio is affected by local cooling rate differences within the solder volume. Backscatter electron imaging and focused ion beam serial sectioning enabled the visualization of morphology of both nanosized Cu6Sn5 IMCs and the hollow hexagonal morphology type Cu6Sn5 IMCs in 3D. Quantification and visualization of microstructural features in 3D thus enable us to better understand the microstructure and deformation mechanics within these small scale solder joints.

  7. Effect of Intermetallic on Electromigration and Atomic Diffusion in Cu/SnAg3.0Cu0.5/Cu Joints: Experimental and First-Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Liu, Lijuan; Li, Baoling; Wu, Ping

    2009-06-01

    Electromigration phenomena in a one-dimensional Cu/SnAg3.0Cu0.5/Cu joint were investigated with current stressing. The special effect of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers on the formation of serious electromigration damage induced by nonuniform current density distribution was discussed based on experimental results. Meanwhile, hillocks were observed both at the anode and near the cathode of the joint, and they were described as the result of diffusion of atoms and compressive stress released along grain boundaries to the relatively free surface. Moreover, the diffusion behavior of Cu at the cathode was analyzed with the electromigration equation, and the stability of Ag atoms in the solder during electromigration was evaluated with a first-principles method.

  8. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects in HoPd intermetallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao-Jun, Mo; Jun, Shen; Xin-Qiang, Gao; Yao, Liu; Jian-Feng, Wu; Bao-Gen, Shen; Ji-Rong, Sun

    2015-03-01

    A large reversible magnetocaloric effect accompanied by a second order magnetic phase transition from PM to FM is observed in the HoPd compound. Under the magnetic field change of and the refrigerant capacity RC for the compound are evaluated to be 20 J/(kg · K) and 342 J/kg, respectively. In particular, large (11.3 J/(kg · K)) and RC (142 J/kg) are achieved under a low magnetic field change of 0-2 T with no thermal hysteresis and magnetic hysteresis loss. The large reversible magnetocaloric effect (both the large -ΔSM and the high RC) indicates that HoPd is a promising material for magnetic refrigeration at low temperature. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51322605, 11104337, 51271192, and 11274357) and the Knowledge Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Site preference, magnetism and lattice vibrations of intermetallics Lu₂Fe 17–xT x (T=Cr, Mn, Ru)

    SciT

    Li, Jin-Chun; Qian, Ping, E-mail: qianpinghu@sohu.com; Zhang, Zhen-Feng

    We present an atomistic study on the phase stability, site preference and lattice constants of the rare earth intermetallics Lu₂Fe 17–xT x (T=Cr, Mn, Ru). The calculated preferential occupation site of ternary element T is found to be the 4f site. The order of site preference is given as 4f, 12k, 12j and 6g for Lu₂Fe 17–xT x. The calculated lattice parameters are corresponding to the experimental results. We have calculated the magnetic moments of Lu₂Fe 17–xT x compounds. Results show that the calculated total magnetic moment of Lu₂Fe₁₇ compound is M=37.34 μ B/f.u. In addition, the total and partialmore » phonon densities of states are evaluated first for these complicated structures. - Graphical abstract: The vibrational modes are mostly excited by Fe atoms, Lu contributes to the lower frequencies modes, and the contribution of Ru atoms is the same as Fe atoms. Highlights: • There are no reports on lattice vibrations of Lu₂(Fe, T) 17–x (T=Cr, Mn, Ru) compounds. • The phase stability and site preference are evaluated first for the complex structures of Lu₂(Fe, T) 17–x (T=Cr, Mn, Ru) compounds. • The lattice inversion method to obtain the interatomic pair potential is the unique one.« less

  10. Electron density determination and bonding in tetragonal binary intermetallics by convergent beam electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Xiahan

    Intermetallics offer unique property combinations often superior to those of more conventional solid solution alloys of identical composition. Understanding of bonding in intermetallics would greatly accelerate development of intermetallics for advanced and high performance engineering applications. Tetragonal intermetallics L10 ordered TiAl, FePd and FePt are used as model systems to experimentally measure their electron densities using quantitative convergent beam electron diffraction (QCBED) method and then compare details of the 3d-4d (FePd) and 3d-5d (FePt) electron interactions to elucidate their role on properties of the respective ferromagnetic L10-ordered intermetallics FePd and FePt. A new multi-beam off-zone axis condition QCBED method has been developed to increase sensitivity of CBED patterns to change of structure factors and the anisotropic Debye-Waller (DW) factors. Unprecedented accuracy and precision in structure and DW factor measurements has been achieved by acquiring CBED patterns using beam-sample geometry that ensures strong dynamical interaction between the fast electrons and the periodic potential in the crystalline samples. This experimental method has been successfully applied to diamond cubic Si, and chemically ordered B2 cubic NiAl, tetragonal L10 ordered TiAl and FePd. The accurate and precise experimental DW and structure factors for L10 TiAl and FePd allow direct evaluation of computer calculations using the current state of the art density functional theory (DFT) based electron structure modeling. The experimental electron density difference map of L1 0 TiAl shows that the DFT calculations describe bonding to a sufficient accuracy for s- and p- electrons interaction, e. g., the Al-layer. However, it indicate significant quantitative differences to the experimental measurements for the 3d-3d interactions of the Ti atoms, e.g. in the Ti layers. The DFT calculations for L10 FePd also show that the current DFT approximations

  11. Chemical Frustration. A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases, Final Report

    SciT

    Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2015-06-23

    Final technical report for "Chemical Frustration: A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases" funded by the Office of Science through the Materials Chemistry Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  12. Atomic interaction of the MEAM type for the study of intermetallics in the Al-U alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascuet, M. I.; Fernández, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Interaction for both pure Al and Al-U alloys of the MEAM type are developed. The obtained Al interatomic potential assures its compatibility with the details of the framework presently adopted. The Al-U interaction fits various properties of the Al2U, Al3U and Al4U intermetallics. The potential verifies the stability of the intermetallic structures in a temperature range compatible with that observed in the phase diagram, and also takes into account the greater stability of these structures relative to others that are competitive in energy. The intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties and point defect parameters. Molecular dynamics simulations show a growth of the Al3U intermetallic in the Al/U interface in agreement with experimental evidence.

  13. Method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts for improved impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration and increased activity

    DOEpatents

    Wright, R.B.

    1992-01-14

    Alternate, successive high temperature oxidation and reduction treatments, in either order, of intermetallic alloy hydrogenation and intermetallic alloy oxidation catalysts unexpectedly improves the impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration capacity and/or activity of the catalysts. The particular alloy, and the final high temperature treatment given alloy (oxidation or reduction) will be chosen to correspond to the function of the catalyst (oxidation or hydrogenation). 23 figs.

  14. Forming metal-intermetallic or metal-ceramic composites by self-propagating high-temperature reactions

    DOEpatents

    Rawers, James C.; Alman, David E.; Petty, Jr., Arthur V.

    1996-01-01

    Industrial applications of composites often require that the final product have a complex shape. In this invention intermetallic or ceramic phases are formed from sheets of unreacted elemental metals. The process described in this invention allows the final product shape be formed prior to the formation of the composite. This saves energy and allows formation of shaped articles of metal-intermetallic composites composed of brittle materials that cannot be deformed without breaking.

  15. An Investigation of the Microstructure of an Intermetallic Layer in Welding Aluminum Alloys to Steel by MIG Process.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Huang, Shyh-Chour

    2015-12-02

    Butt joints of A5052 aluminum alloy and SS400 steel, with a new type of chamfered edge, are welded by means of metal inert gas welding and ER4043 Al-Si filler metal. The microhardness and microstructure of the joint are investigated. An intermetallic layer is found on the surface of the welding seam and SS400 steel sheet. The hardness of the intermetallic layer is examined using the Vickers hardness test. The average hardness values at the Intermetallic (IMC) layer zone and without the IMC layer zone were higher than that of the welding wire ER4043. The tensile strength test showed a fracture at the intermetallic layer when the tensile strength is 225.9 MPa. The tensile value test indicated the average of welds was equivalent to the 85% tensile strength of the A5052 aluminum alloy. The thickness of the intermetallic layers is non-uniform at different positions with the ranges from 1.95 to 5 μm. The quality of the butt joint is better if the intermetallic layer is minimized. The Si crystals which appeared at the welding seam, indicating that this element participated actively during the welding process, also contributed to the IMC layer's formation.

  16. An Investigation of the Microstructure of an Intermetallic Layer in Welding Aluminum Alloys to Steel by MIG Process

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Huang, Shyh-Chour

    2015-01-01

    Butt joints of A5052 aluminum alloy and SS400 steel, with a new type of chamfered edge, are welded by means of metal inert gas welding and ER4043 Al-Si filler metal. The microhardness and microstructure of the joint are investigated. An intermetallic layer is found on the surface of the welding seam and SS400 steel sheet. The hardness of the intermetallic layer is examined using the Vickers hardness test. The average hardness values at the Intermetallic (IMC) layer zone and without the IMC layer zone were higher than that of the welding wire ER4043. The tensile strength test showed a fracture at the intermetallic layer when the tensile strength is 225.9 MPa. The tensile value test indicated the average of welds was equivalent to the 85% tensile strength of the A5052 aluminum alloy. The thickness of the intermetallic layers is non-uniform at different positions with the ranges from 1.95 to 5 μm. The quality of the butt joint is better if the intermetallic layer is minimized. The Si crystals which appeared at the welding seam, indicating that this element participated actively during the welding process, also contributed to the IMC layer’s formation. PMID:28793708

  17. Water vapor effect on high-temperature oxidation behavior of Fe3Al intermetallics

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Sebastian; Juzon, Pitor; Przybylski, Kazimierz; Larpin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Fe3Al intermetallics (Fe3Al, Fe3Al-Zr, Fe3Al-Zr,Mo and Fe3Al-Zr, Mo, Nb) were oxidized at 950 °C in dry and humid (11 vol% water) synthetic air. Thermogravimetric measurements showed that the oxidation rates of the tested intermetallics were lower in humid air than in dry air (especially for Fe3Al-Zr, Mo and Fe3Al-Zr, Mo, Nb). The addition of small amounts of Zr, Mo or Nb improved the kinetics compared with that of the undoped Fe3Al. Fe3Al showed massive spallation, whereas Fe3Al-Zr, Fe3Al-Zr, Mo and Fe3Al-Zr, Mo, Nb produced a flat, adherent oxide layer. The rapid transformation of transient alumina into alpha alumina may explain the decrease in the oxidation rate in humid air. PMID:27877306

  18. Microstructures and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline NiTi intermetallics formed by mechanosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, S.; Kumaravel, P.; Velmurugan, C.; Senthilkumar, V.

    2018-01-01

    The formulation of nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys has potential effects in mechanical stimulation and medical implantology. The present work elucidates the effect of milling time on the product's structural characteristics, chemical composition, and microhardness for NiTi synthesized by mechanical alloying for different milling durations. Increasing the milling duration led to the formation of a nanocrystalline NiTi intermetallic at a higher level. The formation of nanocrystalline materials was directed through cold fusion, fracturing, and the development of a steady state, which were influenced by the accumulation of strain energy. In the morphological study, uninterrupted cold diffusion and fracturing were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Particle size analysis revealed that the mean particle size was reduced to 93 μm after 20 h of milling. The mechanical strength was enhanced by the formation of a nanocrystalline intermetallic phase at longer milling time, which was confirmed by the results of Vickers hardness analyses.

  19. Electrically reversible cracks in an intermetallic film controlled by an electric field

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Z. Q.; Liu, J. H.; Biegalski, M. D.; ...

    2018-01-03

    Cracks in solid-state materials are typically irreversible. We report electrically reversible opening and closing of nanoscale cracks in an intermetallic thin film grown on a ferroelectric substrate driven by a small electric field (~0.83 kV/cm). Accordingly, a nonvolatile colossal electroresistance on-off ratio of more than 10 8 is measured across the cracks in the intermetallic film at room temperature. Cracks are easily formed with low-frequency voltage cycling and remain stable when the device is operated at high frequency, which offers intriguing potential for next-generation high-frequency memory applications. Moreover, endurance testing demonstrates that the opening and closing of such cracks canmore » reach over 10 7 cycles under 10-μs pulses, without catastrophic failure of the film.« less

  20. Electrically reversible cracks in an intermetallic film controlled by an electric field

    SciT

    Liu, Z. Q.; Liu, J. H.; Biegalski, M. D.

    Cracks in solid-state materials are typically irreversible. We report electrically reversible opening and closing of nanoscale cracks in an intermetallic thin film grown on a ferroelectric substrate driven by a small electric field (~0.83 kV/cm). Accordingly, a nonvolatile colossal electroresistance on-off ratio of more than 10 8 is measured across the cracks in the intermetallic film at room temperature. Cracks are easily formed with low-frequency voltage cycling and remain stable when the device is operated at high frequency, which offers intriguing potential for next-generation high-frequency memory applications. Moreover, endurance testing demonstrates that the opening and closing of such cracks canmore » reach over 10 7 cycles under 10-μs pulses, without catastrophic failure of the film.« less

  1. Gold-promoted structurally ordered intermetallic palladium cobalt nanoparticles for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Adzic, Radoslav R

    2014-11-06

    Considerable efforts to make palladium and palladium alloys active catalysts and a possible replacement for platinum have had a marginal success. Here we report on a structurally ordered Au10Pd₄₀Co₅₀ catalyst that exhibits comparable activity to conventional platinum catalysts in both acid and alkaline media. Electron microscopic techniques demonstrate that, at elevated temperatures, palladium cobalt nanoparticles undergo an atomic structural transition from core-shell to a rare intermetallic ordered structure with twin boundaries forming stable {111}, {110} and {100} facets via addition of gold atoms. The superior stability of this catalyst compared with platinum after 10,000 potential cycles in alkaline media is attributed to the atomic structural order of PdCo nanoparticles along with protective effect of clusters of gold atoms on the surface. This strategy of making ordered palladium intermetallic alloy nanoparticles can be used in diverse heterogeneous catalysis where particle size and structural stability matter.

  2. Compound matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravvaritis, Christos; Mitrouli, Marilena

    2009-02-01

    This paper studies the possibility to calculate efficiently compounds of real matrices which have a special form or structure. The usefulness of such an effort lies in the fact that the computation of compound matrices, which is generally noneffective due to its high complexity, is encountered in several applications. A new approach for computing the Singular Value Decompositions (SVD's) of the compounds of a matrix is proposed by establishing the equality (up to a permutation) between the compounds of the SVD of a matrix and the SVD's of the compounds of the matrix. The superiority of the new idea over the standard method is demonstrated. Similar approaches with some limitations can be adopted for other matrix factorizations, too. Furthermore, formulas for the n - 1 compounds of Hadamard matrices are derived, which dodge the strenuous computations of the respective numerous large determinants. Finally, a combinatorial counting technique for finding the compounds of diagonal matrices is illustrated.

  3. In situ XPS study of methanol reforming on PdGa near-surface intermetallic phases

    PubMed Central

    Rameshan, Christoph; Stadlmayr, Werner; Penner, Simon; Lorenz, Harald; Mayr, Lukas; Hävecker, Michael; Blume, Raoul; Rocha, Tulio; Teschner, Detre; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Memmel, Norbert; Klötzer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering were used to study the preparation, (thermo)chemical and catalytic properties of 1:1 PdGa intermetallic near-surface phases. Deposition of several multilayers of Ga metal and subsequent annealing to 503–523 K led to the formation of a multi-layered 1:1 PdGa near-surface state without desorption of excess Ga to the gas phase. In general, the composition of the PdGa model system is much more variable than that of its PdZn counterpart, which results in gradual changes of the near-surface composition with increasing annealing or reaction temperature. In contrast to near-surface PdZn, in methanol steam reforming, no temperature region with pronounced CO2 selectivity was observed, which is due to the inability of purely intermetallic PdGa to efficiently activate water. This allows to pinpoint the water-activating role of the intermetallic/support interface and/or of the oxide support in the related supported PdxGa/Ga2O3 systems, which exhibit high CO2 selectivity in a broad temperature range. In contrast, corresponding experiments starting on the purely bimetallic model surface in oxidative methanol reforming yielded high CO2 selectivity already at low temperatures (∼460 K), which is due to efficient O2 activation on PdGa. In situ detected partial and reversible oxidative Ga segregation on intermetallic PdGa is associated with total oxidation of intermediate C1 oxygenates to CO2. PMID:22875996

  4. Plasma sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coating for NiAl-based intermetallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Doychak, Joseph (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system consists of two layers of a zirconia-yttria ceramic. The first layer is applied by low pressure plasma spraying. The second layer is applied by conventional atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. This facilitates the attachment of a durable thermally insulating ceramic coating directly to the surface of a highly oxidation resistant NiAl-based intermetallic alloy after the alloy has been preoxidized to promote the formation of a desirable Al2O3 scale.

  5. Facet-Dependent Deposition of Highly Strained Alloyed Shells on Intermetallic Nanoparticles for Enhanced Electrocatalysis

    SciT

    Wang, Chenyu; Sang, Xiahan; Gamler, Jocelyn T. L.

    Compressive surface strains can enhance the performance of platinum-based core@shell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Bimetallic core@shell nanoparticles (NPs) are widely studied nanocatalysts but often have limited lattice mismatch and surface compositions; investigations of core@shell NPs with greater compositional complexity and lattice misfit are in their infancy. Here, a new class of multimetallic NPs composed of intermetallic cores and random alloy shells is reported. Specifically, face-centered cubic (fcc) Pt- Cu random alloy shells were deposited non-epitaxially on PdCu B2 intermetallic seeds, giving rise to faceted core@shell NPs with highly strained surfaces. In fact, high resolution transmission electron microscopymore » (HRTEM) revealed orientation-dependent surface strains, where the compressive strains were minimal on Pt-Cu {111} facets but greater on {200} facets. These core@shell NPs provide higher specific and mass activities for the ORR when compared to conventional Pt-Cu NPs. Moreover, these intermetallic@random alloy NPs displayed high endurance, undergoing 10,000 cycles with only a slight decay in activity and no apparent structural changes.« less

  6. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    DOE PAGES

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanicalmore » properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.« less

  7. Facet-Dependent Deposition of Highly Strained Alloyed Shells on Intermetallic Nanoparticles for Enhanced Electrocatalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Chenyu; Sang, Xiahan; Gamler, Jocelyn T. L.; ...

    2017-08-25

    Compressive surface strains can enhance the performance of platinum-based core@shell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Bimetallic core@shell nanoparticles (NPs) are widely studied nanocatalysts but often have limited lattice mismatch and surface compositions; investigations of core@shell NPs with greater compositional complexity and lattice misfit are in their infancy. Here, a new class of multimetallic NPs composed of intermetallic cores and random alloy shells is reported. Specifically, face-centered cubic (fcc) Pt- Cu random alloy shells were deposited non-epitaxially on PdCu B2 intermetallic seeds, giving rise to faceted core@shell NPs with highly strained surfaces. In fact, high resolution transmission electron microscopymore » (HRTEM) revealed orientation-dependent surface strains, where the compressive strains were minimal on Pt-Cu {111} facets but greater on {200} facets. These core@shell NPs provide higher specific and mass activities for the ORR when compared to conventional Pt-Cu NPs. Moreover, these intermetallic@random alloy NPs displayed high endurance, undergoing 10,000 cycles with only a slight decay in activity and no apparent structural changes.« less

  8. Cohesive properties of (Cu,Ni)-(In,Sn) intermetallics: Database, electron-density correlations and interpretation of bonding trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, S. B.; González Lemus, N. V.; Cabeza, G. F.; Fernández Guillermet, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a systematic and comparative study of the composition and volume dependence of the cohesive properties for a large group of Me-X intermetallic phases (IPs) with Me=Cu,Ni and X=In,Sn, which are of interest in relation with the design of lead-free soldering (LFS) alloys. The work relies upon a database with total-energy versus volume information developed by using projected augmented waves (PAW) calculations. In previous papers by the current authors it was shown that these results account satisfactorily for the direct and indirect experimental data available. In the present work, the database is further expanded to investigate the composition dependence of the volume (V0), and the composition and volume dependence of the bulk modulus (B0) and cohesive energy (Ecoh). On these bases, an analysis is performed of the systematic effects of replacing Cu by Ni in several Me-X phases (Me=Cu,Ni and X=In,Sn) reported as stable and metastable, as well as various hypothetical compounds involved in the thermodynamic modeling of IPs using the Compound-Energy Formalism. Moreover, it is shown that the cohesion-related quantities (B0/V0)½ and (Ecoh½/V0) can be correlated with a parameter expressing the number of valence electrons per unit volume. These findings are compared in detail with related relations involving the Miedema empirical electron density at the boundary of the Wigner-Seitz cell. In view of the co-variation of the cohesive properties, Ecoh is selected as a key property and its composition and structure dependence is examined in terms of a theoretical view of the bonding which involves the hybridization of the d-states of Cu or Ni with the s and p-states of In or Sn, for this class of compounds. In particular, a comparative analysis is performed of the DOS of various representative, iso-structural Me-X compounds. Various effects of relevance to understand the consequences of replacing Cu by Ni in LFS alloys are highlighted and explained

  9. High-Strength, Superelastic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm; Noebe, Ronald; Dellacorte, Christopher; Bigelow, Glen; Thomas, Fransua

    2013-01-01

    In a previous disclosure, the use of 60- NiTiNOL, an ordered intermetallic compound composed of 60 weight percent nickel and 40 weight percent titanium, was investigated as a material for advanced aerospace bearings due to its unique combination of physical properties. Lessons learned during the development of applications for this material have led to the discovery that, with the addition of a ternary element, the resulting material can be thermally processed at a lower temperature to attain the same desirable hardness level as the original material. Processing at a lower temperature is beneficial, not only because it reduces processing costs from energy consumption, but because it also significantly reduces the possibility of quench cracking and thermal distortion, which have been problematic with the original material. A family of ternary substitutions has been identified, including Hf and Zr in various atomic percentages with varying concentrations of Ni and Ti. In the present innovation, a ternary intermetallic compound consisting of 57.6 weight percent Ni, 39.2 weight percent Ti, and 3.2 weight percent Hf (54Ni-45Ti-1Hf atomic percent) was prepared by casting. In this material, Hf substitutes for some of the Ti atoms in the material. In an alternate embodiment of the innovation, Zr, which is close in chemical behavior to Hf, is used as the substitutional element. With either substitution, the solvus temperature of the material is reduced, and lower temperatures can be used to obtain the necessary hardness values. The advantages of this innovation include the ability to solution-treat the material at a lower temperature and still achieve the required hardness for bearings (at least 50 Rockwell C) and superelastic behavior with recoverable strains greater than 2%. Most structural alloys will not return to their original shape after being deformed as little as 0.2% (a tenth of that possible with superelastic materials like 60 NiTiNOL). Because lower temperatures

  10. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part II. Intermetallic Coarsening Behavior of Rapidly Solidified Solders After Multiple Reflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2016-12-01

    Controlling the size, dispersion, and stability of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder alloys is vital to creating reliable solder joints regardless of how many times the solder joints are melted and resolidified (reflowed) during circuit board assembly. In this article, the coarsening behavior of Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 in two Sn-Cu-Al alloys, a Sn-2.59Cu-0.43Al at. pct alloy produced via drip atomization and a Sn-5.39Cu-1.69Al at. pct alloy produced via melt spinning at a 5-m/s wheel speed, was characterized after multiple (1-5) reflow cycles via differential scanning calorimetry between the temperatures of 293 K and 523 K (20 °C and 250 °C). Little-to-no coarsening of the Cu x Al y particles was observed for either composition; however, clustering of Cu x Al y particles was observed. For Cu6Sn5 particle growth, a bimodal size distribution was observed for the drip atomized alloy, with large, faceted growth of Cu6Sn5 observed, while in the melt spun alloy, Cu6Sn5 particles displayed no significant increase in the average particle size, with irregularly shaped, nonfaceted Cu6Sn5 particles observed after reflow, which is consistent with shapes observed in the as-solidified alloys. The link between original alloy composition, reflow undercooling, and subsequent intermetallic coarsening behavior was discussed by using calculated solidification paths. The reflowed microstructures suggested that the heteroepitaxial relationship previously observed between the Cu x Al y and the Cu6Sn5 was maintained for both alloys.

  11. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part II. Intermetallic Coarsening Behavior of Rapidly Solidified Solders After Multiple Reflows

    DOE PAGES

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; ...

    2016-10-06

    Controlling the size, dispersion, and stability of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder alloys is vital to creating reliable solder joints regardless of how many times the solder joints are melted and resolidified (reflowed) during circuit board assembly. In this article, the coarsening behavior of Cu x Al y and Cu 6Sn 5 in two Sn-Cu-Al alloys, a Sn-2.59Cu-0.43Al at. pct alloy produced via drip atomization and a Sn-5.39Cu-1.69Al at. pct alloy produced via melt spinning at a 5-m/s wheel speed, was characterized after multiple (1-5) reflow cycles via differential scanning calorimetry between the temperatures of 293 K and 523 Kmore » (20 °C and 250 °C). Little-to-no coarsening of the Cu x Al y particles was observed for either composition; however, clustering of Cu x Al y particles was observed. For Cu 6Sn 5 particle growth, a bimodal size distribution was observed for the drip atomized alloy, with large, faceted growth of Cu 6Sn 5 observed, while in the melt spun alloy, Cu 6Sn 5 particles displayed no significant increase in the average particle size, with irregularly shaped, nonfaceted Cu 6Sn 5 particles observed after reflow, which is consistent with shapes observed in the as-solidified alloys. The link between original alloy composition, reflow undercooling, and subsequent intermetallic coarsening behavior was discussed by using calculated solidification paths. As a result, the reflowed microstructures suggested that the heteroepitaxial relationship previously observed between the Cu x Al y and the Cu 6Sn 5 was maintained for both alloys.« less

  12. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al-5Mg-Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-29

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al-Mg-Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt %) to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al-5Mg-Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al-5Mg-Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  13. Corrosion Protection Mechanisms of Rare-Earth Compounds Based on Cerium and Praseodymium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Annular Dark Field IMC–Intermetallic compound LA-ICP-MS Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry MPY—Mils per year (a measure of...currently researching CeCCs. ................................. 20   Table 2.   Mass percent losses during various ranges of thermal treatment for Pr6O11...analysis data of corrosion product in an 084 primer series scribe following 500 hours of salt spray exposure as detected by mass spectrometry

  14. Equilibrium defects and solute site preferences in intermetallics: I. thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gary S.; Zacate, Matthew O.

    2001-03-01

    A model was developed to describe equilibrium defects and site preferences of dilute solute atoms in compounds having the CsCl and Ni_2Al3 structures. Equilibrium defects considered were combinations of elementary point defects that preserve the composition. Equilibria among possible defect combinations were combined with appropriate equations of constraint to obtain defect concentrations as a function of temperature and possible deviation from the stoichiometric composition. As an application, site-energies of defects and solutes in AB and A_2B_3) systems were estimated using Miedema's empirical model, with A=(Ni, Pd, Pt) and B= (Al, Ga, In). Dominant equilibrium defects in the respective systems were found to be the "triple defect" (2V_A+ A_B) and "octal defect" (5V_A+ 3A_B). Site preferences were found to depend on concentrations of intrinsic defects as well as on site-energy differences, and results reveal how preferences generally depend on temperature and composition. Consider solute S which, based on site energies, prefers to replace atom B. It is found that S always occupies B-sites in B-deficient alloys. In B-rich alloys, however, S may or may not occupy B-sites, depending on site-energy differences and the formation energies of equilibrium defects. For a solute that prefers to replace atom A, analogous results are obtained but with A replacing B in the three preceding sentences. This work was supported in part by the NSF under grant DMR 96-12306.

  15. Growth and microstructure formation of isothermally-solidified Zircaloy-4 joints brazed by a Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni amorphous alloy ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, J. G.; Lee, M. K.; Rhee, C. K.

    2013-10-01

    The microstructure and growth characteristics of Zircaloy-4 joints brazed by a Zr48Ti16Cu17Ni19 (at.%) amorphous filler metal have been investigated with regard to the controlled isothermal solidification and intermetallic formation. Two typical joints were produced depending on the isothermal brazing temperature: (1) a dendritic growth structure including bulky segregation in the central zone (at 850 °C), and (2) a homogeneous dendritic structure throughout the joint without segregation (at 890 °C). The primary α-Zr phase was solidified isothermally, nucleating to grow into a joint with a cellular or dendritic structure. Also, the continuous Zr2Ni and particulate Zr2Cu phases were formed in the segregated center zone and at the intercellular region, respectively, owing to the different solubility and atomic mobility of the solute elements (Ti, Cu, and Ni) in the α-Zr matrix. A disappearance of the central Zr2Ni phase was also rate-controlled by the outward diffusion of the Cu and Ni elements. When the detrimental Zr2Ni intermetallic phase was eliminated by a complete isothermal solidification at 890 °C, the strengths of the joints were high enough to cause yielding and fracture in the base metal, exceeding those of the bulk Zircaloy-4, at room temperature as well as at elevated temperatures (up to 400 °C).

  16. Atom probe tomography of intermetallic phases and interfaces formed in dissimilar joining between Al alloys and steel

    SciT

    Lemmens, B.

    While Si additions to Al are widely used to reduce the thickness of the brittle intermetallic seam formed at the interface during joining of Al alloys to steel, the underlying mechanisms are not clarified yet. The developed approach for the site specific atom probe tomography analysis revealed Si enrichments at grain and phase boundaries between the θ (Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13}) and η (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) phase, up to about ten times that of the concentration in Al. The increase in Si concentration could play an important role for the growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases formed for example in hot-dipmore » aluminizing of steel. - Highlights: •Si additions to Al reduce thickness of intermetallic seam in joining with steel. •Approach developed for the site specific APT analysis of the intermetallic seam •Si enrichment at grain and phase boundaries possibly affects growth of intermetallics.« less

  17. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Jones, Michael G [Chubbuck, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Trowbridge, Tammy L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  18. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  19. Ordered Pt 3Co Intermetallic Nanoparticles Derived from Metal–Organic Frameworks for Oxygen Reduction

    SciT

    Wang, Xiao Xia; Hwang, Sooyeon; Pan, Yung-Tin

    Highly ordered Pt alloy structures are proved effective to improve their catalytic activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Here, we report a new approach to preparing ordered Pt 3Co intermetallic nanoparticles through a facile thermal treatment of Pt nanoparticles supported on Co-doped metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived carbon. In particular, the atomically dispersed Co sites, which are originally embedded into MOF-derived carbon, diffuse into Pt nanocrystals and form ordered Pt 3Co structures. It is very crucial for the formation of the ordered Pt 3Co to carefully control the doping content of Co intomore » the MOFs and the heating temperatures for Co diffusion. The optimal Pt 3Co nanoparticle catalyst has achieved significantly enhanced activity and stability, exhibiting a half-wave potential up to 0.92 V vs. RHE and only losing 12 mV after 30,000 potential cycling between 0.6 and 1.0 V. The highly ordered intermetallic structure was retained after the accelerated stress tests evidenced by atomic-scale elemental mapping. Fuel cell tests further verified the high intrinsic activity of the ordered Pt 3Co catalysts. Unlike the direct use of MOF-derived carbon supports for depositing Pt, we utilized MOF-derived carbon containing atomically dispersed Co sites as Co sources to prepare ordered Pt 3Co intermetallic catalysts. Finally, the new synthesis approach provides an effective strategy to develop active and stable Pt alloy catalysts by leveraging the unique properties of MOFs such as 3D structures, high surface areas, and controlled nitrogen doping.« less

  20. Ordered Pt 3Co Intermetallic Nanoparticles Derived from Metal–Organic Frameworks for Oxygen Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiao Xia; Hwang, Sooyeon; Pan, Yung-Tin; ...

    2018-06-06

    Highly ordered Pt alloy structures are proved effective to improve their catalytic activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Here, we report a new approach to preparing ordered Pt 3Co intermetallic nanoparticles through a facile thermal treatment of Pt nanoparticles supported on Co-doped metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived carbon. In particular, the atomically dispersed Co sites, which are originally embedded into MOF-derived carbon, diffuse into Pt nanocrystals and form ordered Pt 3Co structures. It is very crucial for the formation of the ordered Pt 3Co to carefully control the doping content of Co intomore » the MOFs and the heating temperatures for Co diffusion. The optimal Pt 3Co nanoparticle catalyst has achieved significantly enhanced activity and stability, exhibiting a half-wave potential up to 0.92 V vs. RHE and only losing 12 mV after 30,000 potential cycling between 0.6 and 1.0 V. The highly ordered intermetallic structure was retained after the accelerated stress tests evidenced by atomic-scale elemental mapping. Fuel cell tests further verified the high intrinsic activity of the ordered Pt 3Co catalysts. Unlike the direct use of MOF-derived carbon supports for depositing Pt, we utilized MOF-derived carbon containing atomically dispersed Co sites as Co sources to prepare ordered Pt 3Co intermetallic catalysts. Finally, the new synthesis approach provides an effective strategy to develop active and stable Pt alloy catalysts by leveraging the unique properties of MOFs such as 3D structures, high surface areas, and controlled nitrogen doping.« less

  1. Method of fabricating a homogeneous wire of inter-metallic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Ohriner, Evan Keith; Blue, Craig Alan

    2001-01-01

    A method for fabricating a homogeneous wire of inter-metallic alloy comprising the steps of providing a base-metal wire bundle comprising a metal, an alloy or a combination thereof; working the wire bundle through at least one die to obtain a desired dimension and to form a precursor wire; and, controllably heating the precursor wire such that a portion of the wire will become liquid while simultaneously maintaining its desired shape, whereby substantial homogenization of the wire occurs in the liquid state and additional homogenization occurs in the solid state resulting in a homogenous alloy product.

  2. Synthesis of Au-induced structurally ordered AuPdCo intermetallic core-shell nanoparticles and their use as oxygen reduction catalysts

    SciT

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    Embodiments of the disclosure relate to intermetallic nanoparticles. Embodiments include nanoparticles having an intermetallic core including a first metal and a second metal. The first metal may be palladium and the second metal may be at least one of cobalt, iron, nickel, or a combination thereof. The nanoparticles may further have a shell that includes palladium and gold.

  3. Exploratory study of elevated-temperature tensile properties of alloys based on the intermetallic compound TiNi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkle, M.

    1974-01-01

    The tensile properties and oxygen contamination behavior of TiNi alloyed with aluminum, chromium, and silicon were investigated in the temperature range between 800 and 1000 K (980 and 1340 F). The alloys were significantly stronger than unalloyed TiNi and less susceptible to embrittlement than the Ti-6242 alloy.

  4. Tetragonal-antiprismatic coordination of transition metals in intermetallic compounds: ω1-Mn6Ga29 and its structuralrelationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyshyn, Iryna; Prots, Yurii; Margiolaki, Irene; Schmidt, Marcus Peter; Zhak, Olga; Oryshchyn, Stepan; Grin, Yuri

    2013-03-01

    The new phase ω1-Mn6Ga29 was synthesised in single-crystal form from the elements applying the high-temperature centrifugation-aided filtration technique. The crystal structure was determined using diffraction data collected from a twinned specimen: a new prototype, space group P1¯; a=6.3114(2) Å, b=9.9557(3) Å, c=18.920(1) Å, α=90.473(1)°, β=90.847(1)°, γ=90.396(1)°; R1=0.047, wR2=0.117 for 317 variable parameters and 7346 observed reflections; twinning matrix 0 0 -1/3, 0 -1 0, -3 0 0; twin domains ratio 0.830(3):0.170. All manganese atoms in the crystal structure of ω1-Mn6Ga29 are coordinated exclusively by Ga forming distorted tetragonal antiprisms. The monocapped [MnGa8+1] antiprisms condense into pairs by sharing their pseudo-quadratic faces and are interconnected via common apexes and edges to form a 3D framework. The relationship between the crystal structures of ω1-Mn6Ga29 and CuAl2, α-, β-CoSn3, PtSn4, Ti4MnBi2, PdGa5, Rh3Ga16, Rh4Ga21, Al7FeCu2, Co2Al9, and RhBi4 is discussed.

  5. Investigation of Strain Aging in the Ordered Intermetallic Compound beta-NiAl. Ph.D. Thesis Final Contractor Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Mark Lovell

    1995-01-01

    The phenomenon of strain aging has been investigated in polycrystalline and single crystal NiAl alloys at temperatures between 300 and 1200 K. Static strain aging studies revealed that after annealing at 1100 K for 7200 s (i.e., 2h) followed by furnace cooling, high purity, nitrogen-doped and titanium-doped polycrystalline alloys exhibited continuous yielding, while conventional-purity and carbon-doped alloys exhibited distinct yield points and Luders strains. Prestraining by hydrostatic pressurization removed the yield points, but they could be reintroduced by further annealing treatments. Yield points could be reintroduced more rapidly if the specimens were prestrained uniaxially rather than hydrostatically, owing to the arrangement of dislocations into cell structures during uniaxial deformation. The time dependence of the strain aging events followed at t(exp 2/3) relationship suggesting that the yield points observed in polycrystalline NiAl were the result of the pinning of mobile dislocations by interstitials, specifically carbon. Between 700 and 800 K, yield stress plateaus, yield stress transients upon a ten-fold increase in strain rate, work hardening peaks, and dips in the strain rate sensitivity (SRS) have been observed in conventional-purity and carbon-doped polycrystals. In single crystals, similar behavior was observed; in conventional-purity single crystals, however, the strain rate sensitivity became negative resulting in serrated yielding, whereas, the strain rate sensitivity stayed positive in high purity and in molybdenum-doped NiAl. These observations are indicative of dynamic strain aging (DSA) and are discussed in terms of conventional strain aging theories. The impact of these phenomena on the composition-structure-property relations are discerned. Finally, a good correlation has been demonstrated between the properties of NiAl alloys and a recently developed model for strain aging in metals and alloys developed by Reed-Hill et al.

  6. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Pr-Co intermetallics: ab initio FP-LAPW calculations and correlation with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkari, Karim; Fersi, Riadh; Kebir Hlil, El; Bessais, Lotfi; Thabet Mliki, Najeh

    2018-03-01

    First-principle calculations combining density functional theory and the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method are performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic structure of Pr2Co7 in its two polymorphic forms, (2:7 H) and (2:7 R), for the first time. This type of calculation was also performed for PrCo5 and PrCo2 intermetallics. We have computed the valence density of states separately for spin-up and spin-down states in order to investigate the electronic band structure. This is governed by the strong contribution of the partial DOS of 3d-Co bands compared to the partial DOS of the 4f-Pr bands. Such a high ferromagnetic state is discussed in terms of the strong spin polarization observed in the total DOS. The magnetic moments carried by the Co and Pr atoms located in several sites for all compounds are computed. These results mainly indicate that cobalt atoms make a dominant contribution to the magnetic moments. The notable difference in the atomic moments of Pr and Co atoms between different structural slabs is explained in terms of the magnetic characteristics of the PrCo2 and PrCo5 compounds and the local chemical environments of the Pr and Co atoms in different structural slabs of Pr2Co7. From spin-polarized calculations we have simulated the 3d and 4f band population to estimate the local magnetic moments. These results are in accordance with the magnetic moments calculated using the FP-LAPW method. In addition, the exchange interactions J ij are calculated and used as input for M(T) simulations. Involving the data obtained from the electronic structure calculations, the appropriate Padé Table is applied to simulate the magnetization M(T) and to estimate the mean-field Curie temperature. We report a fairly good agreement between the ab initio calculation of magnetization and Curie temperature with the experimental data.

  7. Joining thick section aluminum to steel with suppressed FeAl intermetallic formation via friction stir dovetailing

    SciT

    Reza-E-Rabby, Md.; Ross, Kenneth; Overman, Nicole R.

    A new solid-phase technique called friction stir dovetailing (FSD) has been developed for joining thick section aluminum to steel. In FSD, mechanical interlocks are formed at the aluminum-steel interface and are reinforced by metallurgical bonds where intermetallic growth has been uniquely suppressed. Lap shear testing shows superior strength and extension at failure compared to popular friction stir approaches where metallurgical bonding is the only joining mechanism. High resolution microscopy revealed the presence of a 40-70 nm interlayer having a composition of 76.4 at% Al, 18.4 at% Fe, and 5.2 at% Si, suggestive of limited FeAl3 intermetallic formation.

  8. X-ray structural study of intermetallic alloys RT{sub 2}Si and RTSi{sub 2} (R=rare earth, T=noble metal)

    SciT

    Gribanov, Alexander, E-mail: avgri@mail.r; Chemistry Department of the Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow; Grytsiv, Andriy

    Two series of intermetallic alloys, RT{sub 2}Si and RTSi{sub 2}, have been synthesized from stoichiometric compositions. The crystal structures of EuPt{sub 1+x}Si{sub 2-x} (CeNiSi{sub 2}-type), CeIr{sub 2}Si (new structure type), YbPd{sub 2}Si and YbPt{sub 2}Si (both YPd{sub 2}Si-type) have been elucidated from X-ray single crystal CCD data, which were confirmed by XPD experiments. The crystal structures of LaRh{sub 2}Si and LaIr{sub 2}Si (CeIr{sub 2}Si-type), {l_brace}La,Ce,Pr,Nd{r_brace}AgSi{sub 2} (all TbFeSi{sub 2}-type), and EuPt{sub 2}Si (inverse CeNiSi{sub 2}-type) were characterized by XPD data. RT{sub 2}Si/RTSi{sub 2} compounds were neither detected in as-cast alloys Sc{sub 25}Pt{sub 50}Si{sub 25}, Eu{sub 25}Os{sub 25}Si{sub 50} and Eu{submore » 25}Rh{sub 25}Si{sub 50} nor after annealing at 900 {sup o}C. Instead, X-ray single crystal data prompted Eu{sub 2}Os{sub 3}Si{sub 5} (Sc{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-type) and EuRh{sub 2+x}Si{sub 2-x} (x=0.04, ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type) as well as a new structure type for Sc{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 2} (own type). - Graphical abstract: Two series of the intermetallic compounds, RT{sub 2}Si and RTSi{sub 2}, have been investigated by X-ray diffraction methods. The new tetragonal CeIr{sub 2}Si-type of the crystal structure was described and the interrelation between orthorhombic CeNiSi{sub 2} and tetragonal CeIr{sub 2}Si had been discussed as a similar packing of the BaAl{sub 4} and AlB{sub 2} slabs.« less

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the polar intermetallics SrPt{sub 3}Al{sub 2} and Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}Al

    SciT

    Stegemann, Frank; Benndorf, Christopher; Touzani, Rachid St.

    SrPt{sub 3}Al{sub 2}, a CaCu{sub 5} relative (P6/mmm; a = 566.29(3), c = 389.39(3) pm; wR{sub 2} = 0.0202, 121 F{sup 2} values, 9 parameters), and Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}Al, isostructural to Ca{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}Ge (Fdd2; a = 1041.45(5), b = 1558.24(7), c = 604.37(3) pm; wR{sub 2} = 0.0291, 844 F{sup 2} values, 25 parameters) have been prepared from the elements. The crystal structures have been investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural relaxation confirmed the electronic stability of SrPt{sub 3}Al{sub 2}, while orthorhombic Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}Al might be a metastable polymorph as it is energetically competitive to its monoclinicmore » variant. Both compounds are predicted to be metallic conductors as their density-of-states (DOS) are non-zero at the Fermi level. COHP bonding analysis coupled with Bader effective charge analysis suggest that the title compounds are polar intermetallic phases in which strong Pt–Al and Pd–Al covalent bonds are present, while a significant electron transfer from Sr atoms to the [Pt{sub 3}Al{sub 2}]{sup δ–} or [Pd{sub 2}Al]{sup δ–} network is found. - Graphical abstract: Chains of Pd atoms in the crystal structure of Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}Al get connected by Al atoms in the shape of a distorted tetrahedra. The band structure calculations confirm weak Pd–Pd interactions. - Highlights: • SrPt{sub 3}Al{sub 2} and Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}Al discovered and crystallographically investigated. • DFT predicts the here reported orthorhombic Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}Al to be competitive in energy to the presently unknown monoclinic Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}Al. • Bader charge analysis indicates SrPt{sub 3}Al{sub 2} and Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}Al are polar intermetallics.« less

  10. Melt-Spun Fe-Sb Intermetallic Alloy Anode for Performance Enhanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Edison, Eldho; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2017-11-15

    Owing to the high theoretical sodiation capacities, intermetallic alloy anodes have attracted considerable interest as electrodes for next-generation sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of intermetallic Fe-Sb alloy anode for SIBs via a high-throughput and industrially viable melt-spinning process. The earth-abundant and low-cost Fe-Sb-based alloy anode exhibits excellent cycling stability with nearly 466 mAh g -1 sodiation capacity at a specific current of 50 mA g -1 with 95% capacity retention after 80 cycles. Moreover, the alloy anode displayed outstanding rate performance with ∼300 mAh g -1 sodiation capacity at 1 A g -1 . The crystalline features of the melt-spun fibers aid in the exceptional electrochemical performance of the alloy anode. Further, the feasibility of the alloy anode for real-life applications was demonstrated in a sodium-ion full-cell configuration which could deliver a sodiation capacity of over 300 mAh g -1 (based on anode) at 50 mA g -1 with more than 99% Coulombic efficiency. The results further exhort the prospects of melt-spun alloy anodes to realize fully functional sodium-ion batteries.

  11. Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Thomas, Fransua; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    Rolling element bearings made from highly-elastic intermetallic materials (HIM)s, such as 60NiTi, are under development for applications that require superior corrosion and shock resistance. Compared to steel, intermetallics have been shown to have much lower rolling contact fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod (ASTM STP 771) fatigue tests. In the 3-ball tests, poor material quality and microstructural flaws negatively affect fatigue life but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not fail even in long-term tests. Though the full-scale bearing test data is yet preliminary, the results suggest that the simplified RCF test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance. These results provide guidance for materials development and to establish minimum quality levels required for successful bearing operation and life.

  12. Ab Initio Studies of Shock-Induced Chemical Reactions of Inter-Metallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharieva, Roussislava; Hanagud, Sathya

    2009-06-01

    Shock-induced and shock assisted chemical reactions of intermetallic mixtures are studied by many researchers, using both experimental and theoretical techniques. The theoretical studies are primarily at continuum scales. The model frameworks include mixture theories and meso-scale models of grains of porous mixtures. The reaction models vary from equilibrium thermodynamic model to several non-equilibrium thermodynamic models. The shock-effects are primarily studied using appropriate conservation equations and numerical techniques to integrate the equations. All these models require material constants from experiments and estimates of transition states. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present studies based on ab initio techniques. The ab inito studies, to date, use ab inito molecular dynamics. This paper presents a study that uses shock pressures, and associated temperatures as starting variables. Then intermetallic mixtures are modeled as slabs. The required shock stresses are created by straining the lattice. Then, ab initio binding energy calculations are used to examine the stability of the reactions. Binding energies are obtained for different strain components super imposed on uniform compression and finite temperatures. Then, vibrational frequencies and nudge elastic band techniques are used to study reactivity and transition states. Examples include Ni and Al.

  13. Ultrafast and Highly Reversible Sodium Storage in Zinc-Antimony Intermetallic Nanomaterials

    SciT

    Nie, Anmin; Gan, Li-yong; Cheng, Yingchun

    2015-12-17

    The progress on sodium-ion battery technology faces many grand challenges, one of which is the considerably lower rate of sodium insertion/deinsertion in electrode materials due to the larger size of sodium (Na) ions and complicated redox reactions compared to the lithium-ion systems. Here, it is demonstrated that sodium ions can be reversibly stored in Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires at speeds that can exceed 295 nm s -1. Remarkably, these values are one to three orders of magnitude higher than the sodiation rate of other nanowires electrochemically tested with in situ transmission electron micro­scopy. It is found that the nanowires display aboutmore » 161% volume expansion after the first sodiation and then cycle with an 83% reversible volume expansion. Despite their massive expansion, the nanowires can be cycled without any cracking or facture during the ultrafast sodiation/desodiation process. Additionally, most of the phases involved in the sodiation/desodiation process possess high electrical conductivity. More specifically, the NaZnSb exhibits a layered structure, which provides channels for fast Na + diffusion. This observation indicates that Zn-Sb intermetallic nanomaterials offer great promise as high rate and good cycling stability anodic materials for the next generation of sodium-ion batteries.« less

  14. Gold–promoted structurally ordered intermetallic palladium cobalt nanoparticles for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciT

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong

    2014-11-06

    Considerable efforts to make palladium and palladium alloys active catalysts and a possible replacement for platinum have had a marginal success. Here, we report on a structurally ordered Au₁₀Pd₄₀Co₅₀ catalyst that exhibits comparable activity to conventional platinum catalysts in both acid and alkaline media. Electron microscopic techniques demonstrate that via addition of gold atoms PdCo nanoparticles undergo at elevated temperatures an atomic structural transition from core-shell to a rare intermetallic ordered structure with twin boundaries forming stable {111}, {110} and {100} facets. The superior stability of this catalyst compared to platinum after 10,000 potential cycles in alkaline media is attributedmore » to the atomic structural order of PdCo nanoparticles along with protective effect of clusters of gold atoms on the surface. This strategy of making ordered palladium intermetallic alloy nanoparticles can be used in diverse heterogeneous catalysis where particle size and structural stability matters.« less

  15. Derivation of mechanical characteristics for Ni/Au intermetallic surface with SAC305 solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Choi, Jae-Boong

    2013-03-01

    Many surface finish methods are used to connect a substrate with the electric components of IT products in the micro-packaging process, and various types of lead-free solder have been developed as alternative materials to lead-based solder to reduce environmental contamination. However, there has been little research on the mechanical properties of the inter-metallic surface which is generated in the bumping process between the lead-free solder and surface films such as Ni/Au. The present work is to derive the material properties of a Ni/Au inter-metallic surface with SAC305 solder. A series of indentation tests were carried out by changing four nano-scale indentation depths and two strain rates. Also, a reverse algorithm method was adopted to determine the elastic-plastic stress-strain curve based on the load-displacement curve from the indentation test data. As a result of the material characterization effort, the mean elastic modulus, yield strength and strain hardening exponent of IMC with Ni/Au finish were determined.

  16. Self-irradiation damage to the local structure of plutonium and plutonium intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, C. H.; Jiang, Yu; Medling, S. A.; Wang, D. L.; Costello, A. L.; Schwartz, D. S.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Bauer, E. D.; McCall, S. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of self-irradiation damage on the local structure of δ-Pu, PuAl2, PuGa3, and other Pu intermetallics has been determined for samples stored at room temperature using the extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique. These measurements indicate that the intermetallic samples damage at a similar rate as indicated in previous studies of PuCoGa5. In contrast, δ-Pu data indicate a much slower damage accumulation rate. To explore the effect of storage temperature and possible room temperature annealing effects, we also collected EXAFS data on a δ-Pu sample that was held at less than 32 K for a two month period. This sample damaged much more quickly. In addition, the measurable damage was annealed out at above only 135 K. Data from samples of δ-Pu with different Ga concentrations and results on all samples collected from different absorption edges are also reported. These results are discussed in terms of the vibrational properties of the materials and the role of Ga in δ-Pu as a network former.

  17. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  18. Investigation of the physical properties of two Laves phase compounds HRh2 (H = Ca and La): A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Md. Zahidur; Rahman, Md. Atikur

    2018-05-01

    By using the first-principle calculations, the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of Laves phase intermetallic compounds CaRh2 and LaRh2 prototype with MgCu2 are investigated. The evaluated lattice parameters are consistent with the experimental values. The important elastic properties, such as bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young’s modulus Y and the Poisson’s ratio v, are computed by applying the Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRH) approximation. The analysis of Pugh’s ratio exhibits the ductile nature of both the phases. Electronic conductivity is predicted for both the compounds. Most of the contribution comes from Rh-4d states. The study of bonding characteristics reveals the existence of ionic and metallic bonds in both intermetallics. The study of optical properties indicates that CaRh2 is a better dielectric material than LaRh2. Absorption quality of both the phases is good in the ultraviolet region.

  19. Perfluorinated Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s, and until recently, have be...

  20. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of heavy fermion YbRh2 Laves phase compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Harsha; Shugani, Mani; Aynyas, Mahendra; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2018-05-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of YbRh2 Laves phase intermetallic compound which crystallize in cubic (MgCu2-type) structure have been investigated using ab-initio full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP- LAPW) method with LDA and LDA+U approximation. The calculated ground state properties such as lattice parameter (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B') are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. The electronic properties are analyzed from band structures and density of states. Elastic constants are predicted first time for this compound which obeys the stability criteria for cubic system.

  1. Self-Supported Mesostructured Pt-Based Bimetallic Nanospheres Containing an Intermetallic Phase as Ultrastable Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Young; Cho, Seonghun; Sa, Young Jin; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Park, Gu-Gon; Shin, Tae Joo; Jeong, Hu Young; Yim, Sung-Dae; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2016-10-01

    Developing highly active and stable cathode catalysts is of pivotal importance for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). While carbon-supported nanostructured Pt-based catalysts have so far been the most active cathode catalysts, their durability and single-cell performance are yet to be improved. Herein, self-supported mesostructured Pt-based bimetallic (Meso-PtM; M = Ni, Fe, Co, Cu) nanospheres containing an intermetallic phase are reported, which can combine the beneficial effects of transition metals (M), an intermetallic phase, a 3D interconnected framework, and a mesoporous structure. Meso-PtM nanospheres show enhanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, compared to Pt black and Pt/C catalysts. Notably, Meso-PtNi containing an intermetallic phase exhibits ultrahigh stability, showing enhanced ORR activity even after 50 000 potential cycles, whereas Pt black and Pt/C undergo dramatic degradation. Importantly, Meso-PtNi with an intermetallic phase also demonstrated superior activity and durability when used in a PEMFC single-cell, with record-high initial mass and specific activities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Microstructure and properties of Ti-Al intermetallic/Al2O3 layers produced on Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy by PACVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, R.; Bolek, T.; Mizera, J.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents investigation of microstructure and corrosion resistance of the multi-component surface layers built of intermetallic phases of the Ti-Al system and an outer Al2O3 ceramic sub-layer. The layers were produced on a two phase (α + β) Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy using the PACVD method with the participation of trimethylaluminum vapors. The layers are characterized by a high surface hardness and good corrosion, better than that of these materials in the starting state. In order to find the correlation between their structure and properties, the layers were subjected to examinations using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), surface analysis by XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyses of the chemical composition (EDS). The properties examined included: the corrosion resistance and the hydrogen absorptiveness. Moreover growth of the Al2O3 ceramic layer and its influence on the residual stress distribution was simulated using finite element method [FEM]. The results showed that the produced layer has amorphous-nano-crystalline structure, improved corrosion resistance and reduces the permeability of hydrogen as compared with the base material of Ti6Al2Mo2Cr -titanium alloy.

  3. Magnesium compounds

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  4. Magnesium compounds

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  5. Dendrite segregation in Ni3Al-based intermetallic single crystals alloyed with Cr, Mo, W, Ti, Co, and Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, A. A.; Povarova, K. B.; Morozov, A. E.; Antonova, A. V.; Bulakhtina, M. A.; Alad'ev, N. A.

    2015-07-01

    The character of dendrite segregation in Ni3Al-based intermetallic VKNA-type alloy single crystals with a dendritic-cellular structure is studied. Distribution coefficient k d of an alloying element (AE) in the alloy during solidification k d = c d.a.I/ c 0 ( c 0 is the AE content in the alloy (liquid phase composition), c d.a.I is the AE content in primary dendrite arms of the alloy (in the solid phase)) and segregation coefficient k s = c d.a.I/ c i.d ( c i.d is the AE content in the interdendritic space) have been found. A comparative study of the dendrite segregation parameters in VKNA-nype Ni3Al-based intermetallic alloys and the well-known ZhS36-type nickel superalloy shows that the intermetallic alloys satisfy to the rule deduced for two- and three-component nickel-based superalloys: if an introduced AE increases the melting temperature of the basic metal, we have k d > 1 (Co, W, Re); if it decreases the melting temperature, we have k d < 1 (Al, Ti, Cr, Mo). Dendrite segregation coefficients k s are dependent on the proportion of the AE contents in the alloys. In nickel superalloys, the dendrite segregation of aluminum, tungsten, and rhenium is higher than that in the intermetallic alloys. The dendrite segregation coefficients of tungsten and rhenium is higher by a factor of 1.5-2 than that in the VKNA-type intermetallic alloys with a low content of refractory metals. This can be due to the retardation of diffusion of refractory metals in the solid phase of a nickel superalloy highly alloyed with these elements.

  6. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-01

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt %) to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content. PMID:28787888

  7. Thermodynamic properties and solidification kinetics of intermetallic Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2} alloy investigated by electrostatic levitation technique and theoretical calculations

    SciT

    Li, L. H.; Hu, L.; Yang, S. J.

    2016-01-21

    The thermodynamic properties, including the density, volume expansion coefficient, ratio of specific heat to emissivity of intermetallic Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2} alloy, have been measured using the non-contact electrostatic levitation technique. These properties vary linearly with temperature at solid and liquid states, even down to the obtained maximum undercooling of 317 K. The enthalpy, glass transition, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and surface tension were obtained by using molecular dynamics simulations. Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2} has a relatively poor glass forming ability, and the glass transition temperature is determined as 1026 K. The inter-diffusivity of Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2} alloy fitted by Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann law yields amore » fragility parameter of 8.49, which indicates the fragile nature of this alloy. Due to the competition of increased thermodynamic driving force and decreased atomic diffusion, the dendrite growth velocity of Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2} compound exhibits double-exponential relationship to the undercooling. The maximum growth velocity is predicted to be 0.45 m s{sup −1} at the undercooling of 335 K. Theoretical analysis reveals that the dendrite growth is a diffusion-controlled process and the atomic diffusion speed is only 2.0 m s{sup −1}.« less

  8. Intermetallic Growth Induced Large-Scale Void Growth and Cracking Failure in Line-Type Cu/Solder/Cu Joints Under Current Stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Tian, Wenya; Li, Junhui; Zhu, Wenhui

    2018-04-01

    In order to study the electromigration (EM) behavior of solder joints in electronics packaging, especially under high-current and high-temperature working conditions, line-type Cu/solder/Cu butting samples were prepared to observe the microstructural evolution under 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 current stressing. A prominent polarity effect was found such that the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the anode side, which thickened linearly with time, was much thicker than that at the cathode side. Compared to the samples subjected to thermal aging at the same temperature of 180°C, EM enhanced the Cu3Sn growth at both the anode and the cathode. Two distinct types of damage were observed after extended duration of current stressing. Back-flow of Cu into Cu3Sn was found at the Cu3Sn/Cu6Sn5 interface of the anode side, causing large voids, while strip cracks developed at the cathode solder/Cu6Sn5 interface, causing a significant increase of joint electrical resistance. With the mass transport characteristics that determine the IMC growth and vacancy accumulation analyzed in detail at each interface, formation mechanisms of the two types of damages are discussed.

  9. Interface-related deformation phenomena in intermetallic γ-titanium aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, F.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of titanium aluminides towards higher ductility concentrates on Ti-rich alloys which are composed of the intermetallic phases γ(TiAl) and α2(Ti3Al). The two phases form a lamellar microstructure with various types of interfaces. The deformation behaviour of these materials was investigated by compression tests, which were performed for different orientations of the interfacial boundaries with respect to the sample axis. With regard to the mechanical properties the structure of the interfaces and the micromechanisms of deformation were studied by conventional and high resolution electron microscopy. Accordingly, the interfacial boundaries impede the propagation of slip across the lamellae, leading to an athermal contribution to the flow stress.

  10. Chemical route for formation of intermetallic Zn 4Sb 3 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoix, A.; Solaiappan, A.; Ayral, R. M.; Rouessac, F.; Tedenac, J. C.

    2010-05-01

    Synthesis of intermetallic zinc antimonide phases via low temperature solution route was investigated. Trial experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere at 70 °C using metallic Zn, SbCl 3 and NaBH 4 as reactants and tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as organic media. Powder X-ray analysis confirmed the nucleation and growth of ZnSb phases in presence of excess Zn. SEM analysis revealed the existence of core-shell structure comprising of Zn core and Sb shell. Such particles get transformed into Zn 4Sb 3 crystalline phases upon thermal treatment at 300 °C/6 h in a silica tube closed under high secondary vacuum.

  11. Slow plastic strain rate compressive flow in binary CoAl intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Constant-velocity elevated temperature compression tests have been conducted on a series of binary CoAl intermetallics produced by hot extrusion of blended prealloyed powders. The as-extruded materials were polycrystalline, and they retained their nominal 10-micron grain size after being tested between 1100 and 1400 K at strain rates ranging from 2 x 10 to the -4th to 2 x 10 to the -7th per sec. Significant plastic flow was obtained in all cases; while cracking was observed, much of this could be due to failure at matrix-oxide interfaces along extrusion stringers rather than to solely intergranular fracture. A maximum in flow strength occurs at an aluminum-to-cobalt ratio of 0.975, and the stress exponent appears to be constant for aluminum-to-cobalt ratios of 0.85 or more. It is likely that very aluminum-deficient materials deform by a different mechanism than do other compositions.

  12. Highly stable carbon coated Mg2Si intermetallic nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamirat, Andebet Gedamu; Hou, Mengyan; Liu, Yao; Bin, Duan; Sun, Yunhe; Fan, Long; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an ideal candidate anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, it suffers from rapid capacity fading due to large volume expansion upon lithium insertion. Herein, we design and fabricate highly stable carbon coated porous Mg2Si intermetallic anode material using facile mechano-thermal technique followed by carbon coating using thermal vapour deposition (TVD), toluene as carbon source. The electrode exhibits an excellent first reversible capacity of 726 mAh g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1. More importantly, the electrode demonstrates high rate capability (380 mAh g-1 at high rate of 2 A g-1) as well as high cycle stability, with capacity retentions of 65% over 500 cycles. These improvements are attributable to both Mg supporting medium and the uniform carbon coating, which can effectively increase the conductivity and electronic contact of the active material and protects large volume alterations during the electrochemical cycling process.

  13. Comparison of the Thermal Expansion Behavior of Several Intermetallic Silicide Alloys Between 293 and 1523 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal expansion measurements were conducted on hot-pressed CrSi(sub 2), TiSi(sub 2), W Si(sub 2) and a two-phase Cr-Mo-Si intermetallic alloy between 293 and 1523 K during three heat-cool cycles. The corrected thermal expansion, (L/L(sub 0)(sub thermal), varied with the absolute temperature, T, as (deltaL/L(sub 0)(sub thermal) = A(T-293)(sup 3) + B(T-293)(sup 2) + C(T-293) + D, where A, B, C and D are regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for most of the materials after the first heat-up cycle. In some cases, the data from the first heatup cycle deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation was attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during processing, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle.

  14. On the Functionality of Complex Intermetallics: Frustration, Chemical Pressure Relief, and Potential Rattling Atoms in Y11Ni60C6.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiming; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2016-10-17

    Intermetallic carbides provide excellent model systems for exploring how frustration can shape the structures and properties of inorganic materials. Combinations of several metals with carbon can be designed in which the formation of tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) intermetallics conflicts with the C atoms' requirement of trigonal prismatic or octahedral coordination environments, as offered by the simple close-packings (SCP) of equally sized spheres. In this Article, we explore the driving forces that lead to the coexistence of these incompatible arrangements in the Yb 11 Ni 60 C 6 -type compound Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 (cI154), as well as potential consequences of this intergrowth for the phase's physical properties. Our focus begins on the structure's SCP regions, which appear as C-stuffed versions of a AuCu 3 -type YNi 3 phase that is not observed on its own in the Y-Ni system. DFT-Chemical Pressure (DFT-CP) calculations on this hypothetical YNi 3 phase reveal large negative pressures within the Ni sublattice, as it is stretched to accommodate the size requirements of the Y atoms. In the Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 structure, two structural mechanisms for addressing these CP issues appear: the incorporation of interstitial C atoms, and the presence of interfaces with CaCu 5 -type domains. The relative roles of these two mechanisms are investigated with the CP analysis on a hypothetical YNi 3 C x series of C-stuffed AuCu 3 -type phases, the Y-Ni sublattice of Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 , and finally the full Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 structure. Through these calculations, the C atoms appear to play the roles of relieving positive Y CPs and supporting relaxation at the AuCu 3 -type/CaCu 5 -type interfaces, where the cancellation occurs between opposite CPs experienced by the Y atoms in the two parent structures (following the epitaxial stabilization mechanism). The CP analysis of Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 also highlights a sublattice of Y and Ni atoms with large negative CPs (and thus the potential for soft

  15. First-principles investigation of thermodynamic, elastic and electronic properties of Al{sub 3}V and Al{sub 3}Nb intermetallics under pressures

    SciT

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Dong

    2015-02-28

    The thermodynamic, elastic, and electronic properties of D0{sub 22}-type Al{sub 3}V and Al{sub 3}Nb intermetallics were studied using the first-principle method. The results showed the pressure has profound effects on the structural, mechanical and electronic properties in both Al{sub 3}V and Al{sub 3}Nb. Thermodynamically, the formation enthalpies for Al{sub 3}V and Al{sub 3}Nb were derived, which agreed well with available experimental and theoretical values. Comparably, Al{sub 3}Nb was a more stable phase with the more negative H{sub f} than Al{sub 3}V. Mechanically, the calculated elastic constants showed linearly increasing tendencies, and satisfied the Born's criteria from 0–20 GPa, indicating the mechanicallymore » stability of Al{sub 3}V and Al{sub 3}Nb under this pressure range. Further, the mechanical parameters (i.e., bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), and Young's modulus (E)) were derived using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRH) method, and in good agreement with available experimental results at the ground state. All these parameters presented the linearly increasing dependences on the external pressure. The B/G ratios and Poisson's ratio indicated that the Al{sub 3}V and Al{sub 3}Nb crystals should exhibit brittle behavior at 0–20 GPa. Additionally, the bulk modulus can be obtained through fitting the Birch-Murnaghan equation (B{sub 0}), computing by VRH method (B{sub H}), and deriving from the elastic theory (B{sub relax}) in both intermetallics. The uniformity of these calculated bulk moduli in each compound exhibited the excellent reliability and self-consistency. In addition, Debye temperature was estimated from the average sound velocity. The Debye temperature showed an increasing dependence on the pressures. Finally, through density of states analysis, Al{sub 3}V and Al{sub 3}Nb were suggested to possess naturally metallic behavior. Under pressures, it was noted that the shapes of peaks and pseudogaps exhibited relative few changes

  16. Magnesium compounds

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  19. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  20. Magnesium compounds

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  1. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  2. Thin film Heusler compounds manganese nickel gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Catherine Ann

    Multiferroic Heusler compounds Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) have a tetragonal unit cell that can variously be used for magneto-mechanically coupled shape memory ( x=1,2) and spin-mechanical applications (x=0). The first fabrication of fully epitaxial thin films of these and electronically related compounds by sputtering is discussed. Traditional and custom lab characterization of the magnetic and temperature driven multiferroic behavior is augmented by more detailed synchrotron-based high energy photoemission spectroscopic techniques to describe the atomic and electronic structure. Integration of the MnNi2Ga magnetic shape memory compound in microwave patch antennas and active free-standing structures represents a fraction of the available and promising applications for these compounds. Prototype magnetic tunnel junctions are demonstrated by Mn3Ga electrodes with perpendicular anisotropy for spin torque transfer memory structures. The main body of the work concentrates on the definition and exploration of the material series Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) and the relevant multiferroic phenomena exhibited as a function of preparation and external stimuli. Engineering results on each x=0,1,2 are presented with device prototypes where relevant. In the appendices the process of the materials design undertaken with the goal of developing new ternary intermetallics with enhanced properties is presented with a full exploration of the road from band structure calculations to device implementation. Cobalt based compounds in single crystal and nanoparticle form are fabricated with an eye to developing the production methods for new cobalt- and iron-based magnetic shape memory compounds for device applications in different forms. Mn2CoSn, a compound isolectronic and with similar atomic ordering to Mn2NiGa is experimentally determined to be a nearly half-metallic ferromagnet in contrast to the metallic ferrimagnetism in the parent compound. High energy photoemission spectroscopy is shown to

  3. Influence of the Heterogeneous Nucleation Sites on the Kinetics of Intermetallic Phase Formation in Aged Duplex Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Elis Almeida; Magnabosco, Rodrigo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the influence of the heterogeneous nucleation site quantity, observed in different ferrite and austenite grain size samples, on the phase transformations that result in intermetallic phases in a UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel (DSS). Solution treatment was conducted for 1, 24, 96, or 192 hours at 1373 K (1100 °C) to obtain different ferrite and austenite grain sizes. After solution treatment, isothermal aging treatments for 5, 8, 10, 20, 30, or 60 minutes at 1123 K (850 °C) were performed to verify the influence of different amounts of heterogeneous nucleation sites in the kinetics of intermetallic phase formation. The sample solution treated for 1 hour, with the highest surface area between matrix phases, was the one that presented, after 60 minutes at 1123 K (850 °C), the smaller volume fraction of ferrite (indicative of greater intermetallic phase formation), higher volume of sigma (that was present in coral-like and compact morphologies), and chi phase. It was not possible to identify which was the first nucleated phase, sigma or chi. It was also observed that the phase formation kinetics is higher for the sample solution treated for 1 hour. It was evidenced that, from a certain moment on, the chi phase begins to be consumed due to the sigma phase formation, and the austenite/ferrite interface presents higher S V for all solution treatment times. It was also observed that intermetallic phases form preferably in austenite-ferrite interfaces, although the higher occupation rate occurs at triple junction ferrite-ferrite-ferrite. It was verified that there was no saturation of nucleation sites in any interface type nor triple junction, and the equilibrium after 1 hour of aging at 1123 K (850 °C) was not achieved. It was then concluded that sigma phase formation is possibly controlled by diffusional processes, without saturation of nucleation sites.

  4. Influence of intermetallic coatings of system Ti-Al on durability of slotting tool from high speed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, E. L.; Budilov, V. V.; Ramazanov, K. N.; Khusnimardanov, R. N.; Nagimov, R. Sh

    2017-05-01

    The operation conditions and mechanism of wear of slotting tools from high-speed steel was researched. The analysis of methods increasing durability was carried out. The effect of intermetallic coatings deposited from vacuum-arc discharge plasma on the physical-mechanical high-speed steel EP657MP was discovered. The pilot batch of the slotting tool and production tests were carried out.

  5. Synthesis of Pt 3Y and Other Early–Late Intermetallic Nanoparticles by Way of a Molten Reducing Agent

    SciT

    Kanady, Jacob S.; Leidinger, Peter; Haas, Andreas

    Early–late intermetallic phases have garnered increased attention recently for their catalytic properties. To achieve the high surface areas needed for industrially relevant applications, these phases must be synthesized as nanoparticles in a scalable fashion. Herein, Pt 3Y—targeted as a prototypical example of an early–late intermetallic—has been synthesized as nanoparticles approximately 5–20 nm in diameter via a solution process and characterized by XRD, TEM, EDS, and XPS. The key development is the use of a molten borohydride (MEt 3BH, M = Na, K) as both the reducing agent and reaction medium. Readily available halide precursors of the two metals are used.more » Accordingly, no organic ligands are necessary, as the resulting halide salt byproduct prevents sintering, which further permits dispersion of the nanoscale intermetallic onto a support. The versatility of this approach was validated by the synthesis of other intermetallic phases such as Pt 3Sc, Pt 3Lu, Pt 2Na, and Au 2Y.« less

  6. Synthesis of Pt 3Y and Other Early–Late Intermetallic Nanoparticles by Way of a Molten Reducing Agent

    DOE PAGES

    Kanady, Jacob S.; Leidinger, Peter; Haas, Andreas; ...

    2017-03-29

    Early–late intermetallic phases have garnered increased attention recently for their catalytic properties. To achieve the high surface areas needed for industrially relevant applications, these phases must be synthesized as nanoparticles in a scalable fashion. Herein, Pt 3Y—targeted as a prototypical example of an early–late intermetallic—has been synthesized as nanoparticles approximately 5–20 nm in diameter via a solution process and characterized by XRD, TEM, EDS, and XPS. The key development is the use of a molten borohydride (MEt 3BH, M = Na, K) as both the reducing agent and reaction medium. Readily available halide precursors of the two metals are used.more » Accordingly, no organic ligands are necessary, as the resulting halide salt byproduct prevents sintering, which further permits dispersion of the nanoscale intermetallic onto a support. The versatility of this approach was validated by the synthesis of other intermetallic phases such as Pt 3Sc, Pt 3Lu, Pt 2Na, and Au 2Y.« less

  7. Size-dependent disorder-order transformation in the synthesis of monodisperse intermetallic PdCu nanocatalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Chenyu; Chen, Dennis P.; Unocic, Raymond R.; ...

    2016-05-23

    The high performance of Pd-based intermetallic nanocatalysts has the potential to replace Pt-containing catalysts for fuel-cell reactions. Conventionally, intermetallic particles are obtained through the annealing of nanoparticles of a random alloy distribution. However, this method inevitably leads to sintering of the nanoparticles and generates polydisperse samples. Here, monodisperse PdCu nanoparticles with the ordered B2 phase were synthesized by seed-mediated co-reduction using PdCu nanoparticle seeds with a random alloy distribution (A1 phase). A time-evolution study suggests that the particles must overcome a size-dependent activation barrier for the ordering process to occur. Characterization of the as-prepared PdCu B2 nanoparticles by electron microscopymore » techniques revealed surface segregation of Pd as a thin shell over the PdCu core. The ordered nanoparticles exhibit superior activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction in comparison with PdCu A1 nanoparticles. This seed-mediated co-reduction strategy produced monodisperse nanoparticles ideally suited for structure–activity studies. Furthermore, the study of their growth mechanism provides insights into the size dependence of disorder–order transformations of bimetallic alloys at the nanoscale, which should enable the design of synthetic strategies toward other intermetallic systems.« less

  8. Defect structures in ordered intermetallics; grain boundaries and surfaces in FeAl, NiAl, CoAl and TiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutasa, Batsirai Manyara

    Ordered intermetallics based on transition metal aluminides have been proposed as structural materials for advanced aerospace applications. The development of these materials, which have the advantages of low density and high operating temperatures, have been focused on the aluminides of titanium, nickel and iron. Though these materials exhibit attractive properties at elevated temperatures, their utilization is limited due to their propensity for low temperature fracture and susceptibility to decreased ductility due to environmental effects. A major embrittlement mechanism at ambient temperatures in these aluminides has been by the loss of cohesive strength at the interfaces (intergranular failure). This study focuses on this mechanism of failure, by undertaking a systematic study of the energies and structures of specific grain boundaries in some of these compounds. The relaxed atomistic grain boundary structures in B2 aluminides, FeAl, NiAl and CoAl and L10 gamma-TiAl were investigated using molecular statics and embedded atom potentials in order to explore general trends for a series of B2 compounds as well as TiAl. The potentials used correctly predict the proper mechanism of compositional disorder of these compounds. Using these potentials, point defects, free surface energies and various grain boundary structures of similar energies in three B2 compounds, FeAl, NiAl and CoAl were studied. These B2 alloys exhibited increasing anti-phase boundary energies respectively. The misorientations chosen for detailed study correspond to the Sigma5(310) and Sigma5(210) boundaries. These boundaries were investigated with consideration given to possible variations in the local chemical composition. The effects of both boundary stoichiometry and bulk stoichiometry on grain boundary energetics were also considered. Defect energies were calculated for boundaries contained in both stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric bulk. The surface energies for these aluminides were also

  9. Two Homologous Intermetallic Phases in the Na-Au-Zn System with Sodium Bound in Unusual Paired Sites within 1D Tunnels

    SciT

    Samal, Saroj L.; Lin, Qisheng; Corbett, John D.

    The Na-Au-Zn system contains the two intermetallic phases Na(0.97(4))Au(2)Zn(4)(I) and Na(0.72(4))Au(2)Zn(2)(II) that are commensurately and incommensurately modulated derivatives of K(0.37)Cd(2), respectively. Compound I crystallizes in tetragonal space group P4/mbm (No. 127), a = 7.986(1) Å, c = 7.971(1) Å, Z = 4, as a 1 × 1 × 3 superstructure derivative of K(0.37)Cd(2)(I4/mcm). Compound II is a weakly incommensurate derivative of K(0.37)Cd(2) with a modulation vector q = 0.189(1) along c. Its structure was solved in superspace group P4/mbm(00g)00ss, a = 7.8799(6) Å, c = 2.7326(4) Å, Z = 2, as well as its average structure in P4/mbm with themore » same lattice parameters.. The Au-Zn networks in both consist of layers of gold or zinc squares that are condensed antiprismatically along c ([Au(4/2)Zn(4)Zn(4)Au(4/2)] for I and [Au(4/2)Zn(4)Au(4/2)] for II) to define fairly uniform tunnels. The long-range cation dispositions in the tunnels are all clearly and rationally defined by electron density (Fourier) mapping. These show only close, somewhat diffuse, pairs of opposed, ≤50% occupied Na sites that are centered on (I)(shown) or between (II) the gold squares. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations via linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods, assuming random occupancy of ≤ ∼100% of nonpaired Na sites, again show that the major Hamilton bonding populations in both compounds arise from the polar heteroatomic Au-Zn interactions. Clear Na-Au (and lesser Na-Zn) bonding is also evident in the COHP functions. These two compounds are the only stable ternary phases in the (Cs,Rb,K,Na)-Au-Zn systems, emphasizing the special bonding and packing requirements in these sodium structures« less

  10. Structural, Electronic and Elastic Properties of Heavy Fermion YbTM2 (TM= Ir and Pt) Laves Phase Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, H.; Shugani, M.; Aynyas, M.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of YbTM2 (TM = Ir and Pt) Laves phase intermetallic compounds which crystallize in cubic (MgCu2-type) structure, have been investigated using ab-initio full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method with LDA and LDA+U approximation. The calculated ground state properties such as lattice parameter (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B‧) are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. The electronic properties are analyzed from band structures and density of states. Elastic constants are predicted first time for these compounds which obey the stability criteria for cubic system.

  11. Beneficial Role of Copper in the Enhancement of Durability of Ordered Intermetallic PtFeCu Catalyst for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Balamurugan; Tamaki, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2015-08-05

    Design of Pt alloy catalysts with enhanced activity and durability is a key challenge for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. In the present work, we compare the durability of the ordered intermetallic face-centered tetragonal (fct) PtFeCu catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) relative to its counterpart bimetallic catalysts, i.e., the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst and the commercial catalyst from Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo, TKK-PtC. Although both fct catalysts initially exhibited an ordered structure and mass activity approximately 2.5 times higher than that of TKK-Pt/C, the presence of Cu at the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst led to a significant enhancement in durability compared to that of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst. The ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst retained more than 70% of its mass activity and electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) over 10 000 durability cycles carried out at 60 °C. In contrast, the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst maintained only about 40% of its activity. The temperature of the durability experiment is also shown to be important: the catalyst was more severely degraded at 60 °C than at room temperature. To obtain insight into the observed enhancement in durability of fct-PtFeCu catalyst, a postmortem analysis of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst was carried out using scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) line scan. The STEM-EDX line scans of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst over 10 000 durability cycles showed a smaller degree of Fe and Cu dissolution from the catalyst. Conversely, large dissolution of Fe was identified in the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFe catalyst, indicating a lesser retention of Fe that causes the destruction of ordered structure and gives rise to poor durability. The enhancement in the durability of the ordered intermetallic fct-PtFeCu catalyst is ascribed to

  12. Data on a Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Alexander J; Bhowmik, Ayan; Purkayastha, Surajit; Jones, Nicholas G; Giuliani, Finn; Clegg, William J; Dye, David; Stone, Howard J

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates" (Knowles et al.) [1]. The composite comprised a Fe 2 (Mo, Ti) matrix with bcc (Mo, Ti) precipitated laths produced in situ by an aging heat treatment, which was shown to confer a toughening effect (Knowles et al.) [1]. Here, details are given on a focused ion beam (FIB) slice and view experiment performed on the composite so as to determine that the 3D morphology of the bcc (Mo, Ti) precipitates were laths rather than needles. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (S(TEM)) micrographs of the microstructure as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) maps are presented that identify the elemental partitioning between the C14 Laves matrix and the bcc laths, with Mo rejected from the matrix into laths. A TEM selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) and key is provided that was used to validate the orientation relation between the matrix and laths identified in (Knowles et al.) [1] along with details of the transformation matrix determined.

  13. An intermetallic Au24Ag20 superatom nanocluster stabilized by labile ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Su, Haifeng; Xu, Chaofa; Li, Gang; Gell, Lars; Lin, Shuichao; Tang, Zichao; Häkkinen, Hannu; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2015-04-08

    An intermetallic nanocluster containing 44 metal atoms, Au24Ag20(2-SPy)4(PhC≡C)20Cl2, was successfully synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal analysis and density funtional theory computations. The 44 metal atoms in the cluster are arranged as a concentric three-shell Au12@Ag20@Au12 Keplerate structure having a high symmetry. For the first time, the co-presence of three different types of anionic ligands (i.e., phenylalkynyl, 2-pyridylthiolate, and chloride) was revealed on the surface of metal nanoclusters. Similar to thiolates, alkynyls bind linearly to surface Au atoms using their σ-bonds, leading to the formation of two types of surface staple units (PhC≡C-Au-L, L = PhC≡C(-) or 2-pyridylthiolate) on the cluster. The co-presence of three different surface ligands allows the site-specific surface and functional modification of the cluster. The lability of PhC≡C(-) ligands on the cluster was demonstrated, making it possible to keep the metal core intact while removing partial surface capping. Moreover, it was found that ligand exchange on the cluster occurs easily to offer various derivatives with the same metal core but different surface functionality and thus different solubility.

  14. Explosive Compations of Intermetallic-Forming Powder Mixtures for Fabricating Structural Energetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S. W.; Aydelotte, B.; Fondse, D.; Wei, C.-T.; Jiang, F.; Herbold, E.; Vecchio, K.; Meyers, M. A.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2009-12-01

    A double-tube implosion geometry is used to explosively shock consolidate intermetallic-forming Ni-Al, Ta-Al, Nb-Al, Mo-Al and W-Al powder mixtures for fabricating bulk structural energetic materials, with mechanical strength and ability to undergo impact-initiated exothermic reactions. The compacts are characterized based on uniformity of micro structure and degree of densification. Mechanical properties of the compacts are characterized over the strain-rate range of 10-3 to 104 s-1. The impact reactivity is determined using rod-on-anvil experiments, in which disk-shaped compacts mounted on a copper projectile, are impacted against a steel anvil in using a 7.62 mm gas gun. The impact reactivity of the various explosively-consolidated reactive powder mixture compacts is correlated with overall kinetic energy and impact stress to determine their influence on threshold for reaction initiation. The characteristics of the various compacts, their mechanical properties and impact-initiated chemical reactivity will be described in this paper.

  15. Applications of Ni3Al Based Intermetallic Alloys—Current Stage and Potential Perceptivities

    PubMed Central

    Jozwik, Pawel; Polkowski, Wojciech; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of current and prospective applications of Ni3Al based intermetallic alloys—modern engineering materials with special properties that are potentially useful for both structural and functional purposes. The bulk components manufactured from these materials are intended mainly for forging dies, furnace assembly, turbocharger components, valves, and piston head of internal combustion engines. The Ni3Al based alloys produced by a directional solidification are also considered as a material for the fabrication of jet engine turbine blades. Moreover, development of composite materials with Ni3Al based alloys as a matrix hardened by, e.g., TiC, ZrO2, WC, SiC and graphene, is also reported. Due to special physical and chemical properties; it is expected that these materials in the form of thin foils and strips should make a significant contribution to the production of high tech devices, e.g., Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) or Microtechnology-based Energy and Chemical Systems (MECS); as well as heat exchangers; microreactors; micro-actuators; components of combustion chambers and gasket of rocket and jet engines as well components of high specific strength systems. Additionally, their catalytic properties may find an application in catalytic converters, air purification systems from chemical and biological toxic agents or in a hydrogen “production” by a decomposition of hydrocarbons.

  16. Launch Load Resistant Spacecraft Mechanism Bearings Made From NiTi Superelastic Intermetallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional bearing materials (tool steel and ceramics), emerging Superelastic Intermetallic Materials (SIMs), such as 60NiTi, have significantly lower elastic modulus and enhanced strain capability. They are also immune to atmospheric corrosion (rusting). This offers the potential for increased resilience and superior ability to withstand static indentation load without damage. In this paper, the static load capacity of hardened 60NiTi 50mm bore ball-bearing races are measured to correlate existing flat-plate indentation load capacity data to an actual bearing geometry through the Hertz stress relations. The results confirmed the validity of using the Hertz stress relations to model 60NiTi contacts; 60NiTi exhibits a static stress capability (3.1GPa) between that of 440C (2.4GPa) and REX20 (3.8GPa) tool steel. When the reduced modulus and extended strain capability are taken into account, 60NiTi is shown to withstand higher loads than other bearing materials. To quantify this effect, a notional space mechanism, a 5kg mass reaction wheel, was modeled with respect to launch load capability when supported on 440C, 60NiTi and REX20 tool steel bearings. For this application, the use of REX20 bearings increased the static load capability of the mechanism by a factor of three while the use of 60NiTi bearings resulted in an order of magnitude improvement compared to the baseline 440C stainless steel bearings.

  17. High-Temperature Oxidation of Fe3Al Intermetallic Alloy Prepared by Additive Manufacturing LENS

    PubMed Central

    Łyszkowski, Radosław

    2015-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation of Fe-28Al-5Cr (at%) intermetallic alloy microalloyed with Zr and B (<0.08 at%) in air atmosphere, in the temperature range of 1000 to 1200 °C, was studied. The investigation was carried out on the thin-walled (<1 mm) elements prepared by Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) from alloy powder of a given composition. Characterization of the specimens, after the oxidation, was conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, with back-scatter detector (BSE) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) attachments). The investigation has shown, that the oxidized samples were covered with a thin, homogeneous α-Al2O3 oxide layers. The intensity of their growth indicates that the material lost its resistance to oxidation at 1200 °C. Structural analysis of the thin-walled components’ has not shown intensification of the oxidation process at the joints of additive layers. PMID:28788014

  18. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  19. Electride and superconductivity behaviors in Mn5Si3-type intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaoqing; Wang, Bosen; Xiao, Zewen; Lu, Yangfan; Kamiya, Toshio; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    Electrides are unique in the sense that they contain localized anionic electrons in the interstitial regions. Yet they exist with a diversity of chemical compositions, especially under extreme conditions, implying generalized underlying principles for their existence. What is rarely observed is the combination of electride state and superconductivity within the same material, but such behavior would open up a new category of superconductors. Here, we report a hexagonal Nb5Ir3 phase of Mn5Si3-type structure that falls into this category and extends the electride concept into intermetallics. The confined electrons in the one-dimensional cavities are reflected by the characteristic channel bands in the electronic structure. Filling these free spaces with foreign oxygen atoms serves to engineer the band topology and increase the superconducting transition temperature to 10.5 K in Nb5Ir3O. Specific heat analysis indicates the appearance of low-lying phonons and two-gap s-wave superconductivity. Strong electron-phonon coupling is revealed to be the pairing glue with an anomalously large ratio between the superconducting gap Δ0 and Tc, 2Δ0/kBTc = 6.12. The general rule governing the formation of electrides concerns the structural stability against the cation filling/extraction in the channel site.

  20. On the Formation of Sludge Intermetallic Particles in Secondary Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Stefano; Bjurenstedt, Anton; Seifeddine, Salem

    2015-08-01

    The primary precipitation of Fe-rich intermetallics in AlSi9Cu3(Fe) type alloys is studied for different Fe, Mn, and Cr contents and cooling rates. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermal analysis, and interrupted solidification with a rapid quenching technique were used in combination in order to assess the nucleation temperature of sludge particles, as well as to follow their evolution. The results revealed that the sludge nucleation temperature and the release of latent heat during sludge formation are functions of Fe, Mn, and Cr levels in the molten alloy ( i.e., the sludge factor, SF) and cooling rate. Moreover, it can be concluded that sensitivity to sludge formation is not affected by cooling rate; i.e., a decrease in the SF will reduce sludge nucleation temperature to the same extent for a higher cooling rate as for a lower cooling rate. The sludge formation temperature detected will assist foundries in setting the optimal molten metal temperature for preventing sludge formation in holding furnaces and plunger systems.

  1. Synthesis of a single phase of high-entropy Laves intermetallics in the Ti-Zr-V-Cr-Ni equiatomic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, T. P.; Mukhopadhyay, Semanti; Mishra, S. S.; Mukhopadhyay, N. K.; Srivastava, O. N.

    2017-12-01

    The high-entropy Ti-Zr-V-Cr-Ni (20 at% each) alloy consisting of all five hydride-forming elements was successfully synthesised by the conventional melting and casting as well as by the melt-spinning technique. The as-cast alloy consists entirely of the micron size hexagonal Laves Phase of C14 type; whereas, the melt-spun ribbon exhibits the evolution of nanocrystalline Laves phase. There was no evidence of any amorphous or any other metastable phases in the present processing condition. This is the first report of synthesising a single phase of high-entropy complex intermetallic compound in the equiatomic quinary alloy system. The detailed characterisation by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the existence of a single-phase multi-component hexagonal C14-type Laves phase in all the as-cast, melt-spun and annealed alloys. The lattice parameter a = 5.08 Å and c = 8.41 Å was determined from the annealed material (annealing at 1173 K). The thermodynamic calculations following the Miedema's approach support the stability of the high-entropy multi-component Laves phase compared to that of the solid solution or glassy phases. The high hardness value (8.92 GPa at 25 g load) has been observed in nanocrystalline high-entropy alloy ribbon without any cracking. It implies that high-yield strength ( 3.00 GPa) and the reasonable fracture toughness can be achieved in this high-entropy material.

  2. Magnetism of new metastable cobalt-nitride compounds.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Zhao, Xin; Valloppilly, Shah R; Beniwal, Sumit; Skomski, Ralph; Sarella, Anandakumar; Jin, Yunlong; Li, Xingzhong; Xu, Xiaoshan; Cao, Huibo; Wang, Haohan; Enders, Axel; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Sellmyer, David J

    2018-06-06

    The search for new magnetic materials with high magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy is important for a wide range of applications including information and energy processing. There is only a limited number of naturally occurring magnetic compounds that are suitable. This situation stimulates an exploration of new phases that occur far from thermal-equilibrium conditions, but their stabilization is generally inhibited due to high positive formation energies. Here a nanocluster-deposition method has enabled the discovery of a set of new non-equilibrium Co-N intermetallic compounds. The experimental search was assisted by computational methods including adaptive-genetic-algorithm and electronic-structure calculations. Conventional wisdom is that the interstitial or substitutional solubility of N in Co is much lower than that in Fe and that N in Co in equilibrium alloys does not produce materials with significant magnetization and anisotropy. By contrast, our experiments identify new Co-N compounds with favorable magnetic properties including hexagonal Co3N nanoparticles with a high saturation magnetic polarization (Js = 1.28 T or 12.8 kG) and an appreciable uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K1 = 1.01 MJ m-3 or 10.1 Mergs per cm3). This research provides a pathway for uncovering new magnetic compounds with computational efficiency beyond the existing materials database, which is significant for future technologies.

  3. Formation of intermetallic phases in AlSi7Fe1 alloy processed under microgravity and forced fluid flow conditions and their influence on the permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, S.; Ratke, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Budenkova, O.

    2016-03-01

    Ternary Al-6.5wt.%Si-0.93wt.%Fe alloy samples were directionally solidified on-board of the International Space Station ISS in the ESA payload Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) equipped with Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) under both purely diffusive and stimulated convective conditions induced by a rotating magnetic field. Using different analysis techniques the shape and distribution of the intermetallic phase β-Al5SiFe in the dendritic microstructure was investigated, to study the influence of solidification velocity and fluid flow on the size and spatial arrangement of intermetallics. Deep etching as well as 3-dimensional computer tomography measurements characterized the size and the shape of β-Al5SiFe platelets: Diffusive growth results in a rather homogeneous distribution of intermetallic phases, whereas forced flow promotes an increase in the amount and the size of β-Al5SiFe platelets in the centre region of the samples. The β-Al5SiFe intermetallics can form not only simple platelets, but also be curved, branched, crossed, interacting with dendrites and porosity located. This leads to formation of large and complex groups of Fe-rich intermetallics, which reduce the melt flow between dendrites leading to lower permeability of the mushy zone and might significantly decrease feeding ability in castings.

  4. Launch Load Resistant Spacecraft Mechanism Bearings Made From NiTi Superelastic Intermetallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional bearing materials (tool steel and ceramics), emerging Superelastic Intermetallic Materials (SIMs), such as 60NiTi, have significantly lower elastic modulus and enhanced strain capability. They are also immune to atmospheric corrosion (rusting). This offers the potential for increased resilience and superior ability to withstand static indentation load without damage. In this paper, the static load capacity of hardened 60NiTi 50-mm-bore ball bearing races are measured to correlate existing flat-plate indentation load capacity data to an actual bearing geometry through the Hertz stress relations. The results confirmed the validity of using the Hertz stress relations to model 60NiTi contacts; 60NiTi exhibits a static stress capability (approximately 3.1 GPa) between that of 440C (2.4 GPa) and REX20 (3.8 GPa) tool steel. When the reduced modulus and extended strain capability are taken into account, 60NiTi is shown to withstand higher loads than other bearing materials. To quantify this effect, a notional space mechanism, a 5-kg mass reaction wheel, was modeled with respect to launch load capability when supported on standard (catalogue geometry) design 440C; 60NiTi and REX20 tool steel bearings. For this application, the use of REX20 bearings increased the static load capability of the mechanism by a factor of three while the use of 60NiTi bearings resulted in an order of magnitude improvement compared to the baseline 440C stainless steel bearings

  5. SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN MORPHOGENESIS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CHICKENS, GROWTH(PHYSIOLOGY), MITOSIS, BACTERIA, ALGAE, LIPOIC ACID , THIOLS, BELGIUM...ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS, METABOLISM), (*MORPHOLOGY(BIOLOGY), ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS), (*NUCLEIC ACIDS , BIOSYNTHESIS), EGGS, EMBRYOS, AMPHIBIANS

  6. Controlling Magnetism via Transition Metal Exchange in the Series of Intermetallics Eu( T1, T2)5In ( T = Cu, Ag, Au)

    SciT

    Mudring, Anja -Verena; Smetana, Volodymyr; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    Three series of intermetallic compounds Eu( T1, T2) 5In (T = Cu, Ag, Au) have been investigated in full compositional ranges. Single crystals of all compounds have been obtained by self-flux and were analyzed by single X-ray diffraction revealing the representatives to fall into two structure types: CeCu 6 ( oP28, Pnma, a = 8.832(3)–9.121(2) Å, b = 5.306(2)–5.645(1) Å, c = 11.059(4)–11.437(3) Å, V = 518.3(3)–588.9(2) Å 3) and YbMo2Al4 ( t I14, I4/ mmm, a = 5.417(3)–5.508(1) Å, c = 7.139(2)– 7.199(2) Å, V = 276.1(2)–285.8(1) Å 3). The structural preference was found to depend on the cation/anionmore » size ratio, while the positional preference within the CeCu 6 type structure shows an apparent correlation with the anion size. Chemical compression, hence, a change in cell volume, which occurs upon anion substitution appears to be the main driving force for the change of magnetic ordering. While EuAg 5In shows antiferromagnetic behavior at low temperatures, mixing Cu and Au within the same type of structure results in considerable changes in the magnetism. The Eu(Cu,Au) 5In alloys with CeCu 6 structure show complex magnetic behaviors and strong magnetic field-induced spin-reorientation transition with the critical field of the transition being dependent on Cu/Au ratio. The alloys adopting the YbMo 2Al 4 type structure are ferromagnets exhibiting unusually high magnetic moments. The heat capacity of EuAu 2.66Cu 2.34In reveals a double-peak structure evolving with the magnetic field. Furthermore, low-temperature X-ray powder diffraction does not show a structural transition.« less

  7. Controlling Magnetism via Transition Metal Exchange in the Series of Intermetallics Eu( T1, T2)5In ( T = Cu, Ag, Au)

    DOE PAGES

    Mudring, Anja -Verena; Smetana, Volodymyr; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; ...

    2017-11-24

    Three series of intermetallic compounds Eu( T1, T2) 5In (T = Cu, Ag, Au) have been investigated in full compositional ranges. Single crystals of all compounds have been obtained by self-flux and were analyzed by single X-ray diffraction revealing the representatives to fall into two structure types: CeCu 6 ( oP28, Pnma, a = 8.832(3)–9.121(2) Å, b = 5.306(2)–5.645(1) Å, c = 11.059(4)–11.437(3) Å, V = 518.3(3)–588.9(2) Å 3) and YbMo2Al4 ( t I14, I4/ mmm, a = 5.417(3)–5.508(1) Å, c = 7.139(2)– 7.199(2) Å, V = 276.1(2)–285.8(1) Å 3). The structural preference was found to depend on the cation/anionmore » size ratio, while the positional preference within the CeCu 6 type structure shows an apparent correlation with the anion size. Chemical compression, hence, a change in cell volume, which occurs upon anion substitution appears to be the main driving force for the change of magnetic ordering. While EuAg 5In shows antiferromagnetic behavior at low temperatures, mixing Cu and Au within the same type of structure results in considerable changes in the magnetism. The Eu(Cu,Au) 5In alloys with CeCu 6 structure show complex magnetic behaviors and strong magnetic field-induced spin-reorientation transition with the critical field of the transition being dependent on Cu/Au ratio. The alloys adopting the YbMo 2Al 4 type structure are ferromagnets exhibiting unusually high magnetic moments. The heat capacity of EuAu 2.66Cu 2.34In reveals a double-peak structure evolving with the magnetic field. Furthermore, low-temperature X-ray powder diffraction does not show a structural transition.« less

  8. Hardness and Second Phase Percentage of Ni-Ti-Hf Compounds After Heat Treatment at 700C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2017-01-01

    The Vickers hardness and second phase precipitation of three ternary intermetallic Ni-Ti-Hf compounds containing either 1, 3 or 5 at.% Hf were compared to 60-Nitinol (55 at.% Ni - 45 at.% Ti). Heat treatment either at 700 C or with a subsequent aging step, hardened the 3 and 5 at.% Hf-containing ternaries to approximately 620 HV (56 HRC). Heat treatment increased the hardness of the 1 at.% Hf compound by more than 25 percent. Average hardness of the 3 and 5 at.% Hf ternaries, though higher than that of the binary Ni-Ti or the Ni-Ti-Hf compound containing 1 at.% Hf, appeared to be fairly insensitive to the different heat treatments. There was a drastic reduction of fatigue-enhancing second phase precipitates for the 5 at.% Hf ternaries compared to the other compounds. These results should guide materials selection for development of aerospace componentry.

  9. Structural, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric properties of AZn13 (A=Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basit, Abdul; Murtaza, G.; Mahmood, Asif; Yar, Abdullah; Muhammad, S.

    2016-08-01

    We report the structural, electronic, optical, and thermoelectric properties of the five cubic alkali-earth transition-metals AZn13 (A-Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba) using density functional theory. Structural properties, electronic structures and optical behaviors are calculated explicitly via highly accurate contemporary full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The investigated ground state data of these materials is quite close to the experimental information. The modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) predicts the intermetallic nature of AZn13 (A-Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba) materials. The complex dielectric function of these intermetallic compounds has been calculated and the observed noticeable peaks are examined through mBJ. With the help of complex dielectric function, the other important optical parameters like reflectivities, conductivities and refractive indices of AZn13 (A-Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba) have been calculated as a function of energy. The optical response suggests that AZn13 (A-Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds can be used for the optoelectronic devices. Further, the thermoelectric properties have been calculated through BoltzTraP program, the calculated values for different thermoelectric parameters recommend that these AZn13 (A-Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba) materials are the suitable candidates for thermoelectric applications.

  10. Deformation twinning in metals and ordered intermetallics-Ti and Ti-aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, M. H.; Fu, C. L.; Lee, J. K.

    1991-06-01

    The role of deformation twinning in the strength and ductility of metals and ordered intermetallic alloys is examined on the basis of crystallography, energetics and kinetics of deformation twinning. A systematic analysis is made by taking Ti, Ti3AI, TiAl, and A13Ti as four model systems. In comparison with profuse twinning in Ti, the intrinsic difficulty of twinning in Ti3A1 is rationalized in terms of the interchange shuffling mechanism. A fault (SISF) dragging mechanism based on the interaction torque explains the physical source for the low mobility of screw superdislocations in TiAl, which may lead to (111) [ 11bar{2}] twin nucleation. In TiAl and A13Ti alloys, the twin-slip (ordinary) conjugate relationship makes an important contribution to the strain compatibility for high-temperature plasticity. Potentially beneficial alloying additions to promote twinning are discussed. Les conséquences de la déformation par maclage sur la fracture et la ductilité des métaux et alliages intermétalliques ordonnés sont étudiées en fonction de la cristallographie, de l'énergie et de la cinétique des déformations par maclage. Une analyse systématique a été faite en considérant Ti, Ti3AI, TiAl et A13Ti comme quatre systèmes modèles. En comparaison avec le nombre important de maclages observés dans Ti, la difficulté intrinsèque des maclages dans Ti3AI est rationalisée en terme de mécanisme d'“interchange shuffling”. Un mécanisme de “dragging fault” basé sur l'interaction “torque” explique l'origine physique de la faible mobilité des superdislocations vissées dans TiAl qui peuvent conduire à la nucléation des macles (111) 112. Dans les alliages tels TiAl et A13Ti, la relation conjuguée entre la macle et le glissement (ordinaire) contribue de façon importante à la compatibilité des contraintes lors de la déformation plastique à haute température. Des effets bénéfiques potentiels liés à des éléments d'addition sur le processus

  11. The mystery of perpendicular fivefold axes and the fourth dimension in intermetallic structures.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert F; Lee, Stephen; Johnson, Jeffreys; Nebgen, Ben; Sha, Fernando; Xu, Jiaqi

    2008-01-01

    The structures of eight related known intermetallic structure types are the impetus to this paper: Li21Si5, Mg44Rh7, Zn13(Fe,Ni)2, Mg6Pd, Na6Tl, Zn91Ir11, Li13Na29Ba19, and Al69Ta39. All belong to the F43m space group, have roughly 400 atoms in their cubic unit cells, are built up at least partially from the gamma-brass structure, and exhibit pseudo-tenfold symmetric diffraction patterns. These pseudo-tenfold axes lie in the {110} directions, and thus present a paradox. The {110} set is comprised of three pairs of perpendicular directions. Yet no 3D point group contains a single pair of perpendicular fivefold axes (by Friedel's Law, a fivefold axis leads to a tenfold diffraction pattern). The current work seeks to resolve this paradox. Its resolution is based on the largest of all 4D Platonic solids, the 600-cell. We first review the 600-cell, building an intuition discussing 4D polyhedroids (4D polytopes). We then show that the positions of common atoms in the F43m structures lie close to the positions of vertices in a 3D projection of the 600-cell. For this purpose, we develop a projection method that we call intermediate projection. The introduction of the 600-cell resolves the above paradox. This 4D Platonic solid contains numerous orthogonal fivefold rotations. The six fivefold directions that are best preserved after projection prove to lie along the {110} directions of the F43m structures. Finally, this paper shows that at certain ideal projected cluster sizes related to one another by the golden mean (tau=(1+ radical 5)/2), constructive interference leading to tenfold diffraction patterns is optimized. It is these optimal values that predominate in actual F43m structures. Explicit comparison of experimental cluster sizes and theoretically derived cluster sizes shows a clear correspondence, both for isolated and crystalline pairs of projected 600-cells.

  12. DOE-EPSCoR. Exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic layered systems

    SciT

    LeClair, Patrick R.; Gary, Mankey J.

    2015-05-25

    The goal of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic alloy thin films and multilayers, including films and multilayers of Fe-Pt, Co-Pt and Fe-P-Rh alloys deposited on MgO and Al2O3 substrates. Our prior results have revealed that these materials have a rich variety of ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases which are sensitive functions of composition, substrate symmetry and layer thickness. Epitaxial antiferromagnetic films of FePt alloys exhibit a different phase diagram than bulk alloys. The antiferromagnetism of these materials has both spin ordering transitions and spin orienting transitions. The objectives include themore » study of exchange-inversion materials and the interface of these materials with ferromagnets. Our aim is to formulate a complete understanding of the magnetic ordering in these materials, as well as developing an understanding of how the spin structure is modified through contact with a ferromagnetic material at the interface. The ultimate goal is to develop the ability to tune the phase diagram of the materials to produce layered structures with tunable magnetic properties. The alloy systems that we will study have a degree of complexity and richness of magnetic phases that requires the use of the advanced tools offered by the DOE-operated national laboratory facilities, such as neutron and x-ray scattering to measure spin ordering, spin orientations, and element-specific magnetic moments. We plan to contribute to DOE’s mission of producing “Materials by Design” with properties determined by alloy composition and crystal structure. We have developed the methods for fabricating and have performed neutron diffraction experiments on some of the most interesting phases, and our work will serve to answer questions raised about the element-specific magnetizations using the magnetic x-ray dichroism techniques and interface magnetism in layered

  13. Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Thomas, Fransua; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2017-01-01

    Rolling element bearings made from highly-elastic intermetallic materials (HIM)s, such as 60NiTi, are under development for applications that require superior corrosion and shock resistance. Compared to steel, intermetallics have been shown to have much lower rolling contact fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod (ASTM STP 771) fatigue tests. In the 3-ball tests, poor material quality and microstructural flaws negatively affect fatigue life but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not fail even in long-term tests. Though the full-scale bearing test data is yet preliminary, the results suggest that the simplified RCF test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance. These results provide guidance for materials development and to establish minimum quality levels required for successful bearing operation and life.

  14. Advancement of Compositional and Microstructural Design of Intermetallic γ-TiAl Based Alloys Determined by Atom Probe Tomography.

    PubMed

    Klein, Thomas; Clemens, Helmut; Mayer, Svea

    2016-09-06

    Advanced intermetallic alloys based on the γ-TiAl phase have become widely regarded as most promising candidates to replace heavier Ni-base superalloys as materials for high-temperature structural components, due to their facilitating properties of high creep and oxidation resistance in combination with a low density. Particularly, recently developed alloying concepts based on a β-solidification pathway, such as the so-called TNM alloy, which are already incorporated in aircraft engines, have emerged offering the advantage of being processible using near-conventional methods and the option to attain balanced mechanical properties via subsequent heat-treatment. Development trends for the improvement of alloying concepts, especially dealing with issues regarding alloying element distribution, nano-scale phase characterization, phase stability, and phase formation mechanisms demand the utilization of high-resolution techniques, mainly due to the multi-phase nature of advanced TiAl alloys. Atom probe tomography (APT) offers unique possibilities of characterizing chemical compositions with a high spatial resolution and has, therefore, been widely used in recent years with the aim of understanding the materials constitution and appearing basic phenomena on the atomic scale and applying these findings to alloy development. This review, thus, aims at summarizing scientific works regarding the application of atom probe tomography towards the understanding and further development of intermetallic TiAl alloys.

  15. Surface improvement and biocompatibility of TiAl 24Nb 10 intermetallic alloy using rf plasma nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Rahman, A. M.; Maitz, M. F.; Kassem, M. A.; El-Hossary, F. M.; Prokert, F.; Reuther, H.; Pham, M. T.; Richter, E.

    2007-09-01

    The present work describes the surface improvement and biocompatibility of TiAl 24Nb 10 intermetallic alloy using rf plasma nitriding. The nitriding process was carried out at different plasma power from 400 W to 650 W where the other plasma conditions were fixed. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), tribometer and a nanohardness tester were employed to characterize the nitrided layer. Further potentiodynamic polarization method was used to describe the corrosion behavior of the un-nitrided and nitrided alloy. It has been found that the Vickers hardness (HV) and corrosion resistance values of the nitrided layers increase with increasing plasma power while the wear rates of the nitrided layers reduce by two orders of magnitude as compared to those of the un-nitrided layer. This improvement in surface properties of the intermetallic alloy is due to formation of a thin modified layer which is composed of titanium nitride in the alloy surface. Moreover, all modified layers were tested for their sustainability as a biocompatible material. Concerning the application area of biocompatibility, the present treated alloy show good surface properties especially for the nitrided alloy at low plasma power of 400 W.

  16. Advancement of Compositional and Microstructural Design of Intermetallic γ-TiAl Based Alloys Determined by Atom Probe Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Thomas; Clemens, Helmut; Mayer, Svea

    2016-01-01

    Advanced intermetallic alloys based on the γ-TiAl phase have become widely regarded as most promising candidates to replace heavier Ni-base superalloys as materials for high-temperature structural components, due to their facilitating properties of high creep and oxidation resistance in combination with a low density. Particularly, recently developed alloying concepts based on a β-solidification pathway, such as the so-called TNM alloy, which are already incorporated in aircraft engines, have emerged offering the advantage of being processible using near-conventional methods and the option to attain balanced mechanical properties via subsequent heat-treatment. Development trends for the improvement of alloying concepts, especially dealing with issues regarding alloying element distribution, nano-scale phase characterization, phase stability, and phase formation mechanisms demand the utilization of high-resolution techniques, mainly due to the multi-phase nature of advanced TiAl alloys. Atom probe tomography (APT) offers unique possibilities of characterizing chemical compositions with a high spatial resolution and has, therefore, been widely used in recent years with the aim of understanding the materials constitution and appearing basic phenomena on the atomic scale and applying these findings to alloy development. This review, thus, aims at summarizing scientific works regarding the application of atom probe tomography towards the understanding and further development of intermetallic TiAl alloys. PMID:28773880

  17. The Influence of Ultrasonic Cavitation on the Formation of Fe-Rich Intermetallics in A383 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Yang; Liu, Tao; Nastac, Laurentiu; Brewer, Luke; Levin, Ilya; Arvikar, Vish

    2018-06-01

    The effect of ultrasonic treatment (UST) on the formation of Fe-rich intermetallics (including sludge) in the A383 alloy is investigated for different processing temperatures in the present study. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to analyze the precipitation temperature of the sludge phase. The results revealed that the sludge will precipitate at a temperature above that of the Al matrix and the precipitation temperature decreases with an increasing cooling rate. UST cavitation applied at different temperatures (600 °C to 750 °C) during the solidification process breaks the sludge into small island-like pieces. However, the aggregation trend of the sludge is not changed. Sludge with small size and uniform distribution is obtained when UST is applied at 600 °C, which is lower than the precipitation temperature of the sludge. At the highest temperature (850 °C), the application of UST has no effect on the formation of either sludge or α-Fe intermetallics. At 750 °C, UST promotes the formation of the sludge when applied at 750 °C.

  18. Compounding in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Zdoryk, Oleksandr A; Georgiyants, Victoriya A; Gryzodub, Oleksandr I; Schnatz, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding in modern Ukraine has a rich history and goes back to ancient times. Today in the Ukraine, there is a revival of compounding practice, the opening of private compounding pharmacies, updating of legislative framework and requirements of the State Pharmacopeia of Ukraine for compounding preparations, and the introduction of Good Pharmaceutical Practice.

  19. Microstructural Evolution of the Interface Between Pure Titanium and Low Melting Point Zr-Ti-Ni(Cu) Filler Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongmyoung; Sun, Juhyun; Kang, Donghan; Shin, Seungyoung; Hong, Juhwa

    2014-12-01

    Low melting point Zr-based filler metals with melting point depressants (MPDs) such as Cu and Ni elements are used for titanium brazing. However, the phase transition of the filler metals in the titanium joint needs to be explained, since the main element of Zr in the filler metals differs from that of the parent titanium alloys. In addition, since the MPDs easily form brittle intermetallics, that deteriorate joint properties, the phase evolution they cause needs to be studied. Zr-based filler metals having Cu content from 0 to 12 at. pct and Ni content from 12 to 24 at. pct with a melting temperature range of 1062 K to 1082 K (789 °C to 809 °C) were wetting-tested on a titanium plate to investigate the phase transformation and evolution at the interface between the titanium plate and the filler metals. In the interface, the alloys system with Zr, Zr2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases was easily changed to a Ti-based alloy system with Ti, Ti2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases, by the local melting of parent titanium. The dissolution depths of the parent metal were increased with increasing Ni content in the filler metals because Ni has a faster diffusion rate than Cu. Instead, slow diffusion of Cu into titanium substrate leads to the accumulation of Cu at the molten zone of the interface, which could form undesirable Ti x Cu y intermetallics. This study confirmed that Zr-based filler metals are compatible with the parent titanium metal with the minimum content of MPDs.

  20. Influence of Filler Alloy Composition and Process Parameters on the Intermetallic Layer Thickness in Single-Sided Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Aluminum-Steel Blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvayeh, Zahra; Vallant, Rudolf; Sommitsch, Christof; Götzinger, Bruno; Karner, Werner; Hartmann, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid components made of aluminum alloys and high-strength steels are typically used in automotive lightweight applications. Dissimilar joining of these materials is quite challenging; however, it is mandatory in order to produce multimaterial car body structures. Since especially welding of tailored blanks is of utmost interest, single-sided Cold Metal Transfer butt welding of thin sheets of aluminum alloy EN AW 6014 T4 and galvanized dual-phase steel HCT 450 X + ZE 75/75 was experimentally investigated in this study. The influence of different filler alloy compositions and welding process parameters on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, which forms between the weld seam and the steel sheet, was studied. The microstructures of the weld seam and of the intermetallic layer were characterized using conventional optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that increasing the heat input and decreasing the cooling intensity tend to increase the layer thickness. The silicon content of the filler alloy has the strongest influence on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, whereas the magnesium and scandium contents of the filler alloy influence the cracking tendency. The layer thickness is not uniform and shows spatial variations along the bonding interface. The thinnest intermetallic layer (mean thickness < 4 µm) is obtained using the silicon-rich filler Al-3Si-1Mn, but the layer is more than twice as thick when different low-silicon fillers are used.

  1. Intermetallic Al-, Fe-, Co- and Ni-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by Cold Spray for Applications on Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshchinsky, E.; Sobiesiak, A.; Maev, R.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of a duplex structure with a metallic bond coat and a ceramic heat insulating topcoat. They possess the desired low thermal conductivity, but at the same time they are very brittle and sensitive to thermal shock and thermal cycling due to the inherently low coefficient of thermal expansion. Recent research activities are focused on the developing of multilayer TBC structures obtained using cold spraying and following annealing. Aluminum intermetallics have demonstrated thermal and mechanical properties that allow them to be used as the alternative TBC materials, while the intermetallic layers can be additionally optimized to achieve superior thermal physical properties. One example is the six layer TBC structure in which cold sprayed Al-based intermetallics are synthesized by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. These multilayer coating systems demonstrated an improved thermal fatigue capability as compared to conventional ceramic TBC. The microstructures and properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS and mechanical tests to define the TBC material properties and intermetallic formation mechanisms.

  2. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  3. PERFLUORINATED AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    decafluorodiphenylamine, 3,3’,4,4’-tetra substituted- hexafluorobiphenyls, tetrafluororesorcinol, perfluoroaromatic thioethers, and dithiols. These...and other perfluorinated aromatic compounds are the intermediates employed in the synthesis of perfluorinated model compounds and polymers.

  4. Biodegradation of Organofluorine Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOFLUORINE COMPOUNDS ECBC-TR-1347 Melissa M. Dixon Steve P. Harvey RESEARCH AND...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biodegradation of Organofluorine Compounds 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...compounds as sole carbon sources. This work will be continued in future studies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Organofluorine Biodegradation Defluorination

  5. PERFLUORINATED AROMATIC COMPOUND

    DTIC Science & Technology

    octafluorobiphenyl, and perfluoroaliphatic aldehydes. Synthetic routes to perfluoro cyclohexyls via reactions of phenyl and pentafluorphenyl lithium with...other perfluorinated aromatic compounds were employed in the synthesis of perfluorinated aromatic model compounds and polymers. The hydrogenic analogues...hydrazides, and imides. Synthetic routes to perfluoro aralkyl compounds are being investigated. Starting materials are tetrafluorobenzene

  6. Complex magnetism of lanthanide intermetallics and the role of their valence electrons: Ab Initio theory and experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Petit, L.; Paudyal, D.; Mudryk, Y.; ...

    2015-11-09

    We explain a profound complexity of magnetic interactions of some technologically relevant gadolinium intermetallics using an ab initio electronic structure theory which includes disordered local moments and strong f-electron correlations. The theory correctly finds GdZn and GdCd to be simple ferromagnets and predicts a remarkably large increase of Curie temperature with a pressure of +1.5 K kbar –1 for GdCd confirmed by our experimental measurements of +1.6 K kbar –1. Moreover, we find the origin of a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic competition in GdMg manifested by noncollinear, canted magnetic order at low temperatures. As a result, replacing 35% of the Mg atoms withmore » Zn removes this transition, in excellent agreement with long-standing experimental data.« less

  7. Laser Cladding of TiAl Intermetallic Alloy on Ti6Al4V -Process Optimization and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcel, B.; Serrano, A.; Zambrano, J.; Amigó, V.; Cárcel, A. C.

    In order to improve Ti6Al4V high-temperature resistance and its tribological properties, the deposition of TiAl intermetallic (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb) coating on a Ti6Al4V substrate by coaxial laser cladding has been investigated. Laser cladding by powder injection is an emerging laser material processing technique that allows the deposition of thick protective coatings on substrates,using a high power laser beam as heat source. Laser cladding is a multiple-parameter-dependent process. The main process parameters involved (laser power, powder feeding rate, scanning speed and preheating temperature) has been optimized. The microstructure and geometrical quantities (clad area and dilution) of the coating was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition the cooling rate of the clad during the process was measured by a dual-color pyrometer. This result has been related to defectology and mechanical coating properties.

  8. Effect of Mg2Sn Intermetallic on the Grain Refinement in As-cast AM Series Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, J.; Pan, F. S.; Hu, H. H.; Tang, A. T.; Yu, Z. W.; Song, K.

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, in order to investigate the grain refinement mechanism of AM containing Sn alloys, the as-cast AM60, AM90 alloys, and the alloys with addition of 1 wt.% Sn were fabricated by traditional casting, respectively. During the solidification of AM + Sn alloys, the morphology of divorced eutectic Mg17Al12 was refined by Mg2Sn intermetallic that served as the heterogeneous nucleation cores. The modified Mg17Al12 effectively restricted the grain growth and resulted in a grain refinement. As a result, the yield strength of as-cast AM alloys was significantly enhanced by addition of Sn, while the ductility also improved. Moreover, the edge-to-edge model was employed to predict the orientation relationship between Mg17Al12 and Mg2Sn.

  9. Sub-4 nm PtZn Intermetallic Nanoparticles for Enhanced Mass and Specific Activities in Catalytic Electrooxidation Reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Qi, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Chaoxian; Liu, Cong; ...

    2017-03-08

    Atomically ordered intermetallic nanoparticles (iNPs) have sparked considerable interest in fuel cell applications by virtue of their exceptional electronic and structural properties. However, the synthesis of small iNPs in a controllable manner remains a formidable challenge because of the high temperature generally required in the formation of intermetallic phases. Here in this paper we report a general method for the synthesis of PtZn iNPs (3.2 ± 0.4 nm) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) via a facile and capping agent free strategy using a sacrificial mesoporous silica (mSiO 2) shell. The as-prepared PtZn iNPs exhibited ca. 10 times higher mass activitymore » in both acidic and basic solution toward the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) compared to larger PtZn iNPs synthesized on MWNT without the mSiO 2 shell. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that PtZn systems go through a “non-CO” pathway for MOR because of the stabilization of the OH* intermediate by Zn atoms, while a pure Pt system forms highly stable COH* and CO* intermediates, leading to catalyst deactivation. Experimental studies on the origin of the backward oxidation peak of MOR coincide well with DFT predictions. Moreover, the calculations demonstrate that MOR on smaller PtZn iNPs is energetically more favorable than larger iNPs, due to their high density of corner sites and lower-lying energetic pathway. Therefore, smaller PtZn iNPs not only increase the number but also enhance the activity of the active sites in MOR compared with larger ones. This work opens a new avenue for the synthesis of small iNPs with more undercoordinated and enhanced active sites for fuel cell applications.« less

  10. Sub-4 nm PtZn Intermetallic Nanoparticles for Enhanced Mass and Specific Activities in Catalytic Electrooxidation Reaction

    SciT

    Qi, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Chaoxian; Liu, Cong

    2017-03-22

    Atomically ordered intermetallic nanoparticles (iNPs) have sparked considerable interest in fuel cell applications by virtue of their exceptional electronic and structural properties. However, the synthesis of small iNPs in a controllable manner remains a formidable challenge because of the high temperature generally required in the formation of intermetallic phases. Here we report a general method for the synthesis of PtZn. iNPs (3.2 +/- 0.4 nm) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) via a facile and capping agent free strategy using a sacrificial mesoporous silica (mSiO(2)) shell. The as-prepared PtZn iNPs exhibited ca. 10 times higher mass activity in both acidic andmore » basic solution toward the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) compared to larger PtZn iNPs synthesized on MWNT without the mSiO2 shell. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that PtZn systems go through a "non-CO" pathway for MOR because of the stabilization of the OH* intermediate by Zn atoms, while a pure Pt system forms highly stable COH* and CO* intermediates, leading to catalyst deactivation. Experimental studies on the origin of the backward oxidation peak of MOR coincide well with DFT predictions. Moreover, the calculations demonstrate that MOR on smaller PtZn iNPs is energetically more favorable than larger iNPs, due to their high density of corner sites and lower-lying energetic pathway. Therefore, smaller PtZn iNPs not only increase the number but also enhance the activity of the active sites in MOR compared with larger ones. This work opens a new avenue for the synthesis of small iNPs with more undercoordinated and enhanced active sites for fuel cell applications.« less

  11. Section 2: Phase transformation studies in mechanically alloyed Fe-Nz and Fe-Zn-Si intermetallics

    SciT

    Jordan, A.; Uwakweh, O.N.C.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    The initial stage of this study, which was completed in FY 1995, entailed an extensive analysis characterizing the structural evolution of the Fe-Zn intermetallic system. The primary interest in these Fe-Zn phases stems from the fact that they form an excellent coating for the corrosion protection of steel (i.e., automobile body panels). The Fe-Zn coating generally forms up to four intermetallic phases depending on the particular industrial application used, (i.e., galvanization, galvannealing, etc.). Since the different coating applications are non-equilibrium in nature, it becomes necessary to employ a non-equilibrium method for producing homogeneous alloys in the solid-state to reflect themore » structural changes occurring in a true coating. This was accomplished through the use of a high energy/non-equilibrium technique known as ball-milling which allowed the authors to monitor the evolution process of the alloys as they transformed from a metastable to stable equilibrium state. In FY 1996, this study was expanded to evaluate the presence of Si in the Fe-Zn system and its influence in the overall coating. The addition of silicon in steel gives rise to an increased coating. However, the mechanisms leading to the coating anomaly are still not fully understood. For this reason, mechanical alloying through ball-milling of pure elemental powders was used to study the structural changes occurring in the sandelin region (i.e., 0.12 wt % Si). Through the identification of invariant reactions (i.e., eutectic, etc.) the authors were able to explore the sandelin phenomenon and also determine the various fields or boundaries associated with the Fe-Zn-Si ternary system.« less

  12. A phase width for CaGaSn. Crystal structure of mixed intermetallic Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x} and SmGa{sub x}Sn{sub 3−x}, stability, geometry and electronic structure

    SciT

    Tillard, Monique, E-mail: mtillard@univ-montp2.fr

    X-ray single-crystal structure has been established for new compositions in intermetallic systems of tin and gallium. Crystals were successfully obtained in alloys prepared from elements. The structure of SmGaSn{sub 2} (cubic Pm3̄m, a=4.5778(8) Å, Z=1, R1=0.012) is described with atomic disorder at all Sn/Ga positions and the structure of Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4.9}Sn{sub 3.1} (hexagonal, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a=4.2233(9), c=17.601(7) Å, Z=1, R1=0.062) raises an interesting question about existence of a composition domain for CaGaSn. Finally, Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4.9}Sn{sub 3.1} should be considered as a particular composition of Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x}, a compound assumed to exist in the range x ~more » 0−1. Partial atomic ordering characterizes the Sn/Ga puckered layers of hexagons whose geometries are analyzed and discussed comparatively with analogous arrangements in AlB{sub 2} related hexagonal compounds. The study is supported by rigid band model and DFT calculations performed for different experimental and hypothetic arrangements. - Graphical abstract: A phase width for Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x} belonging to the hexagonal YPtAs structure-type. - Highlights: • Single crystals of mixed tin gallium ternary intermetallics were obtained. • Partial ordering at metal sites and phase width are evidenced for Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x}. • Layer deviation to flatness is studied comparatively with related structures. • Geometry and stability analyses based on DFT calculations are provided.« less

  13. Studies of magnetostriction and spin polarized band structures of rare earth intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Anisotropic magnetostriction measurements of R6Fe23, R = (Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) were carried out from 77 K to room temperature. Magnetic fields up to 2.1 Tesla were applied. All the compounds exhibited large magnetostrictions at 77 K, the largest effect being obtained for Tb6Fe23. Saturation magnetostriction values for the compounds were also determined for 77 K and room temperature. Results of the temperature dependence of magnetostriction for Er6Fe23 are in good agreement with Callen and Callen's single ion theory. Therefore, the main sources of magnetostriction in this compound is the Er ion. The spin-up and spin-down electronic energy bands, the density of states and the magnetic moments of YCo5, SmCo5, and GdCo5 were calculated by the spin polarized augmented plane wave technique. The calculations obtained show the origin of the moment, provide good estimates of its magnitude and variation, and the reasons for those variations. They also show the important role of partial charge transfer and of d-d electronic coupling. Calculations for LaNi5 and GdNi5 systems are discussed.

  14. Additional evidence from x-ray powder diffraction patterns that icosahedral quasi-crystals of intermetallic compounds are twinned cubic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of the measured values of Q for the weak peaks (small maxima, usually considered to be background fluctuations, “noise”) on the x-ray powder diffraction curves for 17 rapidly quenched alloys leads directly to the conclusion that they are formed by an 820-atom or 1012-atom primitive cubic structure that by icosahedral twinning produces the so-called icosahedral quasi-crystals. PMID:16593948

  15. Explanatory Research on the Protection of Carbon-Carbon Composites against Oxidation at Very High Temperatures (3000 Deg F)with Engel-Brewer and Other Intermetallic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    ray data and lattice constant calculated by the Nelson-Riley extrapolation method for Ir 3Hf. d(nm) Bragg hkl angles planes 0.2275 19.791 ill 0.1969...34 Transactions of the Metallurgical Society AIME, 245, 1075 (1969). 80. J. P. Hirth aid P. C. Gehlen, "Dislocation Displacement Fields in Anisotropic Media

  16. Layered Structures and Disordered Polyanionic Nets in the Cation-Poor Polar Intermetallics CsAu 1.4 Ga 2.8 and CsAu 2 Ga 2.6

    DOE PAGES

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Steinberg, Simon; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2016-12-27

    Gold intermetallics are known for their unusual structures and bonding patterns. Two new compounds have been discovered in the cation-poor part of the Cs–Au–Ga system. We obtained both compounds directly by heating the elements at elevated temperatures. Structure determinations based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed two structurally and compositionally related formations: CsAu 1.4Ga 2.8 (I) and CsAu 2Ga 2.6 (II) crystallize in their own structure types (I: Rmore » $$\\bar{3}$$, a = 11.160(2) Å, c = 21.706(4) Å, Z = 18; II: R$$\\bar{3}$$, a = 11.106(1) Å, Å, c = 77.243(9) Å, Z = 54) and contain hexagonal cationic layers of cesium. Furthermore, this is a unique structural motif, which has never been observed for the other (lighter) alkali metals in combination with Au and post transition elements. The polyanionic part is characterized in contrast by Au/Ga tetrahedral stars, a structural feature that is characteristic for light alkali metal representatives, and disordered sites with mixed Au/Ga occupancies that occur in both structures with a more significant disorder in the polyanionic component of CsAu 2Ga 2.6. Examinations of the electronic band structure for a model approximating the composition of CsAu 1.4Ga 2.8 have been completed using density-functional-theory-based methods and reveal a deep pseudogap at E F. Bonding analysis by evaluating the crystal orbital Hamilton populations show dominant heteroatomic Au–Ga bonds and only a negligible contribution from Cs pairs.« less

  17. Compounding Opportunities in Urology.

    PubMed

    Biundo, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    There are a lot of options that pharmacists, including compounding pharmacists, can offer urologists to assist their patients. Compounding pharmacists are in a great position to offer unique, effective preparations for many of the conditions urologists treat on a daily basis. It would be well worth the time to learn a little about the conditions these specialists treat and become familiar with what you can offer. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  18. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  19. M{sub 2}X intermetallics: Nonmetal insertion in a h.c.-like metallic distribution

    SciT

    Pivan, J.Y.; Guerin, R.

    A simple structural model is proposed on the basis of an ideal hexagonal close-packing (AB){sup {infinity}} of the metal atoms M. The metalloid atoms X, located in an ordered manner in the metallic planes with the stacking sequence ..(A){sup {infinity}}.. or ..(B){sup {infinity}}.., generate two types of elementary units called units U{sub I} and U{sub II}. These units are hexagonal prisms with the fundamental vectors a{sub 0}, b{sub 0}, c{sub 0} and the elementary volume V{sub 0}. When the exclusive occurrence of U{sub I} (or U{sub II}) only yields 6-prismatic and triangular sites of metalloid atoms X, additional tetrahedral andmore » pyramidal sites of X atoms are present when units U{sub I} and U{sub II} exist simultaneously. The structures of compounds with the general formula M{sub 2}X (M = 3d, 4d, 5d and (or) 4f, 5f elements, X = B, P, As, Sb, Si, Ge, {hor_ellipsis}) are described in terms of intergrowth mechanisms. Binary, ternary, or even quaternary structures of compounds, with M/X ratios equal or close to two, appear as superstructures of the elementary units. Insofar as no ordering is considered along the stacking direction, the vectorial combinations of the fundamental vectors in the form A = h.a{sub 0}+s.b{sub 0}, B = k.a{sub 0}+t.b{sub 0}, C = c{sub 0} result in supercells with the volume V = (h.t {minus} k.s).V{sub 0}. The attainable symmetry (hexagonal, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, {hor_ellipsis}) strongly depends on the particular values of the integers h, s, k, t. The criteria of occurrence of various series of compounds are presented together with their crystallographic features and structural relationships are emphasized. Moreover, the model demonstrates that numerous compounds with the predicted unit cell parameters should be obtained in each crystal system.« less

  20. Nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds and processes

    DOEpatents

    Lerom, M.W.; Peters, H.M.

    1975-07-08

    This patent relates to the nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds: 3,3''-bis (difluoramino)-2,2'' 4,4', 4'',6,6',6''-octanitro-m-terphenyl (DDONT) and 3,3''-bis(difluoramino)-2,2',2''4,4',4'',6,6',6''-nonanitro-m-terphenyl (DDNONA). Procedures are described wherein diamino precursors of the indicated compounds are prepared and the final compounds are obtained by a fluorination operation. The compounds are highly energetic and suitable for use as explosives and particularly in exploding bridge wire (EBW) detonators. (auth)

  1. Corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of a novel Ni-free intermetallic coating growth on austenitic steel by hot dipping in an Al-12.6%Si alloy.

    PubMed

    Arenas, M A; Frutos, E; Saldaña, L; Conde, A; Labajos-Broncano, L; González-Martín, M L; González-Carrasco, J L; Vilaboa, N

    2011-04-01

    Commercial 316 LVM austenitic stainless steel samples have been coated by immersion in a bath of molten Al-12.6%Si alloy for 120 s. The coating consists of the Al(12)(Fe,Cr)(3)Si(2) intermetallic. In vitro corrosion behaviour has been evaluated in the Ringer's solution by means of potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results reveal that the coated specimens exhibit lower susceptibility to localised corrosion with respect to the substrate. XPS analysis suggests that the ennoblement of the pitting potential is due to the formation of a chromium oxyhydroxide containing passive layer. The intermetallic coating shows a good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by culturing human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow which attached, grew and differentiated to the osteoblastic lineage to a similar extent on coated and bare steels. In summary, this study proposes a method that generates Ni-free coatings of the stainless steel with useful properties for biomedical applications.

  2. A highly active PtCu3 intermetallic core-shell, multilayered Pt-skin, carbon embedded electrocatalyst produced by a scale-up sol-gel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bele, M; Jovanovič, P; Pavlišič, A; Jozinović, B; Zorko, M; Rečnik, A; Chernyshova, E; Hočevar, S; Hodnik, N; Gaberšček, M

    2014-11-07

    We present a novel, scaled-up sol-gel synthesis which enables one to produce 20 g batches of highly active and stable carbon supported PtCu3 nanoparticles as cathode materials for low temperature fuel cell application. We confirm the presence of an ordered intermetallic phase underneath a multilayered Pt-skin together with firm embedment of nanoparticles in the carbon matrix.

  3. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr Intermetallic Alloys Produced by Electric Current Activated Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garip, Y.; Ozdemir, O.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr (at. pct) intermetallic alloys were produced by electric current activated sintering (ECAS). In order to characterize the phase formation and microstructures of these alloys, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used. The XRD result shows that the intermetallic alloys are composed of γ-TiAl and α 2-Ti3Al phases. The microstructure is dense with a low amount of porosity. The hot corrosion behavior of intermetallic alloys was carried out in a salt mixture of 25 wt pct K2SO4 and 75 wt pct Na2SO4 at 700 °C for 180 hours. The morphology of corroded surfaces was observed by SEM-EDS and XRD. Corrosion phases were identified as TiO2 and Al2O3. Well-adhering oxide scale was detected on the corroded sample surface at the end of 180 hours, and no spallation was observed. In addition, a parabolic curve was obtained at the weight change rate vs time.

  4. Metal-Intermetallic Laminate Ti-Al3Ti Composites Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering of Titanium and Aluminum Foils Enclosed in Titanium Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazurenko, Daria V.; Mali, Vyacheslav I.; Bataev, Ivan A.; Thoemmes, Alexander; Bataev, Anatoly A.; Popelukh, Albert I.; Anisimov, Alexander G.; Belousova, Natalia S.

    2015-09-01

    Metal-intermetallic laminate composites are considered as promising materials for application in the aerospace industry. In this study, Ti-Al3Ti composites enclosed in titanium cases were produced by reactive spark plasma sintering. Sintering was carried out at 1103 K and 1323 K (830 °C and 1050 °C) for 10 minutes. In both cases, high-quality Ti-Al3Ti composites containing thin transition layers at the interfaces were obtained. Al2Ti, AlTi, and AlTi3 intermetallic phases and a solid solution of aluminum in titanium were observed in the transition layers by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The material sintered at 1323 K (1050 °C) had higher strength in comparison with the composite obtained at 1103 K (830 °C). However, the hardness of the intermetallic component in the sample sintered at higher temperature decreased due to the grain growth. The impact toughness values of both materials were approximately identical.

  5. Local magnetic moment formation at 119Sn Mössbauer impurity in RCo2 (R=Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er) Laves phase compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, A. L.; de Oliveira, N. A.; Troper, A.

    2008-04-01

    In this work, we theoretically study the local magnetic moment formation and the systematics of the magnetic hyperfine fields at a Mösbauer Sn119 impurity diluted at the R site (R=Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er) of the cubic Laves phase intermetallic compounds RCo2. One considers that the magnetic hyperfine fields have two contributions, (i) the contribution from R ions, calculated via an extended Daniel-Friedel [J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1601 (1963)] model, and (ii) the contribution from the induced magnetic moments arising from the Co neighboring sites. Our calculated self-consistent total magnetic hyperfine fields are in a good agreement with recent experimental data.

  6. Low-density, high-strength intermetallic matrix composites by XD (trademark) synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Dipietro, M. S.; Brown, S. A.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the potential of particulate composites based on low-density, L1(sub 2) trialuminide matrices for high-temperature applications. The compounds evaluated included Al22Fe3Ti8 (as a multiphase matrix), Al67Ti25Cr8, and Al66Ti25Mn9. The reinforcement consisted of TiB2 particulates. The TiB2 composites were processed by ingot and powder metallurgy techniques. Microstructural characterization and mechanical testing were performed in the hot-pressed and hot-isostatic-pressed condition. The casting were sectioned and isothermally forged into pancakes. All the materials were tested in compression as a function of temperature, and at high temperatures as a function of strain rate. The test results are discussed.

  7. Hierarchical and chemical space partitioning in new intermetallic borides MNi21B20 (M = In, Sn).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Frank R; Zheng, Qiang; Gumeniuk, Roman; Bende, David; Prots, Yurii; Bobnar, Matej; Hu, Dong-Li; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas

    2017-10-10

    The compounds MNi 21 B 20 (M = In, Sn) have been synthesized and their cubic crystal structure determined (space group Pm3[combining macron]m, lattice parameters a = 7.1730(1) Å and a = 7.1834(1) Å, respectively). The structure can be described as a hierarchical partitioning of space based on a reo-e net formed by Ni3 species with large cubical, cuboctahedral and rhombicuboctahedral voids being filled according to [Ni1@Ni3 8 ], [M@Ni3 12 ], and [Ni2 6 @B 20 @Ni3 24 ], respectively. The [Ni 6 @B 20 ] motif inside the rhombicuboctahedral voids features an empty [Ni 6 ] octahedron surrounded by a [B 20 ] cage recently described in E 2 Ni 21 B 20 (E = Zn, Ga). Position-space bonding analysis using ELI-D and QTAIM space partitioning as well as 2- and 3-center delocalization indices gives strong support to an alternative chemical description of space partitioning based on face-condensed [B@Ni 6 ] trigonal prisms as basic building blocks. The shortest B-B contacts display locally nested 3-center B-B-Ni bonding inside each trigonal prism. This clearly rules out the notion of [Ni 6 @B 20 ] clusters and leads to the arrangement of 20 face-condensed [B@Ni2 3 Ni3 3 ] trigonal prisms resulting in a triple-shell like situation Ni2 6 @B 20 @Ni3 24 (reo-e), where the shells display comparable intra- and inter-shell bonding. Both compounds are Pauli paramagnets displaying metallic conductivity.

  8. Formation of Intermetallic Phases in Al-Sc Alloys Prepared by Molten Salt Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zengjie; Guan, Chunyang; Liu, Qiaochu; Xue, Jilai

    Molten salts electrolysis method to prepare Al-RE alloys has attracted increasing attention recently. CaCl2 and Na3AlF6 were the most often used melts for this purpose. In this work, Al-Sc alloys prepared by electrolytic deposition process in both CaCl2 and Na3AlF6 melts were investigated, respectively. It was found that Sc distributes almost uniformly and Sc contents increase with increasing current intensity in both melts. Current efficiency was measured for comparison among various current densities applied. The alloy products were analyzed using XRD and SEM, where the formation behaviors of Al-Sc intermetallics were investigated in details. The experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that Al3Sc and Al0.968Sc0.032 are the major precipitates in the Al-Sc alloys prepared by molten electrolysis. The results are useful for selection and optimization of the molten salts compositions and the parameters of electrolysis operation.

  9. Failure Analysis and Recovery of a 50 MM Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearing for an ISS Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Moore, Lewis E., III

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Distillation Assembly centrifuge is the pathfinder application for 50mm bore, deep-groove ball bearings made from the highly elastic intermetallic material 60NiTi. Superior corrosion and shock resistance are required to withstand the acidic wastewater exposure and heavy spacecraft launch related loads that challenge conventional steel bearings. During early ground testing one bearing unexpectedly and catastrophically failed after operating for only 200 hours of run time. A second bearing running on the same shaft was completely unaffected. A thorough investigation into the root cause of the failure determined that an excessively tight press-fit of the bearing outer race coupled with NiTis relatively low elastic modulus were key contributing factors. The proposed failure mode was successfully duplicated by experiment. To further corroborate the root cause theory, a successful bearing life test using improved installation practices (selective fitting) was conducted. The results show that NiTi bearings are suitable for space applications provided that care is taken to accommodate their unique material characteristics.

  10. Failure Analysis and Recovery of a 50mm Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearing for an ISS Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Moore, Lewis E., III

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Distillation Assembly centrifuge is the pathfinder application for 50mm bore, deep-groove ball bearings made from the highly elastic intermetallic material 60NiTi. Superior corrosion and shock resistance are required to withstand the acidic wastewater exposure and heavy spacecraft launch related loads that challenge conventional steel bearings. During early ground testing one bearing unexpectedly and catastrophically failed after operating for only 200 hours of run time. A second bearing running on the same shaft was completely unaffected. A thorough investigation into the root cause of the failure determined that an excessively tight press-fit of the bearing outer race coupled with NiTis relatively low elastic modulus were key contributing factors. The proposed failure mode was successfully duplicated by experiment. To further corroborate the root cause theory, a successful bearing life test using improved installation practices (selective fitting) was conducted. The results show that NiTi bearings are suitable for space applications provided that care is taken to accommodate their unique material characteristics.

  11. Direct separation of arsenic and antimony oxides by high-temperature filtration with porous FeAl intermetallic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huibin; Liu, Xinli; Jiang, Yao; Gao, Lin; Yu, Linping; Lin, Nan; He, Yuehui; Liu, C T

    2017-09-15

    A temperature-controlled selective filtration technology for synchronous removal of arsenic and recovery of antimony from the fume produced from reduction smelting process of lead anode slimes was proposed. The chromium (Cr) alloyed FeAl intermetallic with an asymmetric pore structure was developed as the high-temperature filter material after evaluating its corrosive resistance, structural stability and mechanical properties. The results showed that porous FeAl alloyed with 20wt.% Cr had a long term stability in a high-temperature sulfide-bearing environment. The separation of arsenic and antimony trioxides was realized principally based on their disparate saturated vapor pressures at specific temperature ranges and the asymmetric membrane of FeAl filter elements with a mean pore size of 1.8μm. Pilot-scale filtration tests showed that the direct separation of arsenic and antimony can be achieved by a one-step or two-step filtration process. A higher removal percentage of arsenic can reach 92.24% at the expense of 6∼7% loss of antimony in the two-step filtration process at 500∼550°C and 300∼400°C. The FeAl filters had still good permeable and mechanical properties with 1041h of uninterrupted service, which indicates the feasibility of this high-temperature filtration technology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Corrosive sliding wear behavior of laser clad Mo 2Ni 3Si/NiSi intermetallic coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. D.; Wang, H. M.

    2005-05-01

    Many ternary metal silicides such as W 2Ni 3Si, Ti 2Ni 3Si and Mo 2Ni 3Si with the topologically closed-packed (TCP) hP12 MgZn 2 type Laves phase crystal structure are expected to have outstanding wear and corrosion resistance due to their inherent high hardness and sluggish temperature dependence and strong atomic bonds. In this paper, Mo 2Ni 3Si/NiSi intermetallic coating was fabricated on substrate of an austenitic stainless steel AISI321 by laser cladding using Ni-Mo-Si elemental alloy powders. Microstructure of the coating was characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Wear resistance of the coating is evaluated under corrosive sliding wear test condition. Influence of corrosion solutions on the wear resistance of the coating was studied and the wear mechanism was discussed based on observations of worn surface morphology. Results showed that the laser clad Mo 2Ni 3Si/NiSi composite coating have a fine microstructure of Mo 2Ni 3Si primary dendrites and the interdendritic Mo 2Ni 3Si/NiSi eutectics. The coating has excellent corrosive wear resistance compared with austenitic stainless steel AISI321 under acid, alkaline and saline corrosive environments.

  13. Failure Analysis and Recovery of a 50-mm Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearing for an ISS Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Moore, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Ball bearings used inside the ISS Distillation Assembly centrifuge require superior corrosion and shock resistance to withstand acidic wastewater exposure and heavy spacecraft launch related loads. These requirements challenge conventional steel bearings and provide an ideal pathfinder application for 50-mm bore, deep-groove ball bearings made from the corrosion immune and highly elastic intermetallic material 60NiTi. During early ground testing in 2014 one 60NiTi bearing unexpectedly and catastrophically failed after operating for only 200 hr. A second bearing running on the same shaft was completely unaffected. An investigation into the root cause of the failure determined that an excessively tight press fit of the bearing outer race coupled with NiTi's relatively low elastic modulus were key contributing factors. The proposed failure mode was successfully replicated by experiment. To further corroborate the root cause theory, a successful bearing life test using improved installation practices (selective fitting) was conducted. The results show that NiTi bearings are suitable for space applications provided that care is taken to accommodate their unique material characteristics.

  14. Stabilized Lanthanum Sulphur Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, George H. (Inventor); Elsner, Norbert B. (Inventor); Shearer, Clyde H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Lanthanum sulfide is maintained in the stable cubic phase form over a temperature range of from 500 C to 1500 C by adding to it small amounts of calcium, barium. or strontium. This novel compound is an excellent thermoelectric material.

  15. Anti-Fog Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tracer Chemical Corporation's TRX Anti-Fog Composition is an inexpensive product which prevents condensation on plastic and glass surfaces. It was the result from a Tech Briefs article detailing a Johnson Space Center compound.

  16. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  17. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.

    1985-01-01

    The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  18. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  19. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  20. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  1. Calibration-free quantitative analysis of elemental ratios in intermetallic nanoalloys and nanocomposites using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Davari, Seyyed Ali; Hu, Sheng; Mukherjee, Dibyendu

    2017-03-01

    Intermetallic nanoalloys (NAs) and nanocomposites (NCs) have increasingly gained prominence as efficient catalytic materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. But their morphology and chemical compositions play critical role in tuning their catalytic activities, and precious metal contents. While advanced microscopy techniques facilitate morphological characterizations, traditional chemical characterizations are either qualitative or extremely involved. In this study, we apply Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for quantitative compositional analysis of NAs and NCs synthesized with varied elemental ratios by our in-house built pulsed laser ablation technique. Specifically, elemental ratios of binary PtNi, PdCo (NAs) and PtCo (NCs) of different compositions are determined from LIBS measurements employing an internal calibration scheme using the bulk matrix species as internal standards. Morphology and qualitative elemental compositions of the aforesaid NAs and NCs are confirmed from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. LIBS experiments are carried out in ambient conditions with the NA and NC samples drop cast on silicon wafers after centrifugation to increase their concentrations. The technique does not call for cumbersome sample preparations including acid digestions and external calibration standards commonly required in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques. Yet the quantitative LIBS results are in good agreement with the results from ICP-OES measurements. Our results indicate the feasibility of using LIBS in future for rapid and in-situ quantitative chemical characterizations of wide classes of synthesized NAs and NCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. STATISTICAL DATA ON CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DATA STORAGE SYSTEMS, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, COMPUTERS, STATISTICAL DATA , DOCUMENTS, ARMY...CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL), (*INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS), MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, DATA PROCESSING

  3. Compound management beyond efficiency.

    PubMed

    Burr, Ian; Winchester, Toby; Keighley, Wilma; Sewing, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Codeveloping alongside chemistry and in vitro screening, compound management was one of the first areas in research recognizing the need for efficient processes and workflows. Material management groups have centralized, automated, miniaturized and, importantly, found out what not to do with compounds. While driving down cost and improving quality in storage and processing, researchers still face the challenge of interfacing optimally with changing business processes, in screening groups, and with external vendors and focusing on biologicals in many companies. Here we review our strategy to provide a seamless link between compound acquisition and screening operations and the impact of material management on quality of the downstream processes. Although this is driven in part by new technologies and improved quality control within material management, redefining team structures and roles also drives job satisfaction and motivation in our teams with a subsequent positive impact on cycle times and customer feedback.

  4. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Metalloid compounds as drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

  6. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Gill, David D.

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  7. Structure-Property Relationships in Novel Materials Part I: Frustrated Magnetism and Deintercalation of Honeycomb Oxides Part II: Electron-Precise Gold Intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Elizabeth M.

    This thesis is a study of the structure-property relationships of novel materials, broken into two major parts. The first part, "Part I: Frustrated Magnetism and Deintercalation of Honeycomb Oxides" explores new, layered nickel oxides and their properties, specifically the synthesis, structure, magnetism, and applications of the Na3Ni 2BiO6-NaNi2BiO6-NaNi2BiO 6•1.7H2O system. These phases are of interest to the solid-state and physics communities because they display frustrated magnetism on a hexagonal lattice. Chapter 3 explores the chemistry and physics of Na 3Ni2BiO6; Chapter 4 then discusses its chemical deintercalation and subsequent hydration to form the NaNi2BiO 6-NaNi2BiO6•1.7H2O system. These phases are examples of sought-after spin-1/2 systems on a hexagonal lattice. The second part of this thesis, "Part II: Electron-Precise Gold Intermetallics" explores novel, electron-precise intermetallics in the Lanthanide-gold-pnictide ternary system. The chemistry of gold-containing solids has not been well-studied despite gold's unusual physics, motivating the study. There are three new families discussed herein. The first, found in Chapter 7, is of the type LnAuSb (Ln = Lanthanide) which are new Dirac semimetals. The work illustrates a chemical design principle that can be used to predict new Dirac Semimetals, which is important given that the field of topological materials is rapidly growing. Chapter 8 discusses materials of the type LnAuBi2, which are layered intermetallics with a high degree of magnetic anisotropy. Finally, Chapter 9 explores new phases of the form Ln 3Au3Bi4. These materials are semiconductors with high Seebeck coefficients at room temperature, indicating their potential for use as thermoelectric materials.

  8. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  9. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  10. Urinary Compounds in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.

    2004-01-01

    Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…

  11. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Boron and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 42 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  12. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  13. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 001 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 39 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 1998 Minor revisions January 1999 Reference dose revised June 2005 U.S . Environmental Protec

  14. Beryllium and compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 98 / 008 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 41 - 7 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) April 1998 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in ac

  15. Lead and compounds (inorganic)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Lead and compounds ( inorganic ) ; CASRN 7439 - 92 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  16. Selenium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenium and Compounds ; CASRN 7782 - 49 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  17. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  18. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  19. The Onium Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazarov, Dobri

    1997-06-01

    The onium salts are of a big interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis. Some representatives of the group (e.g. ammonium salts) were known from the oldest times. Many onium salts are met the nature: ammonium salts (either as inorganic salts, and organic derivatives, e.g. aminoacids, salts of biogenic amines and alkaloids, etc.); oxonium salts (plant pigments as anthocyans are organic oxonium compounds), etc. In 1894 C. Hartmann and V. Meyer prepared the first iodonium salts - 4-iododiphenyliodonium hydrogensulfate and diphenyliodonium salts, and suggested the ending -onium for all compounds with properties similar to those of ammonium salts. Nowadays onium compounds of almost all nonmetals are synthesised and studied. A great variety of physical methods: diffraction (e.g. XRD) and spectral methods (IR-, NMR-, and UV-spectra), as well as the chemical properties and methods of preparation of onium salts have been used in determination of the structure of these compounds. The application of different onium salts is immense. Ammonium, phosphonium and sulfonium salts are used as phase-transfer catalysts; diazonium salts - for the preparation of dyes, metalochromic and pH-indicators. All the onium salts and especially diazonium and iodonium salts are very useful reagents in organic synthesis.

  20. Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} and Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x}: Two stannide intermetallics with low-dimensional iron sublattices

    SciT

    Calta, Nicholas P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G., E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    This article reports two new Hf-rich intermetallics synthesized using Sn flux: Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} and Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x}. Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} adopts an ordered variant the Hf{sub 3}Cu{sub 8} structure type in orthorhombic space group Pnma with unit cell edges of a=8.1143(5) Å, b=8.8466(5) Å, and c=10.6069(6) Å. Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x}, on the other hand, adopts a new structure type in Cmc2{sub 1} with unit cell edges of a=5.6458(3) Å, b=35.796(2) Å, and c=8.88725(9) Å for x=0. It exhibits a small amount of phase width in which Sn substitutes on one of the Fe sites. Bothmore » structures are fully three-dimensional and are characterized by pseudo one- and two-dimensional networks of Fe–Fe homoatomic bonding. Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x} exhibits antiferromagnetic order at T{sub N}=46(2) K and its electrical transport behavior indicates that it is a normal metal with phonon-dictated resistivity. Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} is also an antiferromagnet with a rather high ordering temperature of T{sub N}=373(5) K. Single crystal resistivity measurements indicate that Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} behaves as a Fermi liquid at low temperatures, indicating strong electron correlation. - Graphical abstract: Slightly different growth conditions in Sn flux produce two new intermetallic compounds: Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} and Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x}. - Highlights: • Single crystals of both Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} and Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x} were grown using Sn flux. • The crystal structures were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. • The Fe moments in Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} display AFM order below T{sub N}=373 K. • The Fe moments in Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x} display AFM order below T{sub N}=46 K.« less

  1. Microstructure and high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy surface by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongxi; Wang, Chuanqi; Zeng, Weihua; Jiang, Yehua

    2010-11-01

    A high-temperature oxidation resistant TiN embedded in Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating was fabricated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V surface by 6kW transverse-flow CO2 laser apparatus. The composition, morphology and microstructure of the laser clad TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). In order to evaluate the high-temperature oxidation resistance of the composite coatings and the titanium alloy substrate, isothermal oxidation test was performed in a conventional high-temperature resistance furnace at 600°C and 800°C respectively. The result shows that the laser clad intermetallic composite coating has a rapidly solidified fine microstructure consisting of TiN primary phase (granular-like, flake-like, and dendrites), and uniformly distributed in the Ti3Al matrix. It indicates that a physical and chemical reaction between the Ti powder and AlN powder occurred completely under the laser irradiation. In addition, the microhardness of the TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is 844HV0.2, 3.4 times higher than that of the titanium alloy substrate. The high-temperature oxidation resistance test reveals that TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating results in the better modification of high-temperature oxidation behavior than the titanium substrate. The excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance of the laser cladding layer is attributed to the formation of the reinforced phase TiN and Al2O3, TiO2 hybrid oxide. Therefore, the laser cladding TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is anticipated to be a promising oxidation resistance surface modification technique for Ti6Al4V alloy.

  2. Magnetic interactions in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd) studied by time differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S N

    2009-03-18

    Applying the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique we have measured electric and magnetic hyperfine fields of the (111)Cd impurity in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr and Gd) showing antiferro- and ferromagnetism with unusually high ordering temperatures. The Cd nuclei occupying the Sc site show high magnetic hyperfine fields with saturation values B(hf)(0) = 21 kG, 45 kG and 189 kG in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe, respectively. By comparing the results with the hyperfine field data of Cd in rare-earth metals and estimations from the RKKY model, we find evidence for the presence of additional spin density at the probe nucleus, possibly due to spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The principal electric field gradient component V(zz) in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe has been determined to be 5.3 × 10(21) V m(-2), 5.5 × 10(21) V m(-2) and 5.6 × 10(21) V m(-2), respectively. Supplementing the experimental measurements, we have carried out ab initio calculations for pure and Cd-doped RScGe compounds with R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). From the total energies calculated with and without spin polarization we find ferrimagnetic ground states for CeScGe and PrScGe while NdScGe and GdScGe are ferromagnetic. In addition, we find a sizable magnetic moment at the Sc site, increasing from ≈0.10 μ(B) in CeScGe to ≈0.3 μ(B) in GdScGe, confirming the spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The calculated electric field gradient and magnetic hyperfine fields of the Cd impurity closely agree with the experimental values. We believe spin polarization of Sc 3d band electrons, strongly hybridized with spin polarized 5d band electrons of the rare-earth, enables a long range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between RE 4f moments which in turn leads to high magnetic ordering temperatures in

  3. Pt skin on AuCu intermetallic substrate: a strategy to maximize Pt utilization for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongwei; Huang, Bing; Xiao, Li; Ren, Zhandong; Chen, Hao; Wang, Deli; Abruña, Héctor D; Lu, Juntao; Zhuang, Lin

    2014-07-09

    The dependence on Pt catalysts has been a major issue of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Strategies to maximize the Pt utilization in catalysts include two main approaches: to put Pt atoms only at the catalyst surface and to further enhance the surface-specific catalytic activity (SA) of Pt. Thus far there has been no practical design that combines these two features into one single catalyst. Here we report a combined computational and experimental study on the design and implementation of Pt-skin catalysts with significantly improved SA toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Through screening, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a Pt-skin structure on AuCu(111) substrate, consisting of 1.5 monolayers of Pt, is found to have an appropriately weakened oxygen affinity, in comparison to that on Pt(111), which would be ideal for ORR catalysis. Such a structure is then realized by substituting the Cu atoms in three surface layers of AuCu intermetallic nanoparticles (AuCu iNPs) with Pt. The resulting Pt-skinned catalyst (denoted as Pt(S)AuCu iNPs) has been characterized in depth using synchrotron XRD, XPS, HRTEM, and HAADF-STEM/EDX, such that the Pt-skin structure is unambiguously identified. The thickness of the Pt skin was determined to be less than two atomic layers. Finally the catalytic activity of Pt(S)AuCu iNPs toward the ORR was measured via rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry through which it was established that the SA was more than 2 times that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst. Taking into account the ultralow Pt loading in Pt(S)AuCu iNPs, the mass-specific catalytic activity (MA) was determined to be 0.56 A/mg(Pt)@0.9 V, a value that is well beyond the DOE 2017 target for ORR catalysts (0.44 A/mg(Pt)@0.9 V). These findings provide a strategic design and a realizable approach to high-performance and Pt-efficient catalysts for fuel cells.

  4. The study of in-situ formed alumina and aluminide intermetallic reinforced aluminum-based metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peng

    Aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been widely used as structural materials in the automobile and aerospace industry due to their specific properties. In this thesis, we report the fabrication of in-situ formed alumina and aluminide intermetallic reinforced aluminum-based metal matrix composites by the displacement reactions between Al and selected metal oxides (NiO, CuO and ZnO). These MMCs were produced when the Al-20wt% NiO, Al-20wt% CuO and Al-10wt% ZnO green compacts were reaction sintered in the tube furnaces. In this work, differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed on the green samples. The green samples were then sintered separately in different tube furnaces for 30 minutes. In order to study the reaction mechanisms, the x-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to obtain diffraction patterns of these sintered samples, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to study the microstructures of these samples. The elemental quantitative compositions of samples were determined by the energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX). In order to study the effect of cooling rate on the samples, the green samples were further sintered to 1000°C and cooled down to room temperature in different conditions: by furnace-cooling, air-quenching, oil-quenching or NaCl-solution-quenching. The SEM, TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were conducted to investigate their microstructures. A microhardness tester was used to measure the hardness values of these samples. It was found that during sintering of the Al-20wt% NiO green sample, displacement reaction between Al and NiO initially occurred in solid-solid form and was soon halted by its products that separated the NiO particles from the Al matrix. The reaction then resumed in solid-liquid form as the temperature increased to the eutectic temperature of Al3Ni-Al when liquid (Al, Ni) phase appeared in the sample. After cooling, Al2O 3 particles, Al3Ni proeutectic

  5. Effect of Si on Fe-rich intermetallic formation and mechanical properties of heat-treated Al–Cu–Mn–Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuliang; Zhang, Weiwen; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Datong; Wang, Zhi

    2018-04-01

    The effect of Si on Fe-rich intermetallics formation and mechanical properties of heat-treated squeeze cast Al-5.0Cu-0.6Mn-0.7Fe alloy was investigated. Our results show that increasing Si content promotes the formation of Al15(FeMn)3(SiCu)2 (${\\alpha}$-Fe), and varying the morphology of T (Al20Cu3Mn2) where the size decreases and the amount increases. The major reason is that Si promotes heterogeneous nucleation of the intermetallics leading to finer precipitates. Si addition significantly enhances ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the alloys. The strengthening effect is mainly owing to the dispersoid strengthening by increasing volume fraction of T phase and less harmful ${\\alpha}$-Fe with a compact structure, which make the cracks more difficult to initiate and propagation during tensile test. The squeeze cast Al-5.0Cu-0.6Mn-0.7Fe alloy with 1.1% Si shows significantly improved mechanical properties than the alloy without Si addition, which has tensile strength of 386 MPa, yield strength of 280 MPa and elongation of 8.6%.

  6. Thermal Shock and Oxidation Behavior of HiPIMS TiAlN Coatings Grown on Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Intermetallic Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Badini, Claudio; Deambrosis, Silvia M.; Padovano, Elisa; Fabrizio, Monica; Ostrovskaya, Oxana; Miorin, Enrico; D’Amico, Giuseppe C.; Montagner, Francesco; Biamino, Sara; Zin, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    A High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) method for depositing TiAlN environmental barrier coatings on the surface of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy was developed in view of their exploitation in turbine engines. Three differently engineered TiAlN films were processed and their performance compared. Bare intermetallic alloy coupons and coated specimens were submitted to thermal cycling under oxidizing atmosphere up to 850 °C or 950 °C, at high heating and cooling rates. For this purpose, a burner rig able to simulate the operating conditions of the different stages of turbine engines was used. Microstructures of the samples were compared before and after each test using several techniques (microscopy, XRD, and XPS). Coating-intermetallic substrate adhesion and tribological properties were investigated too. All the TiAlN films provided a remarkable increase in oxidation resistance. Good adhesion properties were observed even after repeated thermal shocks. HiPIMS pretreatments of the substrate surfaces performed before the coating deposition significantly affected the oxidation rate, the oxide layer composition and the coating/substrate adhesion. PMID:28774082

  7. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 as stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards direct alcohol fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-10-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by superhydride reduction of K2PtCl4 and InCl3.xH2O precursors using facile, one-pot solvothermal method. We report surfactant free solvothermal synthesis of a novel ordered Pt2In3 intermetallic nanoparticles for the first time. The structure and morphology of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The as prepared Pt2In3 catalyst exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards alcohol oxidation over commercial Pt/C. The specific activity of as synthesized catalyst was found to be 3.2 and 2.3 times higher than commercial Pt/C for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. This improved activity and durability of the Pt2In3 nanoparticles can make the catalyst an ideal catalyst candidate for direct alcohol fuel cell.

  8. Core–shell PdPb@Pd aerogels with multiply-twinned intermetallic nanostructures: facile synthesis with accelerated gelation kinetics and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties

    SciT

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Shi, Qiurong; Fu, Shaofang

    Delicately engineering the well-defined noble metal aerogels with favorable structural and compositional features is of vital importance for wide applications. Here, we reported one-pot and facile method for synthesizing core-shell PdPb@Pd hydrogels/aerogels with multiply-twinned grains and ordered intermetallic phase using sodium hypophosphite as a multifunctional reducing agent. Due to the accelerated gelation kinetics induced by increased reaction temperature and specific function of sodium hypophosphite, the formation of hydrogels can be completed within 4 hrs, far faster than the previous reports. Owe to their unique porous structure and favorable geometric and electronic effects, the optimized PdPb@Pd aerogels exhibit enhanced electrochemical performancemore » towards ethylene glycol oxidation with a mass activity of 5.8 times higher than Pd black.Core–shell PdPb@Pd aerogels with multiply-twinned grains and an ordered intermetallic phase was synthesized, which exhibited good electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation.« less

  9. Research in Energetic Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    CH 2 2 2 I R It has been reported, however, that the hydrolysis of dihalo hexane diepoxides yields the isomeric bicyclo[3.3.0]-2,6-dioxaoctanes 4...as model compounds. Hexitols, such as D-mannitol, give high yields of 4,8-dihydroxybi- cyclor3.3.0]-2,6-dioxaoctane 4 by dehydration with...C (0.1 mm). Continued distillation resulted in violent exothermic decomposition . The distilled sample also decomposed within one day. This material

  10. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burn for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  12. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  13. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  14. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, Stephen B.; Koo, Myoung-Seo

    1992-01-01

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  15. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

    1992-09-22

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  16. Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially β-d-glucans. Among them, β-1,3-glucan with side chain β-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

  17. Titanium alkoxide compound

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-08-14

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  18. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  19. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals. PMID:28846623

  20. Bilingual reading of compound words.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English compound words was more accurate when the translated compounds (the combination of the translation equivalents of the constituents) in Korean (the nontarget language) were real words than when they were nonwords. In Experiment 2, when the frequency of the second constituents of compound words in English (the target language) was manipulated, the effect of lexical status of the translated compounds was greater on the compounds with high-frequency second constituents than on those with low-frequency second constituents in the target language. Together, these results provided evidence for morphological decomposition and cross-language activation in bilingual reading of compound words.

  1. Effect of iron-intermetallics and porosity on tensile and impact properties of aluminum-silicon-copper and aluminum-silicon-magnesium cast alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zheyuan

    Aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are an important class of materials that constitute the majority of aluminum cast parts produced, due to their superior properties and excellent casting characteristics. Within this family of alloys, Al-Si-Cu and Al-Si-Mg cast alloys are frequently employed in automotive applications. The commercially popular 319 and 356 alloys, representing these two alloy systems, were selected for study in the present work, with the aim of investigating the effect of iron intermetallics and porosity on the alloy performance. This was carried out through a study of the tensile and impact properties, these being two of the important mechanical properties used in design calculations. Iron, through the precipitation of second phase intermetallic constituents, in particular the platelike beta-Al5FeSi phase, is harmful to the alloy properties. Likewise, gas- or shrinkage porosity in castings is also detrimental to the mechanical properties. By determining the optimum alloying, melt processing and solidification parameters (viz., Fe content, Sr modification and cooling rate) required to minimize the harmful effects of porosity and iron intermetallics, and studying their role on the fracture behavior, the fracture mechanism in the alloys could be determined. Castings were prepared from both industrial and experimental 319.2, B319.2 and A356.2 alloy melts, containing Fe levels of 0.2--1.0 wt%. Sr-modified (˜200 ppm) melts were also prepared for each alloy Fe level. The end-chilled refractory mold used provided directional solidification and a range of cooling rates (or dendrite arm spacings, DAS) within the same casting. Tensile and impact test samples machined from specimen blanks sectioned from the castings at various heights above the chill end provided DASs of 23--85mum. All samples were T6-heat-treated before testing. Tests were carried out employing Instron Universal and Instrumented Charpy testing machines. Optical microscopy, image analysis, SEM

  2. Molding compound trends in a denser packaging world: Qualification tests and reliability concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Lo, R. H. Y.; Chen, A. S.; Belani, J. G.

    1993-12-01

    Molding compound development has traditionally been driven by the memory market, then subsequent applications filter down to other IC technologies such as logic, analog, and ASIC. However, this strategy has changed lately with the introduction of thin packages such as PQFP & TSOP. Rather than targeting a compound for a family of IC such as DRAM or SRAM, compound development efforts are now focused at specific classes of packages. The configurations of these thin packages impose new functional requirements that need to be revisited to provide the optimized combination of properties. The evolution of qualification tests mirrors the advances in epoxy and compounding technologies. From the first standard novolac-based epoxies of the 1970s to the latest 3(sup rd)-generation ultra-low stress materials, longer test times at increasingly harsher environments were achieved. This paper benchmarks the current reliability tests used by the electronic industry, examines those tests that affect and are affected by the molding compounds, discusses the relevance of accelerated testing, and addresses the major reliability issues facing current molding compound development efforts. Six compound-related reliability concerns were selected: moldability, package stresses, package cracking, halogen-induced intermetallic growth at bond pads, moisture-induced corrosion, and interfacial delamination. Causes of each failure type are surveyed and remedies are recommended. Accelerated tests are designed to apply to a limited quantity of devices, bias, or environmental conditions larger than usual ratings, to intensify failure mechanisms that would occur under normal operating conditions. The observed behavior is then extrapolated from the lot to the entire population. Emphasis is on compressing the time necessary to obtain reliability data. This approach has two main drawbacks. With increasingly complex devices, even accelerated tests are expensive. And with new technologies, it becomes

  3. Imido-pyridine Ti(IV) compounds: synthesis of unusual imido-amido heterobimetallic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Sergio; Vidal, Fernando; Lee, Lucia Myongwon; Vargas-Baca, Ignacio; Gómez-Sal, Pilar; Mosquera, Marta E G

    2015-06-28

    The reaction of lithiated picolines and [TiCl3(η(5)-C5Me5)] leads to several bridging or terminal imido compounds, each of which can be selectively formed by controlling the stoichiometry and temperature. Specifically, the dinuclear imido-bridged [TiCl(η(5)-C5Me5)(μ-NR)]2 (1a, NR = 2-imido-3-picoline; 1b, NR = 2-imido-5-picoline) species and the unusual Ti-Li imido-amido heterobimetallic complex [{Li(THF)}{Ti(η(5)-C5Me5)(NR)(NHR)2}] (2a, NR = 2-imido-3-picoline; 2b, NR = 2-imido-5-picoline) were isolated. Compounds 2 are in effect the first structurally characterized examples of titanium(IV) coordinated to terminal imido-pyridines. DFT-D calculations for 2a denote a multiple bond character between titanium and the imido ligand and a strong polarization of the electron density by the alkali cation in spite of the lack of intermetallic bonding.

  4. Component Selection for Sterile Compounding.

    PubMed

    Dilzer, Richard H

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the factors to consider, as well as the process of proper component selection, for use in preparing compounded sterile preparations. Special emphasis is placed on individual chemical factors that may impact a preparation's accuracy and potency. Values reported in a typical certificate of analysis are discussed, including methods of identifying any required adjustments to a master formulation or compounding record during the compounding of sterile preparations. Proper screening of the certificate of analysis, the Safety Data Sheet, procedural documentation, and the filing of all certificates of conformance are crucial to the operation of a sterile compounding facility. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  5. Giant magnetoresistive cobalt oxide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    1998-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  6. Giant magnetoresistive cobalt oxide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, P.G.; Xiang, X.; Goldwasser, I.

    1998-07-07

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties. 58 figs.

  7. Thermodynamics of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, B. E.; Smith, N. K.

    1982-11-01

    This research program consisted of an integrated and interrelated effort of basic and applied research in chemical thermodynamics and thermochemistry. Knowledge of variation of physical and thermodynamic properties with molecular structure was used to select compounds for study that because of high ring strain or unusual steric effects may have good energy characteristics per unit volume or per unit mass and thus be useful in the synthesis of high energy fuels. These materials were synthesized, and their thermodynamic properties were evaluated. In cooperation with researcher at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, ramjet fuels currently in use were subjected to careful thermodynamic evaluation by measurements of heat capacity, enthalpy of combustion and vapor pressure. During the last year of this effort, seven kerosene-type fuels produced by British Petroleum and seven jet fuels produced from shale oil were studied.

  8. Development of Ion-Plasma Coatings for Protecting Intermetallic Refractory Alloys VKNA-1V and VKNA-25 in the Temperature Range of 1200 - 1250°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinovskii, S. A.; Matveev, P. V.; Smirnov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    Multilayer heat-resistant ion-plasma coatings for protecting the parts of the hot duct of gas-turbine engines produced from refractory nickel alloys based on VKNA intermetallics from high-temperature oxidation are considered. Coatings of the Ni - Cr - Al (Ta, Re, Hf, Y) + Al - Ni - Y systems are tested for high-temperature strength at 1200 and 1250°C. Metallographic and microscopic x-ray spectrum analyses of the structure and composition of the coatings in the initial condition and after the testing are performed. The effect of protective coatings of the Ni - Cr - Al - Hf + Al - Ni - Y systems on the long-term strength of alloys VKNA-1V and VKNA-25 at 1200°C is studied.

  9. Core–shell PdPb@Pd aerogels with multiply-twinned intermetallic nanostructures: facile synthesis with accelerated gelation kinetics and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Shi, Qiurong; Fu, Shaofang; ...

    2018-04-04

    Delicately engineering well-defined noble metal aerogels with favorable structural and compositional features is of vital importance for wide applications. Here, we reported a one-pot and facile method for synthesizing core–shell PdPb@Pd hydrogels/aerogels with multiply-twinned grains and an ordered intermetallic phase using sodium hypophosphite as a multifunctional reducing agent. Due to the accelerated gelation kinetics induced by increased reaction temperature and the specific function of sodium hypophosphite, the formation of hydrogels can be completed within 4 h. As a result, owing to their unique porous structure and favorable geometric and electronic effects, the optimized PdPb@Pd aerogels exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance towardsmore » ethylene glycol oxidation with a mass activity of 5.8 times higher than Pd black.« less

  10. Formation of Gradient Structures in the Zone of Joining a Deformable Nickel Alloy and a Single-Crystal Intermetallic Alloy during Thermodiffusion Pressure Welding and Subsequent Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarova, K. B.; Valitov, V. A.; Drozdov, A. A.; Bazyleva, O. A.; Galieva, E. V.; Arginbaeva, E. G.

    2018-01-01

    The possibility of formation of a high-quality solid-phase joint of an Ni3Al-based single-crystal intermetallic VKNA-25 blade alloy with a high-temperature deformable EP975 disk alloy by pressure welding is studied to create high-performance one-piece blisk unit for the next-generation aviation gas turbine engines and to decrease the unit mass. The influence of the conditions of thermodiffusion pressure welding under the hightemperature superplasticity of the disk alloy and the influence of heat treatment of welded joints on the gradient structures in the welded joint zone and the structure at the periphery of the welded samples are investigated.

  11. Core-Shell PdPb@Pd Aerogels with Multiply-Twinned Intermetallic Nanostructures: Facile Synthesis with Accelerated Gelation Kinetics and Their Enhanced Electrocatalytic Properties

    SciT

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Shi, Qiurong; Fu, Shaofang

    2018-04-04

    Delicately engineering the well-defined noble metal aerogels with favorable structural and compositional features is of vital importance for wide applications. Here, we reported one-pot and facile method for synthesizing core-shell PdPb@Pd hydrogels/aerogels with multiply-twinned grains and ordered intermetallic phase using sodium hypophosphite as a multifunctional reducing agent. Due to the accelerated gelation kinetics induced by increased reaction temperature and specific function of sodium hypophosphite, the formation of hydrogels can be completed within 4 hrs, far faster than the previous reports. Owe to their unique porous structure and favorable geometric and electronic effects, the optimized PdPb@Pd aerogels exhibit enhanced electrochemical performancemore » towards ethylene glycol oxidation with a mass activity of 5.8 times higher than Pd black.« less

  12. The structure and physical-mechanical properties of the heat-resistant Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y intermetallic coating obtained using rebuilt plasma equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Yu. P.; Tsareva, I. N.; Berdnik, O. B.; Fel, Ya. A.; Kuzmin, V. I.; Mikhalchenko, A. A.; Kartaev, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Results of a study of the structure, physico-mechanical properties, and the resistance to heat of Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y intermetallic coatings obtained by powder spraying on the standard UPU-3D plasma spray facility (plasmatron with self-establishing arc length) and on the rebuilt facility equipped with the enhanced-power PNK-50 plasmatron with sectionalized inter-electrode insert, are reported. Coatings of higher density ( ρ = 7.9 g/cm3) and higher microhardness (H μ = 770 kg-force/mm2) with lower porosity values ( P = 5.7 %, P c = 5.1 %, and P 0 = 0.6 %) and high resistance to heat ((M - M0)/M0 = 1.2) were obtained. The developed coating is intended for protection of the working surfaces of turbine engine blades in gas-turbine power plants.

  13. Core–shell PdPb@Pd aerogels with multiply-twinned intermetallic nanostructures: facile synthesis with accelerated gelation kinetics and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties

    SciT

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Shi, Qiurong; Fu, Shaofang

    Delicately engineering well-defined noble metal aerogels with favorable structural and compositional features is of vital importance for wide applications. Here, we reported a one-pot and facile method for synthesizing core–shell PdPb@Pd hydrogels/aerogels with multiply-twinned grains and an ordered intermetallic phase using sodium hypophosphite as a multifunctional reducing agent. Due to the accelerated gelation kinetics induced by increased reaction temperature and the specific function of sodium hypophosphite, the formation of hydrogels can be completed within 4 h. As a result, owing to their unique porous structure and favorable geometric and electronic effects, the optimized PdPb@Pd aerogels exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance towardsmore » ethylene glycol oxidation with a mass activity of 5.8 times higher than Pd black.« less

  14. Synthesis of ferromagnetic nanoparticles, formic acid oxidation catalyst nanocomposites, and late-transition metal-boride intermetallics by unique synthetic methods and single-source precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellons, Matthew S.

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of magnetic alloy nanoparticles, supported formic acid oxidation catalysts, and superhard intermetallic composites are presented. Ferromagnetic equatomic alloy nanoparticles of FePt, FePd, and CoPt were synthesized utilizing single-source heteronuclear organometallic precursors supported on an inert water-soluble matrix. Direct conversion of the precursor-support composite to supported ferromagnetic nanoparticles occurs under elevated temperatures and reducing conditions with metal-ion reduction and minimal nanoparticle coalescence. Nanoparticles were easily extracted from the support by addition of water and characterized in structure and magnetic properties. Palladium and platinum based nanoparticles were synthesized with microwave-based and chemical metal-ion reduction strategies, respectively, and tested for catalytic performance in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC). A study of palladium carbide nanocomposites with various carbonaceous supports was conducted and demonstrated strong activity comparable to commercially available palladium black, but poor catalytic longevity. Platinum-lead alloy nanocomposites synthesized with chemical reduction and supported on Vulcan carbon demonstrated strong activity, excellent catalytic longevity, and were subsequently incorporated into a prototype DFAFC. A new method for the synthesis of superhard ceramics on polymer substrates called Confined Plasma Chemical Deposition (CPCD) was developed. The CPCD method utilizes a tuned Free Electron Laser to selectively decompose the single-source precursor, Re(CO)4(B3H8), in a plasma-like state resulting in the superhard intermetallic ReB2 deposited on polymer substrates. Extension of this method to the synthesis of other hard of superhard ceramics; WB4, RuB2, and B4C was demonstrated. These three areas of research show new synthetic methods and novel materials of technological importance, resulting in a substantial advance in their

  15. High-temperature site preference and atomic short-range ordering characteristics of ternary alloying elements in γ'-Ni3Al intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriş, Rasim; Mekhrabov, Amdulla O.; Akdeniz, M. Vedat

    2017-10-01

    Remarkable high-temperature mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys are correlated with the arrangement of ternary alloying elements in L12-type-ordered γ‧-Ni3Al intermetallics. In the current study, therefore, high-temperature site occupancy preference and energetic-structural characteristics of atomic short-range ordering (SRO) of ternary alloying X elements (X = Mo, W, Ta, Hf, Re, Ru, Pt or Co) in Ni75Al21.875X3.125 alloy systems have been studied by combining the statistico-thermodynamical theory of ordering and electronic theory of alloys in the pseudopotential approximation. Temperature dependence of site occupancy tendencies of alloying X element atoms has been predicted by calculating partial ordering energies and SRO parameters of Ni-Al, Ni-X and Al-X atomic pairs. It is shown that, all ternary alloying element atoms (except Pt) tend to occupy Al, whereas Pt atoms prefer to substitute for Ni sub-lattice sites of Ni3Al intermetallics. However, in contrast to other X elements, sub-lattice site occupancy characteristics of Re atoms appear to be both temperature- and composition-dependent. Theoretical calculations reveal that site occupancy preference of Re atoms switches from Al to both Ni and Al sites at critical temperatures, Tc, for Re > 2.35 at%. Distribution of Re atoms at both Ni and Al sub-lattice sites above Tc may lead to localised supersaturation of the parent Ni3Al phase and makes possible the formation of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases. The results of the current theoretical and simulation study are consistent with other theoretical and experimental investigations published in the literature.

  16. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} as stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards direct alcohol fuel cell application

    SciT

    Jana, Rajkumar; Peter, Sebastian C., E-mail: sebastiancp@jncasr.ac.in

    Ordered intermetallic Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles have been synthesized by superhydride reduction of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} and InCl{sub 3}.xH{sub 2}O precursors using facile, one-pot solvothermal method. We report surfactant free solvothermal synthesis of a novel ordered Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} intermetallic nanoparticles for the first time. The structure and morphology of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The as prepared Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity andmore » stability towards alcohol oxidation over commercial Pt/C. The specific activity of as synthesized catalyst was found to be ~3.2 and ~2.3 times higher than commercial Pt/C for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. This improved activity and durability of the Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles can make the catalyst an ideal catalyst candidate for direct alcohol fuel cell. - Graphical abstract: The ordered structure of Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized by solvothermal method has confirmed through XRD and TEM. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry showed improved catalytic activity and stability compared to commercial Pt/C. - Highlights: • Ordered Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method. • Electrooxidation of alcohols on Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst was investigated in acidic medium. • Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst has superior catalytic activity compared to commercial Pt/C. • Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst exhibited much higher stability than commercial Pt/C.« less

  17. Dynamic nanomechanical properties of novel Si-rich intermetallic coatings growth on a medical 316 LVM steel by hot dipping in a hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy.

    PubMed

    Frutos, E; González-Carrasco, J L

    2015-06-01

    This aim of this study is to determine the elastoplastic properties of Ni-free Al3FeSi2 intermetallic coatings grown on medical stainless steel under different experimental conditions. Elastoplastic properties are defined by the plasticity index (PI), which correlates the hardness and the Young's modulus. Special emphasis is devoted to correlate the PI with the wear resistance under sliding contact, determined by scratch testing, and fracture toughness, determined by using a novel method based on successive impacts with small loads. With regard to the substrate, the developed coatings are harder and exhibit a lower Young's reduced modulus, irrespective of the experimental conditions. It has been shown that preheating of the samples prior to hot dipping and immersion influences the type and volume fraction of precipitates, which in turn also affect the nanomechanical properties. The higher the preheating temperature is, the greater the Young's reduced modulus is. For a given preheating condition, an increase of the immersion time yields a decrease in hardness. Although apparent friction coefficients of coated specimens are smaller than those obtained on AISI 316 LVM, they increase when using preheating or higher immersion times during processing, which correlates with the PI. The presence of precipitates produces an increase in fracture toughness, with values greater than those presented by samples processed on melted AlSi alloys with lower Si content (12 wt%). Therefore, these intermetallic coatings could be considered "hard but tough", suitable to enhance the wear resistance, especially when using short periods of immersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. First-principles study of structural stability, electronic, optical and elastic properties of binary intermetallic: PtZr

    SciT

    Pagare, Gitanjali, E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Jain, Ekta, E-mail: jainekta05@gmail.com; Sanyal, S. P., E-mail: sps.physicsbu@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    Structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties of PtZr have been studied using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). The energy against volume and enthalpy vs. pressure variation in three different structures i.e. B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 3} for PtZr has been presented. The equilibrium lattice parameter, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative have been obtained using optimization method for all the three phases. Furthermore, electronic structure was discussed to reveal the metallic character of the present compound. The linear optical properties are also studied under zero pressure for the first time.more » Results on elastic properties are obtained using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange correlation potentials. Ductile nature of PtZr compound is predicted in accordance with Pugh’s criteria.« less

  19. Cesium Platinide Hydride 4Cs 2 Pt-CsH: An Intermetallic Double Salt Featuring Metal Anions

    SciT

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2016-10-24

    With Cs9Pt4H a new representative of ionic compounds featuring metal anions can be added to this rare-membered family. Cs 9Pt 4H exhibits a complex crystal structure containing Cs + cations, Pt 2- and H - anions. Being a red, transparent compound its band gap is in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the ionic type of bonding is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. This cesium platinide hydride can formally be considered as a double salt of the “alloy” cesium–platinum, or better cesium platinide, Cs2Pt, and the salt cesium hydride CsH according to Cs 9Pt 4H≡4 Cs 2Pt∙CsH.

  20. Pluto's Nonvolatile Chemical Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, Richard; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Earle, Alissa M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Jennings, Donald; Howett, Carly; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo; Linscott, Ivan; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Parker, Alex Harrison; Parker, Joel Wm.; Philippe, Sylvain; Protopapa, Silvia; Quirico, Eric; Reuter, D. C.; Schmitt, Bernard; Singer, Kelsi N.; Spencer, John R.; Stansberry, John A.; Stern, S. Alan; Tsang, Constantine; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Weigle, G. E.; Young, Leslie

    2016-10-01

    Despite the migration of Pluto's volatile ices (N2, CO, and CH4) around the surface on seasonal timescales, the planet's non-volatile materials are not completely hidden from view. They occur in a variety of provinces formed over a wide range of timescales, including rugged mountains and chasms, the floors of mid-latitude craters, and an equatorial belt of especially dark and reddish material typified by the informally named Cthulhu Regio. NASA's New Horizons probe observed several of these regions at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 km/pixel with its LEISA imaging spectrometer, covering wavelengths from 1.25 to 2.5 microns. Various compounds that are much lighter than the tholin-like macromolecules responsible for the reddish coloration, but that are not volatile at Pluto surface temperatures such as methanol (CH3OH) and ethane (C2H6) have characteristic absorption bands within LEISA's wavelength range. This presentation will describe their geographic distributions and attempt to constrain their origins. Possibilities include an inheritance from Pluto's primordial composition (the likely source of H2O ice seen on Pluto's surface) or ongoing production from volatile precursors through photochemistry in Pluto's atmosphere or through radiolysis on Pluto's surface. New laboratory data inform the analysis.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  1. Compounding with Silicones.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1940s, methylchlorosilanes have been used to treat glassware to prevent blood from clotting. The use of silicones in pharmaceutical and medical applications has grown to where today they are used in many life-saving devices (pacemakers, hydrocephalic shunts) and pharmaceutical applications from tubing, to excipients in topical formulations, to adhesives to affix transdermal drug delivery systems, and are also being used in products as active pharmaceutical ingredients, such as antiflatulents. About 60% of today's skin-care products now contain some type of silicone where they are considered safe and are known to provide a pleasant "silky-touch," non-greasy, and non-staining feel. Silicones exhibit many useful characteristics, and the safety of these agents supports their numerous applications; their biocompatibility is partially due to their low-chemical reactivity displayed by silicones, low-surface energy, and their hydrophobicity. Silicones are used both as active ingredients and as excipients. In addition is their use for "siliconization," or surface treatment, of many parenteral packaging components. Dimethicone and silicone oil are used as lubricants on stoppers to aid machineability, in syringes to aid piston movement, or on syringe needles to reduce pain upon injection. Silicones are also useful in pharmaceutical compounding as is discussed in this artiele included with this article are in developing formulations with silicones.

  2. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Rosenblum, Myron; Matchett, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines.

  3. Transition Metal Compounds Towards Holography

    PubMed Central

    Dieckmann, Volker; Eicke, Sebastian; Springfeld, Kristin; Imlau, Mirco

    2012-01-01

    We have successfully proposed the application of transition metal compounds in holographic recording media. Such compounds feature an ultra-fast light-induced linkage isomerization of the transition-metal–ligand bond with switching times in the sub-picosecond regime and lifetimes from microseconds up to hours at room temperature. This article highlights the photofunctionality of two of the most promising transition metal compounds and the photophysical mechanisms that are underlying the hologram recording. We present the latest progress with respect to the key measures of holographic media assembled from transition metal compounds, the molecular embedding in a dielectric matrix and their impressive potential for modern holographic applications. PMID:28817028

  4. Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Grorge

    2001-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

  5. Electronic response of rare-earth magnetic-refrigeration compounds GdX2 (X = Fe and Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Samir; Ahuja, Ushma; Kumar, Kishor; Heda, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    We present the Compton profiles (CPs) of rare-earth-transition metal compounds GdX2 (X = Fe and Co) using 740 GBq 137Cs Compton spectrometer. To compare the experimental momentum densities, we have also computed the CPs, electronic band structure, density of states (DOS) and Mulliken population (MP) using linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. Local density and generalized gradient approximations within density functional theory (DFT) along with the hybridization of Hartree-Fock and DFT (B3LYP and PBE0) have been considered under the framework of LCAO scheme. It is seen that the LCAO-B3LYP based momentum densities give a better agreement with the experimental data for both the compounds. The energy bands and DOS for both the spin-up and spin-down states show metallic like character of the reported intermetallic compounds. The localization of 3d electrons of Co and Fe has also been discussed in terms of equally normalized CPs and MP data. Discussion on magnetization using LCAO method is also included.

  6. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial Compounds in Tears

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

  8. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  9. Morphological Dynamics in Compound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the time-course of morphological processing of trimorphemic Finnish compounds. We find evidence for the parallel access to full-forms and morphological constituents diagnosed by the early effects of compound frequency, as well as early effects of left constituent frequency and family size. We also observe an interaction between…

  10. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  11. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J.

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indicative of a greater role of yeasts in the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Especially in acidic soils and other habitats, yeasts may play a role in the degradation of carbon compounds. Such compounds include purines like uric acid and adenine, aliphatic amines, diamines and hydroxyamines, phenolics and other benzene compounds and polysaccharides. Assimilation of purines and amines is a feature of many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. However, benzene compounds are degraded by only a few ascomycetous yeasts (e.g. the Stephanoascus/ Blastobotrys clade and black yeastlike fungi) but by many basidiomycetes, e.g. Filobasidiales, Trichosporonales, red yeasts producing ballistoconidia and related species, but not by Tremellales. Assimilation of polysaccharides is wide-spread among basidiomycetes

  12. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Nicole B.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity) in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05); MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all. PMID:26551613

  13. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Nicole B; Andersen, Olaf S

    2015-01-01

    Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity) in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05); MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all.

  14. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  15. Role of random magnetic anisotropy on the valence, magnetocaloric and resistivity properties in a hexagonal Sm2Ni0.87Si2.87 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhira, Santanu; Kundu, Asish K.; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we report the effect of random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) on the valence, magnetocaloric and resistivity properties in a glassy intermetallic material Sm2Ni0.87Si2.87. On the basis of detailed studies on the valence band and core level electronic structure, we have established that both the Sm3+ and Sm2+ ions are present in the system, suggesting the compound to be of mixed valence in nature. The significant observation of positive magnetic entropy change in zero-field cooled measurement has been argued due to the presence of RMA that develops due to local electronic environmental variations between the rare-earth ions in the system. The quantum interference effect caused by the elastic electron–electron interaction is responsible for the resistivity upturn at low-temperature for this disordered metallic conductor.

  16. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  17. Melt impregnation as a post processing treatment for performance enhancement in high capacity 3D microporous tin-copper-nickel intermetallic anode for Li-ion battery supported by electrodeposited nickel scaffold: A structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Srijan; Patra, Arghya; Mitra, Arijit; Jena, Sambedan; Das, Karabi; Majumder, Subhasish Basu; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-05-01

    This paper communicates stabilization of a Sn anode by impregnating it within the porous framework of a Ni-scaffold. The impregnation is carried out by electrodeposition Sn on Ni-foam followed by heating at 300 °C for 1 h. The Ni-foam was also electrodeposited on a Cu foil prior to deposition of Sn. The melting step leads to the formation of Nisbnd Sn and Cusbnd Sn intermetallics within pores of the Ni-scaffold. Snsbnd Cu/Ni intermetallics lithiate following the active-inactive strategy in which the inactive Cu/Ni buffers the volume expansion while Sn lithiates. Furthermore, this entire process takes place within Ni-scaffold which resists material pulverization and delamination and provide better electronic pathway for charge transfer. This active-inactive Sn:Snsbnd Cu/Ni intermetallic within a protected Ni-scaffold assembly results in 100th cycle discharge capacity of 587.9 mA h/g at a rate of 500 mA/g (0.5 C), and superior rate capability delivering 463 mAh/g at a rate of 2 A/g (2 C) while retaining structural integrity as compared to pure Sn electrodeposited (without heat-treatment) on the nickel scaffold.

  18. The growth of protective ultra-thin alumina layers on γ-TiAl(1 1 1) intermetallic single-crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, V.; Despert, G.; Zanna, S.; Josso, P.; Bacos, M.-P.; Marcus, P.

    2005-12-01

    An XPS and AES study of the early stages of oxidation of γ-TiAl(1 1 1) surfaces at 650 °C under 1.0 × 10 -7-1.0 × 10 -6 mbar O 2 is reported. The data evidence a first regime of oxidation characterized by the growth of a pure alumina layer followed by a second regime of simultaneous oxidation of both alloying elements. In the first regime, continuous alumina layers from ˜0.4 to ˜1.5 nm thick have been observed by angle-resolved XPS. The composition of the metallic phase underneath the growing oxide is modified by a depletion of Al and the injection of Al vacancies in the metal during the growth of the transient alumina formed at 650 °C. The onset of Ti oxidation was repeatedly observed for a critical concentration in the modified region of the alloy underneath the alumina layer: Ti 75±2Al 25±2 (Ti 50Al 17±2V(Al) 33±2), showing that decreasing the number of Ti-Al bonds in the modified intermetallic region increases the activity of Ti up to a critical point where its oxidation at the oxide/metal interface becomes competitive with that of Al. The growth of Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ oxide particles observed above the alumina layer by angle-resolved XPS indicates the transport of titanium cations trough the alumina layer and their subsequent reaction with oxygen at the outer gas/oxide interface. Improving structural ordering in the intermetallic phase slows down the growth kinetics of the alumina layer and the related Al-depletion of the substrate, and increases the resistance of the alloy to the subsequent oxidation of Ti. This is assigned to two combined effects: a slower diffusion of Al in the better ordered metallic phase and the growth of less defective alumina layers allowing to slow down the ionic transport through the oxide. Highly stable and corrosion resistant alloy surfaces covered by a 0.4 nm thick alumina layer have been obtained by slowly oxidizing the alloy at lower partial pressure (<5.0 × 10 -10 mbar O 2).

  19. Progress in Visualizing Atomic Size Effects with DFT-Chemical Pressure Analysis: From Isolated Atoms to Trends in AB5 Intermetallics.

    PubMed

    Berns, Veronica M; Engelkemier, Joshua; Guo, Yiming; Kilduff, Brandon J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-08-12

    The notion of atomic size poses an important challenge to chemical theory: empirical evidence has long established that atoms have spatial requirements, which are summarized in tables of covalent, ionic, metallic, and van der Waals radii. Considerations based on these radii play a central role in the design and interpretation of experiments, but few methods are available to directly support arguments based on atomic size using electronic structure methods. Recently, we described an approach to elucidating atomic size effects using theoretical calculations: the DFT-Chemical Pressure analysis, which visualizes the local pressures arising in crystal structures from the interactions of atomic size and electronic effects. Using this approach, a variety of structural phenomena in intermetallic phases have already been understood in terms that provide guidance to new synthetic experiments. However, the applicability of the DFT-CP method to the broad range of the structures encountered in the solid state is limited by two issues: (1) the difficulty of interpreting the intense pressure features that appear in atomic core regions and (2) the need to divide space among pairs of interacting atoms in a meaningful way. In this article, we describe general solutions to these issues. In addressing the first issue, we explore the CP analysis of a test case in which no core pressures would be expected to arise: isolated atoms in large boxes. Our calculations reveal that intense core pressures do indeed arise in these virtually pressure-less model systems and allow us to trace the issue to the shifts in the voxel positions relative to atomic centers upon expanding and contracting the unit cell. A compensatory grid unwarping procedure is introduced to remedy this artifact. The second issue revolves around the difficulty of interpreting the pressure map in terms of interatomic interactions in a way that respects the size differences of the atoms and avoids artificial geometrical

  20. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.