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Sample records for zro2 thermal barrier

  1. Effect of thermal cycling on ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper studies the comparative life of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings on NiCrAlY bond coats on Rene 41 in short (4 min) and long (57 min) thermal cycles at 1040 C in a 0.3-Mach flame. Attention is given to determining the effect of short- and long-duration cycles on ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings, the cause of any cycle frequency effects, and methods to improve tolerance to thermal stress. Short cycles greatly reduced the life of the ceramic coating in terms of time at temperatures as compared to longer cycles, the failed coating indicating compressive failure. The experiments and stress calculations show that repeatedly subjecting a ceramic coating to high rates of initial heating has a more destructive influence on the coating than sustained operation at temperature. The effect of such thermal compressive stresses might be minimized through coating deposition and thickness control and by turbine cycle measurement to keep starting heating rates below critical values.

  2. Effect of thermal cycling on ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the comparative life of plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings on NiCrAlY bond coats on Rene 41 in short (4 min) and long (57 min) thermal cycles to 1040 C in a 0.3 Mach flame. Short cycles greatly reduced the life of the ceramic coating in terms of time at temperature as compared to longer cycles. Appearance of the failed coating indicated compressive failure. Failure occurred at the bond coat-ceramic coat junction. At heating rates greater than 550 kw/sq m, the calculated coating detachment stress was in the range of literature values of coating adhesive/cohesive strength. Methods are discussed for decreasing the effect of high heating rate by avoiding compressive stress.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of free standing, plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings, including strength, fracture toughness, fatigue, constitutive relation, elastic modulus, and directionality, has been determined under various loading-specimen configurations. This report presents and describes a summary of mechanical properties of the plasma-sprayed coating material to provide them as a design database.

  4. Influence of Heat Treatment on Fracture Toughness and Wear Resistance of Nicral-Zro2 Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zibo; Wang, Guanghong

    2018-04-01

    The chemical composition and fracture toughness of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) before and after heat treatment were characterized, and the cracks around the interface between the coating and the substrate could be successfully eliminated and meanwhile the porosity of the coatings tended to reduce. The XRD analysis revealed the coatings were composed of non-transformable tetragonal t' phase of ZrO2 and γ -(Ni, Cr) with minor Ni3Al (γ') precipitates. Additionally, the relationship between the heat treatment and wear resistance was systematically studied. The results indicated that both the hardness and fracture toughness increased after quenching process. The oxidation wear became more prominent after heat treatment, which probably resulted from the better bonding strength of coatings. Dense and homogeneous microstructure introduced by vacuum oil-quenching improved stabilization of the weight gain during thermal cycle test.

  5. The glass-like thermal conductivity in ZrO2-Dy3TaO7 ceramic for promising thermal barrier coating application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Hu, Ming Yu; Chong, Xiao Yu; Feng, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Using the solid-state reaction method, the (ZrO2)x-(Dy3TaO7)1-x (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.1) ceramics are synthesized in this work. The identification of the crystal structures indicates that the (ZrO2)x-(Dy3TaO7)1-x ceramics belong to the orthorhombic system, and the space group is C2221 in spite of the value of x increasing to 0.1. The thermal conductivities of the (ZrO2)x-(Dy3TaO7)1-x ceramics range from 1.3 W/(m K) to 1.8 W/(m K), and this value is much lower than that of 7-8 YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia). Besides, the (ZrO2)x-(Dy3TaO7)1-x ceramics possess the glass-like thermal conductivity caused by intrinsic oxygen vacancies existing in the lattice of Dy3TaO7. Moreover, the results of thermal expansion rates demonstrate that the (ZrO2)x-(Dy3TaO7)1-x ceramics possess excellent high temperature phase stability, and the thermal expansion coefficients [(9.7-11) × 10-6 K-1] are comparable to that of 7-8 YSZ.

  6. Thermal Fatigue Testing of ZrO2-Y2O3 Thermal Barrier Coating Systems using a High Power CO2 Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure, under thermal loads that simulate diesel engine conditions, are investigated. The surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N*(sub NCF), which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 microns/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 microns/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N*(sub NCF) about 20,000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that HCF damage effect increases with increasing surface temperature swing, the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. A good agreement has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence.

  7. Effects of Laser Remelting and Oxidation on NiCrAlY/8Y2O3-ZrO2 Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. Q.; Zhu, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, three groups of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) samples were remelted by CO2 laser with different laser energy densities (1, 5 and 10 J/mm2) to seal the surface of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. Microscopic observations showed that the cracks size and the remelted depth in YSZ coatings increased. A 50-μm-thick dense layer was formed on the surface of YSZ coating in samples with 1 J/mm2 energy density. Microindentation tests showed that the Vickers hardness of YSZ coatings increases with the increase in laser energy density. After isothermal oxidation at 1200 °C for 200 h, thinner thermally growth oxides were found in laser remelted YSZ samples under energy density of 1 J/mm2 (6.32 ± 0.28 μm). Cyclic oxidation results showed that the weight gain per unit area of low energy density laser remelted TBCs was smaller than that of the high energy density laser remelted and as-sprayed TBCs.

  8. Interaction of Au with thin ZrO2 films: influence of ZrO2 morphology on the adsorption and thermal stability of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yonghe; Gao, Yan; Kong, Dandan; Wang, Guodong; Hou, Jianbo; Hu, Shanwei; Pan, Haibin; Zhu, Junfa

    2012-04-10

    The model catalysts of ZrO(2)-supported Au nanoparticles have been prepared by deposition of Au atoms onto the surfaces of thin ZrO(2) films with different morphologies. The adsorption and thermal stability of Au nanoparticles on thin ZrO(2) films have been investigated using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thin ZrO(2) films were prepared by two different methods, giving rise to different morphologies. The first method utilized wet chemical impregnation to synthesize the thin ZrO(2) film through the procedure of first spin-coating a zirconium ethoxide (Zr(OC(2)H(5))(4)) precursor onto a SiO(2)/Si(100) substrate at room temperature followed by calcination at 773 K for 12 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations indicate that highly porous "sponge-like nanostructures" were obtained in this case. The second method was epitaxial growth of a ZrO(2)(111) film through vacuum evaporation of Zr metal onto Pt(111) in 1 × 10(-6) Torr of oxygen at 550 K followed by annealing at 1000 K. The structural analysis with low energy electron diffraction (LEED) of this film exhibits good long-range ordering. It has been found that Au forms smaller particles on the porous ZrO(2) film as compared to those on the ordered ZrO(2)(111) film at a given coverage. Thermal annealing experiments demonstrate that Au particles are more thermally stable on the porous ZrO(2) surface than on the ZrO(2)(111) surface, although on both surfaces, Au particles experience significant sintering at elevated temperatures. In addition, by annealing the surfaces to 1100 K, Au particles desorb completely from ZrO(2)(111) but not from porous ZrO(2). The enhanced thermal stability for Au on porous ZrO(2) can be attributed to the stronger interaction of the adsorbed Au with the defects and the hindered migration or coalescence resulting from the porous structures. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  9. CMAS-Resistant Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Based on Y2O3-Stabilized ZrO2 with Al3+ and Ti4+ Solute Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturk, Bilge S.; Garces, Hector F.; Ortiz, Angel L.; Dwivedi, Gopal; Sampath, Sanjay; Padture, Nitin P.

    2014-04-01

    The higher operating temperatures in gas-turbine engines made possible by thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are engendering a new problem: environmentally ingested airborne silicate particles (sand, ash) melt on the hot TBC surfaces and form calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) glass deposits. The molten CMAS glass degrades the TBCs, leading to their premature failure. Here, we demonstrate the use of a commercially manufactured feedstock powder, in conjunction with air plasma spray process, to deposit CMAS-resistant yttria-stabilized zirconia-based TBCs containing Al3+ and Ti4+ in solid solution. Results from the characterization of these new TBCs and CMAS/TBCs interaction experiments are presented. The CMAS mitigation mechanisms in these new TBCs involve the crystallization of the anorthite phase. Raman microscopy is used to generate large area maps of the anorthite phase in the CMAS-interacted TBCs demonstrating the potential usefulness of this method for studying CMAS/TBCs interactions. The ubiquity of airborne sand/ash particles and the ever-increasing demand for higher operating temperatures in future high efficiency gas-turbine engines will necessitate CMAS resistance in all hot-section components of those engines. In this context, the versatility, ease of processing, and low cost offered by the process demonstrated here could benefit the development of these new CMAS-resistant TBCs.

  10. About properties of ZrO2 thermal protective coatings obtained from spherical powder mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnik, O. B.; Tsareva, I. N.; Tarasenko, Yu P.

    2017-05-01

    It is developed the technology of high-energy plasma spraying of the zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) thermal protective coating on the basis of ZrO2 tetragonal and cubic phases with the spheroidal grain shape and the columnar substructure, with the total porosity P = 4 %, the hardness HV = 12 GPa, the roughness parameter R a ˜ 6 μm, the thickness 0.3-3 mm. As a sublayer it is used the heat-resistant coating of “Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y” system with an intermetallic phase composition and the layered microstructure of the grains.

  11. Synthesis of Zr2WP2O12/ZrO2 Composites with Adjustable Thermal Expansion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiping; Sun, Weikang; Liu, Hongfei; Xie, Guanhua; Chen, Xiaobing; Zeng, Xianghua

    2017-01-01

    Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 composites were fabricated by solid state reaction with the goal of tailoring the thermal expansion coefficient. XRD, SEM and TMA were used to investigate the composition, microstructure, and thermal expansion behavior of Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 composites with different mass ratio. Relative densities of all the resulting Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 samples were also tested by Archimedes' methods. The obtained Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 composites were comprised of orthorhombic Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 and monoclinic ZrO 2 . As the increase of the Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 , the relative densities of Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 ceramic composites increased gradually. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 composites can be tailored from 4.1 × 10 -6 K -1 to -3.3 × 10 -6 K -1 by changing the content of Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 . The 2:1 Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 /ZrO 2 specimen shows close to zero thermal expansion from 25 to 700°C with an average linear thermal expansion coefficient of -0.09 × 10 -6 K -1 . These adjustable and near zero expansion ceramic composites will have great potential application in many fields.

  12. Schottky barrier SOI-MOSFETs with high-k La2O3/ZrO2 gate dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, C.; Abermann, S.; Bethge, O.; Pozzovivo, G.; Klang, P.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2011-01-01

    Schottky barrier SOI-MOSFETs incorporating a La2O3/ZrO2 high-k dielectric stack deposited by atomic layer deposition are investigated. As the La precursor tris(N,N′-diisopropylformamidinato) lanthanum is used. As a mid-gap metal gate electrode TiN capped with W is applied. Processing parameters are optimized to issue a minimal overall thermal budget and an improved device performance. As a result, the overall thermal load was kept as low as 350, 400 or 500 °C. Excellent drive current properties, low interface trap densities of 1.9 × 1011 eV−1 cm−2, a low subthreshold slope of 70-80 mV/decade, and an ION/IOFF current ratio greater than 2 × 106 are obtained. PMID:21461054

  13. High thermal stability of La 2O 3 and CeO 2-stabilized tetragonal ZrO 2

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Shichao; Xie, Hong; Lin, Yuyuan; ...

    2016-02-15

    Catalyst support materials of tetragonal ZrO 2, stabilized by either La 2O 3 (La 2O 3-ZrO 2) or CeO 2 (CeO 2-ZrO 2), were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C with NH 4OH or tetramethylammonium hydroxide as the mineralizer. From In Situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, the calcined La 2O 3-ZrO 2 and CeO 2-ZrO 2 supports were nonporous nanocrystallites that exhibited rectangular shapes with thermal stability up to 1000 °C in air. These supports had an average size of ~10 nm and a surface area of 59-97 m 2/g. The catalysts Pt/La 2Omore » 3-ZrO 2 and Pt/CeO 2-ZrO 2 were prepared by using atomic layer deposition with varying Pt loadings from 6.3-12.4 wt %. Mono-dispersed Pt nanoparticles of ~3 nm were obtained for these catalysts. As a result, the incorporation of La 2O 3 and CeO 2 into the t-ZrO 2 structure did not affect the nature of the active sites for the Pt/ZrO 2 catalysts for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction.« less

  14. Electrical characteristics of SiO2/ZrO2 hybrid tunnel barrier for charge trap flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeho; Bae, Juhyun; Ahn, Jaeyoung; Hwang, Kihyun; Chung, Ilsub

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrical characteristics of SiO2/ZrO2 hybrid tunnel oxide in metal-Al2O3-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-silicon (MAONOS) structure in an effort to improve program and erase speed as well as retention characteristics. Inserting ZrO2 into the conventional MAONOS structure increased the programmed V th variation to 6.8 V, and increased the erased V th variation to -3.7 V at 17 MV/cm. The results can be understood in terms of reducing the Fowler-Nordheim (F/N) tunneling barrier due to high-k ZrO2 in the tunneling oxide. In addition, Zr diffusion in SiO2 caused the formation of Zr x Si1- x O2 at the interface region, which reduced the energy band gap of SiO2. The retention property of the hybrid tunnel oxide varied depending on the thickness of SiO2. For thin SiO2 less than 30 Å, the retention properties of the tunneling oxides were poor compared with those of the SiO2 only tunneling oxides. However, the hybrid tunneling oxides with SiO2 thickness thicker than 40 Å yielded improved retention behavior compared with those of the SiO2-only tunneling oxides. The detailed analysis in charge density of ZrO2 was carried out by ISPP test. The obtained charge density was quite small compared to that of the total charge density, which indicates that the inserted ZrO2 layer serves as a tunneling material rather than charge storage dielectric.

  15. Sintering, thermal stability and mechanical properties of ZrO2-WC composites obtained by pulsed electric current sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuigen; Vanmeensel, Kim; van der Biest, Omer; Vleugels, Jozef

    2011-03-01

    ZrO2-WC composites exhibit comparable mechanical properties as traditional WC-Co materials, which provides an opportunity to partially replace WC-Co for some applications. In this study, 2 mol.% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 composites with 40 vol.% WC were consolidated in the 1150°C-1850°C range under a pressure of 60 MPa by pulsed electric current sintering (PECS). The densification behavior, microstructure and phase constitution of the composites were investigated to clarify the role of the sintering temperature on the grain growth, mechanical properties and thermal stability of ZrO2 and WC components. Analysis results indicated that the composites sintered at 1350°C and 1450°C exhibited the highest tetragonal ZrO2 phase transformability, maximum toughness, and hardness and an optimal flexural strength. Chemical reaction of ZrO2 and C, originating from the graphite die, was detected in the composite PECS for 20 min at 1850°C in vacuum.

  16. Lu2O3-SiO2-ZrO2 Coatings for Environmental Barrier Application by Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying and Influence of Precursor Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darthout, Émilien; Quet, Aurélie; Braidy, Nadi; Gitzhofer, François

    2014-02-01

    As environmental barrier coatings are subjected to thermal stress in gas turbine engines, the introduction of a secondary phase as zircon (ZrSiO4) is likely to increase the stress resistance of Lu2Si2O7 coatings generated by induction plasma spraying using liquid precursors. In a first step, precursor chemistry effect is investigated by the synthesis of ZrO2-SiO2 nanopowders by induction plasma nanopowder synthesis technique. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon precursor and zirconium oxynitrate and zirconium ethoxide as zirconium precursors are mixed in ethanol and produce a mixture of tetragonal zirconia and amorphous silica nanoparticles. The use of zirconium ethoxide precursor results in zirconia particles with diameter below 50 nm because of exothermic thermal decomposition of the ethoxide and its high boiling point with respect to solvent, while larger particles are formed when zirconium oxynitrate is employed. The formation temperature of zircon from zirconia and silica oxides is found at 1425 °C. Second, coatings are synthesized in Lu2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 system. After heat treatment, the doping effect of lutetium on zirconia grains totally inhibits the zircon formation. Dense coatings are obtained with the use of zirconium ethoxide because denser particles with a homogeneous diameter distribution constitute the coating.

  17. Thermal conductivity of ZrO2-4mol%Y2O3 thin coatings by pulsed thermal imaging method

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Byung-Koog; Sun, Jiangang; Kim, Seongwon

    Thin ZrO2-4mol% Y2O3 coatings were deposited onto ZrO2 substrates by electron beam-physical vapor deposition. The coated samples revealed a feather-like columnar microstructure. The main phase of the ZrO2-4mol% Y2O3 coatings was the tetragonal phase. To evaluate the influence of the coating’s thickness on the thermal conductivity of thin ZrO2-4mol% Y2O3 coatings, the pulsed thermal imaging method was employed to obtain the thermal conductivity of the coating layer in the two-layer (coating and substrate) samples with thickness between 56 and 337 micrometers. The thermal conductivity of the coating layer was successfully evaluated and compared well with those obtained by the lasermore » flash method for similar coatings. The thermal conductivity of coatings shows an increasing tendency with an increase in the coating’s thickness.« less

  18. Ceramic composite separators coated with moisturized ZrO(2) nanoparticles for improving the electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Jae; Kwon, Hyuk Kwon; Park, Min-Sik; Yim, Taeeun; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-05-28

    We introduce a ceramic composite separator prepared by coating moisturized ZrO2 nanoparticles with a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-12wt%HFP) copolymer on a polyethylene separator. The effect of moisturized ZrO2 nanoparticles on the morphology and the microstructure of the polymeric coating layer is investigated. A large number of micropores formed around the embedded ZrO2 nanoparticles in the coating layer as a result of the phase inversion caused by the adsorbed moisture. The formation of micropores highly affects the ionic conductivity and electrolyte uptake of the ceramic composite separator and, by extension, the rate discharge properties of lithium ion batteries. In particular, thermal stability of the ceramic composite separators coated with the highly moisturized ZrO2 nanoparticles (a moisture content of 16 000 ppm) is dramatically improved without any degradation in electrochemical performance compared to the performance of pristine polyethylene separators.

  19. The Composition of Intermediate Products of the Thermal Decomposition of (NH4)2ZrF6 to ZrO2 from Vibrational-Spectroscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, E. I.; Didenko, N. A.; Gaivoronskaya, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal decomposition of (NH4)2ZrF6 resulting in ZrO2 formation within the temperature range of 20°-750°C has been investigated by means of thermal and X-ray diffraction analysis and IR and Raman spectroscopy. It has been established that thermolysis proceeds in six stages. The vibrational-spectroscopy data for the intermediate products of thermal decomposition have been obtained, systematized, and summarized.

  20. A thermal study on the structural changes of bimetallic ZrO2-modified TiO2 nanotubes synthesized using supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Lucky, R A; Charpentier, P A

    2009-05-13

    In this study the thermal behavior of bimetallic ZrO(2)-TiO(2) (10/90 mol/mol) nanotubes are discussed which were synthesized via a sol-gel process in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)). The effects of calcination temperature on the morphology, phase structure, mean crystallite size, specific surface area and pore volume of the nanotubes were investigated by using a variety of physiochemical techniques. We report that SEM and TEM images showed that the nanotubular structure was preserved at up to 800 degrees C calcination temperature. When exposed to higher temperatures (900-1000 degrees C) the ZrO(2)-TiO(2) tubes deformed and the crystallites fused together, forming larger crystallites, and a bimetallic ZrTiO(4) species was detected. These results were further examined using TGA, FTIR, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The BET textural properties demonstrated that the presence of a small amount of Zr in the TiO(2) matrix inhibited the grain growth, stabilized the anatase phase and increased the thermal stability.

  1. A composite material with CeO2-ZrO2 nanocrystallines embedded in SiO2 matrices and its enhanced thermal stability and oxygen storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Runnong; Liu, Yumei; Yu, Lin; Zhao, Xiangyun; Yang, Xiaobo; Sun, Ming; Luo, Junyin; Fan, Qun; Xiao, Jianming; Zhao, Yuzhong

    2018-06-01

    A simple hydrothermal procedure is introduced, which leads to the successful synthesis of a new composite material with fine CeO2-ZrO2 nanocrystallites embedded in amorphous and porous SiO2 matrices. The composite material possesses an extraordinary high thermal stability. After being calcined at 1000 °C, it retains CeO2-ZrO2 nanocrystallites of the size around 5 nm, a BET-specific surface area of 165 m2/g, and an oxygen storage capacity of 468 μmol/g. No phase segregation for CeO2-ZrO2 nanocrystallites is detected and the SiO2 matrices remain not crystallized. The composite material shows a great potential as a support of three-way catalyst, as evidenced in catalytic tests with supported Pt.

  2. Sintering and Creep Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia and Hafnia Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The sintering and creep of plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings under high temperature conditions are complex phenomena. Changes in thermomechanical and thermophysical properties and in the stress response of these coating systems as a result of the sintering and creep processes are detrimental to coating thermal fatigue resistance and performance. In this paper, the sintering characteristics of ZrO2-8wt%y2O3, ZrO2-25wt%CeO2-2.5wt%Y2O3, ZrO2-6w%NiO- 9wt%Y2O3, ZrO2-6wt%Sc2O3-2wt%y2O3 and HfO2-27wt%y2O3 coating materials were investigated using dilatometry. It was found that the HfO2-Y2O3 and baseline ZrO2-Y2O3 exhibited the best sintering resistance, while the NiO-doped ZrO2-Y2O3 showed the highest shrinkage strain rates during the tests. Higher shrinkage strain rates of the coating materials were also observed when the specimens were tested in Ar+5%H2 as compared to in air. This phenomenon was attributed to an enhanced metal cation interstitial diffusion mechanism under the reducing conditions. It is proposed that increased chemical stability of coating materials will improve the material sintering resistance.

  3. Vacuum application of thermal barrier plasma coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Mckechnie, T. N.

    1988-01-01

    Coatings are presently applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine blades for protection against the harsh environment realized in the engine during lift off-to-orbit. High performance nickel, chromium, aluminum, and yttrium (NiCrAlY) alloy coatings, which are applied by atmospheric plasma spraying, crack and spall off because of the severe thermal shock experienced during start-up and shut-down of the engine. Ceramic coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-Y2O3) were applied initially as a thermal barrier over coating to the NiCrAlY but were removed because of even greater spalling. Utilizing a vacuum plasma spraying process, bond coatings of NiCrAlY were applied in a low pressure atmosphere of argon/helium, producing significantly improved coating-to-blade bonding. The improved coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles, cycling between 1700 and -423 F. The current atmospheric plasma NiCrAlY coatings spalled during 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2-Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the vacuum plasma process. The improved thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles without spalling. Hot firing in an SSME turbine engine is scheduled for the blades. Tooling was installed in preparation for vacuum plasma spray coating other SSME hardware, e.g., the titanium main fuel valve housing (MFVH) and the fuel turbopump nozzle/stator.

  4. Electronic structural studies on the improved thermal stability of Li(Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05)O2 by ZrO2 coating for lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; ...

    2017-03-21

    The electronic structures of bare and ZrO 2-coated Li(Ni 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05)O 2 electrode systems were investigated using a combination of time-resolved X-ray diffraction and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques. The ZrO 2 coating on the surface of Li(Ni 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05)O 2 was effective in elevating the onset temperature of the dissociation of charged Li 0.33(Ni 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05)O 2, which will enhance the safety of Li-ion cells. Lastly, soft XAS spectra of the Ni LII,III-edge in the partial electron yield mode were obtained, which showed that the enhanced electrochemical properties and thermal stability of the cathode materialsmore » by ZrO 2 coating can be attributed to the suppression of unwanted Ni oxidation state changes at the surface.« less

  5. Creep Resistance of ZrO2 Ceramic Improved by the Addition of a Small Amount of Er2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Julian; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2003-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) has great technological importance in structural, electrical, and chemical applications. It is the crucial component for state-of-the art thermal barrier coatings and an enabling component as a solid electrolyte for solid-oxide fuel cell systems. Pure ZrO2 is of limited use for industrial applications because of the phase transformations that occur. Upon the addition of stabilizers, cubic (c-ZrO2) and tetragonal (t-ZrO2) forms can be preserved. It is the stabilized and partially stabilized forms of zirconia that function as thermal barrier coatings, solid electrolytes, and oxygen sensors and that have numerous applications in the electrochemical industry. The cubic form of ZrO2 is typically stabilized through Y2O3 additions. However, Y2O3-stabilized zirconia is susceptible to deformation at high temperatures (greater than 900 C) because of the large number of slip systems and the high oxygen diffusion rates, which result in high creep rates at high temperatures. Successful use of ZrO2 at high temperatures requires that new dopant additives be found that will retain or enhance the desirable properties of cubic ZrO2 and yet produce a material with lower creep rates. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, erbium oxide (Er2O3) was identified as a promising dopant for improving the creep resistance of. ZrO2. The selection of Er2O3 was based on the strong interactions of point defects and dislocations. Single crystals of 5 mol% Er2O3- doped ZrO2 rods (4 mm in diameter) and monofilaments (200 to 300 mm in diameter and 30 cm long) were grown using the laser-heated float zone technique, and their creep behavior was measured as a function of temperature. The addition of 5 mol% Er2O3 to single-crystal ZrO2 improved its creep resistance at high temperatures by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over state-of-the-art Y2O3-doped crystals. Detailed microstructural characterization of ZrO2-Er2O3 single crystals has identified new mechanisms for improving the creep resistance

  6. Performance of thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings were exposed to the high temperature and high heat flux produced by a 30 kW plasma torch. Analysis of the specimen heating rates indicates that the temperature drop across the thickness of the 0.038 cm ceramic layer was about 1100 C after 0.5 sec in the flame. An as-sprayed ZrO2-8%Y2O3 specimens survived 3000 of the 0.5 sec cycles with failing. Surface spalling was observed when 2.5 sec cycles were employed but this was attributed to uneven heating caused by surface roughness. This surface spalling was prevented by smoothing the surface with silicon carbide paper or by laser glazing. A coated specimen with no surface modification but which was heat treated in argon also did not surface spall. Heat treatment in air led to spalling in as early as 2 cycle from heating stresses. Failures at edges were investigated and shown to be a minor source of concern. Ceramic coatings formed from ZrO2-12%Y2O3 or ZrO2-20%Y2O3 were shown to be unsuited for use under the high heat flux conditions of this study.

  7. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  8. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  9. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first report of the first phase of a 3-year program. Its objectives are to determine the predominant modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system, then to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The first task (Task I) is to determine the major failure mechanisms. Presently, bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep are being evaluated as potential TBC failure mechanisms. The baseline TBC system consists of an air plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 top coat, a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, and a Rene'80 substrate. Pre-exposures in air and argon combined with thermal cycle tests in air and argon are being utilized to evaluate bond coat oxidation as a failure mechanism. Unexpectedly, the specimens pre-exposed in argon failed before the specimens pre-exposed in air in subsequent thermal cycles testing in air. Four bond coats with different creep strengths are being utilized to evaluate the effect of bond coat creep on TBC degradation. These bond coats received an aluminide overcoat prior to application of the top coat to reduce the differences in bond coat oxidation behavior. Thermal cycle testing has been initiated. Methods have been selected for measuring tensile strength, Poisson's ratio, dynamic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion both of the bond coat and top coat layers.

  10. Performance Evaluation and Modeling of Erosion Resistant Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to the rotorcraft engine performance and durability. The objective of this work was to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments, thus validating a new thermal barrier coating turbine blade technology for future rotorcraft applications. A high velocity burner rig based erosion test approach was established and a new series of rare earth oxide- and TiO2/Ta2O5- alloyed, ZrO2-based low conductivity thermal barrier coatings were designed and processed. The low conductivity thermal barrier coating systems demonstrated significant improvements in the erosion resistance. A comprehensive model based on accumulated strain damage low cycle fatigue is formulated for blade erosion life prediction. The work is currently aiming at the simulated engine erosion testing of advanced thermal barrier coated turbine blades to establish and validate the coating life prediction models.

  11. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  12. Thermal barriers for compartments

    DOEpatents

    Kreutzer, Cory J.; Lustbader, Jason A.

    2017-10-17

    An aspect of the present disclosure is a thermal barrier that includes a core layer having a first surface, a second surface, and a first edge, and a first outer layer that includes a third surface and a second edge, where the third surface substantially contacts the first surface, the core layer is configured to minimize conductive heat transfer through the barrier, and the first outer layer is configured to maximize reflection of light away from the barrier.

  13. Thermal modelling of various thermal barrier coatings in a high heat flux rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Traditional Air Plasma Sprayed (APS) ZrO2-Y2O3 Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC's) and Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed (LPPS) ZrO2-Y2O3/Ni-Cr-Al-Y cermet coatings were tested in a H2/O2 rocked engine. The traditional ZrO2-Y2O3 (TBC's) showed considerable metal temperature reductions during testing in the hydrogen-rich environment. A thermal model was developed to predict the thermal response of the tubes with the various coatings. Good agreement was observed between predicted temperatures and measured temperatures at the inner wall of the tube and in the metal near the coating/metal interface. The thermal model was also used to examine the effect of the differences in the reported values of the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramic coatings, the effect of 100 micron (0.004 in.) thick metallic bond coat, the effect of tangential heat transfer around the tube, and the effect or radiation from the surface of the ceramic coating. It was shown that for the short duration testing in the rocket engine, the most important of these considerations was the effect of the uncertainty in the thermal conductivity of temperatures (greater than 100 C) predicted in the tube. The thermal model was also used to predict the thermal response of the coated rod in order to quantify the difference in the metal temperatures between the two substrate geometries and to explain the previously-observed increased life of coatings on rods over that on tubes. A thermal model was also developed to predict heat transfer to the leading edge of High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) blades during start-up of the space shuttle main engines. The ability of various TBC's to reduce metal temperatures during the two thermal excursions occurring on start-up was predicted. Temperature reductions of 150 to 470 C were predicted for 165 micron (0.0065 in.) coatings for the greater of the two thermal excursions.

  14. Improving oxidation resistance and thermal insulation of thermal barrier coatings by intense pulsed electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Xianxiu; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Cunxia; Wang, Younian; Dong, Chuang

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, intense pulsed electron beam was used for the irradiation treatment of 6-8% Y2O3-stablized ZrO2 thermal barrier coating prepared by electron beam-physical vapor deposition to achieve the "sealing" of columnar crystals, thus improving their thermal insulation properties and high temperature oxidation resistance. The electron beam parameters used were: pulse duration 200 μs, electron voltage 15 kV, energy density 3, 5, 8, 15, 20 J/cm2, and pulsed numbers 30. 1050 °C cyclic oxidation and static oxidation experiments were used for the research on oxidation resistance of the coatings. When the energy density of the electron beam was larger than 8 J/cm2, ZrO2 ceramic coating surface was fully re-melted and became smooth, dense and shiny. The coating changed into a smooth polycrystalline structure, thus achieving the "sealing" effect of the columnar crystals. After irradiations with the energy density of 8-15 J/cm2, the thermally grown oxide coating thickness decreased significantly in comparison with non-irradiated coatings, showing that the re-melted coating improved the oxidation resistance of the coatings. The results of thermal diffusivity test by laser flash method showed that the thermal diffusion rate of the irradiated coating was lower than that of the coating without irradiation treatment, and the thermal insulation performance of irradiated coating was improved.

  15. Rocket thrust chamber thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batakis, A. P.; Vogan, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to generate data and develop analytical techniques to predict the performance and reliability of ceramic thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments. A finite element model was used to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of coating systems in rocket thrust chambers. Candidate coating systems (using a copper substrate, NiCrAlY bond coat and ZrO2.8Y2O3 ceramic overcoat) were selected for detailed study based on photomicrographic evaluations of experimental test specimens. The effects of plasma spray application parameters on the material properties of these coatings were measured and the effects on coating performance evaluated using the finite element model. Coating design curves which define acceptable operating envelopes for seleted coating systems were constructed based on temperature and strain limitations. Spray gun power levels was found to have the most significant effect on coating structure. Three coating systems were selected for study using different power levels. Thermal conductivity, strain tolerance, density, and residual stress were measured for these coatings. Analyses indicated that extremely thin coatings ( 0.02 mm) are required to accommodate the high heat flux of a rocket thrust chamber and ensure structural integrity.

  16. Two-layer thermal barrier coating for turbine airfoils - furnace and burner rig test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, two-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system was developed which has the potential for protecting high temperature air-cooled gas turbine components. Of those coatings initially examined, the most promising system consisted of a Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.6Y (in wt%) thermal barrier coating (about 0.005 to 0.010 cm thick) and a ZrO2-12Y2O3 (in wt%) thermal barrier coating (about 0.025 to 0.064 cm thick). This thermal barrier substantially lowered the metal temperature of an air-cooled airfoil. The coating withstood 3,200 cycles (80 sec at 1,280 C surface temperature) and 275 cycles (1 hr at 1,490 C surface temperature) without cracking or spalling. No separation of the thermal barrier from the bond coating or the bond coating from the substrate was observed.

  17. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  18. The Lattice and Thermal Radiation Conductivity of Thermal Barrier Coatings: Models and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Spuckler, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The lattice and radiation conductivity of ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was evaluated using a laser heat flux approach. A diffusion model has been established to correlate the coating apparent thermal conductivity to the lattice and radiation conductivity. The radiation conductivity component can be expressed as a function of temperature, coating material scattering, and absorption properties. High temperature scattering and absorption of the coating systems can be also derived based on the testing results using the modeling approach. A comparison has been made for the gray and nongray coating models in the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings. The model prediction is found to have a good agreement with experimental observations.

  19. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Damage Progression in Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Cyclic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew; Zhu, Dongming; Morscher, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Damage evolution of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EBVD-PVD) ZrO2-7 wt.% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under thermal cyclic conditions was monitored using an acoustic emission (AE) technique. The coatings were heated using a laser heat flux technique that yields a high reproducibility in thermal loading. Along with AE, real-time thermal conductivity measurements were also taken using infrared thermography. Tests were performed on samples with induced stress concentrations, as well as calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) exposure, for comparison of damage mechanisms and AE response to the baseline (as-produced) coating. Analysis of acoustic waveforms was used to investigate damage development by comparing when events occurred, AE event frequency, energy content and location. The test results have shown that AE accumulation correlates well with thermal conductivity changes and that AE waveform analysis could be a valuable tool for monitoring coating degradation and provide insight on specific damage mechanisms.

  20. Thermal barrier coating

    DOEpatents

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles; Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  1. Intermixing and thermal oxidation of ZrO2 thin films grown on a-Si, SiN, and SiO2 by metallic and oxidic mode magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Sturm, J. M.; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2017-03-01

    The initial growth of DC sputtered ZrO2 on top of a-Si, SiN, and SiO2 layers has been studied by in vacuo high-sensitivity low energy ion scattering for two gas deposition conditions with different oxygen contents (high-O and low-O conditions). This unique surface sensitive technique allowed the determination of surface composition and thicknesses required to close the ZrO2 layer on all three substrates for both conditions. The ZrO2 layer closes similarly on all substrates due to more favorable enthalpies of formation for ZrO2 and ZrSiO4, resulting in passivation of the Si from the substrate. However, this layer closes at about half of the thickness (˜1.7 nm) for low-O conditions due to less oxidative conditions and less energetic particles arriving at the sample, which leads to less intermixing via silicate formation. In contrast, for high-O conditions, there is more ZrSiO4 and/or SiOx formation, giving more intermixing (˜3.4 nm). In vacuo X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed similar stoichiometric ZrO2 layers deposited by both conditions and a higher interaction of the ZrO2 layer with the underlying a-Si for high-O conditions. In addition, oxygen diffusion through low-O ZrO2 films on a-Si has been investigated by ex situ angular-resolved XPS of samples annealed in atmospheric oxygen. For temperatures below 400 °C, no additional oxidation of the underlying a-Si was observed. This, together with the amorphous nature and smoothness of these samples, makes ZrO2 a good candidate as an oxidation protective layer on top of a-Si.

  2. Development and Fatigue Testing of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. Durability of the coating systems remains a critical issue with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Thermal conductivity increase and coating degradation due to sintering and phase changes are known to be detrimental to coating performance. There is a need to characterize the coating thermal fatigue behavior and temperature limit, in order to potentially take full advantage of the current coating capability. In this study, thermal conductivity and cyclic fatigue behaviors of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings were evaluated under high temperature, large thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. The coating degradation and failure processes were assessed by real-time monitoring of the coating thermal conductivity under the test conditions. The ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation driving forces and failure modes under the cyclic thermal loads will be discussed in light of the high temperature mechanical fatigue and fracture testing results.

  3. Evaluation of Oxidation Damage in Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A method based on the technique of dilatometry has been established to quantitatively evaluate the interfacial damage due to the oxidation in a thermal barrier coating system. Strain isolation and adhesion coefficients have been proposed to characterize the thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance based on its thermal expansion behavior. It has been found that, for a thermal barrier coating system consisting of ZrO2-8%Y2O3/FeCrAlY/4140 steel substrate, the oxidation of the bond coat and substrate significantly reduced the ceramic coating adherence, as inferred from the dilatometry measurements. The in-situ thermal expansion measurements under 30 deg C to 700 deg C thermal cycling in air showed that the adhesion coefficient, A(sub i) decreased by 25% during the first 35 oxidation cycles. Metallography showed that delamination occurred at both the ceramic/bond coat and bond coat/substrate interfaces. In addition, the strain isolation effect has been improved by increasing the FeCrAlY bond coat thickness. The strain isolation coefficient, Si, increased from about 0.04 to 0.25, as the bond coat thickness changed from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm. It may be possible to design optimum values of strain isolation and interface adhesion coefficients to achieve the best TBC performance.

  4. Highly Stable Sr-Free Cobaltite-Based Perovskite Cathodes Directly Assembled on a Barrier-Layer-Free Y2 O3 -ZrO2 Electrolyte of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Ai, Na; Li, Na; Rickard, William D A; Cheng, Yi; Chen, Kongfa; Jiang, San Ping

    2017-03-09

    Direct assembly is a newly developed technique in which a cobaltite-based perovskite (CBP) cathode can be directly applied to a barrier-layer-free Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 (YSZ) electrolyte with no high-temperature pre-sintering steps. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on directly assembled CBPs such as La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3-δ show high performance initially but degrade rapidly under SOFC operation conditions at 750 °C owing to Sr segregation and accumulation at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Herein, the performance and interface of Sr-free CBPs such as LaCoO 3-δ (LC) and Sm 0.95 CoO 3-δ (SmC) and their composite cathodes directly assembled on YSZ electrolyte was studied systematically. The LC electrode underwent performance degradation, most likely owing to cation demixing and accumulation of La on the YSZ electrolyte under polarization at 500 mA cm -2 and 750 °C. However, the performance and stability of LC electrodes could be substantially enhanced by the formation of LC-gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) composite cathodes. Replacement of La by Sm increased the cell stability, and doping of 5 % Pd to form Sm 0.95 Co 0.95 Pd 0.05 O 3-δ (SmCPd) significantly improved the electrode activity. An anode-supported YSZ-electrolyte cell with a directly assembled SmCPd-GDC composite electrode exhibited a peak power density of 1.4 W cm -2 at 750 °C, and an excellent stability at 750 °C for over 240 h. The higher stability of SmC as compared to that of LC is most likely a result of the lower reactivity of SmC with YSZ. This study demonstrates the new opportunities in the design and development of intermediate-temperature SOFCs based on the directly assembled high-performance and durable Sr-free CBP cathodes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Development and Testing of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. Durability of the coating systems remains a critical issue with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Thermal conductivity increase and coating degradation due to sintering and phase changes are known to be detrimental to coating performance. There is a need to characterize the coating behavior and temperature limits, in order to potentially take full advantage of the current coating capability, and also accurately assess the benefit gained from advanced coating development. In this study, thermal conductivity behavior and cyclic durability of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings were evaluated under laser heat-flux simulated high temperature, large thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. The coating degradation and failure processes were assessed by real-time monitoring of the coating thermal conductivity under the test conditions. The ceramic coating crack propagation driving forces and resulting failure modes will be discussed in light of high temperature mechanical fatigue and fracture testing results.

  6. Thermal barrier skylight

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, P.A.

    1984-08-21

    The skylight may be of the domed-type or flat-type and of single or double glass (acrylic or other transparent or translucent plastic) construction. The skylight fits within an opening in a roof or the like and has a peripheral base that may be constructed of a metal material such as aluminum, and which is fixed to the roof about the opening. The base comprises inner and outer base frames separated by a thermal break, a peripheral curb frame disposed over the base, and a retainer for securing the skylight cover over the curb frame. The curb frame or support framemore » has inner and outer sections connected by a heat insulating thermal barrier. The curb frame is constructed by welding at the corners of the support frame but eliminating the welding in the area of the thermal barrier thus alleviating a caulking operation at the top and the bottom of the curb frame. The base frame and curb frame have therebetween a compliant sealing means extending contiguously about and overlying the base frame and for sealing between the base frame and support frame.« less

  7. Thermoluminescence (TL) of europium-doped ZrO2 obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, T.; Furetta, C.; Azorín, J.; Barrera, M.; Soto, A. M.

    This article reports the preparation and characterization of europium-doped zirconium oxide (ZrO2:Eu3+) formed by homogeneous precipitation from propoxyde of zirconium [Zr(OC3H7)4]. The alkoxide sol gel process is an efficient method to prepare the zirconium oxide matrix by the hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors followed by condensation to yield a polymeric oxo-bridged ZrO2 network. All compounds were characterized by thermal analysis and the X-ray diffractometry method. The thermoluminescence (TL) emission properties of ZrO2:Eu3+ under beta radiation effects are studied. The europium-doped sintered zirconia powder presents a TL glow curve with two peaks (Tmax) centered at around 204 and around 292 °C, respectively. TL response of ZrO2:Eu3+ as a function of beta-absorbed dose was linear from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The europium ion (Eu3+)-doped ZrO2 was found to be more sensitive to beta radiation than undoped ZrO2 obtained by the same method and presented a little fading of the TL signal compared with undoped zirconium oxide.

  8. Damage Accumulation and Failure of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradient Cyclic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, rober A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. A fundamental understanding of the sintering and thermal cycling induced delamination of thermal barrier coating systems under engine-like heat flux conditions will potentially help to improve the coating temperature capability. In this study, a test approach is established to emphasize the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which can initially increase under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later decrease under the thermal gradient cyclic test due to coating cracking and delamination. Thermal conductivity prediction models have been established for a ZrO2-(7- 8wt%)Y2O3 model coating system in terms of heat flux, time, and testing temperatures. The coating delamination accumulation is then assessed based on the observed thermal conductivity response under the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The coating thermal gradient cycling associated delaminations and failure mechanisms under simulated engine heat-flux conditions will be discussed in conjunction with the coating sintering and fracture testing results.

  9. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.; Mcknight, R. L.; Cook, T. S.; Hartle, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work performed to determine the predominat modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system and to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The primary TBC system consisted of a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, an air plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 top coat, and a Rene' 80 substrate. The work was divided into 3 technical tasks. The primary failure mode to be addressed was loss of the zirconia layer through spalling. Experiments showed that oxidation of the bond coat is a significant contributor to coating failure. It was evident from the test results that the species of oxide scale initially formed on the bond coat plays a role in coating degradation and failure. It was also shown that elevated temperature creep of the bond coat plays a role in coating failure. An empirical model was developed for predicting the test life of specimens with selected coating, specimen, and test condition variations. In the second task, a coating life prediction model was developed based on the data from Task 1 experiments, results from thermomechanical experiments performed as part of Task 2, and finite element analyses of the TBC system during thermal cycles. The third and final task attempted to verify the validity of the model developed in Task 2. This was done by using the model to predict the test lives of several coating variations and specimen geometries, then comparing these predicted lives to experimentally determined test lives. It was found that the model correctly predicts trends, but that additional refinement is needed to accurately predict coating life.

  10. Thermal Cyclic Behavior of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Investigated Under High-Heat-Flux Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) have been developed to protect silicon-carbide- (SiC) based ceramic components in gas turbine engines from high-temperature environmental attack. With continuously increasing demands for significantly higher engine operating temperature, future EBC systems must be designed for both thermal and environmental protection of the engine components in combustion gases. In particular, the thermal barrier functions of EBC's become a necessity for reducing the engine-component thermal loads and chemical reaction rates, thus maintaining the required mechanical properties and durability of these components. Advances in the development of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TBC's and EBC's, respectively) will directly impact the successful use of ceramic components in advanced engines. To develop high-performance coating systems, researchers must establish advanced test approaches. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux technique was employed to investigate the thermal cyclic behavior of TBC's and EBC's on SiC-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates (SiC/SiC) under high thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. Because the laser heat flux test approach can monitor the coating's real-time thermal conductivity variations at high temperature, the coating thermal insulation performance, sintering, and delamination can all be obtained during thermal cycling tests. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3) thermal barrier and barium strontium aluminosilicate-based environmental barrier coatings (BSAS/BSAS+mullite/Si) on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated in this study. These coatings were laser tested in air under thermal gradients (the surface and interface temperatures were approximately 1482 and 1300 C, respectively). Some coating specimens were also subject to alternating furnace cycling (in a 90-percent water vapor environment at 1300 C) and laser thermal gradient cycling tests

  11. Thermal Modelling of Various Thermal Barrier Coatings in a High Flux Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A thermal model was developed to predict the thermal response of coated and uncoated tubes tested in a H2/O2 rocket engine. Temperatures were predicted for traditional APS ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings, as well as APS and LPPS ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY cermet coatings. Good agreement was observed between predicted and measured metal temperatures at locations near the tube surface or at the inner tube wall. The thermal model was also used to quantitatively examine the effect of various coating system parameters on the temperatures in the substrate and coating. Accordingly, the effect of the presence a metallic bond coat and the effect of radiation from the surface of the ceramic layer were examined. In addition, the effect of a variation in the values of the thermal conductivity of the ceramic layer was also investigated. It was shown that a variation in the thermal conductivity of the ceramic layer, on the order of that reported in the literature for plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings, can result in temperature differences in the substrate greater than 100 C, a much greater effect than that due to the presence of a bond coat or radiation from the ceramic layer. The thermal model was also used to predict the thermal response of a coated rod in order to quantify the difference in the metal temperatures between the two substrate geometries in order to explain the previously-observed increased life of coatings on rods over that on tubes. It was shown that for the short duration testing in the rocket engine, the temperature in a tube could exceed that in a rod by more than 100 C. Lastly, a two-dimensional model was developed to evaluate the effect of tangential heat transfer around the tube and its impact on reducing the stagnation point temperature. It was also shown that tangential heat transfer does not significantly reduce the stagnation point temperature, thus allowing application of a simpler, one-dimensional model for comparing measured and predicted stagnation point

  12. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne [Pittsburg, PA

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  13. Mixed Mode Fracture of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings: Effects of Anisotropy and Heterogeneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis L.

    2008-01-01

    The combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of anisotropic ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of KI/KII were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the microsplat coating material was modeled using Finite Element approach to account for anisotropy and micro cracked structures, and predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  14. Residual Stresses Modeled in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freborg, A. M.; Ferguson, B. L.; Petrus, G. J.; Brindley, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications continue to increase as the need for greater engine efficiency in aircraft and land-based gas turbines increases. However, durability and reliability issues limit the benefits that can be derived from TBC's. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms that cause TBC failure is a key to increasing, as well as predicting, TBC durability. Oxidation of the bond coat has been repeatedly identified as one of the major factors affecting the durability of the ceramic top coat during service. However, the mechanisms by which oxidation facilitates TBC failure are poorly understood and require further characterization. In addition, researchers have suspected that other bond coat and top coat factors might influence TBC thermal fatigue life, both separately and through interactions with the mechanism of oxidation. These other factors include the bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion, the bond coat roughness, and the creep behavior of both the ceramic and bond coat layers. Although it is difficult to design an experiment to examine these factors unambiguously, it is possible to design a computer modeling "experiment" to examine the action and interaction of these factors, as well as to determine failure drivers for TBC's. Previous computer models have examined some of these factors separately to determine their effect on coating residual stresses, but none have examined all the factors concurrently. The purpose of this research, which was performed at DCT, Inc., in contract with the NASA Lewis Research Center, was to develop an inclusive finite element model to characterize the effects of oxidation on the residual stresses within the TBC system during thermal cycling as well as to examine the interaction of oxidation with the other factors affecting TBC life. The plasma sprayed, two-layer thermal barrier coating that was modeled incorporated a superalloy substrate, a NiCrAlY bond coat, and a ZrO2-8 wt % Y2O3 ceramic top coat. We

  15. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  16. Surface Cracking and Interface Reaction Associated Delamination Failure of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, surface cracking and interface reactions of a BSAS coating and a multi-layer ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS/Si thermal and environmental barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were characterized after long-term combined laser thermal gradient and furnace cyclic tests in a water vapor containing environment. The surface cracking was analyzed based on the coating thermal gradient sintering behavior and thermal expansion mismatch stress characteristics under the thermal cyclic conditions. The interface reactions, which were largely enhanced by the coating surface cracking in the water vapor environment, were investigated in detail, and the reaction phases were identified for the coating system after the long-term exposure. The accelerated coating delamination failure was attributed to the increased delamination driving force under the thermal gradient cyclic loading and the reduced interface adhesion due to the detrimental interface reactions.

  17. Investigation of Thermal High Cycle and Low Cycle Fatigue Mechanisms of Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Thick thermal barrier coating systems in a diesel engine experience severe thermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) during engine operation. In this paper, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in a ZrO2-8wt.% Y2O3 thermal barrier coating, under simulated engine thermal LCF and HCF conditions, are investigated using a high power CO2 laser. Experiments showed that the combined LCF/HCF tests induced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation and accelerated crack growth, as compared to the pure LCF test. Lateral crack branching and the ceramic/bond coat interface delaminations were also facilitated by HCF thermal loads, even in the absence of severe interfacial oxidation. Fatigue damages at crack wake surfaces, due to such phenomena as asperity/debris contact induced cracking and splat pull-out bending during cycling, were observed especially for the combined LCF/HCF tests. It is found that the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures, which induce tensile stresses in the coating after cooling. The failure associated with HCF process, however, is mainly associated with a surface wedging mechanism. The interaction between the LCF, HCF and ceramic coating creep, and the relative importance of LCF and HCF in crack propagation are also discussed based on the experimental evidence.

  18. Thermal Conductivity Change Kinetics of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by the Steady-State Laser Heat Flux Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A steady-state laser heat flux technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to obtain critical thermal conductivity data of ceramic thermal barrier coatings under the temperature and thermal gradients that are realistically expected to be encountered in advanced engine systems. In this study, thermal conductivity change kinetics of a plasma-sprayed, 254-mm-thick ZrO2-8 wt % Y2O3 ceramic coating were obtained at high temperatures. During the testing, the temperature gradients across the coating system were carefully measured by the surface and back pyrometers and an embedded miniature thermocouple in the substrate. The actual heat flux passing through the coating system was determined from the metal substrate temperature drop (measured by the embedded miniature thermocouple and the back pyrometer) combined with one-dimensional heat transfer models.

  19. Miscibility of amorphous ZrO2-Al2O3 binary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Richard, O.; Bender, H.; Caymax, M.; De Gendt, S.; Heyns, M.; Young, E.; Roebben, G.; Van Der Biest, O.; Haukka, S.

    2002-04-01

    Miscibility is a key factor for maintaining the homogeneity of the amorphous structure in a ZrO2-Al2O3 binary alloy high-k dielectric layer. In the present work, a ZrO2/Al2O3 laminate thin layer has been prepared by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition on a Si (100) wafer. This layer, with artificially induced inhomogeneity (lamination), enables one to study the change in homogeneity of the amorphous phase in the ZrO2/Al2O3 system during annealing. High temperature grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) was used to investigate the change in intensity of the constructive interference peak of the x-ray beams which are reflected from the interfaces of ZrO2/Al2O3 laminae. The HT-XRD spectra show that the intensity of the peak decreases with an increase in the anneal temperature, and at 800 °C, the peak disappears. The same samples were annealed by a rapid thermal process (RTP) at temperatures between 700 and 1000 °C for 60 s. Room temperature XRD of the RTP annealed samples shows a similar decrease in peak intensity. Transmission electronic microscope images confirm that the laminate structure is destroyed by RTP anneals and, just below the crystallization onset temperature, a homogeneous amorphous ZrAlxOy phase forms. The results demonstrate that the two artificially separated phases, ZrO2 and Al2O3 laminae, tend to mix into a homogeneous amorphous phase before crystallization. This observation indicates that the thermal stability of ZrO2-Al2O3 amorphous phase is suitable for high-k applications.

  20. Degradation of a two-layer thermal barrier coating under thermal cycling. [for superalloys of aircraft turbine engine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, R. D.; Scheuermann, C. M.; Andrews, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    A two-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating on a directionally solidified nickel-base eutectic alloy substrate was characterized prior to and after thermal cycling to 1095 C in an accelerated furnace test. The coating was comprised of an inner layer of Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y (wt%) bond coat and an outer layer of ZrO2-7.9Y2O3 (wt%) thermal barrier. Characterization of the bond coat revealed that substantial amounts of yttrium and aluminum were oxidized during plasma-spraying in air. The oxidation of these elements reduced the protective capacity of the bond coat so that, on thermal exposure, severe degradation of the bond coat resulted and large amounts of nickel oxide formed. This nickel oxide was demonstrated to grow outward into the thermal barrier, which appears to have increased the stresses in the thermal barrier and contributed to its failure near the thermal barrier-bond coat interface.

  1. Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains papers from the 1997 Thermal Barrier Coatings Workshop, sponsored by the TBC Interagency Coordination Committee. The Workshop was held in Fort Mitchell, Kentucky, May 19-21, 1997. The papers cover the topics of heat transfer and conductivity of thermal barrier coatings, failure mechanisms and characterization of the coatings as well as characterization of coating deposition methods. Speakers included research, development and user groups in academia, industry and government.

  2. Cyclic Failure Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems Under Thermal Gradient Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite+BSAS/Si multilayer thermal and environmental barrier coating (TBC-EBC) systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrates were thermally cyclic tested under high thermal gradients using a laser high-heat-flux rig in conjunction with furnace exposure in water-vapor environments. Coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after exposure. Sintering kinetics of the coating systems were also independently characterized using a dilatometer. It was found that the coating failure involved both the time-temperature dependent sintering and the cycle frequency dependent cyclic fatigue processes. The water vapor environments not only facilitated the initial coating conductivity increases due to enhanced sintering and interface reaction, but also promoted later conductivity reductions due to the accelerated coating cracking and delamination. The failure mechanisms of the coating systems are also discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering and thermal stress behavior under the thermal gradient test conditions.

  3. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor description (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard power or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increase upon being exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicates that if these coatings reach a temperature above

  4. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  5. Amorphization of nanocrystalline monoclinic ZrO2 by swift heavy ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fengyuan; Wang, Jianwei; Lang, Maik; Toulemonde, Marcel; Namavar, Fereydoon; Trautmann, Christina; Zhang, Jiaming; Ewing, Rodney C; Lian, Jie

    2012-09-21

    Bulk ZrO(2) polymorphs generally have an extremely high amorphization tolerance upon low energy ion and swift heavy ion irradiation in which ballistic interaction and ionization radiation dominate the ion-solid interaction, respectively. However, under very high-energy irradiation by 1.33 GeV U-238, nanocrystalline (40-50 nm) monoclinic ZrO(2) can be amorphized. A computational simulation based on a thermal spike model reveals that the strong ionizing radiation from swift heavy ions with a very high electronic energy loss of 52.2 keV nm(-1) can induce transient zones with temperatures well above the ZrO(2) melting point. The extreme electronic energy loss, coupled with the high energy state of the nanostructured materials and a high thermal confinement due to the less effective heat transport within the transient hot zone, may eventually be responsible for the ionizing radiation-induced amorphization without transforming to the tetragonal polymorph. The amorphization of nanocrystalline zirconia was also confirmed by 1.69 GeV Au ion irradiation with the electronic energy loss of 40 keV nm(-1). These results suggest that highly radiation tolerant materials in bulk forms, such as ZrO(2), may be radiation sensitive with the reduced length scale down to the nano-metered regime upon irradiation above a threshold value of electronic energy loss.

  6. Industry tests of NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating. [for gas turbine engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Stepka, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) system was tested by industrial and governmental organizations for a variety of aeronautical, marine, and ground-based gas turbine engine applications. This TBC is a two-layer system with a bond coating of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.6Y, in wt. percent) and a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-12Y2O3, in wt. percent). Seven tests evaluated the system's thermal protection and durability. Five other tests determined thermal conductivity, vibratory fatigue characteristics, and corrosion resistance of the system. The information presented includes test results and photographs of the coated parts. Recommendations are made for improving the coating procedures.

  7. Tests of NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating for gas-turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    A NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) system was tested by industrial and governmental organizations for a variety of aeronautical marine, and ground-based gas-turbine engine applications. This TBC is a two-layer system with a bond coating of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.6Y, in wt %) and a ceramic coating of yttria stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-12Y2O3, in wt %). Tests (Liebert and Stenka, 1979) have been conducted to determine corrosion resistance, thermal protection, durability, thermal conductivity, and fatigue characteristics. The information presented covers some of the significant test results obtained on the first three items. The information also includes photographs of coated parts after tests, measurements of coating loss, amount of metal wall temperature reduction when the TBC is used, and extent of base metal corrosion.

  8. Degradation Of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBC) Due To Chemical and Thermal Expansion Incompatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; King, Deboran (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) consist of multiple layers, with each layer having unique properties to meet the various requirements for successful EBCs. As a result, chemical and thermal expansion compatibility between layers becomes an important issue to maintaining durability. Key constituents in current EBCs are mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2), BSAS (BaO(1-x)-SrO(x)-Al2O3-2SiO2), and YSZ (ZrO2-8 wt.% Y2O3). The mullite-BSAS combination appears benign although significant diffusion occurs. Mullite-YSZ and BSAS-YSZ combinations do not react up to 1500 C. Thermally grown SiO2- BSAS and mullite-BSAS-YSZ combinations are most detrimental, forming low melting glasses. Thermal expansion mismatch between YSZ and mullite or BSAS causes severe cracking and delamination.

  9. Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Modulus Evolution of Thermal Barrier Coatings under High Heat Flux Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Laser high heat flux test approaches have been established to obtain critical properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under near-realistic temperature and thermal gradients that may he encountered in advanced engine systems. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of a thin ceramic coating were continuously monitored in real time at various test temperatures. A significant thermal conductivity increase was observed during the laser simulated engine heat flux tests. For a 0.25 mm thick ZrO2-8%Y2O3 coating system, the overall thermal conductivity increased from the initial value of 1.0 W/m-K to 1. 15 W/m-K, 1. 19 W/m-K and 1.5 W/m-K after 30 hour testing at surface temperatures of 990C, 1100C, and 1320C. respectively. Hardness and modulus gradients across a 1.5 mm thick TBC system were also determined as a function of laser testing time using the laser sintering/creep and micro-indentation techniques. The coating Knoop hardness values increased from the initial hardness value of 4 GPa to 5 GPa near the ceramic/bond coat interface, and to 7.5 GPa at the ceramic coating surface after 120 hour testing. The ceramic surface modulus increased from an initial value of about 70 GPa to a final value of 125 GPa. The increase in thermal conductivity and the evolution of significant hardness and modulus gradients in the TBC systems are attributed to sintering-induced micro-porosity gradients under the laser-imposed high thermal gradient conditions. The test techniques provide a viable means for obtaining coating data for use in design, development, stress modeling, and life prediction for various thermal barrier coating applications.

  10. Optical and structural characterization of Ge clusters embedded in ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agocs, E.; Zolnai, Z.; Rossall, A. K.; van den Berg, J. A.; Fodor, B.; Lehninger, D.; Khomenkova, L.; Ponomaryov, S.; Gudymenko, O.; Yukhymchuk, V.; Kalas, B.; Heitmann, J.; Petrik, P.

    2017-11-01

    The change of optical and structural properties of Ge nanoclusters in ZrO2 matrix have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry versus annealing temperatures. Radio-frequency top-down magnetron sputtering approach was used to produce the samples of different types, i.e. single-layers of pure Ge, pure ZrO2 and Ge-rich-ZrO2 as well as multi-layers stacked of 40 periods of 5-nm-Ge-rich-ZrO2 layers alternated by 5-nm-ZrO2 ones. Germanium nanoclusters in ZrO2 host were formed by rapid-thermal annealing at 600-800 °C during 30 s in nitrogen atmosphere. Reference optical properties for pure ZrO2 and pure Ge have been extracted using single-layer samples. As-deposited multi-layer structures can be perfectly modeled using the effective medium theory. However, annealed multi-layers demonstrated a significant diffusion of elements that was confirmed by medium energy ion scattering measurements. This fact prevents fitting of such annealed structure either by homogeneous or by periodic multi-layer models.

  11. Furnace Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Multicomponent Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Nesbitt, James A.; Barrett, Charles A.; McCue, Terry R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will play an increasingly important role in advanced gas turbine engines due to their ability to further increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling, thus helping achieve future engine low emission, high efficiency, and improved reliability goals. Advanced multicomponent zirconia (ZrO2)-based TBCs are being developed using an oxide defect clustering design approach to achieve the required coating low thermal conductivity and high-temperature stability. Although the new composition coatings were not yet optimized for cyclic durability, an initial durability screening of the candidate coating materials was conducted using conventional furnace cyclic oxidation tests. In this paper, furnace cyclic oxidation behavior of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-based defect cluster TBCs was investigated at 1163°C using 45 min hot-time cycles. The ceramic coating failure mechanisms were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with x-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analysis after the furnace tests. The coating cyclic lifetime is also discussed in relation to coating processing, phase structures, dopant concentration, and other thermo-physical properties.

  12. Evaluation of thermal barrier coating systems on novel substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.; Wright, I. G.; Brindley, W. J.

    2000-06-01

    Testing was conducted on both plasma-sprayed (PS) and electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied directly to oxidation-resistant substrates such as β-NiAl, oxide-dispersed FeCrAl, and NiCr. On an alloy that forms a very adherent alumina scale, β-NiAl+Zr, the coating lifetime of YSZ in furnace cyclic tests was 6 or more times longer than on state-of-the-art, YSZ coatings on single-crystal Ni-base superalloys with MCrAlY or Pt aluminide bond coats. Coatings on FeCrAl alloys appear to be a viable option for applications such as the external skin of the X-33, single stage to orbit, reusable launch vehicle. Model chromia-forming bond coat compositions also show promise for power generation applications at temperatures where hot corrosion may be a major problem. In general, while this work examined unique materials systems, many of the same fundamental failure mechanisms observed in conventional TBCs were observed.

  13. Neutron and X-ray diffraction of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Herman, H.; Singhal, S. P.; Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    ZrO2-7.8mol. pct. YO1.5, a fused powder, and ZrO2-8.7mol. pct. YO1.5, a prereacted powder, were plasma-sprayed onto steel substrates. Neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction of the as-received powder, the powder plasma sprayed into water, as-sprayed coatings, and coatings heat-treated for 10 and 100 h were carried out to study phase transformations and ordering of the oxygen ions on the oxygen sublattice. The as-received fused powder has a much lower monoclinic percentage than does the pre-reacted powder, this resulting in a much lower monoclinic percentage in the coating. Heat treatment increases the percentages of the cubic and monoclinic phases, while decreasing the tetragonal content. An ordered tetragonal phase is detected by the presence of extra neutron diffraction peaks. These phase transformations and ordering will result in volume changes. The implications of these transformations on the performance of partially stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings is discussed.

  14. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  15. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  16. Modeling of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, B. L.; Petrus, G. J.; Krauss, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The project examined the effectiveness of studying the creep behavior of thermal barrier coating system through the use of a general purpose, large strain finite element program, NIKE2D. Constitutive models implemented in this code were applied to simulate thermal-elastic and creep behavior. Four separate ceramic-bond coat interface geometries were examined in combination with a variety of constitutive models and material properties. The reason for focusing attention on the ceramic-bond coat interface is that prior studies have shown that cracking occurs in the ceramic near interface features which act as stress concentration points. The model conditions examined include: (1) two bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion curves; (2) the creep coefficient and creep exponent of the bond coat for steady state creep; (3) the interface geometry; and (4) the material model employed to represent the bond coat, ceramic, and superalloy base.

  17. ZrO2 film interfaces with Si and SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, C. M.; Suvorova, N. A.; Irene, E. A.; Suvorova, A. A.; Saunders, M.

    2005-08-01

    The interface formed by the thermal oxidation of sputter-deposited Zr metal onto Si(100)- and SiO2-coated Si(100) wafers was studied in situ and in real time using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the 1.5-4.5 photon energy range and mass spectrometry of recoiled ions (MSRI). SE yielded optical properties for the film and interface and MSRI yielded film and interface composition. An optical model was developed and verified using transmission electron microscopy. Interfacial reaction of the ZrO2 was observed for both substrates, with more interaction for Si substrates. Equivalent oxide thicknesses and interface trap levels were determined on capacitors with lower trap levels found on samples with a thicker SiO2 underlayer. In addition to the optical properties for the intermixed interface layer, the optical properties for Zr metal and unreacted ZrO2 are also reported.

  18. Thermal Gradient Cyclic Behavior of a Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating System on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier and environmental barrier coatings (TBCs and EBCs) will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components in harsh combustion environments. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for effective thermal and environmental protection of the engine components, appropriate test approaches for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, a laser high-heat-flux, thermal gradient approach for testing the coatings will be described. Thermal cyclic behavior of plasma-sprayed coating systems, consisting of ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier and NASA Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) Program developed mullite+BSAS/Si type environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites, was investigated under thermal gradients using the laser heat-flux rig in conjunction with the furnace thermal cyclic tests in water-vapor environments. The coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after the tests. The coating failure mechanisms are discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering, creep, and thermal stress behavior under simulated engine temperature and heat flux conditions.

  19. Strength, Fracture Toughness, Fatigue, and Standardization Issues of Free-standing Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Strength, fracture toughness and fatigue behavior of free-standing thick thermal barrier coatings of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt % Y2O3 were determined at ambient and elevated temperatures in an attempt to establish a database for design. Strength, in conjunction with deformation (stress-strain behavior), was evaluated in tension (uniaxial and trans-thickness), compression, and uniaxial and biaxial flexure; fracture toughness was determined in various load conditions including mode I, mode II, and mixed modes I and II; fatigue or slow crack growth behavior was estimated in cyclic tension and dynamic flexure loading. Effect of sintering was quantified through approaches using strength, fracture toughness, and modulus (constitutive relations) measurements. Standardization issues on test methodology also was presented with a special regard to material's unique constitutive relations.

  20. Burner Rig Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems for Nickel-Base Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedwill, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TECs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems performed best when 0.015-cm thick bond coatings were employed that were sprayed at 20 kW using argon 3.5v/o hydrogen. Cycling had a more life limiting influence on the TBC than accumulated time at 1050 C.

  1. Energy efficient engine, high pressure turbine thermal barrier coating. Support technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duderstadt, E. C.; Agarwal, P.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the work performed on a thermal barrier coating support technology task of the Energy Efficient Engine Component Development Program. A thermal barrier coating (TBC) system consisting of a Ni-Cr-Al-Y bond cost layer and ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramic layer was selected from eight candidate coating systems on the basis of laboratory tests. The selection was based on coating microstructure, crystallographic phase composition, tensile bond and bend test results, erosion and impact test results, furnace exposure, thermal cycle, and high velocity dynamic oxidation test results. Procedures were developed for applying the selected TBC to CF6-50, high pressure turbine blades and vanes. Coated HPT components were tested in three kinds of tests. Stage 1 blades were tested in a cascade cyclic test rig, Stage 2 blades were component high cycle fatigue tested to qualify thermal barrier coated blades for engine testing, and Stage 2 blades and Stage 1 and 2 vanes were run in factory engine tests. After completion of the 1000 cycle engine test, the TBC on the blades was in excellent condition over all of the platform and airfoil except at the leading edge above midspan on the suction side of the airfoil. The coating damage appeared to be caused by particle impingement; adjacent blades without TBC also showed evidence of particle impingement.

  2. Combined Mode I and Mode II Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of ZrO2 - 8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Precracks were introduced in test specimens using the single-edge-v-notched beam (SEVNB) method incorporated with final diamond polishing to achieve sharp crack tips. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of KI/KII were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behaviors of the coating material were compared with those of monolithic advanced ceramics determined previously. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the plasma- sprayed thermal barrier coating material was predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  3. Combined Mode I and Mode II Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of ZrO2- 8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Precracks were introduced in test specimens using the single-edge-v-notched beam (SEVNB) method incorporated with final diamond polishing to achieve sharp crack tips. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of K(sub I)/K(sub II) were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behaviors of the coating material were compared with those of monolithic advanced ceramics determined previously. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating material was predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  4. Phase Stability and Thermal Conductivity of Composite Environmental Barrier Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benkel, Samantha; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    Advanced environmental barrier coatings are being developed to protect SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites in harsh combustion environments. The current coating development emphasis has been placed on the significantly improved cyclic durability and combustion environment stability in high-heat-flux and high velocity gas turbine engine environments. Environmental barrier coating systems based on hafnia (HfO2) and ytterbium silicate, HfO2-Si nano-composite bond coat systems have been processed and their stability and thermal conductivity behavior have been evaluated in simulated turbine environments. The incorporation of Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNT) into high stability (HfO2) and/or HfO2-silicon composite bond coats, along with ZrO2, HfO2 and rare earth silicate composite top coat systems, showed promise as excellent environmental barriers to protect the SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites.

  5. Effect of ZrO2 on the sintering behavior, strength and high-frequency dielectric properties of electrical ceramic porcelain insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Mehta, Niraj; Sahu, Praveen Kumar; Ershad, Md; Saxena, Vipul; Pyare, Ram; Ranjan Majhi, Manas

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of ZrO2 on the sintering, strength and dielectric behavior of electrical ceramic porcelain insulator with substituting alumina content by zirconia (in weight percentage from 0% to 30%) is investigated. The different composition of samples containing different zirconia (ZrO2) contents of 0, 10, 20, and 30 wt% are prepared using the uniaxial pressure technique applying 160 MPa pressure. Further, the prepared samples are also analyzed for sintering temperatures (1350 °C), and effects are observed on mechanical and electric properties of porcelain insulator. Different characterizations such as Dilatometer, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis/thermo gravimetric analysis were used to evaluate the thermal, phase detection, micro structural and weight loss changes by increasing concentration of ZrO2 on base porcelain composition. At 1350 °C, for the composition having 20 wt% ZrO2 with 10 wt% alumina, the maximum density was observed 2.81 g cm-3 with a porosity of 2.23%. The highest tensile strength of 41 ± 3 MPa is observed for the same sample composition. The minimum value of thermal expansion coefficient is found to be in the range of 10-6 for the sample with 30 wt% ZrO2 content sintered at 1350 °C compared to other prepared samples. Similarly, the highest dielectric value (5.1-4.4) having dielectric loss (0.08-0.12) is achieved for the sample with 30 wt% ZrO2 content sintered at 1350 °C in the frequency range of 4-20 GHz at room temperature. According to the mechanical properties, the composition having 20 wt% ZrO2 on base ceramic porcelain composition has enormous potential to serve as a high strength refractory material. For dielectric properties, the composition having 30 wt% ZrO2 is more suitable for the electrical application.

  6. ZrO2/MoS2 heterojunction photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar Vattikuti, Surya Veerendra; Byon, Chan; Reddy, Chandragiri Venkata

    2016-10-01

    We report a simple solution-chemistry approach for the synthesis of ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid photocatalysts, which contain MoS2 as a cocatalyst. The material is usually obtained by a wet chemical method using ZrO(NO3)2 or (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O and C8H6S as precursors. The structural features of obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (TG-DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption, and photoluminescence (PL). The influence on the photocatalytic activity of the MoS2 cocatalyst concentration with ZrO2 nanoparticles was studied. The MZr-2 hybrid sample had the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), which was 8.45 times higher than that of pristine ZrO2 ascribed to high specific surface area and absorbance efficiency. Recycling experiments revealed that the reusability of the MZr-2 hybrid was due to the low photocorrosive effect and good catalytic stability. PL spectra confirmed the electronic interaction between ZrO2 and MoS2. The photoinduced electrons could be easily transferred from CB of ZrO2 to the MoS2 cocatalyst, which facilitate effective charge separation and enhanced the photocatalytic degradation in the UV region. A photocatalytic mechanism is proposed. It is believed that the ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid structure has promise as a photocatalyst with low cost and high efficiency for photoreactions.

  7. Revisiting the Birth of 7YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings: Steve Stecura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Miller, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are widely used in all turbine engines, typically using a 7 wt% Y2O3-ZrO2 formulation. Extensive research and development over many decades have refined the processing and structure of these coatings for increased durability and reliability. New compositions demonstrate some unique advantages and are gaining in application. However, the "7YSZ" formulation predominates and is still in widespread use. This special composition has been universally found to produce nanoscale precipitates of metastable t' tetragonal phase, giving rise to a unique toughening mechanism via ferro-elastic switching under stress. This note recalls the original study that identified superior properties of 6 to 8 wt% YSZ plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, published in 1978. The impact of this discovery, arguably, continues in some form to this day. At one point, 7YSZ thermal barrier coatings were used in every new aircraft and ground power turbine engine produced worldwide. It is a tribute to its inventor, Dr. Stephan J. Stecura, NASA retiree.

  8. Metallic seal for thermal barrier coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is particularly concerned with sealing thermal barrier coating systems of the type in use and being contemplated for use in diesel and other internal combustion engines. The invention also would find application in moderately high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and any other application employing a thermal barrier coating at moderate temperatures. Ni-35Cr-6Al-1Y, Ni-35Cr-6Al-1Yb, or other metallic alloy denoted as MCrAlx is applied over a zirconia-based thermal barrier overlayer. The close-out layer is glass-bead preened to densify its surface. This seals and protects the thermal barrier coating system.

  9. Rocket Motor Joint Construction Including Thermal Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal barrier for extremely high temperature applications consists of a carbon fiber core and one or more layers of braided carbon fibers surrounding the core. The thermal barrier is preferably a large diameter ring, having a relatively small cross-section. The thermal barrier is particularly suited for use as part of a joint structure in solid rocket motor casings to protect low temperature elements such as the primary and secondary elastomeric O-ring seals therein from high temperature gases of the rocket motor. The thermal barrier exhibits adequate porosity to allow pressure to reach the radially outward disposed O-ring seals allowing them to seat and perform the primary sealing function. The thermal barrier is disposed in a cavity or groove in the casing joint, between the hot propulsion gases interior of the rocket motor and primary and secondary O-ring seals. The characteristics of the thermal barrier may be enhanced in different applications by the inclusion of certain compounds in the casing joint, by the inclusion of RTV sealant or similar materials at the site of the thermal barrier, and/or by the incorporation of a metal core or plurality of metal braids within the carbon braid in the thermal barrier structure.

  10. Effect of Sintering on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of sintering on mechanical and physical properties of free-standing plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined by annealing them at 1316 C in air. Mechanical and physical properties of the TBCs, including strength, modes I and II fracture toughness, elastic modulus, Poisson s response, density, microhardness, fractography, and phase stability, were determined at ambient temperature as a function of annealing time ranging from 0 to 500 h. All mechanical and physical properties, except for the amount of monoclinic phase, increased significantly in 5 to 100 h and then reached a plateau above 100 h. Annealing resulted in healing of microcracks and pores and in grain growth, accompanying densification of the TBC s body due to the sintering effect. However, an inevitable adverse effect also occurred such that the desired lower thermal conductivity and good expansivity, which makes the TBCs unique in thermal barrier applications, were degraded upon annealing. A model was proposed to assess and quantify all the property variables in response to annealing in a normalized scheme. Directionality of as-sprayed TBCs appeared to have an insignificant effect on their properties, as determined via fracture toughness, microhardness, and elastic modulus measurements.

  11. Performance of two-layer thermal barrier systems on directionally solidified Ni-Al-Mo and comparative effects of alloy thermal expansion on system life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1980-01-01

    A promising two-layer thermal barrier coating system (TBS), Ni-16.4Cr-5.1A1-0.15Y/ZrO2-6.1Y2O3 (all in weight percent), was identified for directionally solidified Ni-Al-Mo (gamma/gamma' alpha). In cyclic furnace tests at 1095 C this system on gamma/gamma' alpha was better than Ni-16. 4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y/ZrO2-7.8Y2O3 by about 50 percent. In natural gas - oxygen torch rig tests at 1250 C the ZrO2-6.1Y2O3 coating was better than the ZrO2-7.8Y2O3 coating by 95 percent, on MAR-M509 substrates and by 60 percent on gamma/gamma' alpha substrates. Decreasing the coefficient of thermal expansion of the substrate material from 17-18x10 to the -6 power/C (MAR-M200 + Hf and MAR-M509) to 11x10 to the -6 power/C (gamma/gamma' alpha) also resulted in improved TBS life. For example, in natural gas - oxygen torch rig tests at 1250 C, the life of Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y/ZrO26.1Y2O3 was about 30 percent better on gamma/gamma' alpha than on MAR-M509 substrates. Thus compositional changes in the bond and thermal barrier coatings were shown to have a greater effect on TBS life than does the coefficient of thermal expansion.

  12. Porosity determination of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Roode, Mark; Beardsley, Brad

    1988-01-01

    Coating porosity is believed to be a critical factor for the thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). A number of different techniques have been used to determine the porosities of thermal barrier coatings for diesel applications as part of a NASA/DOE sponsored study. A comparison is made between methods based on water immersion, optical microscopy, eddy current thickness measurements, and Archimedes principle for TBC porosity determination.

  13. Selection by current compliance of negative and positive bipolar resistive switching behaviour in ZrO2-x /ZrO2 bilayer memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ruomeng; Yan, Xingzhao; Morgan, Katrina A.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; (Kees de Groot, C. H.

    2017-05-01

    We report here a ZrO2-x /ZrO2-based bilayer resistive switching memory with unique properties that enables the selection of the switching mode by applying different electroforming current compliances. Two opposite polarity modes, positive bipolar and negative bipolar, correspond to the switching in the ZrO2 and ZrO2-x layer, respectively. The ZrO2 layer is proved to be responsible for the negative bipolar mode which is also observed in a ZrO2 single layer device. The oxygen deficient ZrO2-x layer plays the dominant role in the positive bipolar mode, which is exclusive to the bilayer memory. A systematic investigation of the ZrO2-x composition in the bilayer memory suggests that ZrO1.8 layer demonstrates optimum switching performance with low switching voltage, narrow switching voltage distribution and good cycling endurance. An excess of oxygen vacancies, beyond this composition, leads to a deterioration of switching properties. The formation and dissolution of the oxygen vacancy filament model has been proposed to explain both polarity switching behaviours and the improved properties in the bilayer positive bipolar mode are attributed to the confined oxygen vacancy filament size within the ZrO2-x layer.

  14. Surface Modification of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Single-Shot Defocused Laser Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdoğan, Vakur; Dokur, Mehmet M.; Göller, Gültekin; Keleş, Özgül

    2013-09-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) consisting of atmospheric plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt.% Y2O3 and a high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed metallic bond coat were subjected to CO2 continuous wave laser treatments. The effects of laser power on TBCs were investigated as was the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer development of all as-sprayed and laser-treated coatings after thermal oxidation tests in air environment for 50, 100, and 200 h at 1100 °C. The effects of laser power on TBCs were investigated. TGO layer development was examined on all as-sprayed and laser-treated coatings after thermal oxidation tests in air environment for 50, 100, and 200 h at 1100 °C. Melted and heat-affected zone regions were observed in all the laser-treated samples. Oxidation tests showed a stable alumina layer and mixed spinel oxides in the TGO layers of the as-sprayed and laser-treated TBCs.

  15. Thermal Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal fatigue and fracture behavior of plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings has been investigated under high heat flux and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating crack propagation is studied under laser heat flux cyclic thermal loading, and is correlated with dynamic fatigue and strength test results. The coating stress response and inelasticity, fatigue and creep interactions, and interface damage mechanisms during dynamic thermal fatigue processes are emphasized.

  16. Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for potential service in electric utility gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in electric utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high potential for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO2.8Y2O3/NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca2SiO4/NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show potential for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.

  17. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.

    2000-01-01

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  18. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O2+y system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, A.; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, D.; Scheinost, A.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P.; Boshoven, J.; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M.; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D.

    2017-10-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2sbnd ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the only study available in the literature on the whole pseudo-binary system. In addition, a minimum melting point is identified here for compositions near (U0.6Zr0.4)O2+y, around 2800 K. The solidus line is rather flat on a broad range of compositions around the minimum. It increases for compositions closer to the pure end members, up to the melting point of pure UO2 (3130 K) on one side and pure ZrO2 (2970 K) on the other. Solid state phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-monoclinic) have also been observed in the ZrO2-rich compositions X-ray diffraction. Investigations under 0.3 MPa air (0.063 MPa O2) revealed a significant decrease in the melting points down to 2500 K-2600 K for increasing uranium content (x(UO2)> 0.2). This was found to be related to further oxidation of uranium dioxide, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For example, a typical oxidised corium composition U0.6Zr0.4O2.13 was observed to solidify at a temperature as low as 2493 K. The current results are important for assessing the thermal stability of the system fuel - cladding in an oxide based nuclear reactor, and for simulating the system behaviour during a hypothetical severe accident.

  19. Reusable Thermal Barrier for Insulation Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saladee, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Filler composed of resilient, heat-resistant materials. Thermal barrier nestles snugly in gap between two tiles with minimal protrusion beyond faces of surrounding tiles. When removed from gap, barrier springs back to nearly original shape. Developed for filling spaces between tiles on Space Shuttle, also used in furnaces and kilns.

  20. Physicochemical properties of precursors of Al2O3-ZrO2 oxide ceramics prepared by electrochemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E. V.; Dresvyannikov, A. F.; Ahmadi Daryakenari, M.; Khairullina, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray, and thermal analysis are used to examine the structure and properties of dispersive systems based on aluminum and zirconium oxides prepared electrochemically. The effect the conditions of synthesis have on the structure and morphology of Al2O3-ZrO2 particles is studied. It is shown that the effect of an electric field on the reaction medium allows us to adjust the physicochemical properties and morphology.

  1. Conduction mechanism of leakage current due to the traps in ZrO2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yohan; Lee, Sangyouk; An, Ilsin; Song, Chulgi; Jeong, Heejun

    2009-11-01

    In this work, a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) gate dielectric was fabricated by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique and the leakage current characteristics under negative bias were studied. From the result of current-voltage curves there are two possible conduction mechanisms to explain the leakage current in the ZrO2 thin film. The dominant mechanism is the space charge limited conduction in the high-electric field region (1.5-5.0 MV cm-1) while the trap-assisted tunneling due to the existence of traps is prevailed in the low-electric field region (0.8-1.5 MV cm-1). Conduction caused by the trap-assisted tunneling is found from the experimental results of a weak temperature dependence of current, and the trap barrier height is obtained. The space charge limited conduction is evidenced, for different temperatures, by Child's law dependence of current density versus voltage. Child's law dependence can be explained by considering a single discrete trapping level and we can obtain the activation energy of 0.22 eV.

  2. Thermal Conductivity and Sintering Behavior of Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings, having significantly reduced long-term thermal conductivities, are being developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and physical vapor-deposited thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  3. A design perspective on thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soechting, F. O.

    1999-12-01

    This article addresses the challenges for maximizing the benefit of thermal barrier coatings for turbine engine applications. The perspective is from the viewpoint of a customer, a turbine airfoil designer who is continuously challenged to increase the turbine inlet temperature capability for new products while maintaining cooling flow levels or even reducing them. This is a fundamental requirement for achieving increased engine thrust levels. Developing advanced material systems for the turbine flowpath airfoils, such as high-temperature nickel-base superalloys or thermal barrier coatings to insulate the metal airfoils from the hot flowpath environment, is one approach to solve this challenge. The second approach is to increase the cooling performance of the turbine airfoil, which enables increased flowpath temperatures and reduced cooling flow levels. Thermal barrier coatings have been employed in jet engine applications for almost 30 years. The initial application was on augmentor liners to provide thermal protection during afterburner operation. However, the production use of thermal barrier coatings in the turbine section has only occurred in the past 15 years. The application was limited to stationary parts and only recently incorporated on the rotating turbine blades. This lack of endorsement of thermal barrier coatings resulted from the poor initial duratbility of these coatings in high heat flux environments. Significant improvements have been made to enhance spallation resistance and erosion resistance, which has resulted in increased reliability of these coatings in turbine applications.

  4. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    An engineered thick thermal barrier coating consisting of multiple layers of zirconia and CoCrAlY with a zirconia top layer and having a system thermal conductance less than 410 w/m(exp 2)K exceeded the 100 hour engine durability goals set forth in this program. The thermal barrier coatings were intact at the test conclusion. Back to back single cylinder research engine tests were conducted with watercooled, metal hardware and oil-cooled, thermal barrier coating insulated hardware to determine apparent heat release and fuel economy. Apparent heat release data revealed that the insulated engine had a shorter ignition delay and a longer combustion duration than the metal engine. The insulated engine fuel economy was approximately two percent worse on average for this series of tests. There was no attempt to optimize engine efficiency of the insulated engine by modifying the engine timing, coating, or other techniques.

  5. Low-temperature CO oxidation over Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion.

    PubMed

    Singhania, Amit; Gupta, Shipra Mital

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) nanoparticles co-doped with Cu and Pt were applied as catalysts for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation. These materials were prepared through solution combustion in order to obtain highly active and stable catalytic nanomaterials. This method allows Pt 2+ and Cu 2+ ions to dissolve into the ZrO 2 lattice and thus creates oxygen vacancies due to lattice distortion and charge imbalance. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results showed Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO 2 nanoparticles with a size of ca. 10 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra confirmed cubic structure and larger oxygen vacancies. The nanoparticles showed excellent activity for CO oxidation. The temperature T 50 (the temperature at which 50% of CO are converted) was lowered by 175 °C in comparison to bare ZrO 2 . Further, they exhibited very high stability for CO reaction (time-on-stream ≈ 70 h). This is due to combined effect of smaller particle size, large oxygen vacancies, high specific surface area and better thermal stability of the Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO 2 nanoparticles. The apparent activation energy for CO oxidation is found to be 45.6 kJ·mol -1 . The CO conversion decreases with increase in gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and initial CO concentration.

  6. Co nanoparticle effects on the thermoluminescent signal induced by UV and gamma radiation in ZrO2 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Sánchez, G.; Mendoza-Anaya, D.; Eufemia Fernández-García, M.; Escobar-Alarcón, L.; Olea-Mejía, O.; González-Martínez, P. R.

    2014-05-01

    Zirconia powders, both pure and doped with Co nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method followed by thermal treatment at 1000 °C. The morphological and crystallographic characteristics were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld refinements method. Analysis of the thermoluminescent (TL) signal induced by UV and gamma radiation was also conducted. According to the results, Co nanoparticles have a strong influence on the growth of ZrO2 particles and favor the formation of monoclinic zirconia. Moreover, an important influence of the added Co nanoparticles was observed on the position of the TL peaks of ZrO2, inducing a shift in the luminescence towards higher temperatures as well as the presence of more TL peaks at higher temperatures.

  7. Thermophysical properties of liquid UO2, ZrO2 and corium by molecular dynamics and predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong Kee; Shim, Ji Hoon; Kaviany, Massoud

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the fate of accident-melted nuclear fuel-cladding requires the understanding of the thermophysical properties which are lacking or have large scatter due to high-temperature experimental challenges. Using equilibrium classical molecular dynamics (MD), we predict the properties of melted UO2 and ZrO2 and compare them with the available experimental data and the predictive models. The existing interatomic potential models have been developed mainly for the polymorphic solid phases of these oxides, so they cannot be used to predict all the properties accurately. We compare and decipher the distinctions of those MD predictions using the specific property-related autocorrelation decays. The predicted properties are density, specific heat, heat of fusion, compressibility, viscosity, surface tension, and the molecular and electronic thermal conductivities. After the comparisons, we provide readily usable temperature-dependent correlations (including UO2-ZrO2 compounds, i.e. corium melt).

  8. Delamination Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability issue remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. In this paper, thermal cyclic response and delamination failure modes of a ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS thermal/environmental barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated using a laser high-heat-flux technique. The coating degradation and delamination processes were monitored in real time by measuring coating apparent conductivity changes during the cyclic tests under realistic engine temperature and stress gradients, utilizing the fact that delamination cracking causes an apparent decrease in the measured thermal conductivity. The ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation driving forces under the cyclic thermal loads, in conjunction with the mechanical testing results, will be discussed.

  9. The Effect of Core Configuration on Thermal Barrier Thermal Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert H.; Druesedow, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize heat transfer through interfaces and gaps and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components. The core insulation has a significant impact on both the thermal and mechanical properties of compliant thermal barriers. Proper selection of an appropriate core configuration to mitigate conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer through the thermal barrier is challenging. Additionally, optimization of the thermal barrier for thermal performance may have counteracting effects on mechanical performance. Experimental evaluations have been conducted to better understand the effect of insulation density on permeability and leakage performance, which can significantly impact the resistance to convective heat transfer. The effect of core density on mechanical performance was also previously investigated and will be reviewed. Simple thermal models were also developed to determine the impact of various core parameters on downstream temperatures. An extended understanding of these factors can improve the ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  10. Chlorine mobility during annealing in N2 in ZrO2 and HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Scarel, G.; Wiemer, C.; Fanciulli, M.

    2002-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth of high-κ dielectric films (ZrO2 and HfO2) was performed using ZrCl4, HfCl4, and H2O as precursors. In this work, we use time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to investigate the chlorine distribution in ALD grown ZrO2 and HfO2 films, and its evolution during rapid thermal processes in nitrogen atmosphere. Chlorine outdiffusion is found to depend strongly upon annealing temperature and weakly upon the annealing time. While in ZrO2 chlorine concentration is significantly decreased already at 900 °C, in HfO2 it is extremely stable, even at temperatures as high as 1050 °C.

  11. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this program is to establish a methodology to predict Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) life on gas turbine engine components. The approach involves experimental life measurement coupled with analytical modeling of relevant degradation modes. The coating being studied is a flight qualified two layer system, designated PWA 264, consisting of a nominal ten mil layer of seven percent yttria partially stabilized zirconia plasma deposited over a nominal five mil layer of low pressure plasma deposited NiCoCrAlY. Thermal barrier coating degradation modes being investigated include: thermomechanical fatigue, oxidation, erosion, hot corrosion, and foreign object damage.

  12. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr,. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  13. Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier coatings exposed to elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Lowell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The failure of a ZrO2-8%Y2O3/Ni-14% Al-0.1% Zr coating system on Rene 41 in Mach 0.3 burner rig tests was characterized. High flame and metal temperatures were employed in order to accelerate coating failure. Failure by delamination was shown to precede surface cracking or spalling. This type of failure could be duplicated by cooling down the specimen after a single long duration isothermal high temperature cycle in a burner rig or a furnace, but only if the atmosphere was oxidizing. Stresses due to thermal expansion mismatch on cooling coupled with the effects of plastic deformation of the bond coat and oxidation of the irregular bond coat are the probable life limiting factors. Heat up stresses alone could not fail the coating in the burner rig tests. Spalling eventually occurs on heat up but only after the coating has already failed through delamination.

  14. Defects versus grain size effects on the ferromagnetism of ZrO2 nanocrystals clarified by positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. D.; Qi, N.; Jiang, M.; Chen, Z. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Undoped ZrO2 nanocrystals were annealed in open air from 100 °C to 1300 °C. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope were used to study the structure change and grain growth. Both the methods reveal that the ZrO2 grain size has very slight increase after annealing up to 900 °C. Positron annihilation measurements reveal a high concentration of vacancy defects which most probably exist in the grain boundary region. Thermal annealing above 500 °C causes recovery of these defects, and after annealing at 1200 °C, most of them are removed. Room temperature ferromagnetism is observed for the sample annealed at 100 °C and 500 °C. The magnetization becomes very weak after the nanocrystals are annealed at 700 °C, and it almost disappears at 1000 °C. It is clear that the intrinsic ferromagnetism in our ZrO2 nanocrystals is mostly related with the interfacial defects instead of grain size effects.

  15. Comparison of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Composite Thermal Barrier Coatings with Equal Total Rare-Earth Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2018-04-01

    Rare-earth zirconates have been the focus of advanced thermal barrier coating research for nearly two decades; however, their lack of toughness prevents a wide-scale adoption due to lack of erosion and thermal cyclic durability. There are generally two methods of improving toughness: intrinsic modification of the coating chemistry and extrinsic modification of the coating structure. This study compares the efficacy of these two methods for a similar overall rare-earth content via the air plasma spray process. The extrinsically toughened coatings were comprised of a two-phase composite containing 30 wt.% Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) combined with 70 wt.% of a tougher t' low-k material (ZrO2-2Y2O3-1Gd2O3-1Yb2O3; mol.%), while a single-phase fluorite with the overall rare-earth content equivalent to the two-phase composite (13 mol.% rare-earth) was utilized to explore intrinsically toughened concept. The coatings were then characterized via x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and their performance was evaluated via erosion, thermal conductivity, thermal annealing (500 h), and thermal cycling. It was shown that the extrinsic method provided an improved erosion and thermal conductivity response over the single phase, but at the expense of high-temperature stability and cyclic life.

  16. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating comprises a first thermal barrier layer (40), and a second thermal barrier layer (30) with a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof, where B is selected from the group of elements consisting of Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof, where n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  17. Thermal Barrier Coatings. Abstracts and figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Thermal Barrier Coatings Workshop was held May 21 and 22, 1985, at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Six sessions covered Failure Mechanisms and Life Modeling, Effects of Oxidation and Creep, Phase Stability and Microstructural Aspects, Nondestructive and Analytical Assessment, Coating Development, and Alternative Applications.

  18. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivities of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2017-09-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to shield the blades of gas turbines from heat and wear. There is a pressing need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of TBCs in the thermal design of advanced gas turbines with high energy efficiency. These TBCs consist of a ceramic-based top coat and a bond coat on a superalloy substrate. Usually, the focus is on the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of the TBC because heat tends to diffuse from the surface of the top coat to the substrate. However, the in-plane thermal conductivity is also important in the thermal design of gas turbines because the temperature distribution within the turbine cannot be ignored. Accordingly, a method is developed in this study for measuring the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the top coat. Yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats are prepared by thermal spraying under different conditions. The in-plane and cross-plane thermal diffusivities of the top coats are measured by the flash method to investigate the anisotropy of thermal conduction in a TBC. It is found that the in-plane thermal diffusivity is higher than the cross-plane one for each top coat and that the top coats have significantly anisotropic thermal diffusivity. The cross-sectional and in-plane microstructures of the top coats are observed, from which their porosities are evaluated. The thermal diffusivity and its anisotropy are discussed in detail in relation to microstructure and porosity.

  19. Luminescent properties of ZrO2:Tb nanoparticles for applications in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słońska, A.; Kaszewski, J.; Wolska-Kornio, E.; Witkowski, B.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Mijowska, E.; Karakitsou, V.; Gajewski, Z.; Godlewski, M.; Godlewski, M. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a new generation of non-toxic nanoparticles based on the zirconium oxide doped with 0.5%Tb and co-doped by the range of 0-70% with Y was evaluated for the use as a fluorescent biomarker of neuronal trafficking. The ZrO2:Tb nanoparticles were created by microwave driven hydrothermal method. Influence of the yttrium content and thermal processing on the Tb3+ related luminescence emission was discussed. The higher intensities were achieved, when host was cubic and for the nanoparticles with 33 nm. Presence of yttrium was associated with the energy coupling of the host and dopant, wide excitation band is present at 309 and 322 nm before and after calcination respectively.

  20. Study of fracture toughness of ZrO2 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryugin, Yevgeny; Narkevich, Natalya; Vlasov, Ilya; Panin, Victor; Danilenko, Igor; Schmauder, Siegfried

    2017-12-01

    The fracture toughness characteristics of ZrO2ceramics were determined experimentally using an original technique of wedging small-sized chevron notch specimens developed at the Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS (Russia) in the laboratory of physical mesomechanics of materials and non-destructive testing. Measurements have shown that inelastic displacements can be more than 22% of the total displacement of the consoles by the time of the specimen failure. The effect of the Y2O3 stabilizer on the critical stress intensity factor KIc was verified. It was shown that an increase in the Y2O3 stabilizer content from 3 to 8% significantly decreases the fracture toughness. The stress intensity factor KIc falls within the range from 5.7 to 2.35 MPa m1/2.

  1. Improving the Thermal Shock Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings Through Formation of an In Situ YSZ/Al2O3 Composite via Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanipour, Zohre; Baghshahi, Saeid; Shoja-razavi, Reza

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, laser cladding of alumina on the top surface of YSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBC) was conducted via Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The thermal shock behavior of the TBC before and after laser cladding was modified by heating at 1000 °C for 15 min and quenching in cold water. Phase analysis, microstructural evaluation and elemental analysis were performed using x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The results of thermal shock tests indicated that the failure in the conventional YSZ (not laser clad) and the laser clad coatings happened after 200 and 270 cycles, respectively. The SEM images of the samples showed that delamination and spallation occurred in both coatings as the main mechanism of failure. Formation of TGO was also observed in the fractured cross section of the samples, which is also a main reason for degradation. Thermal shock resistance in the laser clad coatings improved about 35% after cladding. The improvement is due to the presence of continuous network cracks perpendicular to the surface in the clad layer and also the thermal stability and high melting point of alumina in Al2O3/ZrO2 composite.

  2. Delamination-Indicating Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2007-01-01

    The risk of premature failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), typically composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), compromises the reliability of TBCs used to provide thermal protection for turbine engine components. Unfortunately, TBC delamination proceeds well beneath the TBC surface and cannot be monitored by visible inspection. Nondestructive diagnostic tools that could reliably probe the subsurface damage state of TBCs would alleviate the risk of TBC premature failure by indicating when the TBC needs to be replaced before the level of TBC damage threatens engine performance or safety. To meet this need, a new coating design for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that are self-indicating for delamination has been successfully implemented by incorporating a europium-doped luminescent sublayer at the base of a TBC composed of YSZ. The luminescent sublayer has the same YSZ composition as the rest of the TBC except for the addition of low-level europium doping and therefore does not alter TBC performance.

  3. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOEpatents

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  4. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    A methodology is established to predict thermal barrier coating life in a environment similar to that experienced by gas turbine airfoils. Experiments were conducted to determine failure modes of the thermal barrier coating. Analytical studies were employed to derive a life prediction model. A review of experimental and flight service components as well as laboratory post evaluations indicates that the predominant mode of TBC failure involves thermomechanical spallation of the ceramic coating layer. This ceramic spallation involves the formation of a dominant crack in the ceramic coating parallel to and closely adjacent to the topologically complex metal ceramic interface. This mechanical failure mode clearly is influenced by thermal exposure effects as shown in experiments conducted to study thermal pre-exposure and thermal cycle-rate effects. The preliminary life prediction model developed focuses on the two major damage modes identified in the critical experiments tasks. The first of these involves a mechanical driving force, resulting from cyclic strains and stresses caused by thermally induced and externally imposed mechanical loads. The second is an environmental driving force based on experimental results, and is believed to be related to bond coat oxidation. It is also believed that the growth of this oxide scale influences the intensity of the mechanical driving force.

  5. ZrO2-Nanoparticle-Modified Graphite Felt: Bifunctional Effects on Vanadium Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haipeng; Shen, Yi; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2016-06-22

    To improve the electrochemical performance of graphite felt (GF) electrodes in vanadium flow batteries (VFBs), we synthesize a series of ZrO2-modified GF (ZrO2/GF) electrodes with varying ZrO2 contents via a facile immersion-precipitation approach. It is found that the uniform immobilization of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the GF not only significantly promotes the accessibility of vanadium electrolyte, but also provides more active sites for the redox reactions, thereby resulting in better electrochemical activity and reversibility toward the VO(2+)/VO2(+) and V(2+)/V(3+) redox reactions as compared with those of GF. In particular, The ZrO2/GF composite with 0.3 wt % ZrO2 displays the best electrochemical performance with voltage and energy efficiencies of 71.9% and 67.4%, respectively, which are much higher than those of 57.3% and 53.8% as obtained from the GF electrode at 200 mA cm(-2). The cycle life tests demonstrate that the ZrO2/GF electrodes exhibit outstanding stability. The ZrO2/GF-based VFB battery shows negligible activity decay after 200 cycles.

  6. Improved Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon (a-C) Coating by ZrO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jinzhu; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Songwei; Wu, Guizhi; Hu, Litian

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS2 nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2-NPs) in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C contacts was investigated in boundary lubrication regime. The results showed that 13% less friction and 50% less wear compared to the base oil were achieved by employing ZrO2-NPs in the base oil in self-mated a-C contacts. Via analyzing the ZrO2-NPs and the worn a-C surface after tests, it was found that the improved lubrication by ZrO2-NPs was based on “polishing effects”, which is a new phenomenon observed between a-C and nanoparticles. Under the “polishing effect”, micro-plateaus with extremely smooth surface and uniform height were produced on the analyzed a-C surface. The resulting topography of the a-C coating is suitable for ZrO2-NPs to act as nano-bearings between rubbing surfaces. Especially, the ZrO2-NPs exhibited excellent mechanical and chemical stability, even under the severe service condition, suggesting that the combination of nonhydrogenated a-C coating with ZrO2-NPs is an effective, long lasting and environment-friendly lubrication solution. PMID:28773916

  7. JT90 thermal barrier coated vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.; Graziani, R. A.; Sinko, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings applied to turbine vane platforms in modern high temperature commercial engines was advanced to the point of demonstrated feasibility for application to commercial aircraft engines. The three thermal barrier coatings refined under this program are zirconia stabilized with twenty-one percent magnesia (21% MSZ), six percent yttria (6% YSZ), and twenty percent yttria (20% YSZ). Improvement in thermal cyclic endurance by a factor of 40 times was demonstrated in rig tests. A cooling system evolved during the program which featured air impingement cooling for the vane platforms rather than film cooling. The impingement cooling system, in combination with the thermal barrier coatings, reduced platform cooling air requirements by 44% relative to the current film cooling system. Improved durability and reduced cooling air requirements were demonstrated in rig and engine endurance tests. Two engine tests were conducted, one of 1000 cycles and the other of 1500 cycles. All three coatings applied to vanes fabricated with the final cooling system configuration completed the final 1500 cycle engine endurance test. Results of this test clearly demonstrated the durability of the 6% YSZ coating which was in very good condition after the test. The 21% MSZ and 20% YSZ coatings had numerous occurrences of significant spalling in the test.

  8. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  9. Doped ZrO2 for future lead free piezoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starschich, S.; Böttger, U.

    2018-01-01

    The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of doped ZrO2 prepared by chemical solution deposition (CSD) are investigated. Doping with different elements such as Mg, In, La, and Y leads to a stabilization of the constricted hysteresis. As shown in a previous work, for the constricted hysteresis of ZrO2, the piezoelectric response is significantly larger compared to ZrO2 with a normal hysteresis. The Mg doped ZrO2 shows a strong temperature and cycle stability. For the piezoelectric properties, a magnesium concentration of 7% shows the largest piezoelectric response with a piezoelectric coefficient of >10 pm/V, as well as the best cycle stability. Due to thicker films, which can be realized by the CSD technique, the shown doped ZrO2 films are a promising candidate for energy related applications such as piezoelectric energy harvesting as well as for microelectromechanical systems.

  10. Prolonging thermal barrier coated specimen life by thermal cycle management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.; Poolos, N. P.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings applied to the heated side of engine components such as seals, combustor, and blades of a gas turbine offer a potential increase in efficiency through the use of higher gas temperatures or less cooling air or benefits arising from extended component life by reducing component metal temperatures. The considered investigation has the objective to show that while a thermal barrier coated (TBC) specimen can be brought to a fixed temperature using various fuel-air ratio (F/A) values, lower calculated stresses are associated with lower (F/A) values. This implies that control of (F/A) values (i.e., rates of heat input) during the starting transient and to a lesser extent during shutdown and operation, offers a potential method of improving TBC lifetime through thermal cycle management.

  11. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilsner, B. H.; Hillery, R. V.; Mcknight, R. L.; Cook, T. S.; Kim, K. S.; Duderstadt, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to determine the predominant modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system, and then to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The program is divided into two phases, each consisting of several tasks. The work in Phase 1 is aimed at identifying the relative importance of the various failure modes, and developing and verifying life prediction model(s) for the predominant model for a thermal barrier coating system. Two possible predominant failure mechanisms being evaluated are bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep. The work in Phase 2 will develop design-capable, causal, life prediction models for thermomechanical and thermochemical failure modes, and for the exceptional conditions of foreign object damage and erosion.

  12. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

    2004-06-29

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

  13. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Neumann, J. F.; Tasooji, A.

    1985-01-01

    This program focuses on predicting the lives of two types of strain-tolerant and oxidation-resistant thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems that are produced by commercial coating suppliers to the gas turbine industry. The plasma-sprayed TBC system is composed of a low pressure, plasma sprayed applied, oxidation resistant NiCrAlY bond coating. The other system is an air plasma sprayed yttria (8 percent) partially stabilized zirconia insulative layer.

  14. Analysis of the ceramic layer microstructure influence on plasma spray thermal barrier coating performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, V. I.; Giorbelidze, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    This paper outlines the results of analysis and describes the structure of the thermal protection coatings formed by atomic ion stream deposition in vacuum, and plasma thermal spraying method. Crystallite structure features are considered along with the crystallite dimensions, spatial orientation, and position of the boundaries between separate crystallites. Discontinuity, volume, and morphology of the pores has been evaluated. Experimental studies have been accomplished using various fractions of the powder-like material ZrO2 - 8%Y2O3. The influence of the coating microstructure on the coating performance has been analyzed, such as adhesive strength, thermal stability, and thermal conductivity.

  15. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective of Caterpillar's subcontract with ORNL is to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  16. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. Brad

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying thick thermal barrier coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective Caterpillar's program to date has been to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impeded the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  17. Delamination Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced ceramic thermal harrier coatings will play an increasingly important role In future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability issue remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. In this paper, thermal cyclic response and delamination failure modes of a ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS thermaVenvironmenta1 barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated using a laser high-heat-flux technique. The coating degradation and delamination processes were monitored in real time by measuring coating apparent conductivity changes during the cyclic tests under realistic engine temperature and stress gradients, utilizing the fact that delamination cracking causes an apparent decrease in the measured thermal conductivity. The ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation driving forces under the cyclic thermal loads, in conjunction with the mechanical testing results, will be discussed.

  18. Insights on the High-Temperature Operational Limits of ZrO2-Y2O3 TBCs Manufactured via Air Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.

    2017-03-01

    The effective high-temperature operation limit of a ZrO2-7-8 wt.%Y2O3 (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) manufactured via air plasma spray (APS) is considered to be 1300 °C. This is related to the metastable tetragonal t'-phase formed during the rapid quenching of the YSZ particles during spraying. The t'-phase transforms into the equilibrium tetragonal and cubic phases at temperatures ≥ 1300 °C, which can lead to the formation of the monoclinic phase of YSZ upon cooling to room temperature. This formation of the monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume expansion that leads to TBC failure due to extensive micro-cracking. To further investigate this limitation, an APS YSZ TBC was sprayed on a CMSX-4 substrate. By using a thermal (laser) gradient cyclic testing, a temperature gradient was generated across the TBC/substrate system. The YSZ T- front and substrate backside T- back temperature levels were 1500 and 1000 °C, respectively. In cycle conditions (5-min or 1-h hot and 2-min cool), no TBC failure has been observed. This behavior was partially attributed to the unexpected absence of the monoclinic phase of the YSZ in the cycled coatings. Although preliminary, these results are promising regarding increasing the effective high-temperature operational limits of APS YSZ TBCs.

  19. Emission and Performance Analysis of ZrO2 And CeO2 Coated Piston Using Refined Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemanandh, J.; Narayanan, K. V.; Manoj, Vemuri

    2017-05-01

    Increase in global warming and pollution leads to look for an alternative fuel. The aim of this paper to improve the performance and to reduce the emissions in DI diesel engine. The 80% of ZrO2 and 20% of CeO2 were mixed and coated on the piston head using plasma spray method. The B10 fuel of various refined vegetable oil methyl esters were used as fuel. The test was conducted in the 4-stroke DI diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The results show that the brake thermal efficiency, NOx and BSFC was increased. The CO and HC were decreased.

  20. The effect of B 2O 3 addition on the crystallization of amorphous TiO 2-ZrO 2 mixed oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2007-02-01

    The effect of B 2O 3 addition on the crystallization of amorphous TiO 2-ZrO 2 mixed oxide was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). TiO 2-ZrO 2 mixed oxide was prepared by co-precipitation method with aqueous ammonia as the precipitation reagent. Boric acid was used as a source of boria, and boria contents varied from 2 to 20 wt%. The results indicate that the addition of small amount of boria (<8 wt%) hinders the crystallization of amorphous TiO 2-ZrO 2 into a crystalline ZrTiO 4 compound, while a larger amount of boria (⩾8 wt%) promotes the crystallization process. FT-IR spectroscopy and 11B MAS NMR results show that tetrahedral borate species predominate at low boria loading, and trigonal borate species increase with increasing boria loading. Thus it is concluded that highly dispersed tetrahedral BO 4 units delay, while a build-up of trigonal BO 3 promote, the crystallization of amorphous TiO 2-ZrO 2 to form ZrTiO 4 crystals.

  1. Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications

    DOEpatents

    Scharman, Alan J.; Yonushonis, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

  2. The Lattice and Thermal Radiation Conductivity of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Spuckler, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    The lattice and radiation conductivity of thermal barrier coatings was evaluated using a laser heat flux approach. A diffusion model has been established to correlate the apparent thermal conductivity of the coating to the lattice and radiation conductivity. The radiation conductivity component can be expressed as a function of temperature and the scattering and absorption properties of the coating material. High temperature scattering and absorption of the coating systems can also be derived based on the testing results using the modeling approach. The model prediction is found to have good agreement with experimental observations.

  3. The affects of doping Eu 3+ on structures and morphology of ZrO 2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lixin; Liu, Hai; Nogami, Masayuki

    2010-07-01

    The ZrO 2 and ZrO 2:Eu 3+ nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared by a hydrothermal method. The samples were sintered at different temperatures (500, 800 and 1100 °C). The results indicate that the Eu 3+ ions affect not only the structures of hosts (ZrO 2), but also the morphology of hosts. The shape of ZrO 2:Eu 3+ NCs heated at 1100 °C is the one-dimensional nanorod, while is the zero-dimensional nanoparticle for pure ZrO 2 samples sintered at the same temperature. The excitation and emission spectra of ZrO 2:Eu 3+ NCs were studied. In excitation spectra, the charge transfer band of Eu 3+ in ZrO 2 NCs heated at 1100 °C evidently blue-shifts in comparison with the NCs calcined at 500 and 800 °C. The relative intensity of 5D-7F transitions of Eu 3+ ions and color chromaticity for nanorods are increased in comparison with the nanoparticles.

  4. Thermal-barrier-coated turbine blade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. A.; Hillig, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of coating TBC on a CF6-50 stage 2 high-pressure turbine blade were analyzed with respect to changes in the mean bulk temperature, cooling air requirements, and high-cycle fatigue. Localized spallation was found to have a possible deleterious effect on low-cycle fatigue life. New blade design concepts were developed to take optimum advantage of TBCs. Process and material development work and rig evaluations were undertaken which identified the most promising combination as ZrO2 containing 8 w/o Y2O3 applied by air plasma spray onto a Ni22Cr-10Al-1Y bond layer. The bond layer was applied by a low-pressure, high-velocity plasma spray process onto the base alloy. During the initial startup cycles the blades experienced localized leading edge spallation caused by foreign objects.

  5. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.; Demasi, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology was established to predict thermal barrier coating life in an environment simulative of that experienced by gas turbine airfoils. Specifically, work is being conducted to determine failure modes of thermal barrier coatings in the aircraft engine environment. Analytical studies coupled with appropriate physical and mechanical property determinations are being employed to derive coating life prediction model(s) on the important failure mode(s). An initial review of experimental and flight service components indicates that the predominant mode of TBC failure involves thermomechanical spallation of the ceramic coating layer. This ceramic spallation involves the formation of a dominant crack in the ceramic coating parallel to and closely adjacent to the metal-ceramic interface. Initial results from a laboratory test program designed to study the influence of various driving forces such as temperature, thermal cycle frequency, environment, and coating thickness, on ceramic coating spalling life suggest that bond coat oxidation damage at the metal-ceramic interface contributes significantly to thermomechanical cracking in the ceramic layer. Low cycle rate furnace testing in air and in argon clearly shows a dramatic increase of spalling life in the non-oxidizing environments.

  6. Investigation of the Mechanical Performance of Compliant Thermal Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2011-01-01

    Compliant thermal barriers play a pivotal role in the thermal protection systems of advanced aerospace vehicles. Both the thermal properties and mechanical performance of these barriers are critical in determining their successful implementation. Due to the custom nature of many thermal barriers, designers of advanced spacecraft have little guidance as to the design, selection, and implementation of these elements. As part of an effort to develop a more fundamental understanding of the interrelationship between thermal barrier design and performance, mechanical testing of thermal barriers was conducted. Two different types of thermal barriers with several core insulation density levels ranging from 62 to 141 kg/cu m were investigated. Room-temperature compression tests were conducted on samples to determine load performance and assess thermal barrier resiliency. Results showed that the loading behavior of these thermal barriers was similar to other porous, low-density, compliant materials, such as elastomeric foams. Additionally, the insulation density level had a significant non-linear impact on the stiffness and peak loads of the thermal barriers. In contrast, neither the thermal barrier type nor the level of insulation density significantly influenced the room-temperature resiliency of the samples.

  7. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

  8. Facile synthesis of highly stable and well-dispersed mesoporous ZrO(2)/carbon composites with high performance in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Wu, Zhangxiong; Feng, Dan; Yang, Jianping; Wei, Jing; Wu, Qingling; Tu, Bo; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2010-09-28

    Highly ordered mesoporous ZrO(2)/carbon (FDU-15) composites have been synthesized via a facile evaporation induced triconstituent co-assembly (EISA) approach by using Pluronic F127 as a template and zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and resol as Zr and carbon sources. The synthesized mesoporous composites exhibit a highly ordered two-dimensional (2-D) hexagonal mesostructure with relatively high specific surface areas (up to 947 m(2) g(-1)), pore sizes around 3.8 nm and high pore volumes (up to 0.71 cm(3) g(-1)). The results clearly show that the crystalline zirconia nanoparticles (ca. 1.9-3.9 nm) are well-dispersed in amorphous matrices of the ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 materials, which construct the nanocomposites. The ordered mesostructures of the obtained ZrO(2)/FDU-15 composites can be well-retained even at the high pyrolysis temperature (up to 900 degrees C), suggesting a high thermal stability. The zirconia content of the ZrO(2)/FDU-15 composites can be tunable in a wide range (up to 47%). Moreover, the resultant mesoporous ZrO(2)/FDU-15 composites exhibit high catalytic activity in oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethylbenzene (EB) to styrene (ST), with high ethylbenzene conversion (59.6%) and styrene selectivity (90.4%), which is mainly attributed to the synergistic catalytic effect between the oxygen-containing groups located on the carbon pore walls and weakly basic sites of the nanocrystalline ZrO(2). Furthermore, the high specific surface areas and opening pore channels are also responsible for their high catalytic activity. Therefore, it is a very promising catalyst material in styrene production on an industrial scale.

  9. Greener, meaner diesels sport thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, M.F.; Parker, D.W.

    1992-05-01

    The highly reliable diesel engine has long been the workhorse of the transportation, industrial power, utility, and marine industries. Demand for diesels is expected to accelerate well into the next century, driven by the engine's ability to economically produce power in almost any environment. Increasingly stringent environmental, efficiency, and durability requirements, however, present new challenges to diesel engine manufacturers and operators. This paper reports that many of these challenges can be met entirely, or in part, by thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Diesel engine TBCs are plasma-spray-applied ceramics, which insulate combustion system components, such as pistons, valves, and piston fire decks,more » from heat and thermal shock.« less

  10. The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh; Steimle, Timothy C.; Gupta, Varun; Rice, Corey A.; Maier, John P.; Lin, Sheng H.; Lin, Chih-Kai

    2011-09-01

    The electronic spectrum of a cold molecular beam of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2, has been investigated using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in the region from 17 000 cm-1 to 18 800 cm-1 and by mass-resolved resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy from 17 000 cm-1-21 000 cm-1. The LIF and REMPI spectra are assigned to progressions in the tilde A{^1}B_2(ν1, ν2, ν3) ← tilde X{^1}A_1(0, 0, 0) transitions. Dispersed fluorescence from 13 bands was recorded and analyzed to produce harmonic vibrational parameters for the tilde X{^1}A_1 state of ω1 = 898(1) cm-1, ω2 = 287(2) cm-1, and ω3 = 808(3) cm-1. The observed transition frequencies of 45 bands in the LIF and REMPI spectra produce origin and harmonic vibrational parameters for the tilde A{^1}B_2 state of Te = 16 307(8) cm-1, ω1 = 819(3) cm-1, ω2 = 149(3) cm-1, and ω3 = 518(4) cm-1. The spectra were modeled using a normal coordinate analysis and Franck-Condon factor predictions. The structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and the potential energies as a function of bending angle for the tilde A{^1}B_2 and tilde X{^1}A_1 states are predicted using time-dependent density functional theory, complete active space self-consistent field, and related first-principle calculations. A comparison with isovalent TiO2 is made.

  11. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  12. Fabrication and magnetic properties of Fe and Co co-doped ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabayashi, J.; Kono, S.; Yamada, Y.; Nomura, K.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the effects of Fe and Co co-doping on the magnetic and electronic properties of ZrO2 ceramics prepared by a sol-gel method, and study their dependence on the annealing temperature. Dilute Fe and Co co-doping into ZrO2 exhibits ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature for annealing temperatures above 900 °C, accompanying the phase transition from tetragonal to monoclinic structure in ZrO2. The electronic structures are studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy, which suggest that the Fe3+ and Co2+/Co3+ mixing states are dominant in Fe and Co co-doped ZrO2.

  13. Thermodynamic Assessment of the Y2o3-yb2o3-zro2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan

    2002-01-01

    Yttria-zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2) is the most widely used of the rare earth oxide-zirconia systems. There are numerous experimental studies of the phase boundaries in this system. In this paper, we assess these data and derive parameters for the solution models in this system. There is current interest in other rare earth oxide-zirconia systems as well as systems with several rare earth oxides and zirconia, which may offer improved properties over the Y2O3-ZrO2 system. For this reason, we also assess the ytterbia-zirconia (Yb2O3-ZrO2) and Y2O3-Yb2O3-ZrO2 system.

  14. Theoretical study of the promotional effect of ZrO2 on In2O3 catalyzed methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minhua; Dou, Maobin; Yu, Yingzhe

    2018-03-01

    Methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on the ZrO2 doped In2O3(110) surface (Zr-In2O3(110)) with oxygen vacancy has been studied using the density functional theory calculations. The calculated results show that the doped ZrO2 species prohibits the excessive formation of oxygen vacancies and dissociation of H2 on In2O3 surface slightly, but enhances the adsorption of CO2 on both perfect and defective Zr-In2O3(110) surface. Methanol is formed via the HCOO route. The hydrogenation of CO2 to HCOO is both energetically and kinetically facile. The HCOO hydrogenates to polydentate H2CO (p-H2CO) species with an activation barrier of 0.75 eV. H3CO is produced from the hydrogenation of monodentate H2CO (mono-H2CO), transformation from p-H2CO with 0.82 eV reaction energy, with no barrier whether there is hydroxyl group between the mono-H2CO and the neighboring hydride or not. Methanol is the product of H3CO protonation with 0.75 eV barrier. The dissociation and protonation of CO2 are both energetically and kinetically prohibited on Zr-In2O3(110) surface. The doped ZrO2 species can further enhance the adsorption of all the intermediates involved in CO2 hydrogenation to methanol, activate the adsorbed CO2 and H2CO, and stabilize the HCOO, H2CO and H3CO, especially prohibit the dissociation of H2CO or the reaction of H2CO with neighboring hydride to form HCOO and gas phase H2. All these effects make the ZrO2 supported In2O3 catalyst exhibit higher activity and selectivity on methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation.

  15. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2001-01-01

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (20) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating (20) consists essentially of a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula consisting essentially of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements selected from La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof; where B is selected from the group of elements selected from Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof; n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  16. ZrO2-modified mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2-xNx as efficient visible light photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinchen; Yu, Jimmy C; Chen, Yilin; Wu, Ling; Fu, Xianzhi

    2006-04-01

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2-xNx and TiO2-xNx/ZrO2 visible-light photocatalysts have been prepared by a sol-gel method. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, TEM, XPS, UV/Vis, and IR spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the decomposition of ethylene in air under visible light (lambda > 450 nm) illumination. Results revealed that nitrogen was doped into the lattice of TiO2 by the thermal treatment of NH3-adsorbed TiO2 hydrous gels, converting the TiO2 into a visible-light responsive catalyst. The introduction of ZrO2 into TiO2-xNx considerably inhibits the undesirable crystal growth during calcination. Consequently, the ZrO2-modified TiO2-xNx displays higher porosity, higher specific surface area, and an improved thermal stability over the corresponding unmodified TiO2-xNx samples.

  17. Thermal Barrier Coatings Resistant to Glassy Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, Julie Marie

    Engineering of alloys has for years allowed aircraft turbine engines to become more efficient and operate at higher temperatures. As advancements in these alloy systems have become more difficult, ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), often yttria (7 wt %) stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), have been utilized for thermal protection. TBCs have allowed for higher engine operating temperatures and better fuel efficiency but have also created new engineering problems. Specifically, silica based particles such as sand and volcanic ash that enter the engine during operation form glassy deposits on the TBCs. These deposits can cause the current industrial 7YSZ thermal barrier coatings to fail since the glass formed penetrates and chemically interacts with the TBC. When this occurs, coating failure may occur due to a loss of strain tolerance, which can lead to fracture, and phase changes of the TBC material. There have been several approaches used to stop calcium-magnesium aluminio-silcate (CMAS) glasses (molten sand) from destroying the entire TBC, but overall there is still limited knowledge. In this thesis, 7YSZ and new TBC materials will be examined for thermochemical and thermomechanical performance in the presence of molten CMAS and volcanic ash. Two air plasma sprayed TBCs will be shown to be resistant to volcanic ash and CMAS. The first type of coating is a modified 7YSZ coating with 20 mol% Al2O3 and 5 mol% TiO2 in solid solution (YSZ+20Al+5Ti). The second TBC is made of gadolinium zirconate. These novel TBCs impede CMAS and ash penetration by interacting with the molten CMAS or ash and drastically changing the chemistry. The chemically modified CMAS or ash will crystallize into an apatite or anorthite phase, blocking the CMAS or ash from further destroying the coating. A presented mechanism study will show these coatings are effective due to the large amount of solute (Gd, Al) in the zirconia structure, which is the key to creating the crystalline apatite or

  18. Microstructural Evolution of Al2O3-ZrO2 (Y2O3) Composites and its Correlation with Toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Seung; Seo, Mi Young; Kim, Ik Jin

    2008-02-01

    The microstructure of zirconia (ZrO2) toughened alumina (Al2O3) ceramics was carefully controlled so as to obtain dense and fine-grained ceramics, thereby improving the properties and reliability of the ceramics for capillary applications in semiconductor bonding technology. Al2O3-ZrO2(Y2O3) composite was produced via Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology, followed by Sinter-HIP process. Room temperature strength, hardness, Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient and toughness were determined, as well as surface strengthening induced by the fine grained homogenous microstructure and the thermal treatment. The changes in alumina/zirconia grain size, sintering condition and HIP treatment were found to be correlated.

  19. Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coating includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX, and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer, or a diameter of less than 5 microns. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate, and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of die invention, a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  20. Unctuous ZrO2 nanoparticles with improved functional attributes as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espina Casado, Jorge; Fernández González, Alfonso; José del Reguero Huerga, Ángel; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Díaz-García, Marta Elena; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2017-12-01

    One of the main drawbacks in the application of metal-oxide nanoparticles as lubricant additives is their poor stability in organic media, despite the good anti-wear, friction-reducing and high-load capacity properties described for these materials. In this work, we present a novel procedure to chemically cap the surface of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2NPs) with long hydrocarbon chains in order to obtain stable dispersions of ZrO2NPs in non-aqueous media without disrupting their attributes as lubricant additives. C-8, C-10 and C-16 saturated flexible chains were attached to the ZrO2NP surface and their physical and chemical characterization was performed by transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The dispersion stability of the modified ZrO2NPs in non-aqueous media was studied using static multiple light scattering. Tribological tests demonstrated that dispersions of the long-chain capped ZrO2NPs in base lubricating oils exhibited low friction coefficients and improved the anti-wear properties of the base oil when compared with the raw lubricating oil.

  1. Evolution of zirconyl-stearate Langmuir monolayers and the synthesized ZrO2 thin films with pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Raveena; Sharma, Rajni; Brar, Loveleen K.

    2018-04-01

    ZrO2 thin films have a wide range of applications ranging from photonics, antireflection coatings, and resistive oxygen gas sensors, as a gate dielectric and in high temperature fuel cells. We have used the deposition of zirconyl stearate monolayers followed by their oxidation as a method for the synthesis of zirconium oxide thin films. The zirconyl stearate films have been studied and deposited for first time to the best of our knowledge. The Langmuir monolayers are studied using pressure-Area (π-A) isotherms and oscillatory barrier method. The morphology of the films for limited number of layers was studied with FE-SEM to determine the effect of pH on the final ZrO2 film. The 200 layer deposition films show pure monoclinic phase. The films have a band gap ˜6.0eV with a strong PL emission peak is at 490 nm and a weak peak is at 423 nm. So the films formed by this deposition method are suitable for luminescent applications

  2. Opportunities for functional oxides in yttrium oxide-titanium oxide-zirconium oxide system: Applications for novel thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francillon, Wesley

    This dissertation is an investigation of materials and processed under consideration for next generation thermal structural oxides with potential applications as thermal barrier coatings; wherein, high temperature stability and mechanical properties affect durability. Two notable next generation materials systems under investigation are pyrochlore and co-doped zirconia oxides. The motivation for this work is based on current limitations of the currently used thermal barrier material of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) deposited by the plasma spray processes. The rapid quenching associated with the plasma spray process, results in a metastable structure that is a non-transformable tetragonal structure in the yttria partially stabilized zirconia system rather than the equilibrium anticipated two phase mixture of cubic and monoclinic phases. It has been shown that this metastable structure offers enhanced toughness and thus durability during thermomechanical cycling from the operating temperatures in excess of 1000C to ambient. However, the metastable oxides are susceptible to partitioning at temperatures greater than 1200C, thus resulting in a transformation of the tetragonal phase oxides. Transformations of the tetragonal prime phase into the parent cubic and tetragonal prime phase result in coating degradation. Several of the emerging oxides are based on rare earth additions to zirconia. However, there is limited information of the high temperature stability of these oxide coatings and more notably these compositions exhibit limited toughness for durable performance. A potential ternary composition based on the YSZ system that offers the ability to tailor the phase structure is based YO1.5-TiO2 -ZrO2. The ternary of YO1.5-TiO2-ZrO 2 has the current TBC composition of seven molar percent yttria stabilized zirconia, pyrochlore phase oxide and zirconia doped with yttria and titania additions (Ti-YSZ). The Ti-YSZ phase field is of interest because at equilibrium it is

  3. Theoretical study of methanol synthesis from CO2 and CO hydrogenation on the surface of ZrO2 supported In2O3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Maobin; Zhang, Minhua; Chen, Yifei; Yu, Yingzhe

    2018-06-01

    The interactions between ZrO2 support and In2O3 catalyst play pivotal role in the catalytic conversion of CO2 to methanol. Herein, a density functional theory study has been conducted to research the mechanism of methanol synthesis from CO2 and CO hydrogenation on the defective ZrO2 supported In2O3(110) surface (D surface). The calculations reveal that methanol is produced mainly via the HCOO reaction pathway from CO2 hydrogenation on D surface, and the hydrogenation of HCOO to form H2COO species with an activation barrier of 1.21 eV plays the rate determining step for the HCOO reaction pathway. The direct dissociation of CO2 to CO on D surface is kinetically and energetically prohibited. Methanol synthesis from CO hydrogenation on D surface is much facile comparing with the elementary steps involved in CO2 hydrogenation. The rate determining step of CO hydrogenation to methanol is the formation of H3CO species on the vacancy site with a barrier of 0.51 eV. ZrO2 support has significant effect on the suppressing of the dissociation of CO2 and stabilization of H2COO species on the surface of In2O3 catalyst.

  4. Some aspects of the hot corrosion of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides a pro tem review of the hot corrosion of zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings for engine applications. Emphasis is placed on trying to understand the chemical reactions, and such other mechanisms as can be identified, that cause corrosive degradation of the thermal barrier coating. The various approaches taken in attempts to improve the hot corrosion resistance of thermal barrier coatings are also briefly described and critiqued.

  5. Ultra-High Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Eric; Gell, Maurice; Wang, Jiwen

    In this project, HiFunda LLC worked with the University of Connecticut (UConn) to demonstrate an attractive option for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), namely yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), which was well known to have proven thermal stability and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties. YAG and other higher temperature TBCs have not been used to date because they exhibit inadequate durability, resulting from (a) poor erosion resistance and (b) greater thermal expansion mismatch strains compared to 7YSZ. UConn had previously demonstrated that the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process could produce a durable 7YSZ TBC resulting from a highly strain tolerant microstructure, consistingmore » of through-coating-thickness vertical cracks. HiFunda/UConn reasoned at the start of Phase I that such a strain-tolerant microstructure could produce durable, higher temperature TBCs. The Phase I work demonstrated the feasibility of that concept and of SPPS YAG TBCs. The Phase II work demonstrated that SPPS YAG coating possessed the necessary range of properties to be a viable high temperature TBC, including cyclic durability and reduced elevated temperature thermal conductivity. The SPPS YAG TBCs were shown to have the potential to be used at temperatures 200°C higher than APS YSZ, based on thermal stability, sinter resistance, and CMAS resistance. The overall technical objectives of this Phase 2A project were to further improve the commercial viability of SPPS by improving their performance capabilities and manufacturing economics. The improved performance capability was to be achieved through: (1) further reductions in thermal conductivity, which allows higher gas temperatures and/or thinner coatings to achieve similar gas temperatures; and (2) improved resistance to calcium magnesium alumnoslicate (CMAS) attack of the TBCs, which can yield improved lifetimes. The improved thermal conductivity and CMAs resistance was to be accomplished through compositional

  6. Thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine and diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Brindley, William J.; Bailey, M. Murray

    1989-01-01

    The present state of development of thin thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines and thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines is assessed. Although current thermal barrier coatings are flying in certain gas turbine engines, additional advances will be needed for future engines. Thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines have advanced to the point where they are being seriously considered for the next generation of engine. Since coatings for truck engines is a young field of inquiry, continued research and development efforts will be required to help bring this technology to commercialization.

  7. Thermal barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.; Sloan, Kelly M.; Vance, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    A turbine component, such as a turbine blade having a metal substrate (22) is coated with a metal MCrAlY alloy layer (24) and then a thermal barrier layer (20) selected from LaAlO.sub.3, NdAlO.sub.3, La.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7, Dy.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12, HO.sub.3 Al.sub.3 O.sub.12, ErAlO.sub.3, GdAlO.sub.3, Yb.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 O.sub.7, LaYbO.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7 or Y.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12.

  8. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

    2005-08-23

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

  9. Photo-, sono- and sonophotocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using Fe3O4/ZrO2 composites catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristianto, Y.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, magnetite material Fe3O4/ZrO2 with various molar ratios was prepared by the two-step method (sol-gel followed by the ultrasonic-assisted method). The as-prepared samples were fairly characterized by various characterization methods, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The catalytic performance of the as-prepared samples was evaluated based on the degradation of methylene blue under UV light, ultrasound and combination of UV and ultrasound irradiation. The results revealed that the sample with Fe3O4:ZrO2 molar ratio of 0.5:1 showed the best catalytic performance under UV, ultrasound and UV + ultrasound irradiation. The degradation of methylene blue follows the order: sonophotocatalytic > sonocatalytic > photocatalytic. In addition, the effect of various scavengers has also been studied. Furthermore, all prepared samples could be used as a convenient recyclable catalyst.

  10. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.; Cook, T. S.; Kim, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    This is the second annual report of the first 3-year phase of a 2-phase, 5-year program. The objectives of the first phase are to determine the predominant modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system and to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The primary TBC system consists of an air plasma sprayed ZrO-Y2O3 top coat, a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, and a Rene' 80 substrate. Task I was to evaluate TBC failure mechanisms. Both bond coat oxidation and bond coat creep have been identified as contributors to TBC failure. Key property determinations have also been made for the bond coat and the top coat, including tensile strength, Poisson's ratio, dynamic modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Task II is to develop TBC life prediction models for the predominant failure modes. These models will be developed based on the results of thermmechanical experiments and finite element analysis. The thermomechanical experiments have been defined and testing initiated. Finite element models have also been developed to handle TBCs and are being utilized to evaluate different TBC failure regimes.

  11. Development of Fe3O4/ZrO2 Composite Powered by Nanographene Platelets (NGP) for Degradation of Water Pollutants via Photo- and Sonocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristianto, Yogi; Taufik, Ardiansyah; Saleh, Rosari

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a series of Fe3O4/ZrO2/nanographene platelets (NGP) composite, with various weight percent (wt%) of NGP (5%, 10% and 15%), were prepared successfully using ultrasonic-assisted followed by simple hydrothermal method. Their physicochemical properties were fairly characterized by X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared and thermal gravimetric analysis. Furthermore, their catalytic activities were investigated toward anionic congo red (CR) and cationic methylene blue (MB) as models of organic pollutant under ultraviolet (UV) and ultrasonic (US) irradiation, respectively. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of NGP in Fe3O4/ZrO2 composite improved its efficiency in degrading CR and MB and became maximum at 10wt% of NGP. In addition, the role of active radicals involved in catalytic activities were discussed.

  12. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  13. Preparation of magnetron sputtered ZrO2 films on Si for gate dielectric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondaiah, P.; Mohan Rao, G.; Uthanna, S.

    2012-11-01

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) thin films were deposited on to p - Si and quartz substrates by sputtering of zirconium target at an oxygen partial pressure of 4x10-2 Pa and sputter pressure of 0.4 Pa by using DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of annealing temperature on structural, optical, electrical and dielectric properties of the ZrO2 films was systematically studied. The as-deposited films were mixed phases of monoclinic and orthorhombic ZrO2. As the annealing temperature increased to 1073 K, the films were transformed in to single phase orthorhombic ZrO2. Fourier transform infrared studies conform the presence of interfacial layer between Si and ZrO2. The optical band gap and refractive index of the as-deposited films were 5.82 eV and 1.81. As the annealing temperature increased to 1073 K the optical band gap and refractive index increased to 5.92 eV and 2.10 respectively. The structural changes were influenced the capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of Al/ZrO2/p-Si capacitors. The dielectric constant was increased from 11.6 to 24.5 and the leakage current was decreased from 1.65×10-7 to 3.30×10-9 A/ cm2 for the as-deposited and annealed at 1073 K respectively.

  14. Local epitaxial growth of ZrO2 on Ge (100) substrates by atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungsub; Chui, Chi On; Saraswat, Krishna C.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2003-09-01

    High-k dielectric deposition processes for gate dielectric preparation on Si surfaces usually result in the unavoidable and uncontrolled formation of a thin interfacial oxide layer. Atomic layer deposition of ˜55-Å ZrO2 film on a Ge (100) substrate using ZrCl4 and H2O at 300 °C was found to produce local epitaxial growth [(001) Ge//(001) ZrO2 and [100] Ge//[100] ZrO2] without a distinct interfacial layer, unlike the situation observed when ZrO2 is deposited using the same method on Si. Relatively large lattice mismatch (˜10%) between ZrO2 and Ge produced a high areal density of interfacial misfit dislocations. Large hysteresis (>200 mV) and high frequency dispersion were observed in capacitance-voltage measurements due to the high density of interface states. However, a low leakage current density, comparable to values obtained on Si substrates, was observed with the same capacitance density regardless of the high defect density.

  15. Bioactivity and cytocompatibility of zirconia (ZrO(2)) films fabricated by cathodic arc deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuanyong; Huang, Anping; Ding, Chuanxian; Chu, Paul K

    2006-07-01

    Zirconium oxide thin films were fabricated on silicon wafers using a filtered cathodic arc system in concert with oxygen plasma. The structure and phase composition of the zirconium oxide thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity was assessed by investigating the formation of apatite on the film surface after soaking in simulated body fluids. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) were used to further evaluate the cytocompatibility of the materials. The results indicate that the films are composed of stoichiometric ZrO(2) and the composition is quite uniform throughout the thickness. Bone-like apatite can be formed on the surface of the ZrO(2) thin film in our SBF immersion experiments, suggesting that the surface is bioactive. The outermost layer of the ZrO(2) thin film comprises nano-sized particles that can be identified by AFM images taken on the thin film surface and TEM micrographs obtained from the interface between the ZrO(2) thin film and apatite layer. The nanostructured surface is believed to be the key factor that apatite is induced to precipitate on the surface. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are observed to grow and proliferate in good states on the film surface. Our results show that ZrO(2) thin films fabricated by cathodic arc deposition exhibit favorable bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

  16. Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of delamination mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings has been developed for diesel applications through nondestructive evaluation, structural analysis modeling and engine evaluation of various thermal barrier coatings. This knowledge has resulted in improved thermal barrier coatings which survive abusive cyclic fatigue tests in high output diesel engines. Significant efforts are still required to improve the plasma spray processing capability and the economics for complex geometry diesel engine components. Data obtained from advanced diesel engines on the effect of thermal barrier coatings on engine fuel economy and emission has not been encouraging. Although the underlying metal component temperatures have been reduced through the use of thermal barrier coating, engine efficiency and emission trends have not been promising.

  17. Thermal barrier coating life and isothermal oxidation of low-pressure plasma-sprayed bond coat alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, W. J.; Miller, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper investigates the isothermal oxidation kinetics of Ni-35Cr-6Al-0.95Y, Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y, and Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.3Y low-pressure plasma-sprayed bond coat alloys and examines the effect of these alloys on the thermal barrier coating (TBC) cyclic life. TBC life was examined by cycling substrates coated with the different bond coats and a ZrO2-7 wt pct Y2O3 TBC in an air-rich burner rig flame between 1150 C and room temperature. The oxidation kinetics of the three bond coat alloys was examined by isothermal oxidation of monolithic NJiCrAlY coupons at 1083 C. The Ni-35Cr-6Al-0.95Y alloy exhibits comparatively high isothermal oxidation weight gains and provides the longest TBC life, whereas the Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.3Y alloy had the lowest weight gains and provided the shortest TBC life. The results show that, although bond coat oxidation is known to have a strong detrimental effect on TBC life, it is not the only bond coat factor that determines TBC life.

  18. Extending Our Understanding of Compliant Thermal Barrier Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demange, Jeffrey J.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize the flow of hot gases through interfaces and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components and systems. Although thermal barriers have been used extensively on many aerospace vehicles, the factors affecting their thermal and mechanical performance are not well-understood. Because of this, vehicle TPS designers are often left with little guidance on how to properly design and optimize these barriers. An ongoing effort to better understand thermal barrier performance and develop models and design tools is in progress at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing has been conducted to understand the degree to which insulation density influences structural performance and permeability. In addition, the development of both thermal and mechanical models is ongoing with the goal of providing an improved ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  19. Surface Modification of Solution-Processed ZrO2 Films through Double Coating for Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jin-Hyuk; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Lee, Hyeonju; Park, Jaehoon

    2018-03-01

    We report the modification of surface properties of solution-processed zirconium oxide (ZrO2) dielectric films achieved by using double-coating process. It is proven that the surface properties of the ZrO2 film are modified through the double-coating process; the surface roughness decreases and the surface energy increases. The present surface modification of the ZrO2 film contributes to an increase in grain size of the pentacene film, thereby increasing the field-effect mobility and decreasing the threshold voltage of the pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) having the ZrO2 gate dielectric. Herein, the molecular orientation of pentacene film is also studied based on the results of contact angle and X-ray diffraction measurements. Pentacene molecules on the double-coated ZrO2 film are found to be more tilted than those on the single-coated ZrO2 film, which is attributed to the surface modification of the ZrO2 film. However, no significant differences are observed in insulating properties between the single-and the double-coated ZrO2 dielectric films. Consequently, the characteristic improvements of the pentacene TFTs with the double-coated ZrO2 gate dielectric film can be understood through the increase in pentacene grain size and the reduction in grain boundary density.

  20. Oxidation behavior of a thermal barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings, consisting of a plasma sprayed calcium silicate ceramic layer and a CoCrAlY or NiCrAlY bond coat, were applied on B-1900 coupons and cycled hourly in air in a rapid-response furnace to maximum temperatures of 1030, 1100, or 1160 C. Eight specimens were tested for each of the six conditions of bond-coat composition and temperature. Specimens were removed from test at the onset of failure, which was taken to be the formation of a fine surface crack visible at 10X magnification. Specimens were weighed periodically, and plots of weight gain vs time indicate that weight is gained at a parabolic rate after an initial period where weight was gained at a much greater rate. The high initial oxidation rate is thought to arise from the initially high surface area in the porous bond coat. Specimen life (time to first crack) was found to be a strong function of temperature. However, while test lives varied greatly with time, the weight gain at the time of specimen failure was quite insensitive to temperature. This indicates that there is a critical weight gain at which the coating fails when subjected to this test.

  1. Atomic layer deposition and properties of ZrO2/Fe2O3 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Seemen, Helina; Ritslaid, Peeter; Rähn, Mihkel; Tamm, Aile; Kukli, Kaupo; Kasikov, Aarne; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo; Dueñas, Salvador; Castán, Helena; García, Héctor

    2018-01-01

    Thin solid films consisting of ZrO2 and Fe2O3 were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 400 °C. Metastable phases of ZrO2 were stabilized by Fe2O3 doping. The number of alternating ZrO2 and Fe2O3 deposition cycles were varied in order to achieve films with different cation ratios. The influence of annealing on the composition and structure of the thin films was investigated. Additionally, the influence of composition and structure on electrical and magnetic properties was studied. Several samples exhibited a measurable saturation magnetization and most of the samples exhibited a charge polarization. Both phenomena were observed in the sample with a Zr/Fe atomic ratio of 2.0. PMID:29441257

  2. Intense visible light emission from stress-activated ZrO2:Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Morito; Xu, Chao-Nan; Nonaka, Kazuhiro

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the luminescence phenomena from stress-activated ZrO2:Ti. The luminescence is clearly visible to the naked eye in the atmosphere. The luminescence center has been identified as the Ti4+ ion from spectra of the mechanoluminescence and also from photoluminescence studies of ZrO2:Ti. The mechanoluminescence intensity decreases on repetitive application of stress but recovers completely on irradiation with ultraviolet light. ZrO2 is an n-type semiconductor and has electron traps. It is suggested that the mechanoluminescence mechanism arises from the movement of dislocations and recombination between electrons and holes released from these traps which are associated with the Ti4+ centers.

  3. Phenol-photodegradation on ZrO2. Enhancement by semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, C; Dhanalakshmi, R; Gomathisankar, P

    2012-06-15

    On illumination with light of wavelength 365 nm phenol undergoes degradation on the surface of ZrO(2). The rate of degradation enhances linearly with the concentration of phenol and also the light intensity but decreases with increase of pH. The photonic efficiency of degradation is higher with illumination at 254 nm than with 365 nm. The diffuse reflectance spectral study suggests phenol-sensitized activation of ZrO(2) with 365 nm light. TiO(2), Fe(2)O(3), CuO, ZnO, ZnS, Nb(2)O(5) and CdO particles enhance the photodegradation on ZrO(2), indicating inter-particle charge-transfer. Determination of size of the particles under suspension, by light scattering technique, shows agglomeration of particles supporting the proposition of charge-transfer between particles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) Catalyst in Biodiesel Conversion of Rice Bran Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatimah, Is; Taushiyah, Ana; Badriatun Najah, Fitri; Azmi, Ulil

    2018-04-01

    Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) catalyst for conversion of rice bran oil to biodiesel have been investigated. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation method of ZrOCl2 as ZrO2 precursor with BLA at a theoretical content of 20% wt. followed by calcination. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst material were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and surface acidity measurement. Activity test of materials in biodiesel conversion of rice bran oil was used by reflux method and microwave (MW) assisted method. Reaction variables studied in the investigation were the effect of catalyst weight and time of MW irradiation compared with the use reflux method. The results showed that ZrO2/BLA catalyst exhibited competitively effective and efficient processes for the production of biodiesel. The reflux method demonstrated an higher conversion (%) compared to MW method, however MW method showed the better reusable properties.

  5. Enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in Bi-Sb-Te nanocomposites with homogenously dispersed oxide ceramic ZrO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madavali, B.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, K. H.; Hong, S. J.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, p-type BiSbTe/ZrO2 nanocomposite powders were fabricated by high-energy ball milling. Different weight percentages of ZrO2 (2, 4, and 6 wt. %) nanoparticles were incorporated into the bulk (BiSbTe) matrix by consolidation of as-synthesized nanocomposites (NCs) powder by spark plasma sintering at 673 K. The phase and existence of ZrO2 nano-inclusions was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-selected area electron diffraction analysis. The Seebeck coefficient of the BiSbTe/ZrO2 NCs was significantly improved (˜36% for 4 wt. % added NCs) by a decrease in the carrier concentration and energy filtering effect, whereas the thermal conductivity was much reduced via strong scattering of carriers/phonons. The peak thermoelectric figure-of-merit (1.34 ± 0.06) was obtained for BiSbTe into which 2 wt. % ZrO2 was dispersed, which was approximately 20% greater than that of the undispersed sample. The hardness of the nanocomposites was significantly improved (˜27%) due to grain-boundary hardening and a dispersion strengthening mechanism.

  6. Study of Pt-Rh/CeO2-ZrO2-MxOy (M = Y, La)/Al2O3 three-way catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiaxiu, Guo; Zhonghua, Shi; Dongdong, Wu; Huaqiang, Yin; Maochu, Gong; Yaoqiang, Chen

    2013-05-01

    CeO2-ZrO2-MxOy (M = Y; La) mixed oxides, prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra (RM) and oxygen pulse reaction, were comparatively investigated to elucidate the combinational effects of Y and/or La oxide promoters on the catalytic activity and anti-aging performance of monolithic cordierite honeycomb catalysts with low Pt and Rh content. The catalytic activities, water-gas shift (WGS) and steam reforming reaction (SR) were studied under a simulated gas mixture. The catalysts were also characterized by H2-temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and O2-temperature-programmed desorption (O2-TPD). The results showed that the prepared CeO2-ZrO2-MxOy oxides have a face-centered cubic fluorite structure and are nanosize. La3+ ions can significantly improve thermal stability and efficiently retard CeO2-ZrO2 crystal sintering and growth. Doped CeO2-ZrO2 with Y3+ and La3+ has 105 and 60 m2/g surface area and 460 and 390 μmol/g OSC before and after aging. The T50 of fresh Pt-Rh/CZYL/LA is 170 °C for CO, 222 °C for C3H8 and 189 °C for NO, and shift to 205, 262 and 228 °C after hydrothermal aging, which are better than those of Pt-Rh/CZY/LA or Pt-Rh/CZL/LA. WGS and SR are relate to the OSC of oxygen storage materials and absorbed oxygen species on the catalyst surface and affect the three-way catalytic activities of catalysts. The reductive property of noble metals and the dissociatively adsorbed O2 on the surface of catalysts are closely related to the catalytic activities.

  7. Temperature-dependent local structural properties of redox Pt nanoparticles on TiO 2 and ZrO 2 supports

    DOE PAGES

    Jeong, Eun -Suk; Park, Chang -In; Jin, Zhenlan; ...

    2015-01-21

    This paper examined the local structural properties of Pt nanoparticles on SiO 2, TiO 2–SiO 2, and ZrO 2–SiO 2 supports to better understand the impact of oxide-support type on the performance of Pt-based catalysts. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements were taken for the Pt L3-edge in a temperature range from 300 to 700 K in He, H 2, and O 2 gas environments. The XAFS measurements demonstrated that Pt atoms were highly dispersed on TiO 2–SiO 2 and ZrO 2–SiO 2 forming pancake-shaped nanoparticles, whereas Pt atoms formed larger particles of hemispherical shapes on SiO 2more » supports. Contrary to the SiO 2 case, the coordination numbers for Pt, Ti, and Zr around Pt atoms on the TiO 2–SiO 2 and ZrO 2–SiO 2 supports were nearly constant from 300 to 700 K under the different gas environments. These results are consistent with the improvements in thermal stability of Pt nanoparticles achieved by incorporating TiO 2 or ZrO 2 on the surface of SiO 2 supports. XAFS analysis further indicated that the enhanced dispersion and stability of Pt were a consequence of the strong metal support interaction via Pt–Ti and Pt–Zr bonds.« less

  8. Thermal Conductivity of Ceramic Thermal Barrier and Environmental Barrier Coating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Bansal, Narottam P.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal barrier and environmental barrier coatings (TBC's and EBC's) have been developed to protect metallic and Si-based ceramic components in gas turbine engines from high temperature attack. Zirconia-yttria based oxides and (Ba,Sr)Al2Si2O8(BSAS)/mullite based silicates have been used as the coating materials. In this study, thermal conductivity values of zirconia-yttria- and BSAS/mullite-based coating materials were determined at high temperatures using a steady-state laser heat flux technique. During the laser conductivity test, the specimen surface was heated by delivering uniformly distributed heat flux from a high power laser. One-dimensional steady-state heating was achieved by using thin disk specimen configuration (25.4 mm diam and 2 to 4 mm thickness) and the appropriate backside air-cooling. The temperature gradient across the specimen thickness was carefully measured by two surface and backside pyrometers. The thermal conductivity values were thus determined as a function of temperature based on the 1-D heat transfer equation. The radiation heat loss and laser absorption corrections of the materials were considered in the conductivity measurements. The effects of specimen porosity and sintering on measured conductivity values were also evaluated.

  9. Environmental degradation of oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings for fuel-flexible gas turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Prabhakar

    The development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been undoubtedly the most critical advancement in materials technology for modern gas turbine engines. TBCs are widely used in gas turbine engines for both power-generation and propulsion applications. Metallic oxidation-resistant coatings (ORCs) are also widely employed as a stand-alone protective coating or bond coat for TBCs in many high-temperature applications. Among the widely studied durability issues in these high-temperature protective coatings, one critical challenge that received greater attention in recent years is their resistance to high-temperature degradation due to corrosive deposits arising from fuel impurities and CMAS (calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate) sand deposits from air ingestion. The presence of vanadium, sulfur, phosphorus, sodium and calcium impurities in alternative fuels warrants a clear understanding of high-temperature materials degradation for the development of fuel-flexible gas turbine engines. Degradation due to CMAS is a critical problem for gas turbine components operating in a dust-laden environment. In this study, high-temperature degradation due to aggressive deposits such as V2O5, P2O 5, Na2SO4, NaVO3, CaSO4 and a laboratory-synthesized CMAS sand for free-standing air plasma sprayed (APS) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the topcoat of the TBC system, and APS CoNiCrAlY, the bond coat of the TBC system or a stand-alone ORC, is examined. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined by using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the V2O5 melt degrades the APS YSZ through the formation of ZrV2O7 and YVO 4 at temperatures below 747°C and above 747°C, respectively. Formation of YVO4 leads to the depletion of the Y2O 3 stabilizer and the deleterious transformation of the YSZ to the monoclinic ZrO2 phase. The investigation on the YSZ degradation by Na 2SO4 and a Na2SO4 + V2

  10. Structural and dielectric properties of CTAB modified ZrO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Gaganpreet Kaur; Tripathi, S. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) has been considered as one of the most investigated materials among various metal oxides due its outstanding dielectric properties and ionic conduction properties, which is mainly due to its high oxygen ion conduction. ZrO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using surfactant (CTAB) to study the variation of its dielectric behavior at room temperature. Surfactants form a unique class of chemical compounds, because of their remarkable ability to influence the properties of surfaces and interfaces of nanostructures. The dielectric properties of prepared nanoparticles were studied using LCR meter.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted sol-gel synthesis of ZrO2.

    PubMed

    Guel, Marlene Lariza Andrade; Jiménez, Lourdes Díaz; Hernández, Dora Alicia Cortés

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of tetragonal ZrO 2 by both conventional sol-gel and ultrasound-assisted sol-gel methods and using a non-ionic surfactant Tween-20, was performed. A porous microstructure composed of nanometric particles was observed. Tetragonal ZrO 2 was obtained using a low heat treatment temperature of powders, 500°C by both methods. A higher crystallinity and a shorter reaction time were observed when ultrasound was used in the sol-gel method due to the cavitation phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling of the YO(l.5)-ZrO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan

    2003-01-01

    The YO1.5-ZrO2 system consists of five solid solutions, one liquid solution, and one intermediate compound. A thermodynamic description of this system is developed, which allows calculation of the phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. Two different solution models are used-a neutral species model with YO1.5 and ZrO2 as the components and a charged species model with Y(+3), Zr(+4), O(-2), and vacancies as components. For each model, regular and sub-regular solution parameters are derived fiom selected equilibrium phase and thermodynamic data.

  13. Air Plasma-Sprayed Yttria and Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Subjected to Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenshuai; Zhao, Huayu; Zhong, Xinghua; Wang, Liang; Tao, Shunyan

    2014-08-01

    Yttria (Y2O3) and zirconia (ZrO2) stabilized by 8 and 20 wt.%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) subjected to calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) have been investigated. Free-standing Y2O3, 8 and 20 wt.%YSZ coatings covered with synthetic CMAS slurry were heated at 1300 °C in air for 24 h in order to assess the effect of Y2O3 on the corrosion resistance of the coatings subjected to CMAS. The microstructures and phase compositions of the coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, RS, and TEM. TBCs with higher Y2O3 content exhibited better CMAS corrosion resistance. Phase transformation of ZrO2 from tetragonal (t) to monoclinic (m) occurred during the interaction of 8YSZ TBCs and CMAS, due to the depletion of Y2O3 in the coating. Some amounts of original c-ZrO2 still survived in 20YSZ TBCs along with a small amount of m-ZrO2 that appeared after reaction with CMAS. Furthermore, Y2O3 coating was found to be particularly highly effective in resisting the penetration of molten CMAS glass at high temperature (1300 °C). This may be ascribed to the formation of sealing layers composed of Y-apatite phase [based on Ca4Y6 (SiO4)6O and Y4.67(SiO4)3O] by the high-temperature chemical interactions of Y2O3 coating and CMAS glass.

  14. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is strongly dependent on the amount and shape of the porosity in the coating. Current metallographic techniques do not provide polished surfaces that are adequate for a repeatable interpretation of the coating structures. A technique recently developed at NASA-Lewis for preparation of thermal barrier coating sections combines epoxy impregnation, careful sectioning and polishing, and interference layering to provide previously unobtainable information on processing-induced porosity. In fact, increased contrast and less ambiguous structure developed by the method make automatic quantitative metallography a viable option for characterizing thermal barrier coating structures.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles Doped with Ytterbium and Gadolinium: ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamirian, M.; Hadavi, S. M. M.; Rahimipour, M. R.; Farvizi, M.; Keyvani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Defect cluster thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are attractive alternatives to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in advanced applications. In this study, YSZ nanoparticles doped with ytterbium and gadolinium (ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3 (ZGYbY)) were synthesized through a chemical co-precipitation and calcination method, and characterized by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C (HTK-XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Precise cell parameters of t-prime phase and the best zirconia phase for TBC applications were calculated by Cohen's and Rietveld refinement methods. Optimum crystallization temperature of the precursor powder was found to be 1000 °C. Furthermore, FE-SEM results for the calcined ZGYbY powders indicated orderly particles of uniform shape and size with a small tendency toward agglomeration. Average lattice thermal expansion coefficient in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C was determined to be 31.71 × 10-6 K-1.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles Doped with Ytterbium and Gadolinium: ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamirian, M.; Hadavi, S. M. M.; Rahimipour, M. R.; Farvizi, M.; Keyvani, A.

    2018-06-01

    Defect cluster thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are attractive alternatives to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in advanced applications. In this study, YSZ nanoparticles doped with ytterbium and gadolinium (ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3 (ZGYbY)) were synthesized through a chemical co-precipitation and calcination method, and characterized by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C (HTK-XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Precise cell parameters of t-prime phase and the best zirconia phase for TBC applications were calculated by Cohen's and Rietveld refinement methods. Optimum crystallization temperature of the precursor powder was found to be 1000 °C. Furthermore, FE-SEM results for the calcined ZGYbY powders indicated orderly particles of uniform shape and size with a small tendency toward agglomeration. Average lattice thermal expansion coefficient in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C was determined to be 31.71 × 10-6 K-1.

  17. Optical Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Mark Steven

    The high temperature properties of ceramic materials make them suitable for the extreme environments of gas combustion powered turbines. They are instrumental in providing thermal insulation for the metallic turbine components from the combustion products. Also, the addition of specific rare earth elements to ceramics creates materials with temperature diagnostic applications. Laser based methods have been applied to these ceramic coatings to predict their remaining thermal insulation service life and to explore their high temperature diagnostic capabilities. A method for cleaning thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) contaminated during engine operation has been developed using laser ablation. Surface contamination on the turbine blades hinders nondestructive remaining life prediction using photo luminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS). Real time monitoring of the removed material is employed to prevent damage to the underlying coating. This method relies on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to compute the cross correlation coefficient between the spectral emissions of a sample TBC that is contaminated and a reference clean TBC. It is possible to remove targeted contaminants and cease ablation when the top surface of the TBC has been reached. In collaboration with this work, Kelley's thesis [1] presents microscopy images and PLPS measurements indicating the integrity of the TBC has been maintained during the removal of surface contaminants. Thermographic phosphors (TGP) have optical emission properties when excited by a laser that are temperature dependent. These spectral and temporal properties have been investigated and utilized for temperature measurement schemes by many previous researchers. The compounds presented in this dissertation consist of various rare earth (Lanthanide) elements doped into a host crystal lattice. As the temperature of the lattice changes, both the time scale for vibrational quenching and the distribution of energy among atomic energy

  18. Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of delamination mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings has been developed for diesel engine applications through rig tests, structural analysis modeling, nondestructive evaluation, and engine evaluation of various thermal barrier coatings. This knowledge has resulted in improved thermal barrier coatings which survive abusive cyclic fatigue tests in high output diesel engines. Although much conflicting literature now exists regarding the impact of thermal barrier coatings on engine performance and fuel consumption, the changes in fuel consumption appear to be less than a few percent and can be negative for state-of-the-art diesel engines. The ability of the thermal barrier coating to improve fuel economy tends to be dependent on a number of factors including the fuel injection system, combustion chamber design, and the initial engine fuel economy. Limited investigations on state-of-the-art diesel engines have indicated that the surface connected porosity and coating surface roughness may influence engine fuel economy. Current research efforts on thermal barrier coatings are primarily directed at reducing in-cylinder heat rejection, thermal fatigue protection of underlying metal surfaces and a possible reduction in diesel engine emissions. Significant efforts are still required to improve the plasma spray processing capability and the economics for complex geometry diesel engine components.

  19. Afterglow based detection and dosimetry of beta particle irradiated ZrO2.

    PubMed

    Salas-Juárez, Ch J; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Avilés-Monreal, R; Bernal, R

    2018-08-01

    In this work, we report on the afterglow (AG) response characterization of commercially available ZrO 2 . Pellet shaped samples previously annealed in air at 1000°C during 24h were exposed to beta particle irradiation in the dose range from 0.5 up to 128Gy and their AG decay curves recorded during 600s after irradiation exposure. The characteristic glow curves of beta particle irradiated ZrO 2 show two maxima located around 80°C and 150°C. The first one rapidly vanishes at room temperature, giving rise to AG. The integrated AG signal increases as dose increases from 0.5 to 128Gy, with a linear dependence from 0.5 up to ca. 32Gy. Excellent reproducibility of the AG response was observed in 10 irradiation - AG readout cycles, showing that the studied ZrO 2 samples are reusable. The results here presented show that ZrO 2 is a promising material for use as a radiation dosimeter based on the AG phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of Photosensitive ZrO2 array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhu, R.; Kou, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Based on organic zirconium source as the starting material, by adding chemical modifiers which are made up with photosensitive ZrO2 sol. A uniformed ZrO2 array dot was fabricated with a mean diameter of around 800 nm. By using UV-vis spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis method, studies the photosensitive ZrO2 gel film of photochemical reaction process and the photosensitive mechanism, to determine the zirconium atom centered chelate structure, reaction formed by metal chelate Zr atom for the center, and to establish the molecular model of the chelate. And studied the ultraviolet light in the process of the variation of the XPS spectra, Zr3d5/2 to 184.9 eV corresponding to the binding energy of the as the combination of state peak gradually reduce; By combining with the status of Zr-O peak gradually increase; The strength of the peak is gradually decline. This suggests that in the process of ultraviolet light photo chemical reaction happened. This study is of great significance to the micro fabrication of ZrO2 array not only to the memory devices but also to the optical devices.

  1. Effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports prepared by a grafting method on hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas over Ni/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Song, In Kyu

    SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports with various zirconium contents are prepared by grafting a zirconium precursor onto the surface of commercial Carbosil silica. Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports on the performance of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts is investigated. SiO 2-ZrO 2 prepared by a grafting method serves as an efficient support for the nickel catalyst in the steam reforming of LNG. Zirconia enhances the resistance of silica to steam significantly and increases the interaction between nickel and the support, and furthermore, prevents the growth of nickel oxide species during the calcination process through the formation of a ZrO 2-SiO 2 composite structure. The crystalline structures and catalytic activities of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are strongly influenced by the amount of zirconium grafted. The conversion of LNG and the yield of hydrogen show volcano-shaped curves with respect to zirconium content. Among the catalysts tested, the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) sample shows the best catalytic performance in terms of both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield. The well-developed and pure tetragonal phase of ZrO 2-SiO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) appears to play an important role in the adsorption of steam and subsequent spillover of steam from the support to the active nickel. The small particle size of the metallic nickel in the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) catalyst is also responsible for its high performance.

  2. Thermal barrier coating on high temperature industrial gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N.; Stoner, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal barrier coating used was a yttria stabilized zirconia material with a NiCrAlY undercoat, and the base engine used to establish improvements was the P&WA FT50A-4 industrial gas turbine engine. The design benefits of thermal barrier coatings include simplified cooling schemes and the use of conventional alloys in the engine hot section. Cooling flow reductions and improved heating rates achieved with thermal barrier coating result in improved performance. Economic benefits include reduced power production costs and reduced fuel consumption. Over the 30,000 hour life of the thermal barrier coated parts, fuel savings equivalent to $5 million are projected and specific power (megawatts/mass of engine airflow) improvements on the order of 13% are estimated.

  3. Enhanced electrical properties of SrBi4Ti4O15 ceramic with addition of ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamatha, B.; Rani, G. Neeraja; Shankar, J.

    2018-04-01

    Polycrystalline SrBi4Ti3.95Zr0.05O15 (SBZT) ceramic was prepared by solid-state double sintering method. It was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM). With the increased addition of ZrO2, the electrical properties as dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric were studied. From XRD, single-phase formation with orthorhombic structure was identified by the increase of ZrO2. The remnant polarization (Pr) and dielectric constant was found to be increased with the increase of ZrO2. With the increase of ZrO2, Curie temperature (Tc) was found to be decreased. The planar electromechanical coupling coefficient (Kp = 0.57) and Piezoelectric coefficient (d33 = 18 pC/N) was found to be increased with the increase of ZrO2.

  4. High-yield sol-gel synthesis of well-dispersed, colorless ZrO(2) nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Mikihisa; Sasaki, Yuichi; Lee, Sungkil; Katakura, Hitoshi

    2006-08-15

    A 93% high-yield synthesis of well-dispersed, colorless zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2)) nanocrystals is reported. In this synthesis, hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium(IV) tert-butoxide in the presence of oleic acid (100 degrees C) formed ZrO(2) precursors. The ZrO(2) precursors were made of -Zr-O-Zr- networks surrounded by oleic acid molecules. Annealing (280 degrees C) the precursors dispersed in dioctyl ether caused crystallization of the -Zr-O-Zr- networks, thereby generating 4 nm ZrO(2) nanocrystals stabilized with oleic acid. The particles were highly crystalline and tetragonal phase. A dense ZrO(2) nanocrystal dispersion in toluene (280 mg/mL) showed a transmittance of about 90% (3 mm optical path length) in the whole visible region.

  5. Defect-related electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with ZrO2 films on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2016-11-01

    Defect-related electroluminescence (EL) from ZrO2 films annealed under different atmosphere has been realized by means of electrical pumping scheme of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. At the same injection current, the acquired EL from the MOS device with the vacuum-annealed ZrO2 film is much stronger than that from the counterpart with the oxygen-annealed ZrO2 film. This is because the vacuum-annealed ZrO2 film contains more oxygen vacancies and Zr3+ ions. Analysis on the current-voltage characteristic of the ZrO2-based MOS devices indicates the P-F conduction mechanism dominates the electron transportation at the EL-enabling voltages under forward bias. It is tentatively proposed that the recombination of the electrons trapped in multiple oxygen-vacancy-related states with the holes in the defect level pertaining to Zr3+ ions brings about the EL emissions.

  6. Heat transfer in thermal barrier coated rods with circumferential and radial temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, B. T. F.; Kermani, M. M.; Braun, M. J.; Padovan, J.; Hendricks, R.

    1984-06-01

    To study the heat transfer in ceramic coatings applied to the heated side of internally cooled hot section components of the gas turbine engine, a mathematical model is developed for the thermal response of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramic materials with a Ni-Cr-AL-Y bond coat on a Rene 41 rod substrate subject to thermal cycling. This multilayered cylinder with temperature dependent thermal properties is heated in a cross-flow by a high velocity flame and then cooled by ambient air. Due to high temperature and high velocity of the flame, both gas radiation and forced convection are taken into consideration. Furthermore, the local turbulent heat transfer coefficient is employed which varies with angular position as well as the surface temperature. The transient two-dimensional (heat transfer along axial direction is neglected) temperature distribution of the composite cylinder is determined numerically.

  7. Heat transfer in thermal barrier coated rods with circumferential and radial temperature gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, B. T. F.; Kermani, M. M.; Braun, M. J.; Padovan, J.; Hendricks, R.

    1984-01-01

    To study the heat transfer in ceramic coatings applied to the heated side of internally cooled hot section components of the gas turbine engine, a mathematical model is developed for the thermal response of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramic materials with a Ni-Cr-AL-Y bond coat on a Rene 41 rod substrate subject to thermal cycling. This multilayered cylinder with temperature dependent thermal properties is heated in a cross-flow by a high velocity flame and then cooled by ambient air. Due to high temperature and high velocity of the flame, both gas radiation and forced convection are taken into consideration. Furthermore, the local turbulent heat transfer coefficient is employed which varies with angular position as well as the surface temperature. The transient two-dimensional (heat transfer along axial direction is neglected) temperature distribution of the composite cylinder is determined numerically.

  8. Kinetics of nitric oxide and oxygen gases on porous Y-stabilized ZrO2-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Killa, Sajin; Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P; Mainardi, Daniela S

    2013-08-16

    Using impedance spectroscopy the electrical response of sensors with various porous Y-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) microstructures was measured for gas concentrations containing 0-100 ppm NO with 10.5%O2 at temperatures ranging from 600-700 °C. The impedance response increased substantially as the sensor porosity increased from 46%-50%. Activation energies calculated based on data from the impedance measurements increased in magnitude (97.4-104.9 kJ/mol for 100 ppm NO) with respect to increasing YSZ porosity. Analysis of the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the sensors suggested that dissociative adsorption was the dominant rate limiting. The PWC/DNP theory level was used to investigate the gas-phase energy barrier of the 2NO+O2 → 2NO2 reaction on a 56-atom YSZ/Au model cluster using Density Functional Theory and Linear Synchronous Transit/Quadratic Synchronous Transit calculations. The reaction path shows oxygen surface reactions that begin with NO association with adsorbed O2 on a Zr surface site, followed by O2 dissociative adsorption, atomic oxygen diffusion, and further NO2 formation. The free energy barrier was calculated to be 181.7 kJ/mol at PWC/DNP. A qualitative comparison with the extrapolated data at 62% ± 2% porosity representing the YSZ model cluster indicates that the calculated barriers are in reasonable agreement with experiments, especially when the RPBE functional is used.

  9. A Theoretical Model for Predicting Residual Stress Generation in Fabrication Process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Wu, Weijie; Xie, Feng; Liu, Yilun; Wang, Tiejun

    2017-01-01

    Residual stress arisen in fabrication process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System (DCL-TBCs) has a significant effect on its quality and reliability. In this work, based on the practical fabrication process of DCL-TBCs and the force and moment equilibrium, a theoretical model was proposed at first to predict residual stress generation in its fabrication process, in which the temperature dependent material properties of DCL-TBCs were incorporated. Then, a Finite Element method (FEM) has been carried out to verify our theoretical model. Afterwards, some important geometric parameters for DCL-TBCs, such as the thickness ratio of stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, ZrO2-8%Y2O3) layer to Lanthanum Zirconate (LZ, La2Zr2O7) layer, which is adjustable in a wide range in the fabrication process, have a remarkable effect on its performance, therefore, the effect of this thickness ratio on residual stress generation in the fabrication process of DCL-TBCs has been systematically studied. In addition, some thermal spray treatment, such as the pre-heating treatment, its effect on residual stress generation has also been studied in this work. It is found that, the final residual stress mainly comes from the cooling down process in the fabrication of DCL-TBCs. Increasing the pre-heating temperature can obviously decrease the magnitude of residual stresses in LZ layer, YSZ layer and substrate. With the increase of the thickness ratio of YSZ layer to LZ layer, magnitudes of residual stresses arisen in LZ layer and YSZ layer will increase while residual stress in substrate will decrease.

  10. A Theoretical Model for Predicting Residual Stress Generation in Fabrication Process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan; Wu, Weijie; Xie, Feng; Liu, Yilun; Wang, Tiejun

    2017-01-01

    Residual stress arisen in fabrication process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System (DCL-TBCs) has a significant effect on its quality and reliability. In this work, based on the practical fabrication process of DCL-TBCs and the force and moment equilibrium, a theoretical model was proposed at first to predict residual stress generation in its fabrication process, in which the temperature dependent material properties of DCL-TBCs were incorporated. Then, a Finite Element method (FEM) has been carried out to verify our theoretical model. Afterwards, some important geometric parameters for DCL-TBCs, such as the thickness ratio of stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, ZrO2-8%Y2O3) layer to Lanthanum Zirconate (LZ, La2Zr2O7) layer, which is adjustable in a wide range in the fabrication process, have a remarkable effect on its performance, therefore, the effect of this thickness ratio on residual stress generation in the fabrication process of DCL-TBCs has been systematically studied. In addition, some thermal spray treatment, such as the pre-heating treatment, its effect on residual stress generation has also been studied in this work. It is found that, the final residual stress mainly comes from the cooling down process in the fabrication of DCL-TBCs. Increasing the pre-heating temperature can obviously decrease the magnitude of residual stresses in LZ layer, YSZ layer and substrate. With the increase of the thickness ratio of YSZ layer to LZ layer, magnitudes of residual stresses arisen in LZ layer and YSZ layer will increase while residual stress in substrate will decrease. PMID:28103275

  11. Are thermal barriers "higher" in deep sea turtle nests?

    PubMed Central

    Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Fonseca, Luis; Paladino, Frank V.; Spotila, James R.; Oro, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Thermal tolerances are affected by the range of temperatures that species encounter in their habitat. Daniel Janzen hypothesized in his “Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics” that temperature gradients were effective barriers to animal movements where climatic uniformity was high. Sea turtles bury their eggs providing some thermal stability that varies with depth. We assessed the relationship between thermal uniformity and thermal tolerance in nests of three species of sea turtles. We considered that barriers were “high” when small thermal changes had comparatively large effects and “low” when the effects were small. Mean temperature was lower and fluctuated less in species that dig deeper nests. Thermal barriers were comparatively “higher” in leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nests, which were the deepest, as embryo mortality increased at lower “high” temperatures than in olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nests. Sea turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and embryo mortality increased as temperature approached the upper end of the transitional range of temperatures (TRT) that produces both sexes (temperature producing 100% female offspring) in leatherback and olive ridley turtles. As thermal barriers are “higher” in some species than in others, the effects of climate warming on embryo mortality is likely to vary among sea turtles. Population resilience to climate warming may also depend on the balance between temperatures that produce female offspring and those that reduce embryo survival. PMID:28545092

  12. Are thermal barriers "higher" in deep sea turtle nests?

    PubMed

    Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Fonseca, Luis; Paladino, Frank V; Spotila, James R; Oro, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Thermal tolerances are affected by the range of temperatures that species encounter in their habitat. Daniel Janzen hypothesized in his "Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics" that temperature gradients were effective barriers to animal movements where climatic uniformity was high. Sea turtles bury their eggs providing some thermal stability that varies with depth. We assessed the relationship between thermal uniformity and thermal tolerance in nests of three species of sea turtles. We considered that barriers were "high" when small thermal changes had comparatively large effects and "low" when the effects were small. Mean temperature was lower and fluctuated less in species that dig deeper nests. Thermal barriers were comparatively "higher" in leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nests, which were the deepest, as embryo mortality increased at lower "high" temperatures than in olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nests. Sea turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and embryo mortality increased as temperature approached the upper end of the transitional range of temperatures (TRT) that produces both sexes (temperature producing 100% female offspring) in leatherback and olive ridley turtles. As thermal barriers are "higher" in some species than in others, the effects of climate warming on embryo mortality is likely to vary among sea turtles. Population resilience to climate warming may also depend on the balance between temperatures that produce female offspring and those that reduce embryo survival.

  13. Substitutional Cd and Cd-Oxygen Vacancy Complexes in ZrO2 and Ce-doped ZrO_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacate, Matthew O.; Karapetrova, E.; Platzer, R.; Gardner, J. A.; Evenson, W. E.; Sommers, J. A.

    1996-03-01

    We are using Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy (PAC) to study oxygen vacancy (V_O) dynamics in tetragonal ZrO2 and Ce-doped ZrO_2. PAC requires a radioactive probe atom, Cd in this study, which sits substitutionally for a Zr ion. Cd is doubly-negatively charged relative to the lattice and attracts doubly-positively charged V_Os. Pure tetragonal zirconia exists only above 950 ^circC and in this temperature range, the V_Os are very mobile. Above 950 ^circC we observe V_Os rapidly hopping about the Cd allowing us to determine the VO concentration and the trapping energy. We have been Ce-doping to stabilize the tetragonal phase to lower temperature to determine the electric field gradient the Cd experiences due to a stationary V_O. As a consequence of the Ce-doping, we observe a local lattice distortion about the Cd which increases with Ce-doping.

  14. Improved WO3 photocatalytic efficiency using ZrO2 and Ru for the degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Gar Alalm, Mohamed; Ookawara, Shinichi; Fukushi, Daisuke; Sato, Akira; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-25

    The photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran (pesticide) and ampicillin (pharmaceutical) using synthesized WO3/ZrO2 nanoparticles under simulated solar light was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra analyses were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The optimum ratio of WO3 to ZrO2 was determined to be 1:1 for the degradation of both contaminants. The degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin by WO3/ZrO2 after 240 min of irradiation was 100% and 96%, respectively. Ruthenium (Ru) was employed as an additive to WO3/ZrO2 to enhance the photocatalytic degradation rate. Ru/WO3/ZrO2 exhibited faster degradation rates than WO3/ZrO2. Furthermore, 100% and 97% degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin, respectively, was achieved using Ru/WO3/ZrO2 after 180 min of irradiation. The durability of the catalyst was investigated by reusing the same suspended catalyst, which achieved 92% of its initial efficiency. The photocatalytic degradation of ampicillin and carbofuran followed pseudo-first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Fundamental Study of the Bonding of Thermal Barrier Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    information, as there is a ubiquitous glassy phase which can, at times, obscure the interface bound- ary. Computer simulation is being used to interpret...interpret the interface structure and determine whether or not an amorphous phase is actually present. It is tempting, however, to stggest that the...discussed, we have been unable so far to specify the ZrO2 orientation that leads to this low-energy interface . It is common in HREM to determine the crystal

  16. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.

    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured inmore » a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.« less

  17. Ag nanoparticle effects on the thermoluminescent properties of monoclinic ZrO2 exposed to ultraviolet and gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Sanchéz, G.; Mendoza-Anaya, D.; Gutiérrez-Wing, C.; Pérez-Hernández, R.; González-Martínez, P. R.; Ángeles-Chavez, C.

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this work was to analyse ZrO2 in the pure state and when doped with Ag nanoparticles, by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and thermoluminescence methods. According to the results obtained, Ag nanoparticles did not modify the morphology or the crystalline structure of the ZrO2. The thermoluminescent (TL) response of pure ZrO2 showed two peaks, one at 334 K and the other at 417 K, when it was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and at 342 and 397 K when gamma radiation was used. For ZrO2 impregnated with Ag nanoparticles a diminished TL intensity due to nanoparticle shielding was observed, but the glow curve shape was similar. However, when Ag nanoparticles were added during the ZrO2 synthesis, a shift of the TL peaks towards higher temperature values with reference to pure ZrO2 was observed. A linear dependence of the integrated TL signal as a function of the irradiation dose was observed in all analysed samples. It was possible to determine some kinetic parameters, such as activation energy, kinetic order and frequency factor, using the sequential quadratic programming glow curve deconvolution; it was found that these values are highly dependent on the type of radiation used. Ag nanoparticles present in ZrO2 also modified the kinetic parameters, mainly when they were added during the synthesis of ZrO2. Our results reinforce the possibilities of using pure and doped ZrO2 as an appropriate dosimetric material in radiation physics.

  18. Advanced Thermal Barrier and Environmental Barrier Coating Development at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Robinson, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This presentation summarizes NASA's advanced thermal barrier and environmental barrier coating systems, and the coating performance improvements that has recently been achieved and documented in laboratory simulated rig test conditions. One of the emphases has been placed on the toughness and impact resistance enhancements of the low conductivity, defect cluster thermal barrier coating systems. The advances in the next generation environmental barrier coatings for SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites have also been highlighted, particularly in the design of a new series of oxide-silicate composition systems to be integrated with next generation SiC-SiC turbine engine components for 2700F coating applications. Major technical barriers in developing the thermal and environmental barrier coating systems are also described. The performance and model validations in the rig simulated turbine combustion, heat flux, steam and calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) environments have helped the current progress in improved temperature capability, environmental stability, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability of the advanced thermal and environmental barrier coating systems.

  19. Nb and Pd co-doped La0.57Sr0.38Co0.19Fe0.665Nb0.095Pd0.05O3-δ as a stable, high performance electrode for barrier-layer-free Y2O3-ZrO2 electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kongfa; He, Shuai; Li, Na; Cheng, Yi; Ai, Na; Chen, Minle; Rickard, William D. A.; Zhang, Teng; Jiang, San Ping

    2018-02-01

    La0.6Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) is the most intensively investigated high performance cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs), but strontium segregation and migration at the electrode/electrolyte interface is a critical issue limiting the electrocatalytic activity and stability of LSCF based cathodes. Herein, we report a Nb and Pd co-doped LSCF (La0.57Sr0.38Co0.19Fe0.665Nb0.095Pd0.05O3-δ, LSCFNPd) perovskite as stable and active cathode on a barrier-layer-free anode-supported yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte cell using direct assembly method without pre-sintering at high temperatures. The cell exhibits a peak power density of 1.3 W cm-2 at 750 °C and excellent stability with no degradation during polarization at 500 mA cm-2 and 750 °C for 175 h. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis show that the electrochemical polarization promotes the formation of electrode/electrolyte interface in operando and exsolution of Pd/PdO nanoparticles. The Nb doping in the B-site of LSCF significantly reduces the Sr surface segregation, enhancing the stability of the cathode, while the exsoluted Pd/PdO nanoparticles increases the electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. The present study opens up a new route for the development of cobaltite-based perovskite cathodes with high activity and stability for barrier-layer-free YSZ electrolyte based IT-SOFCs.

  20. Structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZrO2 thin film deposited by SILAR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salodkar, R. V.; Belkhedkar, M. R.; Nemade, S. D.

    2018-05-01

    Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method has been employed to deposit nanocrystalline ZrO2 thin film of thickness 91 nm onto glass substrates using ZrOCl2.8H2O and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors respectively. The structural and surface morphological characterizations have been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy confirms the nanocrystalline nature of ZrO2 thin film. The direct optical band gap and activation energy of the ZrO2 thin film are found to be 4.74 and 0.80eV respectively.

  1. Effect of ZrO2 Powders on the Pyrolysis of Polycarbosilanes Coating Under Laser Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Han; Chen, Zhaofeng; Tao, Jie; Yan, Bo; Li, Cong; Wang, Liangbing; Zhang, Ying; Fang, Dan; Wan, Shuicheng; Wu, Wangping

    Aircrafts hold the outstanding mastery of the sky in modern wars, however the laser beam weapons can carry out laser attacking to aircrafts. The purpose of the present paper is to research on a new type laser protective material. Polycarbosilanes (PCS)/divinylbenzene mixtures containing ZrO2 powders were brushed to the surface of the aluminum alloy plates and then cured at 150°C for 6 h. The PCS-coated plates were ablated by laser for 3 s. The phase identification of as-ablated powders was examined by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that the as-ablated powders of cured PCS were composed of major phase β-SiC and smaller amounts of free carbon. The PCS composite coating played a certain role of laser ablation resistance. The effect of added ZrO2 powders on the pyrolysis of PCS-coating under laser ablation is conspicuous.

  2. Ethanol dehydrogenation on copper catalysts with ytterbium stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuklina, S. G.; Pylinina, A. I.; Podzorova, L. I.; Mikhailina, N. A.; Mikhalenko, I. I.

    2016-12-01

    The physicochemical and catalytic properties of Cu-containing crystalline zirconia, obtained via sol-gel synthesis in the presence of Yb3+ ions and polyvinylpyrrolidone, are studied. DTG/DSC, TEM, XRD and BET methods are used to analyze the crystallization, texture, phase uniformity, surface and porosity of ZrO2 nanopowders. It is shown that increasing the copper content (1, 3, and 5 wt % from ZrO2) raises the dehydrogenation activity in the temperature range of 100-400°C and lowers the activation energy of acetaldehyde formation. It is found that the activity of all Cu/ t-ZrO2 catalysts grows under the effects of the reaction medium, due to the migration and redispersion of copper.

  3. Development of Thermal Barriers for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed using conventional 0-ring seals. The 5500+F combustion gases are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of insulation. Special joint-fill compounds are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flowpath to the seals. On a number of occasions. NASA has observed in several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints hot gas penetration through defects in the joint- fill compound. The current nozzle-to-case joint design incorporates primary, secondary and wiper (inner-most) 0-rings and polysulfide joint-fill compound. In the current design, 1 out of 7 motors experience hot gas to the wiper 0-ring. Though the condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas to the wiper 0-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. NASA and solid rocket motor manufacturer Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and a thermal barrier, This paper presents burn-resistance, temperature drop, flow and resiliency test results for several types of NASA braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the thermal barriers when exposed to the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Thermal barriers braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over 6 minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Tests were performed on two thermal barrier braid architectures, denoted Carbon-3 and Carbon-6, to measure the temperature drop across and along the barrier in a compressed state when subjected to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch. Carbon-3 and Carbon-6 thermal barriers were excellent insulators causing temperature drops through their diameter of up to a 2800 and 2560 F. respectively. Gas temperature 1/4" downstream of the thermal barrier were within the

  4. Effect of La2O3 addition on interface chemistry between 4YSZ top layer and Ni based alloy bond coat in thermal barrier coating by EB PVD.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Young; Yang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Won; Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Jang, Byung-Koog; Lim, Dae-Soon; Oh, Yoon-Suk

    2014-11-01

    The effect of a 5 mol% La2O3 addition on the forming behavior and compositional variation at interface between a 4 mol% Yttria (Y2O3) stabilized ZrO2 (4YSZ) top coat and bond coat (NiCrAlY) as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been investigated. Top coats were deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB PVD) onto a super alloy (Ni-Cr-Co-Al) substrate without pre-oxidation of the bond coat. Top coats are found to consist of dense columnar grains with a thin interdiffusion layer between metallic bond coats. In the as-received 4YSZ coating, a thin interdiffusion zone at the interface between the top and bond coats was found to consist of a Ni-Zr intermetallic compound with a reduced quantity of Y, Al or O elements. On the other hand, in the case of an interdiffusion area of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating, it was found that the complicated composition and structure with La-added YSZ and Ni-Al rich compounds separately. The thermal conductivity of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating (- 1.6 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) was lower than a 4YSZ coating (- 3.2 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) alone.

  5. Porous Ceramic Composite ZrO2(MgO)-MgO for Osteoimplantology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyakov, A. S.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    Pore and crystalline structure, biocompatibility of ceramic composite ZrO2(MgO)-MgO were studied. The main mechanical characteristics were determined and it has been shown that compression strength directly depends on microstresses obtained from X-ray data. In-vitro studies of mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MMSC), cultivated on material surface are shown that cell proliferation and differentiation of MMSC goes throw osteogenic type.

  6. Structural and morphological study of ZrO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Davinder; Singh, Avtar; Kaur, Manpreet; Rana, Vikrant Singh; Kaur, Raminder

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the fabrication of transparent thin films of Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique. Further these fabricated films were characterized for different annealing temperatures and withdrawal speed. X-ray diffraction is used to study the structural properties of deposited thin films and it reveals the change in crystallographic properties with the change in annealing temperature. Thickness of thin films is estimated by using scanning electron microscope.

  7. Investigation of phase transition properties of ZrO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Davinder; Singh, Avtar; Kaur, Manpreet; Rana, Vikrant Singh; Kaur, Raminder

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of transparent thin films of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique. Synthesized films were characterized for different annealing time and withdrawal speed. Change in crystallographic properties of thin films was investigated by using X-ray diffraction. Surface morphology of transparent thin films was estimated by using scanning electron microscope.

  8. Interface investigation of solution processed high- κ ZrO2/Si MOS structure by DLTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, Ksr Koteswara

    The interfacial region is dominating due to the continuous downscaling and integration of high- k oxides in CMOS applications. The accurate characterization of high- k oxides/semiconductor interface has the significant importance towards its usage in memory and thin film devices. The interface traps at the high - k /semiconductor interface can be quantified by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with better accuracy in contrast to capacitance-voltage (CV) and conductance technique. We report the fabrication of high- k ZrO2 films on p-Si substrate by a simple and inexpensive sol-gel spin-coating technique. Further, the ZrO2/Si interface is characterized through DLTS. The flat-band voltage (VFB) and the density of slow interface states (oxide trapped charges) extracted from CV characteristics are 0.37 V and 2x10- 11 C/cm2, respectively. The activation energy, interface state density and capture cross-section quantified by DLTS are EV + 0.42 eV, 3.4x1011 eV- 1 cm- 2 and 5.8x10- 18 cm2, respectively. The high quality ZrO2 films own high dielectric constant 15 with low leakage current density might be an appropriate insulating layer in future electronic application. The low value of interface state density and capture cross-section are the indication of high quality interface and the defect present at the interface may not affect the device performance to a great extent. The DLTS study provides a broad understanding about the traps present at the interface of spin-coated ZrO2/Si.

  9. Dielectric Properties of PMMA and its Composites with ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannakki, Basavaraja; Anita

    The polymer films of PMMA with different thickness and its composites with ZrO2 at various weight percentages but of same thickness have been studied. The determination of its dielectric properties, dielectric loss, a.conductivity and dielectric modulus were carried out using capacitance measurements of the above samples as a function of frequency, over the range 50 Hz - 5 MHz at room temperature. The films of PMMA and its composites have been characterized using X-Ray Diffractometer. The dielectric permittivity of films of PMMA behaves nonlinearly as frequency increases over the range 50-300 Hz, where as above 300 Hz the values of dielectric constant remains constant. But it is observed that the dielectric constant of PMMA increases as thickness of the film increases. In case of composite films of PMMA with ZrO2 the values of dielectric permittivity decreases gradually up to frequency of around 1 KHz and at higher frequencies it remains constant for all the weight percentages of ZrO2. The complex form of dielectric modulus of PMMA is obtained from the experimentally measured data of dielectric constant and dielectric loss values. The relaxation time of the orientation of dipoles is obtained from the peak value of angular frequency through the plots of imaginary part of electrical modulus as function of frequency. The impedance of PMMA polymer increases as thickness of the films increases. The a c conductivity of PMMA film remains constant up to frequency of 1 MHz and above. It shows a nonlinear phenomenon with peak values at frequency 4 MHz. Shape and size of the nanoparticles of composite film of PMMA with ZrO2 was analyzed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM).

  10. Effects of plasma spray parameters on two layer thermal barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1981-01-01

    The power level and the type of arc gas used during plasma spraying of a two layer thermal barrier system (TBS) were found to affect the life of the system. Life at 1095 C in a cyclic furnace test was improved by about 140 percent by increasing the power during plasma spray applications of the bond and thermal barrier coatings. This improvement is due to increases in the densities of the bond and thermal barrier coatings by 3 and 5 percent, respectively. These increases in densities are equivalent to about 45 and 30 percent reduction in mean porosities, respectively. The addition of hydrogen to the argon arc gas had the same effect as the reduction in power level and caused a reduction in TBS life.

  11. Thermal-barrier coatings for utility gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of thermal barrier coatings for use in utility gas turbines was assessed. Pressurized passage and ambient pressure doped fuel burner rig tests revealed that thermal barrier coatings are not resistant to dirty combustion environments. However, present thermal barrier coatings, such as duplex partially stabilized zirconia and duplex Ca2SiO4 have ample resistance to the thermo-mechanical stress and temperature levels anticipated for heavy duty gas turbines firing clean fuel as revealed by clean fuel pressurized passage and ambient pressure burner rig tests. Thus, it is appropriate to evaluate such coatings on blades, vanes and combustors in the field. However, such field tests should be backed up with adequate effort in the areas of coating application technology and design analysis so that the field tests yield unequivocal results.

  12. ZrO2:Sm3+ nanophosphor: synthesis, Rietveld refinement, optical and thermoluminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponkumar, S.; Janaki, K.; Prakashbabu, D.; Ramalingam, H. B.; Munirathnam, K.; Sreekanth, T. V. M.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2018-02-01

    We have synthesized undoped and Sm3+ ions doped ZrO2 nanophosphors by solution combustion method. These nanophosphors crystallized in cubic structure. Rietveld refinement of the samples was performed to estimate lattice parameters. Spherical particles with the sizes of 10-25 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of samples were investigated. Under 400 nm excitation, the nanophosphors have intense red emission at 600 nm. The color coordinates (0.67, 0.33) were located in the red region of CIE diagram. TL properties of nanophosphors were studied by exposing the samples to γ-rays. 5 mol% Sm3+ doped ZrO2 nanophosphor has shown maximum TL intensity after γ-irradiation. To test suitability of the nanophosphors for practical application in dosimetry, the 5 mol% Sm3+ doped ZrO2 sample was irradiated by 14 MeV electron beam in various electron fluence ranging from 100 to 900 Gy and their TL response was recorded.

  13. Thermal barrier coating experience in the gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, S.; Demasi-Marcin, J.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC), provide thermal insulation and oxidation resistance in an environment consisting of hot combustion gases. TBC's consist of a two layer system. The outer ceramic layer provides good thermal insulation due to the low thermal conductivity of the ceramic coatings used, while the inner metallic bond coat layer provides needed oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy. Pratt & Whitney has over a decade of experience with several generations of TBC systems on turbine airfoils. This paper will focus on the latest TBC field experience along with a proposed durability model.

  14. Multicomponent, Rare-Earth-Doped Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming

    2005-01-01

    Multicomponent, rare-earth-doped, perovskite-type thermal-barrier coating materials have been developed in an effort to obtain lower thermal conductivity, greater phase stability, and greater high-temperature capability, relative to those of the prior thermal-barrier coating material of choice, which is yttria-partially stabilized zirconia. As used here, "thermal-barrier coatings" (TBCs) denotes thin ceramic layers used to insulate air-cooled metallic components of heat engines (e.g., gas turbines) from hot gases. These layers are generally fabricated by plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition of the TBC materials onto the metal components. A TBC as deposited has some porosity, which is desirable in that it reduces the thermal conductivity below the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the fully dense form of the material. Undesirably, the thermal conductivity gradually increases because the porosity gradually decreases as a consequence of sintering during high-temperature service. Because of these and other considerations such as phase transformations, the maximum allowable service temperature for yttria-partially stabilized zirconia TBCs lies in the range of about 1,200 to 1,300 C. In contrast, the present multicomponent, rare-earth-doped, perovskite-type TBCs can withstand higher temperatures.

  15. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for commercial gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Susan Manning; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Sheffler, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the short history, current status, and future prospects of ceramic thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines. Particular attention is given to plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited yttria-stabilized (7 wt pct Y2O3) zirconia systems. Recent advances include improvements in the spallation life of thermal barrier coatings, improved bond coat composition and spraying techniques, and improved component design. The discussion also covers field experience, life prediction modeling, and future directions in ceramic coatings in relation to gas turbine engine design.

  16. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Research and development into thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines is reviewed critically. The type of coating systems developed for aircraft applications are found to be preferred for clear fuel electric utility applications. These coating systems consists of a layer of plasma sprayed zirconia-yttria ceramic over a layer of MCrAly bond coat. They are not recommended for use when molten salts are presented. Efforts to understand coating degradation in dirty environments and to develop corrosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are discussed.

  17. Atlas V Launch Incorporated NASA Glenn Thermal Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Spring of 2002, Aerojet experienced a major failure during a qualification test of the solid rocket motor that they were developing for the Atlas V Enhanced Expendable Launch Vehicle. In that test, hot combustion gas reached the O-rings in the nozzle-to-case joint and caused a structural failure that resulted in loss of the nozzle and aft dome sections of the motor. To improve the design of this joint, Aerojet decided to incorporate three braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The thermal barriers were used to block the searing-hot 5500 F pressurized gases from reaching the temperature-sensitive O-rings that seal the joint. Glenn originally developed the thermal barriers for the nozzle joints of the space shuttle solid rocket motors, and Aerojet decided to use them on the basis of the results of several successful ground tests of the thermal barriers in the shuttle rockets. Aerojet undertook an aggressive schedule to redesign the rocket nozzle-to-case joint with the thermal barriers and to qualify it in time for a launch planned for the middle of 2003. They performed two successful qualification tests (Oct. and Dec. 2002) in which the Glenn thermal barriers effectively protected the O-rings. These qualification tests saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in development costs and put the Lockheed-Martin/Aerojet team back on schedule. On July 17, 2003, the first flight of an Atlas V boosted with solid rocket motors successfully launched a commercial satellite into orbit from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Aero-jet's two 67-ft solid rocket boosters performed flawlessly, with each providing thrust in excess of 250,000 lbf. Both motors incorporated three Glenn-developed thermal barriers in their nozzle-to-case joints. The Cablevision satellite launched on this mission will be used to provide direct-to-home satellite television programming for the U.S. market starting in late 2003. The Atlas V is a product of the

  18. Evaluation of hot corrosion behavior of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Miller, R. A.; Gedwill, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    Calcium silicate and yttria stabilized zirconia/MCrAlY thermal barrier coating systems on air-cooled specimens were exposed to sodium plus vanadium doped Mach 0.3 combustion gases. Thermal barrier coating endurance was determined to be a strong inverse function of ceramic coating thickness. Coating system durability was increased through the use of higher Cr + Al NiCrAl and CoCrAlY bond coatings. Chemical and electron microprobe analyses supported the predictions of condensate compositions and the determination of their roles in causing spalling of the ceramic coatings.

  19. In Situ FT-IR Spectroscopic Study of CO2 and CO Adsorption on Y2O3, ZrO2, and Yttria-Stabilized ZrO2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In situ FT-IR spectroscopy was exploited to study the adsorption of CO2 and CO on commercially available yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (8 mol % Y, YSZ-8), Y2O3, and ZrO2. All three oxides were pretreated at high temperatures (1173 K) in air, which leads to effective dehydroxylation of pure ZrO2. Both Y2O3 and YSZ-8 show a much higher reactivity toward CO and CO2 adsorption than ZrO2 because of more facile rehydroxylation of Y-containing phases. Several different carbonate species have been observed following CO2 adsorption on Y2O3 and YSZ-8, which are much more strongly bound on the former, due to formation of higher-coordinated polydentate carbonate species upon annealing. As the crucial factor governing the formation of carbonates, the presence of reactive (basic) surface hydroxyl groups on Y-centers was identified. Therefore, chemisorption of CO2 most likely includes insertion of the CO2 molecule into a reactive surface hydroxyl group and the subsequent formation of a bicarbonate species. Formate formation following CO adsorption has been observed on all three oxides but is less pronounced on ZrO2 due to effective dehydroxylation of the surface during high-temperature treatment. The latter generally causes suppression of the surface reactivity of ZrO2 samples regarding reactions involving CO or CO2 as reaction intermediates. PMID:24009780

  20. Transient thermography testing of unpainted thermal barrier coating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptaszek, Grzegorz; Cawley, Peter; Almond, Darryl; Pickering, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of uneven surface discolouration of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) and of its IR translucency on the thermal responses observed by using mid and long wavelength IR cameras. It has been shown that unpainted blades can be tested satisfactorily by using a more powerful flash heating system and a long wavelength IR camera. The problem of uneven surface emissivity can be overcome by applying 2nd derivative processing of the log-log surface cooling curves.

  1. Nanocomposite membranes based on polybenzimidazole and ZrO2 for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Nawn, Graeme; Pace, Giuseppe; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Bertasi, Federico; Polizzi, Stefano; Di Noto, Vito

    2015-04-24

    Owing to the numerous benefits obtained when operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells at elevated temperature (>100 °C), the development of thermally stable proton exchange membranes that demonstrate conductivity under anhydrous conditions remains a significant goal for fuel cell technology. This paper presents composite membranes consisting of poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI4N) impregnated with a ZrO2 nanofiller of varying content (ranging from 0 to 22 wt %). The structure-property relationships of the acid-doped and undoped composite membranes have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, wide-angle X-ray scattering, infrared spectroscopy, and broadband electrical spectroscopy. Results indicate that the level of nanofiller has a significant effect on the membrane properties. From 0 to 8 wt %, the acid uptake as well as the thermal and mechanical properties of the membrane increase. As the nanofiller level is increased from 8 to 22 wt % the opposite effect is observed. At 185 °C, the ionic conductivity of [PBI4N(ZrO2 )0.231 ](H3 PO4 )13 is found to be 1.04×10(-1)  S cm(-1) . This renders membranes of this type promising candidates for use in high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effects of pH on heat transfer nanofluids containing ZrO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamkam, Carine Tchamakam; Opoku, Michael Kwabena; Hong, Haiping; Smith, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, pH influences of zeta potential, particle size distribution, rheology, viscosity, and stability on heat transfer nanofluids are studied. Significant enhancement of thermal conductivity (TC) (>20%) containing 3 wt % zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are observed near the isoelectric point (IEP). Meanwhile, at this IEP (pH), particle sizes, and viscosities of these nanofluids demonstrate a significant increase to maximum values. Experimental results also indicate that the stabilities of these nanofluids are influenced by pH values. The reasonable explanation for these interesting phenomena is that at this IEP, the repulsive forces among metal oxides are zero and nanoparticles coagulate together at this pH value. According to the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, when the pH is equal to or close to the IEP, nanoparticles tend to be unstable, form clusters, and precipitate. The resulting big clusters will trap water and the structures of trapped water are varied due to the strong atomic force among nanoparticles. Water is packed well inside and volume fraction of the nanoparticles will be larger. In addition, shapes of clusters containing trapped water will not be spherical but rather has irregular structure (like chains). Such structure favors thermal transport because they provide a long link. Therefore, overall TC of nanofluids is enhanced. Some literature results and conclusions related to pH effects of nanofluids are discussed and analyzed. Understanding pH effects may enable exploration of fundamental nature of nanofluids.

  3. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of Tb-doped Al 2O 3-ZrO 2 nanostructures obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, M.; Hreniak, D.; Wrzyszcz, J.; Miśta, W.; Grabowska, H.; Malta, O. L.; Stręk, W.

    2003-07-01

    Terbium-doped Al 2O 3-ZrO 2 mixed oxides of 10 wt% zirconia content were prepared by the alkoxide sol-gel method. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, thermal analysis, textural and TPR studies. The effect of thermal treatment of Tb-doped Al 2O 3-ZrO 2 samples on photo- and cathodoluminescence spectra was investigated. It was found that the photoluminescence spectrum induced by UV excitation was characterized by a green luminescence pattern arising from the 5D 4 → 7F J ( J=6-0) transitions of the Tb 3+ ion. This photoluminescence became almost completely damped for the samples sintered at 1200 °C. However, these samples have demonstrated an intense cathodoluminescence under high electron accelerating potential (60 kV). Moreover, it was observed that apart of the green luminescence, the blue emission lines arising from 5D 3 → 7F J transitions of Tb 3+ were observed. The nature of such behavior is discussed.

  4. Structural and electrical properties of atomic layer deposited Al-doped ZrO2 films and of the interface with TaN electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, S.; Rao, R.; Lamagna, L.; Wiemer, C.; Congedo, G.; Lamperti, A.; Molle, A.; Fanciulli, M.; Palma, F.; Irrera, F.

    2012-07-01

    Al-doped ZrO2 (Al-ZrO2) films deposited by atomic layer deposition onto silicon substrates and the interface with the TaN metal gate are investigated. In particular, structural properties of as-grown and annealed films in the 6-26 nm thickness range, as well as leakage and capacitive behavior of metal-oxide-semiconductor stacks are characterized. As-deposited Al-ZrO2 films in the mentioned thickness range are amorphous and crystallize in the ZrO2 cubic phase after thermal treatment at 900 °C. Correspondingly, the dielectric constant (k) value increases from 20 ± 1 to 27 ± 2. The Al-ZrO2 layers exhibit uniform composition through the film thickness and are thermally stable on Si, whereas chemical reactions take place at the TaN/Al-ZrO2 interface. A transient capacitance technique is adopted for monitoring charge trapping and flat band instability at short and long time scales. The role of traps nearby the TaN/Al-ZrO2 interface is discussed and compared with other metal/high-k oxide films. Further, analytical modeling of the flat band voltage shift with a power-law dependence on time allows extracting features of bulk traps close to the silicon/oxide interface, which exhibit energy levels in the 1.4-1.9 eV range above the valence band of the Al-ZrO2.

  5. Development of Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced multi-component, low conductivity oxide thermal barrier coatings have been developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities and improved thermal stability due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  6. Rocket thrust chamber thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quentmeyer, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Subscale rocket thrust chamber tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of thin yttria stabilized zirconium oxide coatings applied to the thrust chamber hot-gas side wall. The fabrication consisted of arc plasma spraying the ceramic coating and bond coat onto a mandrell and then electrodepositing the copper thrust chamber wall around the coating. Chambers were fabricated with coatings .008, and .005 and .003 inches thick. The chambers were thermally cycled at a chamber pressure of 600 psia using oxygen-hydrogen as propellants and liquid hydrogen as the coolant. The thicker coatings tended to delaminate, early in the cyclic testing, down to a uniform sublayer which remained well adhered during the remaining cycles. Two chambers with .003 inch coatings were subjected to 1500 thermal cycles with no coating loss in the throat region, which represents a tenfold increase in life over identical chambers having no coatings. An analysis is presented which shows that the heat lost to the coolant due to the coating, in a rocket thrust chamber design having a coating only in the throat region, can be recovered by adding only one inch to the combustion chamber length.

  7. Improved conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell using Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, Laxmi J.; Bhatt, Piyush J.; Desai, Rahul K.; Chakrabarty, B. S.; Panchal, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were prepared by hydrothermal method for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X -ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. XRD results revealed the formation of material in nano size. The average crystallite size is 22.32 nm, 17.41 nm and 6.31 nm for TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites respectively. The optical bandgap varies from 2.04 eV to 3.75 eV. Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the prepared material. Pomegranate juice was used as a sensitizer and graphite coated conducting glass plate was used as counter electrode. The I - V characteristics were recorded to measure photo response of DSSC. Photovoltaic parameter like open circuit voltage, power conversion efficiency, and fill factor were evaluated for fabricated solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated with TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were found 0.71%, 1.97% and 4.58% respectively.

  8. Raman Spectrum of Er-Y-codoped ZrO2 and Fluorescence Properties of Er3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Luo, Meng-fei; Jin, Ling-yun; He, Mai; Fang, Ping; Xie, Yun-long

    2007-02-01

    Er-Y-codoped ZrO2 mixed oxides with monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic structures were prepared by a sol-gel method. The crystal structure of ZrO2 matrix and the effect of the ZrO2 phases on the fluorescence properties of Er3+ were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated that the fluorescence properties of Er3+ depend on its local ZrO2 crystal structures. As ZrO2 matrix transferred from monoclinic to tetragonal and cubic phase, the Raman and fluorescence bands of Er3+ decreased in intensities and tended to form a single peak. With 632.8 nm excitation, the bands between 640 and 680 nm were attributed to the fluorescence of Er3+ in the ZrO2 environment. However, only the fluorescence was observed and no Raman spectra were seen under 514.5 nm excitation, while only Raman spectra were observed under 325 nm excitation. UV Raman spectroscopy was found to be more sensitive in the surface region while the information provided by XRD mainly came from the bulk. The phase with lower symmetry forms more easily on the surface than in the bulk.

  9. Thermal Barrier Coatings (les Revetements anti-mur de chaleur)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    blades and vanes of advanced aircraft engines », 1992, Yokohama International Gas Turbine Congress... turbine blade and nozzle guide vane aerofoils for the aerogas turbine engine . Figure 9 Scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a plasma...2. Liebert C. H. et al, "Durability of zirconia thermal barrier coatings on air cooled turbine blades in cyclic jet engine operation", NASA

  10. Corrosion and wear properties of laser surface modified NiTi with Mo and ZrO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, K. W.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.

    2008-08-01

    Because of its biocompatibility, superelasticity and shape memory characteristics, NiTi alloys have been gaining immense interest in the medical field. However, there is still concern on the corrosion resistance of this alloy if it is going to be implanted in the human body for a long time. Titanium is not toxic but nickel is carcinogenic and is implicated in various reactions including allergic response and degeneration of muscle tissue. Debris from wear and the subsequent release of Ni + ions due to corrosion in the body system are fatal issues for long-term application of this alloy in the human body. This paper reports the corrosion and wear properties of laser surface modified NiTi using Mo and ZrO 2 as surface alloying elements, respectively. The modified layers which are free from microcracks and porosity, act as both physical barrier to nickel release and enhance the bulk properties, such as hardness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. The electrochemical performance of the surface modified alloy was studied in Hanks' solution. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was measured.

  11. Low-temperature remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZrO2/zircone nanolaminate film for efficient encapsulation of flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Ping; Liu, Yunfei; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhao, Yi; Duan, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Encapsulation is essential to protect the air-sensitive components of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) such as active layers and cathode electrodes. In this study, hybrid zirconium inorganic/organic nanolaminates were fabricated using remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and molecular layer deposition at a low temperature. The nanolaminate serves as a thin-film encapsulation layer for OLEDs. The reaction mechanism of PEALD process was investigated using an in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and in-situ quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). The bonds present in the films were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The primary reaction byproducts in PEALD, such as CO, CO2, NO, H2O, as well as the related fragments during the O2 plasma process were characterized using the QMS, indicating a combustion-like reaction process. The self-limiting nature and growth mechanisms of the ZrO2 during the complex surface chemical reaction of the ligand and O2 plasma were monitored using the QCM. The remote PEALD ZrO2/zircone nanolaminate structure prolonged the transmission path of water vapor and smooth surface morphology. Consequently, the water barrier properties were significantly improved (reaching 3.078 × 10−5 g/m2/day). This study also shows that flexible OLEDs can be successfully encapsulated to achieve a significantly longer lifetime. PMID:28059160

  12. Low-temperature remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZrO2/zircone nanolaminate film for efficient encapsulation of flexible organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Ping; Liu, Yunfei; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhao, Yi; Duan, Yu

    2017-01-06

    Encapsulation is essential to protect the air-sensitive components of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) such as active layers and cathode electrodes. In this study, hybrid zirconium inorganic/organic nanolaminates were fabricated using remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and molecular layer deposition at a low temperature. The nanolaminate serves as a thin-film encapsulation layer for OLEDs. The reaction mechanism of PEALD process was investigated using an in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and in-situ quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). The bonds present in the films were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The primary reaction byproducts in PEALD, such as CO, CO 2 , NO, H 2 O, as well as the related fragments during the O 2 plasma process were characterized using the QMS, indicating a combustion-like reaction process. The self-limiting nature and growth mechanisms of the ZrO 2 during the complex surface chemical reaction of the ligand and O 2 plasma were monitored using the QCM. The remote PEALD ZrO 2 /zircone nanolaminate structure prolonged the transmission path of water vapor and smooth surface morphology. Consequently, the water barrier properties were significantly improved (reaching 3.078 × 10 -5  g/m 2 /day). This study also shows that flexible OLEDs can be successfully encapsulated to achieve a significantly longer lifetime.

  13. Low-temperature remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZrO2/zircone nanolaminate film for efficient encapsulation of flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Ping; Liu, Yunfei; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhao, Yi; Duan, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Encapsulation is essential to protect the air-sensitive components of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) such as active layers and cathode electrodes. In this study, hybrid zirconium inorganic/organic nanolaminates were fabricated using remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and molecular layer deposition at a low temperature. The nanolaminate serves as a thin-film encapsulation layer for OLEDs. The reaction mechanism of PEALD process was investigated using an in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and in-situ quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). The bonds present in the films were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The primary reaction byproducts in PEALD, such as CO, CO2, NO, H2O, as well as the related fragments during the O2 plasma process were characterized using the QMS, indicating a combustion-like reaction process. The self-limiting nature and growth mechanisms of the ZrO2 during the complex surface chemical reaction of the ligand and O2 plasma were monitored using the QCM. The remote PEALD ZrO2/zircone nanolaminate structure prolonged the transmission path of water vapor and smooth surface morphology. Consequently, the water barrier properties were significantly improved (reaching 3.078 × 10-5 g/m2/day). This study also shows that flexible OLEDs can be successfully encapsulated to achieve a significantly longer lifetime.

  14. Nondestructive evaluation of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, D.J.; Taylor, J.A.T.

    Acoustic emission has been used as a nondestructive evaluation technique to examine the thermal shock response of thermal barrier coatings. In this study, samples of partially stabilized zirconia powder were sprayed and acoustic emission (AE) data were taken in a series of thermal shock tests in an effort to correlate AE with a given failure mechanism. Microstructural evidence was examined using parallel beam x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. The AE data are discussed in terms of cumulative amplitude distributions and the use of this technique to characterize fracture events.

  15. Fracture Behaviour of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzbender, Jürgen; Wakui, Takashi; Wessel, Egbert; Steinbrech, Rolf W.

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of plasma sprayed yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) are increasingly utilised for heat exposed components of advanced gas turbines1,2. An important reason for the application of zirconia coatings is the low thermal conductivity of this ceramic material which is further diminished in a TBC by the high concentration of spraying induced microstructural defects, e.g. crack-shaped defects between and within the spraying splats. Thus with TBCs on gas cooled turbine components stiff temperature gradients can be realised as an important prerequisite for an increased thermal efficiency of the energy conversion process.

  16. Buckling of thermally fluctuating spherical shells: Parameter renormalization and thermally activated barrier crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Lorenz; Kierfeld, Jan

    2018-05-01

    We study the influence of thermal fluctuations on the buckling behavior of thin elastic capsules with spherical rest shape. Above a critical uniform pressure, an elastic capsule becomes mechanically unstable and spontaneously buckles into a shape with an axisymmetric dimple. Thermal fluctuations affect the buckling instability by two mechanisms. On the one hand, thermal fluctuations can renormalize the capsule's elastic properties and its pressure because of anharmonic couplings between normal displacement modes of different wavelengths. This effectively lowers its critical buckling pressure [Košmrlj and Nelson, Phys. Rev. X 7, 011002 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevX.7.011002]. On the other hand, buckled shapes are energetically favorable already at pressures below the classical buckling pressure. At these pressures, however, buckling requires to overcome an energy barrier, which only vanishes at the critical buckling pressure. In the presence of thermal fluctuations, the capsule can spontaneously overcome an energy barrier of the order of the thermal energy by thermal activation already at pressures below the critical buckling pressure. We revisit parameter renormalization by thermal fluctuations and formulate a buckling criterion based on scale-dependent renormalized parameters to obtain a temperature-dependent critical buckling pressure. Then we quantify the pressure-dependent energy barrier for buckling below the critical buckling pressure using numerical energy minimization and analytical arguments. This allows us to obtain the temperature-dependent critical pressure for buckling by thermal activation over this energy barrier. Remarkably, both parameter renormalization and thermal activation lead to the same parameter dependence of the critical buckling pressure on temperature, capsule radius and thickness, and Young's modulus. Finally, we study the combined effect of parameter renormalization and thermal activation by using renormalized parameters for the energy

  17. Thermal Residual Stress in Environmental Barrier Coated Silicon Nitride - Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Abdul-Aziz; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2009-01-01

    When exposed to combustion environments containing moisture both un-reinforced and fiber reinforced silicon based ceramic materials tend to undergo surface recession. To avoid surface recession environmental barrier coating systems are required. However, due to differences in the elastic and thermal properties of the substrate and the environmental barrier coating, thermal residual stresses can be generated in the coated substrate. Depending on their magnitude and nature thermal residual stresses can have significant influence on the strength and fracture behavior of coated substrates. To determine the maximum residual stresses developed during deposition of the coatings, a finite element model (FEM) was developed. Using this model, the thermal residual stresses were predicted in silicon nitride substrates coated with three environmental coating systems namely barium strontium aluminum silicate (BSAS), rare earth mono silicate (REMS) and earth mono di-silicate (REDS). A parametric study was also conducted to determine the influence of coating layer thickness and material parameters on thermal residual stress. Results indicate that z-direction stresses in all three systems are small and negligible, but maximum in-plane stresses can be significant depending on the composition of the constituent layer and the distance from the substrate. The BSAS and REDS systems show much lower thermal residual stresses than REMS system. Parametric analysis indicates that in each system, the thermal residual stresses can be decreased with decreasing the modulus and thickness of the coating.

  18. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shengmin

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validationmore » applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr 2.75O 8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.« less

  19. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  20. Low conductivity and sintering-resistant thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating composition is provided. The composition has a base oxide, a primary stabilizer, and at least two additional cationic oxide dopants. Preferably, a pair of group A and group B defect cluster-promoting oxides is used in conjunction with the base and primary stabilizer oxides. The new thermal barrier coating is found to have significantly lower thermal conductivity and better sintering resistance. In preferred embodiments, the base oxide is selected from zirconia and hafnia. The group A and group B cluster-promoting oxide dopants preferably are selected such that the group A dopant has a smaller cationic radius than the primary stabilizer oxide, and so that the primary stabilizer oxide has a small cationic radius than that of the group B dopant.

  1. Low conductivity and sintering-resistant thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating composition is provided. The composition has a base oxide, a primary stabilizer, and at least two additional cationic oxide dopants. Preferably, a pair of group A and group B defect cluster-promoting oxides is used in conjunction with the base and primary stabilizer oxides. The new thermal barrier coating is found to have significantly lower thermal conductivity and better sintering resistance. In preferred embodiments, the base oxide is selected from zirconia and hafnia. The group A and group B cluster-promoting oxide dopants preferably are selected such that the group A dopant has a smaller cationic radius than the primary stabilizer oxide, and so that the primary stabilizer oxide has a small cationic radius than that of the group B dopant.

  2. Model I, Mode II, and Mixed-Mode Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in air at 25 and 1316°C in asymmetric four-point flexure with single edge v-notched beam (SEVNB) test specimens. The mode I fracture toughness was found to be K Ic=1.15±0.07 and 0.98±0.13 MPa sqrt m , respectively, at 25 and 1316°C. The respective mode II fracture toughness values were K IIc=0.73±0.10 and 0.65±0.04 MPa sqrt m . Hence, there was an insignificant difference in either K Ic or K IIc between 25 and 1316°C for the coating material, whereas there was a noticeable distinction between K Ic and K IIc, resulting in K IIc/K Ic=0.65 at both temperatures. The empirical mixed-mode fracture criterion best described the coatings' mixed-mode fracture behavior among the four mixed-mode fracture theories considered. The angle of crack propagation was in reasonable agreement with the minimum strain energy density criterion. The effect of the directionality of the coating material in on K Ic was observed to be insignificant, while its sintering effect at 1316°C on K Ic was significant.

  3. Thermochemistry of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) and Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo C. C.; Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) oxides are constituents in a broad number of materials and minerals which have recently inferred to discussions in materials science, planetary science, geochemistry and cosmochemistry communities. In materials science, there is increasing interest in the degradation studies of thermal (TBC) and environmental (EBC) barrier coatings of gas turbines by molten CMAS. These coatings have been explored to be applied on silicon-based ceramics and composites which are lighter and more temperature capable hot-section materials of gas turbines than the current Ni-based superalloys. The degradation of the coatings occurs when CMAS minerals carried by the intake air into gas turbines, e.g. in aircraft engines, reacts at high temperatures (1000C) with the coating materials. This causes premature failure of the static and rotating components of the turbine engines. We discuss some preliminary results of the reactions between CMAS and Rare-Earth (RE Y, Yb and Gd) oxide stabilized ZrO2 systems, and stability of the resulting oxides and silicates.

  4. Thermochemistry of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) and Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Zhu, Dongming

    2017-01-01

    CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) oxides are constituents in a broad number of materials and minerals which have recently inferred to discussions in materials science, planetary science, geochemistry and cosmochemistry communities. In materials science, there is increasing interest in the degradation studies of thermal (TBC) and environmental (EBC) barrier coatings of gas turbines by molten CMAS. CMAS minerals usually are carried by the intake air into gas turbines, e.g. in aircraft engines, and their deposits react at high temperatures (1000C) with the coating materials. This causes degradation and accelerated failure of the static and rotating components of the turbine engines. We discuss some preliminary results of the reactions between CMAS and Rare-Earth (RE Y, Yb, Dy, Gd, Nd and Sm) oxide stabilized ZrO2 or HfO2 systems, and the stability of the resulting oxides and silicates. Plasma sprayed hollow tube samples ( 2.2 mm and 26 mm height) were half filled with CMAS powder, wrapped and sealed with platinum foil, and heat treated at 1310 C for 5h. Samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and cross section electron microscopy analysis.

  5. High Temperature Degradation of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings (TEBCs) by CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Zhu, Dongming

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the degradation studies of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) of gas turbines by molten CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS). CMAS minerals are usually referred as silica-containing sand dust and volcano ash materials that are carried by the intake air into gas turbines, e.g. aircraft engines. The low-melting deposits react at high temperatures (1000C) with the coating materials. This causes degradation and accelerated coating failure of the static and rotating components of the turbine engines. We discuss some preliminary results of the reactions between CMAS and Rare-Earth (RE Y, Yb, Dy, Gd, Nd and Sm) oxide stabilized ZrO2 or HfO2 systems, and the stability of the resulting oxides and silicates. Plasma sprayed hollow tube samples (outer diameter 4.7 mm, wall thickness 0.76 mm and 26 mm height) were half filled with CMAS powder, wrapped and sealed with platinum foil, and heat- treated at 1310 C for 5h. Samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and cross section electron microscopy analysis.

  6. Methane Decomposition and Carbon Growth on Y2O3, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia, and ZrO2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Carbon deposition following thermal methane decomposition under dry and steam reforming conditions has been studied on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), Y2O3, and ZrO2 by a range of different chemical, structural, and spectroscopic characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electric impedance spectroscopy, and volumetric adsorption techniques. Concordantly, all experimental techniques reveal the formation of a conducting layer of disordered nanocrystalline graphite covering the individual grains of the respective pure oxides after treatment in dry methane at temperatures T ≥ 1000 K. In addition, treatment under moist methane conditions causes additional formation of carbon-nanotube-like architectures by partial detachment of the graphite layers. All experiments show that during carbon growth, no substantial reduction of any of the oxides takes place. Our results, therefore, indicate that these pure oxides can act as efficient nonmetallic substrates for methane-induced growth of different carbon species with potentially important implications regarding their use in solid oxide fuel cells. Moreover, by comparing the three oxides, we could elucidate differences in the methane reactivities of the respective SOFC-relevant purely oxidic surfaces under typical SOFC operation conditions without the presence of metallic constituents. PMID:24587591

  7. A theoretical study of the stability of anionic defects in cubic ZrO 2 at extreme conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Samanta, Amit

    2016-02-19

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, we present a study of the structure, mobility, and the thermodynamic stability of anionic defects in the high-temperature cubic phase of ZrO 2. Our results suggest that the local structure of an oxygen interstitial depends on the charge state and the cubic symmetry of the anionic sublattice is unstable at 0 K. In addition, the oxygen interstitials and the vacancies exhibit symmetry breaking transitions to low-energy structures with tetragonal distortion of the oxygen sublattice at 0 K. However, the vibrational entropy stabilizes the defect structures with cubic symmetry at 2600–2980 K. The formationmore » free energies of the anionic defects and Gibbs free energy changes associated with different defect reactions are calculated by including the vibrational free energy contributions and the effect of pressure on these defect structures. By analyzing the defect chemistry, we obtain the defect concentrations at finite temperature and pressure conditions using the zero temperature ab initio results as input and find that at low oxygen partial pressures, neutral oxygen vacancies are most dominant and at high oxygen partial pressures, doubly charged anionic defects are dominant. As a result, the relevance of the results to the thermal protective coating capabilities of zirconium-based ceramic composites is elucidated.« less

  8. A stable solid acid material: Sulfated ZrO2 dispersed on alumina nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Jiaqi, Chen; Xu, Wang; Rui-Feng, Li

    2017-02-01

    A tubular solid acid catalyst was designed by loading sulfated zirconia into γ-Al2O3 nanotubes using the method of stepwise deposition. The XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption characterization demonstrated that introducing alumina nanotube and SO4 2- anions have played an important role in stabilizing the metastable tetragonal ZrO2 phase, and the sulfated zirconia on the surface of the γ-Al2O3 nanotube has high dispersion and stability. The catalyst reused repeatedly possesses large amounts of acid sites and good acidity, exhibiting high catalytic activity and stability for isopropylbenzene cracking.

  9. Deconvolution Method on OSL Curves from ZrO2 Irradiated by Beta and UV Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, T.; Kitis, G.; Azorín, J.; Furetta, C.

    This paper reports the optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) response of ZrO2 to beta and ultraviolet radiations in order to investigate the potential use of this material as a radiation dosimeter. The experimentally obtained OSL decay curves were analyzed using the computerized curve de-convolution (CCD) method. It was found that the OSL curve structure, for the short (practical) illumination time used, consists of three first order components. The individual OSL dose response behavior of each component was found. The values of the time at the OSL peak maximum and the decay constant of each component were also estimated.

  10. Influence of in situ and ex situ ZrO2 addition on the properties of MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. K.; Glowacki, B. A.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Vickers, M. E.; Majoros, M.

    2004-02-01

    The effect of ZrO2 addition on the properties of MgB2 has been studied using in situ and ex situ processes. The in situ process was performed by introducing ZrO2 from the milling tools into MgB2 throughout the planetary ball milling, whereas the ex situ process was accomplished by mixing ZrO2 from the milling tools with MgB2 by hand grinding in a mortar. A detectable amount of ZrO2 was present in MgB2 after 4 h of milling during the in situ process and its content increased with milling time as expected. The 400 h milled powder was partially amorphized and showed the formation of a minority ZrB2 phase. For milling up to 100 h, diamagnetism of MgB2 was significantly reduced while Tc remained unchanged. Superconductivity was totally destroyed after 148 h of milling. The loss of superconductivity is attributed to the effect of disordering induced by mechanical milling. As a result of in situ ZrO2 addition, the initial Tc and crystal structure of MgB2 could not be restored upon annealing. With increasing milling time, the expansion of lattice parameters in both the a-axis and c-axis may be due to possible substitution of Mg or B by Zr. The result from the magnetic measurement shows that Jc of MgB2 is deteriorated by in situ ZrO2 addition. On the other hand, ex situ ZrO2 addition with annealing did not degrade the Tc of MgB2.

  11. Efficient removal of arsenite through photocatalytic oxidation and adsorption by ZrO2-Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianyi; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liang, Zhijie; Liu, Jie; Shi, Wenxin; Cui, Fuyi

    2017-09-01

    Bifunctional ZrO2-Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized, to remove As(III) through photocatalyic oxidation and adsorption. With a saturation magnetization of 27.39 emu/g, ZrO2-Fe3O4 nanoparticles with size of 10-30 nm could be easily separated from solutions with a simple magnetic process. Under UV light, As(III) could be completely oxidized to less toxic As(V) by ZrO2-Fe3O4 nanoparticles within 40 min in the photocatalytic reaction. Simultaneously, As(V) could be adsorbed onto the surface of nanoparticles with high efficiency. The adsorption of As(V) was well fitted by the pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich isotherm model, respectively, and the maximum adsorption capacities of the nanoparticles was 133.48 mg/g at pH 7.0. As(III) could be effectively removed by ZrO2-Fe3O4 nanoparticles at initial pH range from 4 to 8. Among all the common coexisting ions investigated, except for chloride and sulfate, carbonate, silicate and phosphate decreased the As(III) removal by competing with arsenic species for adsorption sites. The synthesized magnetic ZrO2-Fe3O4 combined the photocatalytic oxidation property of ZrO2 and the high adsorption capacity of both ZrO2 and Fe3O4, which make it have significant potential applications in the As(III)-contaminated water treatment.

  12. Characterization of ZrO2 and (ZrO2)x(Al2O3)1-X thin films on Si substrates: effect of the Al2O3 component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, P.; Harizanova, A.; Ivanova, T.

    2014-05-01

    ZrO2 and (ZrO2)x(Al2O3)1-x films were deposited by the sol-gel technique on Si substrates. The effect of the Al2O3 additive on the film surface morphology was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The mixed oxide films showed a smoother morphology and lower values of the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness compared to ZrO2. Further, FTIR spectra indicated that ZrO2 underwent crystallization. The electrical measurements of the MIS structure revealed that the presence of Al2O3 and the amorphization affects its dielectric properties. The MIS structure with (ZrO2)x(Al2O3)1-x showed a lower fixed charge (~ 6×1010 cm-2) and an interface state density in the middle of the band gap of 6×1011 eV-1 cm-2). The dielectric constant measured was 22, with the leakage current density decreasing to 2×10-8 A cm-2 at 1×106 V cm-1.

  13. Next Generation Thermal Barrier Coatings for the Gas Turbine Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Li, Xin-Hai; Tricoire, Aurélien; Dorfman, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the next generation of production ready air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a low conductivity and long lifetime. A number of coating architectures were produced using commercially available plasma spray guns. Modifications were made to powder chemistry, including high purity powders, dysprosia stabilized zirconia powders, and powders containing porosity formers. Agglomerated & sintered and homogenized oven spheroidized powder morphologies were used to attain beneficial microstructures. Dual layer coatings were produced using the two powders. Laser flash technique was used to evaluate the thermal conductivity of the coating systems from room temperature to 1200 °C. Tests were performed on as-sprayed samples and samples were heat treated for 100 h at 1150 °C. Thermal conductivity results were correlated to the coating microstructure using image analysis of porosity and cracks. The results show the influence of beneficial porosity on reducing the thermal conductivity of the produced coatings.

  14. Bioactivity and cell proliferation in radiopaque gel-derived CaO-P2O5-SiO2-ZrO2 glass and glass-ceramic powders.

    PubMed

    Montazerian, Maziar; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Marghussian, Vahak Kaspari; Bellani, Caroline Faria; Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2015-10-01

    In this study, 10 mol% ZrO2 was added to a 27CaO-5P2O5-68SiO2 (mol%) base composition synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. This composition is similar to that of a frequently investigated bioactive gel-glass. The effects of ZrO2 on the in vitro bioactivity and MG-63 cell proliferation of the glass and its derivative polycrystalline (glass-ceramic) powder were investigated. The samples were characterized using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Release of Si, Ca, P and Zr into simulated body fluid (SBF) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Upon heat treatment at 1000 °C, the glass powder crystallized into an apatite-wollastonite-zirconia glass-ceramic powder. Hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the surface of the glass and glass-ceramic particles containing ZrO2 was confirmed by FTIR and SEM. Addition of ZrO2 to the base glass composition decreased the rate of HCA formation in vitro from one day to three days, and hence, ZrO2 could be employed to control the rate of apatite formation. However, the rate of HCA formation on the glass-ceramic powder containing ZrO2 crystal was equal to that in the base glassy powder. Tests with a cultured human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells revealed that the glass and glass-ceramic materials stimulated cell proliferation, indicating that they are biocompatible and are not cytotoxic in vitro. Moreover, zirconia clearly increased osteoblast proliferation over that of the Zr-free samples. This increase is likely associated with the lower solubility of these samples and, consequently, a smaller variation in the media pH. Despite the low solubility of these materials, bioactivity was maintained, indicating that these glassy and polycrystalline powders are potential candidates for bone graft substitutes and bone cements with

  15. Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Properties of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, the issue of coating durability under high temperature cyclic conditions is still of major concern. The coating failure is closely related to thermal stresses and oxidation in the coating systems. Coating shrinkage cracking resulting from ceramic sintering and creep at high temperatures can further accelerate the coating failure process. The purpose of this paper is to address critical issues such as ceramic sintering and creep, thermal fatigue and their relevance to coating life prediction. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes of the coating thermal conductivity and elastic modulus, fatigue and creep interactions, and resulting failure mechanisms during the simulated engine tests. Detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the thermal barrier coating systems provide a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  16. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haven, Victor E.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings extend the operating temperature range of actively cooled gas turbine components, therefore increasing thermal efficiency. Performance and lifetime of existing ceram ic coatings are limited by spallation during heating and cooling cycles. Spallation of the ceramic is a function of its microstructure, which is determined by the deposition method. This research is investigating metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of yttria stabilized zirconia to improve performance and reduce costs relative to electron beam physical vapor deposition. Coatings are deposited in an induction-heated, low-pressure reactor at 10 microns per hour. The coating's composition, structure, and response to the turbine environment will be characterized.

  17. Thermal barrier coatings for aircraft engines: History and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Thin thermal barrier coatings for protecting aircraft turbine section airfoils are examined. The discussion focuses on those advances that led first to their use for component life extension and more recently as an integral part of airfoil design. It is noted that development has been driven by laboratory rig and furnace testing corroborated by engine testing and engine field experience. The technology has also been supported by performance modeling to demonstrate benefits and life modeling for mission analysis. Factors which have led to the selection of the current state-of-the-art plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited zirconia-yttria/MCrAlY TBC's is emphasized in addition to observations fundamentally related to their behavior. Current directions in research into thermal barrier coatings and recent progress at NASA is also noted.

  18. Ion-enhanced chemical etching of ZrO2 in a chlorine discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Lin; Cho, Byeong-Ok; Chang, Jane P.

    2002-09-01

    Chlorine plasma is found to chemically etch ZrO2 thin films in an electron cyclotron resonance reactor, and the etch rate scaled linearly with the square root of ion energy at high ion energies with a threshold energy between 12-20 eV. The etching rate decreased monotonically with increasing chamber pressures, which corresponds to reduced electron temperatures. Optical emission spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometry were used to identify the reaction etching products. No Zr, O, or ZrCl were detected as etching products, but highly chlorinated zirconium compounds (ZrCl2, ZrCl3, and ZrCl4) and ClO were found to be the dominant etching products. ZrCl3 was the dominant etching products at low ion energies, while ZrCl4 became dominant at higher ion energies. This is consistent with greater momentum transfer and enhanced surface chlorination, as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, at increased ion energies. Several ion-enhanced chemical reactions are proposed to contribute to the ZrO2 etching. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  19. Mesoporous ZrO2 fibers with enhanced surface area and the application as recyclable absorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhichao; Liu, Benxue; Zhou, Haifeng; Feng, Cong; Wang, Xinqiang; Yuan, Kangkang; Gan, Xinzhu; Zhu, Luyi; Zhang, Guanghui; Xu, Dong

    2017-03-01

    Highly crystalline mesoporous zirconia fibers with high surface area have been prepared by the use of electrospinning combined with precursors method. The obtained precursor fibers were treated in water steam and directly in air at different temperature respectively. Compared with the direct calcination in air, the water steam cannot only promote the crystallization of ZrO2 but also effectively remove off the organics and prevent the pore structure collapse. Moreover, through adding hydrochloric acid to modify the solution pH value, the obtained t-ZrO2 fibers treated in water steam at 300 °C have high surface area and large pore volume of 232.70 m2 g-1 and 0.36 cm3 g-1. The formation mechanism of the mesostucture was studied and the schematic was represented. Compared with the previous reports of mesoporous ZrO2 fibers, the as-synthesized materials exhibited the high crystallinity, large surface area and the long-range order mesostructure.The adsorption of Congo red indicates that the samples have a high adsorption capacity of 103.46 mg g-1 and long-periodic repeated availability.

  20. Influence of High Cycle Thermal Loads on Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    Thick thermal barrier coating systems in a diesel engine experience severe thermal Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) during engine operation. In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, as well as of coating failure, under thermal loads which simulate engine conditions, are investigated using a high power CO2 laser. In general, surface vertical cracks initiate early and grow continuously under LCF and HCF cyclic stresses. It is found that in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures, which induce tensile stresses in the coating after cooling. Experiments show that the HCF cycles are very damaging to the coating systems. The combined LCF and HCF tests produced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation and accelerated crack growth, as compared to the pure LCF test. It is suggested that the HCF component cannot only accelerate the surface crack initiation, but also interact with the LCF by contributing to the crack growth at high temperatures. The increased LCF stress intensity at the crack tip due to the HCF component enhances the subsequent LCF crack growth. Conversely, since a faster HCF crack growth rate will be expected with lower effective compressive stresses in the coating, the LCF cycles also facilitate the HCF crack growth at high temperatures by stress relaxation process. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating system. This mechanism predicts that HCF damage effect increases with increasing temperature swing, the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as the HCF interacting depth. A good agreement has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence.

  1. In-situ formation of multiphase deposited thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-01-13

    A multiphase ceramic thermal barrier coating is provided. The coating is adapted for use in high temperature applications in excess of about 1200.degree. C., for coating superalloy components of a combustion turbine engine. The coating comprises a ceramic single or two oxide base layer disposed on the substrate surface; and a ceramic oxide reaction product material disposed on the base layer, the reaction product comprising the reaction product of the base layer with a ceramic single or two oxide overlay layer.

  2. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Deposition temperature effect on electrical properties and interface of high-k ZrO2 capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo-Hyung; Ignatova, Velislava A.; Heitmann, Johannes; Oberbeck, Lars

    2008-09-01

    The electrical characteristics, i.e. leakage current and capacitance, of ZrO2 based metal-insulator-metal structures, grown at 225, 250 and 275 °C by atomic layer deposition, were studied. The lowest leakage current was obtained at 250 °C deposition temperature, while the highest dielectric constant (k ~ 43) was measured for the samples grown at 275 °C, most probably due to the formation of tetragonal/cubic phases in the ZrO2 layer. We have shown that the main leakage current of these ZrO2 capacitors is governed by the Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. It was observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling that at 275 °C deposition temperature the oxygen content at and beyond the ZrO2/TiN interface is higher than at lower deposition temperatures, most probably due to oxygen inter-diffusion towards the electrode layer, forming a mixed TiN-TiOxNy interface layer. At and above 275 °C the ZrO2 layer changes its structure and becomes crystalline as proven by XRD analysis.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of ZrO2 on W for metal-insulator-metal capacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Kim, Hyoungsub; McIntyre, Paul C.; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Byun, Jeong-Soo

    2003-04-01

    A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor using ZrO2 on tungsten (W) metal bottom electrode was demonstrated and characterized in this letter. Both ZrO2 and W metal were synthesized by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. High-quality 110˜115 Å ZrO2 films were grown uniformly on ALD W using ZrCl4 and H2O precursors at 300 °C, and polycrystalline ZrO2 in the ALD regime could be obtained. A 13˜14-Å-thick interfacial layer between ZrO2 and W was observed after fabrication, and it was identified as WOx through angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis with wet chemical etching. The apparent equivalent oxide thickness was 20˜21 Å. An effective dielectric constant of 22˜25 including an interfacial WOx layer was obtained by measuring capacitance and thickness of MIM capacitors with Pt top electrodes. High capacitance per area (16˜17 fF/μm2) and low leakage current (10-7 A/cm2 at ±1 V) were achieved.

  4. Enhancing low-temperature activity and durability of Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts using ZrO 2 supports

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Mi -Young; Kyriakidou, Eleni A.; Choi, Jae -Soon; ...

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we investigated the impact of ZrO 2 on the performance of palladium-based oxidation catalysts with respect to low-temperature activity, hydrothermal stability, and sulfur tolerance. Pd supported on ZrO 2 and SiO 2 were synthesized for a comparative study. Additionally, in an attempt to maximize the ZrO 2 surface area and improve sulfur tolerance, a Pd support with ZrO 2-dispersed onto SiO 2 was studied. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were examined using ICP, N 2 sorption, XRD, SEM, TEM, and NH 3-, CO 2-, and NO x-TPD. The activity of the Pd catalysts were measured frommore » 60 to 600 °C in a flow of 4000 ppm CO, 500 ppm NO, 1000 ppm C 3H 6, 4% O 2, 5% H 2O, and Ar balance. The Pd catalysts were evaluated in fresh, sulfated, and hydrothermally aged states. Overall, the ZrO 2-containing catalysts showed considerably higher CO and C 3H 6 oxidation activity than Pd/SiO 2 under the reaction conditions studied.« less

  5. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructural evolution and electrical properties of sol-gel processed ZrO2/Si films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Park, Kyung; Lee, Myung Soo; Joo, Jinho; Lim, Jun Hyung; Kim, Hyoungsub; Yoon, Jae Jin; Kim, Young Dong

    2011-01-01

    High-permittivity (k) ZrO2/Si(100) films were fabricated by a sol-gel technique and the microstructural evolution with the annealing temperature (Ta) was correlated with the variation of their electrical performance. With increasing Ta, the ZrO2 films crystallized into a tetragonal (t) phase which was maintained until 700 °C at nanoscale thicknesses. Although the formation of the t-ZrO2 phase obviously enhanced the k value of the ZrO2 dielectric layer, the maximum capacitance in accumulation was decreased by the growth of a low-k interfacial layer (IL) between ZrO2 and Si with increasing Ta. On the other hand, the gate leakage current was remarkably depressed with increasing Ta probably due to the combined effects of the increased IL thickness, optical band gap of ZrO2, and density of ZrO2 and decreased remnant organic components.

  6. MOCVD of HfO2 and ZrO2 high-k gate dielectrics for InAlN/AlN/GaN MOS-HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abermann, S.; Pozzovivo, G.; Kuzmik, J.; Strasser, G.; Pogany, D.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2007-12-01

    We apply metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of HfO2 and of ZrO2 from β-diketonate precursors to grow high-k gate dielectrics for InAlN/AlN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)-high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). High-k oxides of about 12 nm-14 nm are deposited for the MOS-HEMTs incorporating Ni/Au gates, whereas as a reference, Ni-contact-based 'conventional' Schottky-barrier (SB)-HEMTs are processed. The processed dielectrics decrease the gate current leakage of the HEMTs by about four orders of magnitude if compared with the SB-gated HEMTs and show superior device characteristics in terms of IDS and breakdown.

  7. Modeling Oxidation Induced Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, B. L.; Freborg, A. M.; Petrus, G. J.; Brindley, William J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) in gas turbines has increased dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the need for component protection from ever increasing service temperatures. Oxidation of the bond coat has been identified as an important contributing factor to spallation of the ceramic top coat during service. Additional variables found to influence TBC thermal cycle life include bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion, creep behavior of both the ceramic and bond coat layers, and modulus of elasticity. The purpose of this work was to characterize the effects of oxidation on the stress states within the TBC system, as well as to examine the interaction of oxidation with other factors affecting TBC life.

  8. Fabrication and Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3/ZrO2 Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejang, N.; Limpichaipanit, A.; Watcharapasorn, A.; Wirojanupatump, S.; Niranatlumpong, P.; Jiansirisomboon, S.

    2011-12-01

    Al2O3 /xZrO2 (where x = 0, 3, 13, and 20 wt.%) composite coatings were deposited onto mild steel substrates by atmospheric plasma spraying of mixed α-Al2O3 and nano-sized monoclinic-ZrO2 powders. Microstructural investigation showed that the coatings comprised well-separated Al2O3 and ZrO2 lamellae, pores, and partially molten particles. The coating comprised mainly of metastable γ-Al2O3 and tetragonal-ZrO2 with trace of original α-Al2O3 and monoclinic-ZrO2 phases. The effect of ZrO2 addition on the properties of coatings were investigated in terms of microhardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior. It was found that ZrO2 improved the fracture toughness, reduced friction coefficient, and wear rate of the coatings.

  9. The photoelectronic behaviors of MoO3-loaded ZrO2/carbon cluster nanocomposite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Ishiko, A.; Karuppuchamy, S.; Hassan, M. A.; Yoshihara, M.

    2012-03-01

    A novel nano-sized ZrO2/carbon cluster composite materials (Ic's) were successfully obtained by the calcination of ZrCl4/starch complexes I's under an argon atmosphere. Pt- and/or MoO3-loaded ZrO2/carbon clusters composite materials were also prepared by doping Pt and/or MoO3 particles on the surface of Ic's. The surface characterization of the composite materials was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM observation of the materials showed the presence of particles with the diameters of a few nanometers, possibly Pt particles, and of 50-100 nm, possibly MoO3 particles, in the matrix. Pt- and/or MoO3-loaded ZrO2/carbon cluster composite materials show the efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

  10. Labeling of HeLa cells using ZrO2:Yb3+-Er3+ nanoparticles with upconversion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; López-Luke, Tzarara; Oliva, Jorge; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; Gonzalez-Yebra, Ana Lilia; Rojas, Ruben A. Rodriguez; Martínez-Pérez, Andrea; de la Rosa, Elder

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the synthesis, structural characterization, and optical properties of ZrO2:Yb3+-Er3+ (2-1 mol%) nanocrystals. The nanoparticles were coated with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) and further modified with biomolecules, such as Biotin-Anti-rabbit (mouse IgG) and rabbit antibody-AntiKi-67, through a conjugation method. The conjugation was successfully confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The internalization of the conjugated nanoparticles in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells was followed by two-photon confocal microscopy. The ZrO2:Yb3+-Er3+ nanocrystals exhibited strong red emission under 970-nm excitation. Moreover, the luminescence change due to the addition of APTES molecules and biomolecules on the nanocrystals was also studied. These results demonstrate that ZrO2:Yb3+-Er3+ nanocrystals can be successfully functionalized with biomolecules to develop platforms for biolabeling and bioimaging.

  11. Calculation of Phase Equilibria in the Y2O3-Yb2O3-ZrO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan

    2001-01-01

    Rare earth oxide stabilized zirconias find a wide range of applications. An understanding of phase equilibria is essential to all applications. In this study, the available phase boundary data and thermodynamic data is collected and assessed. Calphad-type databases are developed to completely describe the Y2O3-ZrO2, Yb2O3-ZrO2, and Y2O3-Yb2O3 systems. The oxide units are treated as components and regular and subregular solution models are used. The resultant calculated phase diagrams show good agreement with the experimental data. Then the binaries are combined to form the database for the Y2O3-Yb2O3-ZrO2 psuedo-ternary.

  12. Improved electrical properties of atomic layer deposited tin disulfide at low temperatures using ZrO2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhyun; Lee, Jeongsu; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon; Park, Joohyun; Choi, Hyeongsu; Lee, Seungjin; Kim, Juyoung; Sul, Onejae; Lee, Seungbeck; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2017-02-01

    We report the effect of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) layers on the electrical characteristics of multilayered tin disulfide (SnS2) formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low temperatures. SnS2 is a two-dimensional (2D) layered material which exhibits a promising electrical characteristics as a channel material for field-effect transistors (FETs) because of its high mobility, good on/off ratio and low temperature processability. In order to apply these 2D materials to large-scale and flexible electronics, it is essential to develop processes that are compatible with current electronic device manufacturing technology which should be conducted at low temperatures. Here, we deposited a crystalline SnS2 at 150 °C using ALD, and we then annealed at 300 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measurements before and after the annealing showed that SnS2 had a hexagonal (001) peak at 14.9° and A1g mode at 313 cm-1. The annealed SnS2 exhibited clearly a layered structure confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images. Back-gate FETs with SnS2 channel sandwiched by top and bottom ZrO2 on p++Si/SiO2 substrate were suggested to improve electrical characteristics. We used a bottom ZrO2 layer to increase adhesion between the channel and the substrate and a top ZrO2 layer to improve contact property, passivate surface, and protect from process-induced damages to the channel. ZTZ (ZrO2/SnS2/ZrO2) FETs showed improved electrical characteristics with an on/off ratio of from 0.39×103 to 6.39×103 and a mobility of from 0.0076 cm2/Vs to 0.06 cm2/Vs.

  13. Low temperature solution processed high-κ ZrO2 gate dielectrics for nanoelectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2016-05-01

    The high-κ gate dielectrics, specifically amorphous films offer salient features such as exceptional mechanical flexibility, smooth surfaces and better uniformity associated with low leakage current density. In this work, ∼35 nm thick amorphous ZrO2 films were deposited on silicon substrate at low temperature (300 °C, 1 h) from facile spin-coating method and characterized by various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal the formation of amorphous phase ZrO2, while ellipsometry analysis together with the Atomic Force Microscope suggest the formation of dense film with surface roughness of 1.5 Å, respectively. The fabricated films were integrated in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures to check the electrical capabilities. The oxide capacitance (Cox), flat band capacitance (CFB), flat band voltage (VFB), dielectric constant (κ) and oxide trapped charges (Qot) extracted from high frequency (1 MHz) C-V curve are 186 pF, 104 pF, 0.37 V, 15 and 2 × 10-11 C, respectively. The small flat band voltage 0.37 V, narrow hysteresis and very little frequency dispersion between 10 kHz-1 MHz suggest an excellent a-ZrO2/Si interface with very less trapped charges in the oxide. The films exhibit a low leakage current density 4.7 × 10-9 A/cm2 at 1 V. In addition, the charge transport mechanism across the MOSC is analyzed and found to have a strong bias dependence. The space charge limited conduction mechanism is dominant in the high electric field region (1.3-5 V) due to the presence of traps, while the trap-supported tunneling is prevailed in the intermediate region (0.35-1.3 V). Low temperature solution processed ZrO2 thin films obtained are of high quality and find their importance as a potential dielectric layer on Si and polymer based flexible electronics.

  14. Room Temperature Magnetic Behavior In Nanocrystalline Ni-Doped Zro2 By Microwave-Assisted Polyol Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimita Rath, Pragyan; Parhi, Pankaj Kumar; Ranjan Panda, Sirish; Priyadarshini, Barsharani; Ranjan Sahoo, Tapas

    2017-08-01

    This article, deals with a microwave-assisted polyol method to demonstrate a low temperature route < 250°C, to prepare a high temperature cubic zirconia phase. Powder XRD pattern shows broad diffraction peaks suggesting nanometric size of the particles. Magnetic behavior of 1-5 at% Ni doped samples show a threshold for substitutional induced room temperature ferromagnetism up to 3 at% of Ni. TGA data reveals that Ni-doped ZrO2 polyol precursors decompose exothermically below 300°C. IR data confirms the reduction of Zr(OH)4 precipitates to ZrO2, in agreement with the conclusions drawn from the TGA analysis.

  15. The synthesis of ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramic fibers by the method of impregnation of viscous threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, S. M.; Obabkov, N. V.; Zakirova, A. F.; Zakirov, I. F.; Dokuchaev, V. S.; Shak, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of synthesis of ZrO2-Y2O3 oxide fibers and their applicatiuon for reinforcing porous ceramics of the same composition was investigated. Ceramic fibers were obtained by impregnating viscose strings with solutions of zirconyl and yttrium nitrates. The method allows synthesis of the fibers with a diameter of 400 µm and length of 5 to 20 mm. The strength of the synthesized fibers was determined. The maximum tensile strength (132.45 MPa) was demonstrated by fibers obtained with a working solution concentration of 500 g oxides/L. Repeated impregnation of the viscose yarn led to an increase in the strength of the fibers to 205 MPa. Ceramic fibers can be used as reinforcing elements of oxide ceramics. The bending strength of the reinforced ceramics was 3 MPa. After 10 cycles of thermal cycling (heating to 1100 °C and cooling in water) the bending strength was reduced to 1 MPa.

  16. Stator Blade with Thermal Barrier Testing on Hot Gas Rig

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-04-21

    A 1-foot long stator blade with a thermal coating subjected to intense heat in order to test its strength at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis researchers sought to determine optimal types of ceramic coatings to increase the durability of metals. The research was primarily intended to support the design of stator blades for high-performance axial-flow compressor and turbofan engines. The coatings reduced the temperature of the metal and the amount of required cooling. As engines became more and more sophisticated, compressor blades were required to withstand higher and higher temperatures. Lewis researchers developed a dual-layer thermal-barrier coating that could be applied to turbine vanes and blades and combustion liners. This new sprayable thermal-barrier coating was evaluated for its durability, strength, fatigue, and aerodynamic penalties. This hot-gas rig fired the scorching gas at the leading edge of a test blade. The blade was cooled by an internal air flow. The blades were heated at two different velocities during the program. When using Mach 0.3 gases the entire heating and cooling cycle only lasted 30 seconds. The cycle lasted 60 minutes during tests at Mach 1.

  17. Continuous electron stimulated desorption using a ZrO2/Ag permeation membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Hoflund, Gar B.; Davidson, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    During the development of an atomic oxygen beam generator for laboratory simulation of the atmospheric conditions in low earth orbit, a new technique for performing electron stimulated desorption (ESD) in a continuous manner has been developed. In this technique, oxygen permeates through an Ag membrane at elevated temperature thereby providing a continuous supply of oxygen atoms to the 1000-A ZrO2 coating at the vacuum interface. ESD then results in a large peak of neutral O2 molecules which ultimately decay into steady-state desorption. The ESD signal is linear with respect to primary beam flux (0.035 O2 molecules per electron at a primary beam energy of 1 keV) but nonlinear with respect to primary beam energy.

  18. Annealing Behavior of 57Fe Implanted in ZrO2(Y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. L.; Yu, F. H.; Weng, H. M.; Zhang, H. H.

    1998-12-01

    Using conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy(CEMS) and slow positron beam, the chemical states of the implanted 57Fe (100KeV,3 × 10 16 ions/cm 2) in ZrO2 containing 3 mol% Y 2O 3( ZY 3) and its thermodynamic behavior during annealing process with the temperature from 200 to 500°C were studied. After annealing at 400°C the complex of Fe3+-V has been mostly dissolved, and the prior phase to α-Fe and α-Fe nano-crystalline cluster were present in the sample. Meanwhile the mixed conducting of oxygen-ions and electrons in the ZY3 containing Fe sample appeared.

  19. Effect of TiO2, ZrO2, and TiO2-ZrO2 on the performance of CuO-ZnO catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jie; Mao, Dongsen; Guo, Xiaoming; Yu, Jun

    2015-05-01

    The influence of TiO2, ZrO2, and TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide on the catalytic performance of CuO-ZnO catalyst in the methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation was studied. The catalysts were prepared by oxalate co-precipitation method and characterized by TGA, N2 adsorption, XRD, reactive N2O adsorption, XPS, H2-TPR, H2-TPD, and CO2-TPD techniques. Characterization results reveal that all the additives improve the CuO dispersion in the catalyst body and increase the Cu surface area and adsorption capacities of CO2 and H2. The results of catalytic test reveal that the additives increase both the CO2 conversion and methanol selectivity, and TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide is more effective than single components of TiO2 or ZrO2. Moreover, the activity of methanol synthesis is correlated directly with CO2 adsorption capacity over the catalysts.

  20. Highly defective oxides as sinter resistant thermal barrier coating

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2005-08-16

    A thermal barrier coating material formed of a highly defective cubic matrix structure having a concentration of a stabilizer sufficiently high that the oxygen vacancies created by the stabilizer interact within the matrix to form multi-vacancies, thereby improving the sintering resistance of the material. The concentration of stabilizer within the cubic matrix structure is greater than that concentration of stabilizer necessary to give the matrix a peak ionic conductivity value. The concentration of stabilizer may be at least 30 wt. %. Embodiments include a cubic matrix of zirconia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % yttria, and a cubic matrix of hafnia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % gadolinia.

  1. Perspective on thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutasim, Zaher; Brentnall, William

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used in high thrust aircraft engines for many years, and have proved to be very effective in providing thermal protection and increasing engine efficiencies. TBC life requirements for aircraft engines are typically less than those required for industrial gas turbines. This paper describes current and future applications of TBC's in industrial gas turbine engines. Early testing and applications of TBC's is reviewed. Areas of concern from the engine designer's and materials engineer's perspective are identified and evaluated. This paper focuses on the key factors that are expected to influence utilization of TBC's in advanced industrial gas turbine engines. It is anticipated that reliable, durable and highly effective coating systems will be produced that will ultimately improve engine efficiency and performance.

  2. Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications.

    PubMed

    Padture, Nitin P; Gell, Maurice; Jordan, Eric H

    2002-04-12

    Hundreds of different types of coatings are used to protect a variety of structural engineering materials from corrosion, wear, and erosion, and to provide lubrication and thermal insulation. Of all these, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have the most complex structure and must operate in the most demanding high-temperature environment of aircraft and industrial gas-turbine engines. TBCs, which comprise metal and ceramic multilayers, insulate turbine and combustor engine components from the hot gas stream, and improve the durability and energy efficiency of these engines. Improvements in TBCs will require a better understanding of the complex changes in their structure and properties that occur under operating conditions that lead to their failure. The structure, properties, and failure mechanisms of TBCs are herein reviewed, together with a discussion of current limitations and future opportunities.

  3. Characterization of ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal spray powder systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantkowski, Thomas E.; Rigney, David V.; Froning, Marc J.; Jayaraman, N.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective is to establish the interrelation between the raw material in the coating process and the performance of the coating deposit. It is anticipated that these interrelations will help establish more precise specifications for the procurement of the raw materials. Some of the preliminary results of the program are presented.

  4. Tensile Strength and Microstructure of Al2O3-ZrO2 Hypo-Eutectic Fibers Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Oxide eutectics offer high-temperature strength retention and creep resistance in oxidizing environments. Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic strengths have been studied since the 1970's. Directionally solidified oxide eutectics exhibit improved resistance to slow crack growth and excellent strength retention at high temperatures up to 1400 C. Materials studied typically contain Y2O3 to metastably retain the high-temperature cubic and tetragonal polymorphs at room temperature. Al2O3-ZrO2 is of fundamental interest for creep studies because it combines a creep-resistant material, Al2O3, with a very low creep resistance material, ZrO2. Results on mechanical properties and microstructures of these materials will be used to define compositions for creep testing in future work. Substantial variations from the eutectic alumina to zirconia ratio can be tolerated without a loss in room-temperature strength. The effect of increasing Y2O3 addition on the room-temperature tensile strength of an Al2O3-ZrO2 material containing excess Al2O3 was examined at the NASA Glenn Research Center, where the materials were grown using Glenn's world-class laser growth facilities.

  5. Hydroxyaptite nanorods patterned ZrO2 bilayer coating on zirconium for the application of percutaneous implants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong; Tan, Guoxin

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous implant requires a tight bond between the underlying dermis of skin and implant surface to prevent epithelial down-growth and infection, while fibroblasts play a key role in the skin-implant integration. In this work, nanorod-shaped hydroxyaptite (HA) with a mean diameter of 70 nm and length of 400 nm was hydrothermally grown on micro-arc oxidized (MAOed) Ca- and P-doped ZrO2 to form a bilayer coating. The hydrothermal formation mechanism of HA nanorods was explored, and the adsorption of total protein on the coating from α-MEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum was examined. Employing L-929 cells, the behaviors of fibroblasts on the bilayer coating, including adhesion and proliferation were evaluated together the polished Zr and as-MAOed ZrO2. The obtained results show that the HA nanorods nucleated on ZrO2 and grew at the expense of the doped Ca and P ions during the hydrothermal treatment (HT). The HA nanorods patterned coating enhanced protein absorption, and significantly improved the adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts compared to the as-MAOed ZrO2 and polished Zr. It suggests that the HA nanorods/ZrO2 coated zirconium has a potential application for percutaneous implants to enhance the attachment of skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical size of crystalline ZrO(2) nanoparticles synthesized in near- and supercritical water and supercritical isopropyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter; Bremholm, Martin; Pedersen, Jan S; Chevallier, Jacques; Iversen, Steen B; Iversen, Bo B

    2008-05-01

    Nanocrystalline ZrO(2) samples with narrow size distributions and mean particle sizes below 10 nm have been synthesized in a continuous flow reactor in near and supercritical water as well as supercritical isopropyl alcohol using a wide range of temperatures, pressures, concentrations and precursors. The samples were comprehensively characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the influence of the synthesis parameters on the particle size, particle size distribution, shape, aggregation and crystallinity was studied. On the basis of the choice of synthesis parameters either monoclinic or tetragonal zirconia phases can be obtained. The results suggest a critical particle size of 5-6 nm for nanocrystalline monoclinic ZrO(2) under the present conditions, which is smaller than estimates reported in the literature. Thus, very small monoclinic ZrO(2) particles can be obtained using a continuous flow reactor. This is an important result with respect to improvement of the catalytic properties of nanocrystalline ZrO(2).

  7. Optical enhancement of Au doped ZrO2 thin films by sol-gel dip coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Berlin, I.; Joy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Homogeneous and transparent Au doped ZrO2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The films have mixed phase of tetragonal, monoclinic and face centered cubic with crack free surface. Due to the increase in Au doping concentration many-body interaction occurs between free carriers and ionized impurities causing decrease in optical band gap from 5.72 to 5.40 eV. Localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the Au doped films appeared at 610 nm. Conversion of photons to surface plasmons allows the sub-wavelength manipulation of electromagnetic radiation. Hence the prepared Au doped ZrO2 thin films can be applied in nanoscale photonic devices such as lenses, switches, waveguides etc. Moreover the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of Au doped ZrO2 thin films decrease due to decrease in the radiative recombination, life time of the excitons and suppression of grain growth of ZrO2 with increasing Au dopant.

  8. Active three-way catalysis of rhodium particles with a low oxidation state maintained under an oxidative atmosphere on a La-containing ZrO2 support.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Hisaya; Koda, Yuki; Sumida, Hirosuke; Shigetsu, Masahiko; Takami, Akihide; Inumaru, Kei

    2013-05-11

    Rhodium on a La-containing ZrO2 support effectively eliminated NOx from a synthetic auto exhaust gas under fluctuating oxygen conditions. Rhodium particles maintained a low oxidation state on the ZrO2-La2O3 mixed oxide even after treatment with 5% O2 at 773 K, highlighting the significant effect of the La addition.

  9. Thermal barrier coating life-prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Neumann, J.; Liu, A.

    1986-01-01

    The program focuses on predicting the lives of two types of strain-tolerant and oxidation-resistant thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems that are produced by commercial coating suppliers to the gas turbine industry. The plasma-sprayed TBC system, composed of a low-pressure plasma-spray (LPPS) or an argon shrouded plasma-spray (ASPS) applied oxidation resistant NiCrAlY or (CoNiCrAlY) bond coating and an air-plasma-sprayed yttria partially stabilized zirconia insulative layer, is applied by both Chromalloy, Klock, and Union Carbide. The second type of TBS is applied by the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process by Temescal. The second year of the program was focused on specimen procurement, TMC system characterization, nondestructive evaluation methods, life prediction model development, and TFE731 engine testing of thermal barrier coated blades. Materials testing is approaching completion. Thermomechanical characterization of the TBC systems, with toughness, and spalling strain tests, was completed. Thermochemical testing is approximately two-thirds complete. Preliminary materials life models for the bond coating oxidation and zirconia sintering failure modes were developed. Integration of these life models with airfoil component analysis methods is in progress. Testing of high pressure turbine blades coated with the program TBS systems is in progress in a TFE731 turbofan engine. Eddy current technology feasibility was established with respect to nondestructively measuring zirconia layer thickness of a TBC system.

  10. Thermal Barriers Developed for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed with conventional O-ring seals that are shielded from 5500 F combustion gases by thick layers of insulation and by special joint-fill compounds that fill assembly splitlines in the insulation. On a number of occasions, NASA has observed hot gas penetration through defects in the joint-fill compound of several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints. In the current nozzle-to-case joint, NASA has observed penetration of hot combustion gases through the joint-fill compound to the inboard wiper O-ring in one out of seven motors. Although this condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas penetration to the wiper O-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. The solid rocket motor manufacturer (Thiokol) approached the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field about the possibility of applying Glenn's braided fiber preform seal as a thermal barrier to protect the O-ring seals. Glenn and Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and by using a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier that would resist any hot gases that the J-leg does not block.

  11. Development of Thermal Barriers For Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Joints in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors are sealed by O-rings to contain combustion gases inside the rocket that reach pressures of up to 900 psi and temperatures of up to 5500 F. To provide protection for the O-rings, the motors are insulated with either phenolic or rubber insulation. Gaps in the joints leading up to the O-rings are filled with polysulfide joint-fill compounds as an additional level of protection. The current RSRM nozzle-to-case joint design incorporating primary, secondary, and wiper O-rings experiences gas paths through the joint-fill compound to the innermost wiper O-ring in about one out of every seven motors. Although this does not pose a safety hazard to the motor, it is an undesirable condition that NASA and rocket manufacturer Thiokol want to eliminate. Each nozzle-to-case joint gas path results in extensive reviews and evaluation before flights can be resumed. Thiokol and NASA Marshall are currently working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design that has been used successfully in the field and igniter joint. They are also planning to incorporate the NASA Glenn braided carbon fiber thermal barrier into the joint. The thermal barrier would act as an additional level of protection for the O-rings and allow the elimination of the joint-fill compound from the joint.

  12. MNASA as a Test for Carbon Fiber Thermal Barrier Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Paul; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A carbon fiber rope thermal barrier is being evaluated as a replacement for the conventional room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) thermal barrier that is currently used to protect o-rings in Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle joints. Performance requirements include its ability to cool any incoming, hot propellant gases that fill and pressurize the nozzle joints, filter slag and particulates, and to perform adequately in various joint assembly conditions as well as dynamic flight motion. Modified National Aeronautics and Space Administration (MNASA) motors, with their inherent and unique ability to replicate select RSRM internal environment features, were an integral step in the development path leading to full scale RSRM static test demonstration of the carbon fiber rope (CFR) joint concept. These 1/4 scale RSRM motors serve to bridge the gap between the other classes of subscale test motors (extremely small and moderate duration, or small scale and short duration) and the critical asset RSRM static test motors. A series of MNASA tests have been used to demonstrate carbon fiber rope performance and have provided rationale for implementation into a full-scale static motor and flight qualification.

  13. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  14. Optical Diagnostics for High-Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments, such as in jet turbine engines. Taking advantage of the translucent nature of TBCs, optical diagnostics have been developed that can provide an informed assessment of TBC health that will allow mitigating action to be taken before TBC degradation threatens performance or safety. In particular, rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers have been integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence that monitors TBC erosion, delamination, and temperature gradients. Erosion monitoring of TBC-coated specimens is demonstrated by utilizing visible luminescence that is excited from a sublayer that is exposed by erosion. TBC delamination monitoring is achieved in TBCs with a base rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer by the reflectance-enhanced increase in luminescence produced in regions containing buried delamination cracks. TBC temperature monitoring is demonstrated using the temperature-dependent decay time for luminescence originating from the specific coating depth associated with a rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers is discussed, including co-doping strategies to produce more penetrating near-infrared luminescence. It is demonstrated that integration of the rare-earth-doped sublayers is achieved with no reduction in TBC life. In addition, results for multilayer TBCs designed to also perform as radiation barriers are also presented.

  15. Further industrial tests of ceramic thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Levine, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center made technical assistance arrangements (contracts) with several commercial organizations under which Lewis designed plasma-sprayed thermal-barrier coatings (TBC) for their products. Lewis was then furnished with the test conditions and evaluations of coating usefulness. The coating systems were developed and sprayed at Lewis. All of the systems incorporated a two-layer, ceramic-bond coating concept. Coating thickness and chemical composition were varied to fit three applications: the leading edges of first-stage turbine vanes for an advanced gas turbine engine; the flame impingement surfaces of a combustor transition section; and diesel engine valves and head surfaces. The TBC incorporated yytria-stabilized zirconia, which lowered metal temperatures, protected metal parts, and increased metal part life. In some cases metal burning, melting, and warping were eliminated. Additional benefits were realized from these endeavors: hands-on experience with thermal-barrier coatings was provided to industry; the success of these endeavors encourages these and other organizations to accelerate the implementation of TBC technology.

  16. The effect of ZrO2 and TiO 2 on solubility and strength of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Hawa M; Miller, Cheryl; Stokes, Christopher; Johnson, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    The effect of ZrO2 and TiO2 on the chemical and mechanical properties of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics was investigated after sample preparation according to the ISO (2768:2008) recommendations for dental ceramics. All materials were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the concentrations of elements present in all materials produced. The chemical solubility test and the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test were then carried out on all the samples. The best solubility value of 242 ± 61 μg/cm(2) was obtained when HG1T was heat-treated for 1 h at the glass transition temperature plus 20 °C (Tg + 20 °C) followed by 5 h at 1200 °C. The highest BFS value of 174 ± 38 MPa was achieved when HG1Z and HG1Z+T were heat-treated for 1 h at the Tg + 20 °C followed by 7 h at 1200 °C. The present study has demonstrated that the addition of TiO2 to the reference composition showed promise in both the glass and heat-treated samples. However, ZrO2 is an effective agent for developing the solubility or the mechanical properties of an apatite-mullite glass-ceramic separately but does not improve the solubility and the BFS simultaneously.

  17. Microstructural and mechanical properties of Al2O3/ZrO2 nanomultilayer thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, G.; Sastikumar, D.; Kuppusami, P.; Babu, R. Venkatesh; Song, Jung Il

    2018-02-01

    Single layer aluminium oxide (Al2O3), zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and Al2O3/ZrO2 nano multilayer films were deposited on Si (100) substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition. The development of Al2O3/ZrO2 nanolayered structure is an important method used to stabilize the high temperature phase (tetragonal and cubic) of ZrO2 at room temperature. In the Al2O3/ZrO2 multilayer structure, the Al2O3 layer was kept constant at 5 nm, while the ZrO2 layer thickness varied from 5 to 20 nm (5/5, 5/10, 5/15 and 5/20 nm) with a total of 40 bilayers. The X-ray diffraction studies of single layer Al2O3 indicated the γ-Al2O3 of cubic structure, while the single layer ZrO2 indicated both monoclinic and tetragonal phases. The 5/5 and 5/10 nm multilayer films showed the nanocrystalline nature of ZrO2 with tetragonal phase. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy studies indicated the formation of well-defined Al2O3 and ZrO2 layers and that they are of uniform thickness. The atomic force microscopy studies revealed the uniform and dense distribution of nanocrystallites. The nanoindentation studies indicated the hardness of 20.8 ± 1.10 and 10 ± 0.60 GPa, for single layer Al2O3 and ZrO2, respectively, and the hardness of multilayer films varied with bilayer thickness.

  18. Lower-Conductivity Ceramic Materials for Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming

    2006-01-01

    Doped pyrochlore oxides of a type described below are under consideration as alternative materials for high-temperature thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). In comparison with partially-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is the state-of-the-art TBC material now in commercial use, these doped pyrochlore oxides exhibit lower thermal conductivities, which could be exploited to obtain the following advantages: For a given difference in temperature between an outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface, the coating could be thinner. Reductions in coating thicknesses could translate to reductions in weight of hot-section components of turbine engines (e.g., combustor liners, blades, and vanes) to which TBCs are typically applied. For a given coating thickness, the difference in temperature between the outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface could be greater. For turbine engines, this could translate to higher operating temperatures, with consequent increases in efficiency and reductions in polluting emissions. TBCs are needed because the temperatures in some turbine-engine hot sections exceed the maximum temperatures that the substrate materials (superalloys, Si-based ceramics, and others) can withstand. YSZ TBCs are applied to engine components as thin layers by plasma spraying or electron-beam physical vapor deposition. During operation at higher temperatures, YSZ layers undergo sintering, which increases their thermal conductivities and thereby renders them less effective as TBCs. Moreover, the sintered YSZ TBCs are less tolerant of stress and strain and, hence, are less durable.

  19. Similarity tests of turbine vanes, effects of ceramic thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The role of material thermal conductivity was analyzed for its effect on the thermal performance of air-cooled gas turbine components coated with a ceramic thermal barrier material when tested at reduced temperatures and pressures. It is shown that the thermal performance can be evaluated reliably at reduced gas and coolant conditions; however, thermal conductivity corrections are required for the data at reduced conditions. Corrections for a ceramic thermal barrier coated vane are significantly different than for an uncoated vane. Comparison of uncorrected test data, therefore, would show erroneously that the thermal barrier coating was ineffective. When thermal conductivity corrections are applied to the test data these data are then shown to be representative of engine data and also show that the thermal barrier coating increases the vane cooling effectiveness by 12.5 percent.

  20. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for high heat flux thrust chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Christopher M.

    The last 30 years materials engineers have been under continual pressure to develop materials with a greater temperature potential or to produce configurations that can be effectively cooled or otherwise protected at elevated temperature conditions. Turbines and thrust chambers produce some of the harshest service conditions for materials which lead to the challenges engineers face in order to increase the efficiencies of current technologies due to the energy crisis that the world is facing. The key tasks for the future of gas turbines are to increase overall efficiencies to meet energy demands of a growing world population and reduce the harmful emissions to protect the environment. Airfoils or blades tend to be the limiting factor when it comes to the performance of the turbine because of their complex design making them difficult to cool as well as limitations of their thermal properties. Key tasks for space transportation it to lower costs while increasing operational efficiency and reliability of our space launchers. The important factor to take into consideration is the rocket nozzle design. The design of the rocket nozzle or thrust chamber has to take into account many constraints including external loads, heat transfer, transients, and the fluid dynamics of expanded hot gases. Turbine engines can have increased efficiencies if the inlet temperature for combustion is higher, increased compressor capacity and lighter weight materials. In order to push for higher temperatures, engineers need to come up with a way to compensate for increased temperatures because material systems that are being used are either at or near their useful properties limit. Before thermal barrier coatings were applied to hot-section components, material alloy systems were able to withstand the service conditions necessary. But, with the increased demand for performance, higher temperatures and pressures have become too much for those alloy systems. Controlled chemistry of hot

  1. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings on advanced power generation gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical investigation of present and advanced gas turbine power generation cycles incorporating thermal barrier turbine component coatings was performed. Approximately 50 parametric points considering simple, recuperated, and combined cycles (including gasification) with gas turbine inlet temperatures from current levels through 1644K (2500 F) were evaluated. The results indicated that thermal barriers would be an attractive means to improve performance and reduce cost of electricity for these cycles. A recommended thermal barrier development program has been defined.

  2. Corrosion resistant thermal barrier coating. [protecting gas turbines and other engine parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.; Hodge, P. E. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system for protecting metal surfaces at high temperature in normally corrosive environments is described. The thermal barrier coating system includes a metal alloy bond coating, the alloy containing nickel, cobalt, iron, or a combination of these metals. The system further includes a corrosion resistant thermal barrier oxide coating containing at least one alkaline earth silicate. The preferred oxides are calcium silicate, barium silicate, magnesium silicate, or combinations of these silicates.

  3. The Development of Erosion and Impact Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments and extend component lifetimes. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Advanced erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the doped thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion and impact damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be discussed.

  4. Effects of arc current on the life in burner rig thermal cycling of plasma sprayed ZrOsub2-Ysub2Osub3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; McDonald, G.

    1982-02-01

    An analysis of thermal cycle life data for four sets of eight thermal barrier coated specimens representing arc currents (plasma gun power) of 525, 600, 800, or 950 amps is presented. The ZrO2-8Y2O3/NiCrAlY plasma spray coated Rene 41 rods were thermal cycled to 1040 C in a Mach 0.3-Jet A/air burner flame. The experimental results indicate the existance of a minimum or threshold power level which coating life expectancy is less than 500 cycles. Above the threshold power level, coating life expectancy more than doubles and increases with arc current.

  5. Effects of arc current on the life in burner rig thermal cycling of plasma sprayed ZrOsub2-Ysub2Osub3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of thermal cycle life data for four sets of eight thermal barrier coated specimens representing arc currents (plasma gun power) of 525, 600, 800, or 950 amps is presented. The ZrO2-8Y2O3/NiCrAlY plasma spray coated Rene 41 rods were thermal cycled to 1040 C in a Mach 0.3-Jet A/air burner flame. The experimental results indicate the existance of a minimum or threshold power level which coating life expectancy is less than 500 cycles. Above the threshold power level, coating life expectancy more than doubles and increases with arc current.

  6. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings for advanced power generation combustion turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical evaluation was conducted to determine quantitatively the improvement potential in cycle efficiency and cost of electricity made possible by the introduction of thermal barrier coatings to power generation combustion turbine systems. The thermal barrier system, a metallic bond coat and yttria stabilized zirconia outer layer applied by plasma spray techniques, acts as a heat insulator to provide substantial metal temperature reductions below that of the exposed thermal barrier surface. The study results show the thermal barrier to be a potentially attractive means for improving performance and reducing cost of electricity for the simple, recuperated, and combined cycles evaluated.

  7. High Temperature Properties of an Alumina Enhanced Thermal Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Smith, Marnell; Keating, Elizabeth A.

    1987-01-01

    The heatshield material requirements for future space vehicles (Aerobraking Orbital Transfer Vehicle & National Aerospace Plane) will depend upon the desired flight capability, configuration and location on the vehicle. These requirements will be more demanding and different from those derived for the materials used in the Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system. Research was therefore initiated into improving the thermal efficiency of this class of materials by first characterizing their thermal and structural capabilities. Alternate material systems have been developed, tested, and compared with the baseline Shuttle system. This research resulted in the development of several very low density, high porosity (80-90%) materials with enhanced durability and temperature capability. One of the developments was a family of materials referred to as Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (FRCI) utilizing a mixture of fibers, each serving a unique purpose. One composition of the FRCI family with two fibers was adopted as a baseline material for use on the third and fourth Orbiters in selected areas due to its strength at a lower density compared to earlier materials. A further improvement in the FRCI family of materials is the Alumina Enhanced Thermal Barrier (AETB), a three-fiber composite. It has a higher temperature capability (composition dependent) than the baseline FRCI as proven by convective heating tests of one composition. AETB was studied to better characterize its performance at high temperature and the mechanisms by which its properties change. In conclusion, the shrinkage of AETB is a factor of six better than baseline FRCI at 1260 C (2300 F) with about a 20% improvement in mechanical properties. This improvement could translate into a 110 C (200 F) higher temperature capability in use as a heat shield material, but further testing in a convective heating environment is required to determine the actual improvement attainable.

  8. Effects of Doping on Thermal Conductivity of Pyrochlore Oxides for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2006-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides of general composition, A2B2O7, where A is a 3(+) cation (La to Lu) and B is a 4(+) cation (Zr, Hf, Ti, etc.) have high melting point, relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity which make them suitable for applications as high-temperature thermal barrier coatings. The effect of doping at the A site on the thermal conductivity of a pyrochlore oxide La2Zr2O7, has been investigated. Oxide powders of various compositions La2Zr2O7, La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 were synthesized by the citric acid sol-gel method. These powders were hot pressed into discs and used for thermal conductivity measurements using a steady-state laser heat flux test technique. The rare earth oxide doped pyrochlores La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 had lower thermal conductivity than the un-doped La2Zr2O7. The Gd2O3 and Yb2O3 co-doped composition showed the lowest thermal conductivity.

  9. Perspective on thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutasim, Z. Z.; Hsu, L. L.; Brentnall, W. D.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC's) have been used in high thrust aircraft engines for many years, and have proved to be very effective in allowing higher turbine inlet temperatures. TBC life requirements for aircraft engines are typically less than those required in industrial gas turbines. The use of TBC's for industrial gas turbines can increase if durability and longer service life can be successfully demonstrated. This paper will describe current and future applications of TBC's in industrial gas turbine engines. Early testing and applications of TBC's will also be reviewed. This paper focuses on the key factors that are expected to influence utilization of TBC's in advanced industrial gas turbine engines. It is anticipated that reliable, durable and high effective coating systems will be produced that will ultimately improve engine efficiency and performance.

  10. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  11. Thermal barrier and support for nuclear reactor fuel core

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Jr., William S.; Pickering, J. Larry; Black, William E.

    1987-01-01

    A thermal barrier/core support for the fuel core of a nuclear reactor having a metallic cylinder secured to the reactor vessel liner and surrounded by fibrous insulation material. A top cap is secured to the upper end of the metallic cylinder that locates and orients a cover block and post seat. Under normal operating conditions, the metallic cylinder supports the entire load exerted by its associated fuel core post. Disposed within the metallic cylinder is a column of ceramic material, the height of which is less than that of the metallic cylinder, and thus is not normally load bearing. In the event of a temperature excursion beyond the design limits of the metallic cylinder and resulting in deformation of the cylinder, the ceramic column will abut the top cap to support the fuel core post.

  12. Mode I, Mode II, and Mixed-Mode Fracture of Plasma-sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in air at 25 and 1316 C in asymmetric four-point flexure with single edge v-notched beam (SEVNB) test specimens. The mode I fracture toughness was found to be K(sub Ic) = 1.15 plus or minus 0.07 and 0.98 plus or minus 0.13 MPa the square root of m, respectively, at 25 and 1316 C. The respective mode II fracture toughness values were K(sub IIc) = 0.73 plus or minus 0.10 and 0.65 plus or minus 0.04 MPa the square root of m. Hence, there was an insignificant difference in either K(sub Ic or K(sub IIc) between 25 and 1316 C for the coating material, whereas there was a noticeable distinction between K(sub Ic) and K(sub IIc), resulting in K(sub IIc) per K(sub Ic) = 0.65 at both temperatures. The empirical mixed-mode fracture criterion best described the coatings' mixed-mode fracture behavior among the four mixed-mode fracture theories considered. The angle of crack propagation was in reasonable agreement with the minimum strain energy density criterion. The effect of the directionality of the coating material in on K(sub Ic) was observed to be insignificant, while its sintering effect at 1316 C on K(sub Ic) was significant.

  13. Thermal Barrier/Seal for Extreme Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Phelps, Jack; Bauer, Paul; Bond, Bruce; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large solid rocket motors, as found on the Space Shuttle, are fabricated in segments for manufacturing considerations, bolted together, and sealed using conventional Viton O-ring seals. Similarly the nine large solid rocket motor nozzles are assembled from several different segments, bolted together, and sealed at six joint locations using conventional O-ring seals. The 5500 F combustion gases are generally kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic or rubber insulation. Joint-fill compounds, including RTV (room temperature vulcanized compound) and polysulfide filler, are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flow-path to the O-rings. Normally these two stages of protection are enough to prevent a direct flow-path of the 900-psi hot gases from reaching the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. However, in the current design 1 out of 15 Space Shuttle solid rocket motors experience hot gas effects on the Joint 6 wiper (sacrificial) O-rings. Also worrisome is the fact that joints have experienced heat effects on materials between the RTV and the O-rings, and in two cases O-rings have experienced heat effects. These conditions lead to extensive reviews of the post-flight conditions as part of the effort to monitor flight safety. We have developed a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier to replace the joint fill compounds in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzles to reduce the incoming 5500 F combustion gas temperature and permit only cool (approximately 100 F) gas to reach the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. Implementation of this thermal barrier provides more robust, consistent operation with shorter turn around times between Shuttle launches.

  14. Thermal Properties of Oxides With Magnetoplumbite Structure for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Oxides having magnetoplumbite structure are promising candidate materials for applications as high temperature thermal barrier coatings because of their high thermal stability, high thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity. In this study, powders of LaMgAl11O19, GdMgAl11O19, SmMgAl11O19, and Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxides were synthesized by citric acid sol-gel method and hot pressed into disk specimens. The thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) of these oxide materials were measured from room temperature to 1500 C. The average CTE value was found to be approx.9.6x10(exp -6)/C. Thermal conductivity of these magnetoplumbite-based oxide materials was also evaluated using steady-state laser heat flux test method. The effects of doping on thermal properties were also examined. Thermal conductivity of the doped Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 composition was found to be lower than that of the undoped GdMgAl11O19. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient was found to be independent of the oxide composition and appears to be controlled by the magnetoplumbite crystal structure. Thermal conductivity testing of LaMgAl11O19 and LaMnAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxide coatings plasma sprayed on NiCrAlY/Rene N5 superalloy substrates indicated resistance of these coatings to sintering even at temperatures as high as 1600 C.

  15. Adaptive Photothermal Emission Analysis Techniques for Robust Thermal Property Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Raymond

    The characterization of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems is increasingly important because they enable gas turbine engines to operate at high temperatures and efficiency. Phase of photothermal emission analysis (PopTea) has been developed to analyze the thermal behavior of the ceramic top-coat of TBCs, as a nondestructive and noncontact method for measuring thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Most TBC allocations are on actively-cooled high temperature turbine blades, which makes it difficult to precisely model heat transfer in the metallic subsystem. This reduces the ability of rote thermal modeling to reflect the actual physical conditions of the system and can lead to higher uncertainty in measured thermal properties. This dissertation investigates fundamental issues underpinning robust thermal property measurements that are adaptive to non-specific, complex, and evolving system characteristics using the PopTea method. A generic and adaptive subsystem PopTea thermal model was developed to account for complex geometry beyond a well-defined coating and substrate system. Without a priori knowledge of the subsystem characteristics, two different measurement techniques were implemented using the subsystem model. In the first technique, the properties of the subsystem were resolved as part of the PopTea parameter estimation algorithm; and, the second technique independently resolved the subsystem properties using a differential "bare" subsystem. The confidence in thermal properties measured using the generic subsystem model is similar to that from a standard PopTea measurement on a "well-defined" TBC system. Non-systematic bias-error on experimental observations in PopTea measurements due to generic thermal model discrepancies was also mitigated using a regression-based sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis reported measurement uncertainty and was developed into a data reduction method to filter out these "erroneous" observations. It was found

  16. Electronic structure and electron energy-loss spectroscopy of ZrO2 zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, L. K.; Vast, Nathalie; Baranek, Philippe; Cheynet, Marie-Claude; Reining, Lucia

    2004-12-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of zirconia are calculated within density functional theory, and their evolution is analyzed as the crystal-field symmetry changes from tetrahedral [cubic (c-ZrO2) and tetragonal (t-ZrO2) phases] to octahedral (hypothetical rutile ZrO2 ), to a mixing of these symmetries (monoclinic phase, m-ZrO2 ). We find that the theoretical bulk modulus in c-ZrO2 is 30% larger than the experimental value, showing that the introduction of yttria in zirconia has a significant effect. Electronic structure fingerprints which characterize each phase from their electronic spectra are identified. We have carried out electron energy-loss spectroscopy experiments at low momentum transfer and compared these results to the theoretical spectra calculated within the random phase approximation. We show a dependence of the valence and 4p ( N2,3 edge) plasmons on the crystal structure, the dependence of the latter being brought into the spectra by local-field effects. Last, we attribute low energy excitations observed in EELS of m-ZrO2 to defect states 2eV above the top of the intrinsic valence band, and the EELS fundamental band gap value is reconciled with the 5.2 or 5.8eV gaps determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  17. Sunlight activated anodic freestanding ZrO2 nanotube arrays for Cr(VI) photoreduction.

    PubMed

    Bashirom, Nurulhuda; Tan, Wai Kian; Go, Kawamura; Matsuda, Atsunori; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia

    2018-06-14

    Visible-light-active freestanding zirconia (ZrO2) nanotube (FSZNT) arrays were fabricated by a facile electrochemical anodization method in fluoride containing ethylene glycol electrolyte added to it 1 vol.% of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) at 60 V for 1 h. Poor adhesion at metal|oxide interface was induced by K2CO3 leading to formation of the FSZNT flakes. The effect of crystal structures of FSZNTs e.g., amorphous, amorphous/tetragonal, and tetragonal/monoclinic was investigated towards the photocatalytic reduction of 10 ppm hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI) at pH 2 under sunlight. The results demonstrate the amorphous FSZNTs exhibited the highest Cr(VI) removal efficiency than the crystalline FSZNTs (95 % versus 33 % after 5 h). The high photocatalytic activity of the amorphous FSZNTs can be attributed to enhanced Cr(VI) adsorption, high visible light absorption, and better charge carriers separation. The low photocatalytic activity of the crystalline FSZNTs annealed at 500 °C was mainly attributed to poor Cr(VI) adsorption, low visible light absorption, and less photoactive monoclinic-ZrO2. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Surface Passivation of ZrO2 Artificial Dentures by Magnetized Coaxial Plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Soya; Kurumi, Satoshi; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hara, Katsuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiko; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki; Nihon University Team

    2015-09-01

    Recent growth and fabrication technologies for functional materials have been greatly contributed to drastic development of oral surgery field. Zirconia based ceramics is expected to utilize artificial dentures because these ceramics have good biocompatibility, high hardness and aesthetic attractively. However, to apply these ceramics to artificial dentures, this denture is removed from a dental plate because of weakly bond. For improving this problem, synthesis an Al passivation-layer on the ceramics for bonding with these dental items is suitable. In order to deposit the passivation layer, we focused on a magnetized coaxial plasma deposition (MCPD). The greatest characteristic of MCPD is that high-melting point metal can be deposited on various substrates. Additionally, adhesion force between substrate and films deposited by the MCPD is superior to it of general deposition methods. In this study, we have reported on the growth techniques of Al films on ZrO2 for contributing to oral surgery by the MCPD. Surface of deposited films shows there were some droplets and thickness of it is about 200 nm. Thickness is increased to 500 nm with increasing applied voltage.

  19. Influence of hot isostatic pressing on ZrO2-CaO dental ceramics properties.

    PubMed

    Gionea, Alin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Bleotu, Coralia; Surdu, Vasile-Adrian

    2016-08-30

    Different hot isostatic pressing conditions were used to obtain zirconia ceramics, in order to assess the influence of HIP on phase transformation, compressive strength, Young's modulus and density. First, CaO stabilized zirconia powder was synthesized through sol-gel method, using zirconium propoxide, calcium isopropoxide and 2-metoxiethanol as precursors, then HIP treatment was applied to obtain final dense ceramics. Ceramics were morphologically and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Density measurements, compressive strength and Young's modulus tests were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of HIP treatment. The zirconia powders heat treated at 500°C for 2h showed a pure cubic phase with average particle dimension about 70nm. The samples that were hot isostatic pressed presented a mixture of monoclinic-tetragonal or monoclinic-cubic phases, while for pre-sintered samples, cubic zirconia was the single crystalline form. Final dense ceramics were obtained after HIP treatment, with relative density values higher than 94%. ZrO2-CaO ceramics presented high compressive strength, with values in the range of 500-708.9MPa and elastic behavior with Young's modulus between 1739MPa and 4372MPa. Finally zirconia ceramics were tested for biocompatibility allowing the normal development of MG63 cells in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reproducibility of ZrO2-based freeze casting for biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Naleway, Steven E; Fickas, Kate C; Maker, Yajur N; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    The processing technique of freeze casting has been intensely researched for its potential to create porous scaffold and infiltrated composite materials for biomedical implants and structural materials. However, in order for this technique to be employed medically or commercially, it must be able to reliably produce materials in great quantities with similar microstructures and properties. Here we investigate the reproducibility of the freeze casting process by independently fabricating three sets of eight ZrO2-epoxy composite scaffolds with the same processing conditions but varying solid loading (10, 15 and 20 vol.%). Statistical analyses (One-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests) run upon measurements of the microstructural dimensions of these composite scaffold sets show that, while the majority of microstructures are similar, in all cases the composite scaffolds display statistically significant variability. In addition, composite scaffolds where mechanically compressed and statistically analyzed. Similar to the microstructures, almost all of their resultant properties displayed significant variability though most composite scaffolds were similar. These results suggest that additional research to improve control of the freeze casting technique is required before scaffolds and composite scaffolds can reliably be reproduced for commercial or medical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultraviolet-assisted direct patterning and low-temperature formation of flexible ZrO2 resistive switching arrays on PET/ITO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lingwei; Chen, Yuanqing; Yin, Xiaoru; Song, Yang; Li, Na; Niu, Jinfen; Wu, Huimin; Qu, Wenwen

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost and facile photochemical solution method to prepare the ZrO2 resistive switching arrays as memristive units on flexible PET/ITO substrates. ZrO2 solution sensitive to UV light of 337 nm was synthesized using zirconium n-butyl alcohol as the precursor, and benzoylacetone as the complexing agent. After the dip-coated ZrO2 gel films were irradiated through a mask under the UV lamp (with wavelength of 325-365 nm) at room temperature and rinsed in ethanol, the ZrO2 gel arrays were obtained on PET/ITO substrates. Subsequently, the ZrO2 gel arrays were irradiated by deep UV light of 254 and 185 nm at 150 °C, resulting in the amorphous ZrO2 memristive micro-arrays. The ZrO2 units on flexible PET/ITO substrates exhibited excellent memristive properties. A high ratio of 104 of on-state and off-state resistance was obtained. The resistive switching behavior of the flexible device remained stable after being bent for 103 times. The device showed stable flexibility up to a minimum bending diameter of 1.25 cm.

  2. Impact of the oxygen defects and the hydrogen concentration on the surface of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 on the reduction rates of stearic acid on Ni/ZrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Foraita, Sebastian D.; Fulton, John L.; Chase, Zizwe A.

    2015-02-02

    The effect of the physicochemical properties of ZrO2 phases on the activity of Ni/ZrO2 catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid are described. A synergistic interaction between Ni and ZrO2 support was found. The effect is greatest for the monoclinic phase of ZrO2.

  3. Thermal barrier coating life-prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Neumann, J.

    1985-01-01

    Life predictions are made for two types of strain-tolerant and oxidation-resistant Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) systems produced by commercial coating suppliers to the gas turbine industry. The plasma-sprayed TBC system, composed of a low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS) applied oxidation-resistant NiCrAlY bond coating and an air-plasma-sprayed yttria (8 percent) partially stabilized zirconia insulative layer, is applied by both Chromalloy and Klock. The second type of TBC is applied by the electron-beam/physical vapor deposition process by Temescal. Thermomechanical and thermochemical testing of the program TBCs is in progress. A number of the former tests has been completed. Fracture mechanics data for the Chromalloy plasma-sprayed TBC system indicate that the cohesive toughness of the zirconia layer is increased by thermal cycling and reduced by high temperature exposure at 1150 C. Eddy current technology feasibility has been established with respect to nondestructively measuring zirconia layer thickness of a TBC system. High pressure turbine blades have been coated with program TBC systems for a piggyback test in a TFE731-5 turbofan factory engine test. Data from this test will be used to validate the TBC life models.

  4. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, Jeanine T.; Ortiz, Milton

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this program was to establish a methodology to predict thermal barrier coating (TBC) life on gas turbine engine components. The approach involved experimental life measurement coupled with analytical modeling of relevant degradation modes. Evaluation of experimental and flight service components indicate the predominant failure mode to be thermomechanical spallation of the ceramic coating layer resulting from propagation of a dominant near interface crack. Examination of fractionally exposed specimens indicated that dominant crack formation results from progressive structural damage in the form of subcritical microcrack link-up. Tests conducted to isolate important life drivers have shown MCrAlY oxidation to significantly affect the rate of damage accumulation. Mechanical property testing has shown the plasma deposited ceramic to exhibit a non-linear stress-strain response, creep and fatigue. The fatigue based life prediction model developed accounts for the unusual ceramic behavior and also incorporates an experimentally determined oxide rate model. The model predicts the growth of this oxide scale to influence the intensity of the mechanic driving force, resulting from cyclic strains and stresses caused by thermally induced and externally imposed mechanical loads.

  5. Parametric Studies Of Failure Mechanisms In Thermal Barrier Coatings During Thermal Cycling Using FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivathsa, B.; Das, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used on different hot components of gas turbine engines such as blades and vanes. Although, several mechanisms for the failure of the TBCs have been suggested, it is largely accepted that the durability of these coatings is primarily determined by the residual stresses that are developed during the thermal cycling. In the present study, the residual stress build-up in an electron beam physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD) based TBCs on a coupon during thermal cycling has been studied by varying three parameters such as the cooling rate, TBC thickness and substrate thickness. A two-dimensional thermomechanical generalized plane strain finite element simulations have been performed for thousand cycles. It was observed that these variations change the stress profile significantly and the stress severity factor increases non-linearly. Overall, the predictions of the model agree with reported experimental results and help in predicting the failure mechanisms.

  6. Sintering Characteristics of Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Gradient and Isothermal High Temperature Annealing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides have most of the relevant attributes for use as next generation thermal barrier coatings such as phase stability, low sintering kinetics and low thermal conductivity. One of the issues with the pyrochlore oxides is their lower toughness and therefore higher erosion rate compared to the current state-of-the-art TBC material, yttria (6 to 8 wt%) stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this work, sintering characteristics were investigated for novel multilayered coating consisted of alternating layers of pyrochlore oxide viz Gd2Zr2O7 and t' low k (rare earth oxide doped YSZ). Thermal gradient and isothermal high temperature (1316 C) annealing conditions were used to investigate sintering and cracking in these coatings. The results are then compared with that of relevant monolayered coatings and a baseline YSZ coating.

  7. Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zju, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) will play an increasingly important role in gas turbine engines because of their ability to further raise engine temperatures. However, the issue of coating durability is of major concern under high-heat-flux conditions. In particular, the accelerated coating delamination crack growth under the engine high heat-flux conditions is not well understood. In this paper, a laser heat flux technique is used to investigate the coating delamination crack propagation under realistic temperature-stress gradients and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating delamination mechanisms are investigated under various thermal loading conditions, and are correlated with coating dynamic fatigue, sintering and interfacial adhesion test results. A coating life prediction framework may be realized by examining the crack initiation and propagation driving forces for coating failure under high-heat-flux test conditions.

  8. Chitosan /Zeolite Y/Nano ZrO2 nanocomposite as an adsorbent for the removal of nitrate from the aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Teimouri, Abbas; Nasab, Shima Ghanavati; Vahdatpoor, Niaz; Habibollahi, Saeed; Salavati, Hossein; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, a series of chitosan/Zeolite Y/Nano Zirconium oxide (CTS/ZY/Nano ZrO 2 ) nanocomposites were made by controlling the molar ratio of chitosan (CTS) to Zeolite Y/Nano Zirconium oxide in order to remove nitrate (NO 3 - ) ions in the aqueous solution. The nanocomposite adsorbents were characterized by XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM and TEM. The influence of different molar ratios of CTS to ZY/Nano ZrO 2 , the initial pH value of the nitrate solution, contact time, temperature, the initial concentration of nitrate and adsorbent dose was studied. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were also analyzed. It was attempted to describe the sorption processes by the Langmuir equation and the theoretical adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) was found to be 23.58mg nitrate per g of the adsorbent. The optimal conditions for nitrate removal were found to be: molar ratio of CTS/ZY/Nano ZrO 2 : 5:1; pH: 3; 0.02g of adsorbent and temperature: 35°C, for 60min. The adsorption capacities of CTS, ZY, Nano ZrO 2 , CTS/Nano ZrO 2 , CTS/ZY and CTS/ZY/Nano ZrO 2 nanocomposites for nitrate removal were compared, showing that the adsorption ability of CTS/ZY/Nano ZrO 2 nanocomposite was higher than the average values of those of CTS (1.95mg/g for nitrate removal), ZY, Nano ZrO 2 , CTS/Nano ZrO 2, and CTS/ZY. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Exceptional arsenic (III,V) removal performance of highly porous, nanostructured ZrO2 spheres for fixed bed reactors and the full-scale system modeling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hang; Su, Yu; Li, Qi; Gao, Shian; Shang, Jian Ku

    2013-10-15

    Highly porous, nanostructured zirconium oxide spheres were fabricated from ZrO2 nanoparticles with the assistance of agar powder to form spheres with size at millimeter level followed with a heat treatment at 450 °C to remove agar network, which provided a simple, low-cost, and safe process for the synthesis of ZrO2 spheres. These ZrO2 spheres had a dual-pore structure, in which interconnected macropores were beneficial for liquid transport and the mesopores could largely increase their surface area (about 98 m(2)/g) for effective contact with arsenic species in water. These ZrO2 spheres demonstrated an even better arsenic removal performance on both As(III) and As(V) than ZrO2 nanoparticles, and could be readily applied to commonly used fixed-bed adsorption reactors in the industry. A short bed adsorbent test was conducted to validate the calculated external mass transport coefficient and the pore diffusion coefficient. The performance of full-scale fixed bed systems with these ZrO2 spheres as the adsorber was estimated by the validated pore surface diffusion modeling. With the empty bed contact time (EBCT) at 10 min and the initial arsenic concentration at 30 ppb, the number of bed volumes that could be treated by these dry ZrO2 spheres reached ~255,000 BVs and ~271,000 BVs for As(III) and As(V), respectively, until the maximum contaminant level of 10 ppb was reached. These ZrO2 spheres are non-toxic, highly stable, and resistant to acid and alkali, have a high arsenic adsorption capacity, and could be easily adapted for various arsenic removal apparatus. Thus, these ZrO2 spheres may have a promising potential for their application in water treatment practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilayer Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings with Enhanced Thermal Cyclic Lifetime: Experiments and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Mohit; Kumara, Chamara; Nylén, Per

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) has been shown as a promising process to produce porous columnar strain tolerant coatings for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines. However, the highly porous structure is vulnerable to crack propagation, especially near the topcoat-bondcoat interface where high stresses are generated due to thermal cycling. A topcoat layer with high toughness near the topcoat-bondcoat interface could be beneficial to enhance thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs. In this work, a bilayer coating system consisting of first a dense layer near the topcoat-bondcoat interface followed by a porous columnar layer was fabricated by SPS using Yttria-stabilised zirconia suspension. The objective of this work was to investigate if the bilayer topcoat architecture could enhance the thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs through experiments and to understand the effect of the column gaps/vertical cracks and the dense layer on the generated stresses in the TBC during thermal cyclic loading through finite element modeling. The experimental results show that the bilayer TBC had significantly higher lifetime than the single-layer TBC. The modeling results show that the dense layer and vertical cracks are beneficial as they reduce the thermally induced stresses which thus increase the lifetime.

  11. Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Barrier Seals for Extreme Transient Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The assembly joints of modem solid rocket motor cases are generally sealed using conventional O-ring type seals. The 5500+ F combustion gases produced by rocket motors are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic insulation. Special compounds are used to fill insulation gaps leading up to the seals to prevent a direct flowpath to them. Design criteria require that the seals should not experience torching or charring during operation, or their sealing ability would be compromised. On limited occasions, NASA has observed charring of the primary O-rings of the Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle assembly joints due to parasitic leakage paths opening up in the gap-fill compounds during rocket operation. NASA is investigating different approaches for preventing torching or charring of the primary O-rings. One approach is to implement a braided rope seal upstream of the primary O-ring to serve as a thermal barrier that prevents the hot gases from impinging on the O-ring seals. This paper presents flow, resiliency, and thermal resistance for several types of NASA rope seals braided out of carbon fibers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the seals when exposed to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Rope seals braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over six minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Room and high temperature flow tests are presented for the carbon seals for different amounts of linear compression. Room temperature compression tests were performed to assess seal resiliency and unit preloads as a function of compression. The thermal barrier seal was tested in a subscale "char" motor test in which the seal sealed an intentional defect in the gap insulation. Temperature measurements indicated that the seal blocked 2500 F combustion gases on the upstream side with very little temperature

  12. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Susan Manning; Sheffler, Keith D.; Nissley, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to generate a life prediction model for electron-beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) zirconia thermal barrier coating (TBC) on gas turbine engine components. Specific activities involved in development of the EB-PVD life prediction model included measurement of EB-PVD ceramic physical and mechanical properties and adherence strength, measurement of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth kinetics, generation of quantitative cyclic thermal spallation life data, and development of a spallation life prediction model. Life data useful for model development was obtained by exposing instrumented, EB-PVD ceramic coated cylindrical specimens in a jet fueled burner rig. Monotonic compression and tensile mechanical tests and physical property tests were conducted to obtain the EB-PVD ceramic behavior required for burner rig specimen analysis. As part of that effort, a nonlinear constitutive model was developed for the EB-PVD ceramic. Spallation failure of the EB-PVD TBC system consistently occurred at the TGO-metal interface. Calculated out-of-plane stresses were a small fraction of that required to statically fail the TGO. Thus, EB-PVD spallation was attributed to the interfacial cracking caused by in-plane TGO strains. Since TGO mechanical properties were not measured in this program, calculation of the burner rig specimen TGO in-plane strains was performed by using alumina properties. A life model based on maximum in-plane TGO tensile mechanical strain and TGO thickness correlated the burner rig specimen EB-PVD ceramic spallation lives within a factor of about plus or minus 2X.

  13. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions (Invited paper)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  14. (Zr,Ti)O2 interface structure in ZrO2-TiO2 nanolaminates with ultrathin periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, C. R.; DeLoach, J. D.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2002-07-01

    A mixed cation interfacial structure in ZrO2-TiO2 nanolaminate films with ultrathin bilayer periodicity grown by sputter deposition at 297 K was identified by x-ray diffraction and nonresonant Raman spectroscopy. This structure consists of an amorphous phase at a ZrO2-on-TiO2 bilayer interface, followed by an extensive crystalline monoclinic (Zr,Ti)O2 solid solution predicted by Vegard's law. Monoclinic (Zr,Ti)O2 has previously been reported only once, in bulk powder of a single composition (ZrTiO4) at high pressure. Its stabilization in the nanolaminates is explained by the Gibbs-Thomson effect. This complex interfacial structure is shown to be a means of accommodating chemical mixing in the absence of a driving force for heteroepitaxy.

  15. Stress analysis of ZrO2/SiO2 multilayers deposited on different substrates with different thickness periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shuying; Shao, Jianda; He, Hongbo; Fan, Zhengxiu

    2005-08-01

    The effects of repeating thickness periods on stress are studied in ZrO2/SiO2 multilayers deposited by electron-beam evaporation on BK7 glass and fused-silica substrates. The results show that the residual stress is compressive and decreases with an increase of the periods of repeating thickness in the ZrO2/SiO2 multilayers. At the same time, the residual stress in multilayers deposited on BK7 glass is less than that of samples deposited on fused silica. The variation of the microstructure examined by x-ray diffraction shows that microscopic deformation does not correspond to macroscopic stress, which may be due to variation of the interface stress.

  16. Demonstration of motion control of ZrO2 microparticles in uniform/non-uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Genki; Trung, Ngo Nguyen Chi; Matsutani, Naoto; Nakayama, Tadachika; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Niihara, Koichi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism that drives dielectric microparticles under an electric field. The driving of microstructures is affected by various electrical phenomena occurring at the same time such as surface potential, polarization, and electrostatic force. It makes the clarification of the driving mechanism challenging. A simple experimental system was used to observe the behavior of spherical ZrO2 microparticles in a nonaqueous solution under an electric field. The results suggest that the mechanism that drives the ZrO2 microparticles under an electric field involved the combination of an electric image force, a gradient force, and the contact charging phenomenon. A method is proposed to control the motion of micro- and nanostructures in further study and applications.

  17. Combinatorial Investigation of ZrO2-Based Dielectric Materials for Dynamic Random-Access Memory Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, Yuji; Itaka, Kenji; Iwashita, Yuta; Adachi, Tetsuya; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Ogura, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    We investigated zirconia (ZrO2)-based material libraries in search of new dielectric materials for dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) by combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition (combi-PLD). We found that the substitution of yttrium (Y) to Zr sites in the ZrO2 system suppressed the leakage current effectively. The metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor property of this system showed a leakage current density of less than 5×10-7 A/cm2 and the dielectric constant was 20. Moreover, the addition of titanium (Ti) or tantalum (Ta) to this system caused the dielectric constant to increase to ˜25 within the allowed leakage level of 5×10-7 A/cm2. Therefore, Zr-Y-Ti-O and Zr-Y-Ta-O systems have good potentials for use as new materials with high dielectric constants of DRAM capacitors instead of silicon dioxides (SiO2).

  18. Effect of ZrO2 film thickness on the photoelectric properties of mixed-cation perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Li; Wei, Shoubin; Xiao, Meng; Dong, Binghai; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2018-05-01

    In this work, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated in the ambient air, with a scaffold layer composed of TiO2/ZrO2 double layer as the mesoscopic layer and carbon as the counter electrode. The effect of ZrO2 thin film thickness on the photovoltaic performances of PSCs was also studied in detail. Results showed that the photoelectric properties of as-prepared PSCs largely depend on the thin film thickness due to a series of factors, including surface roughness, charge transport resistance, and electron-hole recombination rate. The power conversion efficiency of PSCs increased from 8.37% to 11.33% by varying the thin film thickness from 75 nm to 305 nm, and the optimal power conversion efficiency was realized up to the 11.33% with a thin film thickness of 167 nm. This research demonstrates a promising route for the high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic technology.

  19. Mechanically reliable thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites by dispersing and embedding TE-nanostructures inside a tetragonal ZrO2 matrix: the concept and experimental demonstration in graphene oxide-3YSZ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estili, Mehdi; Wu, Wen-Wen; Khazaei, Mohammad; Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    Novel low-dimensional thermoelectric (TE) materials suffer from poor mechanical reliability, which limits their applications, especially in mechanically harsh environments. Here, we propose a new concept, in which the novel, abundant, thermally stable TE-nanostructures are dispersed and then intimately embedded inside a protective, mechanically reliable tetragonal ZrO2 (TZP) ceramic matrix with a low thermal conductivity. We also demonstrate an experimental proof-of-principle verification of our concept in reduced-graphene oxide (GO)-3 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2 (3YSZ or 3Y-TZP) nanocomposite system. TE characterizations suggest that our protective TZP matrix does not degrade the intrinsic TE property of the reduced GO network. These preliminary results are promising and encouraging to start research on similar TZP-matrix TE-nanocomposites, which contain more effective TE-nanostructures with larger intrinsic power factors. In this regard, we propose a scalable approach for fabrication of similar dense TE-nanocomposites composed of other one-dimensional and/or two-dimensional TE-nanostructures, which involves an aqueous colloidal approach and a subsequent spark plasma sintering. These new TZP-matrix TE-nanocomposites could be used for sustainable clean power generation, especially in mechanically harsh environments with thermal/mechanical shocks and vibrations, where energy availability, reliability and durability are more important than the energy efficiency. Considering the excellent biocompatibility of TZP matrix, they could even be used inside the body to power implanted medical devices.

  20. Defect-Rich Dopant-Free ZrO2 Nanostructures with Superior Dilute Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Properties.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Anisur; Rout, S; Thomas, Joseph P; McGillivray, Donald; Leung, Kam Tong

    2016-09-14

    Control of the spin degree of freedom of an electron has brought about a new era in spin-based applications, particularly spin-based electronics, with the potential to outperform the traditional charge-based semiconductor technology for data storage and information processing. However, the realization of functional spin-based devices for information processing remains elusive due to several fundamental challenges such as the low Curie temperature of group III-V and II-VI semiconductors (<200 K), and the low spin-injection efficiencies of existing III-V, II-VI, and transparent conductive oxide semiconductors in a multilayer device structure, which are caused by precipitation and migration of dopants from the host layer to the adjacent layers. Here, we use catalyst-assisted pulsed laser deposition to grow, for the first time, oxygen vacancy defect-rich, dopant-free ZrO2 nanostructures with high TC (700 K) and high magnetization (5.9 emu/g). The observed magnetization is significantly greater than both doped and defect-rich transparent conductive oxide nanomaterials reported to date. We also provide the first experimental evidence that it is the amounts and types of oxygen vacancy defects in, and not the phase of ZrO2 that control the ferromagnetic order in undoped ZrO2 nanostructures. To explain the origin of ferromagnetism in these ZrO2 nanostructures, we hypothesize a new defect-induced bound polaron model, which is generally applicable to other defect-rich, dopant-free transparent conductive oxide nanostructures. These results provide new insights into magnetic ordering in undoped dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor oxides and contribute to the design of exotic magnetic and novel multifunctional materials.

  1. Impact of nano and bulk ZrO2, TiO2 particles on soil nutrient contents and PGPR.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2013-01-01

    Currently, nanometal oxides are used extensively in different industries such as medicine, cosmetics and food. The increased consumption of nanoparticles (NPs) leads the necessity to understand the fate of the nanoparticles in the environment. The present study focused on the ecotoxicological behaviour of bulk and nano ZrO2 (Zirconia) and TiO2 (Titania) particles on PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria), soil and its nutrient contents. The microbial susceptibility study showed that nano TiO2 had 13 +/- 0.9 mm (B. megaterium), 15 +/- 0.2 mm (P. fluorescens), 16 +/- 0.2 mm (A. vinelandii) and 12 +/- 0.3 mm (B. brevis) zones of inhibition. However, nano and bulk ZrO2 particles were non-toxic to PGPR. In addition, it was found that toxicity varied depends on the medium of reaction. The soil study showed that nano TiO2 was found to be highly toxic, whereas bulk TiO2 was less toxic towards soil bacterial populations at 1000 mg L(-1). In contrast, nano and bulk ZrO2 were found to be inert at 1000 mg L(-1). The observed zeta potential and hydrophobicity of TiO2 particles causes more toxic than ZrO2 in parallel with particle size. However, nano TiO2 decreases the microbial population as well as nutrient level of the soil but not zirconia. Our finding shows that the mechanism of toxicity depends on size, hydrophobic potential and zeta potential of the metal oxide particles. Thus, it is necessary to take safety measures during the disposal and use of such toxic nanoparticles in the soil to prevent their hazardous effects.

  2. Synthesis of ZrO 2 thin films by atomic layer deposition: growth kinetics, structural and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassir, Michel; Goubin, Fabrice; Bernay, Cécile; Vernoux, Philippe; Lincot, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Ultra thin films of ZrO 2 were synthesized on soda lime glass and SnO 2-coated glass, using ZrCl 4 and H 2O precursors by atomic layer deposition (ALD), a sequential CVD technique allowing the formation of dense and homogeneous films. The effect of temperature on the film growth kinetics shows a first temperature window for ALD processing between 280 and 350 °C and a second regime or "pseudo-window" between 380 and 400 °C, with a growth speed of about one monolayer per cycle. The structure and morphology of films of less than 1 μm were characterized by XRD and SEM. From 275 °C, the ZrO 2 film is crystallized in a tetragonal form while a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases appears at 375 °C. Impedance spectroscopy measurements confirmed the electrical properties of ZrO 2 and the very low porosity of the deposited layer.

  3. Electron-hole pairs generated in ZrO2 nanoparticle resist upon exposure to extreme ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2018-02-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticle resists have attracted much attention as the next-generation resist used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices. However, the sensitization mechanism of the metal oxide nanoparticle resists is unknown. Understanding the sensitization mechanism is important for the efficient development of resist materials. In this study, the energy deposition in a zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticle resist was investigated. The numbers of electron-hole pairs generated in a ZrO2 core and an methacrylic acid (MAA) ligand shell upon exposure to 1 mJ cm-2 (exposure dose) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations were theoretically estimated to be 0.16 at most and 0.04-0.17 cm2 mJ-1, respectively. By comparing the calculated distribution of electron-hole pairs with the line-and-space patterns of the ZrO2 nanoparticle resist fabricated by an EUV exposure tool, the number of electron-hole pairs required for the solubility change of the resist films was estimated to be 1.3-2.2 per NP. NP denotes a nanoparticle consisting of a metal oxide core with a ligand shell. In the material design of metal oxide nanoparticle resists, it is important to efficiently use the electron-hole pairs generated in the metal oxide core for the chemical change of ligand molecules.

  4. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  5. Microstructural Evolution of Nanocrystalline ZrO2 in a Fe Matrix During High-Temperature Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, K. G.; Dasgupta, Arup; Athreya, C. N.; Jayasankar, K.; Saroja, S.; Subramanya Sarma, V.

    2018-06-01

    The current study examines the evolution of nanocrystallites of ZrO2 with time and temperature in a Fe-ZrO2 composite. The crystallite sizes were determined through X-ray peak broadening analysis by the Williamson-Hall method together with dark field transmission electron microscopy. The ZrO2 crystallites were found to be stable and retained their sizes at 973 K and 1073 K for hold durations up to 600 minutes. On the other hand, the crystallites were seen to grow at 1173 K and reached up to 200 nm for a hold time of 600 minutes. The Ostwald ripening model was adopted to understand crystallite growth while a dislocation-driven pipe diffusion was adopted for understanding the kinetics of grain growth. The activation energy of grain growth was calculated as 379 kJ mol-1. The modeled and experimentally calculated size evolutions with time and temperature were shown to be in good agreement with each other. A detailed discussion on the kinetics and activation energy of grain growth of ZrO2 crystallites in a Fe matrix is presented in this manuscript.

  6. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  7. Atomic layer deposited ZrO2 nanofilm on Mg-Sr alloy for enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiuyue; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Xiangmei; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Pan, Haobo; Wu, Shuilin

    2017-08-01

    The biodegradability and good mechanical property of magnesium alloys make them potential biomedical materials. However, their rapid corrosion rate in the human body's environment impairs these advantages and limits their clinical use. In this work, a compact zirconia (ZrO 2 ) nanofilm was fabricated on the surface of a magnesium-strontium (Mg-Sr) alloy by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method, which can regulate the thickness of the film precisely and thus also control the corrosion rate. Corrosion tests reveal that the ZrO 2 film can effectively reduce the corrosion rate of Mg-Sr alloys that is closely related to the thickness of the film. The cell culture test shows that this kind of ZrO 2 film can also enhance the activity and adhesion of osteoblasts on the surfaces of Mg-Sr alloys. The significance of the current work is to develop a zirconia nanofilm on biomedical MgSr alloy with controllable thickness precisely through atomic layer deposition technique. By adjusting the thickness of nanofilm, the corrosion rate of Mg-Sr alloy can be modulated, thereafter, the degradation rate of Mg-based alloys can be controlled precisely according to actual clinical requirement. In addition, this zirconia nanofilm modified Mg-Sr alloys show excellent biocompatibility than the bare samples. Hence, this work provides a new surface strategy to control the degradation rate while improving the biocompatibility of substrates. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Terbium content affects the luminescence properties of ZrO2:Tb nanoparticles for mammary cancer imaging in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszewski, Jarosław; Borgstrom, Emanuel; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Wachnicki, Łukasz; Kiełbik, Paula; Slonska, Anna; Domino, Malgorzata A.; Narkiewicz, Urszula; Gajewski, Zdzislaw; Hochepied, Jean-François; Godlewski, Michał M.; Godlewski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    The use of nanoparticles in medicine is a rapidly growing research field with numerous potential applications, especially in the field of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Nanoparticles can be intrinsically diagnostic of therapeutic, or they can be conjugated with diagnostic or therapeutic compounds. Nanoparticles may also passively or actively target tumor cells specifically using the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, or the addition of targeting ligands to their surface. This may provide a diagnostic or/and therapeutic tools to target primary as well as metastatic tumors. The transport, distribution and toxicity of nanoparticles depends greatly on their size and composition, thus every new formulation needs to be extensively researched. This work was focused on the development of Tb-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for application in cancer imaging. Obtained nanoparticles were below 10 nm with very low influence of Tb concentration on size. Terbium stabilization of ZrO2 had influence on the luminescence properties of obtained material. Partially stabilized zirconium dioxide exhibited broad host related emission peaking at 500 nm, disappearing with the terbium content. We confirmed alimentary absorption and wide distribution of luminescent ZrO2:Tb nanoparticles in mice with their gradual accumulation in the experimentally induced mammary cancers. Furthermore, a high concentration of NPs was found within the lung metastases as opposed to healthy lung tissue, where no NPs-related signal was observed.

  9. Effect of Er3+ concentration on the luminescence properties of Al2O3-ZrO2 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clabel H., J. L.; Rivera, V. A. G.; Nogueira, I. C.; Leite, E. R.; Siu Li, M.; Marega, E.

    2016-12-01

    This manuscript reports on the effects of the luminescence properties of Er3+ on Al2O3-ZrO2 powder synthesized by the conventional solid-state method. The best conditions found for the calcinations were 1500 °C and 4 h. The structural dependence of the luminescence on Er3+:Al2O3-ZrO2 is associated with phase transformations of the Al2O3-ZrO2 host and presence of the OH group. Green and red emissions at room temperature from the 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 levels of Er3+ ions were observed under 482 nm pumping. The green-to-red emission intensity ratios and CIE chromaticity coordinates were determined from emission spectra for the evaluation of light emitted as a function of the Er3+ concentration. The Er3+ luminescence quenching due to group OH and variation in the Er3+ concentration plays an important role in the definition of the luminescent response.

  10. A study on thermal barrier coatings including thermal expansion mismatch and bond coat oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, George C.; Phucharoen, Woraphat; Miller, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation deals with a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) intended for high temperature applications to advanced gas turbine blades. Typically, this type of coating system consists of a zirconia-yttria ceramic layer with a nickel-chromium-aluminum bond coat on a superalloy substrate. The problem on hand is a complex one due to the fact that bond coat oxidation and thermal mismatch occur in the TBC. Cracking in the TBC has also been experimentally illustrated. A clearer understanding of the mechanical behavior of the TBC is investigated. The stress states in a model thermal barrier coating as it cools down in air is studied. The powerful finite element method was utilized to model a coating cylindrical specimen. Four successively refined finite element models were developed. Some results obtained using the first two models have been reported previously. The major accomplishment is the successful development of an elastic TBC finite element model known as TBCG with interface geometry between the ceramic layer and the bond coat. An equally important milestone is the near-completion of the new elastic-plastic TBC finite element model called TBCGEP which yielded initial results. Representative results are presented.

  11. Monitoring Local Strain in a Thermal Barrier Coating System Under Thermal Mechanical Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manero, Albert; Sofronsky, Stephen; Knipe, Kevin; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Raghavan, Seetha; Bartsch, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Advances in aircraft and land-based turbine engines have been increasing the extreme loading conditions on traditional engine components and have incited the need for improved performance with the use of protective coatings. These protective coatings shield the load-bearing super alloy blades from the high-temperature combustion gases by creating a thermal gradient over their thickness. This addition extends the life and performance of blades. A more complete understanding of the behavior, failure mechanics, and life expectancy for turbine blades and their coatings is needed to enhance and validate simulation models. As new thermal-barrier-coated materials and deposition methods are developed, strides to effectively test, evaluate, and prepare the technology for industry deployment are of paramount interest. Coupling the experience and expertise of researchers at the University of Central Florida, The German Aerospace Center, and Cleveland State University with the world-class synchrotron x-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, the synergistic collaboration has yielded previously unseen measurements to look inside the coating layer system for in situ strain measurements during representative service loading. These findings quantify the in situ strain response on multilayer thermal barrier coatings and shed light on the elastic and nonelastic properties of the layers and the role of mechanical load and internal cooling variations on the response. The article discusses the experimental configuration and development of equipment to perform in situ strain measurements on multilayer thin coatings and provides an overview of the achievements thus far.

  12. Method of Producing Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coatings includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer or a diameter of less than 5 micron. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate. and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of the invention a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  13. On the rumpling instability in thermal barrier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panat, Rahul Padmakar

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are protective multi-layered metal-ceramic coatings used in hot sections of jet engines and gas turbines. The TBCs are composed of a superalloy substrate, an intermediate metallic bond coat (BC) and a ceramic topcoat. The TBCs are beset by reliability problems arising from delamination of the ceramic topcoat due to various instabilities in the system. The present work examines one such instability of "rumpling", or progressive roughening of the BC surface in the BC-superalloy systems upon high temperature exposure. A combined experimental and analytical approach is taken to study the rumpling phenomenon. Thermal cycling and isothermal experiments are carried out in air and in vacuum to identify the driving force and the kinetics governing rumpling. The experiments show that a nominally flat BC surface rumples to a wavelength of about 60--100 mum, and an amplitude of about 4--8 mum. The rumpling is seen to be relatively insensitive to the initial BC surface morphology. Significant initial flaws are not necessary for rumpling to occur. Further, rumpling occurs even in absence of thermal cycling. To explain BC rumpling, we develop a linear stability model for surface evolution of BCs under a remote stress. The driving force for this process is the in-plane stress in the BC due to its thermal mismatch with the substrate as indicated by the experimental results. The BC volume and BC surface diffusion governs the deformation kinetics. A governing equation is derived that gives the amplitude evolution of BC surface perturbations as a function of time. The analysis establishes a range of wavelengths for which the perturbation amplitude increases at a significantly higher rate as compared with other wavelengths. At the dominant instability wavelength, under low-stress and high-temperature conditions, the model shows that the roughening is caused only by volume diffusion, while smoothing is caused only by surface diffusion. The results from

  14. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  15. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sanna F; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M; Bartsch, Marion; Raghavan, Seetha

    2013-08-01

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  16. Improved Thermal Cycling Durability of Thermal Barrier Coatings Manufactured by PS-PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanka, S.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) process is a promising method to manufacture thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). It fills the gap between traditional thermal spray processes and electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The durability of PS-PVD manufactured columnar TBCs is strongly influenced by the compatibility of the metallic bondcoat (BC) and the ceramic TBC. Earlier investigations have shown that a smooth BC surface is beneficial for the durability during thermal cycling. Further improvements of the bonding between BC and TBC could be achieved by optimizing the formation of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer. In the present study, the parameters of pre-heating and deposition of the first coating layer were investigated in order to adjust the growth of the TGO. Finally, the durability of the PS-PVD coatings was improved while the main advantage of PS-PVD, i.e., much higher deposition rate in comparison to EB-PVD, could be maintained. For such coatings, improved thermal cycling lifetimes more than two times higher than conventionally sprayed TBCs, were measured in burner rigs at ~1250 °C/1050 °C surface/substrate exposure temperatures.

  17. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Bartsch, Marion; Raghavan, Seetha

    2013-08-01

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  18. Al2O3-ZrO2 Finely Structured Multilayer Architectures from Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingaud, Olivier; Montavon, Ghislain; Denoirjean, Alain; Coudert, Jean-François; Rat, Vincent; Fauchais, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is an alternative to conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) aiming at manufacturing thinner layers (i.e., 10-100 μm) due to the specific size of the feedstock particles, from a few tens of nanometers to a few micrometers. The staking of lamellae and particles, which present a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 μm and an average thickness from 20 to 300 nm, permits to manufacture finely structured layers. Moreover, it appears as a versatile process able to manufacture different coating architectures according to the operating parameters (suspension properties, injection configuration, plasma properties, spray distance, torch scan velocity, scanning step, etc.). However, the different parameters controlling the properties of the coating, and their interdependences, are not yet fully identified. Thus, the aim of this paper is, on the one hand, to better understand the influence of operating parameters on the coating manufacturing mechanisms (in particular, the plasma gas mixture effect) and, on the other hand, to produce Al2O3-ZrO2 finely structured layers with large varieties of architectures. For this purpose, a simple theoretical model was used to describe the plasma torch operating conditions at the nozzle exit, based on experimental data (mass enthalpy, arc current intensity, thermophysical properties of plasma forming gases, etc.) and the influences of the spray parameters were determined by mean of the study of sizes and shapes of spray beads. The results enabled then to reach a better understanding of involved phenomena and their interactions on the final coating architectures permitting to manufacture several types of microstructures.

  19. Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Zhu, Dongming; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance efficiency of gas turbines, new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be designed which improve upon the thermal stability limit of 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), approximately 1200 C. This tenant has led to the development of new TBC materials and microstructures capable of improved high temperature performance. This study focused on increasing the erosion durability of cubic zirconia based TBCs, traditionally less durable than the metastable t' zirconia based TBCs. Composite TBC microstructures composed of a low thermal conductivity/high temperature stable cubic Low-k matrix phase and a durable t' Low-k secondary phase were deposited via APS. Monolithic coatings composed of cubic Low-k and t' Low-k were also deposited, in addition to a 7YSZ benchmark. The thermal conductivity and erosion durability were then measured and it was found that both of the Low-k materials have significantly reduced thermal conductivities, with monolithic t' Low-k and cubic Low-k improving upon 7YSZ by approximately 13 and approximately 25%, respectively. The 40 wt% t' Low-k composite (40 wt% t' Low-k - 60 wt% cubic Low-k) showed a approximately 22% reduction in thermal conductivity over 7YSZ, indicating even at high levels, the t' Low-k secondary phase had a minimal impact on thermal in the composite coating. It was observed that a mere 20 wt% t' Low-k phase addition can reduce the erosion of a cubic Low-k matrix phase composite coating by over 37%. Various mixing rules were then investigated to assess this non-linear composite behavior and suggestions were made to further improve erosion durability.

  20. Laser drilling of thermal barrier coated jet-engine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, H. K.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical

  1. Hierarchical Na-doped cubic ZrO2 synthesis by a simple hydrothermal route and its application in biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-García, Hugo A.; Romero-Ibarra, Issis C.; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2014-10-01

    Hierarchical growth of cubic ZrO2 phase was successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process in the presence of different surfactants (cationic, non-ionic and anionic) and sodium hydroxide. The structural and microstructural characterizations of different ZrO2 powders were performed using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy and infrared. Results indicated that sodium addition stabilized the cubic ZrO2 phase by a Na-doping process, independently of the surfactant used. In contrast, microstructural characteristics varied as a function of the surfactant and sodium presence. In addition, water vapor (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption properties were evaluated on ZrO2 samples. Results evidenced that sample surface reactivity changed as a function of the sodium content. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction using the different synthesized samples, obtaining yields of 93%.

  2. Assessment of variations in thermal cycle life data of thermal barrier coated rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; McDonald, G.

    An analysis of thermal cycle life data for 22 thermal barrier coated (TBC) specimens was conducted. The Zr02-8Y203/NiCrAlY plasma spray coated Rene 41 rods were tested in a Mach 0.3 Jet A/air burner flame. All specimens were subjected to the same coating and subsequent test procedures in an effort to control three parametric groups; material properties, geometry and heat flux. Statistically, the data sample space had a mean of 1330 cycles with a standard deviation of 520 cycles. The data were described by normal or log-normal distributions, but other models could also apply; the sample size must be increased to clearly delineate a statistical failure model. The statistical methods were also applied to adhesive/cohesive strength data for 20 TBC discs of the same composition, with similar results. The sample space had a mean of 9 MPa with a standard deviation of 4.2 MPa.

  3. Assessment of variations in thermal cycle life data of thermal barrier coated rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of thermal cycle life data for 22 thermal barrier coated (TBC) specimens was conducted. The Zr02-8Y203/NiCrAlY plasma spray coated Rene 41 rods were tested in a Mach 0.3 Jet A/air burner flame. All specimens were subjected to the same coating and subsequent test procedures in an effort to control three parametric groups; material properties, geometry and heat flux. Statistically, the data sample space had a mean of 1330 cycles with a standard deviation of 520 cycles. The data were described by normal or log-normal distributions, but other models could also apply; the sample size must be increased to clearly delineate a statistical failure model. The statistical methods were also applied to adhesive/cohesive strength data for 20 TBC discs of the same composition, with similar results. The sample space had a mean of 9 MPa with a standard deviation of 4.2 MPa.

  4. Environmental/Thermal Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites: Thermal Tradeoff Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. M.; Brewer, David; Shah, Ashwin R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent interest in environmental/thermal barrier coatings (EBC/TBCs) has prompted research to develop life-prediction methodologies for the coating systems of advanced high-temperature ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Heat-transfer analysis of EBC/TBCs for CMCs is an essential part of the effort. It helps establish the resulting thermal profile through the thickness of the CMC that is protected by the EBC/TBC system. This report documents the results of a one-dimensional analysis of an advanced high-temperature CMC system protected with an EBC/TBC system. The one-dimensional analysis was used for tradeoff studies involving parametric variation of the conductivity; the thickness of the EBC/TBCs, bond coat, and CMC substrate; and the cooling requirements. The insight gained from the results will be used to configure a viable EBC/TBC system for CMC liners that meet the desired hot surface, cold surface, and substrate temperature requirements.

  5. Evaluation of the Lifetime and Thermal Conductivity of Dysprosia-Stabilized Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Östergren, Lars; Li, Xin-Hai; Dorfman, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was the further development of dysprosia-stabilized zirconia coatings for gas turbine applications. The target for these coatings was a longer lifetime and higher insulating performance compared to today's industrial standard thermal barrier coating. Two morphologies of ceramic top coat were studied: one using a dual-layer system and the second using a polymer to generate porosity. Evaluations were carried out using a laser flash technique to measure thermal properties. Lifetime testing was conducted using thermo-cyclic fatigue testing. Microstructure was assessed with SEM and Image analysis was used to characterize porosity content. The results show that coatings with an engineered microstructure give performance twice that of the present reference coating.

  6. Method And Apparatus For Determining Health Of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Alok Mani; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Devitt, John William; Ruud, James Anthony; Brewer, Luke Nathaniel

    2005-09-13

    A method for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises providing a photoluminescent ("PL") material in the TBC, directing an exciting radiation at the TBC, measuring the intensity of a characteristic peak in the emission spectrum of the PL material, and correlating the intensity of the characteristic peak or another quantity derived therefrom to an amount of a new phase that has been formed as a result of the exposure of the component to extreme temperatures. An apparatus for carrying out the method comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of the emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of the new phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component.

  7. Thermal barriers constrain microbial elevational range size via climate variability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Soininen, Janne

    2017-08-01

    Range size is invariably limited and understanding range size variation is an important objective in ecology. However, microbial range size across geographical gradients remains understudied, especially on mountainsides. Here, the patterns of range size of stream microbes (i.e., bacteria and diatoms) and macroorganisms (i.e., macroinvertebrates) along elevational gradients in Asia and Europe were examined. In bacteria, elevational range size showed non-significant phylogenetic signals. In all taxa, there was a positive relationship between niche breadth and species elevational range size, driven by local environmental and climatic variables. No taxa followed the elevational Rapoport's rule. Climate variability explained the most variation in microbial mean elevational range size, whereas local environmental variables were more important for macroinvertebrates. Seasonal and annual climate variation showed negative effects, while daily climate variation had positive effects on community mean elevational range size for all taxa. The negative correlation between range size and species richness suggests that understanding the drivers of range is key for revealing the processes underlying diversity. The results advance the understanding of microbial species thermal barriers by revealing the importance of seasonal and diurnal climate variation, and highlight that aquatic and terrestrial biota may differ in their response to short- and long-term climate variability. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sand effects on thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walock, Michael; Barnett, Blake; Ghoshal, Anindya; Murugan, Muthuvel; Swab, Jeffrey; Pepi, Marc; Hopkins, David; Gazonas, George; Kerner, Kevin

    Accumulation and infiltration of molten/ semi-molten sand and subsequent formation of calcia-magnesia-alumina-silicate (CMAS) deposits in gas turbine engines continues to be a significant problem for aviation assets. This complex problem is compounded by the large variations in the composition, size, and topology of natural sands, gas generator turbine temperatures, thermal barrier coating properties, and the incoming particulate's momentum. In order to simplify the materials testing process, significant time and resources have been spent in the development of synthetic sand mixtures. However, there is debate whether these mixtures accurately mimic the damage observed in field-returned engines. With this study, we provide a direct comparison of CMAS deposits from both natural and synthetic sands. Using spray deposition techniques, 7% yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings are deposited onto bond-coated, Ni-superalloy discs. Each sample is coated with a sand slurry, either natural or synthetic, and exposed to a high temperature flame for 1 hour. Test samples are characterized before and after flame exposure. In addition, the test samples will be compared to field-returned equipment. This research was sponsored by the US Army Research Laboratory, and was accomplished under Cooperative Agreement # W911NF-12-2-0019.

  9. Scandia-and-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia for Thermal Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mess, Derek

    2003-01-01

    yttria in suitable proportions has shown promise of being a superior thermal- barrier coating (TBC) material, relative to zirconia stabilized with yttria only. More specifically, a range of compositions in the zirconia/scandia/yttria material system has been found to afford increased resistance to deleterious phase transformations at temperatures high enough to cause deterioration of yttria-stabilized zirconia. Yttria-stabilized zirconia TBCs have been applied to metallic substrates in gas turbine and jet engines to protect the substrates against high operating temperatures. These coatings have porous and microcracked structures, which can accommodate strains induced by thermal-expansion mismatch and thermal shock. The longevity of such a coating depends upon yttria as a stabilizing additive that helps to maintain the zirconia in an yttria-rich, socalled non-transformable tetragonal crystallographic phase, thus preventing transformation to the monoclinic phase with an associated deleterious volume change. However, at a temperature greater than about 1,200 C, there is sufficient atomic mobility that the equilibrium, transformable zirconia phase is formed. Upon subsequent cooling, this phase transforms to the monoclinic phase, with an associated volume change that adversely affects the integrity of the coating. Recently, scandia was identified as a stabilizer that could be used instead of, or in addition to, yttria. Of particular interest are scandia-and-yttria-stabilized zirconia (SYSZ) compositions of about 6 mole percent scandia and 1 mole percent yttria, which have been found to exhibit remarkable phase stability at a temperature of 1,400 C in simple aging tests. Unfortunately, scandia is expensive, so that the problem becomes one of determining whether there are compositions with smaller proportions of scandia that afford the required high-temperature stability. In an attempt to solve this problem, experiments were performed on specimens made with reduced

  10. The behavior of ZrO2/20%Y2O3 and Al2O3 coatings deposited on aluminum alloys at high temperature regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintilei, G. L.; Crismaru, V. I.; Abrudeanu, M.; Munteanu, C.; Baciu, E. R.; Istrate, B.; Basescu, N.

    2015-10-01

    Aluminum alloy present numerous advantages like lightness, high specific strength and diversity which recommend them to a high number of applications from different fields. In extreme environments the protection of aluminum alloys is difficult and requires a high number of requirements like high temperature resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, corrosion fatigue resistance and galvanic corrosion resistance. To obtain these characteristics coatings can be applied to the surfaces so they can enhance the mechanical and chemical properties of the parts. In this paper two coatings were considered for deposition on an AA2024 aluminum alloy, ZrO2/20%Y2O3 and Al2O3. To obtain a better adherence of the coating to the base material an additional bond layer of NiCr is used. Both the coatings and bond layer were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying on the samples. The samples were subjected to a temperature of 500 °C and after that slowly cooled to room temperature. The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine the morphological and phase changes that occurred during the temperature exposure. To determine the stress level in the parts due to thermal expansion a finite element analysis was performed in the same conditions as the tests.

  11. Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Air-Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating with Bond Coat Species in Cyclic Thermal Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhe; Myoung, Sang-Won; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Balakrishnan, Govindasamy; Lee, Jeongseung; Paik, Ungyu

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the bond coat species on the delamination or fracture behavior in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was investigated using the yclic thermal fatigue and thermal-shock tests. The interface microstructures of each TBC showed a good condition without cracking or delamination after flame thermal fatigue (FTF) for 1429 cycles. The TBC with the bond coat prepared by the air-plasma spray (APS) method showed a good condition at the interface between the top and bond coats after cyclic furnace thermal fatigue (CFTF) for 1429 cycles, whereas the TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS) methods showed a partial cracking (and/or delamination) and a delamination after 780 cycles, respectively. The TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the APS, HVOF and LPPS methods were fully delaminated (>50%) after 159, 36, and 46 cycles, respectively, during the thermal-shock tests. The TGO thickness in the TBCs was strongly dependent on the both exposure time and temperature difference tested. The hardness values were found to be increased only after the CFTF, and the TBC with the bond coat prepared by the APS showed the highest adhesive strength before and after the FTF. PMID:28811441

  12. Structural and dielectric properties of thin ZrO2 films on silicon grown by atomic layer deposition from cyclopentadienyl precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinistö, J.; Putkonen, M.; Niinistö, L.; Kukli, K.; Ritala, M.; Leskelä, M.

    2004-01-01

    ZrO2 thin films with thicknesses below 20 nm were deposited by the atomic layer deposition process on Si(100) substrates at 350 °C. An organometallic precursor, Cp2Zr(CH3)2 (Cp=cyclopentadienyl, C5H5) was used as the zirconium source and water or ozone as oxygen source. The influence of oxygen source and substrate pretreatment on the dielectric properties of ZrO2 films was investigated. Structural characterization with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy was performed to films grown onto HF-etched or native oxide covered silicon. Strong inhibition of ZrO2 film growth was observed with the water process on HF-etched Si. Ozone process on HF-etched Si resulted in interfacial SiO2 formation between the dense and uniform film and the substrate while water process produced interfacial layer with intermixing of SiO2 and ZrO2. The effective permittivity of ZrO2 in Al/ZrO2/Si/Al capacitor structures was dependent on the ZrO2 layer thickness and oxygen source used. The interfacial layer formation increased the capacitance equivalent oxide thickness (CET). CET of 2.0 nm was achieved with 5.9 nm ZrO2 film deposited with the H2O process on HF-stripped Si. The ozone-processed films showed good dielectric properties such as low hysteresis and nearly ideal flatband voltage. The leakage current density was lower and breakdown field higher for the ozone-processed ZrO2 films.

  13. Low-temperature, solution-processed ZrO2:B thin film: a bifunctional inorganic/organic interfacial glue for flexible thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Ho; Oh, Jin Young; Han, Sun Woong; Lee, Tae Il; Baik, Hong Koo

    2015-03-04

    A solution-processed boron-doped peroxo-zirconium oxide (ZrO2:B) thin film has been found to have multifunctional characteristics, providing both hydrophobic surface modification and a chemical glue layer. Specifically, a ZrO2:B thin film deposited on a hydrophobic layer becomes superhydrophilic following ultraviolet-ozone (UVO) treatment, whereas the same treatment has no effect on the hydrophobicity of the hydrophobic layer alone. Investigation of the ZrO2:B/hydrophobic interface layer using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR XPS) confirmed it to be chemically bonded like glue. Using the multifunctional nature of the ZrO2:B thin film, flexible amorphous indium oxide (In2O3) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were subsequently fabricated on a polyimide substrate along with a ZrO2:B/poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) dielectric. An aqueous In2O3 solution was successfully coated onto the ZrO2:B/PVP dielectric, and the surface and chemical properties of the PVP and ZrO2:B thin films were analyzed by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface-engineered PVP dielectric was found to have a lower leakage current density (Jleak) of 4.38 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 1 MV/cm, with no breakdown behavior observed up to a bending radius of 5 mm. In contrast, the electrical characteristics of the flexible amorphous In2O3 TFT such as on/off current ratio (Ion/off) and electron mobility remained similar up to 10 mm of bending without degradation, with the device being nonactivated at a bending radius of 5 mm. These results suggest that ZrO2:B thin films could be used for low-temperature, solution-processed surface-modified flexible devices.

  14. Develop Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing Process of ZrO 2 Nanocrystals/Acrylic Nanocomposites for High Refractive Index Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Compton, Brett G.; Li, Jianlin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop and evaluate ZrO 2/acrylic nanocomposite coatings for integrated optoelectronic applications. The formulations engineered to be compatible with roll-to-roll process were evaluated in terms of optical and dielectric properties. The uniform distribution of the ZrO 2 nanocrystals in the polymer matrix resulted in highly tunable refractive index and dielectric response suitable for advanced photonic and electronic device applications.

  15. Low-Thermal-Conductivity Pyrochlore Oxide Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    When turbine engines operate at higher temperatures, they consume less fuel, have higher efficiencies, and have lower emissions. The upper-use temperatures of the base materials (superalloys, silicon-based ceramics, etc.) used for the hot-section components of turbine engines are limited by the physical, mechanical, and corrosion characteristics of these materials. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied as thin layers on the surfaces of these materials to further increase the operating temperatures. The current state-of-the-art TBC material in commercial use is partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is applied on engine components by plasma spraying or by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. At temperatures higher than 1000 C, YSZ layers are prone to sintering, which increases thermal conductivity and makes them less effective. The sintered and densified coatings can also reduce thermal stress and strain tolerance, which can reduce the coating s durability significantly. Alternate TBC materials with lower thermal conductivity and better sintering resistance are needed to further increase the operating temperature of turbine engines.

  16. Effect of structural evolution on mechanical properties of ZrO2 coated Ti-6Al-7Nb-biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalnezhad, E.

    2016-05-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodizing pure zirconium (Zr) coated Ti-6Al-7Nb in fluoride/glycerol electrolyte at a constant potential of 60 V for different times. Zr was deposited atop Ti-6Al-7Nb via a physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering (PVDMS) technique. Structural investigations of coating were performed utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of coatings. Unannealed ZrO2 nanotube arrays were amorphous. Monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2 appeared when the coated substrates were heat treated at 450 °C and 650 °C, while monoclinic ZrO2 was found at 850 °C and 900 °C. Mechanical properties, including nanohardness and modulus of elasticity, were evaluated at different annealing temperatures using a nanoindentation test. The nanoindentation results show that the nanohardness and modulus of elasticity for Ti-6AL-7Nb increased by annealing ZrO2 coated substrate at 450 °C. The nanohardness and modulus of elasticity for coated substrate decreased with annealing temperatures of 650, 850, and 900 °C. At an annealing temperature of 900 °C, cracks in the ZrO2 thin film coating occurred. The highest nanohardness and elastic modulus values of 6.34 and 218 GPa were achieved at an annealing temperature of 450 °C.

  17. One-pot synthesis and optical properties of Eu3+-doped nanocrystalline TiO2 and ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julián, Beatriz; Corberán, Rosa; Cordoncillo, Eloisa; Escribano, Purificación; Viana, Bruno; Sanchez, Clément

    2005-11-01

    A simple and versatile one-pot sol-gel synthesis of Eu3+-doped nanocrystalline TiO2 and ZrO2 nanomaterials is reported in this paper. It consists of the controlled crystallization of Eu3+-doped TiO2 or ZrO2 nanoparticles from an initial solution containing the metal alkoxide, the lanthanide precursor, a complexing agent and a non-complexing acid. The main interest is that it could be extended to different lanthanide ions and inorganic metal oxides to prepare other multifunctional nanomaterials. The characterization by XRD, HRTEM and SAED techniques showed that the TiO2 and ZrO2 crystallization takes place at very low temperatures (60 °C) and that the crystallite size can be tailored by modifying the synthetic conditions. The optical properties of the resulting materials were studied by emission spectra and decay measurements. Both Eu3+:TiO2 and Eu3+:ZrO2 samples exhibited long lifetime values after removing organic components (τ = 0.7 and 1.3 ms, respectively), but the Eu3+:ZrO2 system is specially promising for photonic applications since its τ value is longer than some reported for other inorganic or hybrid matrices in which Eu3+ ions are complexed. This behaviour has been explained through an effective dispersion of the lanthanide ions within the ZrO2 nanocrystals.

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by a Steady-state Laser Heat-flux Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.

  19. Novel thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that are resistant to high temperature attack by calcium oxide-magnesium oxide-silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (CMAS) glassy deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygun, Aysegul

    2008-10-01

    Higher performance and durability requirements of gas-turbine engines will require a new generation of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). This is particularly true of engines operated at higher temperatures, where TBCs are subjected to attack by CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO 2 (CMAS) glassy deposits. In this work, a new approach for mitigating CMAS attack on TBCs is introduced, where up to 20 mol% Al2O 3 and 5 mol% TiO2 in the form of a solid solution is incorporated into Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) TBCs. The fabrication of such TBCs with engineered chemistries is made possible by the solution-precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process, which is uniquely suited for depositing coatings of metastable ceramics with extended solid-solubilities. In the current work, the TBC serves as a reservoir of Al and Ti solutes, which are incorporated into the molten CMAS glass that is in contact with the TBC. An accumulation of Al concentration in the CMAS glass as it penetrates the TBC shifts the glass composition from the difficult-to-crystallize psuedowollastonite field to the easy-to-crystallize anorthite field. The incorporation of Ti in the glass promotes crystallization of the CMAS glass by serving as a nucleating agent. This combined effect results in the near-complete crystallization of the leading edge of the CMAS front into anorthite, essentially arresting the front. Both of these phenomena will help crystallize the CMAS glass, making it immobile and ineffective in penetrating the TBC. It is shown that incorporation of both Al and Ti in the CMAS glass is essential for this approach to be effective. Additionally, incorporation of Al and Ti as solutes is expected to alleviate thermal-expansion and thermal-conductivity issues associated with crystalline second phases used before. Moreover, the metastable nature of the Al and Ti solutes will make them more readily available for incorporation in the molten CMAS glass. CMAS interactions with SPPS TBCs of various metastable compositions are

  20. Discrete Element Modeling of Impact Damage on Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, Peter Michel

    Natural gas turbines have become an increasingly important part of the energy landscape in the United States, currently accounting for 19% of all electricity production. Efforts to increase thermal efficiency in gas turbines has led to the adoption of highly porous ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), which are susceptible to erosion and foreign object impact damage. Despite significant investment to improve the design of TBCs, few numerical tools exist which are capable of both accurately capturing the specific failure mechanisms inherent to TBCs and iterating design parameters without the requirement for coupled experimental data. To overcome these limitations, a discrete element model (DEM) was created to simulate the microstructure of a TBC using a large-scale assembly of bonded particles. Acting as Lagrangian nodes, the particles can be combined to create accurate representations of TBC geometry and porosity. The inclusion of collision-driven particle dynamics and bonds derived from displacement-dependent force functions endow the microstructure model with the ability to deform and reproduce damage in a highly physical manner. Typical TBC damage mechanisms such as compaction, fracture and spallation occur automatically, without having to tune the model based on experimental observation. Therefore, the first order performance of novel TBC designs and materials can be determined numerically, greatly decreasing the cost of development. To verify the utility and effectiveness of the proposed damage model framework, a nanoindentation materials test simulation was developed to serve as a test case. By varying model parameters, such as the porosity of the TBC and maximum applied indenter force, nanoindentation data from more than one hundred distinct permutations was gathered and analyzed. This data was used to calculate the elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) of the simulated microstructure, which could then be compared to known experimental material property

  1. The effect of environment on thermal barrier coating lifetime

    DOE PAGES

    Pint, Bruce A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Haynes, James Allen

    2016-03-15

    While the water vapor content of the combustion gas in natural gas-fired land-based turbines is ~10%, it can be 20–85% with coal-derived (syngas or H 2) fuels or innovative turbine concepts for more efficient carbon capture. Additional concepts envisage working fluids with high CO 2 contents to facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. To investigate the effects of changes in the gas composition on thermal barrier coating (TBC) lifetime, furnace cycling tests (1-h and 100-h cycles) were performed in air with 10, 50, and 90 vol. % water vapor and CO 2-10% H 2O and compared to prior results in drymore » air or O 2. Two types of TBCs were investigated: (1) diffusion bond coatings (Pt-diffusion or Pt-modified aluminide) with commercial electron-beam physical vapor-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coatings on second-generation superalloy N5 and N515 substrates and (2) high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed MCrAlYHfSi bond coatings with air plasma-sprayed YSZ top coatings on superalloys X4, 1483, or 247 substrates. For both types of coatings exposed in 1-h cycles, the addition of water vapor resulted in a decrease in coating lifetime, except for Pt-diffusion coatings which were unaffected by the environment. In 100-h cycles, environment was less critical, perhaps because coating failure was chemical (i.e., due to interdiffusion) rather than mechanical. As a result, in both 1-h and 100-h cycles, CO 2 did not appear to have any negative effect on coating lifetime.« less

  2. Investigation into Spectroscopic Techniques for Thermal Barrier Coating Spall Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim; Opila, Beth

    2001-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods are proposed for detection of thermal barrier coating (TBC) spallation from engine hot zone components. These methods include absorption and emission of airborne marker species originally embedded in the TBC bond coat. In this study, candidate marker materials for this application were evaluated. Thermochemical analysis of candidate marker materials combined with additional constraints such as toxicity and uniqueness to engine environment, provided a short list of four potential species: platinum, copper oxide, zinc oxide. and indium. The melting point of indium was considered to be too low for serious consideration. The other three candidate marker materials, platinum, copper oxide, and zinc oxide were placed in a high temperature furnace and emission and absorption properties were measured over a temperature range from 800-1400 C and a spectral range from 250 to 18000 nm. Platinum did not provide the desired response, likely due to the low vapor Pressure of the metallic species and the low absorption of the oxide species. It was also found, however. that platinum caused a broadening of the carbon dioxide absorption at 4300 nm. The nature of this effect is not known. Absorption and emission caused by sodium and potassium impurities in the platinum were found in the platinum tests. Zinc oxide did not provide the desired response, again, most likely due to the low vapor pressure of the metallic species and the low absorption of the oxide species. Copper oxide generated two strongly temperature dependent absorption peaks at 324.8 and 327.4 nm. The melting point of copper oxide was determined to be too low for serious consideration as marker material.

  3. Life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating life models developed under the NASA Lewis Research Center's Hot Section Technology (HOST) Program are summarized. An initial laboratory model and three design-capable models are discussed. Current understanding of coating failure mechanisms are also summarized. The materials and structural aspects of thermal barrier coatings have been successfully integrated under the HOST program to produce models which may now or in the near future be used in design. Efforts on this program continue at Pratt and Whitney Aircraft where their model is being extended to the life prediction of physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings.

  4. Fracture toughness of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier ceramics: Influence of processing, microstructure, and thermal aging

    DOE PAGES

    Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay; ...

    2014-06-09

    Fracture toughness has become one of the dominant design parameters that dictates the selection of materials and their microstructure to obtain durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Much progress has been made in characterizing the fracture toughness of relevant TBC compositions in bulk form, and it has become apparent that this property is significantly affected by process-induced microstructural defects. In this investigation, a systematic study of the influence of coating microstructure on the fracture toughness of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs has been carried out. Yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were fabricated under different spray process conditions inducing different levelsmore » of porosity and interfacial defects. Fracture toughness was measured on free standing coatings in as-processed and thermally aged conditions using the double torsion technique. Results indicate significant variance in fracture toughness among coatings with different microstructures including changes induced by thermal aging. Comparative studies were also conducted on an alternative TBC composition, Gd 2Zr 2O 7 (GDZ), which as anticipated shows significantly lower fracture toughness compared to YSZ. Furthermore, the results from these studies not only point towards a need for process and microstructure optimization for enhanced TBC performance but also a framework for establishing performance metrics for promising new TBC compositions.« less

  5. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    DOE PAGES

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-12

    One of the important applications of yttria stabilized zirconia is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While yttria stabilized zirconia performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatingsmore » are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.« less

  6. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-06-01

    One of the important applications of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While YSZ performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite-derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatings are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.

  7. Effect of ambient oxygen on the photoluminescence of sol-gel-derived nanocrystalline ZrO2:Eu,Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puust, Laurits; Kiisk, Valter; Eltermann, Marko; Mändar, Hugo; Saar, Rando; Lange, Sven; Sildos, Ilmo; Dolgov, Leonid; Matisen, Leonard; Jaaniso, Raivo

    2017-06-01

    The development of inorganic nanophosphors is an active research field due to many applications, including optical gas sensing materials. We found a systematic dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) of europium (Eu3+) impurity ions in zirconia (ZrO2) nanocrystals on the ambient oxygen concentration in a O2/N2 mixture at normal pressure. Europium-doped ZrO2 powders were synthesized via a sol-gel route. Heat-treatment at 1200 °C resulted in a well-developed monoclinic phase (XRD crystallite size of ~50 nm) and an intense PL of Eu3+ ions residing in the dominant phase (Eu3+ was excited directly at 395 or 464 nm). Co-doping with niobium resulted in a narrowing of the PL emission lines. Only Nb5+ was detected by XPS and is believed to charge-compensate Eu3+ activators throughout the material leading to a more regular crystal lattice. At room temperature, the exposure to oxygen suppressed the Eu3+ fluorescence, whereas, at elevated temperatures (300 °C), the effect was reversed. At 300 °C and under a focused continuous laser beam, a substantial PL response (>50%) was achieved when switching 100% of N2 for 100% of O2. PL decay kinetics clearly showed that at 300 °C fluorescence quenching centers were induced within the material by oxygen desorption. The relatively fast (<5 min) and sub-linear PL response to the changes of oxygen concentration shows that ZrO2:Eu,Nb is a promising PL-based oxygen sensing material over a wide-range of oxygen pressures.

  8. A novel electrochemical sensor for detecting hyperin with a nanocomposite of ZrO2-SDS-SWCNTs as decoration.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Lei, Sheng; Yu, Qian; Zou, Lina; Ye, Baoxian

    2018-08-01

    A novel high-sensitive electrochemical sensor with glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as support for hyperin determination is successfully designed and constructed, and the well-shaped nano-meter modified material is synthesized via a one-step and facile route. Functionalized with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are synchronously grafted with ZrO 2 nanoparticles to develop into the as-prepared nano-composite (ZrO 2 -SDS-SWCNTs). Compared to the previous reports related with hyperin detection, the linear range gets wider and detection limit (LOD) becomes lower with the aid of this novel nano-composite modified glassy carbon electrode (ZrO 2 -SDS-SWCNTs/GCE). The crystalline phases and functionalization of the preparation process has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument analysis, respectively, and the micro-morphology of related modified materials is also visibly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In addition, electrochemical properties of the modified materials are comparably explored by means of impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammograms (CV). According to the established calibration curve under optimized condition, the peak current (Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signal) keeps a linear relationship with hyperin concentration in the ranges of 1.0 × 10 -9 - 3.0 × 10 -7 mol L -1 , meanwhile detection limit reaches as low as 5 × 10 -10 mol L -1 (S/N = 3). As for practical applications, the proposed sensor has also worked well on sensitive hyperin determination in real species Abelmoschus manihot. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Desulfurization from thiophene by SO(4)(2-)/ZrO(2) catalytic oxidation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhu, Jianpeng; Ma, Hongzhu

    2009-05-15

    Thiophene, due to its poison, together with its combustion products which causes air pollution and highly toxic characteristic itself, attracted more and more attention to remove from gasoline and some high concentration systems. As the purpose of achieving the novel method of de-thiophene assisted by SO(4)(2-)/ZrO(2) (SZ), three reactions about thiophene in different atmosphere at room temperature and atmospheric pressure were investigated. SO(4)(2-)/ZrO(2) catalyst were synthesized and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The products were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). XP spectra show that ozone-catalyst system (SZO) have two forms of sulfur element (S(6+) and S(2-)) on the catalyst surface, which distinguished from that of air-catalyst system (SZA) and blank-catalyst system (SZB) (S(6+)). And the results of GC-MS exhibited that some new compounds has been produced under this extremely mild condition. Especially, many kinds of sulfur compounds containing oxygen, that is easier to be extracted by oxidative desulfurization (ODS), have been detected in the SZA-1.5h and SZB-3h system. In addition, some long chain hydrocarbons have also been detected. While in SZO-0.5h system, only long chain hydrocarbons were found. The results show that total efficiency of desulfurization from thiophene with ozone near to 100% can be obtained with the SO(4)(2-)/ZrO(2) catalytic oxidation reaction.

  10. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of ZrO2 nanoparticles and their application to improve the chemical stability of Nafion membrane in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Vatanparast, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles were fabricated successfully via ultrasonic-assisted method using ZrO(NO3)2·H2O, ethylenediamine and hydrazine as precursors in aqueous solution. Morphology, structure and composition of the obtained products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Then, the synthesized nanoparticles were used to prepare Nafion/ZrO2 nanocomposite membranes. The properties of the membranes were studied by ion exchange capacity (IEC) proton conductivity (σ), thermal stability and water uptake measurements. The ex-situ Fenton's test was used to investigate the chemical stability of the membranes. From our results, compared with Nafion membrane, the nanocomposite membrane exhibited lower fluoride release and weight loss. Therefore, it can concluded that Nafion/ZrO2 nanocomposite exhibit more chemical stability than the pure Nafion membrane. ATR-FTIR spectra and SEM surface images of membranes also confirm these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of Compressible Volume of Fluid Model in Simulating the Impact and Solidification of Hollow Spherical ZrO2 Droplet on a Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Hadi; Emami, Mohsen Davazdah; Jazi, Hamidreza Salimi; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2017-12-01

    Applications of hollow spherical particles in thermal spraying process have been developed in recent years, accompanied by attempts in the form of experimental and numerical studies to better understand the process of impact of a hollow droplet on a surface. During such process, volume and density of the trapped gas inside droplet change. The numerical models should be able to simulate such changes and their consequent effects. The aim of this study is to numerically simulate the impact of a hollow ZrO2 droplet on a flat surface using the volume of fluid technique for compressible flows. An open-source, finite-volume-based CFD code was used to perform the simulations, where appropriate subprograms were added to handle the studied cases. Simulation results were compared with the available experimental data. Results showed that at high impact velocities ( U 0 > 100 m/s), the compression of trapped gas inside droplet played a significant role in the impact dynamics. In such velocities, the droplet splashed explosively. Compressibility effects result in a more porous splat, compared to the corresponding incompressible model. Moreover, the compressible model predicted a higher spread factor than the incompressible model, due to planetary structure of the splat.

  12. Noncontacting Laser Inspection System for Dimensional Profiling of Space Application Thermal Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A noncontacting, two-dimensional (2-D) laser inspection system has been designed and implemented to dimensionally profile thermal barriers being developed for space vehicle applications. In a vehicle as-installed state, thermal barriers are commonly compressed between load sensitive thermal protection system (TPS) panels to prevent hot gas ingestion through the panel interface during flight. Loads required to compress the thermal barriers are functions of their construction, as well as their dimensional characteristics relative to the gaps in which they are installed. Excessive loads during a mission could damage surrounding TPS panels and have catastrophic consequences. As such, accurate dimensional profiling of thermal barriers prior to use is important. Due to the compliant nature of the thermal barriers, traditional contact measurement techniques (e.g., calipers and micrometers) are subjective and introduce significant error and variability into collected dimensional data. Implementation of a laser inspection system significantly enhanced the method by which thermal barriers are dimensionally profiled, and improved the accuracy and repeatability of collected data. A statistical design of experiments study comparing laser inspection and manual caliper measurement techniques verified these findings.

  13. Radiation damage in cubic ZrO 2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia from molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2014-11-20

    Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulation on cubic ZrO 2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to elucidate defect cluster formation resulting from radiation damage, and evaluate the impact of Y-dopants. Interstitial clusters composed of split-interstitial building blocks, i.e., Zr-Zr or Y-Zr are formed. Moreover, oxygen vacancies control cation defect migration; in their presence, Zr interstitials aggregate to form split-interstitials whereas in their absence Zr interstitials remain immobile, as isolated single-interstitials. Y-doping prevents interstitial cluster formation due to sequestration of oxygen vacancies.

  14. Preparation, chromatographic evaluation and application of adenosine 5'-monophosphate modified ZrO2/SiO2 stationary phase in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Luo, Zhi-Yuan; Ye, Mao; Wang, Yu-Zhuo; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Lanying

    2015-02-27

    The zirconia-coated silica (ZrO2/SiO2) material was obtained by coupling layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method and sol-gel technology, to take dual advantages of the suitable porous structure of SiO2 and basic resistance of ZrO2. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP) was then self-assembled onto ZrO2/SiO2 via Lewis acid-base interaction, generating 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2. The chromatographic properties of 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 were systemically studied by evaluating the effect of acetonitrile content, pH and buffer concentration in the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that the 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 possessed hydrophilic interaction chromatographic (HILIC) property comprising hydrophilic, hydrogen-bonding, electrostatic and ion-exchange interactions. For basic analytes, the column efficiency of ZrO2/SiO2 and 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 was superior to the bare ZrO2, and different selectivity was obtained after the introduction of 5'-AMP. For acidic analytes, good resolution was obtained on 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 while the analysis failed on the bare ZrO2 column owing to strong adsorption. Hence, the proposed 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 had great potential in analyzing acidic compounds in HILIC mode. It was an extended application of ZrO2 based SP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating life models developed under the NASA Lewis Research Center's Hot Section Technology (HOST) program are summarized. An initial laboratory model and three design-capable models are discussed. Current understanding of coating failure mechanisms are also summarized.

  16. Covering solid, film cooled surfaces with a duplex thermal barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating systems were applied to hardware having passageways in the walls connecting apertures in the surface to a gas supply for film cooling. An inert gas, such as argon, is discharged through the apertures during the application of the thermal barrier coating system by plasma spraying. This flow of inert gas reduces both blocking of the holes and base metal oxidation during the coating operation.

  17. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  18. Detection of thermally grown oxides in thermal barrier coatings by nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, A.; Rogé, B.; Thornton, J.

    2006-03-01

    The thermal-barrier coatings (TBC) sprayed on hot-section components of aircraft turbine engines commonly consist of a partially stabilized zirconia top-coat and an intermediate bond-coat applied on the metallic substrate. The bond-coat is made of an aluminide alloy that at high engine temperatures forms thermally grown oxides (TGO). Although formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide at the interface between the ceramic top-coat and the bond-coat has the beneficial effect of protecting the metallic substrate from hot gases, oxide formation at splat boundaries or pores within the bond-coat is a source of weakness. In this study, plasma-sprayed TBC specimens are manufactured from two types of bond-coat powders and exposed to elevated temperatures to form oxides at the ceramic-bond-coat boundary and within the bond-coat. The specimens are then tested using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and destructive metallography and compared with the as-manufactured samples. The objective is to determine if NDE can identify the oxidation within the bond-coat and give indication of its severity. While ultrasonic testing can provide some indication of the degree of bond-coat oxidation, the eddy current (EC) technique clearly identifies severe oxide formation within the bond-coat. Imaging of the EC signals as the function of probe location provides information on the spatial variations in the degree of oxidation, and thereby identifies which components or areas are prone to premature damage.

  19. Silicon based substrate with calcium aluminosilicate/thermal barrier layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Jr., Harry Edwin (Inventor); Allen, William Patrick (Inventor); Miller, Robert Alden (Inventor); Jacobson, Nathan S. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Opila, Elizabeth J. (Inventor); Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Nagaraj, Bangalore A. (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Meschter, Peter Joel (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A barrier layer for a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of gaseous species of silicon when exposed to a high temperature aqueous environment comprises a calcium alumino silicate.

  20. Silicon based substrate with environmental/thermal barrier layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Jr., Harry Edwin (Inventor); Allen, William Patrick (Inventor); Jacobson, Nathan S. (Inventor); Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Opila, Elizabeth J. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Spitsberg, Irene T. (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Meschter, Peter Joel (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A barrier layer for a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of gaseous species of silicon when exposed to a high temperature aqueous environment comprises a barium-strontium alumino silicate.

  1. Silicon based substrate with environmental/ thermal barrier layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Jr., Harry Edwin (Inventor); Allen, William Patrick (Inventor); Jacobson, Nathan S. (Inventor); Bansal, Nanottam P. (Inventor); Opila, Elizabeth J. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Spitsberg, Irene T. (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Meschter, Peter Joel (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A barrier layer for a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of gaseous species of silicon when exposed to a high temperature aqueous environment comprises a barium-strontium alumino silicate.

  2. Density functional theory calculations of the water interactions with ZrO2 nanoparticles Y2O3 doped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhoni, Mekhrdod; Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo; Doroshkevich, Aleksandr; Asgerov, Elmar; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Lyubchyk, Andrei; Almasan, Valer; Madadzada, Afag

    2018-03-01

    Development of a new electricity generation techniques is one of the most relevant tasks, especially nowadays under conditions of extreme growth in energy consumption. The exothermic heterogeneous electrochemical energy conversion to the electric energy through interaction of the ZrO2 based nanopowder system with atmospheric moisture is one of the ways of electric energy obtaining. The questions of conversion into the electric form of the energy of water molecules adsorption in 3 mol% Y2O3 doped ZrO2 nanopowder systems were investigated using the density functional theory calculations. The density functional theory calculations has been realized as in the Kohn-Sham formulation, where the exchange-correlation potential is approximated by a functional of the electronic density. The electronic density, total energy and band structure calculations are carried out using the all-electron, full potential, linear augmented plane wave method of the electronic density and related approximations, i.e. the local density, the generalized gradient and their hybrid approximations.

  3. Interfacial Energy Transfer during Gamma Radiolysis of Water on the Surface of ZrO2 and Some Other Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Alexandrov, Alexandr B.; Vall, Andrey I.

    Effect of oxide interface on 60Co gamma radiolysis of water molecules was studied. Based on the molecular hydrogen yield when compared with that from the radiolysis of pure gas-phase water, all tested oxides can be classified into three groups: (i) inhibitors - MnO2, Co3O4, CuO and Fe2O3; (ii) oxides with H2 yields, which are similar to or slightly greater than radiolysis of pure gas-phase water - MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, CdO, Cu2O, NiO, Cr2O3, Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, TiO2, Nb2O5 and WO3; (iii) promoters - Ga2O3, Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Er2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2. H2O radiolysis enhancementmore » for ZrO2 and other promoters is result of effective energy transfer at the oxide/water interface, presumably due to migration of excitons to the surface and their resonant coupling with the H2O adsorption complex. Plot''effective H2 yield vs. band-gap (Eg) energy'' shows a maximum near 5 eV.« less

  4. Modeling of methanol decomposition on Pt/CeO2/ZrO2 catalyst in a packed bed microreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohar, Andrej; Belavič, Darko; Dolanc, Gregor; Hočevar, Stanko

    2014-06-01

    Methanol decomposition on Pt/CeO2/ZrO2 catalyst is studied inside a packed bed microreactor in the temperature range of 300-380 °C. The microreactor is fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology, which is well suited for the production of relatively complex three-dimensional structures. It is packed with 2 wt% Pt-CeO2 catalyst, which is deposited onto ZrO2 spherical particles. A 1D mathematical model, which incorporates diffusion, convection and mass transfer through the boundary layer to the catalyst particles, as well as a 3D computational fluid dynamics model, are developed to describe the methanol decomposition process inside the packed bed. The microreactor exhibits reliable operation and no catalyst deactivation was observed during three months of experimentation. A comparison between the 1D mathematical model and the 3D model, considering the full 3D geometry of the microreactor is made and the differences between the models are identified and evaluated.

  5. Adsorption of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants on Carbonate Rock in Presence of ZrO 2 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouriya; Bahramian, Alireza; Fakhroueian, Zahra

    The adsorption of surfactants at the solid-water interface is important for the control of wetting, lubrication, detergency and in mineral flotation.We have studied the adsorptions of different types of surfactants, cationic (Dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and non-anionic (lauryl alcohol-7 mole ethoxylate, LA7) on carbonate rock in presence of zirconium oxide spherical nanoparticles (17-19 nm). ZrO2 nanoparticles with tetrahedral structure have significant effect on adsorption of surfactants on the carbonate rock. We have used the measured conductivities to determine the rate of adsorption of surfactants at rock-water interfaces. The conductivity of DTAB in aqueous solutions containing calcite powder decreases more than the other surfactants in contact with ZrO2 nanoparticles. We have also investigated the adsorption of surfactants at the air-water interface. The presence of nanoparticles, as demonstrated by our experiments, enhances the surface activity and surface adsorption of the surfactants through electrostatic forces or formation of nanostructures. Dynamic light structuring data shows similar aggregation number of nanoparticles in presence of nanoparticles.

  6. Dip-coated ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings tested in molten salts for CSP applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco Javier; Encinas-Sánchez, Víctor; Lasanta, María Isabel; de Miguel, María Teresa; García-Martín, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the behaviour of ZrO2 - Y2O3 coatings in contact with molten salts at 500 °C has been studied. The coatings were prepared by sol-gel and deposited by dip-coating on AISI 304 specimens previously prepared by sanding and polishing. The behaviour in contact with molten salt was studied through static corrosion tests by the immersion of the coated samples in an alkali-nitrate mixture with a composition of 60 wt.% NaNO3/40 wt.% KNO3 (commonly known as Solar Salt). Prior to test, the deposited coatings were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction, showing a compacted, homogeneous and uniform aspect and t-YSZ as main component. After corrosion tests, the samples were characterized via gravimetric, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction. The results show a good behaviour of the coated samples compared with the bare coupon samples. However after 1000 h of testing m-ZrO2 appears in the composition,. At this preliminary study, results confirm the suitability of ZrO2 - Y2O3 coatings in solar applications after those working hours, although it is necessary to optimize the coating and study its behaviour at longer times.

  7. Researches on Tie Rod Ends Lubricated by Grease with TiO2 and ZrO2 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Marek; Siczek, Krzysztof; Kubiak, Przemysław; Jozwiak, Piotr; Siczek, Krystian

    2018-05-01

    The nanoparticles of some materials can be used successfully to improve tribological properties through decreasing both wear and friction borne out of contact between the contact surfaces of elements in different devices, particularly vehicles. Nanoparticles of TiO2 and ZrO2 were chosen as additives to the lithium grease lubricating the contact surfaces in tie rod ends. The object of study was the steel ball – the component of the tie rod end – mating with the polymer insert and lubricated with the pure lithium grease or containing the addition of pure TiO2, pure ZrO2 nanoparticles, with a 1%wt. Studies on friction were carried out using the tester allowing cyclical rotational motion and different loading of contact. Wear was investigated by driving a car, whose tie rod ends were analysed, on a fixed ‘eight’-shape track and with a fixed velocity pattern. The aim of the study was to obtain the values and waveforms of friction moment and wear versus cycles, loading and composition of lubricating grease. The waveforms of friction coefficient were obtained using the FEM model of the analysed contact zone. Based on the obtained waveforms, recommendations for the composition of additives for lithium grease were made.

  8. A high performance transparent resistive switching memory made from ZrO2/AlON bilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Lou, Jesse Jen-Chung; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the switching properties of an indium tin oxide (ITO)/zirconium oxide (ZrO2)/ITO single layer device and those of a device with an aluminum oxynitride (AlON) layer were investigated. The devices with highly transparent characteristics were fabricated. Compared with the ITO/ZrO2/ITO single layer device, the ITO/ZrO2/AlON/ITO bilayer device exhibited a larger ON/OFF ratio, higher endurance performance, and superior retention properties by using a simple two-step forming process. These substantial improvements in the resistive switching properties were attributed to the minimized influence of oxygen migration through the ITO top electrode (TE), which can be realized by forming an asymmetrical conductive filament with the weakest part at the ZrO2/AlON interface. Therefore, in the ITO/ZrO2/AlON/ITO bilayer device, the regions where conductive filament formation and rupture occur can be effectively moved from the TE interface to the interior of the device.

  9. Mass-Mobility Characterization of Flame-made ZrO2 Aerosols: Primary Particle Diameter & Extent of Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Eggersdorfer, M.L.; Gröhn, A.J.; Sorensen, C.M.; McMurry, P.H.; Pratsinis, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-borne nanoparticles undergoing coagulation and sintering form irregular or fractal-like structures affecting their transport, light scattering, effective surface area and density. Here, zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles are generated by scalable spray combustion, and their mobility diameter and mass are obtained nearly in-situ by differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass (APM) measurements. Using these data, the density of ZrO2 and a power law between mobility and primary particle diameters, the structure of fractal-like particles is determined (mass-mobility exponent, prefactor and average number and surface area mean diameter of primary particles, dva). The dva determined by DMA-APM measurements and this power law is in good agreement with the dva obtained by ex-situ nitrogen adsorption and microscopic analysis. Using this combination of measurements and above power law, the effect of flame spray process parameters (e.g. precursor solution and oxygen flow rate as well as zirconium concentration) on fractal-like particle structure characteristics is investigated in detail. This reveals that predominantly agglomerates (physically-bonded particles) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded particles) of nanoparticles are formed at low and high particle concentrations, respectively. PMID:22959835

  10. Surface Characterization of ZrO2/Zr Coating on Ti6Al4V and IN VITRO Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior and Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruoyun; Sun, Yonghua; He, Xiaojing; Gao, Yuee; Yao, Xiaohong

    Biocompatibility is crucial for implants. In recent years, numerous researches were conducted aiming to modify titanium alloys, which are the most extensively used materials in orthopedic fields. The application of zirconia in the biomedical field has recently been explored. In this study, the biological ZrO2 coating was synthesized on titaniumalloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates by a duplex-treatment technique combining magnetron sputtering with micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in order to further improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Ti6Al4V alloys. The microstructures and phase constituents of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface wettability was evaluated by contact angle measurements. The results show that ZrO2 coatings are porous with pore sizes less than 2μm and consist predominantly of the tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) and cubic ZrO2(c-ZrO2) phase. Electrochemical tests indicate that the corrosion rate of Ti6Al4V substrates is appreciably reduced after surface treatment in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS). In addition, significantly improved cell adhesion and growth were observed from the ZrO2/Zr surface. Therefore, the hybrid approach of magnetron sputtering and MAO provides a surface modification for Ti6Al4V to achieve acceptable corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  11. Thermal fluctuations enable rapid protein-protein associations in aqueous solution by lowering the reaction barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaizawa, Honami; Watanabe, Hiroshi C.; Furuta, Tadaomi; Sakurai, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    In hydrophilic protein-protein associations, the dehydration penalty, which can cause the formation of a reaction barrier, must be canceled out; however, its mechanism has not been clarified. Here, we explored the possible mechanism through investigation of the dimerization of nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). We assessed the different dimerization processes by molecular dynamics simulations with and without thermal fluctuations in each NBD. Consequently, the reaction barriers of the former and latter were estimated to be ∼100 and ∼15 kcal/mol, respectively, suggesting that thermal fluctuations in the proteins facilitate the exclusion of water molecules from the interfacial region, thereby lowering the barrier.

  12. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Infiltration and Cyclic Degradations of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Smialek, Jim; Miller, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop higher temperature capable turbine thermal barrier and environmental barrier coating systems, Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) resistance of the advanced coating systems needs to be evaluated and improved. This paper highlights some of NASA past high heat flux testing approaches for turbine thermal and environmental barrier coatings assessments in CMAS environments. One of our current emphases has been focused on the thermal barrier - environmental barrier coating composition and testing developments. The effort has included the CMAS infiltrations in high temperature and high heat flux turbine engine like conditions using advanced laser high heat flux rigs, and subsequently degradation studies in laser heat flux thermal gradient cyclic and isothermal furnace cyclic testing conditions. These heat flux CMAS infiltration and related coating durability testing are essential where appropriate CMAS melting, infiltration and coating-substrate temperature exposure temperature controls can be achieved, thus helping quantify the CMAS-coating interaction and degradation mechanisms. The CMAS work is also playing a critical role in advanced coating developments, by developing laboratory coating durability assessment methodologies in simulated turbine engine conditions and helping establish CMAS test standards in laboratory environments.

  13. Investigations of thermal barrier coatings of turbine parts using gas flame heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepeshkin, A. R.; Bichkov, N. G.; Ilinskaja, O. I.; Nazarov, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The development of methods for the calculated and experimental investigations thermal barrier coatings and thermal state of gas-turbine engine parts with a thermal barrier coatings is actual work. The gas flame heating was demonstrated to be effectively used during investigations of a thermal ceramic barrier coatings and thermal state of such gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC as the cooled turbine blades and vanes and combustion liner components. The gas-flame heating is considered to be preferable when investigating the gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC in the special cases when both the convective and radiant components of thermal flow are of great importance. The small-size rig with gas-flame flow made it possible to conduct the comparison investigations with the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of thermal protection of the ceramic deposited thermal barrier coatings on APS and EB techniques. The developed design-experiment method was introduced in bench tests of turbine blades and combustion liner components of gas turbine engines.

  14. GaN on Diamond with Ultra-Low Thermal Barrier Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    GaN-on-Diamond with Ultra-Low Thermal Barrier Resistance Xing Gu1, Cathy Lee1, Jinqiao Xie1, Edward Beam1, Michael Becker2, Timothy A. Grotjohn2...Bristol BS8 1TL, UK Abstract: We investigated the effective thermal boundary resistance (TBReff) of GaN-on-Diamond interfaces for diamond growth... thermal boundary resistance; TBReff , interfacial layers; high density dielectric Introduction While GaN-based RF transistors, typically on SiC

  15. Development and Life Prediction of Erosion Resistant Turbine Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Future rotorcraft propulsion systems are required to operate under highly-loaded conditions and in harsh sand erosion environments, thereby imposing significant material design and durability issues. The incorporation of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in high pressure turbine systems enables engine designs with higher inlet temperatures, thus improving the engine efficiency, power density and reliability. The impact and erosion resistance of turbine thermal barrier coating systems are crucial to the turbine coating technology application, because a robust turbine blade TBC system is a prerequisite for fully utilizing the potential coating technology benefit in the rotorcraft propulsion. This paper describes the turbine blade TBC development in addressing the coating impact and erosion resistance. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems with improved performance have also been validated in laboratory simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments. A preliminary life prediction modeling approach to emphasize the turbine blade coating erosion is also presented.

  16. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and electrical properties of ZrO2-SnO2 based nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitha, V. S.; Lekshmy, S. Sujatha; Berlin, I. John; Joy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent nanocomposite ZrO2-SnO2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating technique. Films were annealed at 500°C, 800°C and 1200°C respectively. X-ray diffraction(XRD) spectra showed a mixture of three phases: tetragonal ZrO2 and SnO2 and orthorhombic ZrSnO4. The grain size of all the three phases' increased with annealing temperature. An average transmittance greater than 85%(in UV-Visible region) is observed for all the films. The band gap for the films decreased from 4.79 eV to 4.62 eV with increase in annealing temperature from 500 to 1200 °C. The electrical resistivity increased with increase in annealing temperature. Such composite ZrO2-SnO2 films can be used in many applications and in optoelectronic devices.

  17. SPS-RS technique for solid-phase “in situ” synthesis of biocompatible ZrO2 porous ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shichalin, O. O.; Medkov, M. A.; Grishchenko, D. N.; Mayorov, V. Yu; Fedorets, A. N.; Belov, A. A.; Golub, A. V.; Gridasova, E. A.; Papynov, E. K.

    2018-02-01

    The prospective method of spark plasma sintering-reaction synthesis (SPS-RS) for fabrication of ceramics based on ZrO2 and biocompatible with living tissue is presented. Nanostructured ceramics has high mechanical strength (more than 400 MPa) and controlled porosity depending on specified sintering conditions. Biocompatible phases Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 are formed “in situ” during SPS sintering of ZrO2 powder due to chemical interaction of phosphate precursors preliminary introduced into the mixture. The effective method to improve (to develop) porous structure of bioceramics obtained by SPS or SPS-RS techniques using poreforming agent (carbon black) is proposed. Suggested original SPS-RS “in situ” technique provides fabrication of new ZrO2 ceramics containing biocompatible phosphate components and possessing unique structural and mechanical characteristics. Such ceramics is indispensable for bone-ceramic implants that are able to activate processes of osteogenesis during bone tissue recovery.

  18. Potential of SiO2/ZrO2 matrix doped with CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles in achieving integrated magneto-optical isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Mehdi; Hocini, Abdesselam

    2017-05-01

    We have investigated the potential of the SiO2/ZrO2 matrix doped with CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles in order to overcome the problem of integration of the magneto-optical isolators (MOIs). In this way, we have performed a theoretical study for the case of designing perfect and adjustable MOIs based on magnetophotonic crystals (MPCs) containing SiO2/ZrO2 matrix doped with CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles as a magnetic medium. Despite the existence the attenuation coefficient for SiO2/ZrO2 matrix at wavelength 1550 nm that leads to a non-perfect transmittance, we could introduce an MPC structure having no reflectance; therefore, an ideal MOI for eliminating unwanted back-reflection could be achieved.

  19. Electrical characteristics and step coverage of ZrO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition for through-silicon via and metal-insulator-metal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyeong-Keun; Park, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Deok-kee

    2016-01-01

    The electrical characteristics and step coverage of ZrO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition were investigated for through-silicon via (TSV) and metal-insulator-metal applications at temperatures below 300 °C. ZrO2 films were able to be conformally deposited on the scallops of 50-µm-diameter, 100-µm-deep TSV holes. The mean breakdown field of 30-nm-thick ZrO2 films on 30-nm-thick Ta(N) increased about 41% (from 2.7 to 3.8 MV/cm) upon H2 plasma treatment. With the plasma treatment, the breakdown field of the film increased and the temperature coefficient of capacitance decreased significantly, probably as a result of the decreased carbon concentration in the film.

  20. Single-walled carbon nanotube-facilitated dispersion of particulate TiO2 on ZrO2 ceramic membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Gonghu; Gray, Kimberly A; Lueptow, Richard M

    2008-07-15

    We report that SWCNTs substantially improve the uniformity and coverage of TiO2 coatings on porous ZrO2 ceramic membrane filters. The ZrO2 filters were dip coated with 100 nm anatase TiO2, TiO2/SWCNT composites, a TiO2+SWCNT mixture, and a TiO2/MWCNT composite at pH 3, 5, and 8. Whereas the TiO2+SWCNT mixture and the TiO2/MWCNT composite promote better coverage and less clumping than TiO2 alone, the TiO2/SWCNT composite forms a complete uniform coating without cracking at pH 5 ( approximately 100% coverage). A combination of chemical and electrostatic effects between TiO2 and SWCNTs forming the composite as well as between the composite and the ZrO2 surface explains these observations.

  1. Factors Influencing Residual Stresses in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrann, Roy T. R.; Rybicki, Edmund F.; Shadley, John R.; Brindley, William J.

    1997-01-01

    To improve gas turbine and diesel engine performance using thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) requires an understanding of the factors that influence the in-service behavior of thermal barrier coatings. One of the many factors related to coating performance is the state of stress in the coating. The total stress state is composed of the stresses due to the in-service loading history and the residual stresses. Residual stresses have been shown to affect TBC life, the bond strength of thermal spray coatings, and the fatigue life of tungsten carbide coatings. Residual stresses are first introduced in TBC's by the spraying process due to elevated temperatures during processing and the difference in coefficients of thermal expansion of the top coat, bond coat, and substrate. Later, the residual stresses can be changed by the in-service temperature history due to a number of time and temperature dependent mechanisms, such as oxidation, creep, and sintering. Silica content has also been shown to affect sintering and the cyclic life of thermal barrier coatings. Thus, it is important to understand how the spraying process, the in-service thermal cycles, and the silica content can create and alter residual stresses in thermal barrier coatings.

  2. Influence of deposition temperature on mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on titanium alloy with ZrO2 intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bang-Yen; Chang, Edward

    2003-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings were plasma sprayed on the Ti6A14V substrate with and without an intermediate ZrO2 layer; meanwhile the temperatures of substrates were varied at 90, 140, and 200 °C. The coatings were subjected to the standard adhesion test per ASTM C633-79. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of those processing variables on the bonding strength and failure behavior of the system. It is found that the bonding strengths of HA/ZrO2 and HA coatings generally decrease with increasing substrate temperature, except for the HA/ZrO2 coating deposited at 200 °C. The rationale of the results is attributed to the residual stress reported in the literature. Introducing ZrO2 bond coat is found to significantly promote the bonding strength of HA coating. The possible strengthening mechanism is the rougher surface of ZrO2 bond coat and the higher toughness of ZrO2, which provide the mechanical strengthening effects. The slightly denser HA in 200 °C deposited HA coating cannot explain the high bonding strength of the HA/ZrO2 coating, nor the mechanical strengthening effect of ZrO2 intermediate layer should apply. It is believed that a stronger diffusion bonding is formed at the interface of HA and ZrO2, which increases the bonding between them chemically. The bonding strengths of HA/ZrO2 and HA coatings are correlated with the area fraction of adhesive failure of the coatings. The correlation explains the findings in this study.

  3. In situ NAP-XPS spectroscopy during methane dry reforming on ZrO2/Pt(1 1 1) inverse model catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameshan, C.; Li, H.; Anic, K.; Roiaz, M.; Pramhaas, V.; Rameshan, R.; Blume, R.; Hävecker, M.; Knudsen, J.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Rupprechter, G.

    2018-07-01

    Due to the need of sustainable energy sources, methane dry reforming is a useful reaction for conversion of the greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2 to synthesis gas (CO  +  H2). Syngas is the basis for a wide range of commodity chemicals and can be utilized for fuel production via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. The current study focuses on spectroscopic investigations of the surface and reaction properties of a ZrO2/Pt inverse model catalyst, i.e. ZrO2 particles (islands) grown on a Pt(1 1 1) single crystal, with emphasis on in situ near ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) during MDR reaction. In comparison to technological systems, model catalysts facilitate characterization of the surface (oxidation) state, surface adsorbates, and the role of the metal-support interface. Using XPS and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy we demonstrated that under reducing conditions (UHV or CH4) the ZrO2 particles transformed to an ultrathin ZrO2 film that started to cover (wet) the Pt surface in an SMSI-like fashion, paralleled by a decrease in surface/interface oxygen. In contrast, (more oxidizing) dry reforming conditions with a 1:1 ratio of CH4 and CO2 were stabilizing the ZrO2 particles on the model catalyst surface (or were even reversing the strong metal support interaction (SMSI) effect), as revealed by in situ XPS. Carbon deposits resulting from CH4 dissociation were easily removed by CO2 or by switching to dry reforming conditions (673–873 K). Thus, at these temperatures the active Pt surface remained free of carbon deposits, also preserving the ZrO2/Pt interface.

  4. Density functional analysis of fluorite-structured (Ce, Zr)O 2/CeO 2 interfaces [Density functional analysis of fluorite-structured (Ce, Zr)O 2/CeO 2 interfaces: Implications for catalysis and energy applications

    DOE PAGES

    Weck, Philippe F.; Juan, Pierre -Alexandre; Dingreville, Remi; ...

    2017-06-21

    The structures and properties of Ce 1–xZr xO 2 (x = 0–1) solid solutions, selected Ce 1–xZr xO 2 surfaces, and Ce 1–xZr xO 2/CeO 2 interfaces were computed within the framework of density functional theory corrected for strong electron correlation (DFT+ U). The calculated Debye temperature increases steadily with Zr content in (Ce, Zr)O 2 phases, indicating a significant rise in microhardness from CeO 2 to ZrO 2, without appreciable loss in ductility as the interfacial stoichiometry changes. Surface energy calculations for the low-index CeO 2(111) and (110) surfaces show limited sensitivity to strong 4f-electron correlation. The fracture energymore » of Ce 1–xZr xO 2(111)/CeO 2(111) increases markedly with Zr content, with a significant decrease in energy for thicker Ce 1–xZr xO 2 films. These findings suggest the crucial role of Zr acting as a binder at the Ce 1–xZr xO 2/CeO 2 interfaces, due to the more covalent character of Zr–O bonds compared to Ce–O. Finally, the impact of surface relaxation upon interface cracking was assessed and found to reach a maximum for Ce 0.25Zr 0.75O 2/CeO 2 interfaces.« less

  5. Density functional analysis of fluorite-structured (Ce, Zr)O 2/CeO 2 interfaces [Density functional analysis of fluorite-structured (Ce, Zr)O 2/CeO 2 interfaces: Implications for catalysis and energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weck, Philippe F.; Juan, Pierre -Alexandre; Dingreville, Remi

    The structures and properties of Ce 1–xZr xO 2 (x = 0–1) solid solutions, selected Ce 1–xZr xO 2 surfaces, and Ce 1–xZr xO 2/CeO 2 interfaces were computed within the framework of density functional theory corrected for strong electron correlation (DFT+ U). The calculated Debye temperature increases steadily with Zr content in (Ce, Zr)O 2 phases, indicating a significant rise in microhardness from CeO 2 to ZrO 2, without appreciable loss in ductility as the interfacial stoichiometry changes. Surface energy calculations for the low-index CeO 2(111) and (110) surfaces show limited sensitivity to strong 4f-electron correlation. The fracture energymore » of Ce 1–xZr xO 2(111)/CeO 2(111) increases markedly with Zr content, with a significant decrease in energy for thicker Ce 1–xZr xO 2 films. These findings suggest the crucial role of Zr acting as a binder at the Ce 1–xZr xO 2/CeO 2 interfaces, due to the more covalent character of Zr–O bonds compared to Ce–O. Finally, the impact of surface relaxation upon interface cracking was assessed and found to reach a maximum for Ce 0.25Zr 0.75O 2/CeO 2 interfaces.« less

  6. (ZrO 2) 0.85( REO 1.5) 0.15 ( RE=Sc, Y) solid solutions prepared via three Pechini-type gel routes: 1—gel formation and calcination behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yawen; Li, Ang; Yan, Zhengguang; Xu, Gang; Liao, Chunsheng; Yan, Chunhua

    2003-02-01

    (ZrO2)0.85(REO1.5)0.15 (RE=Sc, Y) nanoparticles with pure cubic fluorite structure have been synthesized by three Pechini-type gel routes, viz. poly(vinyl alcohol) containing-process (route I), poly(ethylene glycol) and formic acid-containing process (route II), and in situ polymerizable complex method (route III). The coordination modes between metal ions and polymers in the gels are shown to be highly correlative with the synthesis route used. The gels prepared by route III have the strongest coordination throughout their network and therefore the best chemical homogeneity. The altered variety of polymer and cross-linking within the gels adopted by these three routes has made the as-synthesized samples show appreciable differences in thermal behavior, powder reactivity and nanoparticle properties.

  7. Effect of the CTAB concentration on the upconversion emission of ZrO 2:Er 3+ nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Luke, T.; De la Rosa, E.; Sólis, D.; Salas, P.; Angeles-Chavez, C.; Montoya, A.; Díaz-Torres, L. A.; Bribiesca, S.

    2006-10-01

    Upconversion emission of ZrO 2:Er 3+ (0.2 mol%) nanophosphor were studied as function of surfactant concentration after excitation at 968 nm. The strong green emission was produced by the transition 2H 11/2 + 4S 3/2 → 4I 15/2 and was explained in terms of cooperative energy transfer between neighboring ions. The upconverted signal was enhanced but the fluorescence decay time was reduced as either the surfactant concentration increases or the annealing time reduces. Experimental results show that surfactant concentration controls the particle size and morphology while annealing time control the phase composition and crystallite size. The highest intensity was obtained for a sample composed of a mixture of tetragonal (33 wt.%) and monoclinic (67 wt.%) phase with crystallite size of 31 and 59 nm, respectively. This result suggests that tetragonal crystalline structure and small crystallite size are more favorable for the upconversion emission.

  8. Preparation of Nanocrystalline Powders of ZrO2, Stabilized by Y2O3 Dobs for Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, V. F.; Korovin, S. A.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a synthesis conditions and produce samples of nanocrystalline zirconia powder in a high-temperature phase state. To increase the stability of this state at room temperature, Y2O3 was used as a dop in the two-stages chemical method including coprecipitation mixture of the corresponding hydroxides and air drying. To reduce agglomeration of nanoparticles during heat treatment of precursors the microwave oven instead of a muffle was used. Different characterisation methods have been used to determine that the obtained powders are nano-scale corresponds to a high-temperature tetragonal phase of ZrO2. It is shown that such nanocrystalline powders may be used to produce highly-dense nanoceramics.

  9. MgO-Al2O3-ZrO2 Amorphous Ternary Composite: A Dense and Stable Optical Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaoo, Naba K.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    1998-01-01

    The process-parameter-dependent optical and structural properties of MgO-Al2O3-ZrO2 ternary mixed-composite material were investigated. Optical properties were derived from spectrophotometric measurements. The surface morphology, grain size distributions, crystallographic phases, and process- dependent material composition of films were investigated through the use of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis made evident the correlation between the optical constants and the process-dependent compositions in the films. It is possible to achieve environmentally stable amorphous films with high packing density under certain optimized process conditions.

  10. Transformations to granular zircon revealed: Twinning, reidite, and ZrO2 in shocked zircon from Meteor Crater (Arizona, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cavosie, Aaron; Timms, Nicholas E.; Erickson, Timmons M.; Hagerty, Justin J.; Hörz, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Granular zircon in impact environments has long been recognized but remains poorly understood due to lack of experimental data to identify mechanisms involved in its genesis. Meteor Crater in Arizona (United States) contains abundant evidence of shock metamorphism, including shocked quartz, the high pressure polymorphs coesite and stishovite, diaplectic SiO2 glass, and lechatelierite (fused SiO2). Here we report the presence of granular zircon, a new shocked mineral discovery at Meteor Crater, that preserve critical orientation evidence of specific transformations that occurred during its formation at extreme impact conditions. The zircon grains occur as aggregates of sub-µm neoblasts in highly shocked Coconino Formation Sandstone (CFS) comprised of lechatelierite. Electron backscatter diffraction shows that each grain consists of multiple domains, some with boundaries disoriented by 65°, a known {112} shock-twin orientation. Other domains have crystallographic c-axes in alignment with {110} of neighboring domains, consistent with the former presence of the high pressure ZrSiO4 polymorph reidite. Additionally, nearly all zircon preserve ZrO2 + SiO2, providing evidence of partial dissociation. The genesis of CFS granular zircon started with detrital zircon that experienced shock-twinning and reidite formation from 20 to 30 GPa, ultimately yielding a phase that retained crystallographic memory; this phase subsequently recrystallized to systematically oriented zircon neoblasts, and in some areas partially dissociated to ZrO2. The lechatelierite matrix, experimentally constrained to form at >2000 °C, provided an ultra high-temperature environment for zircon dissociation (~1670 °C) and neoblast formation. The capacity of granular zircon to preserve a cumulative P-T record has not been recognized previously, and provides a new method for retrieving histories of impact-related mineral transformations in the crust at conditions far beyond which most rocks melt.

  11. Paramagnetic defects and charge trapping behavior of ZrO2 films deposited on germanium by plasma-enhanced CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahata, C.; Bera, M. K.; Bose, P. K.; Maiti, C. K.

    2009-02-01

    Internal photoemission and magnetic resonance studies have been performed to investigate the charge trapping behavior and chemical nature of defects in ultrathin (~14 nm) high-k ZrO2 dielectric films deposited on p-Ge (1 0 0) substrates at low temperature (<200 °C) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a microwave (700 W, 2.45 GHz) plasma at a pressure of ~65 Pa. Both the band and defect-related electron states have been characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance, internal photoemission, capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements under UV illumination. Capacitance-voltage and photocurrent-voltage measurements were used to determine the centroid of oxide charge within the high-k gate stack. The observed shifts in photocurrent response of the Al/ZrO2/GeO2/p-Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors indicate the location of the centroids to be within the ZrO2 dielectric near to the gate electrode. Moreover, the measured flat band voltage and photocurrent shifts also indicate a large density of traps in the dielectric. The impact of plasma nitridation on the interfacial quality of the oxides has been investigated. Different N sources, such as NO and NH3, have been used for nitrogen engineering. Oxynitride samples show a lower defect density and trapping over the non-nitrided samples. The charge trapping and detrapping properties of MIS capacitors under stressing in constant current and voltage modes have been investigated in detail.

  12. Thermomechanical Behavior of Developmental Thermal Barrier Coating Bond Coats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Amit; Tolpygo, Vladimir K.; Hemker, Kevin J.

    2013-04-01

    Thermal expansion, microtensile, and stress relaxation experiments have been performed to contrast and compare the thermal and mechanical response of two experimental (L1 and H1) coatings provided by Honeywell Corporation (Morristown, NY). Thermal expansion experiments reveal that both coatings have coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) that vary with temperature and that the CTE mismatch between the coatings and superalloy substrate is significant in the case of L1 as compared to H1. Values of the 0.2% offset yield stress (YS), Young's modulus ( E), and hardening exponent ( n) are reported. Room-temperature microtensile experiments show higher strain hardening and a very low value of failure strain for L1 as compared to H1. At elevated temperatures, there is a significant decrease in the YS of as-received L1 for (924 MPa at room temperature to 85 MPa at 1000°C) as compared to H1. Finally, a power law creep description for high-temperature stress relaxation is developed and the measured values of the stress exponent ( n = 3) and activation energies ( Q creep = 200-250 kJ/mol) are shown to be consistent with power law creep.

  13. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

    1997-12-16

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

  14. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Schreiber, Roger B.; Fero, Arnold H.; Sejvar, James

    1997-01-01

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  15. Potential benefits of a ceramic thermal barrier coating on large power generation gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Nainiger, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating design option offers benefit in terms of reduced electricity costs when used in utility gas turbines. Options considered include: increased firing temperature, increased component life, reduced cooling air requirements, and increased corrosion resistance (resulting in increased tolerance for dirty fuels). Performance and cost data were obtained. Simple, recuperated and combined cycle applications were considered, and distillate and residual fuels were assumed. The results indicate that thermal barrier coatings could produce large electricity cost savings if these coatings permit turbine operation with residual fuels at distillate-rated firing temperatures. The results also show that increased turbine inlet temperature can result in substantial savings in fuel and capital costs.

  16. Influence of ZrO2 addition on the microstructure and discharge properties of Mg-Zr-O protective layers in alternating current plasma display panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bingang; Liu, Chunliang; Song, Zhongxiao; Liu, Liu; Fan, Yufeng; Xia, Xing; Fan, Duowang

    2005-08-01

    Mg-Zr-O protective layers for alternating current plasma display panels were deposited by e-beam evaporation. The effect of the ZrO2 addition on both the discharge properties [firing voltage Vf, minimum sustaining voltage Vs, and memory coefficient (MC)] and the microstructure of deposited Mg-Zr-O films were investigated. The results show that the film microstructure changes and the electron emission enhancement due to the ZrO2 addition are the main reasons for the improvements of the discharge properties of Mg-Zr-O films. A small amount of Zr solution in MgO under its solid solubility can effectively increase the outer-shell valence electron emission yield so as to decrease Vf and Vs compared with using a pure MgO protective layer. The ZrO2/(MgO +ZrO2) ratio has a great effect on the film surface conditions. Proper surface morphologies make a good contribution to obtain large MC in accordance with lower firing voltage.

  17. The Effect of ZrO2 Nanoparticles on the Microstructure and Properties of Sintered WC–Bronze-Based Diamond Composites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Youhong; Wu, Haidong; Li, Meng; Meng, Qingnan; Gao, Ke; Lü, Xiaoshu; Liu, Baochang

    2016-01-01

    Metal matrix-impregnated diamond composites are widely used in diamond tool manufacturing. In order to satisfy the increasing engineering requirements, researchers have paid more and more attention to enhancing conventional metal matrices by applying novel methods. In this work, ZrO2 nanoparticles were introduced into the WC–bronze matrix with and without diamond grits via hot pressing to improve the performance of conventional diamond composites. The effects of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the microstructure, density, hardness, bending strength, and wear resistance of diamond composites were investigated. The results indicated that the hardness and relative density increased, while the bending strength decreased when the content of ZrO2 nanoparticles increased. The grinding ratio of diamond composites increased significantly by 60% as a result of nano-ZrO2 addition. The enhancement mechanism was discussed. Diamond composites showed the best overall properties with the addition of 1 wt % ZrO2 nanoparticles, thus paving the way for further applications. PMID:28773469

  18. [Preliminary study on DNA damage of ZrO(2)/LaPO(4) diphase ceramics on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-fang; Chen, Li-ping; Zhang, Xiu-li; Zhang, Bao-wei

    2009-06-01

    To detect the genotoxicity of dental machinable ZrO(2)/LaPO(4) diphase ceramics on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. The evaluation of DNA damage on human lymphocytes was performed by comet assay for three groups of ZrO(2)/LaPO(4) diphase ceramics with 30wt% of LaPO(4) (with 3wt% and 5wt% of Y(2)O(3)) and 40wt% of LaPO(4) (with 5wt% of Y(2)O(3)). The results were analyzed with SPSS16.0 software package for one-factor ANOVA and LSD. Three experimental groups with different concentration of LaPO(4) of ZrO(2)/LaPO(4) diphase ceramics, the negative control of IPS Empress II ceramics and the blank behaved little migration of the DNA strands respectively after six-day test, and there was no significant difference in all the groups except the positive control (P>0.05). The study indicates little effect of DNA damage of ZrO(2)/LaPO(4) diphase ceramics.

  19. Characterisation of well-adhered ZrO2 layers produced on structured reactors using the sonochemical sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodłowski, Przemysław J.; Chlebda, Damian K.; Jędrzejczyk, Roman J.; Dziedzicka, Anna; Kuterasiński, Łukasz; Sitarz, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain thin zirconium dioxide coatings on structured reactors using the sonochemical sol-gel method. The preparation method of metal oxide layers on metallic structures was based on the synergistic combination of three approaches: the application of ultrasonic irradiation during the synthesis of Zr sol-gel based on a precursor solution containing zirconium(IV) n-propoxide, the addition of stabilszing agents, and the deposition of ZrO2 on the metallic structures using the dip-coating method. As a result, dense, uniform zirconium dioxide films were obtained on the FeCrAlloy supports. The structured reactors were characterised by various physicochemical methods, such as BET, AFM, EDX, XRF, XRD, XPS and in situ Raman spectroscopy. The results of the structural analysis by Raman and XPS spectroscopy confirmed that the metallic surface was covered by a ZrO2 layer without any impurities. SEM/EDX mapping revealed that the deposited ZrO2 covered the metallic support uniformly. The mechanical and high temperature tests showed that the developed ultrasound assisted sol-gel method is an efficient way to obtain thin, well-adhered zirconium dioxide layers on the structured reactors. The prepared metallic supports covered with thin ZrO2 layers may be a good alternative to layered structured reactors in several dynamics flow processes, for example for gas exhaust abatement.

  20. Popcorn balls-like ZnFe2O4-ZrO2 microsphere for photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Yutang; Xia, Xinnian; Wang, Longlu

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, novel popcorn balls-like ZnFe2O4-ZrO2 composite microspheres were successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology, structure and optical property of the microspheres were characterized. The microspheres were used as the photocatalysts to degrade 2,4-dinitrophenol, and exhibited superior photocatalytic performance. Under simulated solar visible light irradiation, the degradation rate of ZnFe2O4-ZrO2 photocatalyst (mass ratio of ZnFe2O4/ZrO2 = 2:1) was almost 7.4 and 2.4 times higher than those of pure ZnFe2O4 and ZrO2. The enhancement could attribute to stronger light absorption, lower carrier recombination and multi-porous structure of the microspheres. Moreover, the popcorn balls-like photocatalysts can be easily separated, because of the magnetism of the samples. After five times runs, the photocatalyst still showed 90% of its photocatalytic degradation efficiency. This work demonstrated a good prospect for removing organic pollutants in water.

  1. Conductive atomic force microscopy study of the photoexcitation effect on resistive switching in ZrO2(Y) films with Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, A. S.; Filatov, D. O.; Antonov, D. A.; Antonov, I. N.; Shenina, M. E.; Gorshkov, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the experimental observation of the effect of optical excitation on resistive switching in ultrathin ZrO2(Y) films with single-layered arrays of Au nanoparticles. The samples were prepared by depositing nanometer-thick Au films sandwiched between two ZrO2(Y) layers by magnetron sputtering followed by annealing. Resistive switching was studied by conductive atomic force microscopy by measuring cyclic current-voltage curves of a probe-to-sample contact. The contact area was illuminated by radiation of a semiconductor laser diode with the wavelength corresponding to the plasmon resonance in an Au nanoparticle array. The enhancement of the hysteresis in cyclic current-voltage curves due to bipolar resistive switching under illumination was observed. The effect was attributed to heating of Au nanoparticles due to plasmonic optical absorption and a plasmon resonance, which enhances internal photoemission of electrons from the Fermi level in Au nanoparticles into the conduction band of ZrO2(Y). Both factors promote resistive switching in a ZrO2(Y) matrix.

  2. Chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS2 top-gate MOSFET with atomic-layer-deposited ZrO2 as gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaoqiao; Jiang, Huaxing; Lau, Kei May; Li, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, ZrO2 dielectric deposition on pristine monolayer MoS2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is demonstrated and ZrO2/MoS2 top-gate MOSFETs have been fabricated. ALD ZrO2 overcoat, like other high-k oxides such as HfO2 and Al2O3, was shown to enhance the MoS2 channel mobility. As a result, an on/off current ratio of over 107, a subthreshold slope of 276 mV dec-1, and a field-effect electron mobility of 12.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 have been achieved. The maximum drain current of the MOSFET with a top-gate length of 4 μm and a source/drain spacing of 9 μm is measured to be 1.4 μA μm-1 at V DS = 5 V. The gate leakage current is below 10-2 A cm-2 under a gate bias of 10 V. A high dielectric breakdown field of 4.9 MV cm-1 is obtained. Gate hysteresis and frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage measurements were also performed to characterize the ZrO2/MoS2 interface quality, which yielded an interface state density of ˜3 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1.

  3. Structural effects due to the incorporation of Ar atoms in the lattice of ZrO 2 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgado, J. P.; Escobar Galindo, R.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.; González-Elipe, A. R.

    2002-09-01

    Two sets of ZrO 2 thin films have been prepared at room temperature by ion beam induced chemical vapour deposition and subsequently annealed up to 1323 K. The two sets of samples have been prepared by using either O 2+ or mixtures of (O 2++Ar +) ions for the decomposition of a volatile metallorganic precursor of zirconium. The structure and microstructure of these two sets of samples have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and positron beam analysis (PBA). The samples were very compact and dense and had a very low-surface roughness. After annealing in air at T⩾573 K both sets of films were transparent and showed similar refraction indexes. For the (O 2++Ar +)-ZrO 2 thin films it is shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford back scattering that a certain amount of incorporated Ar (5-6 at.%) remains incorporated within the oxide lattice. No changes were detected in the amount of incorporated Ar even after annealing at T=773 K. For higher annealing temperatures ( T>1073 K), the amount of Ar starts to decrease, and at T=1223 K only residual amounts of Ar (<0.4%) remain within the lattice. It has been found that as far as Ar atoms remain incorporated within the ZrO 2 network, the (O 2+-Ar +)-ZrO 2 films present a cubic/tetragonal phase. When the amount of "embedded" Ar decreases, the crystalline phase reverts to monoclinic, the majority phase observed for the (O 2+)-ZrO 2 films after any annealing treatments. The microstructure of the films after different annealing treatments has been investigated by PBA. The presence of Ar ions and the initial amorphous state of the layers were detected by this technique. An increase of the open volume was observed after annealing up to 773 K in both sets of samples. For higher annealing temperatures the samples showed a progressive crystallisation resulting in a decrease of the open volume. During this sintering the samples without embedded Ar present a higher concentration of open volume defects. After the release of Ar occurs ( T⩾1223 K) both samples approach to a similar defect free state. The incorporation of Ar within the ZrO 2 thin film structure, is proposed as the main factor contributing to the stabilisation of the cubic/tetragonal phase of ZrO 2 at room temperature.

  4. Hydrothermal-precipitation preparation of CdS@(Er3+:Y3Al5O12/ZrO2) coated composite and sonocatalytic degradation of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingying; Wang, Guowei; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Guanshu; Fang, Dawei; Wang, Jun; Song, Youtao

    2017-07-01

    Here, we reported a novel method to dispose caffeine by means of ultrasound irradiation combinated with CdS@(Er 3+ :Y 3 Al 5 O 12 /ZrO 2 ) coated composite as sonocatalyst. The CdS@(Er 3+ :Y 3 Al 5 O 12 /ZrO 2 ) was synthesized via hydrothermal-precipitation method and then characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). After that, the sonocatalytic degradation of caffeine in aqueous solution was conducted adopting CdS@(Er 3+ :Y 3 Al 5 O 12 /ZrO 2 ) and CdS@ZrO 2 coated composites as sonocatalysts. In addition, some influencing factors such as CdS and ZrO 2 molar proportion, caffeine concentration, ultrasonic irradiation time, sonocatalyst dosage and addition of several inorganic oxidants on sonocatalytic degradation of caffeine were investigated by using UV-vis spectra and gas chromatograph. The experimental results showed that the presence of Er 3+ :Y 3 Al 5 O 12 could effectively improve the sonocatalytic degradation activity of CdS@ZrO 2 . To a certain extent some inorganic oxidants can also enhance sonocatalytic degradation of caffeine in the presence of CdS@(Er 3+ :Y 3 Al 5 O 12 /ZrO 2 ). The best sonocatalytic degradation ratio (94.00%) of caffeine could be obtained when the conditions of 5.00mg/L caffeine, 1.00g/L prepared CdS@(Er 3+ :Y 3 Al 5 O 12 /ZrO 2 ), 10.00mmol/LK 2 S 2 O 8 , 180min ultrasonic irradiation (40kHz frequency and 50W output power), 100mL total volume and 25-28°C temperature were adopted. It seems that the method of sonocatalytic degradation caused by CdS@(Er 3+ :Y 3 Al 5 O 12 /ZrO 2 ) displayspotentialadvantages in disposing caffeine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coating for NiAl-based intermetallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Doychak, Joseph (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system consists of two layers of a zirconia-yttria ceramic. The first layer is applied by low pressure plasma spraying. The second layer is applied by conventional atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. This facilitates the attachment of a durable thermally insulating ceramic coating directly to the surface of a highly oxidation resistant NiAl-based intermetallic alloy after the alloy has been preoxidized to promote the formation of a desirable Al2O3 scale.

  6. Surface Cracking and Interface Reaction Associated Delamination Failure of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, surface cracking and interface reactions of a BSAS coating and a multi-layer ZTO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS/Si thermal and environmental barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were characterized after long-term combined laser thermal gradient and furnace cyclic tests in a water vapor containing environment. The surface cracking was analyzed based on the coating thermal gradient sintering behavior and thermal expansion mismatch stress characteristics under the thermal cyclic conditions. The interface reactions, which were largely enhanced by the coating surface cracking in the water vapor environment, were investigated in detail, and the reaction phases were identified for the coating system after the long- term exposure. The accelerated coating delamination failure was attributed to the increased delamination driving force under the thermal gradient cyclic loading and the reduced interface adhesion due to the detrimental interface reactions.

  7. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

  8. Fabrication of SiO2@ZrO2@Y2O3:Eu3+ core-multi-shell structured phosphor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuan; He, Diping; Jiao, Huan; Chen, Juan; Meng, Xin

    2011-08-01

    ZrO2 interface was designed to block the reaction between SiO2 and Y2O3 in SiO2@Y2O3:Eu coreshell structure phosphor. SiO2@ZrO2@Y2O3:Eu core-multi-shell phosphors were successfully synthesized by combing an LBL method with a Sol-gel process. Based on electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and spectroscopy experiments, compelling evidence for the formation of the Y2O3:Eu outer shell on ZrO2 were presented. The presence of ZrO2 layer on SiO2 core can block the reaction of SiO2 core and Y2O3 shell effectively. By this kind of structure, the reaction temperature of the SiO2 core and Y2O3 shell in the SiO2@Y2O3:Eu core-shell structure phosphor can be increased about 200-300 degrees C and the luminescent intensity of this structure phosphor can be improved obviously. Under the excitation of ultraviolet (254 nm), the Eu3+ ion mainly shows its characteristic red (611 nm, 5D0-7F2) emissions in the core-multi-shell particles from Y2O3:Eu3+ shells. The emission intensity of Eu3+ ions can be tuned by the annealing temperatures, the number of coating times, and the thickness of ZrO2 interface, respectively.

  9. Current status and future trends in turbine application of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, Keith D.; Gupta, Dinesh K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current status and future trends in application of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to turbine components, and in particular to high turbine airfoils. Included are descriptions of the favorable results achieved to date with bill-of-material applications of plasma deposited TBC, and recent experience with developmental coatings applied by electron beam-physical vapor deposition.

  10. Thermomechanical and Environmental Durability of Environmental Barrier Coated Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the developments of thermo-mechanical testing approaches and durability performance of environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and EBC coated SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Critical testing aspects of the CMCs will be described, including state of the art instrumentations such as temperature, thermal gradient, and full field strain measurements; materials thermal conductivity evolutions and thermal stress resistance; NDE methods; thermo-mechanical stress and environment interactions associated damage accumulations. Examples are also given for testing ceramic matrix composite sub-elements and small airfoils to help better understand the critical and complex CMC and EBC properties in engine relevant testing environments.

  11. Advanced Oxide Material Systems For 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal/environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) are being developed for low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor containing combustion environments. The 1650 C T/EBC system is required to have better thermal stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance than current coating systems. In this paper, the thermal conductivity, water vapor stability and cyclic durability of selected candidate zirconia-/hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based T/EBC materials are evaluated. The test results have been used to downselect the T/EBC coating materials, and help demonstrate advanced 1650OC coatings feasibility with long-term cyclic durability.

  12. Development of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Using a High-Heat-Flux Testing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The development of low conductivity, robust thermal and environmental barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity and cyclic resistance at very high surface temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux test approach is established for evaluating advanced low conductivity, high temperature capability thermal and environmental barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. The test approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which initially rises under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later drops under the cyclic thermal gradient test due to coating cracking/delamination. The coating system is then evaluated based on damage accumulation and failure after the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The lattice and radiation thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic coatings can also be evaluated using laser heat-flux techniques. The external radiation resistance of the coating is assessed based on the measured specimen temperature response under a laser- heated intense radiation-flux source. The coating internal radiation contribution is investigated based on the measured apparent coating conductivity increases with the coating surface test temperature under large thermal gradient test conditions. Since an increased radiation contribution is observed at these very high surface test temperatures, by varying the laser heat-flux and coating average test temperature, the complex relation between the lattice and radiation conductivity as a function of surface and interface test temperature may be derived.

  13. Surface Modifier-Free Organic-Inorganic Hybridization To Produce Optically Transparent and Highly Refractive Bulk Materials Composed of Epoxy Resins and ZrO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Kazushi; Kikuchi, Moriya; Narumi, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou

    2018-04-25

    Surface modifier-free hybridization of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) with epoxy-based polymers is demonstrated for the first time to afford highly transparent and refractive bulk materials. This is achieved by a unique and versatile hybridization via the one-pot direct phase transfer of ZrO 2 NPs from water to epoxy monomers without any aggregation followed by curing with anhydride. Three types of representative epoxy monomers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (CEL), and 1,3,5-tris(3-(oxiran-2-yl)propyl)-1,3,5-triazinane-2,4,6-trione (TEPIC), are used to produce transparent viscous dispersions. The resulting ZrO 2 NPs are thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. The results from DLS and TEM analyses indicate nanodispersion of ZrO 2 into epoxy monomers as a continuous medium. A surface modification mechanism and the binding fashion during phase transfer are proposed based on the FT-IR and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. Epoxy-based hybrid materials with high transparency and refractive index are successfully fabricated by heat curing or polymerizing a mixture of monomers containing epoxy-functionalized ZrO 2 NPs and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride in the presence of a phosphoric catalyst. The TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the hybrids show a nanodispersion of ZrO 2 in the epoxy networks. The refractive index at 594 nm ( n 594 ) increases up to 1.765 for BADGE-based hybrids, 1.667 for CEL-based hybrids, and 1.693 for TEPIC-based hybrids. Their refractive indices and Abbe's numbers are quantitatively described by the Lorentz-Lorenz effective medium expansion theory. Their transmissivity is also reasonably explained using Fresnel refraction, Rayleigh scattering, and the Lambert-Beer theories. This surface modifier-free hybridization provides a versatile, fascinating, and promising method for synthesizing a variety of epoxy-based hybrid materials.

  14. Numerical and analytical simulation of the production process of ZrO2 hollow particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Hadi; Emami, Mohsen Davazdah

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the production process of hollow particles from the agglomerated particles is addressed analytically and numerically. The important parameters affecting this process, in particular, the initial porosity level of particles and the plasma gun types are investigated. The analytical model adopts a combination of quasi-steady thermal equilibrium and mechanical balance. In the analytical model, the possibility of a solid core existing in agglomerated particles is examined. In this model, a range of particle diameters (50μm ≤ D_{p0} ≤ 160 μ m) and various initial porosities ( 0.2 ≤ p ≤ 0.7) are considered. The numerical model employs the VOF technique for two-phase compressible flows. The production process of hollow particles from the agglomerated particles is simulated, considering an initial diameter of D_{p0} = 60 μm and initial porosity of p = 0.3, p = 0.5, and p = 0.7. Simulation results of the analytical model indicate that the solid core diameter is independent of the initial porosity, whereas the thickness of the particle shell strongly depends on the initial porosity. In both models, a hollow particle may hardly develop at small initial porosity values ( p < 0.3), while the particle disintegrates at high initial porosity values ( p > 0.6.

  15. Enhancement of oxidative electrocatalytic properties of platinum nanoparticles by supporting onto mixed WO3/ZrO2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Wadas, Anna; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructured mixed metal (W, Zr) oxide matrices (in a form of layered intercalated films of WO3 and ZrO2) are considered here for supporting and activating catalytic platinum nanoparticles toward electrooxidation of ethanol. Remarkable increases of electrocatalytic (voltammetric, chronoamperometric) currents measured in 0.5 mol dm-3 H2SO4 (containing 0.5 mol dm-3 ethanol) have been observed. Comparison has been made to the behavior of methanol and acetaldehyde under analogous conditions. The enhancement effects are interpreted in terms of specific interactions between platinum nanoparticles and the metal oxide species, high acidity of the mixed oxide sites, as well as high population of surface hydroxyl groups and high mobility of protons existing in close vicinity of Pt catalytic sites. The metal oxide nanostructures are expected to interact competitively (via the surface hydroxyl groups) with adsorbates of the undesirable reaction intermediates, including CO, facilitating their desorption ("third body effect"), or even oxidative removal (e.g., of CO to CO2). The fact that the partially reduced tungsten oxide (HxWO3) component is characterized by fast electron transfers coupled to proton displacements tends to improve the overall charge propagation at the electrocatalytic interface.

  16. [Preparing of Al2O3/ZrO2 composite dental ceramics through isostatic pressing technology].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-Feng; Yin, Guang-Fu; Yang, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Jun-Xia

    2006-08-01

    To find out how to prepare high-density dental ceramics through isostatic pressing so that sintering shrinkage will be reduced. To prepare Al2O3/ZrO2 composite powder first, then to mold through dry-pressing, and to shape the green-body through isostatic pressing. The green-bodies were sintered at the temperature of 1 400 degrees C and kept at the temperature for different period of time (2 h, 3 h, 4 h). After that, the density and fracture strength were measured and the microstructure observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The sample product's density, line-shrinkage, and fracture strength of ceramics was rising with the sintering time lengthened. The sample product kept under the temperature of 1 400 degrees C for 4 hours, the fracture strength was (497.27 +/- 78.45) MPa and glass phase distributed evenly in the ceramics and the grains were integrated owing to the glass phase. The longer the sintering time, the more even the microstructure was. The sintering quality and the efficiency were improved through isostatic pressing.

  17. Building Materials from Colloidal Nanocrystal Assemblies: Molecular Control of Solid/Solid Interfaces in Nanostructured Tetragonal ZrO 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Santosh; Silva, Tiago F.; Bobbitt, Jonathan M.

    We describe in this paper a bottom-up approach to control the composition of solid/solid interfaces in nanostructured materials, and we test its effectiveness on tetragonal ZrO 2, an inorganic phase of great technological significance. Colloidal nanocrystals capped with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or oleic acid (OA) are deposited, and the organic fraction of the ligands is selectively etched with O 2 plasma. The interfaces in the resulting all-inorganic colloidal nanocrystal assemblies are either nearly bare (for OA-capped nanocrystals) or terminated with phosphate groups (for TOPO-capped nanocrystals) resulting from the reaction of phosphine oxide groups with plasma species. The chemical modification ofmore » the interfaces has extensive effects on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the material. Different growth kinetics indicate different rate limiting processes of growth (surface diffusion for the phosphate-terminated surfaces and dissolution for the “bare” surfaces). Phosphate termination led to a higher activation energy of growth, and a 3-fold reduction in interfacial energy, and facilitated significantly the conversion of the tetragonal phase into the monoclinic phase. Finally, films devoid of residual ligands persisted in the tetragonal phase at temperatures as high as 900 °C for 24 h.« less

  18. High-Temperature Particulate Matter Filtration with Resilient Yttria-Stabilized ZrO2 Nanofiber Sponge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haolun; Lin, Sen; Yang, Shen; Yang, Xudong; Song, Jianan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Haiyang; Liu, Zhenglian; Li, Bo; Fang, Minghao; Wang, Ning; Wu, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant in many regions, jeopardizing ecosystems and public health. Filtration at pollutant source is one of the most important ways to protect the environment, however, considering the high-temperature exhaust gas emissions, effective removal of PM and related pollutants from their sources remains a major challenge. In this study, a resilient, heat-resisting, and high-efficiency PM filter based on yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ) nanofiber sponge produced with a scalable solution blow spinning process is reported. The porous 3D sponge composed of YSZ nanofibers is lightweight (density of 20 mg cm -3 ) and resilient at both room temperature and high temperatures. At room-temperature conditions, the YSZ nanofiber sponge exhibits 99.4% filtration efficiency for aerosol particles with size in the range of 20-600 nm, associated with a low pressure drop of only 57 Pa under an airflow velocity of 4.8 cm s -1 . At a high temperature of 750 °C, the ceramic sponge maintains a high filtration efficiency of 99.97% for PM 0.3-2.5 under a high airflow velocity of 10 cm s -1 . A practical vehicle exhaust filter to capture particles with filtration efficiency of >98.3% is also assembled. Hence, the YSZ nanofiber sponge has enormous potential to be applied in industry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chemical Stability and Biological Properties of Plasma-Sprayed CaO-SiO2-ZrO2 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Xie, Youtao; Ji, Heng; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2010-12-01

    In this work, calcia-stabilized zirconia powders were coated by silica derived from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) hydrolysis. After calcining at 1400 °C, decalcification of calcia-stabilized zirconia by silica occurred and powders composed of Ca2SiO4, ZrO2, and CaZrO3 were prepared. We produced three kinds of powders with different Ca2SiO4 contents [20 wt.% (denoted as CZS2), 40 wt.% (denoted as CZS4), and 60 wt.% (denoted as CZS6)]. The obtained powders were sprayed onto Ti-6Al-4V substrates using atmospheric plasma spraying. The microstructure of the powders and coatings were analyzed. The dissolution rates of the coatings were assessed by monitoring the ions release and mass losses after immersion in Tris-HCl buffer solution. Results showed that the chemical stability of the coatings were significantly improved compared with pure calcium silicate coatings, and increased with the increase of Zr contents. The CZS4 coating showed not only good apatite-formation ability in simulated body fluid, but also well attachment and proliferation capability for the canine bone marrow stem cells. Results presented here indicate that plasma-sprayed CZS4 coating has medium dissolution rate and good biological properties, suggesting its potential use as bone implants.

  20. Magnetic properties of nitrogen-doped ZrO2: Theoretical evidence of absence of room temperature ferromagnetism

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Elisa; Leccese, Mirko; Di Valentin, Cristiana; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    N-dopants in bulk monoclinic ZrO2 and their magnetic interactions have been investigated by DFT calculations, using the B3LYP hybrid functional. The electronic and magnetic properties of the paramagnetic N species, substitutionals and interstitials, are discussed. Their thermodynamic stability has been estimated as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. At 300 K, N prefers interstitial sites at any range of oxygen pressure, while at higher temperatures (700–1000 K), oxygen poor-conditions facilitate substitutional dopants. We have considered the interaction of two N defects in various positions in order to investigate the possible occurrence of ferromagnetic ordering. A very small magnetic coupling constant has been calculated for several 2N-ZrO2 configurations, thus demonstrating that magnetic ordering can be achieved only at very low temperatures, well below liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, when N atoms replace O at different sites, resulting in slightly different positions of the corresponding N 2p levels, a direct charge transfer can occur between the two dopants with consequent quenching of the magnetic moment. Another mechanism that contributes to the quenching of the N magnetic moments is the interplay with oxygen vacancies. These effects contribute to reduce the concentration of magnetic impurities, thus limiting the possibility to establish magnetic ordering. PMID:27527493

  1. Hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds to hydrocarbons over Ni/SiO2-ZrO2 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinghua; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Yu, Yuxiao; Chen, Lungang

    2013-04-01

    Inexpensive non-sulfided Ni-based catalysts were evaluated for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) using guaiacol as model compound. SiO2-ZrO2 (SZ), a complex oxide synthesized by precipitation method with different ratio of Si/Zr, was impregnated with Ni(NO3)2·6H2O and calcined at 500°C. Conversion rates and product distribution for guaiacol HDO at 200-340°C were determined. Guaiacol conversion reached the maximum at 300°C in the presence of Ni/SZ-3. When HDO reaction was carried out with real lignin-derived phenolic compounds under the optimal conditions determined for guaiacol, the total yield of hydrocarbons was 62.81%. These hydrocarbons were comprised of cyclohexane, alkyl-substituted cyclohexane and alkyl-substituted benzene. They have high octane number, would be the most desirable components for fungible liquid transportation fuel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of variable cerium concentration on photoluminescence behaviour in ZrO2 phosphor synthesized by combustion synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Vikas; Kaur, Jagjeet

    2016-05-01

    Present paper reports synthesis and characterization of trivalent cerium (Ce3+) doped zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) phosphors. Effect of variable concentration of cerium on photoluminescence (PL) is studied. Samples were prepared by combustion synthesis technique which is suitable for less time taking techniques also for large scale production for phosphors. Starting material used for sample preparation are Zr(NO3)3 and Ce(NO3)3 and urea used as a fuel. All prepared phosphor with variable concentration of Ce3+ (0.1 to 2mol%) was studied by photoluminescence analysis it is found that the excitation spectra of prepared phosphor shows broad excitation centred at 390nm. The excitation spectra with variable concentration of Ce3+ show strong peaks at 447nm. Spectrophotometric determinations of peaks are evaluated by Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage technique. Using this phosphor, the desired CIE values including emissions throughout the violet (390 nm) and blue (427 nm) of the spectra were achieved. Efficient blue light emitting diodes were fabricated using Ce3+ doped phosphor based on near ultraviolet (NUV) excited LED lights.

  3. Aqueous phase hydrogenation of phenol catalyzed by Pd and PdAg on ZrO 2

    SciTech Connect

    Resende, Karen A.; Hori, Carla E.; Noronha, Fabio B.

    The impact of particle size of ZrO 2-supported Pd and of alloying with Ag was explored for hydrogenation of phenol in aqueous phase. Kinetic assessments were performed in a batch reactor, on monometallic Pd/ZrO 2 samples with different Pd loadings (0.5%, 1% and 2%), as well as on a 1% PdAg/ZrO 2 sample. The catalytic activity normalized to accessible Pd (turnover frequency, TOF) increased with the particle size of Pd. Reaction orders in phenol and H 2 and lower activation energies suggest that smaller particles bind the reacting substrates more strongly, leading to higher surface coverages by phenol. But, surprisingly,more » smaller Pd particles exhibited lower TOFs. The lower activity of the small Pd particles is attributed to lower activation entropies for the strongly bound species. Furthermore, the presence of Ag increased the catalyst activity by decreasing the apparent energy of activation and increasing the coverages of phenol and H 2, without negatively affecting the activation entropy.« less

  4. Aqueous phase hydrogenation of phenol catalyzed by Pd and PdAg on ZrO 2

    SciTech Connect

    Resende, Karen A.; Hori, Carla E.; Noronha, Fabio B.

    Hydrogenation of phenol in aqueous phase was studied over a series of ZrO2-supported Pd catalysts in order to explore the effects of particle size and of Ag addition on the activity of Pd. Kinetic assessments were performed in a batch reactor, on monometallic Pd/ZrO2 samples with different Pd loadings (0.5%, 1% and 2%), as well as on a 1% PdAg/ZrO2 sample. The turnover frequency (TOF) increases with the Pd particle size. The reaction orders in phenol and H2 indicate that the surface coverages by phenol, H2 and their derived intermediates are higher on 0.5% Pd/ZrO2 than on other samples. Themore » activation energy was the lowest on the least active sample (0.5% Pd/ZrO2), while being identical on 1% and 2% Pd/ZrO2 catalysts. Thus, the significantly lower activity of the small Pd particles (1-2 nm on average) in 0.5%Pd/ZrO2 is explained by the unfavorable activation entropies for the strongly bound species. The presence of Ag increases considerably the TOF of the reaction by decreasing the Ea and increasing the coverages of phenol and H2.« less

  5. Aqueous phase hydrogenation of phenol catalyzed by Pd and PdAg on ZrO 2

    DOE PAGES

    Resende, Karen A.; Hori, Carla E.; Noronha, Fabio B.; ...

    2017-08-05

    The impact of particle size of ZrO 2-supported Pd and of alloying with Ag was explored for hydrogenation of phenol in aqueous phase. Kinetic assessments were performed in a batch reactor, on monometallic Pd/ZrO 2 samples with different Pd loadings (0.5%, 1% and 2%), as well as on a 1% PdAg/ZrO 2 sample. The catalytic activity normalized to accessible Pd (turnover frequency, TOF) increased with the particle size of Pd. Reaction orders in phenol and H 2 and lower activation energies suggest that smaller particles bind the reacting substrates more strongly, leading to higher surface coverages by phenol. But, surprisingly,more » smaller Pd particles exhibited lower TOFs. The lower activity of the small Pd particles is attributed to lower activation entropies for the strongly bound species. Furthermore, the presence of Ag increased the catalyst activity by decreasing the apparent energy of activation and increasing the coverages of phenol and H 2, without negatively affecting the activation entropy.« less

  6. Building Materials from Colloidal Nanocrystal Assemblies: Molecular Control of Solid/Solid Interfaces in Nanostructured Tetragonal ZrO 2

    DOE PAGES

    Shaw, Santosh; Silva, Tiago F.; Bobbitt, Jonathan M.; ...

    2017-08-28

    We describe in this paper a bottom-up approach to control the composition of solid/solid interfaces in nanostructured materials, and we test its effectiveness on tetragonal ZrO 2, an inorganic phase of great technological significance. Colloidal nanocrystals capped with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or oleic acid (OA) are deposited, and the organic fraction of the ligands is selectively etched with O 2 plasma. The interfaces in the resulting all-inorganic colloidal nanocrystal assemblies are either nearly bare (for OA-capped nanocrystals) or terminated with phosphate groups (for TOPO-capped nanocrystals) resulting from the reaction of phosphine oxide groups with plasma species. The chemical modification ofmore » the interfaces has extensive effects on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the material. Different growth kinetics indicate different rate limiting processes of growth (surface diffusion for the phosphate-terminated surfaces and dissolution for the “bare” surfaces). Phosphate termination led to a higher activation energy of growth, and a 3-fold reduction in interfacial energy, and facilitated significantly the conversion of the tetragonal phase into the monoclinic phase. Finally, films devoid of residual ligands persisted in the tetragonal phase at temperatures as high as 900 °C for 24 h.« less

  7. Flyweight 3D Graphene Scaffolds with Microinterface Barrier-Derived Tunable Thermal Insulation and Flame Retardancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Hao, Menglong; Xu, Xiang; Xiong, Guoping; Li, Hui; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-04-26

    In this article, flyweight three-dimensional (3D) graphene scaffolds (GSs) have been demonstrated with a microinterface barrier-derived thermal insulation and flame retardancy characteristics. Such 3D GSs were fabricated by a modified hydrothermal method and a unidirectional freeze-casting process with hierarchical porous microstructures. Because of high porosity (99.9%), significant phonon scattering, and strong π-π interaction at the interface barriers of multilayer graphene cellular walls, the GSs demonstrate a sequence of multifunctional properties simultaneously, such as lightweight density, thermal insulating characteristics, and outstanding mechanical robustness. At 100 °C, oxidized GSs exhibit a thermal conductivity of 0.0126 ± 0.0010 W/(m K) in vacuum. The thermal conductivity of oxidized GSs remains relatively unaffected despite large-scale deformation-induced densification of the microstructures, as compared to the behavior of reduced GSs (rGSs) whose thermal conductivity increases dramatically under compression. The contrasting behavior of oxidized GSs and rGSs appears to derive from large differences in the intersheet contact resistance and varying intrinsic thermal conductivity between reduced and oxidized graphene sheets. The oxidized GSs also exhibit excellent flame retardant behavior and mechanical robustness, with only 2% strength decay after flame treatment. In a broader context, this work demonstrates a useful strategy to design porous nanomaterials with a tunable heat conduction behavior through interface engineering at the nanoscale.

  8. Furnace Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Multi-Component Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Nesbitt, James A.; Barrett, Charles A.; McCue, Terry R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to further increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling, thus helping achieve future engine low emission, high efficiency and improved reliability goals. Advanced multi-component zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings are being developed using an oxide defect clustering design approach to achieve the required coating low thermal conductivity and high temperature stability. Although the new composition coatings were not yet optimized for cyclic durability, an initial durability screening of the candidate coating materials was conducted using conventional furnace cyclic oxidation tests. In this paper, furnace cyclic oxidation behavior of plasma-sprayed zirconia-based defect cluster thermal barrier coatings was investigated at 1163 C using 45 min hot cycles. The ceramic coating failure mechanisms were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analysis after the furnace tests. The coating cyclic lifetime is also discussed in relation to coating processing, phase structures, dopant concentration, and other thermo-physical properties.

  9. Relation of Thermal Conductivity with Process Induced Anisotropic Void Systems in EB-PVD PYSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Renteria, A. Flores; Saruhan-Brings, B.; Ilavsky, J.

    2008-03-03

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by Electron-beam physical deposition (EB-PVD) protect the turbine blades situated at the high pressure sector of the aircraft and stationary turbines. It is an important task to uphold low thermal conductivity in TBCs during long-term service at elevated temperatures. One of the most promising methods to fulfil this task is to optimize the properties of PYSZ-based TBC by tailoring its microstructure. Thermal conductivity of the EB-PVD produced PYSZ TBCs is influenced mainly by the size, shape, orientation and volume of the various types of porosity present in the coatings. These pores can be classified asmore » open (inter-columnar and between feather arms gaps) and closed (intra-columnar pores). Since such pores are located within the three-dimensionally deposited columns and enclose large differences in their sizes, shapes, distribution and anisotropy, the accessibility for their characterization is very complex and requires the use of sophisticated methods. In this work, three different EB-PVD TBC microstructures were manufactured by varying the process parameters, yielding various characteristics of their pores. The corresponding thermal conductivities in as-coated state and after ageing at 11000C/1h and 100h were measured via Laser Flash Analysis Method (LFA). The pore characteristics and their individual effect on the thermal conductivity are analysed by USAXS which is supported by subsequent modelling and LFA methods, respectively. Evident differences in the thermal conductivity values of each microstructure were found in as-coated and aged conditions. In summary, broader columns introduce higher values in thermal conductivity. In general, thermal conductivity increases after ageing for all three investigated microstructures, although those with initial smaller pore surface area show smaller changes.« less

  10. Relation of thermal conductivity with process induced anisotropic void system in EB-PVD PYSZ thermal barrier coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Renteria, A. F.; Saruhan, B.; Ilavsky, J.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by Electron-beam physical deposition (EB-PVD) protect the turbine blades situated at the high pressure sector of the aircraft and stationary turbines. It is an important task to uphold low thermal conductivity in TBCs during long-term service at elevated temperatures. One of the most promising methods to fulfil this task is to optimize the properties of PYSZ-based ,TBC by tailoring its microstructure. Thermal conductivity of the EB-PVD produced PYSZ TBCs is influenced mainly by the size, shape, orientation and volume of the various types of porosity present in the coatings. These pores can be classified asmore » open (inter-columnar and between feather arms gaps) and closed (intra-columnar pores). Since such pores are located within the three-dimensionally deposited columns and enclose large differences in their sizes, shapes, distribution and anisotropy, the accessibility for their characterization is very complex and requires the use of sophisticated methods. In this work, three different EB-PVD TBC microstructures were manufactured by varying the process parameters, yielding various characteristics of their pores. The corresponding thermal conductivities in as-coated state and after ageing at 1100C/1h and 100h were measured via Laser Flash Analysis Method (LFA). The pore characteristics and their individual effect on the thermal conductivity are analysed by USAXS which is supported by subsequent modelling and LFA methods, respectively. Evident differences in the thermal conductivity values of each microstructure were found in as-coated and aged conditions. In summary, broader columns introduce higher values in thermal conductivity. In general, thermal conductivity increases after ageing for all three investigated microstructures, although those with initial smaller pore surface area show smaller changes.« less

  11. Synthesis of thermal and chemical resistant oxygen barrier starch with reinforcement of nano silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K

    2013-09-12

    Starch/silicon carbide (starch/SiC) bionanocomposites were synthesized by solution method using different wt% of silicon carbide with starch matrix. The interaction between starch and silicon carbide was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The structure of the bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Thermal property of starch/SiC bionanocomposites was measured and a significant enhancement of thermal resistance was noticed. The oxygen barrier property of the composites was studied and a substantial reduction in permeability was observed as compared to the virgin starch. The reduction of oxygen permeability with enhancement of thermal stability of prepared bionanocomposites may enable the materials suitable for thermal resistant packaging and adhesive applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of Si nano-crystals with controlled oxidation state from SiO disproportionated by ZrO2 ball-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yuji; Harada, Yoshitomo; Ohta, Narumi; Takada, Kazunori; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that a SiO disproportionation reaction can be achieved simply by high energy mechanochemical milling. The planetary ball-milling of ZrO2 for a few minutes generated Si nano-crystals. Milling conditions including rotation speed, ball number, milling time, and type of ball material were able to control the oxidation states of Si. The ball-milled SiO powder was tested as an anode of a lithium battery. ZrO2 contamination from the vial and balls was eliminated by dipping the ball-milled SiO powder in (NH4)HSO4 molten salt and heating for 5 min. The disproportionated SiO powder showed characteristics comparable to those of a powder prepared by a conventional heating process taking several hours.

  13. Effects of Post-Deposition Annealing on ZrO2/n-GaN MOS Capacitors with H2O and O3 as the Oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meijuan; Zhang, Guozhen; Wang, Xiao; Wan, Jiaxian; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-12-01

    GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with ZrO 2 as the dielectric layer have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. The accumulation and depletion regions can be clearly distinguished when the voltage was swept from -4 to 4 V. Post-annealing results suggested that the capacitance in accumulation region went up gradually as the annealing temperature increased from 300 to 500 °C. A minimum leakage current density of 3 × 10 -9  A/cm 2 at 1 V was obtained when O 3 was used for the growth of ZrO 2 . Leakage analysis revealed that Schottky emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling were the main leakage mechanisms.

  14. A study of Pd/SO4/ZrO2/Al2O3 catalysts in n-hexane isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhikiya, O. V.; Smolikov, M. D.; Kazantsev, K. V.; Yablokova, S. S.; Kireeva, T. V.; Paukshtis, E. A.; Gulyaeva, T. I.; Belyi, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of palladium concentration in a range from 0.02 to 1.6 wt.% on characteristics of n-hexane isomerization was studied. The (O2-Hchem) titration and O2 chemisorption study revealed that palladium in Pd/SO4/ZrO2/Al2O3 systems adsorbs hydrogen in a ratio H/Pds = 1.13-1.65 at./at. Investigation of the charge state of the metal by IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO showed the presence of both the metallic (Pd0) and charged palladium species. Pd/SO4/ZrO2/Al2O3 catalysts with charged palladium atoms exhibit high activity and selectivity in n-hexane isomerization.

  15. Gadolinium-doped hollow CeO2-ZrO2 nanoplatform as multifunctional MRI/CT dual-modal imaging agent and drug delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuwu; Wu, Ming; Li, Zuanfang; Lin, Zhan; Zeng, Jinhua; Sun, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Yongyi

    2018-11-01

    Developing multifunctional nanoparticle-based theranostic platform for cancer diagnosis and treatment is highly desirable, however, most of the present theranostic platforms are fabricated via complicated structure/composition design and time-consuming synthesis procedures. Herein, the multifunctional Gd/CeO 2 -ZrO 2 /DOX-PEG nanoplatform with single nano-structure was fabricated through a facile route, which possessed MR/CT dual-model imaging and chemotherapy ability. The nanoplatform not only exhibited well-defined shapes, tunable compositions and narrow size distributions, but also presented a well anti-cancer effect and MR/CT imaging ability. Therefore, the Gd/CeO 2 -ZrO 2 /DOX-PEG nanoplatform could be applied for chemotherapy as well as dual-model MR/CT imaging.

  16. Effects of Post-Deposition Annealing on ZrO2/n-GaN MOS Capacitors with H2O and O3 as the Oxidizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Meijuan; Zhang, Guozhen; Wang, Xiao; Wan, Jiaxian; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-04-01

    GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with ZrO2 as the dielectric layer have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. The accumulation and depletion regions can be clearly distinguished when the voltage was swept from -4 to 4 V. Post-annealing results suggested that the capacitance in accumulation region went up gradually as the annealing temperature increased from 300 to 500 °C. A minimum leakage current density of 3 × 10-9 A/cm2 at 1 V was obtained when O3 was used for the growth of ZrO2. Leakage analysis revealed that Schottky emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling were the main leakage mechanisms.

  17. Mechanical Properties and Plasma Erosion Resistance of ZrO2p(3Y)/BN-SiO2 Ceramic Composites under Different Sintering Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Duan1, Xiaoming; Jia, Dechang; Yang, Zhihua; Meng, Qingchang; Yu, Yang; Yu, Daren; Ding, Yongjie

    2011-10-01

    ZrO2p(3Y)/BN-SiO2 ceramic composites were hot pressed under different sintering temperature. The ceramic composites were composed by BN, m-ZrO2, t-ZrO2 and SiO2. The relative density, bending strength, elastic modulus and fracture toughness increase with the sintering temperature increasing, the maximum value of which at the sintering temperature of 1800°C are 97.5%, 229.9MPa, 60.8GPa and 3.55MPam1/2, respectively. The erosion resistance ability of ZrO2p(3Y)/BN-SiO2 ceramic composites rise gradually with the sintering temperature increasing, and the erosion rate of the ceramic composite sintered at 1800°C is 8.03×10-3mm/h.

  18. Effect of coating thickness on microstructure and low temperature cyclic thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coating (Al2O3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vijay; Patel, Sachin; Swarnkar, Vikas; K, Rajput S.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of coating thickness on low temperature cyclic thermal fatigue behaviour of Al2O3 thermal barrier coating (TBC) was concluded through the cyclic furnace thermal fatigue test (CFTF). Detonation gun (Thermal Spray) process was used for bond coating of NiCr and top coating of Al2O3 on Aluminium Alloy 6061 substrate. Top coating was done at two level of thickness to investigate the effect of coating thickness on low temperature cyclic thermal fatigue. The top coat of thickness 100μm-150μm was considered as thin TBC while the top coat of thickness 250μm-300μm was considered as thick TBC. The thickness of bond coat was taken as 120μm constant for both level of Al2O3 top coating. During CFTF test appearance of any crack on coated surface was adapted as main criterion of coating failure. Crack initiation was observed at edges and corner of thin thermal barrier coating after 60 number of thermal fatigue cycles while in case of thick thermal barrier coating these crack initiation was observed after 72 cycles of cyclic thermal fatigue test. During the study, it was observed that thick thermal barrier coating survived for long duration in comparison of thin TBC. Hence it can be concluded that application of thick TBC is more favourable to improve thermal durability of any component.

  19. New WC-Cu thermal barriers for fusion applications: High temperature mechanical behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejado, E.; Dias, M.; Correia, J. B.; Palacios, T.; Carvalho, P. A.; Alves, E.; Pastor, J. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The combination of tungsten carbide and copper as a thermal barrier could effectively reduce the thermal mismatch between tungsten and copper alloy, which are proposed as base armour and heat sink, respectively, in the divertor of future fusion reactors. Furthermore, since the optimum operating temperature windows for these divertor materials do not overlap, a compatible thermal barrier interlayer between them is required to guarantee a smooth thermal transition, which in addition may mitigate radiation damage. The aim of this work is to study the thermo-mechanical properties of WC-Cu cermets fabricated by hot pressing. Focus is placed on the temperature effect and composition dependence, as the volume fraction of copper varies from 25 to 50 and 75 vol%. To explore this behaviour, fracture experiments are performed within a temperature range from room temperature to 800 °C under vacuum. In addition, elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated from these tests. Results reveal a strong dependence of the performance on temperature and on the volume fraction of copper and, surprisingly, a slight percent of Cu (25 vol%) can effectively reduce the large difference in thermal expansion between tungsten and copper alloy, which is a critical point for in service applications. The thermal performance of these materials, together with their mechanical properties could indeed reduce the heat transfer from the PFM to the underlying element while supporting the high thermal stresses of the joint. Thus, the presence of these cermets could allow the reactor to operate above the ductile to brittle transition temperature of tungsten, without compromising the underlying materials.

  20. History of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Engines: Emphasizing NASA's Role from 1942 to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has played a central role in the development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbine applications. This report discusses the history of TBCs emphasizing the role NASA has played beginning with (1) frit coatings in the 1940s and 1950s; (2) thermally sprayed coatings for rocket application in the 1960s and early 1970s; (3) the beginnings of the modern era of turbine section coatings in the mid 1970s; and (4) failure mechanism and life prediction studies in the 1980s and 1990s. More recent efforts are also briefly discussed.