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Sample records for zro2-based resistive switching

  1. Selection by current compliance of negative and positive bipolar resistive switching behaviour in ZrO2-x /ZrO2 bilayer memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ruomeng; Yan, Xingzhao; Morgan, Katrina A.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; (Kees de Groot, C. H.

    2017-05-01

    We report here a ZrO2-x /ZrO2-based bilayer resistive switching memory with unique properties that enables the selection of the switching mode by applying different electroforming current compliances. Two opposite polarity modes, positive bipolar and negative bipolar, correspond to the switching in the ZrO2 and ZrO2-x layer, respectively. The ZrO2 layer is proved to be responsible for the negative bipolar mode which is also observed in a ZrO2 single layer device. The oxygen deficient ZrO2-x layer plays the dominant role in the positive bipolar mode, which is exclusive to the bilayer memory. A systematic investigation of the ZrO2-x composition in the bilayer memory suggests that ZrO1.8 layer demonstrates optimum switching performance with low switching voltage, narrow switching voltage distribution and good cycling endurance. An excess of oxygen vacancies, beyond this composition, leads to a deterioration of switching properties. The formation and dissolution of the oxygen vacancy filament model has been proposed to explain both polarity switching behaviours and the improved properties in the bilayer positive bipolar mode are attributed to the confined oxygen vacancy filament size within the ZrO2-x layer.

  2. Combinatorial Investigation of ZrO2-Based Dielectric Materials for Dynamic Random-Access Memory Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, Yuji; Itaka, Kenji; Iwashita, Yuta; Adachi, Tetsuya; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Ogura, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    We investigated zirconia (ZrO2)-based material libraries in search of new dielectric materials for dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) by combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition (combi-PLD). We found that the substitution of yttrium (Y) to Zr sites in the ZrO2 system suppressed the leakage current effectively. The metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor property of this system showed a leakage current density of less than 5×10-7 A/cm2 and the dielectric constant was 20. Moreover, the addition of titanium (Ti) or tantalum (Ta) to this system caused the dielectric constant to increase to ˜25 within the allowed leakage level of 5×10-7 A/cm2. Therefore, Zr-Y-Ti-O and Zr-Y-Ta-O systems have good potentials for use as new materials with high dielectric constants of DRAM capacitors instead of silicon dioxides (SiO2).

  3. Methods for resistive switching of memristors

    DOEpatents

    Mickel, Patrick R.; James, Conrad D.; Lohn, Andrew; Marinella, Matthew; Hsia, Alexander H.

    2016-05-10

    The present invention is directed generally to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) devices and systems, as well as methods of employing a thermal resistive model to understand and determine switching of such devices. In particular example, the method includes generating a power-resistance measurement for the memristor device and applying an isothermal model to the power-resistance measurement in order to determine one or more parameters of the device (e.g., filament state).

  4. A ZnO nanowire resistive switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K. R. G.; Ramanujam Prabhakar, Rajiv; Hai, L.; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Huang, Y. Z.; Mhaisalkar, S. G.

    2013-09-01

    An individual ZnO nanowire resistive switch is evaluated with Pt/ZnO nanowire/Pt topology. A detailed DC I-V curve analysis is performed to bring both the conduction mechanism and the device characteristics to light. The device is further studied at various vacuum pressures to ascertain the presence of polar charges in ZnO nanowires as the phenomenon leading to the formation of the switch. The disappearance of the resistive switching is also analyzed with two kinds of fabrication approaches Focused Ion/Electron Beam involved in the making the device and a summary of both length and fabrication dependences of resistive switching in the ZnO nanowire is presented.

  5. Parasitic resistive switching uncovered from complementary resistive switching in single active-layer oxide memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lisha; Hu, Wei; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the reversible transition processes between the bipolar and complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics on the binary metal-oxide resistive memory devices of Pt/HfO x /TiN and Pt/TaO x /TiN by applying the appropriate bias voltages. More interestingly, by controlling the amplitude of the negative bias, the parasitic resistive switching effect exhibiting repeatable switching behavior is uncovered from the CRS behavior. The electrical observation of the parasitic resistive switching effect can be explained by the controlled size of the conductive filament. This work confirms the transformation and interrelationship among the bipolar, parasitic, and CRS effects, and thus provides new insight into the understanding of the physical mechanism of the binary metal-oxide resistive switching memory devices.

  6. Enhancement of resistive switching properties in Al2O3 bilayer-based atomic switches: multilevel resistive switching.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Sujaya Kumar; Woo, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-06-08

    Atomic switches are considered to be building blocks for future non-volatile data storage and internet of things. However, obtaining device structures capable of ultrahigh density data storage, high endurance, and long data retention, and more importantly, understanding the switching mechanisms are still a challenge for atomic switches. Here, we achieved improved resistive switching performance in a bilayer structure containing aluminum oxide, with an oxygen-deficient oxide as the top switching layer and stoichiometric oxide as the bottom switching layer, using atomic layer deposition. This bilayer device showed a high on/off ratio (10 5 ) with better endurance (∼2000 cycles) and longer data retention (10 4 s) than single-oxide layers. In addition, depending on the compliance current, the bilayer device could be operated in four different resistance states. Furthermore, the depth profiles of the hourglass-shaped conductive filament of the bilayer device was observed by conductive atomic force microscopy.

  7. Enhancement of resistive switching properties in Al2O3 bilayer-based atomic switches: multilevel resistive switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanath, Sujaya Kumar; Woo, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-06-01

    Atomic switches are considered to be building blocks for future non-volatile data storage and internet of things. However, obtaining device structures capable of ultrahigh density data storage, high endurance, and long data retention, and more importantly, understanding the switching mechanisms are still a challenge for atomic switches. Here, we achieved improved resistive switching performance in a bilayer structure containing aluminum oxide, with an oxygen-deficient oxide as the top switching layer and stoichiometric oxide as the bottom switching layer, using atomic layer deposition. This bilayer device showed a high on/off ratio (105) with better endurance (∼2000 cycles) and longer data retention (104 s) than single-oxide layers. In addition, depending on the compliance current, the bilayer device could be operated in four different resistance states. Furthermore, the depth profiles of the hourglass-shaped conductive filament of the bilayer device was observed by conductive atomic force microscopy.

  8. Filamentary model in resistive switching materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasmin, Alladin C.

    2017-12-01

    The need for next generation computer devices is increasing as the demand for efficient data processing increases. The amount of data generated every second also increases which requires large data storage devices. Oxide-based memory devices are being studied to explore new research frontiers thanks to modern advances in nanofabrication. Various oxide materials are studied as active layers for non-volatile memory. This technology has potential application in resistive random-access-memory (ReRAM) and can be easily integrated in CMOS technologies. The long term perspective of this research field is to develop devices which mimic how the brain processes information. To realize such application, a thorough understanding of the charge transport and switching mechanism is important. A new perspective in the multistate resistive switching based on current-induced filament dynamics will be discussed. A simple equivalent circuit of the device gives quantitative information about the nature of the conducting filament at different resistance states.

  9. Self-Compliant Bipolar Resistive Switching in SiN-Based Resistive Switching Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjun; Chang, Yao-Feng; Kim, Min-Hwi; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Kim, Yoon; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present evidence of self-compliant and self-rectifying bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/SiNx/n+ Si and Ni/SiNx/n++ Si resistive-switching random access memory devices. The Ni/SiNx/n++ Si device’s Si bottom electrode had a higher dopant concentration (As ion > 1019 cm−3) than the Ni/SiNx/n+ Si device; both unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors were observed for the higher dopant concentration device owing to a large current overshoot. Conversely, for the device with the lower dopant concentration (As ion < 1018 cm−3), self-rectification and self-compliance were achieved owing to the series resistance of the Si bottom electrode. PMID:28772819

  10. Selenium bond decreases ON resistance of light-activated switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Vitrified amorphous selenium bond decreases the ON resistance of a gallium arsenide-silicon light-activated, low-level switch. The switch is used under a pulse condition to prolong switch life and minimize errors due to heating, devitrification, and overdrawing.

  11. Bipolar resistive switching in Si/Ag nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, C.; Lv, H.; Picos, R.; Aguiar, P.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Ventura, J.

    2017-12-01

    Resistive switching devices are being intensively studied aiming a large number of promising applications such as nonvolatile memories, artificial neural networks and sensors. Here, we show nanoscale bipolar resistive switching in Pt/Si/Ag/TiW structures, with a dielectric barrier thickness of 20 nm. The observed phenomenon is based on the formation/rupture of metallic Ag filaments in the otherwise insulating Si host material. No electroforming process was required to achieve resistive switching. We obtained average values of 0.23 V and -0.24 V for the Set and Reset voltages, respectively. The stability of the switching was observed for over 100 cycles, together with a clear separation of the ON (103 Ω) and OFF (102 Ω) states. Furthermore, the influence of the Set current compliance on the ON resistance, resistances ratio and Set/Reset voltages percentage variation was also studied.

  12. From dead leaves to sustainable organic resistive switching memory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai; Zhu, Shouhui; Mao, Shuangsuo; Zheng, Pingping; Xia, Yudong; Yang, Feng; Lei, Ming; Zhao, Yong

    2018-03-01

    An environmental-friendly, sustainable, pollution-free, biodegradable, flexible and wearable electronic device hold advanced potential applications. Here, an organic resistive switching memory device with Ag/Leaves/Ti/PET structure on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was fabricated for the first time. We observed an obvious resistive switching memory characteristic with large switching resistance ratio and stable cycle performance at room temperature. This work demonstrates that leaves, a useless waste, can be properly treated to make useful devices. Furthermore, the as-fabricated devices can be degraded naturally without damage to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A graphene integrated highly transparent resistive switching memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugu, Sita; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Limbu, Tej B.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the hybrid fabrication process of a graphene integrated highly transparent resistive random-access memory (TRRAM) device. The indium tin oxide (ITO)/Al2O3/graphene nonvolatile memory device possesses a high transmittance of >82% in the visible region (370-700 nm) and exhibits stable and non-symmetrical bipolar switching characteristics with considerably low set and reset voltages (<±1 V). The vertical two-terminal device shows an excellent resistive switching behavior with a high on-off ratio of ˜5 × 103. We also fabricated a ITO/Al2O3/Pt device and studied its switching characteristics for comparison and a better understanding of the ITO/Al2O3/graphene device characteristics. The conduction mechanisms in high and low resistance states were analyzed, and the observed polarity dependent resistive switching is explained based on electro-migration of oxygen ions.

  14. Low Temperature Resistive Switching Behavior in a Manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvo, Christopher; Lopez, Melinda; Tsui, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    The development of new nonvolatile memory devices remains an important field of consumer electronics. A possible candidate is bipolar resistive switching, a method by which the resistance of a material changes when a voltage is applied. Although there is a great deal of research on this topic, not much has been done at low temperatures. In this work, we compare the room temperature and low temperature behaviors of switching in a manganite thin film. The data indicates that the switching is suppressed upon cooling to cryogenic temperatures, and the presence of crystalline charge traps is tied to the physical mechanism.

  15. Resistive switching characteristic of electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hao; Sun, Gongchen; Ma, Xiaoyu; Gao, Jianguang; Wu, Wengang

    2017-08-01

    The resistive switching characteristic of SiO2 thin film in electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor (EOS) structures under certain bias voltage is reported. To analyze the mechanism of the resistive switching characteristic, a batch of EOS structures were fabricated under various conditions and their electrical properties were measured with a set of three-electrode systems. A theoretical model based on the formation and rupture of conductive filaments in the oxide layer is proposed to reveal the mechanism of the resistive switching characteristic, followed by an experimental investigation of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to verify the proposed theoretical model. It is found that different threshold voltage, reverse leakage current and slope value features of the switching I-V characteristic can be observed in different EOS structures with different electrolyte solutions as well as different SiO2 layers made by different fabrication processes or in different thicknesses. With a simple fabrication process and significant resistive switching characteristic, the EOS structures show great potential for chemical/biochemical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274116) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB352100).

  16. Measurement of resistance switching dynamics in copper sulfide memristor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreery, Kaitlin; Olson, Matthew; Teitsworth, Stephen

    Resistance switching materials are the subject of current research in large part for their potential to enable novel computing devices and architectures such as resistance random access memories and neuromorphic chips. A common feature of memristive structures is the hysteretic switching between high and low resistance states which is induced by the application of a sufficiently large electric field. Here, we describe a relatively simple wet chemistry process to fabricate Cu2 S / Cu memristive structures with Cu2 S film thickness ranging up to 150 micron. In this case, resistance switching is believed to be mediated by electromigration of Cu ions from the Cu substrate into the Cu2 S film. Hysteretic current-voltage curves are measured and reveal switching voltages of about 0.8 Volts with a relatively large variance and independent of film thickness. In order to gain insight into the dynamics and variability of the switching process, we have measured the time-dependent current response to voltage pulses of varying height and duration with a time resolution of 1 ns. The transient response consists of a deterministic RC component as well as stochastically varying abrupt current steps that occur within a few microseconds of the pulse application.

  17. A nonlinear HP-type complementary resistive switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, Paul K.; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2016-05-01

    Resistive Switching (RS) is the change in resistance of a dielectric under the influence of an external current or electric field. This change is non-volatile, and the basis of both the memristor and resistive random access memory. In the latter, high integration densities favor the anti-serial combination of two RS-elements to a single cell, termed the complementary resistive switch (CRS). Motivated by the irregular shape of the filament protruding into the device, we suggest a nonlinearity in the resistance-interpolation function, characterized by a single parameter p. Thereby the original HP-memristor is expanded upon. We numerically simulate and analytically solve this model. Further, the nonlinearity allows for its application to the CRS.

  18. Piezotronic nanowire-based resistive switches as programmable electromechanical memories.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2011-07-13

    We present the first piezoelectrically modulated resistive switching device based on piezotronic ZnO nanowire (NW), through which the write/read access of the memory cell is programmed via electromechanical modulation. Adjusted by the strain-induced polarization charges created at the semiconductor/metal interface under externally applied deformation by the piezoelectric effect, the resistive switching characteristics of the cell can be modulated in a controlled manner, and the logic levels of the strain stored in the cell can be recorded and read out, which has the potential for integrating with NEMS technology to achieve micro/nanosystems capable for intelligent and self-sufficient multidimensional operations.

  19. Forming-free bipolar resistive switching in nonstoichiometric ceria films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Muhammad; Huang, Chun-Yang; Panda, Debashis; Hung, Chung-Jung; Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Jieng, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Chun-An; Chand, Umesh; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Ahmed, Ejaz; Talib, Ijaz; Nadeem, Muhammad Younus; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of forming-free bipolar resistive switching in a Zr/CeO x /Pt device was investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis indicated the formation of a ZrO y layer at the Zr/CeO x interface. X-ray diffraction studies of CeO x films revealed that they consist of nano-polycrystals embedded in a disordered lattice. The observed resistive switching was suggested to be linked with the formation and rupture of conductive filaments constituted by oxygen vacancies in the CeO x film and in the nonstoichiometric ZrO y interfacial layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study confirmed the presence of oxygen vacancies in both of the said regions. In the low-resistance ON state, the electrical conduction was found to be of ohmic nature, while the high-resistance OFF state was governed by trap-controlled space charge-limited mechanism. The stable resistive switching behavior and long retention times with an acceptable resistance ratio enable the device for its application in future nonvolatile resistive random access memory (RRAM).

  20. Resistive switching characteristics and mechanisms in silicon oxide memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Wu, Xiaohan; Chen, Yen-Ting; Wang, Yanzhen; Xue, Fei; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-05-01

    Intrinsic unipolar SiOx-based resistance random access memories (ReRAM) characterization, switching mechanisms, and applications have been investigated. Device structures, material compositions, and electrical characteristics are identified that enable ReRAM cells with high ON/OFF ratio, low static power consumption, low switching power, and high readout-margin using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor transistor (CMOS)-compatible SiOx-based materials. These ideas are combined with the use of horizontal and vertical device structure designs, composition optimization, electrical control, and external factors to help understand resistive switching (RS) mechanisms. Measured temperature effects, pulse response, and carrier transport behaviors lead to compact models of RS mechanisms and energy band diagrams in order to aid the development of computer-aided design for ultralarge-v scale integration. This chapter presents a comprehensive investigation of SiOx-based RS characteristics and mechanisms for the post-CMOS device era.

  1. Additional Electrochemical Treatment Effects on the Switching Characteristics of Anodic Porous Alumina Resistive Switching Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Shintaro; Takeda, Ryouta; Furuya, Saeko; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shouso; Iwata, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tadataka; Takano, Yoshiki; Takase, Kouichi

    2012-06-01

    We have investigated the current-voltage characteristics of a resistive switching memory (ReRAM), especially the reproducibility of the switching voltage between an insulating state and a metallic state. The poor reproducibility hinders the practical use of this memory. According to a filament model, the variation of the switching voltage may be understood in terms of the random choice of filaments with different conductivities and lengths at each switching. A limitation of the number of conductive paths is expected to lead to the suppression of the variation of switching voltage. In this study, two strategies for the limitation have been proposed using an anodic porous alumina (APA). The first is the reduction of the number of conductive paths by restriction of the contact area between the top electrodes and the insulator. The second is the lowering of the resistivity of the insulator, which makes it possible to grow filaments with the same characteristics by electrochemical treatments using a pulse-electroplating technique.

  2. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has alsomore » been conducted.« less

  3. Uniting Gradual and Abrupt set Processes in Resistive Switching Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, Karsten; La Torre, Camilla; Aslam, Nabeel; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne; Böttger, Ulrich; Menzel, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Identifying limiting factors is crucial for a better understanding of the dynamics of the resistive switching phenomenon in transition-metal oxides. This improved understanding is important for the design of fast-switching, energy-efficient, and long-term stable redox-based resistive random-access memory devices. Therefore, this work presents a detailed study of the set kinetics of valence change resistive switches on a time scale from 10 ns to 104 s , taking Pt /SrTiO3/TiN nanocrossbars as a model material. The analysis of the transient currents reveals that the switching process can be subdivided into a linear-degradation process that is followed by a thermal runaway. The comparison with a dynamical electrothermal model of the memory cell allows the deduction of the physical origin of the degradation. The origin is an electric-field-induced increase of the oxygen-vacancy concentration near the Schottky barrier of the Pt /SrTiO3 interface that is accompanied by a steadily rising local temperature due to Joule heating. The positive feedback of the temperature increase on the oxygen-vacancy mobility, and thereby on the conductivity of the filament, leads to a self-acceleration of the set process.

  4. Switching behavior of resistive change memory using oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Takashige; Sugawa, Kosuke; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso; Takase, Kouichi

    2018-06-01

    Resistive change random access memory (ReRAM), which is expected to be the next-generation nonvolatile memory, often has wide switching voltage distributions due to many kinds of conductive filaments. In this study, we have tried to suppress the distribution through the structural restriction of the filament-forming area using NiO nanowires. The capacitor with Ni metal nanowires whose surface is oxidized showed good switching behaviors with narrow distributions. The knowledge gained from our study will be very helpful in producing practical ReRAM devices.

  5. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.; Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-07-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1-x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1-xMnO3 (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

  6. TaOx-based resistive switching memories: prospective and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Resistive switching memories (RRAMs) are attractive for replacement of conventional flash in the future. Although different switching materials have been reported; however, low-current operated devices (<100 μA) are necessary for productive RRAM applications. Therefore, TaOx is one of the prospective switching materials because of two stable phases of TaO2 and Ta2O5, which can also control the stable low- and high-resistance states. Long program/erase endurance and data retention at high temperature under low-current operation are also reported in published literature. So far, bilayered TaOx with inert electrodes (Pt and/or Ir) or single layer TaOx with semi-reactive electrodes (W and Ti/W or Ta/Pt) is proposed for real RRAM applications. It is found that the memory characteristics at current compliance (CC) of 80 μA is acceptable for real application; however, data are becoming worst at CC of 10 μA. Therefore, it is very challenging to reduce the operation current (few microampere) of the RRAM devices. This study investigates the switching mode, mechanism, and performance of low-current operated TaOx-based devices as compared to other RRAM devices. This topical review will not only help for application of TaOx-based nanoscale RRAM devices but also encourage researcher to overcome the challenges in the future production. PMID:24107610

  7. Programmable resistive-switch nanowire transistor logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Shim, Wooyoung; Yao, Jun; Lieber, Charles M

    2014-09-10

    Programmable logic arrays (PLA) constitute a promising architecture for developing increasingly complex and functional circuits through nanocomputers from nanoscale building blocks. Here we report a novel one-dimensional PLA element that incorporates resistive switch gate structures on a semiconductor nanowire and show that multiple elements can be integrated to realize functional PLAs. In our PLA element, the gate coupling to the nanowire transistor can be modulated by the memory state of the resistive switch to yield programmable active (transistor) or inactive (resistor) states within a well-defined logic window. Multiple PLA nanowire elements were integrated and programmed to yield a working 2-to-4 demultiplexer with long-term retention. The well-defined, controllable logic window and long-term retention of our new one-dimensional PLA element provide a promising route for building increasingly complex circuits with nanoscale building blocks.

  8. Resistive switching phenomena: A review of statistical physics approaches

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Shinbuhm; Noh, Tae Won

    2015-08-31

    Here we report that resistive switching (RS) phenomena are reversible changes in the metastable resistance state induced by external electric fields. After discovery ~50 years ago, RS phenomena have attracted great attention due to their potential application in next-generation electrical devices. Considerable research has been performed to understand the physical mechanisms of RS and explore the feasibility and limits of such devices. There have also been several reviews on RS that attempt to explain the microscopic origins of how regions that were originally insulators can change into conductors. However, little attention has been paid to the most important factor inmore » determining resistance: how conducting local regions are interconnected. Here, we provide an overview of the underlying physics behind connectivity changes in highly conductive regions under an electric field. We first classify RS phenomena according to their characteristic current–voltage curves: unipolar, bipolar, and threshold switchings. Second, we outline the microscopic origins of RS in oxides, focusing on the roles of oxygen vacancies: the effect of concentration, the mechanisms of channel formation and rupture, and the driving forces of oxygen vacancies. Third, we review RS studies from the perspective of statistical physics to understand connectivity change in RS phenomena. We discuss percolation model approaches and the theory for the scaling behaviors of numerous transport properties observed in RS. Fourth, we review various switching-type conversion phenomena in RS: bipolar-unipolar, memory-threshold, figure-of-eight, and counter-figure-of-eight conversions. Finally, we review several related technological issues, such as improvement in high resistance fluctuations, sneak-path problems, and multilevel switching problems.« less

  9. Resistive Switching of Ta2O5-Based Self-Rectifying Vertical-Type Resistive Switching Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Sungyeon; Kim, Seong Keun; Choi, Byung Joon

    2018-01-01

    To efficiently increase the capacity of resistive switching random-access memory (RRAM) while maintaining the same area, a vertical structure similar to a vertical NAND flash structure is needed. In addition, the sneak-path current through the half-selected neighboring memory cell should be mitigated by integrating a selector device with each RRAM cell. In this study, an integrated vertical-type RRAM cell and selector device was fabricated and characterized. Ta2O5 as the switching layer and TaOxNy as the selector layer were used to preliminarily study the feasibility of such an integrated device. To make the side contact of the bottom electrode with active layers, a thick Al2O3 insulating layer was placed between the Pt bottom electrode and the Ta2O5/TaOxNy stacks. Resistive switching phenomena were observed under relatively low currents (below 10 μA) in this vertical-type RRAM device. The TaOxNy layer acted as a nonlinear resistor with moderate nonlinearity. Its low-resistance-state and high-resistance-state were well retained up to 1000 s.

  10. Resistance switching in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pramod, K.; Sahu, Binaya Kumar; Gangineni, R. B., E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu.in

    2015-06-24

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PDVF), one of the best electrically active polymer material & an interesting candidate to address the electrical control of its functional properties like ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity etc. In the current work, with the help of spin coater and DC magnetron sputtering techniques, semi-crystallized PVDF thin films prominent in alpha phase is prepared in capacitor like structure and their electrical characterization is emphasized. In current-voltage (I-V) and resistance-voltage (R-V) measurements, clear nonlinearity and resistance switching has been observed for films prepared using 7 wt% 2-butanone and 7 wt% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents.

  11. Detection and characterization of multi-filament evolution during resistive switching

    DOE PAGES

    Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew J.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2014-08-05

    We present resistive switching data in TaO x memristors displaying signatures of multi-filament switching modes, and develop a geometrically defined equivalent circuit to separate the individual resistances and powers dissipated in each filament. Using these resolved values, we compare the individual switching curves of each filament and demonstrate that the switching data of each filament collapse onto a single switching curve determined by the analytical steady-state resistive switching solution for filamentary switching. Analyzing our results in terms of this solution, we determine the switching temperature, heat flow, conductivity, and time evolving areas of each filament during resistive switching. Finally, wemore » discuss operational modes which may limit the formation of additional conducting filaments, potentially leading to increased device endurance.« less

  12. Complementary resistive switching in BaTiO3/NiO bilayer with opposite switching polarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Wei, Xianhua; Lei, Yao; Yuan, Xincai; Zeng, Huizhong

    2016-12-01

    Resistive switching behaviors have been investigated in the Au/BaTiO3/NiO/Pt structure by stacking the two elements with different switching types. The conducting atomic force microscope measurements on BaTiO3 thin films and NiO thin films suggest that with the same active resistive switching region, the switching polarities in the two semiconductors are opposite to each other. It is in agreement with the bipolar hysteresis I-V curves with opposite switching polarities for single-layer devices. The bilayer devices show complementary resistive switching (CRS) without electroforming and unipolar resistive switching (URS) after electroforming. The coexistence of CRS and URS is mainly ascribed to the co-effect of electric field and Joule heating mechanisms, indicating that changeable of resistance in this device is dominated by the redistribution of oxygen vacancies in BaTiO3 and the formation, disruption, restoration of conducting filaments in NiO. CRS in bilayer with opposite switching polarities is effective to solve the sneak current without the introduction of any selector elements or an additional metal electrode.

  13. Voltage controlled Bi-mode resistive switching effects in MnO2 based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P.; Wu, S. X.; Wang, G. L.; Li, H. W.; Li, D.; Li, S. W.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the voltage induced bi-mode resistive switching behavior of an MnO2 thin film based device was studied. The device showed prominent bipolar resistive switching behavior with good reproducibility and high endurance. In addition, complementary resistive switching characteristics can be observed by extending the voltage bias during voltage sweep operations. The electrical measurement data and fitting results indicate that the oxygen vacancies act as defects to form a conductive path, which is connective or disrupted to realize a low resistive state or a high resistive state. Changing the sweep voltage can tune the oxygen vacancies distribution, which will achieve complementary resistive switching.

  14. Interfacial Metal-Oxide Interactions in Resistive Switching Memories.

    PubMed

    Cho, Deok-Yong; Luebben, Michael; Wiefels, Stefan; Lee, Kug-Seung; Valov, Ilia

    2017-06-07

    Metal oxides are commonly used as electrolytes for redox-based resistive switching memories. In most cases, non-noble metals are directly deposited as ohmic electrodes. We demonstrate that irrespective of bulk thermodynamics predictions an intermediate oxide film a few nanometers in thickness is always formed at the metal/insulator interface, and this layer significantly contributes to the development of reliable switching characteristics. We have tested metal electrodes and metal oxides mostly used for memristive devices, that is, Ta, Hf, and Ti and Ta 2 O 5 , HfO 2 , and SiO 2 . Intermediate oxide layers are always formed at the interfaces, whereas only the rate of the electrode oxidation depends on the oxygen affinity of the metal and the chemical stability of the oxide matrix. Device failure is associated with complete transition of short-range order to a more disordered main matrix structure.

  15. Organic non-volatile resistive photo-switches for flexible image detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Nau, Sebastian; Wolf, Christoph; Sax, Stefan; List-Kratochvil, Emil J W

    2015-02-01

    A unique implementation of an organic image detector using resistive photo-switchable pixels is presented. This resistive photo-switch comprises the vertical integration of an organic photodiode and an organic resistive switching memory element. The photodiodes act as a photosensitive element while the resistive switching elements simultaneously store the detected light information. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Resistive switching in ZnO/ZnO:In nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakhulin, D. A.; Vakulov, Z. E.; Smirnov, V. A.; Tominov, R. V.; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    A lot of effort nowadays is put into development of new approaches to processing and storage of information in integrated circuits due to limitations in miniaturisation. Our research is dedicated to one of actively developed concepts - oxide based resistive memory devices. A material that draws interest due to its promising technological properties is ZnO but pure ZnO lacks in performance in comparison with some other transition metal oxides. Thus our work is focused on improvement of resistive switching parameters in ZnO films by creation of complex nanocomposites. In this work we report characterisation of a nanocomposite based on PLD grown ZnO films with inclusions of In. Such solution allows us to achieve improvements of main parameters that are critical for ReRAM device: RHRS/RLRS ratio, endurance and retention.

  17. Resistive switching near electrode interfaces: Estimations by a current model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Herbert; Zurhelle, Alexander; Stemmer, Stefanie; Marchewka, Astrid; Waser, Rainer

    2013-02-01

    The growing resistive switching database is accompanied by many detailed mechanisms which often are pure hypotheses. Some of these suggested models can be verified by checking their predictions with the benchmarks of future memory cells. The valence change memory model assumes that the different resistances in ON and OFF states are made by changing the defect density profiles in a sheet near one working electrode during switching. The resulting different READ current densities in ON and OFF states were calculated by using an appropriate simulation model with variation of several important defect and material parameters of the metal/insulator (oxide)/metal thin film stack such as defect density and its profile change in density and thickness, height of the interface barrier, dielectric permittivity, applied voltage. The results were compared to the benchmarks and some memory windows of the varied parameters can be defined: The required ON state READ current density of 105 A/cm2 can only be achieved for barriers smaller than 0.7 eV and defect densities larger than 3 × 1020 cm-3. The required current ratio between ON and OFF states of at least 10 requests defect density reduction of approximately an order of magnitude in a sheet of several nanometers near the working electrode.

  18. Materials growth and characterization of thermoelectric and resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Kate J.

    In the 74 years since diode rectifier based radar technology helped the allied forces win WWII, semiconductors have transformed the world we live in. From our smart phones to semiconductor-based energy conversion, semiconductors touch every aspect of our lives. With this thesis I hope to expand human knowledge of semiconductor thermoelectric devices and resistive switching devices through experimentation with materials growth and subsequent materials characterization. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was the primary method of materials growth utilized in these studies. Additionally, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD),ion beam sputter deposition, reactive sputter deposition and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation were also used in this research for device fabrication. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were the primary characterization methods utilized for this research. Additional device and materials characterization techniques employed include: current-voltage measurements, thermoelectric measurements, x-ray diffraction (XRD), reflection absorption infra-red spectroscopy (RAIRS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), and raman spectroscopy. As society has become more aware of its impact on the planet and its limited resources, there has been a push toward developing technologies to sustainably produce the energy we need. Thermoelectric devices convert heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectric devices have the potential to save huge amounts of energy that we currently waste as heat, if we can make them cost-effective. Semiconducting thin films and nanowires appear to be promising avenues of research to attain this goal. Specifically, in this work we will explore the use of ErSb thin films as well as Si and InP nanowire networks for thermoelectric applications. First we will discuss the growth of

  19. Resistive switching characteristics of thermally oxidized TiN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biju, K. P.

    2018-04-01

    Resistive switching characteristics of thermally oxidized TiN thin films and mechanisms were investigated.XPS results indicates Ti-O content decreases with sputter etching and Ti 2p peak shift towards lower binding energy due to formation of Ti-O-N and Ti-N. Pt/TiO2/TiON/TiN stack exhibits both clockwise switching (CWS) and counter clockwise switching(CCWS) characteristic depending on polarity of the applied voltage. However the transition from CCWS to CWS is irreversible. Two stable switching modes with opposite switching polarity and different electrical characteristics are found to coexist in the same memory cell. Clockwise switching shows filamentary characteristics that lead to faster switching with excellent retention at high temperature. Counter-clockwise switching exhibits homogeneous conduction with slower switching and moderate retention. The field-induced switching in both CCWS and CWS might be due to inhomogeneous defect distribution due to thermal oxidation.

  20. Improved multi-level capability in Si3N4-based resistive switching memory using continuous gradual reset switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungjun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we compare three different types of reset switching behavior in a bipolar resistive random-access memory (RRAM) system that is housed in a Ni/Si3N4/Si structure. The abrupt, step-like gradual and continuous gradual reset transitions are largely determined by the low-resistance state (LRS). For abrupt reset switching, the large conducting path shows ohmic behavior or has a weak nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in the LRS. For gradual switching, including both the step-like and continuous reset types, trap-assisted direct tunneling is dominant in the low-voltage regime, while trap-assisted Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is dominant in the high-voltage regime, thus causing nonlinear I-V characteristics. More importantly, we evaluate the multi-level capabilities of the two different gradual switching types, including both step-like and continuous reset behavior, using identical and incremental voltage conditions. Finer control of the conductance level with good uniformity is achieved in continuous gradual reset switching when compared to that in step-like gradual reset switching. For continuous reset switching, a single conducting path, which initially has a tunneling gap, gradually responds to pulses with even and identical amplitudes, while for step-like reset switching, the multiple conducting paths only respond to incremental pulses to obtain effective multi-level states.

  1. Characterizing filamentary switching in resistive memories (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, Yan; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing filamentary switching in resistive memories For many organic, inorganic and hybrid memory devices the resistive switching mechanism is well known to rely on filament formation [1]. This implies that localized conductive paths are established between the two terminal electrodes during the forming step. This filaments sustain the current flow when the memory is in the low conductive state and they can be ruptured and possibly re-formed for more than hundreds of I-V cycles. The nature and morphology of filaments has been long time debated especially for organic memories. The filament size, density and formation mechanism have been very challenging to be characterized, and need appropriate experimental techniques. However, filaments in organic memories have been recently identified and characterized by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conductive-AFM, AFM-tomography and through depth profile analysis combining Time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In particular, 3D spectroscopic images obtained with ToF-SIMS give access for the first time to filament formation process and rupture mechanism. From these results, a clear picture of the filament(s) dynamics during memory operation can be drawn. In this contribution, recent results showing filaments in memories based on different structures and architectures will be discussed. The memories are based on insulating polymers (polystyrene [2] and poly methyl methacrylate [3]), conductive polymers/nanocomposites (polyera N1400 with metal NPs [4]), and small semiconducting molecules (Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium - Alq3 [5]). The results show that resistive switching clearly involves the inhomogeneous metal diffusion in the organic layer taking place during the top electrode deposition and during memory operation. This may be of great relevance in many other organic electronics applications. REFERENCES [1] S. Nau, S. Sax, E

  2. Effect of Electronegativity on Bipolar Resistive Switching in a WO3-Based Asymmetric Capacitor Structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongmin; Inamdar, Akbar I; Jo, Yongcheol; Woo, Hyeonseok; Cho, Sangeun; Pawar, Sambhaji M; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik

    2016-04-13

    This study investigates the transport and switching time of nonvolatile tungsten oxide based resistive-switching (RS) memory devices. These devices consist of a highly resistive tungsten oxide film sandwiched between metal electrodes, and their RS characteristics are bipolar in the counterclockwise direction. The switching voltage, retention, endurance, and switching time are strongly dependent on the type of electrodes used, and we also find quantitative and qualitative evidence that the electronegativity (χ) of the electrodes plays a key role in determining the RS properties and switching time. We also propose an RS model based on the role of the electronegativity at the interface.

  3. Optically Tunable Resistive-Switching Memory in Multiferroic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming; Ni, Hao; Xu, Xiaoke; Qi, Yaping; Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Ju

    2018-04-01

    Electronic phase separation has been used to realize exotic functionalities in complex oxides with external stimuli, such as magnetic field, electric field, current, light, strain, etc. Using the Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3/0.7 Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-0 .3 PbTiO3 multiferroic heterostructure as a model system, we investigate the electric field and light cocontrol of phase separation in resistive switching. The electric-field-induced nonvolatile electroresistance response is achieved at room temperature using reversible ferroelastic domain switching, which can be robustly modified on illumination of light. Moreover, the electrically controlled ferroelastic strain can effectively enhance the visible-light-induced photoresistance effect. These findings demonstrate that the electric-field- and light-induced effects strongly correlate with each other and are essentially driven by electronic phase separation. Our work opens a gate to design electrically tunable multifunctional storage devices based on multiferroic heterostructures by adding light as an extra control parameter.

  4. Interplay between ferroelectric and resistive switching in doped crystalline HfO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Benjamin; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Hafnium oxide is widely used for resistive switching devices, and recently it has been discovered that ferroelectricity can be established in (un-)doped hafnium oxide as well. Previous studies showed that both switching mechanisms are influenced by oxygen vacancies. For resistive switching, typically amorphous oxide layers with an asymmetric electrode configuration are used to create a gradient of oxygen vacancies. On the other hand, ferroelectric switching is performed by having symmetric electrodes and requires crystalline structures. The coexistence of both effects has recently been demonstrated. In this work, a detailed analysis of the reversible interplay of both switching mechanisms within a single capacitor cell is investigated. First, ferroelectric switching cycles were applied in order to drive the sample into the fatigued stage characterized by increased concentration of oxygen vacancies in the oxide layer. Afterwards, a forming step that is typical for the resistive switching devices was utilized to achieve a soft breakdown. In the next step, twofold alternation between the high and low resistance state is applied to demonstrate the resistive switching behavior of the device. Having the sample in the high resistance state with a ruptured filament, ferroelectric switching behavior is again shown within the same stack. Interestingly, the same endurance as before was observed without a hard breakdown of the device. Therefore, an effective sequence of ferroelectric—resistive—ferroelectric switching is realized. Additionally, the dependence of the forming, set, and reset voltage on the ferroelectric cycling stage (pristine, woken-up and fatigued) is analyzed giving insight into the physical device operation.

  5. Direct evidence on Ta-Metal Phases Igniting Resistive Switching in TaOx Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Kyu Yang, Min; Ju, Hyunsu; Hwan Kim, Gun; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Ryu, Han-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    A Ta/TaOx/Pt stacked capacitor-like device for resistive switching was fabricated and examined. The tested device demonstrated stable resistive switching characteristics including uniform distribution of resistive switching operational parameters, highly promising endurance, and retention properties. To reveal the resistive switching mechanism of the device, micro structure analysis using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) was performed. From the observation results, two different phases of Ta-metal clusters of cubic α-Ta and tetragonal β-Ta were founded in the amorphous TaOx mother-matrix after the device was switched from high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (LRS) by externally applied voltage bias. The observed Ta metal clusters unveiled the origin of the electric conduction paths in the TaOx thin film at the LRS. PMID:26365532

  6. Direct evidence on Ta-Metal Phases Igniting Resistive Switching in TaOx Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyu Yang, Min; Ju, Hyunsu; Hwan Kim, Gun; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Ryu, Han-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    A Ta/TaOx/Pt stacked capacitor-like device for resistive switching was fabricated and examined. The tested device demonstrated stable resistive switching characteristics including uniform distribution of resistive switching operational parameters, highly promising endurance, and retention properties. To reveal the resistive switching mechanism of the device, micro structure analysis using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) was performed. From the observation results, two different phases of Ta-metal clusters of cubic α-Ta and tetragonal β-Ta were founded in the amorphous TaOx mother-matrix after the device was switched from high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (LRS) by externally applied voltage bias. The observed Ta metal clusters unveiled the origin of the electric conduction paths in the TaOx thin film at the LRS.

  7. Three-terminal resistive switching memory in a transparent vertical-configuration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, Mariana; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    The resistive switching phenomenon has attracted much attention recently for memory applications. It describes the reversible change in the resistance of a dielectric between two non-volatile states by the application of electrical pulses. Typical resistive switching memories are two-terminal devices formed by an oxide layer placed between two metal electrodes. Here, we report on the fabrication and operation of a three-terminal resistive switching memory that works as a reconfigurable logic component and offers an increased logic density on chip. The three-terminal memory device we present is transparent and could be further incorporated in transparent computing electronic technologies.

  8. Self-assembled nanostructured resistive switching memory devices fabricated by templated bottom-up growth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ji-Min; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Metal-oxide-based resistive switching memory device has been studied intensively due to its potential to satisfy the requirements of next-generation memory devices. Active research has been done on the materials and device structures of resistive switching memory devices that meet the requirements of high density, fast switching speed, and reliable data storage. In this study, resistive switching memory devices were fabricated with nano-template-assisted bottom up growth. The electrochemical deposition was adopted to achieve the bottom-up growth of nickel nanodot electrodes. Nickel oxide layer was formed by oxygen plasma treatment of nickel nanodots at low temperature. The structures of fabricated nanoscale memory devices were analyzed with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrical characteristics of the devices were directly measured using conductive AFM. This work demonstrates the fabrication of resistive switching memory devices using self-assembled nanoscale masks and nanomateirals growth from bottom-up electrochemical deposition. PMID:26739122

  9. White-light-controlled resistive switching in ZnO/BaTiO3/C multilayer layer at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junshuai; Liang, Dandan; Wu, Liangchen; Li, Xiaoping; Chen, Peng

    2018-07-01

    The bipolar resistance switching effect is observed in ZnO/BaTiO3/C structure. The resistance switching behavior can be modulated by white light. The resistance switch states and threshold voltage can be changed when subjected to white light. This research can help explore multi-functional materials and applications in nonvolatile memory device.

  10. Multimode resistive switching in nanoscale hafnium oxide stack as studied by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Y., E-mail: houyi@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lfliu@pku.edu.cn; IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee; Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee

    2016-07-11

    The nanoscale resistive switching in hafnium oxide stack is investigated by the conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). The initial oxide stack is insulating and electrical stress from the C-AFM tip induces nanometric conductive filaments. Multimode resistive switching can be observed in consecutive operation cycles at one spot. The different modes are interpreted in the framework of a low defect quantum point contact theory. The model implies that the optimization of the conductive filament active region is crucial for the future application of nanoscale resistive switching devices.

  11. Highly uniform and reliable resistive switching characteristics of a Ni/WOx/p+-Si memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Min-Hwi; Bang, Suhyun; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the resistive switching behavior of a bipolar resistive random-access memory (RRAM) in a Ni/WOx/p+-Si RRAM with CMOS compatibility. Highly unifrom and reliable bipolar resistive switching characteristics are observed by a DC voltage sweeping and its switching mechanism can be explained by SCLC model. As a result, the possibility of metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) structural WOx-based RRAM's application to Si-based 1D (diode)-1R (RRAM) or 1T (transistor)-1R (RRAM) structure is demonstrated.

  12. Resistive switching properties and physical mechanism of cobalt ferrite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei; Zou, Lilan; Chen, Ruqi; Xie, Wei; Chen, Xinman; Qin, Ni; Li, Shuwei; Yang, Guowei; Bao, Dinghua

    2014-04-01

    We report reproducible resistive switching performance and relevant physical mechanism of sandwiched Pt/CoFe2O4/Pt structures in which the CoFe2O4 thin films were fabricated by a chemical solution deposition method. Uniform switching voltages, good endurance, and long retention have been demonstrated in the Pt/CoFe2O4/Pt memory cells. On the basis of the analysis of current-voltage characteristic and its temperature dependence, we suggest that the carriers transport through the conducting filaments in low resistance state with Ohmic conduction behavior, and the Schottky emission and Poole-Frenkel emission dominate the conduction mechanism in high resistance state. From resistance-temperature dependence of resistance states, we believe that the physical origin of the resistive switching refers to the formation and rupture of the oxygen vacancies related filaments. The nanostructured CoFe2O4 thin films can find applications in resistive random access memory.

  13. Magnetoresistance Behavior of Conducting Filaments in Resistive-Switching NiO with Different Resistance States.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Diyang; Qiao, Shuang; Luo, Yuxiang; Chen, Aitian; Zhang, Pengfei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Minghua; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Wu, Jian; Luo, Jianlin; Li, Jianqi; Kokado, Satoshi; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Yonggang

    2017-03-29

    The resistive switching (RS) effect in various materials has attracted much attention due to its interesting physics and potential for applications. NiO is an important system and its RS effect has been generally explained by the formation/rupture of Ni-related conducting filaments. These filaments are unique since they are formed by an electroforming process, so it is interesting to explore their magnetoresistance (MR) behavior, which can also shed light on unsolved issues such as the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the RS process, and this behavior is also important for multifunctional devices. Here, we focus on MR behavior in NiO RS films with different resistance states. Rich and interesting MR behaviors have been observed, including the normal and anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance, which provide new insights into the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the RS process. First-principles calculation reveals the essential role of oxygen migration into the filaments during the RESET process and can account for the experimental results. Our work provides a new avenue for exploration of the conducting filaments in resistive switching materials and is significant for understanding the mechanism of RS effect and multifunctional devices.

  14. Effects of sol aging on resistive switching behaviors of HfOx resistive memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Sun, Jhen-Kai; Tsao, Che-Chang; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2017-03-01

    This work investigates effects of long-term sol-aging time on sol-gel HfOx resistive random access memories (RRAMs). A nontoxic solvent of ethanol is used to replace toxic 2-methoxyethanol, which is usually used in sol-gel processes. The top electrodes are fabricated by pressing indium balls onto the HfOx surface rather than by using conventional sputtering or evaporation processes. The maximum process temperature is limited to be 100 ℃. Therefore, influences of plasma and high temperature on HfOx film can be avoided. Under this circumstance, effects of sol aging time on the HfOx films can be more clearly studied. The current conduction mechanisms in low and high electric regions of the HfOx RRAM are found to be dominated by Ohmic conduction and trap-filled space charge limited conduction (TF-SCLC), respectively. When the sol aging time increases, the resistive switching characteristic of the HfOx layer becomes unstable and the transition voltage from Ohmic conduction to TF-SCLC is also increased. This suggests that an exceedingly long aging time will give a HfOx film with more defect states. The XPS results are consistent with FTIR analysis and they can further explain the unstable HfOx resistive switching characteristic induced by sol aging.

  15. A fast, low resistance switch for small slapper detonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, D. D.; Jones, D. A.

    1986-10-01

    A novel design for a shock compression conduction switch for use with slapper detonators is described. The switch is based on the concept of an explosively driven flyer plate impacting a plastic insulator and producing sufficient pressure within the insulator to produce a conduction transition. An analysis of the functioning of the switch is made using a simple Gurney model for the explosive, and basic shock wave theory to calculate impact pressure and switch closure times. The effect of explosive tamping is considered, and calculations are carried out for two donor explosive thicknesses and a range of flyer plate thicknesses. The new switch has been successfully tested in a series of experimental slapper detonator firings. The results of these tests show trends in overall agreement with those predicted by the calculations.

  16. Picoampere Resistive Switching Characteristics Realized with Vertically Contacted Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscope Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Haruhisa; Takahashi, Makoto; Sato, Motonobu; Kotsugi, Masato; Ohkochi, Takuo; Muro, Takayuki; Nihei, Mizuhisa; Yokoyama, Naoki

    2013-11-01

    The resistive switching characteristics of a TiO2/Ti structure have been investigated using a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) system with 5-nm-diameter carbon nanotube (CNT) probes. The resistive switching showed bipolar resistive random access memory (ReRAM) behaviors with extremely low switching currents in the order of Picoamperes when voltages were applied. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation, we confirmed that filament-like nanocrystals, having a diameter of about 10 nm, existed in TiO2 films at resistive switching areas after not only set operation but also reset operation. Moreover, photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) analysis showed that the anatase-type TiO2 structure did not change after set and reset operations. From these results, we suggested that the Picoampere resistive switching occurred at the interface between the TiO2 dielectric and conductive nanocrystal without any structural changes in the TiO2 film and nanocrystal. The resistive switching mechanism we suggested is highly promising to realize extremely low-power-consumption ReRAMs with vertically contacted CNT electrodes.

  17. Resistive switching in a few nanometers thick tantalum oxide film formed by a metal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Takeo, E-mail: t-ohno@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.jp; Japan Science and Technology Agency; Samukawa, Seiji, E-mail: samukawa@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-04-27

    Resistive switching in a Cu/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Pt structure that consisted of a few nanometer-thick Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film was demonstrated. The Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film with thicknesses of 2–5 nm was formed with a combination of Ta metal film deposition and neutral oxygen particle irradiation at room temperature. The device exhibited a bipolar resistive switching with a threshold voltage of 0.2 V and multilevel switching operation.

  18. Negative differential resistance and resistive switching in SnO2/ZnO interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Rohit; Patel, Nagabhushan; Nanda, K. K.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2017-09-01

    We report a very stable negative differential resistance (NDR) and resistive switching (RS) behavior of highly transparent thin films of the SnO2/ZnO bilayer, deposited by magnetron sputtering. When this bilayer of SnO2/ZnO was annealed at temperatures above 400 °C, ZnO diffuses into SnO2 at the threading dislocations and gaps between the grain boundaries, leading to the formation of a ZnO nanostructure surrounded by SnO2. Such a configuration forms a resonant tunneling type structure with SnO2/ZnO/SnO2…….ZnO/SnO2 interface formation. Interestingly, the heterostructure exhibits a Gunn diode-like behavior and shows NDR and RS irrespective of the voltage sweep direction, which is the characteristic of unipolar devices. A threshold voltage of ˜1.68 V and a peak-to-valley ratio of current ˜2.5 are observed for an electrode separation of 2 mm, when the bias is swept from -5 V to +5 V. It was also observed that the threshold voltage can be tuned with changing distance between the electrodes. The device shows a very stable RS with a uniform ratio of about 3.4 between the high resistive state and the low resistive state. Overall, the results demonstrate the application of SnO2/ZnO bilayer thin films in transparent electronics.

  19. Nonpolar resistive memory switching with all four possible resistive switching modes in amorphous LaHoO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Yogesh; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu

    2015-09-07

    We studied the resistive memory switching in pulsed laser deposited amorphous LaHoO{sub 3} (a-LHO) thin films for non-volatile resistive random access memory applications. Nonpolar resistive switching (RS) was achieved in Pt/a-LHO/Pt memory cells with all four possible RS modes (i.e., positive unipolar, positive bipolar, negative unipolar, and negative bipolar) having high R{sub ON}/R{sub OFF} ratios (in the range of ∼10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}) and non-overlapping switching voltages (set voltage, V{sub ON} ∼ ±3.6–4.2 V and reset voltage, V{sub OFF} ∼ ±1.3–1.6 V) with a small variation of about ±5–8%. Temperature dependent current-voltage (I–V) characteristics indicated the metallic conduction in low resistance states (LRS). We believe that themore » formation (set) and rupture (reset) of mixed conducting filaments formed out of oxygen vacancies and metallic Ho atoms could be responsible for the change in the resistance states of the memory cell. Detailed analysis of I–V characteristics further corroborated the formation of conductive nanofilaments based on metal-like (Ohmic) conduction in LRS. Simmons-Schottky emission was found to be the dominant charge transport mechanism in the high resistance state.« less

  20. Identifying Read/Write Speeds for Field-Induced Interfacial Resistive Switching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Stephen; Das, Nilanjan; Wang, Yaqi; Xue, Yuyi; Chu, C. W.

    2007-03-01

    Efforts continue to explore new phenomena that may allow for next generation nonvolatile memory technology. Much attention has been drawn to the field-induced resistive switch occurring at the interface between a metal electrode and perovskite oxide. The switch between high (off) and low (on) resistance states is controlled by the polarity of applied voltage pulsing. Characterization of Ag-Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 interfaces via impedance spectroscopy shows that the resistances above 10^6 Hz are the same at the on and off states, which limits the reading speed to far slower than the applied switching pulses, or device write speed at the order of 10^7 Hz. We deduce that the switching interface is percolative in nature and that small local rearrangement of defect structures may play a major role.

  1. Effect of oxide insertion layer on resistance switching properties of copper phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Nikhil G.; Pandya, Nirav C.; Joshi, U. S.

    2013-02-01

    Organic memory device showing resistance switching properties is a next-generation of the electrical memory unit. We have investigated the bistable resistance switching in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic diode based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film sandwiched between aluminum (Al) electrodes. Pronounced hysteresis in the I-V curves revealed a resistance switching with on-off ratio of the order of 85%. In order to control the charge injection in the CuPc, nanoscale indium oxide buffer layer was inserted to form Al/CuPc/In2O3/Al device. Analysis of I-V measurements revealed space charge limited switching conduction at the Al/CuPc interface. The traps in the organic layer and charge blocking by oxide insertion layer have been used to explain the absence of resistance switching in the oxide buffer layered memory device cell. Present study offer potential applications for CuPc organic semiconductor in low power non volatile resistive switching memory and logic circuits.

  2. Scaling Effect on Unipolar and Bipolar Resistive Switching of Metal Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Oka, Keisuke; Kanai, Masaki; Klamchuen, Annop; Park, Bae Ho; Kawai, Tomoji

    2013-01-01

    Electrically driven resistance change in metal oxides opens up an interdisciplinary research field for next-generation non-volatile memory. Resistive switching exhibits an electrical polarity dependent “bipolar-switching” and a polarity independent “unipolar-switching”, however tailoring the electrical polarity has been a challenging issue. Here we demonstrate a scaling effect on the emergence of the electrical polarity by examining the resistive switching behaviors of Pt/oxide/Pt junctions over 8 orders of magnitudes in the areas. We show that the emergence of two electrical polarities can be categorised as a diagram of an electric field and a cell area. This trend is qualitatively common for various oxides including NiOx, CoOx, and TiO2-x. We reveal the intrinsic difference between unipolar switching and bipolar switching on the area dependence, which causes a diversity of an electrical polarity for various resistive switching devices with different geometries. This will provide a foundation for tailoring resistive switching behaviors of metal oxides. PMID:23584551

  3. Improved resistive switching characteristics of a Pt/HfO2/Pt resistor by controlling anode interface with forming and switching polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yong Chan; Seong, Sejong; Lee, Taehoon; Kim, Seon Yong; Park, In-Sung; Ahn, Jinho

    2018-03-01

    The anode interface effects on the resistive switching characteristics of Pt/HfO2/Pt resistors are investigated by changing the forming and switching polarity. Resistive switching properties are evaluated and compared with the polarity operation procedures, such as the reset voltage (Vr), set voltage (Vs), and current levels at low and high resistance states. When the same forming and switching voltage polarity are applied to the resistor, their switching parameters are widely distributed. However, the opposite forming and switching voltage polarity procedures enhance the uniformity of the switching parameters. In particular, the Vs distribution is strongly affected by the voltage polarity variation. A model is proposed based on cone-shaped filament formation through the insulator and the cone diameter at the anode interface to explain the improved resistive switching characteristics under opposite polarity operation. The filament cone is thinner near the anode interface during the forming process; hence, the anode is altered by the application of a switching voltage with opposite polarity to the forming voltage polarity and the converted anode interface becomes the thicker part of the cone. The more uniform and stable switching behavior is attributed to control over the formation and rupture of the cone-shaped filaments at their thicker parts.

  4. Thickness-dependent resistance switching in Cr-doped SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, TaeKwang; Du, Hyewon; Kim, Minchang; Seo, Sunae; Hwang, Inrok; Kim, Yeonsoo; Jeon, Jihoon; Lee, Sangik; Park, Baeho

    2012-09-01

    The thickness-dependent bipolar resistance-switching behavior was investigated for epitaxiallygrown Cr-doped SrTiO3 (Cr-STO). All the pristine devices of different thickness showed polarity-independent symmetric current-voltage characteristic and the same space-charge-limited conduction mechanism. However, after a forming process, the resultant conduction and switching phenomena were significantly different depending on the thickness of Cr-STO. The forming process itself was highly influenced by resistance value of each pristine device. Based on our results, we suggest that the resistance-switching mechanism in Cr-STO depends not only on the insulating material's composition or the contact metal as previously reported but also on the initial resistance level determined by the geometry and the quality of the insulating material. The bipolar resistance-switching behaviors in oxide materials of different thicknesses exhibit mixed bulk and interface switching. This indicates that efforts in resistance-based memory research should be focused on scalability or process method to control a given oxide material in addition to material type and device structure.

  5. Oxygen-ion-migration-modulated bipolar resistive switching and complementary resistive switching in tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinghui; Zhang, Qiuhui; Cui, Nana; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Kefu; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Qixing

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report our investigation of room-temperature-fabricated tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold (W/ITO/Au) resistive random access memory (RRAM), which exhibits asymmetric bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behavior. The device displays good write/erase endurance and data retention properties. The device shows complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics after controlling the compliance current. A WO x layer electrically formed at the W/ITO in the forming process. Mobile oxygen ions within ITO migrate toward the electrode/ITO interface and produce a semiconductor-like layer that acts as a free-carrier barrier. The CRS characteristic here can be elucidated in light of the evolution of an asymmetric free-carrier blocking layer at the electrode/ITO interface.

  6. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-08-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  7. Investigation of resistive switching behaviours in WO3-based RRAM devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Tao; Long, Shi-Bing; Lü, Hang-Bing; Liu, Qi; Wang, Qin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Sen; Lian, Wen-Tai; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a WO3-based resistive random access memory device composed of a thin film of WO3 sandwiched between a copper top and a platinum bottom electrodes is fabricated by electron beam evaporation at room temperature. The reproducible resistive switching, low power consumption, multilevel storage possibility, and good data retention characteristics demonstrate that the Cu/WO3/Pt memory device is very promising for future nonvolatile memory applications. The formation and rupture of localised conductive filaments is suggested to be responsible for the observed resistive switching behaviours.

  8. Migration of interfacial oxygen ions modulated resistive switching in oxide-based memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Gao, S.; Zeng, F.; Tang, G. S.; Li, S. Z.; Song, C.; Fu, H. D.; Pan, F.

    2013-07-01

    Oxides-based resistive switching memory induced by oxygen ions migration is attractive for future nonvolatile memories. Numerous works had focused their attentions on the sandwiched oxide materials for depressing the characteristic variations, but the comprehensive studies of the dependence of electrodes on the migration behavior of oxygen ions are overshadowed. Here, we investigated the interaction of various metals (Ni, Co, Al, Ti, Zr, and Hf) with oxygen atoms at the metal/Ta2O5 interface under electric stress and explored the effect of top electrode on the characteristic variations of Ta2O5-based memory device. It is demonstrated that chemically inert electrodes (Ni and Co) lead to the scattering switching characteristics and destructive gas bubbles, while the highly chemically active metals (Hf and Zr) formed a thick and dense interfacial intermediate oxide layer at the metal/Ta2O5 interface, which also degraded the resistive switching behavior. The relatively chemically active metals (Al and Ti) can absorb oxygen ions from the Ta2O5 film and avoid forming the problematic interfacial layer, which is benefit to the formation of oxygen vacancies composed conduction filaments in Ta2O5 film thus exhibit the minimum variations of switching characteristics. The clarification of oxygen ions migration behavior at the interface can lead further optimization of resistive switching performance in Ta2O5-based memory device and guide the rule of electrode selection for other oxide-based resistive switching memories.

  9. Resistive Switching and Voltage Induced Modulation of Tunneling Magnetoresistance in Nanosized Perpendicular Organic Spin Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Georg; Goeckeritz, Robert; Homonnay, Nico; Mueller, Alexander; Fuhrmann, Bodo

    Resistive switching has already been reported in organic spin valves (OSV), however, its origin is still unclear. We have fabricated nanosized OSV based on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Alq3/Co. These devices show fully reversible resistive switching of up to five orders of magnitude. The magnetoresistance (MR) is modulated during the switching process from negative (-70%) to positive values (+23%). The results are reminiscent of experiments claiming magnetoelectric coupling in LSMO based tunneling structures using ferroelectric barriers. By analyzing the I/V characteristics of the devices we can show that transport is dominated by tunneling through pinholes. The resistive switching is caused by voltage induced creation and motion of oxygen vacancies at the LSMO surface, however, the resulting tunnel barrier is complemented by a second adjacent barrier in the organic semiconductor. Our model shows that the barrier in the organic material is constant, causing the initial MR while the barrier in the LMSO can be modulated by the voltage resulting in the resistive switching and the modulation of the MR as the coupling to the states in the LSMO changes. A switching caused by LSMO only is also supported by the fact that replacing ALQ3 by H2PC yields almost identical results. Supported by the DFG in the SFB762.

  10. Tuning the resistive switching properties of TiO2-x films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghenzi, N.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Llopis, R.; Levy, P.; Hueso, L. E.; Stoliar, P.

    2015-03-01

    We study the electrical characteristics of TiO2-x-based resistive switching devices fabricated with different oxygen/argon flow ratio during the oxide thin film sputtering deposition. Upon minute changes in this fabrication parameter, three qualitatively different device characteristics were accessed in the same system, namely, standard bipolar resistive switching, electroforming-free devices, and devices with multi-step breakdown. We propose that small variations in the oxygen/ argon flow ratio result in relevant changes of the oxygen vacancy concentration, which is the key parameter determining the resistive switching behavior. The coexistence of percolative or non-percolative conductive filaments is also discussed. Finally, the hypothesis is verified by means of the temperature dependence of the devices in low resistance state.

  11. Direct Observation of Conducting Filaments in Tungsten Oxide Based Transparent Resistive Switching Memory.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kai; Cai, Guofa; Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Chen, Tupei; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-10-05

    Transparent nonvolatile memory has great potential in integrated transparent electronics. Here, we present highly transparent resistive switching memory using stoichiometric WO 3 film produced by cathodic electrodeposition with indium tin oxide electrodes. The memory device demonstrates good optical transmittance, excellent operative uniformity, low operating voltages (+0.25 V/-0.42 V), and long retention time (>10 4 s). Conductive atomic force microscopy, ex situ transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments directly confirm that the resistive switching effects occur due to the electric field-induced formation and annihilation of the tungsten-rich conductive channel between two electrodes. Information on the physical and chemical nature of conductive filaments offers insightful design strategies for resistive switching memories with excellent performances. Moreover, we demonstrate the promising applicability of the cathodic electrodeposition method for future resistive memory devices.

  12. Modeling and experimental study of resistive switching in vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, O. A.; Blinov, Yu F.; Ilina, M. V.; Ilin, O. I.; Smirnov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Model of the resistive switching in vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA CNT) taking into account the processes of deformation, polarization and piezoelectric charge accumulation have been developed. Origin of hysteresis in VA CNT-based structure is described. Based on modeling results the VACNTs-based structure has been created. The ration resistance of high-resistance to low-resistance states of the VACNTs-based structure amounts 48. The correlation the modeling results with experimental studies is shown. The results can be used in the development nanoelectronics devices based on VA CNTs, including the nonvolatile resistive random-access memory.

  13. Resistive Switching of Sub-10 nm TiO2 Nanoparticle Self-Assembled Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Dirk Oliver; Raab, Nicolas; Santhanam, Venugopal; Dittmann, Regina; Simon, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Resistively switching devices are promising candidates for the next generation of non-volatile data memories. Such devices are up to now fabricated mainly by means of top-down approaches that apply thin films sandwiched between electrodes. Recent works have demonstrated that resistive switching (RS) is also feasible on chemically synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) in the 50 nm range. Following this concept, we developed this approach further to the sub-10 nm range. In this work, we report RS of sub-10 nm TiO2 NPs that were self-assembled into monolayers and transferred onto metallic substrates. We electrically characterized these monolayers in regard to their RS properties by means of a nanorobotics system in a scanning electron microscope, and found features typical of bipolar resistive switching. PMID:29113050

  14. Resistive switching characteristics of HfO2-based memory devices on flexible plastics.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Cho, Kyoungah; Park, Sukhyung; Kim, Sangsig

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we examine the characteristics of HfO2-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) devices on flexible plastics. The Pt/HfO2/Au ReRAM devices exhibit the unipolar resistive switching behaviors caused by the conducting filaments. From the Auger depth profiles of the HfO2 thin film, it is confirmed that the relatively lower oxygen content in the interface of the bottom electrode is responsible for the resistive switching by oxygen vacancies. And the unipolar resistive switching behaviors are analyzed from the C-V characteristics in which negative and positive capacitances are measured in the low-resistance state and the high-resistance state, respectively. The devices have a high on/off ratio of 10(4) and the excellent retention properties even after a continuous bending test of two thousand cycles. The correlation between the device size and the memory characteristics is investigated as well. A relatively smaller-sized device having a higher on/off ratio operates at a higher voltage than a relatively larger-sized device.

  15. A vacancy-modulated self-selective resistive switching memory with pronounced nonlinear behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haili; Feng, Jie; Gao, Tian; Zhu, Xi

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we report a self-selective (nonlinear) resistive switching memory cell, with high on-state half-bias nonlinearity of 650, sub-μA operating current, and high On/Off ratios above 100×. Regarding the cell structure, a thermal oxidized HfO x layer in combination with a sputtered Ta2O5 layer was configured as an active stack, with Pt and Hf as top and bottom electrodes, respectively. The Ta2O5 acts as a selective layer as well as a series resistor, which could make the resistive switching happened in HfO x layer. Through the analysis of the physicochemical properties and electrical conduction mechanisms at each state, a vacancy-modulated resistance switching model was proposed to explain the switching behavior. The conductivity of HfO x layer was changed by polarity-dependent drift of the oxygen vacancy ( V o), resulting in an electron hopping distance change during switching. With the help of Ta2O5 selective layer, high nonlinearity observed in low resistance state. The proposed material stack shows a promising prospect to act as a self-selective cell for 3D vertical RRAM application.

  16. Study on Resistive Switching Property of Ti Doped Novel NiO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zhao, G. Y.; Kou, Z. B.; Liu, J. C.; Zhu, R.

    2018-01-01

    Ti doped nickel oxide thin films have been fabricated by sol-gel dip-coating process using nickel acetate and tetrabutyl titanate as source materials. The effect of the amount of Ti dopant on the surface roughness, optical, chemical state and electrical properties of NiO: Ti thin films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Uv-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and I-V measurement, respectively. Results show that the Ti doping is an effective ways to improve the resistive switching behaviors and it is a convenient way to understand the mechanism of the resistive switching behaviors.

  17. Resistive switching based on filaments in metal/PMMA/metal thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Christoph; Nau, Sebastian; Sax, Stefan; Busby, Yan; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The working mechanism of unipolar organic resistive switching thin-film devices is investigated. On the basis of a metal/poly(methyl methacrylate)/metal model system, direct spectroscopic evidence for filament formation is obtained by three-dimensional (3D) imaging with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. By means of alternative fabrication methods the claimed influence of metal implantation in the organic layer during fabrication is ruled out. Further, the stability of the resistive switches under oxygen and humidity is investigated leading to a deeper understanding of the processes governing the formation and rupture of filaments.

  18. Electrode with transparent series resistance for uniform switching of optical modulation devices

    DOEpatents

    Tench, D Morgan [Camarillo, CA; Cunningham, Michael A [Thousand Oaks, CA; Kobrin, Paul H [Newbury Park, CA

    2008-01-08

    Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.

  19. Study of Ag/RGO/ITO sandwich structure for resistive switching behavior deposited on plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartak, Rajdeep; Rag, Adarsh; De, Shounak; Bhat, Somashekhara

    2018-05-01

    We report here the use of facile and environmentally benign way synthesized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for low-voltage non-volatile memory device as charge storing element. The RGO solutions have been synthesized using electrochemical exfoliation of battery electrode. The solution processed based RGO solution is suitable for large area and low-cost processing on plastic substrate. Room-temperature current-voltage characterisation has been carried out in Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich configuration to study the type of trap distribution. It is observed that in the low-voltage sweep, ohmic current is the main mechanism of current flow and trap filled/assisted conduction is observed at high-sweep voltage region. The Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich structure showed bipolar resistive switching behavior. These mechanisms can be analyzed based on oxygen availability and vacancies in the RGO giving rise to continuous least resistive path (conductive) and high resistance path along the structure. An Ag/RGO/ITO arrangement demonstrates long retention time with low operating voltage, low set/reset voltage, good ON/OFF ratio of 103 (switching transition between lower resistance state and higher resistance state and decent switching performance. The RGO memory showed decent results with an almost negligible degradation in switching properties which can be used for low-voltage and low-cost advanced flexible electronics.

  20. Light-activated resistance switching in SiOx RRAM devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehonic, A.; Gerard, T.; Kenyon, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We report a study of light-activated resistance switching in silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. Our devices had an indium tin oxide/SiOx/p-Si Metal/Oxide/Semiconductor structure, with resistance switching taking place in a 35 nm thick SiOx layer. The optical activity of the devices was investigated by characterising them in a range of voltage and light conditions. Devices respond to illumination at wavelengths in the range of 410-650 nm but are unresponsive at 1152 nm, suggesting that photons are absorbed by the bottom p-type silicon electrode and that generation of free carriers underpins optical activity. Applied light causes charging of devices in the high resistance state (HRS), photocurrent in the low resistance state (LRS), and lowering of the set voltage (required to go from the HRS to LRS) and can be used in conjunction with a voltage bias to trigger switching from the HRS to the LRS. We demonstrate negative correlation between set voltage and applied laser power using a 632.8 nm laser source. We propose that, under illumination, increased electron injection and hence a higher rate of creation of Frenkel pairs in the oxide—precursors for the formation of conductive oxygen vacancy filaments—reduce switching voltages. Our results open up the possibility of light-triggered RRAM devices.

  1. Application of nanomaterials in two-terminal resistive-switching memory devices

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jianyong

    2010-01-01

    Nanometer materials have been attracting strong attention due to their interesting structure and properties. Many important practical applications have been demonstrated for nanometer materials based on their unique properties. This article provides a review on the fabrication, electrical characterization, and memory application of two-terminal resistive-switching devices using nanomaterials as the active components, including metal and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs), nanotubes, nanowires, and graphenes. There are mainly two types of device architectures for the two-terminal devices with NPs. One has a triple-layer structure with a metal film sandwiched between two organic semiconductor layers, and the other has a single polymer film blended with NPs. These devices can be electrically switched between two states with significant different resistances, i.e. the ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ states. These render the devices important application as two-terminal non-volatile memory devices. The electrical behavior of these devices can be affected by the materials in the active layer and the electrodes. Though the mechanism for the electrical switches has been in argument, it is generally believed that the resistive switches are related to charge storage on the NPs. Resistive switches were also observed on crossbars formed by nanotubes, nanowires, and graphene ribbons. The resistive switches are due to nanoelectromechanical behavior of the materials. The Coulombic interaction of transient charges on the nanomaterials affects the configurable gap of the crossbars, which results into significant change in current through the crossbars. These nanoelectromechanical devices can be used as fast-response and high-density memory devices as well. PMID:22110862

  2. Resistive switching and memory effects of AgI thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X. F.; Chen, Y.; Shi, L.; Lin, J.; Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.

    2007-08-01

    A memory device has been fabricated using an AgI film sandwiched between a Pt film and an Ag film with the lateral size of the device scaled down to 300 nm. The AgI film was made by the iodination of the Ag film at room temperature and under ambient pressure. The switching between high- and low-resistance states can be realized by applying voltages of different polarities. The switching can be performed under the application of voltage pulses with a 100 Hz frequency for ~103 times. The switching times are in the order of microseconds and the retention time is about a week. The switching effects are explained as the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Ag in AgI.

  3. Oxygen migration during resistance switching and failure of hafnium oxide memristors

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Suhas; Wang, Ziwen; Huang, Xiaopeng; ...

    2017-03-06

    While the recent establishment of the role of thermophoresis/diffusion-driven oxygen migration during resistance switching in metal oxide memristors provided critical insights required for memristor modeling, extended investigations of the role of oxygen migration during ageing and failure remain to be detailed. Such detailing will enable failure-tolerant design, which can lead to enhanced performance of memristor-based next-generation storage-class memory. Furthermore, we directly observed lateral oxygen migration using in-situ synchrotron x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy of HfO x memristors during initial resistance switching, wear over millions of switching cycles, and eventual failure, through which we determined potential physical causes of failure. Using this information,more » we reengineered devices to mitigate three failure mechanisms and demonstrated an improvement in endurance of about three orders of magnitude.« less

  4. Spatial nonuniformity in resistive-switching memory effects of NiO.

    PubMed

    Oka, Keisuke; Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kanai, Masaki; Kawai, Tomoji; Kim, Jin-Soo; Park, Bae Ho

    2011-08-17

    Electrically driven resistance change phenomenon in metal/NiO/metal junctions, so-called resistive switching (RS), is a candidate for next-generation universal nonvolatile memories. However, the knowledge as to RS mechanisms is unfortunately far from comprehensive, especially the spatial switching location, which is crucial information to design reliable devices. In this communication, we demonstrate the identification of the spatial switching location of bipolar RS by introducing asymmetrically passivated planar NiO nanowire junctions. We have successfully identified that the bipolar RS in NiO occurs near the cathode rather than the anode. This trend can be interpreted in terms of an electrochemical redox model based on ion migration and p-type conduction.

  5. Light-controlled resistive switching characteristics in ZnO/BiFeO3/ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Dandan; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Junshuai; Wu, Liangchen; Chen, Peng

    2018-07-01

    ZnO/BiFeO3/ZnO multilayer was fabricated on silicon (Si) substrate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The resistive switching characteristics in ZnO/BiFeO3/ZnO devices are observed, and the resistive switching behavior can be modulated by white light.

  6. Resistive switching in TiO2 nanocolumn arrays electrochemically grown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marik, M.; Mozalev, A.; Hubalek, J.; Bendova, M.

    2017-04-01

    Resistive switching in metal oxides, especially in TiO2, has been intensively investigated for potential application in non-volatile memory microdevices. As one of the working mechanisms, a conducting filament consisting of a substoichiometric oxide phase is created within the oxide layer. With the aim of investigating the filament formation in spatially confined elements, we fabricate arrays of self-ordered TiO2 nanocolumns by porous-anodic-alumina (PAA)-assisted anodizing, incorporate them into solid-state microdevices, study their electron transport properties, and reveal that this anodizing approach is suitable for growing TiO2 nanostructures exhibiting resistive switching. The electrical properties and resistive switching behavior are both dependent on the electrolytic formation conditions, influencing the concentration and distribution of oxygen vacancies in the nanocolumn material during the film growth. Therefore, the PAA-assisted TiO2 nanocolumn arrays can be considered as a platform for investigating various phenomena related to resistive switching in valve metal oxides at the nanoscale.

  7. Resistive switching phenomena of tungsten nitride thin films with excellent CMOS compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Seok Man; Kim, Hee-Dong; An, Ho-Myoung

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of WN{sub x} thin films. • Excellent CMOS compatibility WN{sub x} films as a resistive switching material. • Resistive switching mechanism revealed trap-controlled space charge limited conduction. • Good endurance and retention properties over 10{sup 5} cycles, and 10{sup 5} s, respectively - Abstract: We report the resistive switching (RS) characteristics of tungsten nitride (WN{sub x}) thin films with excellent complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. A Ti/WN{sub x}/Pt memory cell clearly shows bipolar RS behaviors at a low voltage of approximately ±2.2 V. The dominant conduction mechanisms at low and high resistancemore » states were verified by Ohmic behavior and trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction, respectively. A conducting filament model by a redox reaction explains the RS behavior in WN{sub x} films. We also demonstrate the memory characteristics during pulse operation, including a high endurance over >10{sup 5} cycles and a long retention time of >10{sup 5} s.« less

  8. Influence of oxygen doping on resistive-switching characteristic of a-Si/c-Si device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Chen, Da; Huang, Shihua

    2017-12-01

    The influence of oxygen doping on resistive-switching characteristics of Ag/a-Si/p+-c-Si device was investigated. By oxygen doping in the growth process of amorphous silicon, the device resistive-switching performances, such as the ON/OFF resistance ratios, yield and stability were improved, which may be ascribed to the significant reduction of defect density because of oxygen incorporation. The device I-V characteristics are strongly dependent on the oxygen doping concentration. As the oxygen doping concentration increases, the Si-rich device gradually transforms to an oxygen-rich device, and the device yield, switching characteristics, and stability may be improved for silver/oxygen-doped a-Si/p+-c-Si device. Finally, the device resistive-switching mechanism was analyzed. Project supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LY17F040001), the Open Project Program of Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) of Fudan University (No. KF2015_02), the Open Project Program of National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. M201503), the Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Key Innovation Team (No. 2011R50012), and the Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory (No. 2013E10022).

  9. Resistive switching mechanism of Ag/ZrO2:Cu/Pt memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Shibing; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Sen; Lian, Wentai; Zhang, Kangwei; Wang, Ming; Xie, Hongwei; Liu, Ming

    2011-03-01

    Resistive switching mechanism of zirconium oxide-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices composed of Cu-doped ZrO2 film sandwiched between an oxidizable electrode and an inert electrode was investigated. The Ag/ZrO2:Cu/Pt RRAM devices with crosspoint structure fabricated by e-beam evaporation and e-beam lithography show reproducible bipolar resistive switching. The linear I- V relationship of low resistance state (LRS) and the dependence of LRS resistance ( R ON) and reset current ( I reset) on the set current compliance ( I comp) indicate that the observed resistive switching characteristics of the Ag/ZrO2:Cu/Pt device should be ascribed to the formation and annihilation of localized conductive filaments (CFs). The physical origin of CF was further analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). CFs were directly observed by cross-sectional TEM. According to EDS and elemental mapping analysis, the main chemical composition of CF is determined by Ag atoms, coming from the Ag top electrode. On the basis of these experiments, we propose that the set and reset process of the device stem from the electrochemical reactions in the zirconium oxide under different external electrical stimuli.

  10. Electrically tunable transport and resistive switching in doped Ca2RuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shida; Williamson, Morgan; Cao, Gang; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John; Tsoi, Maxim

    We study electronic transport properties of Cr doped (2.5%) Mott insulator Ca2RuO4 where electric fields were previously found to induce an insulator-to-metal switching with potential industrial applications. In our experiments we observe a continuous reduction in the resistivity of Ca2RuO4 as a function of increasing electrical bias followed by an abrupt switching at higher biases. Interestingly, the observed switching is non-destructive and requires opposite bias polarities to switch from high-to-low and low-to-high resistance states. Combination of 2-, 3-, and 4-probe measurements provide a means to shed light on the origin of the switching and distinguish between its bulk and interfacial contributions. This work was supported in part by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA, by NSF Grants DMR-1600057, DMR-1265162, and DMR-1122603, and by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award No. OSR-2015-CRG4-2626.

  11. Electric field-triggered metal-insulator transition resistive switching of bilayered multiphasic VOx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Seokjae; Lee, Sang Yeon; Hwang, Jungyeon; Park, Jucheol; Seo, Hyungtak

    2018-01-01

    Electric field-triggered Mott transition of VO2 for next-generation memory devices with sharp and fast resistance-switching response is considered to be ideal but the formation of single-phase VO2 by common deposition techniques is very challenging. Here, VOx films with a VO2-dominant phase for a Mott transition-based metal-insulator transition (MIT) switching device were successfully fabricated by the combined process of RF magnetron sputtering of V metal and subsequent O2 annealing to form. By performing various material characterizations, including scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy, the film is determined to have a bilayer structure consisting of a VO2-rich bottom layer acting as the Mott transition switching layer and a V2O5/V2O3 mixed top layer acting as a control layer that suppresses any stray leakage current and improves cyclic performance. This bilayer structure enables excellent electric field-triggered Mott transition-based resistive switching of Pt-VOx-Pt metal-insulator-metal devices with a set/reset current ratio reaching 200, set/reset voltage of less than 2.5 V, and very stable DC cyclic switching upto 120 cycles with a great set/reset current and voltage distribution less than 5% of standard deviation at room temperature, which are specifications applicable for neuromorphic or memory device applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Resistive switching memory devices composed of binary transition metal oxides using sol-gel chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanwoo; Kim, Inpyo; Choi, Wonsup; Shin, Hyunjung; Cho, Jinhan

    2009-04-21

    We describe a novel and versatile approach for preparing resistive switching memory devices based on binary transition metal oxides (TMOs). Titanium isopropoxide (TIPP) was spin-coated onto platinum (Pt)-coated silicon substrates using a sol-gel process. The sol-gel-derived layer was converted into a TiO2 film by thermal annealing. A top electrode (Ag electrode) was then coated onto the TiO2 films to complete device fabrication. When an external bias was applied to the devices, a switching phenomenon independent of the voltage polarity (i.e., unipolar switching) was observed at low operating voltages (about 0.6 VRESET and 1.4 VSET). In addition, it was confirmed that the electrical properties (i.e., retention time, cycling test and switching speed) of the sol-gel-derived devices were comparable to those of vacuum deposited devices. This approach can be extended to a variety of binary TMOs such as niobium oxides. The reported approach offers new opportunities for preparing the binary TMO-based resistive switching memory devices allowing a facile solution processing.

  13. Temperature induced complementary switching in titanium oxide resistive random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, D., E-mail: dpanda@nist.edu; Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan; Simanjuntak, F. M.

    2016-07-15

    On the way towards high memory density and computer performance, a considerable development in energy efficiency represents the foremost aspiration in future information technology. Complementary resistive switch consists of two antiserial resistive switching memory (RRAM) elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption. Here we present a titanium oxide based complementary RRAM (CRRAM) device with Pt top and TiN bottom electrode. A subsequent post metal annealing at 400°C induces CRRAM. Forming voltage of 4.3 V is required for this device tomore » initiate switching process. The same device also exhibiting bipolar switching at lower compliance current, Ic <50 μA. The CRRAM device have high reliabilities. Formation of intermediate titanium oxi-nitride layer is confirmed from the cross-sectional HRTEM analysis. The origin of complementary switching mechanism have been discussed with AES, HRTEM analysis and schematic diagram. This paper provides valuable data along with analysis on the origin of CRRAM for the application in nanoscale devices.« less

  14. Influences of top electrode reduction potential and operation ambient on the switching characteristics of tantalum oxide resistive switching memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Tse-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ju; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Jen-Sue

    2017-12-01

    Modulation of the oxygen distribution is liable for the electrical performance of oxide-based devices. When the top electrode (TE) is deposited on the active layer, an oxygen exchange layer (OEL) may be formed at the interface. Oxygen ions can be absorbed and offered in OEL to assist resistive switching (RS). In this study, the impact of different TEs (Al, Zr, Ta and Au) on the active layer TaOx is investigated. TEs are chosen based on the reduction potential (E0Al=-2.13V, E0Zr=-1.55V, E0Ta=-0.75V, E0Au=1.52V), which determines whether OEL is formed. Based on TEM micrographs, as the difference of TE reduction potential to E0Ta becomes more negative, a thicker OEL exists. We find that Zr TE device has the most stable I-V characteristic and data retention, while Al TE device suffers from the reset failure, and Au TE device fails to switch. Moreover, we fabricate two different thicknesses (20 nm and 120 nm) of Zr TE and alter the operation ambient to vacuum (10-5 Torr) to study the influence on RS. The magnitude of reset voltage becomes larger when the devices are measured in vacuum ambient. According to these findings, the RS mechanism with different TE materials, thicknesses and at the different operation ambient is established.

  15. Resistive switching characteristics of interfacial phase-change memory at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Kirill V.; Saito, Yuta; Miyata, Noriyuki; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Tominaga, Junji

    2018-04-01

    Interfacial phase-change memory (iPCM) devices were fabricated using W and TiN for the bottom and top contacts, respectively, and the effect of operation temperature on the resistive switching was examined over the range between room temperature and 200 °C. It was found that the high-resistance (RESET) state in an iPCM device drops sharply at around 150 °C to a low-resistance (SET) state, which differs by ˜400 Ω from the SET state obtained by electric-field-induced switching. The iPCM device SET state resistance recovered during the cooling process and remained at nearly the same value for the RESET state. These resistance characteristics greatly differ from those of the conventional Ge-Sb-Te (GST) alloy phase-change memory device, underscoring the fundamentally different switching nature of iPCM devices. From the thermal stability measurements of iPCM devices, their optimal temperature operation was concluded to be less than 100 °C.

  16. Resistive switching characteristics of manganese oxide thin film and nanoparticle assembly hybrid devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Haider; Park, Mi Ra; Abbas, Yawar; Hu, Quanli; Kang, Tae Su; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Kang, Chi Jung

    2018-06-01

    Improved resistive switching characteristics are demonstrated in a hybrid device with Pt/Ti/MnO (thin film)/MnO (nanoparticle)/Pt structure. The hybrid devices of MnO thin film and nanoparticle assembly were fabricated. MnO nanoparticles with an average diameter of ∼30 nm were chemically synthesized and assembled as a monolayer on a Pt bottom electrode. A MnO thin film of ∼40 nm thickness was deposited on the nanoparticle assembly to form the hybrid structure. Resistive switching could be induced by the formation and rupture of conducting filaments in the hybrid oxide layers. The hybrid device exhibited very stable unipolar switching with good endurance and retention characteristics. It showed a larger and stable memory window with a uniform distribution of SET and RESET voltages. Moreover, the conduction mechanisms of ohmic conduction, space-charge-limited conduction, Schottky emission, and Poole–Frenkel emission have been investigated as possible conduction mechanisms for the switching of the devices. Using MnO nanoparticles in the thin film and nanoparticle heterostructures enabled the appropriate control of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices and markedly improved their memory characteristics.

  17. Charged Defects-Induced Resistive Switching in Sb2Te3 Memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. J.; Liu, N.; Sun, H. J.; Yan, P.; Li, Y.; Zhong, S. J.; Xie, S.; Li, R. J.; Miao, X. S.

    2016-02-01

    Resistive switching (RS) characteristics of Ta/Sb2Te3/Ta and Ag/Sb2Te3/Ta memory devices have been investigated. The I- V curves show the bipolar RS at room temperature. We have demonstrated that the redistribution and migration of charged defects are responsible for the memristive switching. By using Ag electrode instead of Ta, more defects can be created near the Ag/Sb2Te3 interface, which is a feasible method to eliminate the electroforming process.

  18. Bipolar resistive switching in Cu/AlN/Pt nonvolatile memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Yang, Y. C.; Zeng, F.; Pan, F.

    2010-08-01

    Highly stable and reproducible bipolar resistive switching effects are reported on Cu/AlN/Pt devices. Memory characteristics including large memory window of 103, long retention time of >106 s and good endurance of >103 were demonstrated. It is concluded that the reset current decreases as compliance current decreases, which provides an approach to suppress power consumption. The dominant conduction mechanisms of low resistance state and high resistance state were verified by Ohmic behavior and trap-controlled space charge limited current, respectively. The memory effect is explained by the model concerning redox reaction mediated formation and rupture of the conducting filament in AlN films.

  19. Analysis of the Bipolar Resistive Switching Behavior of a Biocompatible Glucose Film for Resistive Random Access Memory.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Pyo; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jun; Lee, Jin Hyeok; Yoo, Hyukjoon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-06-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices are fabricated through a simple solution process using glucose, which is a natural biomaterial for the switching layer of RRAM. The fabricated glucose-based RRAM device shows nonvolatile bipolar resistive switching behavior, with a switching window of 10 3 . In addition, the endurance and data retention capability of glucose-based RRAM exhibit stable characteristics up to 100 consecutive cycles and 10 4 s under constant voltage stress at 0.3 V. The interface between the top electrode and the glucose film is carefully investigated to demonstrate the bipolar switching mechanism of the glucose-based RRAM device. The glucose based-RRAM is also evaluated on a polyimide film to verify the possibility of a flexible platform. Additionally, a cross-bar array structure with a magnesium electrode is prepared on various substrates to assess the degradability and biocompatibility for the implantable bioelectronic devices, which are harmless and nontoxic to the human body. It is expected that this research can provide meaningful insights for developing the future bioelectronic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Opportunity of spinel ferrite materials in nonvolatile memory device applications based on their resistive switching performances.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Qin, Ni; Wu, Guangheng; Lin, Yanting; Li, Shuwei; Bao, Dinghua

    2012-09-12

    The opportunity of spinel ferrites in nonvolatile memory device applications has been demonstrated by the resistive switching performance characteristics of a Pt/NiFe(2)O(4)/Pt structure, such as low operating voltage, high device yield, long retention time (up to 10(5) s), and good endurance (up to 2.2 × 10(4) cycles). The dominant conduction mechanisms are Ohmic conduction in the low-resistance state and in the lower-voltage region of the high-resistance state and Schottky emission in the higher-voltage region of the high-resistance state. On the basis of measurements of the temperature dependence of the resistances and magnetic properties in different resistance states, we explain the physical mechanism of resistive switching of Pt/NiFe(2)O(4)/Pt devices using the model of formation and rupture of conducting filaments by considering the thermal effect of oxygen vacancies and changes in the valences of cations due to the redox effect.

  1. Characteristics of multilevel storage and switching dynamics in resistive switching cell of Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Yang, Huafeng; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji; Zhang, Xinxin; Huang, Xinfan; Oda, Shunri

    2018-01-01

    We reported an Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 sandwich structure resistive switching device with significant improvement of multilevel cell (MLC) operation capability, which exhibited that four stable and distinct resistance states (one low resistance state and three high resistance states) can be achieved by controlling the Reset stop voltages (V Reset-stop) during the Reset operation. The improved MLC operation capability can be attributed to the R HRS/R LRS ratio enhancement resulting from increasing of the series resistance and decreasing of leakage current by inserting two Al2O3 layers. For the high-speed switching applications, we studied the initial switching dynamics by using the measurements of the pulse width and amplitude dependence of Set and Reset switching characteristics. The results showed that under the same pulse amplitude conditions, the initial Set progress is faster than the initial Reset progress, which can be explained by thermal-assisted electric field induced rupture model in the oxygen vacancies conductive filament. Thus, proper combination of varying pulse amplitude and width can help us to optimize the device operation parameters. Moreover, the device demonstrated ultrafast program/erase speed (10 ns) and good pulse switching endurance (105 cycles) characteristics, which are suitable for high-density and fast-speed nonvolatile memory applications.

  2. Nonvolatile resistive switching in metal/La-doped BiFeO3/Pt sandwiches.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Zhuge, Fei; Zhu, Xiaojian; Yin, Kuibo; Wang, Jinzhi; Liu, Yiwei; He, Congli; Chen, Bin; Li, Run-Wei

    2010-10-22

    The resistive switching (RS) characteristics of a Bi(0.95)La(0.05)FeO(3) (La-BFO) film sandwiched between a Pt bottom electrode and top electrodes (TEs) made of Al, Ag, Cu, and Au have been studied. Devices with TEs made of Ag and Cu showed stable bipolar RS behaviors, whereas those with TEs made of Al and Au exhibited unstable bipolar RS. The Ag/La-BFO/Pt structure showed an on/off ratio of 10(2), a retention time > 10(5) s, and programming voltages < 1 V. The RS effect can be attributed to the formation/rupture of nanoscale metal filaments due to the diffusion of the TEs under a bias voltage. The maximum current before the reset process (on-to-off switching) was found to increase linearly with the current compliance applied during the set process (off-to-on switching).

  3. An X-Band SOS Resistive Gate-Insulator-Semiconductor /RIS/ switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, S. P.

    1980-02-01

    The new X-Band Resistive Gate-Insulator-Semiconductor (RIS) switch has been fabricated on silicon-on-sapphire, and its equivalent circuit model characterized. An RIS SPST switch with 20-dB on/off isolation, 1.2-dB insertion loss, and power handling capacity in excess of 20-W peak has been achieved at X band. The device switching time is on the order of 600 ns, and it requires negligible control holding current in both on and off states. The device is compatible with monolithic integrated-circuit technology and thus is suitable for integration into low-cost monolithic phase shifters or other microwave integrated circuits.

  4. Bipolar resistive switching of single gold-in-Ga2O3 nanowire.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chou, Li-Jen

    2012-08-08

    We have fabricated single nanowire chips on gold-in-Ga(2)O(3) core-shell nanowires using the electron-beam lithography techniques and realized bipolar resistive switching characteristics having invariable set and reset voltages. We attribute the unique property of invariance to the built-in conduction path of gold core. This invariance allows us to fabricate many resistive switching cells with the same operating voltage by simple depositing repetitive metal electrodes along a single nanowire. Other characteristics of these core-shell resistive switching nanowires include comparable driving electric field with other thin film and nanowire devices and a remarkable on/off ratio more than 3 orders of magnitude at a low driving voltage of 2 V. A smaller but still impressive on/off ratio of 10 can be obtained at an even lower bias of 0.2 V. These characteristics of gold-in-Ga(2)O(3) core-shell nanowires make fabrication of future high-density resistive memory devices possible.

  5. Critical role of a double-layer configuration in solution-based unipolar resistive switching memories.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Emanuel; Kiazadeh, Asal; Deuermeier, Jonas; Branquinho, Rita; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2018-08-24

    Lately, resistive switching memories (ReRAM) have been attracting a lot of attention due to their possibilities of fast operation, lower power consumption and simple fabrication process and they can also be scaled to very small dimensions. However, most of these ReRAM are produced by physical methods and nowadays the industry demands more simplicity, typically associated with low cost manufacturing. As such, ReRAMs in this work are developed from a solution-based aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) using a simple combustion synthesis process. The device performance is optimized by two-stage deposition of the Al 2 O 3 film. The resistive switching properties of the bilayer devices are reproducible with a yield of 100%. The ReRAM devices show unipolar resistive switching behavior with good endurance and retention time up to 10 5 s at 85 °C. The devices can be programmed in a multi-level cell operation mode by application of different reset voltages. Temperature analysis of various resistance states reveals a filamentary nature based on the oxygen vacancies. The optimized film was stacked between ITO and indium zinc oxide, targeting a fully transparent device for applications on transparent system-on-panel technology.

  6. Switching kinetics of SiC resistive memory for harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, K. A., E-mail: kam2g11@soton.ac.uk; Huang, R.; Groot, C. H. de

    2015-07-15

    Cu/a-SiC/Au resistive memory cells are measured using voltage pulses and exhibit the highest R{sub OFF}/R{sub ON} ratio recorded for any resistive memory. The switching kinetics are investigated and fitted to a numerical model, using thermal conductivity and resistivity properties of the dielectric. The SET mechanism of the Cu/a-SiC/Au memory cells is found to be due to ionic motion without joule heating contributions, whereas the RESET mechanism is found to be due to thermally assisted ionic motion. The conductive filament diameter is extracted to be around 4nm. The high thermal conductivity and resistivity for the Cu/a-SiC/Au memory cells result in slowmore » switching but with high thermal reliability and stability, showing potential for use in harsh environments. Radiation properties of SiC memory cells are investigated. No change was seen in DC sweep or pulsed switching nor in conductive mechanisms, up to 2Mrad(Si) using {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation.« less

  7. Excellent Resistive Switching Performance of Cu-Se-Based Atomic Switch Using Lanthanide Metal Nanolayer at the Cu-Se/Al2O3 Interface.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyunsuk; Vishwanath, Sujaya Kumar; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-03-07

    The next-generation electronic society is dependent on the performance of nonvolatile memory devices, which has been continuously improving. In the last few years, many memory devices have been introduced. However, atomic switches are considered to be a simple and reliable basis for next-generation nonvolatile devices. In general, atomic switch-based resistive switching is controlled by electrochemical metallization. However, excess ion injection from the entire area of the active electrode into the switching layer causes device nonuniformity and degradation of reliability. Here, we propose the fabrication of a high-performance atomic switch based on Cu x -Se 1- x by inserting lanthanide (Ln) metal buffer layers such as neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), dysprosium (Dy), or lutetium (Lu) between the active metal layer and the electrolyte. Current-atomic force microscopy results confirm that Cu ions penetrate through the Ln-buffer layer and form thin conductive filaments inside the switching layer. Compared with the Pt/Cu x -Se 1- x /Al 2 O 3 /Pt device, the optimized Pt/Cu x -Se 1- x /Ln/Al 2 O 3 /Pt devices show improvement in the on/off resistance ratio (10 2 -10 7 ), retention (10 years/85 °C), endurance (∼10 000 cycles), and uniform resistance state distribution.

  8. Biomolecule nanoparticle-induced nanocomposites with resistive switching nonvolatile memory properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yongmin; Ryu, Sook Won; Cho, Jinhan

    2016-04-01

    Resistive switching behavior-based memory devices are considered promising candidates for next-generation data storage because of their simple structure configuration, low power consumption, and rapid operating speed. Here, the resistive switching nonvolatile memory properties of Fe2O3 nanocomposite (NC) films prepared from the thermal calcination of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled ferritin multilayers were successfully investigated. For this study, negatively charged ferritin nanoparticles were alternately deposited onto the Pt-coated Si substrate with positively charged poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) by solution-based electrostatic LbL assembly, and the formed multilayers were thermally calcinated to obtain a homogeneous transition metal oxide NC film through the elimination of organic components, including the protein shell of ferritin. The formed memory device exhibits a stable ON/OFF current ratio of approximately 103, with nanosecond switching times under an applied external bias. In addition, these reversible switching properties were kept stable during the repeated cycling tests of above 200 cycles and a test period of approximately 105 s under atmosphere. These solution-based approaches can provide a basis for large-area inorganic nanoparticle-based electric devices through the design of bio-nanomaterials at the molecular level.

  9. Controllable Organic Resistive Switching Achieved by One-Step Integration of Cone-Shaped Contact.

    PubMed

    Ling, Haifeng; Yi, Mingdong; Nagai, Masaru; Xie, Linghai; Wang, Laiyuan; Hu, Bo; Huang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Conductive filaments (CFs)-based resistive random access memory possesses the ability of scaling down to sub-nanoscale with high-density integration architecture, making it the most promising nanoelectronic technology for reclaiming Moore's law. Compared with the extensive study in inorganic switching medium, the scientific challenge now is to understand the growth kinetics of nanoscale CFs in organic polymers, aiming to achieve controllable switching characteristics toward flexible and reliable nonvolatile organic memory. Here, this paper systematically investigates the resistive switching (RS) behaviors based on a widely adopted vertical architecture of Al/organic/indium-tin-oxide (ITO), with poly(9-vinylcarbazole) as the case study. A nanoscale Al filament with a dynamic-gap zone (DGZ) is directly observed using in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) , which demonstrates that the RS behaviors are related to the random formation of spliced filaments consisting of Al and oxygen vacancy dual conductive channels growing through carbazole groups. The randomicity of the filament formation can be depressed by introducing a cone-shaped contact via a one-step integration method. The conical electrode can effectively shorten the DGZ and enhance the localized electric field, thus reducing the switching voltage and improving the RS uniformity. This study provides a deeper insight of the multiple filamentary mechanisms for organic RS effect. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. On the origin of resistive switching volatility in Ni/TiO{sub 2}/Ni stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Cortese, Simone, E-mail: simone.cortese@soton.ac.uk; Trapatseli, Maria; Khiat, Ali

    2016-08-14

    Resistive switching and resistive random access memories have attracted huge interest for next generation nonvolatile memory applications, also thought to be able to overcome flash memories limitations when arranged in crossbar arrays. A cornerstone of their potential success is that the toggling between two distinct resistance states, usually a High Resistive State (HRS) and a Low Resistive State (LRS), is an intrinsic non-volatile phenomenon with the two states being thermodynamically stable. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most common materials known to support non-volatile RS. In this paper, we report a volatile resistive switching in a titanium dioxide thin filmmore » sandwiched by two nickel electrodes. The aim of this work is to understand the underlying physical mechanism that triggers the volatile effect, which is ascribed to the presence of a NiO layer at the bottom interface. The NiO layer alters the equilibrium between electric field driven filament formation and thermal enhanced ion diffusion, resulting in the volatile behaviour. Although the volatility is not ideal for non-volatile memory applications, it shows merit for access devices in crossbar arrays due to its high LRS/HRS ratio, which are also briefly discussed.« less

  11. Temperature-dependent resistance switching in SrTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian-kun; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Ma, Chao

    2016-06-13

    Resistance switching phenomena were studied by varying temperature in SrTiO{sub 3} single crystal. The resistance hysteresis loops appear at a certain temperature ranging from 340 K to 520 K. With the assistance of 375 nm ultraviolet continuous laser, the sample resistance is greatly reduced, leading to a stable effect than that in dark. These resistance switching phenomena only exist in samples with enough oxygen vacancies, which is confirmed by spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements, demonstrating an important role played by oxygen vacancies. At temperatures above 340 K, positively charged oxygen vacancies become mobile triggered by external electric field, and the resistance switchingmore » effect emerges. Our theoretical results based on drift-diffusion model reveal that the built-in field caused by oxygen vacancies can be altered under external electric field. Therefore, two resistance states are produced under the cooperative effect of built-in field and external field. However, the increasing mobility of oxygen vacancies caused by higher temperature promotes internal electric field to reach equilibrium states quickly, and suppresses the hysteresis loops above 420 K.« less

  12. Resistive switching behavior in oxygen ion irradiated TiO2-x films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, A.; Saini, C. P.; Sarkar, P. K.; Bhattacharjee, G.; Bhattacharya, G.; Srivastava, S.; Satpati, B.; Kanjilal, D.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dhar, S.; Kanjilal, A.

    2018-02-01

    The room temperature resistive switching behavior in 50 keV O+-ion irradiated TiO2-x layers at an ion fluence of 5  ×  1016 ions cm-2 is reported. A clear transformation from columnar to layered polycrystalline films is revealed by transmission electron microscopy with increasing ion fluence, while the complementary electron energy loss spectroscopy suggests an evolution of oxygen vacancy (OV) in TiO2-x matrix. This is further verified by determining electron density with the help of x-ray reflectivity. Both local and device current-voltage measurements illustrate that the ion-beam induced OVs play a key role in bistable resistive switching mechanism.

  13. Resistive switching and voltage induced modulation of tunneling magnetoresistance in nanosized perpendicular organic spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göckeritz, Robert; Homonnay, Nico; Müller, Alexander; Fuhrmann, Bodo; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional perpendicular organic spin valves have been fabricated. The devices based on an La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Alq3/Co trilayer show resistive switching of up to 4-5 orders of magnitude and magnetoresistance as high as -70% the latter even changing sign when voltage pulses are applied. This combination of phenomena is typically observed in multiferroic tunnel junctions where it is attributed to magnetoelectric coupling between a ferromagnet and a ferroelectric material. Modeling indicates that here the switching originates from a modification of the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 surface. This modification influences the tunneling of charge carriers and thus both the electrical resistance and the tunneling magnetoresistance which occurs at pinholes in the organic layer.

  14. Investigation into Contact Resistance And Damage of Metal Contacts Used in RF-MEMS Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    mechanically cycled by a piezo- electric transducer ( PZT ). The resistance through the simulated switch was measured using a four-wire measurement technique...research, including a brief overview of contact theory. Then chapter 3 gives an overview of engi- 13 V I PZT Sample Mount Cantilever Lower Contact...as described in [3, 118]. The measurement of surface texture and 4These figures were published in Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, Michael F

  15. Effect of sputtering atmosphere on the characteristics of ZrOx resistive switching memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pin; Ye, Cong; Wu, Jiaji; Wei, Wei; Wei, Xiaodi; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Rulin; Zhang, Li; Xia, Qing; Wang, Hanbin

    2017-05-01

    A ZrOx switching layer with different oxygen content for TiN/ZrOx/Pt resistive switching (RS) memory was prepared by magnetron sputtering in different atmospheres such as N2/Ar mixture, O2/Ar mixture as well as pure Ar. The morphology, structure and RS characteristics were systemically investigated and it was found that the RS performance is highly dependent on the sputtering atmosphere. For the memory device sputtered in N2/Ar mixture, with 8.06% nitrogen content in the ZrOx switching layer, the highest uniformity with smallest distribution of V set and high resistance states (HRS)/low resistance states (LRS) values were achieved. By analyzing the current conduction mechanisms combined with possible RS mechanisms for three devices, we deduce that for the device with a ZrOx layer sputtered in N2/Ar mixture, oxygen ions (O2-), which are decisive to the disruption/formation of the conductive filament, will gather around the tip of the filament due to the existence of doping nitrogen, and lead to the reduction of O2- migration randomness in the operation process, so that the uniformity of the N-doped ZrOx device can be improved.

  16. Influence of Ta doping in resistive switching behavior of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Arabinda; Saini, Chetan P.; Deshmukh, Sujit; Dhar, Sankar; Kanjilal, Aloke

    An approach has been made to understand the resistive switching behavior in Ta-doped TiO2 films on Pt substrates. Prior to thin film deposition, Ta-doped TiO2 powder has been synthesized chemically using Ta and Ti precursor solutions. However, the Ta doping has seriously been affected by increasing Ta concentration above 1 at% due to the segregation of Ta2O5 phase. The Ta-doped TiO2 targets have been prepared for pulsed laser deposition of the films on Pt substrates using an excitation wavelength of 248 nm. The structural and chemical properties of the Ta-doped TiO2 films have been investigated in details with the help of XRD, SIMS, XAS and XPS. The stoichiometry of the Ta-doped TiO2 films with increasing depth has been verified initially by SIMS. The electrical study of the corresponding device structures further suggests that the optimized resistive switching effect can be accomplished up to a threshold Ta-doping of 1 at%. Nevertheless, a highly conducting behavior has been shown when the TiO2 films are doped with 2 at% Ta. These results will be discussed in details in the light of defect induced resistive switching phenomenon.

  17. Hydrogen-peroxide-modified egg albumen for transparent and flexible resistive switching memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangdong; Yao, Yanqing; Lu, Zhisong; Yang, Xiude; Han, Juanjuan; Wang, Gang; Rao, Xi; Li, Ping; Liu, Qian; Song, Qunliang

    2017-10-01

    Egg albumen is modified by hydrogen peroxide with concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% at room temperature. Compared with devices without modification, a memory cell of Ag/10% H2O2-egg albumen/indium tin oxide exhibits obviously enhanced resistive switching memory behavior with a resistance ratio of 104, self-healing switching endurance for 900 cycles and a prolonged retention time for a 104 s @ 200 mV reading voltage after being bent 103 times. The breakage of massive protein chains occurs followed by the recombination of new protein chain networks due to the oxidation of amidogen and the synthesis of disulfide during the hydrogen peroxide modifying egg albumen. Ions such as Fe3+, Na+, K+, which are surrounded by protein chains, are exposed to the outside of protein chains to generate a series of traps during the egg albumen degeneration process. According to the fitting results of the double logarithm I-V curves and the current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) images of the ON and OFF states, the charge transfer from one trap center to its neighboring trap center is responsible for the resistive switching memory phenomena. The results of our work indicate that hydrogen- peroxide-modified egg albumen could open up a new avenue of biomaterial application in nanoelectronic systems.

  18. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-02-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2-based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology.

  19. Key concepts behind forming-free resistive switching incorporated with rectifying transport properties

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Yao; Ou, Xin; Luo, Wenbo; Mücklich, Arndt; Bürger, Danilo; Zhou, Shengqiang; Wu, Chuangui; Chen, Yuanfu; Zhang, Wanli; Helm, Manfred; Mikolajick, Thomas; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the effect of Ti diffusion on the bipolar resistive switching in Au/BiFeO3/Pt/Ti capacitor-like structures. Polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. From the energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry it is observed that Ti diffusion occurs if the deposition temperature is above 600°C. The current-voltage (I–V) curves indicate that resistive switching can only be achieved in Au/BiFeO3/Pt/Ti capacitor-like structures where this Ti diffusion occurs. The effect of Ti diffusion is confirmed by the BiFeO3 thin films deposited on Pt/sapphire and Pt/Ti/sapphire substrates. The resistive switching needs no electroforming process, and is incorporated with rectifying properties which is potentially useful to suppress the sneak current in a crossbar architecture. Those specific features open a promising alternative concept for nonvolatile memory devices as well as for other memristive devices like synapses in neuromorphic circuits. PMID:23860408

  20. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2–based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology. PMID:26880381

  1. Performance analysis of resistive switching devices based on BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzic, Natasa; Kojic, Tijana; Vukmirovic, Jelena; Tripkovic, Djordjije; Bajac, Branimir; Srdic, Vladimir; Stojanovic, Goran

    2016-03-01

    Resitive switching devices, memristors, have recenty attracted much attention due to promising performances and potential applications in the field of logic and memory devices. Here, we present thin film BaTiO3 based memristor fabricated using ink-jet printing technique. Active material is a single layer barium titanate film with thickness of ̴100 nm, sandwitched between metal electodes. Printing parameters were optimized aiming to achieve stable drop flow and uniform printed layer. Current-voltage characteristics show typical memristive behavior with pinched hysteresis loop crossed at the origin, with marked differences between High Resistive State (HRS) and Low Resistive State (LRS). Obtained resistive states are stable during numerous switching processes. The device also shows unipolar switching effect for negative voltage impulses. Variable voltage impulse amplitudes leads to the shifting of the energy levels of electode contacts resulting in changing of the overall current through the device. Structural charcterization have been performed using XRD analysis and SEM micrography. High-temperature current-voltage measurements combined with transport parameter analysis using Hall efect measurement system (HMS 3000) and Impedance Analyzer AC measurements allows deeper insigth into conduction mechanism of ferroelectric memristors.

  2. Inverse polarity of the resistive switching effect and strong inhomogeneity in nanoscale YBCO-metal contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truchly, M.; Plecenik, T.; Zhitlukhina, E.; Belogolovskii, M.; Dvoranova, M.; Kus, P.; Plecenik, A.

    2016-11-01

    We have studied a bipolar resistive switching phenomenon in c-axis oriented normal-state YBa2Cu3O7-c (YBCO) thin films at room temperature by scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques. The most striking experimental finding has been the opposite (in contrast to the previous room and low-temperature data for planar metal counter-electrode-YBCO bilayers) voltage-bias polarity of the switching effect in all SSRM and a number of STM measurements. We have assumed that the hysteretic phenomena in current-voltage characteristics of YBCO-based contacts can be explained by migration of oxygen-vacancy defects and, as a result, by the formation or dissolution of more or less conductive regions near the metal-YBCO interface. To support our interpretation of the macroscopic resistive switching phenomenon, a minimalist model that describes radical modifications of the oxygen-vacancy effective charge in terms of a charge-wind effect was proposed. It was shown theoretically that due to the momentum exchange between current carriers (holes in the YBCO compound) and activated oxygen ions, the direction in which oxygen vacancies are moving is defined by the balance between the direct electrostatic force on them and that caused by the current-carrier flow.

  3. Ultra-Lightweight Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Silk Fibroin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Zhu, Bowen; Wang, Hua; Ma, Xiaohua; Hao, Yue; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Ultra-lightweight resistive switching memory based on protein has been demonstrated. The memory foil is 0.4 mg cm(-2) , which is 320-fold lighter than silicon substrate, 20-fold lighter than office paper and can be sustained by a human hair. Additionally, high resistance OFF/ON ratio of 10(5) , retention time of 10(4) s, and excellent flexibility (bending radius of 800 μm) have been achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Bipolar resistive switching in metal-insulator-semiconductor nanostructures based on silicon nitride and silicon oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koryazhkina, M. N.; Tikhov, S. V.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Belov, A. I.; Korolev, D. S.; Antonov, I. N.; Karzanov, V. V.; Gorshkov, O. N.; Tetelbaum, D. I.; Karakolis, P.; Dimitrakis, P.

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar resistive switching in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor-like structures with an inert Au top electrode and a Si3N4 insulator nanolayer (6 nm thick) has been observed. The effect of a highly doped n +-Si substrate and a SiO2 interlayer (2 nm) is revealed in the changes in the semiconductor space charge region and small-signal parameters of parallel and serial equivalent circuit models measured in the high- and low-resistive capacitor states, as well as under laser illumination. The increase in conductivity of the semiconductor capacitor plate significantly reduces the charging and discharging times of capacitor-like structures.

  5. A study on the resistance switching of Ag2Se and Ta2O5 heterojunctions using structural engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae Sung; Lee, Nam Joo; Abbas, Haider; Hu, Quanli; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hyun Ho; Le Shim, Ee; Kang, Chi Jung

    2018-01-01

    The resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices with heterostuctures have been investigated due to cycling stability, nonlinear switching, complementary resistive switching and self-compliance. The heterostructured devices can modulate the resistive switching (RS) behavior appropriately by bilayer structure with a variety of materials. In this study, the bipolar resistive switching characteristics of the bilayer structures composed of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se, which are transition-metal oxide (TMO) and silver chalcogenide, were investigated. The bilayer devices of Ta2O5 deposited on Ag2Se (Ta2O5/Ag2Se) and Ag2Se deposited on Ta2O5 (Ag2Se/Ta2O5) were fabricated for investigation of the RS characteristics by stacking sequence of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se. All operating voltages were applied to the Ag top electrode with the Pt bottom electrode grounded. The Ta2O5/Ag2Se device showed that a negative voltage sweep switched the device from high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (LRS) and a positive voltage sweep switched the device from LRS to HRS. On the contrary, for the Ag2Se/Ta2O5 device a positive voltage sweep switched the device from HRS to LRS, and a negative voltage sweep switched it from LRS to HRS. The polarity dependence of RS was attributed to the stacking sequence of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se. In addition, the combined heterostructured device of both bilayer stacks, Ta2O5/Ag2Se and Ag2Se/Ta2O5, exhibited the complementary switching characteristics. By using threshold switching devices, sneak path leakage can be reduced without additional selectors. The bilayer heterostructures of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se have various advantages such as self-compliance, reproducibility and forming-free stable RS. It confirms the possible applications of TMO and silver chalcogenide heterostructures in RRAM.

  6. Enhanced switching stability in Ta2O5 resistive RAM by fluorine doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedghi, N.; Li, H.; Brunell, I. F.; Dawson, K.; Guo, Y.; Potter, R. J.; Gibbon, J. T.; Dhanak, V. R.; Zhang, W. D.; Zhang, J. F.; Hall, S.; Robertson, J.; Chalker, P. R.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of fluorine doping on the switching stability of Ta2O5 resistive random access memory devices is investigated. It shows that the dopant serves to increase the memory window and improve the stability of the resistive states due to the neutralization of oxygen vacancies. The ability to alter the current in the low resistance state with set current compliance coupled with large memory window makes multilevel cell switching more favorable. The devices have set and reset voltages of <1 V with improved stability due to the fluorine doping. Density functional modeling shows that the incorporation of fluorine dopant atoms at the two-fold O vacancy site in the oxide network removes the defect state in the mid bandgap, lowering the overall density of defects capable of forming conductive filaments. This reduces the probability of forming alternative conducting paths and hence improves the current stability in the low resistance states. The doped devices exhibit more stable resistive states in both dc and pulsed set and reset cycles. The retention failure time is estimated to be a minimum of 2 years for F-doped devices measured by temperature accelerated and stress voltage accelerated retention failure methods.

  7. Reversible voltage dependent transition of abnormal and normal bipolar resistive switching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyu; Li, Chen; Chen, Yan; Xia, Yidong; Wu, Di; Xu, Qingyu

    2016-11-14

    Clear understanding the mechanism of resistive switching is the important prerequisite for the realization of high performance nonvolatile resistive random access memory. In this paper, binary metal oxide MoO x layer sandwiched by ITO and Pt electrodes was taken as a model system, reversible transition of abnormal and normal bipolar resistive switching (BRS) in dependence on the maximum voltage was observed. At room temperature, below a critical maximum voltage of 2.6 V, butterfly shaped I-V curves of abnormal BRS has been observed with low resistance state (LRS) to high resistance state (HRS) transition in both polarities and always LRS at zero field. Above 2.6 V, normal BRS was observed, and HRS to LRS transition happened with increasing negative voltage applied. Temperature dependent I-V measurements showed that the critical maximum voltage increased with decreasing temperature, suggesting the thermal activated motion of oxygen vacancies. Abnormal BRS has been explained by the partial compensation of electric field from the induced dipoles opposite to the applied voltage, which has been demonstrated by the clear amplitude-voltage and phase-voltage hysteresis loops observed by piezoelectric force microscopy. The normal BRS was due to the barrier modification at Pt/MoO x interface by the accumulation and depletion of oxygen vacancies.

  8. Fabrication of resistive switching memory structure using double-sided-anodized porous alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Yoshitaka; Hosono, Takaya; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2017-05-01

    Double-sides of aluminum sheet were anodized; at first, one side (front-side) of aluminum sheet was anodized, and the pores were filled with nickel using electroplating technique. Next, the other side (back side) of aluminum sheet was anodized. After formation of electrodes on both sides of anodic porous alumina, the current-voltage characteristics were examined, and reversible change in the resistance between metallic and insulating states was measured during mono-polar operation. This switching behavior could be measured for the sample with the depth of backside pores of about 100 μm. The bias voltage, at which the resistance state changed into the lower-resistance state from the higher-resistance state, decreased with decreasing the depth of backside pores, and the bias voltage was about 1 V in the case of the backside pores of about 10 μm.

  9. Evaluation of resistive switching properties of Si-rich oxide embedded with Ti nanodots by applying constant voltage and current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Akio; Kato, Yusuke; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-06-01

    We have studied the resistive switching behaviors of electron beam (EB) evaporated Si-rich oxide (SiO x ) sandwiched between Ni electrodes by applying a constant voltage and current. Additionally, the impact of Ti nanodots (NDs) embedded into SiO x on resistive switching behaviors was investigated because it is expected that NDs can trigger the formation of a conductive filament path in SiO x . The resistive switching behaviors of SiO x show that the response time during resistance switching was decreased by increasing the applied constant current or constant voltage. It was found that Ti-NDs in SiO x enhance the conductive filament path formation owing to electric field concentration by Ti-NDs.

  10. Elucidation and Optimization of Resistive Random Access Memory Switching Behavior for Advanced Computing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamgir, Zahiruddin

    RRAM has recently emerged as a strong candidate for non-volatile memory (NVM). Beyond memory applications, RRAM holds promise for use in performing logic functions, mimicking neuromorphic activities, enabling multi-level switching, and as one of the key elements of hardware based encryption or signal processing systems. It has been shown previously that RRAM resistance levels can be changed by adjusting compliance current or voltage level. This characteristic makes RRAM suitable for use in setting the synaptic weight in neuromorphic computing circuits. RRAM is also considered as a key element in hardware encryption systems, to produce unique and reproducible signals. However, a key challenge to implement RRAM in these applications is significant cycle to cycle performance variability. We sought to develop RRAM that can be tuned to different resistance levels gradually, with high reliability, and low variability. To achieve this goal, we focused on elucidating the conduction mechanisms underlying the resistive switching behavior for these devices. Electrical conduction mechanisms were determined by curve fitting I-V data using different current conduction equations. Temperature studies were also performed to corroborate these data. It was found that Schottky barrier height and width modulation was one of the key parameters that could be tuned to achieve different resistance levels, and for switching resistance states, primarily via oxygen vacancy movement. Oxygen exchange layers with different electronegativity were placed between top electrode and the oxide layer of TaOx devices to determine the effect of oxygen vacancy concentrations and gradients in these devices. It was found that devices with OELs with lower electronegativity tend to yield greater separation in the OFF vs. ON state resistance levels. As an extension of this work, TaOx based RRAM with Hf as the OEL was fabricated and could be tuned to different resistance level using pulse width and height

  11. E-field induced resistive switch in metal/praseodymium calcium manganite interfaces: A model for future nonvolatile memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Nilanjan

    Among the various candidates for non-volatile random access memory (RAM), interfacial resistive switch in Ag/Pr0.7Ca0.3 MnO3 (PCMO) configuration has drawn major attention in recent years due to its potential as a high storage density (˜ terabyte) device. However, the diverse nature of the resistive switch in different systems makes the development of a unifying model for its underlying physics very difficult. This dissertation will address both issues, namely, characterization of switches for device applications and development of a system-independent generic model, in detail. In our work, we have studied the properties electric pulse induced interfacial switch in electrode/PCMO system. A very fast speed ("write speed") of 100 ns, threshold ("programming voltage") as low as 2 V (for micro electrodes), and non-volatility ("data retention") of switched states have been achieved. A clear distinction between fast switch and sub-threshold slow quasistatic-dc switch has been made. Results obtained from time-dependence studies and impedance spectroscopy suggest that defect creation/annihilation, such as broken bonds (under very high field at interface, 107V/cm), is likely the mechanism for the sub-micros fast switching. On the other hand, slow accumulative process, such as electromigration of point defects, are responsible for the subthreshold quasi-dc switch. Scanning probe imaging has revealed the nanoscale inhomogeneity of the switched surfaces, essential for observing a resistive switch. Evolution of such structures has been observed under surface pre-training. Device scalability has been tested by creating reversible modification of surface conductivities with atomic force microscopy, thus creating the "nano-switch" (limited to a region of 10--100 nm).

  12. Non-volatile resistive switching in the Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querré, M.; Tranchant, J.; Corraze, B.; Cordier, S.; Bouquet, V.; Députier, S.; Guilloux-Viry, M.; Besland, M.-P.; Janod, E.; Cario, L.

    2018-05-01

    The discovery of non-volatile resistive switching in Mott insulators related to an electric-field-induced insulator to metal transition (IMT) has paved the way for their use in a new type of non-volatile memories, the Mott memories. While most of the previous studies were dedicated to uncover the resistive switching mechanism and explore the memory potential of chalcogenide Mott insulators, we present here a comprehensive study of resistive switching in the canonical oxide Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3. Our work demonstrates that this compound undergoes a non-volatile resistive switching under electric field. This resistive switching is induced by a Mott transition at the local scale which creates metallic domains closely related to existing phases of the temperature-pressure phase diagram of (V1-xCrx)2O3. Our work demonstrates also reversible resistive switching in (V1-xCrx)2O3 crystals and thin film devices. Preliminary performances obtained on 880 nm thick layers with 500 nm electrodes show the strong potential of Mott memories based on the Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3.

  13. Parameters controlling microstructures and resistance switching of electrodeposited cuprous oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanparast, Sanaz

    2016-12-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were electrodeposited cathodically from a highly alkaline bath using tartrate as complexing agent. Different microstructures for Cu2O thin films were achieved by varying the applied potential from -0.285 to -0.395 V versus a reference electrode of Ag/AgCl at 50 °C in potentiostatic mode, and separately by changing the bath temperature from 25 to 50 °C in galvanostatic mode. Characterization experiments showed that both grain size and orientation of Cu2O can be controlled by changing the applied potential. Applying a high negative potential of -0.395 V resulted in smaller grain size of Cu2O thin films with a preferred orientation in [111] direction. An increase in the bath temperature in galvanostatic electrodeposition increased the grain size of Cu2O thin films. All the films in Au/Cu2O/Au-Pd cell showed unipolar resistance switching behavior after an initial FORMING process. Increasing the grain size of Cu2O thin films and decreasing the top electrode area increased the FORMING voltage and decreased the current level of high resistance state (HRS). The current in low resistance state (LRS) was independent of the top electrode area and the grain size of deposited films, suggesting a filamentary conduction mechanism in unipolar resistance switching of Cu2O.

  14. Brownmillerite thin films as fast ion conductors for ultimate-performance resistance switching memory.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Susant Kumar; Jo, Janghyun; Raveendra, Nallagatlla Venkata; Dash, Umasankar; Kim, Miyoung; Baik, Hionsuck; Lee, Sangik; Park, Bae Ho; Lee, Jae Sung; Chae, Seung Chul; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jung, Chang Uk

    2017-07-27

    An oxide-based resistance memory is a leading candidate to replace Si-based flash memory as it meets the emerging specifications for future memory devices. The non-uniformity in the key switching parameters and low endurance in conventional resistance memory devices are preventing its practical application. Here, a novel strategy to overcome the aforementioned challenges has been unveiled by tuning the growth direction of epitaxial brownmillerite SrFeO 2.5 thin films along the SrTiO 3 [111] direction so that the oxygen vacancy channels can connect both the top and bottom electrodes rather directly. The controlled oxygen vacancy channels help reduce the randomness of the conducting filament (CF). The resulting device displayed high endurance over 10 6 cycles, and a short switching time of ∼10 ns. In addition, the device showed very high uniformity in the key switching parameters for device-to-device and within a device. This work demonstrates a feasible example for improving the nanoscale device performance by controlling the atomic structure of a functional oxide layer.

  15. Transparent resistive switching memory using aluminum oxide on a flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Seung-Won; Shin, Sang-Chul; Kim, Tan-Young; Ha, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Yun-Hi; Shim, Jae Won; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Resistive switching memory (ReRAM) has attracted much attention in recent times owing to its fast switching, simple structure, and non-volatility. Flexible and transparent electronic devices have also attracted considerable attention. We therefore fabricated an Al2O3-based ReRAM with transparent indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) electrodes on a flexible substrate. The device transmittance was found to be higher than 80% in the visible region (400-800 nm). Bended states (radius = 10 mm) of the device also did not affect the memory performance because of the flexibility of the two transparent IZO electrodes and the thin Al2O3 layer. The conduction mechanism of the resistive switching of our device was explained by ohmic conduction and a Poole-Frenkel emission model. The conduction mechanism was proved by oxygen vacancies in the Al2O3 layer, as analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. These results encourage the application of ReRAM in flexible and transparent electronic devices.

  16. Non-equilibrium character of resistive switching and negative differential resistance in Ga-doped Cr2O3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, R. N.; Siva, K. Venkata

    2018-07-01

    The samples of Ga-doped Cr2O3 system in rhombohedral crystal structure with space group R 3 bar C were prepared by chemical co-precipitation route and annealing at 800 °C. The current-voltage (I-V) curves exhibited many unique non-linear properties, e.g., hysteresis loop, resistive switching, and negative differential resistance (NDR). In this work, we report non-equilibrium properties of resistive switching and NDR phenomena. The non-equilibrium I-V characteristics were confirmed by repetiting measurement and time relaxation of current. The charge conduction process was understood by analysing the I-V curves using electrode-limited and bulk-limited charge conduction mechanisms, which were proposed for metal electrode/metal oxide/metal electrode structure. The I-V curves in the NDR regime and at higher bias voltage regime in our samples did not obey Fowler-Nordheim equation, which was proposed for charge tunneling mechanism in many thin film junctions. The non-equilibrium I-V phenomena were explained by considering the competitions between the injection of charge carriers from metal electrode to metal oxide, the charge flow through bulk material mediated by trapping/de-trapping and recombination of charge carriers at the defect sites of ions, the space charge effects at the junctions of electrodes and metal oxides, and finally, the out flow of electrons from metal oxide to metal electrode.

  17. Thickness effect of ultra-thin Ta2O5 resistance switching layer in 28 nm-diameter memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae Hyung; Song, Seul Ji; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Soo Gil; Chung, Suock; Kim, Beom Yong; Lee, Kee Jeung; Kim, Kyung Min; Choi, Byung Joon; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2015-11-01

    Resistance switching (RS) devices with ultra-thin Ta2O5 switching layer (0.5-2.0 nm) with a cell diameter of 28 nm were fabricated. The performance of the devices was tested by voltage-driven current—voltage (I-V) sweep and closed-loop pulse switching (CLPS) tests. A Ta layer was placed beneath the Ta2O5 switching layer to act as an oxygen vacancy reservoir. The device with the smallest Ta2O5 thickness (0.5 nm) showed normal switching properties with gradual change in resistance in I-V sweep or CLPS and high reliability. By contrast, other devices with higher Ta2O5 thickness (1.0-2.0 nm) showed abrupt switching with several abnormal behaviours, degraded resistance distribution, especially in high resistance state, and much lower reliability performance. A single conical or hour-glass shaped double conical conducting filament shape was conceived to explain these behavioural differences that depended on the Ta2O5 switching layer thickness. Loss of oxygen via lateral diffusion to the encapsulating Si3N4/SiO2 layer was suggested as the main degradation mechanism for reliability, and a method to improve reliability was also proposed.

  18. Electrical Characterization of Temperature Dependent Resistive Switching in Pr0.7C0.3MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Melinda; Salvo, Christopher; Tsui, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Resistive switching offers a non-volatile and reversible means to possibly create a more physically compact yet larger access capacity in memory technology. While there has been a great deal of research conducted on this electrical property in oxide materials, there is still more to be learned about this at both high voltage pulsing and cryogenic temperatures. In this work, the electrical properties of a PCMO-metal interface switch were examined after application of voltage pulsing varying from 100 V to 1000 V and at temperatures starting at 293 K and lowered to 80 K. What was discovered was that below temperatures of 150 K, the resistive switching began to decrease across all voltage pulsing and that at all temperatures before this cessation, the change in resistive switching increased with higher voltage pulsing. We suggest that a variable density of charge traps at the interface is a likely mechanism, and work continues to extract more details.

  19. Fabrication of Nano-Crossbar Resistive Switching Memory Based on the Copper-Tantalum Pentoxide-Platinum Device Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olga Gneri, Paula; Jardim, Marcos

    Resistive switching memory has been of interest lately not only for its simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure but also for its promising ease of scalability an integration into current CMOS technologies like the Field Programmable Gate Arrays and other non-volatile memory applications. There are several resistive switching MIM combinations but under this scope of research, attention will be paid to the bipolar resistive switching characteristics and fabrication of Tantalum Pentaoxide sandwiched between platinum and copper. By changing the polarity of the voltage bias, this metal-insulator-metal (MIM) device can be switched between a high resistive state (OFF) and low resistive state (ON). The change in states is induced by an electrochemical metallization process, which causes a formation or dissolution of Cu metal filamentary paths in the Tantalum Pentaoxide insulator. There is very little thorough experimental information about the Cu-Ta 2O5-Pt switching characteristics when scaled to nanometer dimensions. In this light, the MIM structure was fabricated in a two-dimensional crossbar format. Also, with the limited available resources, a multi-spacer technique was formulated to localize the active device area in this MIM configuration to less than 20nm. This step is important in understanding the switching characteristics and reliability of this structure when scaled to nanometer dimensions.

  20. Stress-Induced Resistive Switching in Pt/HfO2/Ti Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeevi, Gilad; Katsman, Alexander; Yaish, Yuval E.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, we study the initial SET mechanism of resistive switching (RS) in Pt/HfO2/Ti devices under a static electrical stress and the RS mechanism under a bias sweeping mode with rates of 100 mV/s-300 mV/s. We characterize the thin HfO2 dielectric layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. These findings show that the layer structure is stoichiometric and nanocrystalline with a crystal diameter of ˜ 14 Å. We measure the temporal dependence of the conductive filament growth at different temperatures and for various biases. Furthermore, these devices present stable bipolar resistive switching with a high-to-low resistive state (HRS/LRS) ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. Activation energy E RS ≈ 0.56 eV and drift current parameter V 0 ≈ 0.07 V were determined from the temporal dependence of the initial `SET' process, first HRS to LRS transition [for static electrical stress of V DS = (4.7-5.0 V)]. We analyze the results according to our model suggesting generation of double-charge oxygen vacancies at the anode and their diffusion across the dielectric layer. The double-charge vacancies transform to a single charge and then to neutral vacancies by capturing hot electrons, and form a conductive filament as soon as a critical neutral-vacancy cluster is formed across the dielectric layer.

  1. Printing an ITO-free flexible poly (4-vinylphenol) resistive switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Junaid; Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Aziz, Shahid; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Resistive switching in a sandwich structure of silver (Ag)/Polyvinyl phenol (PVP)/carbon nanotube (CNTs)-silver nanowires (AgNWs) coated on a flexible PET substrate is reported in this work. Densely populated networks of one dimensional nano materials (1DNM), CNTs-AgNWs have been used as the conductive bottom electrode with the prominent features of high flexibility and low sheet resistance of 90 Ω/sq. Thin, yet uniform active layer of PVP was deposited on top of the spin coated 1DNM thin film through state of the art printing technique of electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) with an average thickness of 170 ± 28 nm. Ag dots with an active area of ∼0.1 mm2 were deposited through roll to plate printing system as the top electrodes to complete the device fabrication of flexible memory device. Our memory device exhibited suitable electrical characteristics with OFF/ON ratio of 100:1, retention time of 60 min and electrical endurance for 100 voltage sweeps without any noticeable decay in performance. The resistive switching characteristics at a low current compliance of 3 nA were also evaluated for the application of low power consumption. This memory device is flexible and can sustain more than 100 bending cycles at a bending diameter of 2 cm with stable HRS and LRS values. Our proposed device shows promise to be used as a future potential nonvolatile memory device in flexible electronics.

  2. Bipolar resistance switching in Pt/CuO x /Pt via local electrochemical reduction

    DOE PAGES

    D'Aquila, Kenneth; Phatak, Charudatta; Holt, Martin V.; ...

    2014-06-17

    We investigated the local changes in copper oxidation state and the corresponding resistance changes in Pt/CuO x/Pt nanoscale heterostructures using x-ray nanoprobe spectro-microscopy and current-voltage characterization. After gentle electroforming, during which the current-voltage behavior remains non-linear, the low resistance state was reached, and we also observed regions of 160 nm width that show an increase in Cu K-alpha fluorescence intensity, indicative of partial reduction of the CuO x. Analysis of the current voltage curves showed that the dominant conduction mechanism is Schottky emission and that the resistance state is correlated with the Schottky barrier height. We also propose that themore » reversible resistivity change in these Pt/CuO x/Pt heterostructures occurs through local electrochemical reduction leading to change of the Schottky barrier height at the interface between Pt and the reduced CuO x layers and to change of the CuO x resistivity within laterally confined portions of the CuO x layer. Our experiments reveal important insights into the mechanism of resistance switching of Pt/CuO x/Pt performed in a current and voltage regime that does not create a metallic conduction path.« less

  3. Disturbance characteristics of half-selected cells in a cross-point resistive switching memory array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Li, Haitong; Chen, Hong-Yu; Chen, Bing; Liu, Rui; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Feifei; Jiang, Zizhen; Ye, Hongfei; Gao, Bin; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Yu, Shimeng

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance characteristics of cross-point resistive random access memory (RRAM) arrays are comprehensively studied in this paper. An analytical model is developed to quantify the number of pulses (#Pulse) the cell can bear before disturbance occurs under various sub-switching voltage stresses based on physical understanding. An evaluation methodology is proposed to assess the disturb behavior of half-selected (HS) cells in cross-point RRAM arrays by combining the analytical model and SPICE simulation. The characteristics of cross-point RRAM arrays such as energy consumption, reliable operating cycles and total error bits are evaluated by the methodology. A possible solution to mitigate disturbance is proposed.

  4. Multiferroic YCrO3 thin films grown on glass substrate: Resistive switching characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeongdae; Ahn, Yoonho; Son, Jong Yeog

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline YCrO3 thin films were deposited on (111) Pt/Ta/glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The YCrO3 thin films exhibited good ferroelectric properties with remnant polarization of about 5 µC/cm2. Large leakage current was observed by I- V curve and ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The YCrO3 resistive random access memory (RRAM) capacitor showed unipolar switching behaviors with SET and RESET voltages higher than those of general NiO RRAM capacitors. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Investigation of the resistive switching in AgxAsS2 layer by conductive AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Kutalek, Petr; Knotek, Petr; Hromadko, Ludek; Macak, Jan M.; Wagner, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a study of resistive switching in AgxAsS2 layer, based on a utilization of conductive atomic force microscope (AFM), is reported. As the result of biasing, two distinct regions were created on the surface (the conductive region and non-conductive region). Both were analysed from the spread current maps. The volume change, corresponding to the growth of Ag particles, was derived from the topological maps, recorded simultaneously with the current maps. Based on the results, a model explaining the mechanism of the Ag particle and Ag filament formation was proposed from the distribution of charge carriers and Ag ions.

  6. Different threshold and bipolar resistive switching mechanisms in reactively sputtered amorphous undoped and Cr-doped vanadium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Jonathan A. J.; Querré, Madec; Kindsmüller, Andreas; Besland, Marie-Paule; Janod, Etienne; Dittmann, Regina; Waser, Rainer; Wouters, Dirk J.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates resistive switching in amorphous undoped and Cr-doped vanadium oxide thin films synthesized by sputtering deposition at low oxygen partial pressure. Two different volatile threshold switching characteristics can occur as well as a non-volatile bipolar switching mechanism, depending on device stack symmetry and Cr-doping. The two threshold switching types are associated with different crystalline phases in the conduction filament created during an initial forming step. The first kind of threshold switching, observed for undoped vanadium oxide films, was, by its temperature dependence, proven to be associated with a thermally triggered insulator-to-metal transition in a crystalline VO2 phase, whereas the threshold switch observed in chromium doped films is stable up to 90 °C and shows characteristics of an electronically induced Mott transition. This different behaviour for undoped versus doped films has been attributed to an increased stability of V3+ due to the Cr3+ doping (as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis), probably favouring the creation of a crystalline Cr-doped V2O3 phase (rather than a Cr-doped VO2 phase) during the energetic forming step. The symmetric Pt/a-(VCr)Ox/Pt device showing high temperature stable threshold switching may find interesting applications as a possible new selector device for resistive switching memory (ReRAM) crossbar arrays.

  7. Effect of oxygen concentration and metal electrode on the resistive switching in MIM capacitors with transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassov, D.; Paskaleva, A.; Fröhlich, K.; Ivanov, Tz

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the oxygen content in the dielectric layer and the effect of the bottom electrode on the resistive switching in Au/Pt/TaOx/TiN and Au/Pt/TaOx/Ta structures have been studied. The sputtered TaOx layers have been prepared by using oxygen concentrations of 10 or 7% O 2 in the Ar+O2 working ambient as well as by a gradual variation of the O2 content in the deposition process from 5 to 10%. Two deposition regimes for TiN electrodes have been investigated: reactive sputtering of Ti target in Ar+N2 ambient, and sputtering of TiN target in pure Ar. Bipolar resistive switching behavior is observed in all examined structures. It is demonstrated that the resistive switching effect is affected by the oxygen content in the working ambient as well as by the type and the deposition conditions of the bottom electrodes. Most stable effect, with ON/OFF ratio above 100 is obtained in TaOx deposited with variable O2 content in the ambient. The obtained switching voltage between the high resistive and low resistive state (SET) is about -1.5 V and the reverse changeover (RESET) is ∼2 V. A well pronounced resistive switching is achieved with reactively sputtered TiN while for the other bottom electrodes the effect is negligible.

  8. Abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior in a Pt/GaO{sub 1.3}/Pt structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, D. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Zhang, L. J.

    2015-07-20

    A stable and repeatable abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior was observed in a Pt/GaO{sub 1.3}/Pt sandwich structure without an electroforming process. The low resistance state (LRS) and the high resistance state (HRS) of the device can be distinguished clearly and be switched reversibly under a train of the voltage pulses. The LRS exhibits a conduction of electron tunneling, while the HRS shows a conduction of Schottky-type. The observed phenomena are considered to be related to the migration of oxygen vacancies which changes the space charge region width of the metal/semiconductor interface and results in a different electron transport mechanism.

  9. Resistive and Ferroelectric-Domain Switching in Multiferroic BiFeO3 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, J. G.; Arango, I. C.; Gomez, M. F.; Dominguez, C.; Sulekar, S.; Cardona, A.; Trastoy, J.; Nino, J. C.; Schuller, I. K.; Gomez, M. E.

    Resistive switching (RS) in oxides has attracted much attention due to its potential application for nonvolatile memory and neuromorphic computing devices. Here we study the voltage-induced RS mechanisms in metal/multiferroic/semiconductor (Au/BiFeO3/Nb:SrTiO3) thin film vertical devices. We found switching with RON and ROFF ratios as big as 0.16 at voltages starting at +/- 2V. Further voltage increase produced an intensification of the RS effects, until dielectric breakdown was reached. Interestingly, the voltage at which the RS effect appears coincides with the coercive voltage of the ferroelectric polarization in similar BiFeO3 films, as measured by piezoelectric force microscopy. This suggests that the primary RS mechanism is the ferroelectric switching. Impedance spectroscopy measurements show filamentary contributions after ferroelectric saturation, possible due to voltage-induced movement of charge defects across the device and therefore suggesting an additional RS mechanism. Work supported by: Univalle CI 7999; FAPA at Uniandes; Colciencias 120471250659 and 120424054303. J.T. acknowledges the support from the Fundación Areces (Spain); AFOSR and DoD for a Vannevar Bush Fellowship.

  10. Bipolar resistive switching in room temperature grown disordered vanadium oxide thin-film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Franklin J.; Sriram, Tirunelveli S.; Smith, Brian R.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate bipolar switching with high OFF/ON resistance ratios (>104) in Pt/vanadium oxide/Cu structures deposited entirely at room temperature. The SET (RESET) process occurs when negative (positive) bias is applied to the top Cu electrode. The vanadium oxide (VOx) films are amorphous and close to the vanadium pentoxide stoichiometry. We also investigated Cu/VOx/W structures, reversing the position of the Cu electrode, and found the same polarity dependence with respect to the top and bottom electrodes, which suggests that the bipolar nature is linked to the VOx layer itself. Bipolar switching can be observed at 100 °C, indicating that it not due to a temperature-induced metal-insulator transition of a vanadium dioxide second phase. We discuss how ionic drift can lead to the bipolar electrical behavior of our junctions, similar to those observed in devices based on several other defective oxides. Such low-temperature processed oxide switches could be of relevance to back-end or package integration processing schemes.

  11. Performance comparison of hybrid resistive switching devices based on solution-processable nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Krishna; Roppolo, Ignazio; Bejtka, Katarzyna; Chiappone, Annalisa; Bocchini, Sergio; Perrone, Denis; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Ricciardi, Carlo; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2018-06-01

    The present work compares the influence of different polymer matrices on the performance of planar asymmetric Resistive Switching Devices (RSDs) based on silver nitrate and Ionic Liquid (IL). PolyVinyliDene Fluoride-HexaFluoroPropylene (PVDF-HFP), PolyEthylene Oxide (PEO), PolyMethyl MethAcrylate (PMMA) and a blend of PVDF-HFP and PEO were used as matrices and compared. RSDs represent perhaps the most promising electron device to back the More than Moore development, and our approach through functional polymers enables low temperature processing and gives compatibility towards flexible/stretchable/wearable equipment. The switching mechanism in all the four sample families is explained by means of a filamentary conduction. A huge difference in the cyclability and the On/Off ratio is experienced when changing the active polymers and explained based on the polymer crystallinity degree and general morphology of the prepared nanocomposite. It is worth noting that all the RSDs discussed here present good switching behaviour with reasonable endurance. The current study displays one of the most cost-effective and effortless ways to produce an RSD based on solution-processable materials.

  12. Bipolar resistive switching in graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure for non-volatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rakesh; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Anil; Kashyap, Rajesh; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide based devices have attracted much attention recently because of their possible application in next generation electronic devices. In this study, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure were investigated for nonvolatile memories. The graphene oxide was prepared by the conventional Hummer's method and deposited on ITO coated glass by spin-coating technique. The dominant mechanism of resistive switching is the formation and rupture of the conductive filament inside the graphene oxide. The conduction mechanism for low and high resistance states are dominated by two mechanism the ohmic conduction and space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism, respectively. Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Cyclic-Voltammetry were conducted to observe the morphology, structure and behavior of the material. The fabricated device with Al/GO/ITO structure exhibited reliable bipolar resistive switching with set & reset voltage of -2.3 V and 3V respectively.

  13. EFFECTS OF TiOx INTERLAYER ON RESISTANCE SWITCHING OF Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si STRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxia; Lv, Xiaojun; Xi, Junhua; Wu, Xin; Mao, Qinan; Liu, Qingmin; Ji, Zhenguo

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we fabricated Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si structures by inserting TiOx interlayer between Pt top electrode (TE) and ZnO thin film for non-volatile resistive random access memory (ReRAM) applications. Effects of TiOx interlayer with different thickness on the resistance switching of Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si structures were investigated. Conduction behaviors in high and low resistance state (HRS and LRS) fit well with the trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) and Ohmic behavior, respectively. Variations of set and reset voltages and HRS and LRS resistances of Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si structures were investigated as a function of TiOx thickness. Switching cycling tests were attempted to evaluate the endurance reliability of Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si structures. Additionally, the switching mechanism was analyzed by the filament model.

  14. Light-induced new memory states in electronic resistive switching of NiO/NSTO junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ling; Li, G. Q.; Zhang, W. F.

    2016-02-01

    n-type and p-type NiO films were prepared on SrTiO3:Nb (NSTO) by controlling oxygen pressures during the process of pulsed laser deposition. The results of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and photocurrent investigation indicate that the junction shows a typical electronic bipolar resistive switching (RS) behavior and the optical injection can add new resistance states. Photocurrents can obviously be modulated by different resistance states of NiO/NSTO junction. The linear fitting results of I-V curves reveal that the low resistance state follows Ohmic behavior and the high resistance state follows Schottky-emission mechanism. The depletion widths under forward and reverse bias in the dark and with the illumination were estimated respectively. Combined with the energy band structure, the mechanism of RS and photoresponse in the NiO/NSTO junction can be attributed to the variance of interfacial barrier during electrical and optical injection. These results pave the way for the application of the NiO/NSTO junction in the multilevel storage of optical-electrical devices.

  15. Power- and Low-Resistance-State-Dependent, Bipolar Reset-Switching Transitions in SiN-Based Resistive Random-Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungjun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A study on the bipolar-resistive switching of an Ni/SiN/Si-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) device shows that the influences of the reset power and the resistance value of the low-resistance state (LRS) on the reset-switching transitions are strong. For a low LRS with a large conducting path, the sharp reset switching, which requires a high reset power (>7 mW), was observed, whereas for a high LRS with small multiple-conducting paths, the step-by-step reset switching with a low reset power (<7 mW) was observed. The attainment of higher nonlinear current-voltage ( I-V) characteristics in terms of the step-by-step reset switching is due to the steep current-increased region of the trap-controlled space charge-limited current (SCLC) model. A multilevel cell (MLC) operation, for which the reset stop voltage ( V STOP) is used in the DC sweep mode and an incremental amplitude is used in the pulse mode for the step-by-step reset switching, is demonstrated here. The results of the present study suggest that well-controlled conducting paths in a SiN-based RRAM device, which are not too strong and not too weak, offer considerable potential for the realization of low-power and high-density crossbar-array applications.

  16. The nanocoherer: an electrically and mechanically resettable resistive switching device based on gold clusters assembled on paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnai, Chloé; Mirigliano, Matteo; Brown, Simon A.; Milani, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    We report the realization of a resettable resistive switching device based on a nanostructured film fabricated by supersonic cluster beam deposition of gold clusters on plain paper substrates. Through the application of suitable voltage ramps, we obtain, in the same device, either a complex pattern of resistive switchings, or reproducible and stable switchings between low resistance and high resistance states, with an amplitude up to five orders of magnitude. Our device retains a state of internal resistance following the history of the applied voltage similar to that reported for memristors. The two different switching regimes in the same device are both stable, the transition between them is reversible, and it can be controlled by applying voltage ramps or by mechanical deformation of the substrate. The device behavior can be related to the formation, growth and breaking of junctions between the loosely aggregated gold clusters forming the nanostructured films. The fact that our cluster-assembled device is mechanically resettable suggests that it can be considered as the analog of the coherer: a switching device based on metallic powders used for the first radio communication system.

  17. Effect of oxygen concentration on resistive switching behavior in silicon oxynitride film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da; Huang, Shihua; He, Lü

    2017-04-01

    SiO{}xN{}y films with different oxygen concentrations were fabricated by reactive magnetron sputtering, and the resistive switching characteristics and conduction mechanism of Cu/SiO{}xN{}y/ITO devices were investigated. The Cu/SiO{}xN{}y/ITO device with SiO{}xN{}y deposited in 0.8-sccm O{}2 flow shows a reliable resistive switching behavior, including good endurance and retention properties. As the conductivity of SiO{}xN{}y increases with the increase of the oxygen content dynamical electron trapping and detrapping is suggested to be the conduction mechanism. The temperature dependent I-V measurement indicates that the carrier transport can be ascribed to the hopping conduction rather than the metallic conductive filament. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LY17F040001), the Open Project Program of Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) of Fudan University (No. KF2015_02), the Open Project Program of National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. M201503), the Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Key Innovation Team (No. 2011R50012), and the Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory (No. 2013E10022).

  18. Physical mechanism of resistance switching in the co-doped RRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Dai, Yuehua; Lu, Shibin; Jiang, Xianwei; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Junning

    2017-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the resistance switching for RRAM with co-doped defects (Ag and oxygen vacancy) is studied based on the first principle calculations and the simulation tool VASP. The interaction energy, formation energy and density of states of Ag and oxygen vacancy defect (VO) are calculated. The calculated results reveal that the co-doped system is more stable than the system only doped either Ag or VO defect and the impurity energy levels in the band gap are contributed by Ag and VO defects. The obtained partial charge density confirmed further that the clusters are obvious in the direction of Ag to Hf ions, which means that it is Ag but VO plays a role of conductive paths. For the formation mechanism, the modified electron affinity and the partial charge density difference are calculated. The results show that the ability of electron donors of Ag is stronger than VO In conclusion, the conductivity of the physical mechanism of resistance switching in the co-doped system mainly depends on the doped Ag. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376106), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Anhui Province, China (Nos. KJ2015A276, KJ2016A574, KJ2014A208), and the Special Foundation for Young Scientists of Hefei Normal University (No. 2015rcjj02).

  19. Transient Resistive Switching Devices Made from Egg Albumen Dielectrics and Dissolvable Electrodes.

    PubMed

    He, Xingli; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Wenbo; Xuan, Weipeng; Wang, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Qilong; Smith, Charles G; Luo, Jikui

    2016-05-04

    Egg albumen as the dielectric, and dissolvable Mg and W as the top and bottom electrodes are used to fabricate water-soluble memristors. 4 × 4 cross-bar configuration memristor devices show a bipolar resistive switching behavior with a high to low resistance ratio in the range of 1 × 10(2) to 1 × 10(4), higher than most other biomaterial-based memristors, and a retention time over 10(4) s without any sign of deterioration, demonstrating its high stability and reliability. Metal filaments accompanied by hopping conduction are believed to be responsible for the switching behavior of the memory devices. The Mg and W electrodes, and albumen film all can be dissolved in water within 72 h, showing their transient characteristics. This work demonstrates a new way to fabricate biocompatible and dissolvable electronic devices by using cheap, abundant, and 100% natural materials for the forthcoming bioelectronics era as well as for environmental sensors when the Internet of things takes off.

  20. An associative capacitive network based on nanoscale complementary resistive switches for memory-intensive computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehei, Omid; Linn, Eike; Nielen, Lutz; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Skafidas, Efstratios; Valov, Ilia; Waser, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    We report on the implementation of an Associative Capacitive Network (ACN) based on the nondestructive capacitive readout of two Complementary Resistive Switches (2-CRSs). ACNs are capable of performing a fully parallel search for Hamming distances (i.e. similarity) between input and stored templates. Unlike conventional associative memories where charge retention is a key function and hence, they require frequent refresh cycles, in ACNs, information is retained in a nonvolatile resistive state and normal tasks are carried out through capacitive coupling between input and output nodes. Each device consists of two CRS cells and no selective element is needed, therefore, CMOS circuitry is only required in the periphery, for addressing and read-out. Highly parallel processing, nonvolatility, wide interconnectivity and low-energy consumption are significant advantages of ACNs over conventional and emerging associative memories. These characteristics make ACNs one of the promising candidates for applications in memory-intensive and cognitive computing, switches and routers as binary and ternary Content Addressable Memories (CAMs) and intelligent data processing.

  1. Beta-Ga2O3: A transparent conductive oxide for potential resistive switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaohao

    My primary research focus is controlling conductivity in Ga2O3, with the broader goal of seeking both new materials science and possible applications. Regarding new materials science, the key goal is to elucidate connections between defects and conductivity in β- Ga2O3, then, based on an understanding of the conduction mechanism of Ga2O3, determine and evaluate the potential of β-Ga2O3 as a resistive switching (RS) material. To systematically investigate the feasibility of Ga2O3 in memristor applications, several aspects was examined. One of the first questions to be answered is how defects play a role in the conductivity of Ga2O3. To establish connections between conductivity and defects, a direct approach is to investigate the connections between the local structure and the concomitant electronic responses, paying particular attention to the role of both intrinsic and extrinsic defects. The approach I used was to compare the directional and thermal dependence of the conductivity induced through annealing in various environments (i.e., intentionally changing the intrinsic and extrinsic defect concentrations), and elucidate the roles of dimensionality and sample processing in controlling these processes through a comparison of the bulk. Such a strategy involves careful characterization of both the atomic and electronic structure at both nanoscopic and macroscopic length scales. Although various calculations has predicted conductivity is independent from oxygen vacancy, no experimental work is reported as supports to theoretical studies due to the hardness to dissociate oxygen vacancy increase from other defect changes, such as Hydrogen interstitial increase, surface band bending reduction from surface population of charged vacancies, metal contact to Ga2O3 interface changes, etc . We intentionally inject and/or remove oxygen defects through annealing in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The effects of such annealing treatments were investigated using X

  2. Exploring the energy landscape of resistive switching in antiferromagnetic S r3I r2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Morgan; Shen, Shida; Cao, Gang; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B.; Tsoi, Maxim

    2018-04-01

    We study the resistive switching triggered by an applied electrical bias in the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator S r3I r2O7 . The switching was previously associated with an electric-field-driven structural transition. Here we use time-resolved measurements to probe the thermal activation behavior of the switching process and acquire information about the energy barrier associated with the transition. We quantify the changes in the energy-barrier height with respect to the applied bias and find a linear decrease of the barrier with increasing bias. Our observations support the potential of antiferromagnetic transition-metal oxides for spintronic applications.

  3. Unnecessary antiretroviral treatment switches and accumulation of HIV resistance mutations; two arguments for viral load monitoring in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sigaloff, Kim C E; Hamers, Raph L; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Mandaliya, Kishor; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; van Vugt, Michèle; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the consequences of using clinicoimmunological criteria to detect antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure and guide regimen switches in HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Frequencies of unnecessary switches, patterns of HIV drug resistance, and risk factors for the accumulation of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated mutations were evaluated. Cross-sectional analysis of adults switching ART regimens at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries was performed. Two types of failure identification were compared: diagnosis of clinicoimmunological failure without viral load testing (CIF only) or CIF with local targeted viral load testing (targeted VL). After study enrollment, reference HIV RNA and genotype were determined retrospectively. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with multiple thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) and NRTI cross-resistance (≥2 TAMs or Q151M or K65R/K70E). Of 250 patients with CIF switching to second-line ART, targeted VL was performed in 186. Unnecessary switch at reference HIV RNA <1000 copies per milliliter occurred in 46.9% of CIF only patients versus 12.4% of patients with targeted VL (P < 0.001). NRTI cross-resistance was observed in 48.0% of 183 specimens available for genotypic analysis, comprising ≥2 TAMs (37.7%), K65R (7.1%), K70E (3.3%), or Q151M (3.3%). The presence of NRTI cross-resistance was associated with the duration of ART exposure and zidovudine use. Clinicoimmunological monitoring without viral load testing resulted in frequent unnecessary regimen switches. Prolonged treatment failure was indicated by extensive NRTI cross-resistance. Access to virological monitoring should be expanded to prevent inappropriate switches, enable early failure detection and preserve second-line treatment options in Africa.

  4. Enhanced bipolar resistive switching behavior in polar Cr-doped barium titanate thin films without electro-forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakre, Atul; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-12-01

    An enhanced, repeatable and robust resistive switching phenomenon was observed in Cr substituted BaTiO3 polar ferroelectric thin films; fabricated and deposited by the sol-gel approach and spin coating technique, respectively. An enhanced bistable bipolar resistive switching (BRS) phenomenon without electro-forming process, low switching voltage (˜ 2 V) and moderate retention characteristics of 104 s along with a high Roff/Ron resistance ratio ˜103 was achieved. The current conduction analysis showed that the space charge limited conduction (SCLC) and Schottky emission conduction dominate in the high voltage range, while thermally active charge carriers (ohmic) in the lower voltage range. The impedance spectroscopy study indicates the formation of current conducting path and rupturing of oxygen vacancies during SET and RESET process.

  5. Nanocrystalline Si pathway induced unipolar resistive switching behavior from annealed Si-rich SiNx/SiNy multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Yang, Huafeng; Yu, Jie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2014-09-01

    Adding a resistive switching functionality to a silicon microelectronic chip is a new challenge in materials research. Here, we demonstrate that unipolar and electrode-independent resistive switching effects can be realized in the annealed Si-rich SiNx/SiNy multilayers with high on/off ratio of 109. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that for the high resistance state broken pathways composed of discrete nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) exist in the Si nitride multilayers. While for the low resistance state the discrete nc-Si regions is connected, forming continuous nc-Si pathways. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependent I-V characteristics and HRTEM photos, we found that the break-and-bridge evolution of nc-Si pathway is the origin of resistive switching memory behavior. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of the resistive switching behavior in nc-Si films, opening a way for it to be utilized as a material in Si-based memories.

  6. Engineering incremental resistive switching in TaOx based memristors for brain-inspired computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zongwei; Yin, Minghui; Zhang, Teng; Cai, Yimao; Wang, Yangyuan; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2016-07-01

    Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament growth (dissolution) dynamics with time, therefore significantly improving the conductance modulation linearity that is desirable in neuromorphic systems. In addition, the introduction of the DLL also served to reduce the power consumption of the memristor, and important synaptic learning rules in biological brains such as spike timing dependent plasticity were successfully implemented using these optimized devices. This study could provide general implications for continued optimizations of memristor performance for neuromorphic applications, by carefully tuning the dynamics involved in filament growth and dissolution.Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament

  7. Domain switching kinetics in ferroelectric-resistive BiFeO3 thin film memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jianwei; Jiang, Jun; Geng, Wenping; Chen, Zhihui; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Anquan

    2015-02-01

    We fabricated (00l) BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films in different growth modes on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 substrates using a pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray diffraction patterns show an out-of-plane lattice constant of 4.03 Å and ferroelectric polarization of 82 µC/cm2 for the BFO thin film in a layer-by-layer growth mode (2D-BFO), larger than 3.96 Å and 51 µC/cm2 for the thin film in the 3D-island formation growth mode (3D-BFO). The 2D-BFO thin film at 300 K shows switchable on/off diode currents upon polarization flipping near a negative coercive voltage, which is nevertheless absent from the above 3D-BFO thin film. From a positive-up-negative-down pulse characterization technique, we measured domain switching current transients as well as polarization-voltage (Pf-Vf) hysteresis loops in both semiconducting thin films. Pf-Vf hysteresis loops after 1 µs-retention time show the preferred domain orientation pointing to bottom electrodes in a 3D-BFO thin film. The poor retention of the domains pointing to top electrodes can be improved considerably in a 2D-BFO thin film. From these measurements, we extracted domain switching time dependence of coercive voltage at temperatures of 78-300 K. From these dependences, we found coercive voltages in semiconducting ferroelectric thin films much higher than those in insulating thin films, disobeying the traditional Merz equation. Finally, an equivalent resistance model in description of free-carrier compensation of the front domain boundary charge is developed to interpret this difference. This equivalent resistance can be coincidently extracted either from domain switching time dependence of coercive voltage or from applied voltage dependence of domain switching current, which drops almost linearly with the temperature until down to 0 in a ferroelectric insulator at 78 K.

  8. Opc expression, LPS immunotype switch and pilin conversion contribute to serum resistance of unencapsulated meningococci.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Kerstin; Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Claus, Heike; Jarva, Hanna; Meri, Seppo; Vogel, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis employs polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins to cope with human serum complement attack. To screen for factors influencing serum resistance, an assay was developed based on a colorimetric serum bactericidal assay. The screening used a genetically modified sequence type (ST)-41/44 clonal complex (cc) strain lacking LPS sialylation, polysaccharide capsule, the factor H binding protein (fHbp) and MutS, a protein of the DNA repair mechanism. After killing of >99.9% of the bacterial cells by serum treatment, the colorimetric assay was used to screen 1000 colonies, of which 35 showed enhanced serum resistance. Three mutant classes were identified. In the first class of mutants, enhanced expression of Opc was identified. Opc expression was associated with vitronectin binding and reduced membrane attack complex deposition confirming recent observations. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immunotype switch from immunotype L3 to L8/L1 by lgtA and lgtC phase variation represented the second class. Isogenic mutant analysis demonstrated that in ST-41/44 cc strains the L8/L1 immunotype was more serum resistant than the L3 immunotype. Consecutive analysis revealed that the immunotypes L8 and L1 were frequently observed in ST-41/44 cc isolates from both carriage and disease. Immunotype switch to L8/L1 is therefore suggested to contribute to the adaptive capacity of this meningococcal lineage. The third mutant class displayed a pilE allelic exchange associated with enhanced autoaggregation. The mutation of the C terminal hypervariable region D of PilE included a residue previously associated with increased pilus bundle formation. We suggest that autoaggregation reduced the surface area accessible to serum complement and protected from killing. The study highlights the ability of meningococci to adapt to environmental stress by phase variation and intrachromosomal recombination affecting subcapsular antigens.

  9. Opc Expression, LPS Immunotype Switch and Pilin Conversion Contribute to Serum Resistance of Unencapsulated Meningococci

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Kerstin; Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Claus, Heike; Jarva, Hanna; Meri, Seppo; Vogel, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis employs polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins to cope with human serum complement attack. To screen for factors influencing serum resistance, an assay was developed based on a colorimetric serum bactericidal assay. The screening used a genetically modified sequence type (ST)-41/44 clonal complex (cc) strain lacking LPS sialylation, polysaccharide capsule, the factor H binding protein (fHbp) and MutS, a protein of the DNA repair mechanism. After killing of >99.9% of the bacterial cells by serum treatment, the colorimetric assay was used to screen 1000 colonies, of which 35 showed enhanced serum resistance. Three mutant classes were identified. In the first class of mutants, enhanced expression of Opc was identified. Opc expression was associated with vitronectin binding and reduced membrane attack complex deposition confirming recent observations. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immunotype switch from immunotype L3 to L8/L1 by lgtA and lgtC phase variation represented the second class. Isogenic mutant analysis demonstrated that in ST-41/44 cc strains the L8/L1 immunotype was more serum resistant than the L3 immunotype. Consecutive analysis revealed that the immunotypes L8 and L1 were frequently observed in ST-41/44 cc isolates from both carriage and disease. Immunotype switch to L8/L1 is therefore suggested to contribute to the adaptive capacity of this meningococcal lineage. The third mutant class displayed a pilE allelic exchange associated with enhanced autoaggregation. The mutation of the C terminal hypervariable region D of PilE included a residue previously associated with increased pilus bundle formation. We suggest that autoaggregation reduced the surface area accessible to serum complement and protected from killing. The study highlights the ability of meningococci to adapt to environmental stress by phase variation and intrachromosomal recombination affecting subcapsular antigens. PMID:23028802

  10. Forming-free colossal resistive switching effect in rare-earth-oxide Gd2O3 films for memristor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xun; Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong; Yu, Weidong; Liu, Xinjun; Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Lidong; Cheng, Xinhong

    2009-10-01

    The reproducible forming-free resistive switching (RS) behavior in rare-earth-oxide Gd2O3 polycrystalline thin film was demonstrated. The characteristic of this forming-free RS was similar to that of other forming-necessary binary RS materials except that its initial resistance starts from not the high resistance state (HRS) but the low resistance state (LRS). An ultrahigh resistance switching ratio from HRS to LRS of about six to seven orders of magnitude was achieved at a bias voltage of 0.6 V. Mechanism analysis indicated that the existence of metallic Gd in the Gd2O3 films plays an important role in the forming-free RS performance. Our work provides a novel material with interesting RS behavior, which is beneficial to deepen our understanding of the origin of RS phenomenon.

  11. Color tunable electroluminescence and resistance switching from a ZnO-nanorod-TaOx-p-GaN heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J L; Teo, K L; Zheng, K; Sun, X W

    2016-03-18

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared on p-GaN-sapphire using a vapor phase transport (VPT) technique. A thin sputtered layer of TaOx is employed as the intermediate layer and an n-ZnO-TaOx-p-GaN heterojunction device has been achieved. The current transport of the heterojunction exhibited a typical resistance switching behavior, which originated from the filament forming and breaking in the TaOx layer. Color controllable electroluminescence (EL) was observed from the biased heterojunction at room temperature. Bluish-white wide band emission is achieved from the forward biased device in both the high resistance and low resistance states, while red emission can only be observed for the reverse biased device in the low resistance state. The correlation between the EL and resistance switching has been analyzed in-depth based on the interface band diagram of the heterojunction.

  12. HIV-1 Drug Resistance and Second-Line Treatment in Children Randomized to Switch at Low Versus Higher RNA Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Linda; Melvin, Ann; Fiscus, Susan; Saidi, Yacine; Nastouli, Eleni; Harper, Lynda; Compagnucci, Alexandra; Babiker, Abdel; McKinney, Ross; Gibb, Diana; Tudor-Williams, Gareth

    2015-09-01

    The PENPACT-1 trial compared virologic thresholds to determine when to switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using PENPACT-1 data, we aimed to describe HIV-1 drug resistance accumulation on first-line ART by virologic threshold. PENPACT-1 had a 2 × 2 factorial design, randomizing HIV-infected children to start protease inhibitor (PI) versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART, and switch at a 1000 copies/mL versus 30,000 copies/mL threshold. Switch criteria were not achieving the threshold by week 24, confirmed rebound above the threshold thereafter, or Center for Disease Control and Prevention stage C event. Resistance tests were performed on samples ≥1000 copies/mL before switch, resuppression, and at 4-years/trial end. Sixty-seven children started PI-based ART and were randomized to switch at 1000 copies/mL (PI-1000), 64 PIs and 30,000 copies/mL (PI-30,000), 67 NNRTIs and 1000 copies/mL (NNRTI-1000), and 65 NNRTI and 30,000 copies/mL (NNRTI-30,000). Ninety-four (36%) children reached the 1000 copies/mL switch criteria during 5-year follow-up. In 30,000 copies/mL threshold arms, median time from 1000 to 30,000 copies/mL switch criteria was 58 (PI) versus 80 (NNRTI) weeks (P = 0.81). In NNRTI-30,000, more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance mutations accumulated than other groups. NNRTI mutations were selected before switching at 1000 copies/mL (23% NNRTI-1000, 27% NNRTI-30,000). Sixty-two children started abacavir + lamivudine, 166 lamivudine + zidovudine or stavudine, and 35 other NRTIs. The abacavir + lamivudine group acquired fewest NRTI mutations. Of 60 switched to second-line, 79% PI-1000, 63% PI-30,000, 64% NNRTI-1000, and 100% NNRTI-30,000 were <400 copies/mL 24 weeks later. Children on first-line NNRTI-based ART who were randomized to switch at a higher virologic threshold developed the most resistance, yet resuppressed on second-line. An abacavir + lamivudine NRTI combination seemed

  13. Polarization and resistive switching behavior of ferroelectric tunnel junctions with transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Lipatov, Alexey; Sharma, Pankaj; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Sinitskii, Alexander; Gruverman, Alexei; Alexei Gruverman Team; Alexander Sinitskii Team; Chang-Beom Eom Team

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are emerging 2-dimensional (2D) materials of the MX2 type, where M is a transition metal atom (Mo, W, Ti, Sn, Zr, etc.) and X is a chalcogen atom (S, Se, or Te.). Comparing to graphene, TMDs have a sizable band gap and can be metal, half-metal, semiconductor or superconductor. Their band structures can be tuned by external bias voltage, mechanical force, or light illumination. Their rich physical properties make TMDs potential candidates for a variety of applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) are actively studied as a next-generation of non-volatile memory elements. An FTJ comprises a ferroelectric tunnel barrier sandwiched between two electrodes. In this work, we investigate the resistive switching behavior of MoS2/BaTiO3-based FTJs. The ON/OFF ratio can be modulated via electric or mechanical control of the switched polarization fraction opening a possibility of tunable electroresistance effect. Effect of optical illumination on the polarization reversal dynamics has been observed and analyzed based on the polarization-induced modulation of the MoS2 layered electronic properties.

  14. Effect of nitrogen-accommodation ability of electrodes in SiNx-based resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Hong; Ma, Xiaohua; Gao, Haixia; Wang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Nitrides could create opportunities of tuning resistive-switching (RS) characteristics due to their different electrical properties and ionic chemistry with oxides. Here, we reported on the effect of nitrogen-accommodation ability of electrodes in SiNx-based RS devices. The Ti/SiNx/Pt devices show a self-compliance bipolar RS with excellent reliability. The W/SiNx/Pt devices provide an unstable RS and fall to an intermediate resistance state (IRS) after a set process. The low resistance states of the Ti/SiNx/Pt devices obey Ohmic conduction and Frenkel-Poole emission from a conductive channel. The IRS of the W/SiNx/Pt devices conforms to Schottky emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling from a conductive channel/insulator/electrode structure. A nitrogen-ion-based model is proposed to explain the experimental results. According to the model, the nitrogen-accommodation ability of the electrodes dominates the nitrogen-reservoir size and the nitrogen-ion migration at the metal/SiNx interface, modulating the RS characteristics of the SiNx memory devices.

  15. Microstructure evolution characteristics induced by oxygen vacancy generation in anatase TiO2 based resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen; Gao, Bin; Huang, Peng; Kang, Jinfeng

    2017-03-01

    In this work, first principle calculations are employed to study the microstructure characteristics of the anatase TiO2 resistive switching material associated with the generation of oxygen vacancy (V o) based nanofilaments during the switching process. The calculations indicate that both the magnéli phase Ti4O7 and V o-defect phase of anatase TiO2 may be formed with the generation of oxygen vacancies during the forming and SET processes. Based on the calculations, a new physical insight is proposed to clarify the microstructure evolution characteristics of the anatase TiO2 resistive switching material and the correlation with resistive switching behaviors. During the forming or SET process, the anatase TiO2 is first excited to a transition state with the generation of oxygen vacancies, then fully relaxes to a stable V o-defect state. This V o-defect state may either recover to the original state with the recombination of the oxygen vacancies, which causes the reversible resistive switching behavior, or further transform to a much more stable state—the magnéli phase Ti4O7, through a phase transition process with the generation of many more oxygen vacancies. The phase transition from V o- defective anatase phase to magnéli phase Ti4O7 causes the failure of the resistive switching due to the significantly reduced possibility of the reversible phase transition from the magnéli phase to the anatase phase, compared with the possibility of the recombination from the V o-defective anatase.

  16. Realization of transient memory-loss with NiO-based resistive switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Z.; Yu, Q.; Deng, L. J.; Yin, Y.; Hosaka, Sumio

    2012-11-01

    A resistive switching device based on a nickel-rich nickel oxide thin film, which exhibits inherent learning and memory-loss abilities, is reported in this work. The conductance of the device gradually increases and finally saturates with the number of voltage pulses (or voltage sweepings), which is analogous to the behavior of the short-term and long-term memory in the human brain. Furthermore, the number of the voltage pulses (or sweeping cycles) required to achieve a given conductance state increases with the interval between two consecutive voltage pulses (or sweeping cycles), which is attributed to the heat diffusion in the material of the conductive filaments formed in the nickel oxide thin film. The phenomenon resembles the behavior of the human brain, i.e., forgetting starts immediately after an impression, a larger interval of the impressions leads to more memory loss, thus the memorization needs more impressions to enhance.

  17. Negative Differential Resistance and Steep Switching in Chevron Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Samuel; Llinas, Juan-Pablo; Bokor, Jeffrey; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2018-01-01

    Ballistic quantum transport calculations based on the non-equilbrium Green's function formalism show that field-effect transistor devices made from chevron-type graphene nanoribbons (CGNRs) could exhibit negative differential resistance with peak-to-valley ratios in excess of 4800 at room temperature as well as steep-slope switching with 6 mV/decade subtheshold swing over five orders of magnitude and ON-currents of 88$\\mu$A/$\\mu$m. This is enabled by the superlattice-like structure of these ribbons that have large periodic unit cells with regions of different effective bandgap, resulting in minibands and gaps in the density of states above the conduction band edge. The CGNR ribbon used in our proposed device has been previously fabricated with bottom-up chemical synthesis techniques and could be incorporated into an experimentally-realizable structure.

  18. Tunable dielectric response, resistive switching, and unconventional transport in SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, Evgeny

    The first section of this thesis discusses integration of SR TiO3 grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in vertical device structures. One target application is as a tunable dielectric. Parallel plate capacitors based on epitaxial Pt(001) bottom electrodes and (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 dielectric layers grown by MBE are demonstrated. Optimization of structural quality of the vertical stack is shown to produce very low dielectric loss combined with very high tunability of the dielectric constant by DC bias. This results in considerable improvement of common figures of merit for varactor performance in comparison to previous reports. Another target application for transition metals oxides is in resistive switching memories, which are based on the hysteretic current-voltage response observed in many oxide-based Schottky junctions and capacitors. A study on the role of metal/oxide interface quality is presented. In particular, the use of epitaxial Pt(001) as Schottky contacts to Nb:SRTiO 3 is shown to suppress resistive switching hysteresis by eliminating unintentional contributions to interface capacitance. Such uncontrolled factors are discussed as a probable root cause for poor reproducibility in resistive switching memories, currently a ubiquitous challenge in the field. Potential routes towards stabilizing reproducible switching through intentional control of defect densities in high-quality structures are discussed, including a proof of concept demonstration using Schottky junctions incorporating intentionally non-stoichiometric SRTiO3 interlayers grown by MBE. The second section of this thesis is concerned with unconventional electronic transport in SRTiO3. A systematic description of scattering mechanisms will be presented for three related material systems: uniformly-doped SRTiO3, two-dimensional electron liquids (2DEL) at SRTiO3/RTiO 3 interfaces (R = Gd, Sm) and confined 2DELs in RTiO3/SRTiO3/ RTiO3 quantum wells. In particular, the prevalence of a well-defined T2

  19. Highly stable, extremely high-temperature, nonvolatile memory based on resistance switching in polycrystalline Pt nanogaps

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hiroya; Shinomura, Yuma; Kashiwabara, Shota; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Naitoh, Yasuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Highly stable, nonvolatile, high-temperature memory based on resistance switching was realized using a polycrystalline platinum (Pt) nanogap. The operating temperature of the memory can be drastically increased by the presence of a sharp-edged Pt crystal facet in the nanogap. A short distance between the facet edges maintains the nanogap shape at high temperature, and the sharp shape of the nanogap densifies the electric field to maintain a stable current flow due to field migration. Even at 873 K, which is a significantly higher temperature than feasible for conventional semiconductor memory, the nonvolatility of the proposed memory allows stable ON and OFF currents, with fluctuations of less than or equal to 10%, to be maintained for longer than eight hours. An advantage of this nanogap scheme for high-temperature memory is its secure operation achieved through the assembly and disassembly of a Pt needle in a high electric field. PMID:27725705

  20. Nanoscale self-recovery of resistive switching in Ar+ irradiated TiO2-x films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, A.; Saini, C. P.; Sarkar, P. K.; Das, D.; Dhar, S.; Singh, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Gupta, M.; Phase, D. M.; Kanjilal, A.

    2017-11-01

    Nanoscale evidence of self-recovery in resistive switching (RS) behavior was found in TiO2-x film by conductive atomic force microscopy when exposed to Ar+-ions above a threshold fluence of 1  ×  1016 ions cm-2. This revealed an evolution and gradual disappearance of bipolar RS-loops, followed by reappearance with increasing number of voltage sweep. This was discussed in the realm of oxygen vacancy (OV) driven formation, dissolution and reformation of conducting filaments. The presence of OVs in ion-beam irradiated TiO2-x films was evidenced by decreasing trend of work function in scanning-Kelvin probe microscopy, and was further verified by x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy at Ti and O-K edges.

  1. Computer analysis of the negative differential resistance switching phenomenon of double-injection devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, Tsay-Jiu

    1989-01-01

    By directly solving the semiconductor differential equations for the double-injection (DI) devices involving two interacting deep levels, the authors studied the negative differential resistance switching characteristic and its relationship with the device dimension, doping level, and dependence on the deep impurity profile. Computer simulation showed that although one can increase the threshold voltage by increasing the device length, the excessive holding voltage that would follow would put this device in a very limited application such as pulse power source. The excessive leakage current in the low conductance state also jeopardizes the attempt to use the device for any practical purpose. Unless there are new materials and deep impurities found that have a great differential hole and electron capture cross sections and a reasonable energy bandgap for low intrinsic carrier concentration, no big improvement in the fate of DI devices is expected in the near future.

  2. Effect of embedded metal nanocrystals on the resistive switching characteristics in NiN-based resistive random access memory cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Min Ju; Kim, Hee-Dong; Man Hong, Seok

    2014-03-07

    The metal nanocrystals (NCs) embedded-NiN-based resistive random access memory cells are demonstrated using several metal NCs (i.e., Pt, Ni, and Ti) with different physical parameters in order to investigate the metal NC's dependence on resistive switching (RS) characteristics. First, depending on the electronegativity of metal, the size of metal NCs is determined and this affects the operating current of memory cells. If metal NCs with high electronegativity are incorporated, the size of the NCs is reduced; hence, the operating current is reduced owing to the reduced density of the electric field around the metal NCs. Second, the potential wells aremore » formed by the difference of work function between the metal NCs and active layer, and the barrier height of the potential wells affects the level of operating voltage as well as the conduction mechanism of metal NCs embedded memory cells. Therefore, by understanding these correlations between the active layer and embedded metal NCs, we can optimize the RS properties of metal NCs embedded memory cells as well as predict their conduction mechanisms.« less

  3. Laterally configured resistive switching device based on transition-metal nano-gap electrode on Gd oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakita, Masatoshi; Okabe, Kyota; Kimura, Takashi

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a fabrication process for a laterally configured resistive switching device based on a Gd oxide. A nano-gap electrode connected by a Gd oxide with the ideal interfaces has been created by adapting the electro-migration method in a metal/GdO{sub x} bilayer system. Bipolar set and reset operations have been clearly observed in the Pt/GdO{sub x} system similarly in the vertical device based on GdO{sub x}. Interestingly, we were able to observe a clear bipolar switching also in a ferromagnetic CoFeB nano-gap electrode with better stability compared to the Pt/GdO{sub x} device. The superior performance of the CoFeB/GdO{sub x}more » device implies the importance of the spin on the resistive switching.« less

  4. Resistive switching characteristics of polymer non-volatile memory devices in a scalable via-hole structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hyejung; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Jo, Minseok; Wang, Gunuk; Cho, Byungjin; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Takhee

    2009-01-14

    The resistive switching characteristics of polyfluorene-derivative polymer material in a sub-micron scale via-hole device structure were investigated. The scalable via-hole sub-microstructure was fabricated using an e-beam lithographic technique. The polymer non-volatile memory devices varied in size from 40 x 40 microm(2) to 200 x 200 nm(2). From the scaling of junction size, the memory mechanism can be attributed to the space-charge-limited current with filamentary conduction. Sub-micron scale polymer memory devices showed excellent resistive switching behaviours such as a large ON/OFF ratio (I(ON)/I(OFF) approximately 10(4)), excellent device-to-device switching uniformity, good sweep endurance, and good retention times (more than 10,000 s). The successful operation of sub-micron scale memory devices of our polyfluorene-derivative polymer shows promise to fabricate high-density polymer memory devices.

  5. Sustained Resistive Switching in a Single Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane Nanowire: A Promising Material for Resistive Random Access Memory

    PubMed Central

    Basori, Rabaya; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, Arup K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of sustained and reversible unipolar resistive switching in a nanowire device made from a single strand of Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu:TCNQ) nanowire (diameter <100 nm) that shows high ON/OFF ratio (~103), low threshold voltage of switching (~3.5 V) and large cycling endurance (>103). This indicates a promising material for high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device integration. Switching is observed in Cu:TCNQ single nanowire devices with two different electrode configuration: symmetric (C-Pt/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt) and asymmetric (Cu/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt), where contacts connecting the nanowire play an important role. This report also developed a method of separating out the electrode and material contributions in switching using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device model along with a direct 4-probe resistivity measurement of the nanowire in the OFF as well as ON state. The device model was followed by a phenomenological model of current transport through the nanowire device which shows that lowering of potential barrier at the contacts likely occur due to formation of Cu filaments in the interface between nanowire and contact electrodes. We obtain quantitative agreement of numerically analyzed results with the experimental switching data. PMID:27245099

  6. Three-dimensional resistivity and switching between correlated electronic states in 1T-TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetin, Damjan; Vaskivskyi, Igor; Brazovskii, Serguei; Mihailovic, Dragan

    2017-04-01

    Recent demonstrations of controlled switching between different ordered macroscopic states by impulsive electromagnetic perturbations in complex materials have opened some fundamental questions on the mechanisms responsible for such remarkable behavior. Here we experimentally address the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) Mott physics can be responsible for unusual switching between states of different electronic order in the layered dichalcogenide 1T-TaS2, or it is a result of subtle inter-layer “orbitronic” re-ordering of its stacking structure. We report on in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) resistance switching by current-pulse injection at low temperatures. Elucidating the controversial theoretical predictions, we also report on measurements of the anisotropy of the electrical resistivity below room temperature. From the T-dependence of ρ⊥ and ρ||, we surmise that the resistivity is more consistent with collective motion than single particle diffusive or band-like transport. The relaxation dynamics of the metastable state for both IP and OP electron transport are seemingly governed by the same mesoscopic quantum re-ordering process. We conclude that 1T-TaS2 shows resistance switching arising from an interplay of both IP and OP correlations.

  7. Resistive switching effect of N-doped MoS2-PVP nanocomposites films for nonvolatile memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zijin; Wang, Tongtong; Sun, Changqi; Liu, Peitao; Xia, Baorui; Zhang, Jingyan; Liu, Yonggang; Gao, Daqiang

    2017-12-01

    Resistive memory technology is very promising in the field of semiconductor memory devices. According to Liu et al, MoS2-PVP nanocomposite can be used as an active layer material for resistive memory devices due to its bipolar resistive switching behavior. Recent studies have also indicated that the doping of N element can reduce the band gap of MoS2 nanosheets, which is conducive to improving the conductivity of the material. Therefore, in this paper, we prepared N-doped MoS2 nanosheets and then fabricated N-doped MoS2-PVP nanocomposite films by spin coating. Finally, the resistive memory [C. Tan et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 2615 (2015)], device with ITO/N-doped MoS2-PVP/Pt structure was fabricated. Study on the I-V characteristics shows that the device has excellent resistance switching effect. It is worth mentioning that our device possesses a threshold voltage of 0.75 V, which is much better than 3.5 V reported previously for the undoped counterparts. The above research shows that N-doped MoS2-PVP nanocomposite films can be used as the active layer of resistive switching memory devices, and will make the devices have better performance.

  8. Influence of metal electrode on the performance of ZnO based resistance switching memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueting; Qian, Haolei; Guan, Liao; Wang, Wei; Xing, Boran; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Shucheng; Sha, Jian; Wang, Yewu

    2017-10-01

    Resistance random access memory (RRAM) is considered a promising candidate for the next generation of non-volatile memory. In this work, we fabricate metal (Ag, Ti, or Pt)/ZnO/Pt RRAM cells and then systematically investigate the effects of different top electrodes and their performance. With the formation and rupture of Ag-bridge and the shapeless oxygen vacancy filaments under a series of positive and negative bias, the set and reset processes have been successfully conducted in the Ag/ZnO/Pt device with very low work voltage, high on-off ratio, and good endurance. When applying the voltage bias to the Ti/ZnO/Pt device, the interfacial oxygen ions' migration causes the redox reaction of the conducting filament's oxygen vacancies, leading to the formation and rupture of the conducting filaments but in a relatively poor endurance. At the same time, for the Pt/ZnO/Pt device, once the filaments in the functional layer consisting of oxygen vacancies are formed, it is difficult to disrupt, resulting in the permanent low resistance state after a forming-like process. The results demonstrated that the devices with a metallic conductive bridge mechanism show much better switching behaviors than those with an oxygen ion/vacancy filament mechanism.

  9. Self-assembled oxide films with tailored nanoscale ionic and electronic channels for controlled resistive switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seungho; Yun, Chao; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Kursumovic, Ahmed; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lu, Ping; Jia, Quanxi; Fan, Meng; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan; Hofmann, Stephan; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2016-08-01

    Resistive switches are non-volatile memory cells based on nano-ionic redox processes that offer energy efficient device architectures and open pathways to neuromorphics and cognitive computing. However, channel formation typically requires an irreversible, not well controlled electroforming process, giving difficulty to independently control ionic and electronic properties. The device performance is also limited by the incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report a novel memristive model material system based on self-assembled Sm-doped CeO2 and SrTiO3 films that allow the separate tailoring of nanoscale ionic and electronic channels at high density (~1012 inch-2). We systematically show that these devices allow precise engineering of the resistance states, thus enabling large on-off ratios and high reproducibility. The tunable structure presents an ideal platform to explore ionic and electronic mechanisms and we expect a wide potential impact also on other nascent technologies, ranging from ionic gating to micro-solid oxide fuel cells and neuromorphics.

  10. Ab initio study of ceria films for resistive switching memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdos, Mehreen; Hussain, Fayyaz; Imran, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Rana, A. M.; Arshad Javid, M.; Majid, Abdul; Arif Khalil, R. M.; Ullah, Hafeez

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the charge distribution/relocation activities in relation to resistive switching (RS) memory behavior in the metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure of Zr/CeO2/Pt hybrid layers. The Zr layer is truly expected to act not only as an oxygen ion extraction layer but also as an ion barrier by forming a ZrO2 interfacial layer. Such behavior of the Zr not only introduces a high concentration of oxygen vacancies to the active CeO2 layer but also enhances the resistance change capability. Such Zr contributions have been explored by determining the work function, charge distribution and electronic properties with the help of density functional theory (DFT) based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In doped CeO2, the dopant (Zr) plays a significant role in the formation of defect states, such as oxygen vacancies, which are necessary for generating conducting filaments. The total density of state (DOS) analyses reveal that the existence of impurity states in the hybrid system considerably upgrade the performance of charge transfer/accumulation, consequently leading to enhanced RS behavior, as noticed in our earlier experimental results on Zr/CeO2/Pt devices. Hence it can be concluded that the present DFT studies can be implemented on CeO2-based RRAM devices, which have skyscraping potential for future nonvolatile memory (NVM) applications.

  11. Self-assembled oxide films with tailored nanoscale ionic and electronic channels for controlled resistive switching

    DOE PAGES

    Cho, Seungho; Yun, Chao; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; ...

    2016-08-05

    Resistive switches are non-volatile memory cells based on nano-ionic redox processes that offer energy efficient device architectures and open pathways to neuromorphics and cognitive computing. However, channel formation typically requires an irreversible, not well controlled electroforming process, giving difficulty to independently control ionic and electronic properties. The device performance is also limited by the incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report a novel memristive model material system based on self-assembled Sm-doped CeO 2 and SrTiO 3 films that allow the separate tailoring of nanoscale ionic and electronic channels at high density (~10 12 inch –2). Here, we systematicallymore » show that these devices allow precise engineering of the resistance states, thus enabling large on–off ratios and high reproducibility. The tunable structure presents an ideal platform to explore ionic and electronic mechanisms and we expect a wide potential impact also on other nascent technologies, ranging from ionic gating to micro-solid oxide fuel cells and neuromorphics.« less

  12. A resistance ratio change phenomenon observed in Al doped ZnO (AZO)/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2/Mo resistive switching memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tao; Sun, Bai; Mao, Shuangsuo; Zhu, Shouhui; Xia, Yudong; Wang, Hongyan; Zhao, Yong; Yu, Zhou

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS), Al doped ZnO (AZO) and Mo has been used for constructing a resistive switching device with AZO/CIGS/Mo sandwich structure grown on a transparent glass substrate. The device represents a high-performance memory characteristics under ambient temperature. In particularly, a resistance ratio change phenomenon have been observed in our device for the first time.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of HIV drug resistance testing to inform switching to second line antiretroviral therapy in low income settings.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Mabugu, Travor; Magubu, Travor; Miners, Alec; Ford, Debbie; Pillay, Deenan; De Luca, Andrea; Lundgren, Jens; Revill, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To guide future need for cheap resistance tests for use in low income settings, we assessed cost-effectiveness of drug resistance testing as part of monitoring of people on first line ART - with switching from first to second line ART being conditional on NNRTI drug resistance mutations being identified. An individual level simulation model of HIV transmission, progression and the effect of ART which accounts for adherence and resistance development was used to compare outcomes of various potential monitoring strategies in a typical low income setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Underlying monitoring strategies considered were based on clinical disease, CD4 count or viral load. Within each we considered a strategy in which no further measures are performed, one with a viral load measure to confirm failure, and one with both a viral load measure and a resistance test. Predicted outcomes were assessed over 2015-2025 in terms of viral suppression, first line failure, switching to second line regimen, death, HIV incidence, disability-adjusted-life-years averted and costs. Potential future low costs of resistance tests ($30) were used. The most effective strategy, in terms of DALYs averted, was one using viral load monitoring without confirmation. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for this strategy was $2113 (the same as that for viral load monitoring with confirmation). ART monitoring strategies which involved resistance testing did not emerge as being more effective or cost effective than strategies not using it. The slightly reduced ART costs resulting from use of resistance testing, due to less use of second line regimens, was of similar magnitude to the costs of resistance tests. Use of resistance testing at the time of first line failure as part of the decision whether to switch to second line therapy was not cost-effective, even though the test was assumed to be very inexpensive.

  14. Electron holography on HfO2/HfO2-x bilayer structures with multilevel resistive switching properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, G.; Schubert, M. A.; Sharath, S. U.; Zaumseil, P.; Vogel, S.; Wenger, C.; Hildebrandt, E.; Bhupathi, S.; Perez, E.; Alff, L.; Lehmann, M.; Schroeder, T.; Niermann, T.

    2017-05-01

    Unveiling the physical nature of the oxygen-deficient conductive filaments (CFs) that are responsible for the resistive switching of the HfO2-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices represents a challenging task due to the oxygen vacancy related defect nature and nanometer size of the CFs. As a first important step to this goal, we demonstrate in this work direct visualization and a study of physico-chemical properties of oxygen-deficient amorphous HfO2-x by carrying out transmission electron microscopy electron holography as well as energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy on HfO2/HfO2-x bilayer heterostructures, which are realized by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Furthermore, compared to single layer devices, Pt/HfO2/HfO2-x /TiN bilayer devices show enhanced resistive switching characteristics with multilevel behavior, indicating their potential as electronic synapses in future neuromorphic computing applications.

  15. The Role of Work Function and Band Gap in Resistive Switching Behaviour of ZnTe Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowtu, Srinu; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2018-02-01

    Resistive switching behavior by engineering the electrode work function and band gap of ZnTe thin films is demonstrated. The device structures Au/ZnTe/Au, Au/ZnTe/Ag, Al/ZnTe/Ag and Pt/ZnTe/Ag were fabricated. ZnTe was deposited by thermal evaporation and the stoichiometry and band gap were controlled by varying the source-substrate distance. Band gap could be varied between 1.0 eV to approximately 4.0 eV with the larger band gap being attributed to the partial oxidation of ZnTe. The transport characteristics reveal that the low-resistance state is ohmic in nature which makes a transition to Poole-Frenkel defect-mediated conductivity in the high-resistance states. The highest R off-to- R on ratio achieved is 109. Interestingly, depending on stoichiometry, both unipolar and bipolar switching can be realized.

  16. Self-learning ability realized with a resistive switching device based on a Ni-rich nickel oxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Z.; Yu, Y. F.; Yu, Q.; Li, P.; Fung, S.

    2011-12-01

    The resistive switching device based on a Ni-rich nickel oxide thin film exhibits an inherent learning ability of a neural network. The device has the short-term-memory and long-term-memory functions analogous to those of the human brain, depending on the history of its experience of voltage pulsing or sweeping. Neuroplasticity could be realized with the device, as the device can be switched from a high-resistance state to a low-resistance state due to the formation of stable filaments by a series of electrical pulses, resembling the changes such as the growth of new connections and the creation of new neurons in the brain in response to experience.

  17. Forming-free resistive switching characteristics of Ag/CeO2/Pt devices with a large memory window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong; Kim, Hyung Jun; Yang, Paul; Park, Jong-Sung; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyun Ho; Kang, Chi Jung; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2017-05-01

    Ag/CeO2(∼45 nm)/Pt devices exhibited forming-free bipolar resistive switching with a large memory window (low-resistance-state (LRS)/high-resistance-state (HRS) ratio >106) at a low switching voltage (<±1 ∼ 2 V) in voltage sweep condition. Also, they retained a large memory window (>104) at a pulse operation (±5 V, 50 μs). The high oxygen ionic conductivity of the CeO2 layer as well as the migration of silver facilitated the formation of filament for the transition to LRS at a low voltage without a high voltage forming operation. Also, a certain amount of defects in the CeO2 layer was required for stable HRS with space-charge-limited-conduction, which was confirmed comparing the devices with non-annealed and annealed CeO2 layers.

  18. Switching characteristics in Cu:SiO2 by chemical soak methods for resistive random access memory (ReRAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Fun-Tat; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Yang, Wen-Luh; Liao, Chin-Hsuan; Lin, Li-Min; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Chao, Tien-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A limited copper (Cu)-source Cu:SiO2 switching layer composed of various Cu concentrations was fabricated using a chemical soaking (CS) technique. The switching layer was then studied for developing applications in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices. Observing the resistive switching mechanism exhibited by all the samples suggested that Cu conductive filaments formed and ruptured during the set/reset process. The experimental results indicated that the endurance property failure that occurred was related to the joule heating effect. Moreover, the endurance switching cycle increased as the Cu concentration decreased. In high-temperature tests, the samples demonstrated that the operating (set/reset) voltages decreased as the temperature increased, and an Arrhenius plot was used to calculate the activation energy of the set/reset process. In addition, the samples demonstrated stable data retention properties when baked at 85 °C, but the samples with low Cu concentrations exhibited short retention times in the low-resistance state (LRS) during 125 °C tests. Therefore, Cu concentration is a crucial factor in the trade-off between the endurance and retention properties; furthermore, the Cu concentration can be easily modulated using this CS technique.

  19. Resistive switching: An investigation of the bipolar–unipolar transition in Co-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Daniel A.A., E-mail: danielandrade.ufs@gmail.com; Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260; Zeng, Hao

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A purely bipolar behavior on a Co-doped ZnO thin film has been demonstrated. • We have shown what can happen if a unipolar test is performed in a purely bipolar device. • An explanation for how a sample can show a purely bipolar switching behavior was suggested. • An important open issue about resistive switching effect was put in debate. - Abstract: In order to investigate the resistive switching effect we built devices in a planar structure in which two Al contacts were deposited on the top of the film and separated by a small gap using amore » shadow mask. Therefore, two samples of 10% Co-doped ZnO thin films were sputtered on glass substrate. High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) revealed a highly c-axis oriented crystalline structure, without secondary phase. The high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed a flat surface with good coverage and thickness about 300 nm. A Keithley 2425 semiconductor characterization system was used to perform the resistive switching tests in the bipolar and unipolar modes. Considering only the effect of compliance current (CC), the devices showed a purely bipolar behavior since an increase in CC did not induce a transition to unipolar behavior.« less

  20. Impact of interfacial resistance switching on thermoelectric effect of Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystalline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peijian; Meng, Yang; Liu, Ziyu; Li, Dong; Su, Tao; Meng, Qingyu; Mao, Qi; Pan, Xinyu; Chen, Dongmin; Zhao, Hongwu

    2012-03-01

    The thermoelectric properties of the bistable resistance states in Nb doped SrTiO3 single crystal have been investigated. The Seebeck coefficients for both low and high resistance states change linearly with temperature. The three-terminals contrast measurement demonstrates that a large fraction of the voltage drop is applied at the tiny volume near the bottom interface between the electrode and the oxide bulk. Therefore, the metallic oxide bulk plays a dominant role in the temperature dependence of Seebeck coefficients. The thermoelectric properties of new resistance switching (RS) devices with minimized non-RS volume could be exploited for the RS mechanism and novel applications.

  1. First principles investigation of the unipolar resistive switching mechanism in an interfacial phase change memory based on a GeTe/Sb2Te3 superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakawa, Hiroki; Araidai, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial phase change memory (iPCM) based on a GeTe/Sb2Te3 superlattice is one of the candidates for future storage class memories. However, the atomic structures of the high and low resistance states (HRS/LRS) remain unclear and the resistive switching mechanism is still under debate. Clarifying the switching mechanism is essential for developing further high-reliability and low-power-consumption iPCM. We propose, on the basis of the results of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, a mechanism for resistive switching, and describe the atomic structures of the high and low resistance states of iPCM for unipolar switching. Our simulations indicated that switching from HRS to LRS occurs with Joule heating only, while that from LRS to HRS occurs with both hole injection and Joule heating.

  2. Improvement of multi-level resistive switching characteristics in solution-processed AlO x -based non-volatile resistive memory using microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Tae; Cho, Won-Ju

    2018-01-01

    We fabricated a resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device on a Ti/AlO x /Pt structure with solution-processed AlO x switching layer using microwave irradiation (MWI), and demonstrated multi-level cell (MLC) operation. To investigate the effect of MWI power on the MLC characteristics, post-deposition annealing was performed at 600-3000 W after AlO x switching layer deposition, and the MLC operation was compared with as-deposited (as-dep) and conventional thermally annealing (CTA) treated devices. All solution-processed AlO x -based ReRAM devices exhibited bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behavior. We found that these devices have four-resistance states (2 bits) of MLC operation according to the modulation of the high-resistance state (HRSs) through reset voltage control. Particularly, compared to the as-dep and CTA ReRAM devices, the MWI-treated ReRAM devices showed a significant increase in the memory window and stable endurance for multi-level operation. Moreover, as the MWI power increased, excellent MLC characteristics were exhibited because the resistance ratio between each resistance state was increased. In addition, it exhibited reliable retention characteristics without deterioration at 25 °C and 85 °C for 10 000 s. Finally, the relationship between the chemical characteristics of the solution-processed AlO x switching layer and BRS-based multi-level operation according to the annealing method and MWI power was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. Modulation of ferroelectricity and resistance switching in SrTiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang; Wang, Weihua; Guo, Jiandong

    SrTiO3 has remarkable dielectric property; it also exhibits ferroelectricity in thin films with strain or defects. It is expected that modulation of its ferroelectricity and electricity is potential in oxide electronics. The nonstoichiometry SrTiO3 thin films with different cation concentrations were prepared on Si (001) substrates. Piezoresponse force microscopy measurements show that those films with Sr deficiency display obvious ferroelectricity. The scanning transmission electron microscopy results show that there are interstitial Ti atoms in the unit cells. Polar defect pairs can be formed by the interstitial Ti atoms and Sr vacancies along [100] or [110] direction. Such antisitelike defects observed in SrTiO3 films are considered as the origin of the ferroelectricity. In this way, the SrTiO3 ferroelectricity can be modulated by control the concentration of the antisitelike defects via changing the cation concentration. Further, [(SrTiO3)3 /(LaTiO3)2 ]3 superlattices have been prepared on 0.67[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]-0.33[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT) substrate. The superlattices show resistance switching under the ferroelectric polarization of the PMN-PT substrate. The on/off ratio of the interfacial resistance is about 20% 25%. This can be applied in oxide electronics in potential. This work is supported by Chinese MOST (Grant No. 2014CB921001), Chinese NSFC (Grant No. 11404381 & Grant No. 11225422) and the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030100).

  4. Coexistence of diode-like volatile and multilevel nonvolatile resistive switching in a ZrO2/TiO2 stack structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingtao; Yuan, Peng; Fu, Liping; Li, Rongrong; Gao, Xiaoping; Tao, Chunlan

    2015-10-02

    Diode-like volatile resistive switching as well as nonvolatile resistive switching behaviors in a Cu/ZrO₂/TiO₂/Ti stack are investigated. Depending on the current compliance during the electroforming process, either volatile resistive switching or nonvolatile resistive switching is observed. With a lower current compliance (<10 μA), the Cu/ZrO₂/TiO₂/Ti device exhibits diode-like volatile resistive switching with a rectifying ratio over 10(6). The permanent transition from volatile to nonvolatile resistive switching can be obtained by applying a higher current compliance of 100 μA. Furthermore, by using different reset voltages, the Cu/ZrO₂/TiO₂/Ti device exhibits multilevel memory characteristics with high uniformity. The coexistence of nonvolatile multilevel memory and diode-like volatile resistive switching behaviors in the same Cu/ZrO₂/TiO₂/Ti device opens areas of applications in high-density storage, logic circuits, neural networks, and passive crossbar memory selectors.

  5. Interfacial interactions and their impact on redox-based resistive switching memories (ReRAMs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valov, Ilia

    2017-09-01

    Redox-based resistive switching memories are nowadays one of the most studied systems in both academia and industrial communities. These devices are scalable down to an almost atomic level and are supposed to be applicable not only for next-generation nonvolatile memories, but also for neuromorphic computing, alternative logic operations and selector devices. The main characteristic feature of these cells is their nano- to sub-nano dimension. This makes the control and especially prediction of their properties very challenging. One of the ways to achieve better understanding and to improve the control of these systems is to study and modify their interfaces. In this review, first the fundamentals will be discussed, as these are essential for understanding which factors control the nanoscale interface properties. Further, different types of interactions at the electrode/solid electrolyte interface reported for ECM- and VCM-type cells will be exemplarily shown. Finally, the strategies and different solutions used to modify the interfaces and overcome the existing problems on the way to more stable and reliable devices will be highlighted.

  6. A Review on Resistive Switching in High-k Dielectrics: A Nanoscale Point of View Using Conductive Atomic Force Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) structures have raised as the most promising configuration for next generation information storage, leading to great performance and fabrication-friendly Resistive Random Access Memories (RRAM). In these cells, the memory concept is no more based on the charge storage, but on tuning the electrical resistance of the insulating layer by applying electrical stresses to reach a high resistive state (HRS or “0”) and a low resistive state (LRS or “1”), which makes the memory point. Some high-k dielectrics show this unusual property and in the last years high-k based RRAM have been extensively analyzed, especially at the device level. However, as resistance switching (in the most promising cells) is a local phenomenon that takes place in areas of ~100 nm2, the use of characterization tools with high lateral spatial resolution is necessary. In this paper the status of resistive switching in high-k materials is reviewed from a nanoscale point of view by means of conductive atomic force microscope analyses. PMID:28788561

  7. Electronic interaction and bipolar resistive switching in copper oxide-multilayer graphene hybrid interface: Graphene as an oxygen ion storage and blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bharti; Mehta, B. R.; Govind, Feng, X.; Müllen, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    This study reports a bipolar resistive switching device based on copper oxide (CuO)-multilayer graphene (MLG) hybrid interface in complete contrast to the ohmic and rectifying characteristics of junctions based on individual MLG and CuO layers. The observed shift and the occurrence of additional O1s, Cu2p, and C1s core level peaks indicate electronic interaction at the hybrid interfacial layer. Large changes in the resistive switching parameters on changing the ambient conditions from air to vacuum establish the important role of MLG as oxygen ion storage and blocking layer towards the observed resistive switching effect.

  8. Internal filament modulation in low-dielectric gap design for built-in selector-less resistive switching memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Lin, Chih-Yang; Huang, Hui-Chun; Kim, Sungjun; Fowler, Burt; Chang, Yao-Feng; Wu, Xiaohan; Xu, Gaobo; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2018-02-01

    Sneak path current is a severe hindrance for the application of high-density resistive random-access memory (RRAM) array designs. In this work, we demonstrate nonlinear (NL) resistive switching characteristics of a HfO x /SiO x -based stacking structure as a realization for selector-less RRAM devices. The NL characteristic was obtained and designed by optimizing the internal filament location with a low effective dielectric constant in the HfO x /SiO x structure. The stacking HfO x /SiO x -based RRAM device as the one-resistor-only memory cell is applicable without needing an additional selector device to solve the sneak path issue with a switching voltage of ~1 V, which is desirable for low-power operating in built-in nonlinearity crossbar array configurations.

  9. Comparison of resistive switching characteristics using copper and aluminum electrodes on GeOx/W cross-point memories

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of resistive switching memory characteristics using copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) electrodes on GeOx/W cross-points has been reported under low current compliances (CCs) of 1 nA to 50 μA. The cross-point memory devices are observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Improved memory characteristics are observed for the Cu/GeOx/W structures as compared to the Al/GeOx/W cross-points owing to AlOx formation at the Al/GeOx interface. The RESET current increases with the increase of the CCs varying from 1 nA to 50 μA for the Cu electrode devices, while the RESET current is high (>1 mA) and independent of CCs varying from 1 nA to 500 μA for the Al electrode devices. An extra formation voltage is needed for the Al/GeOx/W devices, while a low operation voltage of ±2 V is needed for the Cu/GeOx/W cross-point devices. Repeatable bipolar resistive switching characteristics of the Cu/GeOx/W cross-point memory devices are observed with CC varying from 1 nA to 50 μA, and unipolar resistive switching is observed with CC >100 μA. High resistance ratios of 102 to 104 for the bipolar mode (CCs of 1 nA to 50 μA) and approximately 108 for the unipolar mode are obtained for the Cu/GeOx/W cross-points. In addition, repeatable switching cycles and data retention of 103 s are observed under a low current of 1 nA for future low-power, high-density, nonvolatile, nanoscale memory applications. PMID:24305116

  10. Mechanisms of charge transport and resistive switching in composite films of semiconducting polymers with nanoparticles of graphene and graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berestennikov, A. S.; Aleshin, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of the resistive switching in the composite films based on polyfunctional polymers - PVK, PFD and PVC mixed with particles of Gr and GO with the concentration of ˜ 1 - 3 wt.%. We have developed the solution processed hybrid memory structures based on PVK and GO particles composite films. The effect of the resistive switching in Al/PVK(PFD; PVC):Gr(GO)/ITO/PET structures manifests itself as a sharp change of the electrical resistance from a low-conducting state to a relatively high-conducting state when applying a bias to Al-ITO electrodes of ˜ 0.2-0.4 V. It has been established that a sharp conductivity jump characterized by S-shaped current-voltage curves and the presence of their hysteresis occurs upon applying a voltage pulse to the Au/PVK(PFD; PVC):Gr(GO)/ITO/PET structures, with the switching time in the range from 1 to 30 μs. The mechanism of resistive switching associated with the processes of capture and accumulation of charge carriers by Gr(GO) particles introduced into the matrixes of the PVK polymer due to the reduction/oxidation processes. The possible mechanisms of energy transfer between organic and inorganic components in PVK(PFD; PVC):GO(Gr) films causes increase mobility are discussed. Incorporating of Gr (GO) particles into the polymer matrix is a promising route to enhance the performance of hybrid memory structures, as well as it is an effective medium for memory cells.

  11. Tri-state resistive switching characteristics of MnO/Ta2O5 resistive random access memory device by a controllable reset process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, N. J.; Kang, T. S.; Hu, Q.; Lee, T. S.; Yoon, T.-S.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, E. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Kang, C. J.

    2018-06-01

    Tri-state resistive switching characteristics of bilayer resistive random access memory devices based on manganese oxide (MnO)/tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) have been studied. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device show tri-state resistive switching (RS) behavior with a high resistance state (HRS), intermediate resistance state (IRS), and low resistance state (LRS), which are controlled by the reset process. The MnO/Ta2O5 film shows bipolar RS behavior through the formation and rupture of conducting filaments without the forming process. The device shows reproducible and stable RS both from the HRS to the LRS and from the IRS to the LRS. In order to elucidate the tri-state RS mechanism in the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device, transmission electron microscope (TEM) images are measured in the LRS, IRS and HRS. White lines like dendrites are observed in the Ta2O5 film in both the LRS and the IRS. Poole–Frenkel conduction, space charge limited conduction, and Ohmic conduction are proposed as the dominant conduction mechanisms for the Ag/MnO/Ta2O5/Pt device based on the obtained I–V characteristics and TEM images.

  12. Studies on transient characteristics of unipolar resistive switching processes in TiO2 thin film grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Vikas Kumar; Das, Amit K.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Misra, P.

    2018-05-01

    The transient characteristics of resistive switching processes have been investigated in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to study the temporal evolution of the switching processes and measure the switching times. The reset and set switching times of unipolar Au/TiO2/Pt devices were found to be ~250 µs and 180 ns, respectively in the voltage windows of 0.5–0.9 V for reset and 1.9–4.8 V for set switching processes, obtained from quasi-static measurements. The reset switching time decreased exponentially with increasing amplitude of applied reset voltage pulse, while the set switching time remained insensitive to the amplitude of the set voltage pulse. A fast reset process with a switching time of ~400 ns was achieved by applying a reset voltage of ~1.8 V, higher than that of the quasi-static reset voltage window but below the set voltage window. The sluggish reset process in TiO2 thin film and the dependence of the reset switching time on the amplitude of the applied voltage pulse was understood on the basis of a self-accelerated thermal dissolution model of conducting filaments (CFs), where a higher temperature of the CFs owing to enhanced Joule heating at a higher applied voltage imposes faster diffusion of oxygen vacancies, resulting in a shorter reset switching time. Our results clearly indicate that fast resistive switching with switching times in hundreds of nanoseconds can be achieved in ALD-grown TiO2 thin films. This may find applications in fast non-volatile unipolar resistive switching memories.

  13. Forming free and ultralow-power erase operation in atomically crystal TiO2 resistive switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yawei; Bao, Wenzhong; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Chunsen; Yan, Xiao; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qingqing; Ding, Shijin; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) have attracted broad interest from fundamental sciences to industrial applications. Their applications in memory devices have been demonstrated, yet much still remains to explore optimal materials and device structure for practical application. In this work, a forming-free, bipolar resistive switching behavior are demonstrated in 2D TiO2-based resistive random access memory (RRAM). Physical adsorption method is adopted to achieve high quality, continuous 2D TiO2 network efficiently. The 2D TiO2 RRAM devices exhibit superior properties such as fast switching capability (20 ns of erase operation) and extremely low erase energy consumption (0.16 fJ). Furthermore, the resistive switching mechanism is attributed to the formation and rupture of oxygen vacancies-based percolation path in 2D TiO2 crystals. Our results pave the way for the implementation of high performance 2DLMs-based RRAM in the next generation non-volatile memory (NVM) application.

  14. The role of oxygen vacancies in resistive switching behavior of organic-TiO2 hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Chen, Da; Huang, Shihua

    2017-10-01

    Effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on resistive switching behaviors and mechanisms in organic-TiO2 hybrid composites were investigated. The reversed current-voltage curves in the negative bias during the initial voltage sweeps were first observed in the composites annealed at 150, 200 and 250 °C, which is ascribed to the accumulation of oxygen vacancies and the inhibition effect of polarities of PEG chains. In addition, the volatility of composites with relatively high content of PEG is caused by the inhibition effect of PEG on creating oxygen vacancies. The formation and rupture of oxygen-vacancy filaments was considered as the resistive switching mechanism. Finally, the charging and discharging process in PEG-TiO2 composite annealed at 150 °C results in the instability of the electron-occupied oxygen vacancies and the inhibition of PEG chains. This study demonstrates a new way to investigate the interaction between polymers and TiO2 for understanding the resistive switching mechanism of TiO2-based memories.

  15. A Novel Ni/WOX/W Resistive Random Access Memory with Excellent Retention and Low Switching Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Wei-Chih; Chen, Yi-Chou; Lee, Feng-Ming; Lin, Yu-Yu; Lai, Erh-Kun; Yao, Yeong-Der; Gong, Jeng; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Lee, Ching-Hsiung; Huang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Chun-Fu; Kao, Hsiao-Feng; Shih, Yen-Hao; Hsieh, Kuang-Yeu; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    The behavior of WOX resistive random access memory (ReRAM) is a strong function of the top electrode material, which controls the conduction mechanism and the forming process. When using a top electrode with low work function, the current conduction is limited by space charges. On the other hand, the mechanism becomes thermionic emission for devices with a high work function top electrode. These (thermionic) devices are also found to have higher initial resistance, reduced forming current, and larger resistance window. Based on these insights and considering the compatibility to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, we proposed to use Ni as the top electrode for high performance WOX ReRAM devices. The new Ni/WOX/W device can be switched at a low current density less than 8×105 A/cm2, with RESET/SET resistance ratio greater than 100, and extremely good data retention of more than 300 years at 85 °C.

  16. Non-destructive reversible resistive switching in Cr doped Mott insulator Ca2RuO4: Interface vs bulk effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shida; Williamson, Morgan; Cao, Gang; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John; Tsoi, Maxim

    2017-12-01

    A non-destructive reversible resistive switching is demonstrated in single crystals of Cr-doped Mott insulator Ca2RuO4. An applied electrical bias was shown to reduce the DC resistance of the crystal by as much as 75%. The original resistance of the sample could be restored by applying an electrical bias of opposite polarity. We have studied this resistive switching as a function of the bias strength, applied magnetic field, and temperature. A combination of 2-, 3-, and 4-probe measurements provide a means to distinguish between bulk and interfacial contributions to the switching and suggests that the switching is mostly an interfacial effect. The switching was tentatively attributed to electric-field driven lattice distortions which accompany the impurity-induced Mott transition. This field effect was confirmed by temperature-dependent resistivity measurements which show that the activation energy of this material can be tuned by an applied DC electrical bias. The observed resistance switching can potentially be used for building non-volatile memory devices like resistive random access memory.

  17. Hf layer thickness dependence of resistive switching characteristics of Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au resistive random access memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Ryo; Azuma, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hayato; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Ito, Takeshi; Shingubara, Shoso

    2018-06-01

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices with a HfO2 dielectric layer have been studied extensively owing to the good reproducibility of their SET/RESET switching properties. Furthermore, it was reported that a thin Hf layer next to a HfO2 layer stabilized switching properties because of the oxygen scavenging effect. In this work, we studied the Hf thickness dependence of the resistance switching characteristics of a Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au ReRAM device. It is found that the optimum Hf thickness is approximately 10 nm to obtain good reproducibility of SET/RESET voltages with a small RESET current. However, when the Hf thickness was very small (∼2 nm), the device failed after the first RESET process owing to the very large RESET current. In the case of a very thick Hf layer (∼20 nm), RESET did not occur owing to the formation of a leaky dielectric layer. We observed the occurrence of multiple resistance states in the RESET process of the device with a Hf thickness of 10 nm by increasing the RESET voltage stepwise.

  18. Mechanism of the reset process in bipolar-resistance-switching Ta/TaOx/Pt capacitors based on observation of the capacitance and resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jae-Jun; Chul Chun, Min; Hee Jin, Da; Ahn, Seung-Eon; Soo Kang, Bo

    2014-03-01

    The capacitance (C) and the resistance (R) were measured at various states as the reset process progressed in bipolar-resistance-switching Ta/TaOx/Pt thin film capacitors. The reset process was found to undergo three sequential stages where C and R showed different behavior: increasing C and constant R before an abrupt reset transition, the rapid increase of both C and R upon transition, and saturated C thereafter. These behaviors can be explained in terms of the annihilation of the oxygen vacancies followed by rupture of the conducting channels.

  19. Plasma-Induced Nonvolatile Resistive Switching with Extremely Low SET Voltage in TiOxFy with AgF Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangyu; Wu, Chuangui; Shuai, Yao; Pan, Xinqiang; Luo, Wenbo; You, Tiangui; Bogusz, Agnieszka; Du, Nan; Li, Yanrong; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2016-12-07

    Low power consumption is crucial for the application of resistive random access memory. In this work, we present the bipolar resistive switching in an Ag/TiO x F y /Ti/Pt stack with extremely low switch-on voltage of 0.07 V. Operating current as low as 10 nA was also obtained by conductive atomic force microscopy. The highly defective TiO x F y layer was fabricated by plasma treatment using helium, oxygen, and carbon tetrafluoride orderly. During the electroforming process, AgF nanoparticles were formed due to the diffusion of Ag + which reacted with the adsorbed F - in the TiO x F y layer. These nanoparticles are of great importance to resistive switching performance because they are believed to be conductive phases and become part of the conducting path when the sample is switched to a low-resistance state.

  20. Resistive switching of organic-inorganic hybrid devices of conductive polymer and permeable ultra-thin SiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Kitanaka, Takahisa; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2018-06-29

    We propose a resistive switching device composed of conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS) and SiO 2 ultra-thin films. The SiO 2 film was fabricated from silsesquioxane polymer nanosheets as a resistive switching layer. Devices with metal (Ag or Au)∣SiO 2 ∣PEDOT:PSS architecture show good resistive switching performance with set-reset voltages as low as several hundred millivolts. The device properties and the working mechanism were investigated by varying the electrode material, surrounding atmosphere, and SiO 2 film thickness. Results show that resistive switching is based on water and ion migration at the PEDOT:PSS∣SiO 2 interface.

  1. Resistive switching of organic–inorganic hybrid devices of conductive polymer and permeable ultra-thin SiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Kitanaka, Takahisa; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2018-06-01

    We propose a resistive switching device composed of conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS) and SiO2 ultra-thin films. The SiO2 film was fabricated from silsesquioxane polymer nanosheets as a resistive switching layer. Devices with metal (Ag or Au)∣SiO2∣PEDOT:PSS architecture show good resistive switching performance with set–reset voltages as low as several hundred millivolts. The device properties and the working mechanism were investigated by varying the electrode material, surrounding atmosphere, and SiO2 film thickness. Results show that resistive switching is based on water and ion migration at the PEDOT:PSS∣SiO2 interface.

  2. Electroforming free controlled bipolar resistive switching in Al/CoFe2O4/FTO device with self-compliance effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munjal, Sandeep; Khare, Neeraj

    2018-02-01

    Controlled bipolar resistive switching (BRS) has been observed in nanostructured CoFe2O4 (CFO) films using an Al (aluminum)/CoFe2O4/FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) device. The fabricated device shows electroforming-free uniform BRS with two clearly distinguished and stable resistance states without any application of compliance current, with a resistance ratio of the high resistance state (HRS) and the low resistance state (LRS) of >102. Small switching voltage (<1 volt) and lower current in both the resistance states confirm the fabrication of a low power consumption device. In the LRS, the conduction mechanism was found to be Ohmic in nature, while the high-resistance state (HRS/OFF state) was governed by the space charge-limited conduction mechanism, which indicates the presence of an interfacial layer with an imperfect microstructure near the top Al/CFO interface. The device shows nonvolatile behavior with good endurance properties, an acceptable resistance ratio, uniform resistive switching due to stable, less random filament formation/rupture, and a control over the resistive switching properties by choosing different stop voltages, which makes the device suitable for its application in future nonvolatile resistive random access memory.

  3. Improving Unipolar Resistive Switching Uniformity with Cone-Shaped Conducting Filaments and Its Logic-In-Memory Application.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Liu, Gang; Chen, Qilai; Xue, Wuhong; Yang, Huali; Shang, Jie; Chen, Bin; Zeng, Fei; Song, Cheng; Pan, Feng; Li, Run-Wei

    2018-02-21

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) with inherent logic-in-memory capability exhibits great potential to construct beyond von-Neumann computers. Particularly, unipolar RRAM is more promising because its single polarity operation enables large-scale crossbar logic-in-memory circuits with the highest integration density and simpler peripheral control circuits. However, unipolar RRAM usually exhibits poor switching uniformity because of random activation of conducting filaments and consequently cannot meet the strict uniformity requirement for logic-in-memory application. In this contribution, a new methodology that constructs cone-shaped conducting filaments by using chemically a active metal cathode is proposed to improve unipolar switching uniformity. Such a peculiar metal cathode will react spontaneously with the oxide switching layer to form an interfacial layer, which together with the metal cathode itself can act as a load resistor to prevent the overgrowth of conducting filaments and thus make them more cone-like. In this way, the rupture of conducting filaments can be strictly limited to the tip region, making their residual parts favorable locations for subsequent filament growth and thus suppressing their random regeneration. As such, a novel "one switch + one unipolar RRAM cell" hybrid structure is capable to realize all 16 Boolean logic functions for large-scale logic-in-memory circuits.

  4. Multistate storage nonvolatile memory device based on ferroelectricity and resistive switching effects of SrBi2Ta2O9 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhiwei; Li, Gang; Xiong, Ying; Cheng, Chuanpin; Zhang, Wanli; Tang, Minghua; Li, Zheng; He, Jiangheng

    2018-05-01

    A memory device with a Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9(SBT)/Pt(111) structure was shown to have excellent combined ferroelectricity and resistive switching properties, leading to higher multistate storage memory capacity in contrast to ferroelectric memory devices. In this device, SBT polycrystalline thin films with significant (115) orientation were fabricated on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method. Measurement results of the electric properties exhibit reproducible and reliable ferroelectricity switching behavior and bipolar resistive switching effects (BRS) without an electroforming process. The ON/OFF ratio of the resistive switching was found to be about 103. Switching mechanisms for the low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS) currents are likely attributed to the Ohmic and space charge-limited current (SCLC) behavior, respectively. Moreover, the ferroelectricity and resistive switching effects were found to be mutually independent, and the four logic states were obtained by controlling the periodic sweeping voltage. This work holds great promise for nonvolatile multistate memory devices with high capacity and low cost.

  5. Modulation of resistive switching characteristics for individual BaTiO3 microfiber by surface oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Zhilei; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Fang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Different from traditional thin-film BaTiO3 (BTO) RRAM device with planar structure, individual microfiber-shaped RRAM device, showing promising application potentials in the micro-sized non-volatile memory system, has not been investigated so far to demonstrate resistive switching behavior. In this work, individual sol-gel BTO microfiber has been formed using the draw-bench method, followed by annealing in different atmospheres of air and argon, respectively. The resistive switching characteristics of the individual BTO microfiber have been investigated by employing double-probe SEM measurement system, which shows great convenience to test local electrical properties by modulating the contact sites between the W probes and the BTO microfiber. For the sample annealed in air, the average resistive ON/OFF ratio is as high as 108, enhanced about four orders in comparison with the counterpart that annealed in Argon. For the sample annealed in argon ambience, the weakened resistive ON/OFF ratio can be attributed to the increased presence of oxygen vacancies in the surface of BTO fibers, and the underlying electrical conduction mechanisms are also discussed.

  6. Resistance switching mechanism of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. D.; Gao, R. L.; Fu, C. L.; Cai, W.; Chen, G.; Deng, X. L.; Zhang, H. R.; Sun, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Effects of oxygen vacancies on the electrical transport properties of oxygen stoichiometric La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 and oxygen-deficient La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ films have been investigated. The result presents that the oxygen-deficient films annealed in vacuum show obvious increase of resistance and lattice parameter. With the sweeping voltage or temperature increasing, the resistance exhibits obvious bipolar switching effect, no forming process was needed. Oxygen deficiency in the annealed film leads to the formation of a structural disorder in the Mn-O-Mn conduction channel due to the accumulation of oxygen vacancies under high external electric field or temperatures and hence is believed to be responsible for the bipolar resistance switching effect and the enhanced resistivity compared with oxygen stoichiometric La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 film. These results may be important for practical applications in photoelectric or storage devices and point to a useful direction for other oxidizing materials.

  7. Unipolar resistive switching behaviors and mechanisms in an annealed Ni/ZrO2/TaN memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Ho, Tsung-Han; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Ni/ZrO2/TaN resistive switching memory devices without and with a 400 °C annealing process on switching properties are investigated. The devices exhibit unipolar resistive switching behaviors with low set and reset voltages because of a large amount of Ni diffusion with no reaction with ZrO2 after the annealing process, which is confirmed by ToF-SIMS and XPS analyses. A physical model based on a Ni filament is constructed to explain such phenomena. The device that undergoes the 400 °C annealing process exhibits an excellent endurance of more than 1.5  ×  104 cycles. The improvement can be attributed to the enhancement of oxygen ion migration along grain boundaries, which result in less oxygen ion consumption during the reset process. The device also performs good retention up to 105 s at 150 °C. Therefore, it has great potential for high-density nonvolatile memory applications.

  8. Hafnia-based resistive switching devices for non-volatile memory applications and effects of gamma irradiation on device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, N.; Kumar, K. Vinod; Pathak, A. P.; Avasthi, D. K.; Nageswara Rao, S. V. S.

    2018-04-01

    Non-volatile memory (NVM) devices were fabricated as a Metal- Insulator-Metal (MIM) structures by sandwiching Hafnium dioxide (HfO2) thin film in between two metal electrodes. The top and bottom metal electrodes were deposited by using the thermal evaporation, and the oxide layer was deposited by using the RF magnetron sputtering technique. The Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) device structures such as Ag/HfO2/Au/Si were fabricated and I-V characteristics for the pristine and gamma-irradiated devices with a dose 24 kGy were measured. Further we have studied the thermal annealing effects, in the range of 100°-400°C in a tubular furnace for the HfO2/Au/Si samples. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis measurements were performed to determine the thickness, crystallinity and stoichiometry of these films. The electrical characteristics such as resistive switching, endurance, retention time and switching speed were measured by a semiconductor device analyser. The effects of gamma irradiation on the switching properties of these RRAM devices have been studied.

  9. Excellent resistive memory characteristics and switching mechanism using a Ti nanolayer at the Cu/TaOx interface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Excellent resistive switching memory characteristics were demonstrated for an Al/Cu/Ti/TaOx/W structure with a Ti nanolayer at the Cu/TaOx interface under low voltage operation of ± 1.5 V and a range of current compliances (CCs) from 0.1 to 500 μA. Oxygen accumulation at the Ti nanolayer and formation of a defective high-κ TaOx film were confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The resistive switching memory characteristics of the Al/Cu/Ti/TaOx/W structure, such as HRS/LRS (approximately 104), stable switching cycle stability (>106) and multi-level operation, were improved compared with those of Al/Cu/TaOx/W devices. These results were attributed to the control of Cu migration/dissolution by the insertion of a Ti nanolayer at the Cu/TaOx interface. In contrast, CuOx formation at the Cu/TaOx interface was observed in an Al/Cu/TaOx/W structure, which hindered dissolution of the Cu filament and resulted in a small resistance ratio of approximately 10 at a CC of 500 μA. A high charge-trapping density of 6.9 × 1016 /cm2 was observed in the Al/Cu/Ti/TaOx/W structure from capacitance-voltage hysteresis characteristics, indicating the migration of Cu ions through defect sites. The switching mechanism was successfully explained for structures with and without the Ti nanolayer. By using a new approach, the nanoscale diameter of Cu filament decreased from 10.4 to 0.17 nm as the CC decreased from 500 to 0.1 μA, resulting in a large memory size of 7.6 T to 28 Pbit/sq in. Extrapolated 10-year data retention of the Ti nanolayer device was also obtained. The findings of this study will not only improve resistive switching memory performance but also aid future design of nanoscale nonvolatile memory. PMID:22734564

  10. Non-exponential resistive switching in Ag2S memristors: a key to nanometer-scale non-volatile memory devices.

    PubMed

    Gubicza, Agnes; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András; Mihály, György

    2015-03-14

    The dynamics of resistive switchings in nanometer-scale metallic junctions formed between an inert metallic tip and an Ag film covered by a thin Ag2S layer are investigated. Our thorough experimental analysis and numerical simulations revealed that the resistance change upon a switching bias voltage pulse exhibits a strongly non-exponential behaviour yielding markedly different response times at different bias levels. Our results demonstrate the merits of Ag2S nanojunctions as nanometer-scale non-volatile memory cells with stable switching ratios, high endurance as well as fast response to write/erase, and an outstanding stability against read operations at technologically optimal bias and current levels.

  11. Ultra-low switching energy and scaling in electric-field-controlled nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions with high resistance-area product

    SciTech Connect

    Grezes, C.; Alzate, J. G.; Cai, X.

    2016-01-04

    We report electric-field-induced switching with write energies down to 6 fJ/bit for switching times of 0.5 ns, in nanoscale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with high resistance-area product and diameters down to 50 nm. The ultra-low switching energy is made possible by a thick MgO barrier that ensures negligible spin-transfer torque contributions, along with a reduction of the Ohmic dissipation. We find that the switching voltage and time are insensitive to the junction diameter for high-resistance MTJs, a result accounted for by a macrospin model of purely voltage-induced switching. The measured performance enables integration with same-size CMOS transistors in compact memorymore » and logic integrated circuits.« less

  12. Negative differential resistance and switch behavior of T-BxNy (x, y = 5, 6, 11) molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-Liang; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Xin, Jian-Guo

    2017-05-01

    The electronic transport properties of T-BxNy (x, y = 5, 6, 11) molecular junction are investigated based on first-principle density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method. Strong negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior is observed for T-B5N6 molecule under negative and positive bias voltages, with an obvious switch effect for T-B6N5. However, only small NDR is shown for the complex of the two molecules. The projected device density of states, the spatial distribution of molecular orbitals, and the effect of transmission spectra under various bias voltages on the electronic transport properties are analyzed. The obvious effect of bias voltage on the changes in the electronic distribution of frontier molecular orbitals is responsible for the NDR or switch behavior. Therefore, different functional molecular devices can be obtained with different structures of T-BxNy.

  13. Investigating the origins of high multilevel resistive switching in forming free Ti/TiO2-x-based memory devices through experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousoulas, P.; Giannopoulos, I.; Asenov, P.; Karageorgiou, I.; Tsoukalas, D.

    2017-03-01

    Although multilevel capability is probably the most important property of resistive random access memory (RRAM) technology, it is vulnerable to reliability issues due to the stochastic nature of conducting filament (CF) creation. As a result, the various resistance states cannot be clearly distinguished, which leads to memory capacity failure. In this work, due to the gradual resistance switching pattern of TiO2-x-based RRAM devices, we demonstrate at least six resistance states with distinct memory margin and promising temporal variability. It is shown that the formation of small CFs with high density of oxygen vacancies enhances the uniformity of the switching characteristics in spite of the random nature of the switching effect. Insight into the origin of the gradual resistance modulation mechanisms is gained by the application of a trap-assisted-tunneling model together with numerical simulations of the filament formation physical processes.

  14. Coexistence of unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors in NiFe2O4 thin film devices by doping Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Aize; Ismail, Muhammad; He, Shuai; Huang, Wenhua; Qin, Ni; Bao, Dinghua

    2018-02-01

    The coexistence of unipolar and bipolar resistive switching (RS) behaviors of Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) doped NiFe2O4 (NFO) based memory devices was investigated. The switching voltages of required operations in the unipolar mode were smaller than those in the bipolar mode, while ON/OFF resistance levels of both modes were identical. Ag-NPs doped NFO based devices could switch between the unipolar and bipolar modes just by preferring the polarity of RESET voltage. Besides, the necessity of identical compliance current during the SET process of unipolar and bipolar modes provided an additional advantage of simplicity in device operation. Performance characteristics and cycle-to-cycle uniformity (>103 cycles) in unipolar operation were considerably better than those in bipolar mode (>102 cycles) at 25 °C. Moreover, good endurance (>600 cycles) at 200 °C was observed in unipolar mode and excellent nondestructive retention characteristics were obtained on memory cells at 125 °C and 200 °C. On the basis of temperature dependence of resistance at low resistance state, it was believed that physical origin of the RS mechanism involved the formation/rupture of the conducting paths consisting of oxygen vacancies and Ag atoms, considering Joule heating and electrochemical redox reaction effects for the unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors. Our results demonstrate that 0.5% Ag-NPs doped nickel ferrites are promising resistive switching materials for resistive access memory applications.

  15. Role of Al2O3 thin layer on improving the resistive switching properties of Ta5Si3-based conductive bridge random accesses memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dayanand; Aluguri, Rakesh; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Ta5Si3-based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) devices have been investigated to improve their resistive switching characteristics for their application in future nonvolatile memory technology. Changes in the switching characteristics by the addition of a thin Al2O3 layer of different thicknesses at the bottom electrode interface of a Ta5Si3-based CBRAM devices have been studied. The double-layer device with a 1 nm Al2O3 layer has shown improved resistive switching characteristics over the single layer one with a high on/off resistance ratio of 102, high endurance of more than 104 cycles, and good retention for more than 105 s at the temperature of 130 °C. The higher thermal conductivity of Al2O3 over Ta5Si3 has been attributed to the enhanced switching properties of the double-layer devices.

  16. Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistance to proactive interference.

    PubMed

    Karle, James W; Watter, Scott; Shedden, Judith M

    2010-05-01

    Research into the perceptual and cognitive effects of playing video games is an area of increasing interest for many investigators. Over the past decade, expert video game players (VGPs) have been shown to display superior performance compared to non-video game players (nVGPs) on a range of visuospatial and attentional tasks. A benefit of video game expertise has recently been shown for task switching, suggesting that VGPs also have superior cognitive control abilities compared to nVGPs. In two experiments, we examined which aspects of task switching performance this VGP benefit may be localized to. With minimal trial-to-trial interference from minimally overlapping task set rules, VGPs demonstrated a task switching benefit compared to nVGPs. However, this benefit disappeared when proactive interference between tasks was increased, with substantial stimulus and response overlap in task set rules. We suggest that VGPs have no generalized benefit in task switching-related cognitive control processes compared to nVGPs, with switch cost reductions due instead to a specific benefit in controlling selective attention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reversible Negative Resistive Switching in an Individual Fe@Al2O3 Hybrid Nanotube for Nonvolatile Memory.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yalong; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Li; Cheng, Baochang; Xiao, Yanhe; Lei, Shuijin

    2018-06-06

    Hybrid nanostructures can show enormous potential in different areas because of their unique structural configurations. Herein, Fe@Al 2 O 3 hybrid nanotubes are constructed via a homogeneous coprecipitation method followed by subsequent annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The introduction of zero band gap Fe nanocrystals in the wall of ultrawide band gap Al 2 O 3 insulator nanotubes results in the formation of charge trap centers, and correspondingly a single hybrid nanotube-based two-terminal device can show reversible negative resistive switching (RS) characteristics with symmetrical negative differential resistance (NDR) at relatively high operation bias voltages. At a large bias voltage, holes and electrons can be injected into traps at two ends from electrodes, respectively, and then captured. The bias voltage dependence of asymmetrical filling of charges can lead to a reversible variation of built-in electromotive force, and therefore the symmetrical negative RS with NDR arises from two reversible back-to-back series bipolar RS. At a low readout voltage, the single Fe@Al 2 O 3 hybrid nanotube can show an excellent nonvolatile memory feature with a relatively large switching ratio of ∼30. The bias-governed reversible negative RS with superior stability, reversibility, nondestructive readout, and remarkable cycle performance makes it a potential candidate in next-generation erasable nonvolatile resistive random access memories.

  18. Overcoming imatinib resistance conferred by the BIM deletion polymorphism in chronic myeloid leukemia with splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Bhadra, Malini; Sinnakannu, Joanna Rajeswary; Yue, Wan Lin; Tan, Cheryl Weiqi; Rigo, Frank; Ong, S.Tiong; Roca, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Many tyrosine kinase-driven cancers, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are characterized by high response rates to specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like imatinib. In East Asians, primary imatinib resistance is caused by a deletion polymorphism in Intron 2 of the BIM gene, whose product is required for TKI-induced apoptosis. The deletion biases BIM splicing from exon 4 to exon 3, generating splice isoforms lacking the exon 4-encoded pro-apoptotic BH3 domain, which impairs the ability of TKIs to induce apoptosis. We sought to identify splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that block exon 3 but enhance exon 4 splicing, and thereby resensitize BIM deletion-containing cancers to imatinib. First, we mapped multiple cis-acting splicing elements around BIM exon 3 by minigene mutations, and found an exonic splicing enhancer acting via SRSF1. Second, by a systematic ASO walk, we isolated ASOs that corrected the aberrant BIM splicing. Eight of 67 ASOs increased exon 4 levels in BIM deletion-containing cells, and restored imatinib-induced apoptosis and TKI sensitivity. This proof-of-principle study proves that resistant CML cells by BIM deletion polymorphism can be resensitized to imatinib via splice-switching BIM ASOs. Future optimizations might yield a therapeutic ASO as precision-medicine adjuvant treatment for BIM-polymorphism-associated TKI-resistant CML and other cancers. PMID:29100409

  19. Overcoming imatinib resistance conferred by the BIM deletion polymorphism in chronic myeloid leukemia with splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Bhadra, Malini; Sinnakannu, Joanna Rajeswary; Yue, Wan Lin; Tan, Cheryl Weiqi; Rigo, Frank; Ong, S Tiong; Roca, Xavier

    2017-09-29

    Many tyrosine kinase-driven cancers, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are characterized by high response rates to specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like imatinib. In East Asians, primary imatinib resistance is caused by a deletion polymorphism in Intron 2 of the BIM gene, whose product is required for TKI-induced apoptosis. The deletion biases BIM splicing from exon 4 to exon 3, generating splice isoforms lacking the exon 4-encoded pro-apoptotic BH3 domain, which impairs the ability of TKIs to induce apoptosis. We sought to identify splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that block exon 3 but enhance exon 4 splicing, and thereby resensitize BIM deletion-containing cancers to imatinib. First, we mapped multiple cis -acting splicing elements around BIM exon 3 by minigene mutations, and found an exonic splicing enhancer acting via SRSF1. Second, by a systematic ASO walk, we isolated ASOs that corrected the aberrant BIM splicing. Eight of 67 ASOs increased exon 4 levels in BIM deletion-containing cells, and restored imatinib-induced apoptosis and TKI sensitivity. This proof-of-principle study proves that resistant CML cells by BIM deletion polymorphism can be resensitized to imatinib via splice-switching BIM ASOs. Future optimizations might yield a therapeutic ASO as precision-medicine adjuvant treatment for BIM -polymorphism-associated TKI-resistant CML and other cancers.

  20. A thorough investigation of the progressive reset dynamics in HfO{sub 2}-based resistive switching structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzi, P., E-mail: lorenzi@die.uniroma1.it; Rao, R.; Irrera, F.

    2015-09-14

    According to previous reports, filamentary electron transport in resistive switching HfO{sub 2}-based metal-insulator-metal structures can be modeled using a diode-like conduction mechanism with a series resistance. Taking the appropriate limits, the model allows simulating the high (HRS) and low (LRS) resistance states of the devices in terms of exponential and linear current-voltage relationships, respectively. In this letter, we show that this simple equivalent circuit approach can be extended to represent the progressive reset transition between the LRS and HRS if a generalized logistic growth model for the pre-exponential diode current factor is considered. In this regard, it is demonstrated heremore » that a Verhulst logistic model does not provide accurate results. The reset dynamics is interpreted as the sequential deactivation of multiple conduction channels spanning the dielectric film. Fitting results for the current-voltage characteristics indicate that the voltage sweep rate only affects the deactivation rate of the filaments without altering the main features of the switching dynamics.« less

  1. Mapping reversible photoswitching of molecular-resistance fluctuations during the conformational transformation of azobenzene-terminated molecular switches.

    PubMed

    Cho, Duckhyung; Yang, Myungjae; Shin, Narae; Hong, Seunghun

    2018-06-07

    We report a direct mapping and analysis of electrical noise in azobenzene-terminated molecular monolayers, revealing reversible photoswitching of the molecular-resistance fluctuations in the layers. In this work, a conducting atomic force microscope combined with a homemade spectrum analyzer was used to image electrical current and noise at patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of azobenzene-terminated molecular wires on a gold substrate. We analyzed the current and noise imaging data to obtain maps of molecular resistances and amount of mean-square fluctuations in the resistances of the regions of trans-azobenzene and a cis/trans-azobenzene mixture. We revealed that the fluctuations in the molecular resistances in the SAMs were enhanced after the trans-to-cis isomerization, while the resistances were reduced. This result could be attributed to enhanced disorders in the molecular arrangements in the cis-SAMs. Furthermore, we observed that the changes in the resistance fluctuations were reversible with respect to repeated trans-to-cis and cis-to-trans isomerizations, indicating that the effects originated from reversible photoswitching of the molecular structures rather than irreversible damages of the molecules. These findings provide valuable insights into the electrical fluctuations in photoswitchable molecules, which could be utilized in further studies on molecular switches and molecular electronics in general. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Resistive switching characteristics of solution-processed Al-Zn-Sn-O films annealed by microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Baek, Il-Jin; Cho, Won-Ju

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we employed microwave irradiation (MWI) at low temperature in the fabrication of solution-processed AlZnSnO (AZTO) resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices with a structure of Ti/AZTO/Pt and compared the memory characteristics with the conventional thermal annealing (CTA) process. Typical bipolar resistance switching (BRS) behavior was observed in AZTO ReRAM devices treated with as-deposited (as-dep), CTA and MWI. In the low resistance state, the Ohmic conduction mechanism describes the dominant conduction of these devices. On the other hand, the trap-controlled space charge limited conduction (SCLC) mechanism predominates in the high resistance state. The AZTO ReRAM devices processed with MWI showed larger memory windows, uniform distribution of resistance state and operating voltage, stable DC durability (>103 cycles) and stable retention characteristics (>104 s). In addition, the AZTO ReRAM devices treated with MWI exhibited multistage storage characteristics by modulating the amplitude of the reset bias, and eight distinct resistance levels were obtained with stable retention capability.

  3. Interface structure in Cu/Ta2O5/Pt resistance switch: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2015-01-14

    The interface structures of a Cu/Ta2O5/Pt resistance switch under various oxidation conditions have been examined from first-principles. The O-rich Cu/Ta2O5 interface is found to be stable within a wide range of O chemical potentials. In this interface structure, a considerable number of interface Cu atoms tend to migrate to the amorphous Ta2O5 (a-Ta2O5) layer, which causes the formation of the Cu2O layer. The interface Cu atoms become more ionized with an increase in the interface O concentration and/or temperature. These ionized Cu(+) ions could function as one of the main sources for the formation of conduction filaments in the Cu/a-Ta2O5/Pt resistance switch. In contrast, the ionization of the interface Cu atoms is not observed in the Cu/crystal-Ta2O5 interface primarily due to the much lower Cu ionic conductivity in crystal-Ta2O5 than that in amorphous state. In addition, the Pt electrode could not be ionized, irrespective of the interface O concentration and temperature. The formation of interface O vacancies in Pt/Ta2O5 is always energetically more stable than that in Cu/Ta2O5, which may be partly responsible for the cone shape of conduction filament formed in the Cu/a-Ta2O5/Pt resistance switch, where the base of the cone lies on the Pt/Ta2O5 interface.

  4. Highly uniform resistive switching properties of amorphous InGaZnO thin films prepared by a low temperature photochemical solution deposition method.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zou, Lilan; Chen, Xinman; Qin, Ni; Li, Shuwei; Bao, Dinghua

    2014-04-09

    We report on highly uniform resistive switching properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin films. The thin films were fabricated by a low temperature photochemical solution deposition method, a simple process combining chemical solution deposition and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation treatment. The a-IGZO based resistive switching devices exhibit long retention, good endurance, uniform switching voltages, and stable distribution of low and high resistance states. Electrical conduction mechanisms were also discussed on the basis of the current-voltage characteristics and their temperature dependence. The excellent resistive switching properties can be attributed to the reduction of organic- and hydrogen-based elements and the formation of enhanced metal-oxide bonding and metal-hydroxide bonding networks by hydrogen bonding due to UV irradiation, based on Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis of the thin films. This study suggests that a-IGZO thin films have potential applications in resistive random access memory and the low temperature photochemical solution deposition method can find the opportunity for further achieving system on panel applications if the a-IGZO resistive switching cells were integrated with a-IGZO thin film transistors.

  5. Ultralow power switching in a silicon-rich SiNy/SiNx double-layer resistive memory device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjun; Chang, Yao-Feng; Kim, Min-Hwi; Bang, Suhyun; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Chen, Ying-Chen; Lee, Jong-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-07-26

    Here we demonstrate low-power resistive switching in a Ni/SiN y /SiN x /p ++ -Si device by proposing a double-layered structure (SiN y /SiN x ), where the two SiN layers have different trap densities. The LRS was measured to be as low as 1 nA at a voltage of 1 V, because the SiN x layer maintains insulating properties for the LRS. The single-layered device suffers from uncontrollability of the conducting path, accompanied by the inherent randomness of switching parameters, weak immunity to breakdown during the reset process, and a high operating current. On the other hand, for a double-layered device, the effective conducting path in each layer, which can determine the operating current, can be well controlled by the I CC during the initial forming and set processes. A one-step forming and progressive reset process is observed for a low-power mode, which differs from the high-power switching mode that shows a two-step forming and reset process. Moreover, nonlinear behavior in the LRS, whose origin can be attributed to the P-F conduction and F-N tunneling driven by abundant traps in the silicon-rich SiN x layer, would be beneficial for next-generation nonvolatile memory applications by using a conventional passive SiN x layer as an active dielectric.

  6. Study on Frequency Dependency of ON-Resistance and Pulse-Loss Calculation of MOSFETs for Switch Mode Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Hideho; Sato, Ryohei; Iwata, Yoshiharu

    Global efforts toward energy conservation, increasing data centers, and the increasing use of IT equipments are leading to a demand in reduced power consumption of equipments, and power efficiency improvement of power supply units is becoming a necessity. MOSFETs are widely used for their low ON-resistances. Power efficiency is designed using time-domain circuit simulators, except for transformer copper-loss, which has frequency dependency which is calculated separately using methods based on skin and proximity effects. As semiconductor technology reduces the ON-resistance of MOSFETs, frequency dependency due to the skin effect or proximity effect is anticipated. In this study, ON-resistance of MOSFETs are measured and frequency dependency is confirmed. Power loss against rectangular current pulse is calculated. The calculation method for transformer copper-loss is expanded to MOSFETs. A frequency function for the resistance model is newly developed and parametric calculation is enabled. Acceleration of calculation is enabled by eliminating summation terms. Using this method, it is shown that the frequency dependent component of the measured MOSFETs increases the dissipation from 11% to 32% at a switching frequency of 100kHz. From above, this paper points out the importance of the frequency dependency of MOSFETs' ON-resistance, provides means of calculating its pulse losses, and improves loss calculation accuracy of SMPSs.

  7. A flexible nonvolatile resistive switching memory device based on ZnO film fabricated on a foldable PET substrate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai; Zhang, Xuejiao; Zhou, Guangdong; Yu, Tian; Mao, Shuangsuo; Zhu, Shouhui; Zhao, Yong; Xia, Yudong

    2018-06-15

    In this work, a flexible resistive switching memory device based on ZnO film was fabricated using a foldable Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film as substrate while Ag and Ti acts top and bottom electrode. Our as-prepared device represents an outstanding nonvolatile memory behavior with good "write-read-erase-read" stability at room temperature. Finally, a physical model of Ag conductive filament is constructed to understanding the observed memory characteristics. The work provides a new way for the preparation of flexible memory devices based on ZnO films, and especially provides an experimental basis for the exploration of high-performance and portable nonvolatile resistance random memory (RRAM). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of the forming process and the set voltage distribution of unipolar resistance switching in spin-coated CoFe2O4 thin films.

    PubMed

    Mustaqima, Millaty; Yoo, Pilsun; Huang, Wei; Lee, Bo Wha; Liu, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    We report the preparation of (111) preferentially oriented CoFe2O4 thin films on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates using a spin-coating process. The post-annealing conditions and film thickness were varied for cobalt ferrite (CFO) thin films, and Pt/CFO/Pt structures were prepared to investigate the resistance switching behaviors. Our results showed that resistance switching without a forming process is preferred to obtain less fluctuation in the set voltage, which can be regulated directly from the preparation conditions of the CFO thin films. Therefore, instead of thicker film, CFO thin films deposited by two times spin-coating with a thickness about 100 nm gave stable resistance switching with the most stable set voltage. Since the forming process and the large variation in set voltage have been considered as serious obstacles for the practical application of resistance switching for non-volatile memory devices, our results could provide meaningful insights in improving the performance of ferrite material-based resistance switching memory devices.

  9. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods and observation of resistive switching memory in ZnO based polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Manjula G.; Malakar, Meenakshi; Mohapatra, Saumya R.; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2018-05-01

    This research reports the observation of bipolar resistive switching memory in ZnO nanorod based polymer nanocomposites. We synthesized ZnO nanorods by wet-chemical method and characterized them using XRD, UV-VIS spectroscopy and SEM. The synthesized materials have hexagonal ZnO phase with grain size of 24 nm and having strong orientation along (101) direction as observed from XRD. The SEM micrograph confirms the formation of ZnO nanorods with diameter in the range of 10 to 20 nm and length of the order of 1 µm. From optical absorption spectra the band gap is estimated to be 2.42 eV. ZnO nanorods were dispersed in PVDF-HFP polymer matrix to prepare the nanocomposite. This nanocomposite was used as active layer in the devices having sandwich structure of ITO/PVDF-HFP+ZnO nanorods/Al. Bipolar non-volatile memory was observed with ON-OFF resistance ratio of the order of 103 and with a wide voltage window of 2.3V. The switching mechanism could be due to the trapping and de-trapping of electrons by the ZnO nanorods in the nanocomposite during ON and OFF states respectively.

  10. Effect of forming-gas annealing on the resistance switching effect of heteroepitaxial Nb:SrTiO3 film on Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Hu, Minghao; Liu, Yi

    2017-12-01

    The influence of forming-gas annealing (FGA) on the resistance switching effect of epitaxial Nb:SrTiO3 [Nb-doped strontium titanates (NbSTO)] films on Si substrate has been investigated. The resistance values at low and high resistance states for NbSTO films after FGA are about two orders of magnitude lower than those of the as-deposited sample, which may effectively decrease the power dissipation of devices. Hysteretic I-V characteristic curves show that the stability of FGA sample was improved. The resistance ratio of NbSTO films measured via pulse voltage increased from 1.0-1.2 to 3.2-3.6 after FGA. Moreover, the resistance ratio of the FGA sample gradually increased with increasing number of cycles. These results indicate that FGA improves the resistance switching characteristics of NbSTO films. In addition, the underlying mechanism was discussed.

  11. In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sowinska, Malgorzata, E-mail: sowinska@ihp-microelectronics.com; Bertaud, Thomas; Walczyk, Damian

    2014-05-28

    In this study, direct experimental materials science evidence of the important theoretical prediction for resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies that a critical amount of oxygen vacancies is needed to establish stable resistive switching in metal-oxide-metal samples is presented. In detail, a novel in-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is applied to non-destructively investigates the influence of the current compliance and direct current voltage sweep cycles on the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface chemistry and physics of resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells. These studies indeed confirm that current compliance is a critical parameter to control the amount of oxygen vacancies in themore » conducting filaments in the oxide layer during the RRAM cell operation to achieve stable switching. Furthermore, clear carbon segregation towards the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface under electrical stress is visible. Since carbon impurities impact the oxygen vacancy defect population under resistive switching, this dynamic carbon segregation to the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface is suspected to negatively influence RRAM device endurance. Therefore, these results indicate that the RRAM materials engineering needs to include all impurities in the dielectric layer in order to achieve reliable device performance.« less

  12. Selector-free resistive switching memory cell based on BiFeO3 nano-island showing high resistance ratio and nonlinearity factor

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ji Hoon; Joo, Ho-Young; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Duk Hyun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Yeon Soo; Choi, Taekjib; Park, Bae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Highly nonlinear bistable current-voltage (I–V) characteristics are necessary in order to realize high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices that are compatible with cross-point stack structures. Up to now, such I–V characteristics have been achieved by introducing complex device structures consisting of selection elements (selectors) and memory elements which are connected in series. In this study, we report bipolar resistive switching (RS) behaviours of nano-crystalline BiFeO3 (BFO) nano-islands grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates, with large ON/OFF ratio of 4,420. In addition, the BFO nano-islands exhibit asymmetric I–V characteristics with high nonlinearity factor of 1,100 in a low resistance state. Such selector-free RS behaviours are enabled by the mosaic structures and pinned downward ferroelectric polarization in the BFO nano-islands. The high resistance ratio and nonlinearity factor suggest that our BFO nano-islands can be extended to an N × N array of N = 3,740 corresponding to ~107 bits. Therefore, our BFO nano-island showing both high resistance ratio and nonlinearity factor offers a simple and promising building block of high density ReRAM. PMID:27001415

  13. CMOS analog switches for adaptive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Adaptive active low-pass filters incorporate CMOS (Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) analog switches (such as 4066 switch) that reduce variation in switch resistance when filter is switched to any selected transfer function.

  14. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan; Tang, Jian-Fu

    2016-06-28

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li{sub 0.06}Zn{sub 0.94}O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li{sup +} ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  15. Local control of the resistivity of graphene through mechanically induced switching of a ferroelectric superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humed Yusuf, Mohammed; Gura, Anna; Du, Xu; Dawber, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    We exploit nanoscale mechanically induced switching of an artificially layered ferroelectric material, used as an active substrate, to achieve the local manipulation of the electrical transport properties of graphene. In Graphene Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistors (GFeFETs), the graphene channel’s charge state is controlled by an underlying ferroelectric layer. The tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be used to mechanically ‘write’ nanoscale regions of the graphene channel and ‘read’ off the modulation in the transport behavior. The written features associated with the switching of ferroelectric domains remain polarized until an electrical reset operation is carried out. Our result provides a method for flexible and reversible nano-scale manipulation of the transport properties of a broad class of 2D materials.

  16. Evidence of electrochemical resistive switching in the hydrated alumina layers of Cu/CuTCNQ/(native AlOx)/Al junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Nikolaus; Bamedi, Ameneh; Karipidou, Zoi; Wirtz, René; Sarpasan, Mustafa; Rosselli, Silvia; Nelles, Gabriele

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated bipolar resistive switching of Cu/CuTCNQ/Al cross-junctions in both vacuum and different gas environments. While the generally observed S-shaped I-V hysteresis was reproduced in ambient air, it was reversibly suppressed in well-degassed samples in vacuum and in dry N2. The OFF-switching currents in ambient air peaked when approximately +2.6 V was applied to the Al electrode at low voltage sweep rates. OFF-switching at constant bias was accelerated in humid and oxygen-rich atmospheres. For unbiased samples stored in air, ON-state (RON) and OFF-state (ROFF) resistances increased with time, and RON surpassed the initial ROFF after approximately one week. Retention times were enhanced for samples stored in vacuum and those with a larger cross-junction area. We suggest that resistive switching occurs in a hydrated native alumina layer at the CuTCNQ/Al interface that grows in thickness during exposure to ambient humidity: ON-switching by electrochemical metallization of free Al and/or Cu ions and OFF-switching by anodic oxidation of the Al electrode and previously grown metal filaments.

  17. Nanocrystalline Si pathway induced unipolar resistive switching behavior from annealed Si-rich SiN{sub x}/SiN{sub y} multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan, E-mail: zyma@nju.edu.cn; Yang, Huafeng

    2014-09-28

    Adding a resistive switching functionality to a silicon microelectronic chip is a new challenge in materials research. Here, we demonstrate that unipolar and electrode-independent resistive switching effects can be realized in the annealed Si-rich SiN{sub x}/SiN{sub y} multilayers with high on/off ratio of 10{sup 9}. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that for the high resistance state broken pathways composed of discrete nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) exist in the Si nitride multilayers. While for the low resistance state the discrete nc-Si regions is connected, forming continuous nc-Si pathways. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependent I-V characteristics and HRTEM photos,more » we found that the break-and-bridge evolution of nc-Si pathway is the origin of resistive switching memory behavior. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of the resistive switching behavior in nc-Si films, opening a way for it to be utilized as a material in Si-based memories.« less

  18. Effects of Gibbs free energy of interfacial metal oxide on resistive switching characteristics of solution-processed HfOx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Sun, Jhen-Kai; Tsao, Che-Chang; Chuang, Po-Yang

    2017-08-01

    Effects of bottom electrodes (BEs) of Al, Mo, and Pt on resistive switching characteristics of sol-gel HfOx films were investigated in this work. To avoid influences of plasma or thermal energy on HfOx RS characteristic, the top electrodes were formed by pressing indium balls onto the HfOx surface rather than by using a sputter or an evaporator. When using Mo as the BE, the as-deposited HfOx film can give a forming-free resistive switching behavior with low set/reset voltages of 0.28 V / - 0.54 V. In contrast, non-switching characteristics of the HfOx films were observed when using Al and Pt as the BEs. The HfOx conduction current was found to be highly dependent on the BE. However, when an annealing process at 350 °C in an oxygen ambient was performed to the HfOx films on different BEs, the resistive switching behavior of the HfOx/Mo was absent while it can be found in the HfOx/Al sample. Differences in I-V characteristics of the HfOx films on different BEs were explained by considering Gibbs free energies of interfacial oxide layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile was used to examine the interfacial oxide layer. The resistive switching mechanism was also studied.

  19. Bias voltage induced resistance switching effect in single-molecule magnets' tunneling junction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Liang

    2014-09-12

    An electric-pulse-induced reversible resistance change effect in a molecular magnetic tunneling junction, consisting of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) sandwiched in one nonmagnetic and one ferromagnetic electrode, is theoretically investigated. By applying a time-varying bias voltage, the SMM's spin orientation can be manipulated with large bias voltage pulses. Moreover, the different magnetic configuration at high-resistance/low-resistance states can be 'read out' by utilizing relative low bias voltage. This device scheme can be implemented with current technologies (Khajetoorians et al 2013 Science 339 55) and has potential application in molecular spintronics and high-density nonvolatile memory devices.

  20. A high performance transparent resistive switching memory made from ZrO{sub 2}/AlON bilayer structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen, E-mail: tseng@cc.nctu.edu.tw

    2016-04-11

    In this study, the switching properties of an indium tin oxide (ITO)/zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2})/ITO single layer device and those of a device with an aluminum oxynitride (AlON) layer were investigated. The devices with highly transparent characteristics were fabricated. Compared with the ITO/ZrO{sub 2}/ITO single layer device, the ITO/ZrO{sub 2}/AlON/ITO bilayer device exhibited a larger ON/OFF ratio, higher endurance performance, and superior retention properties by using a simple two-step forming process. These substantial improvements in the resistive switching properties were attributed to the minimized influence of oxygen migration through the ITO top electrode (TE), which can be realized by formingmore » an asymmetrical conductive filament with the weakest part at the ZrO{sub 2}/AlON interface. Therefore, in the ITO/ZrO{sub 2}/AlON/ITO bilayer device, the regions where conductive filament formation and rupture occur can be effectively moved from the TE interface to the interior of the device.« less

  1. Nonlinear space charge dynamics in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Resistive switching and ferroelectric-like hysteresis of electromechanical response

    SciTech Connect

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Morozovsky, Nicholas V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.

    We performed self-consistent modelling of nonlinear electrotransport and electromechanical response of thin films of mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) allowing for steric effects of mobile charged defects (ions, protons, or vacancies), electron degeneration, and Vegard stresses. We establish correlations between the features of the nonlinear space-charge dynamics, current-voltage, and bending-voltage curves for different types of the film electrodes. A pronounced ferroelectric-like hysteresis of the bending-voltage loops and current maxima on the double hysteresis current-voltage loops appear for the electron-transport electrodes. The double hysteresis loop with pronounced humps indicates a memristor-type resistive switching. The switching occurs due to the strong nonlinear couplingmore » between the electronic and ionic subsystems. A sharp meta-stable maximum of the electron density appears near one open electrode and moves to another one during the periodic change of applied voltage. Our results can explain the nonlinear nature and correlation of electrical and mechanical memory effects in thin MIEC films. The analytical expression proving that the electrically induced bending of MIEC films can be detected by interferometric methods is derived.« less

  2. Characterization and modeling of SET/RESET cycling induced read-disturb failure time degradation in a resistive switching memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Po-Cheng; Hsu, Chun-Chi; Du, Sin-I.; Wang, Tahui

    2017-12-01

    Read operation induced disturbance in SET-state in a tungsten oxide resistive switching memory is investigated. We observe that the reduction of oxygen vacancy density during read-disturb follows power-law dependence on cumulative read-disturb time. Our study shows that the SET-state read-disturb immunity progressively degrades by orders of magnitude as SET/RESET cycle number increases. To explore the cause of the read-disturb degradation, we perform a constant voltage stress to emulate high-field stress effects in SET/RESET cycling. We find that the read-disturb failure time degradation is attributed to high-field stress-generated oxide traps. Since the stress-generated traps may substitute for some of oxygen vacancies in forming conductive percolation paths in a switching dielectric, a stressed cell has a reduced oxygen vacancy density in SET-state, which in turn results in a shorter read-disturb failure time. We develop an analytical read-disturb degradation model including both cycling induced oxide trap creation and read-disturb induced oxygen vacancy reduction. Our model can well reproduce the measured read-disturb failure time degradation in a cycled cell without using fitting parameters.

  3. A high performance transparent resistive switching memory made from ZrO2/AlON bilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Lou, Jesse Jen-Chung; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the switching properties of an indium tin oxide (ITO)/zirconium oxide (ZrO2)/ITO single layer device and those of a device with an aluminum oxynitride (AlON) layer were investigated. The devices with highly transparent characteristics were fabricated. Compared with the ITO/ZrO2/ITO single layer device, the ITO/ZrO2/AlON/ITO bilayer device exhibited a larger ON/OFF ratio, higher endurance performance, and superior retention properties by using a simple two-step forming process. These substantial improvements in the resistive switching properties were attributed to the minimized influence of oxygen migration through the ITO top electrode (TE), which can be realized by forming an asymmetrical conductive filament with the weakest part at the ZrO2/AlON interface. Therefore, in the ITO/ZrO2/AlON/ITO bilayer device, the regions where conductive filament formation and rupture occur can be effectively moved from the TE interface to the interior of the device.

  4. Highly flexible and electroforming free resistive switching behavior of tungsten disulfide flakes fabricated through advanced printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muqeet Rehman, Muhammad; Uddin Siddiqui, Ghayas; Doh, Yang Hoi; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Tungsten disulfide (WS2) is a transition metal dichalcogenide that differs from other 2D materials such as graphene owing to its distinctive semiconducting nature and tunable band gap. In this study, we have reported the structural, electrical, physical, and mechanical properties of exfoliated WS2 flakes and used them as the functional layer of a rewritable bipolar memory device. We demonstrate this concept by sandwiching few-layered WS2 flakes between two silver (Ag) electrodes on a flexible and transparent PET substrate. The entire device fabrication was carried out through all-printing technology such as reverse offset printing for patterning bottom electrodes, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) atomization for depositing functional thin film and EHD patterning for depositing the top electrode respectively. The memory device was further encapsulated with an atomically thin layer of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), deposited through a spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition system to protect it against a humid environment. Remarkable resistive switching results were obtained, such as nonvolatile bipolar behavior, a high switching ratio (∼103), a long retention time (∼105 s), high endurance (1500 voltage sweeps), a low operating voltage (∼2 V), low current compliance (50 μA), mechanical robustness (1500 cycles) and unique repeatability at ambient conditions. Ag/WS2/Ag-based memory devices offer a new possibility for integration in flexible electronic devices.

  5. Effects of device size and material on the bending performance of resistive-switching memory devices fabricated on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won-Ho; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2017-05-01

    The resistive change memory (RCM) devices using amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and microcrystalline Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were fabricated on plastic substrates and characterized for flexible electronic applications. The device cell sizes were varied to 25 × 25, 50 × 50, 100 × 100, and 200 × 200 μm2 to examine the effects of cell size on the resistive-switching (RS) behaviors at a flat state and under bending conditions. First, it was found that the high-resistance state programmed currents markedly increased with the increase in the cell size. Second, while the AZO RCM devices did not exhibit RESET operations at a curvature radius smaller than 8.0 mm, the IGZO RCM devices showed sound RS behaviors even at a curvature radius of 4.5 mm. Third, for the IGZO RCM devices with the cell size bigger than 100 × 100 μm2, the RESET operation could not be performed at a curvature radius smaller than 6.5 mm. Thus, it was elucidated that the RS characteristics of the flexible RCM devices using oxide semiconductor thin films were closely related to the types of RS materials and the cell size of the device.

  6. Ferroelectric behavior and reproducible Bi-stable resistance switching property in K-doped ZnO thin films as candidate for application in non-volatile memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. W.; Subramaniam, N. G.; Kang, T. W.; Shon, Yoon; Kim, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    Potassium-doped ZnO thin films electrodeposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates exhibited ferroelectric behavior with a remnant polarization of 0.2 μC/cm2. Especially, wave forms showing the applied input voltage Vi and output voltage Vo were obtained for Al/ZnO:K/ITO structure. It exhibits a superposition of Vi (input) and Vo (output) signal from Al/ZnO:K/ITO structure with a clear phase shift between the two wave forms which again confirms that the observed ferroelectric hysteresis curve is not related to leaky dielectric materials. The current-voltage characteristics of Al/ZnO:K/ITO structures measured for several cycles revealed bi-stable switching characteristics. The reproducible bi-stable switching characteristics for the mentioned structures had good retention in one particular resistance state. Around one order of switching was realized between low and high resistance states. The switching property thought to be polarization induced originating out from the ferroelectric properties of the potassium doped ZnO thin film. The switching between ZnO:K/ITO interface is assumed to be critical for stability in switching for several cycles. Possible application of this structure in non-volatile memories is explored.

  7. Resistive Switching Memory Phenomena in PEDOT PSS: Coexistence of Switchable Diode Effect and Write Once Read Many Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-01

    We study resistive switching memory phenomena in conducting polymer PEDOT PSS. In the same film, there are two types of memory behavior coexisting; namely, the switchable diode effect and write once read many memory. This is the first report on switchable diode phenomenon based on conducting organic materials. The effect was explained as charge trapping of PEDOT PSS film and movement of proton. The same PEDOT PSS device also exhibits write once read many memory (WORM) phenomenon which arises due to redox reaction that reduces PEDOT PSS and renders it non-conducting. The revelation of these two types of memory phenomena in PEDOT PSS highlights the remarkable versatility of this conducting conjugated polymer. PMID:26806868

  8. Morphological switch to a resistant subpopulation in response to viral infection in the bloom-forming coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Frada, Miguel José; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Shemi, Adva; Sabanay, Helena; Vardi, Assaf

    2017-12-01

    Recognizing the life cycle of an organism is key to understanding its biology and ecological impact. Emiliania huxleyi is a cosmopolitan marine microalga, which displays a poorly understood biphasic sexual life cycle comprised of a calcified diploid phase and a morphologically distinct biflagellate haploid phase. Diploid cells (2N) form large-scale blooms in the oceans, which are routinely terminated by specific lytic viruses (EhV). In contrast, haploid cells (1N) are resistant to EhV. Further evidence indicates that 1N cells may be produced during viral infection. A shift in morphology, driven by meiosis, could therefore constitute a mechanism for E. huxleyi cells to escape from EhV during blooms. This process has been metaphorically coined the 'Cheshire Cat' (CC) strategy. We tested this model in two E. huxleyi strains using a detailed assessment of morphological and ploidy-level variations as well as expression of gene markers for meiosis and the flagellate phenotype. We showed that following the CC model, production of resistant cells was triggered during infection. This led to the rise of a new subpopulation of cells in the two strains that morphologically resembled haploid cells and were resistant to EhV. However, ploidy-level analyses indicated that the new resistant cells were diploid or aneuploid. Thus, the CC strategy in E. huxleyi appears to be a life-phase switch mechanism involving morphological remodeling that is decoupled from meiosis. Our results highlight the adaptive significance of morphological plasticity mediating complex host-virus interactions in marine phytoplankton.

  9. Morphological switch to a resistant subpopulation in response to viral infection in the bloom-forming coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwasser, Shilo; Shemi, Adva; Sabanay, Helena; Vardi, Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Recognizing the life cycle of an organism is key to understanding its biology and ecological impact. Emiliania huxleyi is a cosmopolitan marine microalga, which displays a poorly understood biphasic sexual life cycle comprised of a calcified diploid phase and a morphologically distinct biflagellate haploid phase. Diploid cells (2N) form large-scale blooms in the oceans, which are routinely terminated by specific lytic viruses (EhV). In contrast, haploid cells (1N) are resistant to EhV. Further evidence indicates that 1N cells may be produced during viral infection. A shift in morphology, driven by meiosis, could therefore constitute a mechanism for E. huxleyi cells to escape from EhV during blooms. This process has been metaphorically coined the ‘Cheshire Cat’ (CC) strategy. We tested this model in two E. huxleyi strains using a detailed assessment of morphological and ploidy-level variations as well as expression of gene markers for meiosis and the flagellate phenotype. We showed that following the CC model, production of resistant cells was triggered during infection. This led to the rise of a new subpopulation of cells in the two strains that morphologically resembled haploid cells and were resistant to EhV. However, ploidy-level analyses indicated that the new resistant cells were diploid or aneuploid. Thus, the CC strategy in E. huxleyi appears to be a life-phase switch mechanism involving morphological remodeling that is decoupled from meiosis. Our results highlight the adaptive significance of morphological plasticity mediating complex host–virus interactions in marine phytoplankton. PMID:29244854

  10. Switching mechanism transition induced by annealing treatment in nonvolatile Cu/ZnO/Cu/ZnO/Pt resistive memory: From carrier trapping/detrapping to electrochemical metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. C.; Pan, F.; Zeng, F.; Liu, M.

    2009-12-01

    ZnO/Cu/ZnO trilayer films sandwiched between Cu and Pt electrodes were prepared for nonvolatile resistive memory applications. These structures show resistance switching under electrical bias both before and after a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment, while it is found that the resistive switching effects in the two cases exhibit distinct characteristics. Compared with the as-fabricated device, the memory cell after RTA demonstrates remarkable device parameter improvements including lower threshold voltages, lower write current, and higher Roff/Ron ratio. A high-voltage forming process is avoided in the annealed device as well. Furthermore, the RTA treatment has triggered a switching mechanism transition from a carrier trapping/detrapping type to an electrochemical-redox-reaction-controlled conductive filament formation/rupture process, as indicated by different features in current-voltage characteristics. Both scanning electron microscopy observations and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles reveal that the Cu charge trapping layer in ZnO/Cu/ZnO disperses uniformly into the storage medium after RTA, while x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that the Cu atoms have lost electrons to become Cu2+ ions after dispersion. The above experimental facts indicate that the altered status of Cu in the ZnO/Cu/ZnO trilayer films during RTA treatment should be responsible for the switching mechanism transition. This study is envisioned to open the door for understanding the interrelation between different mechanisms that currently exist in the field of resistive memories.

  11. Conductive atomic force microscopy study of the photoexcitation effect on resistive switching in ZrO2(Y) films with Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, A. S.; Filatov, D. O.; Antonov, D. A.; Antonov, I. N.; Shenina, M. E.; Gorshkov, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the experimental observation of the effect of optical excitation on resistive switching in ultrathin ZrO2(Y) films with single-layered arrays of Au nanoparticles. The samples were prepared by depositing nanometer-thick Au films sandwiched between two ZrO2(Y) layers by magnetron sputtering followed by annealing. Resistive switching was studied by conductive atomic force microscopy by measuring cyclic current-voltage curves of a probe-to-sample contact. The contact area was illuminated by radiation of a semiconductor laser diode with the wavelength corresponding to the plasmon resonance in an Au nanoparticle array. The enhancement of the hysteresis in cyclic current-voltage curves due to bipolar resistive switching under illumination was observed. The effect was attributed to heating of Au nanoparticles due to plasmonic optical absorption and a plasmon resonance, which enhances internal photoemission of electrons from the Fermi level in Au nanoparticles into the conduction band of ZrO2(Y). Both factors promote resistive switching in a ZrO2(Y) matrix.

  12. Composition-ratio influence on resistive switching behavior of solution-processed InGaZnO-based thin-film.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, Inchan; Cho, Won-Ju

    2014-11-01

    The influence of composition ratio on the bipolar resistive switching behavior of resistive switching memory devices based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) using the spin-coating process was investigated. To study the stoichiometric effects of the a-IGZO films on device characteristics, four devices with In/Ga/Zn stoichiometries of 1:1:1, 3:1:1, 1:3:1, and 1:1:3 were fabricated and characterized. The 3:1:1 film showed an ohmic behavior and the 1:1:3 film showed a rectifying switching behavior. The current-voltage characteristics of the a-IGZO films with stoichiometries of 1:1:1 and 1:3:1, however, showed a bipolar resistive memory switching behavior. We found that the three-fold increase in the gallium content ratio reduces the reset voltage from -0.9 to - 0.4 V and enhances the current ratio of high to low resistive states from 0.7 x 10(1) to 3 x 10(1). Our results show that the increase in the Ga composition ratio in the a-IGZO-based ReRAM cells effectively improves the device performance and reliability by increasing the initial defect density in the a-IGZO films.

  13. A spot laser modulated resistance switching effect observed on n-type Mn-doped ZnO/SiO2/Si structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Tu, Xinglong; Yin, Guilin; Wang, Hui; He, Dannong

    2017-11-09

    In this work, a spot laser modulated resistance switching (RS) effect is firstly observed on n-type Mn-doped ZnO/SiO 2 /Si structure by growing n-type Mn-doped ZnO film on Si wafer covered with a 1.2 nm native SiO 2 , which has a resistivity in the range of 50-80 Ω∙cm. The I-V curve obtained in dark condition evidences the structure a rectifying junction, which is further confirmed by placing external bias. Compared to the resistance state modulated by electric field only in dark (without illumination), the switching voltage driving the resistance state of the structure from one state to the other, shows clear shift under a spot laser illumination. Remarkably, the switching voltage shift shows a dual dependence on the illumination position and power of the spot laser. We ascribe this dual dependence to the electric filed produced by the redistribution of photo-generated carriers, which enhance the internal barrier of the hetero-junction. A complete theoretical analysis based on junction current and diffusion equation is presented. The dependence of the switching voltage on spot laser illumination makes the n-type Mn-doped ZnO/SiO 2 /Si structure sensitive to light, which thus allows for the integration of an extra functionality in the ZnO-based photoelectric device.

  14. Investigation of resistance switching in SiO x RRAM cells using a 3D multi-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadi, Toufik; Mehonic, Adnan; Montesi, Luca; Buckwell, Mark; Kenyon, Anthony; Asenov, Asen

    2018-02-01

    We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space. This work focuses on the promising yet less studied RRAM structures based on silicon-rich silica (SiO x ) RRAMs. We explain the intrinsic nature of resistance switching of the SiO x layer, analyze the effect of self-heating on device performance, highlight the role of the initial vacancy distributions acting as precursors for switching, and also stress the importance of using 3D physics-based models to capture accurately the switching processes. The simulation work is backed by experimental studies. The simulator is useful for improving our understanding of the little-known physics of SiO x resistive memory devices, as well as other oxide-based RRAM systems (e.g. transition metal oxide RRAMs), offering design and optimization capabilities with regard to the reliability and variability of memory cells.

  15. Interface Engineering with MoS2 -Pd Nanoparticles Hybrid Structure for a Low Voltage Resistive Switching Memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Tian, He; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Mao, Wei-Quan; Qiao, Yan-Cong; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted a lot of attention for its scalability, temperature robustness, and potential to achieve machine learning. However, a thick oxide layer results in relatively high program voltage while a thin one causes large leakage current and a small window. Owing to these fundamental limitations, by optimizing the oxide layer itself a novel interface engineering idea is proposed to reduce the programming voltage, increase the uniformity and on/off ratio. According to this idea, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 )-palladium nanoparticles hybrid structure is used to engineer the oxide/electrode interface of hafnium oxide (HfO x )-based RRAM. Through its interface engineering, the set voltage can be greatly lowered (from -3.5 to -0.8 V) with better uniformity under a relatively thick HfO x layer (≈15 nm), and a 30 times improvement of the memory window can be obtained. Moreover, due to the atomic thickness of MoS 2 film and high transmittance of ITO, the proposed RRAM exhibits high transparency in visible light. As the proposed interface-engineering RRAM exhibits good transparency, low SET voltage, and a large resistive switching window, it has huge potential in data storage in transparent circuits and wearable electronics with relatively low supply voltage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Model for multi-filamentary conduction in graphene/hexagonal-boron-nitride/graphene based resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chengbin; Miranda, Enrique; Villena, Marco A.; Xiao, Na; Jing, Xu; Xie, Xiaoming; Wu, Tianru; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Despite the enormous interest raised by graphene and related materials, recent global concern about their real usefulness in industry has raised, as there is a preoccupying lack of 2D materials based electronic devices in the market. Moreover, analytical tools capable of describing and predicting the behavior of the devices (which are necessary before facing mass production) are very scarce. In this work we synthesize a resistive random access memory (RRAM) using graphene/hexagonal-boron-nitride/graphene (G/h-BN/G) van der Waals structures, and we develop a compact model that accurately describes its functioning. The devices were fabricated using scalable methods (i.e. CVD for material growth and shadow mask for electrode patterning), and they show reproducible resistive switching (RS). The measured characteristics during the forming, set and reset processes were fitted using the model developed. The model is based on the nonlinear Landauer approach for mesoscopic conductors, in this case atomic-sized filaments formed within the 2D materials system. Besides providing excellent overall fitting results (which have been corroborated in log-log, log-linear and linear-linear plots), the model is able to explain the dispersion of the data obtained from cycle-to-cycle in terms of the particular features of the filamentary paths, mainly their confinement potential barrier height.

  17. Self-Rectifying Effect in Resistive Switching Memory Using Amorphous InGaZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Kwon, Hyeon-Min; Kim, Myeong-Ho; Lee, Seung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Bae; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2014-05-01

    Resistance random access memory (ReRAM) has received attention as next-generation memory because of its excellent operating properties and high density integration capability as a crossbar array. However, the application of the existing ReRAM as a crossbar array may lead to crosstalk between adjacent cells due to its symmetric I- V characteristics. In this study, the self-rectifying effect of contact between amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) and TaO x was examined in a Pt/a-IGZO/TaO x /Al2O3/W structure. The experimental results show not only self-rectifying behavior but also forming-free characteristics. During the deposition of a-IGZO on the TaO x , an oxygen-rich TaO x interfacial layer was formed. The rectifying effect was observed regardless of the interface formation and is believed to be associated with Schottky contact formation between a-IGZO and TaO x . The current level remained unchanged despite repeated DC sweep cycles. The low resistance state/high resistance state ratio was about 101 at a read voltage of -0.5 V, and the rectifying ratio was about 103 at ±2 V.

  18. Clinical Outcomes of Virologically-Suppressed Patients with Pre-existing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations Switching to Rilpivirine/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in the SPIRIT Study.

    PubMed

    Porter, Danielle P; Toma, Jonathan; Tan, Yuping; Solberg, Owen; Cai, Suqin; Kulkarni, Rima; Andreatta, Kristen; Lie, Yolanda; Chuck, Susan K; Palella, Frank; Miller, Michael D; White, Kirsten L

    2016-02-01

    Antiretroviral regimen switching may be considered for HIV-1-infected, virologically-suppressed patients to enable treatment simplification or improve tolerability, but should be guided by knowledge of pre-existing drug resistance. The current study examined the impact of pre-existing drug resistance mutations on virologic outcomes among virologically-suppressed patients switching to Rilpivirine (RPV)/emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). SPIRIT was a phase 3b study evaluating the safety and efficacy of switching to RPV/FTC/TDF in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients. Pre-existing drug resistance at baseline was determined by proviral DNA genotyping for 51 RPV/FTC/TDF-treated patients with known mutations by historical RNA genotype and matched controls and compared with clinical outcome at Week 48. Drug resistance mutations in protease or reverse transcriptase were detected in 62.7% of patients by historical RNA genotype and in 68.6% by proviral DNA genotyping at baseline. Proviral DNA sequencing detected 89% of occurrences of NRTI and NNRTI resistance-associated mutations reported by historical genotype. Mutations potentially affecting RPV activity, including E138A/G/K/Q, Y181C, and H221Y, were detected in isolates from 11 patients by one or both assays. None of the patients with single mutants had virologic failure through Week 48. One patient with pre-existing Y181Y/C and M184I by proviral DNA genotyping experienced virologic failure. Nineteen patients with K103N present by historical genotype were confirmed by proviral DNA sequencing and 18/19 remained virologically-suppressed. Virologic success rates were high among virologically-suppressed patients with pre-existing NRTI and NNRTI resistance-associated mutations who switched to RPV/FTC/TDF in the SPIRIT study. While plasma RNA genotyping remains preferred, proviral DNA genotyping may provide additional value in virologically-suppressed patients for whom historical resistance

  19. Forming-free, bipolar resistivity switching characteristics of fully transparent resistive random access memory with IZO/α-IGZO/ITO structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chun-Chieh; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2016-09-01

    Fully transparent resistive random access memory (TRRAM) containing amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide as the resistance switching (RS) layer and transparent conducting oxides (indium zinc oxide and indium tin oxide) as the electrodes was prepared. Optical measurement indicated the transmittance of device exceeds 80% in visible-light wavelength range. TRRAM samples exhibited the forming-free feature and the best electrical performance (V SET  =  0.61 V V RESET  =  -0.76 V R HRS/R LRS (i.e. the R-ratio)  >103) was observed in the device subject to a post-annealing at 300 °C for 1 hr in atmospheric ambient. Such a sample also exhibited satisfactory endurance and retention properties at 85 °C as revealed by the reliability tests. Electrical measurement performed in vacuum ambient indicated that the RS mechanism correlates with the charge trapping/de-trapping process associated with oxygen defects in the RS layer.

  20. Study of self-compliance behaviors and internal filament characteristics in intrinsic SiO{sub x}-based resistive switching memory

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yao-Feng, E-mail: yfchang@utexas.edu; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Ying-Chen

    2016-01-18

    Self-compliance characteristics and reliability optimization are investigated in intrinsic unipolar silicon oxide (SiO{sub x})-based resistive switching (RS) memory using TiW/SiO{sub x}/TiW device structures. The program window (difference between SET voltage and RESET voltage) is dependent on external series resistance, demonstrating that the SET process is due to a voltage-triggered mechanism. The program window has been optimized for program/erase disturbance immunity and reliability for circuit-level applications. The SET and RESET transitions have also been characterized using a dynamic conductivity method, which distinguishes the self-compliance behavior due to an internal series resistance effect (filament) in SiO{sub x}-based RS memory. By using amore » conceptual “filament/resistive gap (GAP)” model of the conductive filament and a proton exchange model with appropriate assumptions, the internal filament resistance and GAP resistance can be estimated for high- and low-resistance states (HRS and LRS), and are found to be independent of external series resistance. Our experimental results not only provide insights into potential reliability issues but also help to clarify the switching mechanisms and device operating characteristics of SiO{sub x}-based RS memory.« less

  1. Flexible resistive switching device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) composite and methyl red heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Gul; Ali, Shawkat; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    To obtain a desired performance of non-volatile memory applications, heterojunction-based resistive switching devices have tremendous attractions. In this paper, we demonstrate resistive switching characteristics for heterojunction of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) composite and methyl red sandwiched in between bottom and top silver (Ag) electrodes. The proposed heterojunction layers are fabricated through spin coater at 3000 rpm for 60 s each, and the Ag electrodes are deposited through a commercialized inkjet printer DMP-3000 on polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrate. To verify the proposed device, the resistive switching on dual polarity voltage of ±10.2 V is measured over more than 500 endurance cycles. The paper also presents an R off/ R on ratio which can adjust through an active layer's area and a blending ratio of the PEDOT:PSS and PVP. By applying the area of 100 μm2 and the blending ratio of 3:1, we achieve the higher R off/ R on ratio of 121, and its high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state (LRS) are observed as 3000 kΩ and 24.7 kΩ, respectively. To maintain a long retention time, the device is encapsulated with PDMS, which changes a little variations of 52 Ω for HRS 498 Ω for LRS over 60 days. For the flexible realization to be utilized in wearable applications, it can be easily applied on a plastic substrate using printed technologies.

  2. Multilevel resistance switching effect in Au/La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/Pt heterostructure manipulated by external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jiahong; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Li, Qian; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Dunhui; Du, Youwei

    2018-04-01

    Multilevel resistance switching (RS) effect has attracted more and more attention due to its promising potential for the increase of storage density in memory devices. In this work, the transport properties are investigated in an Au/La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 (LBMO)/Pt heterostructure. Taking advantage of the strong interplay among the spin, charge, orbital and lattice of LBMO, the Au/LBMO/Pt device can exhibit bipolar RS effect and magnetoresistance effect simultaneously. Under the coaction of electric field and magnetic field, four different resistance states are achieved in this device. These resistance states show excellent repeatability and retentivity and can be switched between any two states, which suggest the potential applications in the multilevel RS memory devices with enhanced storage density.

  3. High resistance ratio of bipolar resistive switching in a multiferroic/high-K Bi(Fe0.95Cr0.05)O3/ZrO2/Pt heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, B. W.; Miao, Jun; Han, J. Z.; Shao, F.; Yuan, J.; Meng, K. K.; Wu, Y.; Xu, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2018-03-01

    An novel heterostructure composed of multiferroic Bi(Fe0.95Cr0.05)O3 (BFCO) and high-K ZrO2 (ZO) layers is investigated. Ferroelectric and electrical properties of the BFZO/ZO heterostructure have been investigated. A pronounced bipolar ferroelectric resistive switching characteristic was achieved in the heterostructure at room temperature. Interestingly, the BFCO/ZO structures exhibit a reproducible resistive switching with a high On/Off resistance ratio ∼2×103 and long retention time. The relationship between polarization and band structure at the interface of BFCO/ZO bilayer under the positive and negative sweepings has been discussed. As a result, the BFCO/ZO multiferroic/high-K heterostructure with high On/Off resistance ratio and long retention characterizes, exhibits a potential in future nonvolatile memory application.

  4. Spatially uniform resistance switching of low current, high endurance titanium–niobium-oxide memristors

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Suhas; Davila, Noraica; Wang, Ziwen

    2016-11-24

    Here we analyzed micrometer-scale titanium-niobium-oxide prototype memristors, which exhibited low write-power (< 3 μW) and energy (< 200 fJ per bit per μm 2), low read-power (~nW), and high endurance ( > millions of cycles). To understand their physico-chemical operating mechanisms, we performed in operando synchrotron X-ray transmission nanoscale spectromicroscopy using an ultra-sensitive time-multiplexed technique. We observed only spatially uniform material changes during cell operation, in sharp contrast to the frequently detected formation of a localized conduction channel in transition-metal-oxide memristors. We also associated the response of assigned spectral features distinctly to non-volatile storage (resistance change) and writing of informationmore » (application of voltage and Joule heating). Lastly, these results provide critical insights into high-performance memristors that will aid in device design, scaling and predictive circuit-modeling, all of which are essential for the widespread deployment of successful memristor applications.« less

  5. Crystal that remembers: several ways to utilize nanocrystals in resistive switching memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Writam; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The attractive usability of quantum phenomena in futuristic devices is possible by using zero-dimensional systems like nanocrystals (NCs). The performance of nonvolatile flash memory devices has greatly benefited from the use of NCs over recent decades. The quantum abilities of NCs have been used to improve the reliability of flash devices. Its appeal is extended to the design of emerging devices such as resistive random-access memory (RRAM), a technology where the use of silicon is optional. Here, we are going to review the recent progress in the design, characterization, and utilization of NCs in RRAM devices. We will first introduce the physical design of the RRAM devices using NCs and the improvement of electrical performance in NC-RRAM over conventional ones. In particular, special care has been taken to review the ways of development provided by the NCs in the RRAM devices. In a broad sense, the NCs can play a charge trapping role in the NC-RRAM structure or it can be responsible for the localization and improvement of the stability of the conductive filament or it can play a part in the formation of the conductive filament chain by the NC migration under applied bias. Finally, the scope of NCs in the RRAM devices has also been discussed.

  6. Oxygen vacancy effects in HfO2-based resistive switching memory: First principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yuehua; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Feifei; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    The work investigated the shape and orientation of oxygen vacancy clusters in HfO2-base resistive random access memory (ReRAM) by using the first-principle method based on the density functional theory. Firstly, the formation energy of different local Vo clusters was calculated in four established orientation systems. Then, the optimized orientation and charger conductor shape were identified by comparing the isosurface plots of partial charge density, formation energy, and the highest isosurface value of oxygen vacancy. The calculated results revealed that the [010] orientation was the optimal migration path of Vo, and the shape of system D4 was the best charge conductor in HfO2, which effectively influenced the SET voltage, formation voltage and the ON/OFF ratio of the device. Afterwards, the PDOS of Hf near Vo and total density of states of the system D4_010 were obtained, revealing the composition of charge conductor was oxygen vacancy instead of metal Hf. Furthermore, the migration barriers of the Vo hopping between neighboring unit cells were calculated along four different orientations. The motion was proved along [010] orientation. The optimal circulation path for Vo migration in the HfO2 super-cell was obtained.

  7. Smooth Interfacial Scavenging for Resistive Switching Oxide via the Formation of Highly Uniform Layers of Amorphous TaOx.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Ryosuke; Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2018-02-14

    We demonstrate that the inclusion of a Ta interfacial layer is a remarkably effective strategy for forming interfacial oxygen defects at metal/oxide junctions. The insertion of an interfacial layer of a reactive metal, that is, a "scavenging" layer, has been recently proposed as a way to create a high concentration of oxygen defects at an interface in redox-based resistive switching devices, and growing interest has been given to the underlying mechanism. Through structural and chemical analyses of Pt/metal/SrTiO 3 /Pt structures, we reveal that the rate and amount of oxygen scavenging are not directly determined by the formation free energies in the oxidation reactions of the scavenging metal and unveil the important roles of oxygen diffusibility. Active oxygen scavenging and highly uniform oxidation via scavenging are revealed for a Ta interfacial layer with high oxygen diffusibility. In addition, the Ta scavenging layer is shown to exhibit a highly uniform structure and to form a very flat interface with SrTiO 3 , which are advantageous for the fabrication of a steep metal/oxide contact.

  8. Highly-Ordered 3D Vertical Resistive Switching Memory Arrays with Ultralow Power Consumption and Ultrahigh Density.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Ahmed; Wang, Chengliang; Qi, Haoyuan; Grote, Fabian; Wen, Liaoyong; Bernhard, Jörg; Vellacheri, Ranjith; Tarish, Samar; Nabi, Ghulam; Kaiser, Ute; Lei, Yong

    2016-09-07

    Resistive switching random access memories (RRAM) have attracted great scientific and industrial attention for next generation data storage because of their advantages of nonvolatile properties, high density, low power consumption, fast writing/erasing speed, good endurance, and simple and small operation system. Here, by using a template-assisted technique, we demonstrate a three-dimensional highly ordered vertical RRAM device array with density as high as that of the nanopores of the template (10(8)-10(9) cm(-2)), which can also be fabricated in large area. The high crystallinity of the materials, the large contact area and the intimate semiconductor/electrode interface (3 nm interfacial layer) make the ultralow voltage operation (millivolt magnitude) and ultralow power consumption (picowatt) possible. Our procedure for fabrication of the nanodevice arrays in large area can be used for producing many other different materials and such three-dimensional electronic device arrays with the capability to adjust the device densities can be extended to other applications of the next generation nanodevice technology.

  9. Engineering amorphous-crystalline interfaces in TiO2-x/TiO2-y-based bilayer structures for enhanced resistive switching and synaptic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousoulas, P.; Asenov, P.; Karageorgiou, I.; Sakellaropoulos, D.; Stathopoulos, S.; Tsoukalas, D.

    2016-10-01

    The operating principle of resistive random access memories (RRAMs) relies on the distribution of ionic species and their influence on the electron transport. Taking into account that formation and annihilation of conducting filaments (CFs) is the driving mechanism for the switching effect, it is very important to control the regions where these filaments will evolve. Thus, homolayers of titanium oxide with different oxygen contents were fabricated in order to tune the local electrical and thermal properties of the CFs and narrow down the potential percolation paths. We show that the oxygen content in the top layer of the TiO2-x/TiO2-y bilayer memristors can directly influence the morphology of the layers which affect the diffusion barrier and consequently the diffusivity and drift velocity of oxygen vacancies, yielding in important enhancement of switching characteristics, in terms of spatial uniformity (σ/μ < 0.2), enlarged switching ratio (˜104), and synaptic learning. In order to address the experimental data, a physical model was applied, divulging the crucial role of temperature, electric potential and oxygen vacancy density on the switching effect and offering physical insights to the SET/RESET transitions and the analog switching. The forming free nature of all the devices in conjunction with the self-rectifying behavior, should also be regarded as important assets towards RRAM device optimization.

  10. Resistive switching behaviors of Au/pentacene/Si-nanowire arrays/heavily doped n-type Si devices for memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Hou-Yen; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2014-02-01

    The fabrication of memory devices based on the Au/pentacene/heavily doped n-type Si (n+-Si), Au/pentacene/Si nanowires (SiNWs)/n+-Si, and Au/pentacene/H2O2-treated SiNWs/n+-Si structures and their resistive switching characteristics were reported. A pentacene memory structure using SiNW arrays as charge storage nodes was demonstrated. The Au/pentacene/SiNWs/n+-Si devices show hysteresis behavior. H2O2 treatment may lead to the hysteresis degradation. However, no hysteresis-type current-voltage characteristics were observed for Au/pentacene/n+-Si devices, indicating that the resistive switching characteristic is sensitive to SiNWs and the charge trapping effect originates from SiNWs. The concept of nanowires within the organic layer opens a promising direction for organic memory devices.

  11. Effect of dysprosium and lutetium metal buffer layers on the resistive switching characteristics of Cu-Sn alloy-based conductive-bridge random access memory.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Sujaya Kumar; Woo, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-06-18

    Conductive-bridge random access memory (CBRAM) has become one of the most suitable candidates for non-volatile memory in next-generation information and communication technology. The resistive switching mechanism of CBRAM depends on the formation/annihilation of the conductive filament (CF) between the active metal electrode and the inert electrode. However, excessive ion injection from the active electrode into the solid electrolyte is reduces the uniformity and reliability of the resistive switching devices. To solve this problem, we investigated the resistive switching characteristics of a modified active electrode with different compositions of Cu<sub>x</sub>-Sn<sub><sub>1-x </sub></sub>(0.13 < X < 0.55). The resistive switching characteristics were further improved by inserting a dysprosium (Dy) or lutetium (Lu) buffer layer at the interface of Cu<sub>x</sub>-Sn<sub>1-x</sub>/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>. Electrical analysis of the optimal Cu<sub>0.27</sub>-Sn<sub>0.73</sub>/Lu-based CBRAM exhibited stable resistive switching behavior with low operation voltage (SET: 0.7 V and RESET: -0.3 V), a high on/off resistive ratio (10<sup>6</sup>), cyclic endurance (>10<sup>4</sup>), and long-term retention (85℃/10 years). To achieve these performance parameters, CFs were locally formed inside the electrolyte using a modified CuSn active electrode, and the amount of Cu-ion injection was reduced by inserting the Dy or Lu buffer layer between the CuSn active electrode and the electrolyte. In particular, conductive-atomic force microscopy results at the Dy/ or Lu/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> interface directly showed and defined the diameter of the CF. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. A synaptic device built in one diode-one resistor (1D-1R) architecture with intrinsic SiOx-based resistive switching memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Ting-Chang; Sze, Simon M.; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-04-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes to further minimize total synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path currents and demonstrate the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2-based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and spike-timing dependent plasticity are demonstrated systemically with comprehensive investigation of spike waveform analyses and represent a potential application for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from the (SiH)2 defect to generate the hydrogenbridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with largescale complementary metal-oxide semiconductor manufacturing technology.

  13. Effect of La3+ substitution with Gd3+ on the resistive switching properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Chang-Sun; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2014-05-01

    This study demonstrated that the resistive switching voltage of perovskite manganite material could be controlled by A-site cation substitution in "A" MnO3 perovskite manganite structure. A partial substitution of La3+ in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with smaller cation Gd3+ induced A-site vacancy of the largest Sr2+ cation with surface segregation of SrOy due to ionic size mismatch, and the induced vacancies reduced migration energy barrier. The operating voltage decreased from 3.5 V to 2.5 V due to a favorable condition for electrochemical migration and redox of oxygen ions. Moreover, surface-segregated SrOy was enhanced with Gd-substitution and the SrOy reduced Schottky-like barrier height and resistive switching ratio from the potential drop and screening effect. The relationship between A-site vacancy generation resulting in surface segregation of SrOy and resistive switching behavior was also investigated by energy resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, O 1s near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and current voltage measurement.

  14. Influence of argon and oxygen pressure ratio on bipolar-resistive switching characteristics of CeO2- x thin films deposited at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Muhammad; Ullah, Rehmat; Hussain, Riaz; Talib, Ijaz; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Hussain, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ahmed, Ejaz; Bao, Dinghua

    2018-02-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO2-x) film was deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Resistive switching characteristics of these ceria films have been improved by increasing oxygen content during deposition process. Endurance and statistical analyses indicate that the operating stability of CeO2-x-based memory is highly dependent on the oxygen content. Results indicate that CeO2-x film-based RRAM devices exhibit optimum performance when fabricated at an argon/oxygen ratio of 6:24. An increase in the oxygen content introduced during CeO2-x film deposition not only stabilizes the conventional bipolar RS but also improves excellent switching uniformity such as large ON/OFF ratio (102), excellent switching device-to-device uniformity and good sweep endurance over 500 repeated RS cycles. Conduction in the low-resistance state (LRS) as well as in the low bias field region in the high-resistance state (HRS) is found to be Ohmic and thus supports the conductive filament (CF) theory. In the high voltage region of HRS, space charge limited conduction (SCLC) and Schottky emission are found to be the dominant conduction mechanisms. A feasible filamentary RS mechanism based on the movement of oxygen ions/vacancies under the bias voltage has been discussed.

  15. Room-temperature ferroelectric resistive switching in ultrathin Pb(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8)O3 films.

    PubMed

    Pantel, Daniel; Goetze, Silvana; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2011-07-26

    Spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric materials has been for a long time proposed as binary information support, but it suffers so far from destructive readout. A nondestructive resistive readout of the ferroelectric polarization state in a metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitor would thus be advantageous for data storage applications. Combing conducting force microscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy, we unambiguously show that ferroelectric polarization direction and resistance state are correlated for epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr(0.2)Ti(0.8))O(3) nanoscale capacitors prepared by self-assembly methods. For intermediate ferroelectric layer thickness (∼9 nm) sandwiched between copper and La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) electrodes we achieved giant electroresistance with a resistance ratio of >1500 and high switching current densities (>10 A/cm(2)) necessary for effective resistive readout. The present approach uses metal-ferroelectric-metal devices at room temperature and, therefore, significantly advances the use of ferroelectric-based resistive switching.

  16. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  17. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1994-01-01

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  18. Miniature Intermittent Contact Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, Antony

    1972-01-01

    This tech brief concerns work to provide a shock-resistant switch capable of being actuated by forces of varying magnitude and direction, primarily for use as a sensor on remote control (tele-operator) and prosthetic devices.

  19. Influence of Thermal Annealing Treatment on Bipolar Switching Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin-Film Resistance Random-Access Memory Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai-Huang; Cheng, Chien-Min; Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Wu, Sean; Su, Feng-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The bipolar switching properties and electrical conduction mechanism of vanadium oxide thin-film resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices obtained using a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process have been investigated in high-resistive status/low-resistive status (HRS/LRS) and are discussed herein. In addition, the resistance switching properties and quality improvement of the vanadium oxide thin-film RRAM devices were measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. The activation energy of the hopping conduction mechanism in the devices was investigated based on Arrhenius plots in HRS and LRS. The hopping conduction distance and activation energy barrier were obtained as 12 nm and 45 meV, respectively. The thermal annealing process is recognized as a candidate method for fabrication of thin-film RRAM devices, being compatible with integrated circuit technology for nonvolatile memory devices.

  20. Resistive Switching in All-Printed, Flexible and Hybrid MoS2-PVA Nanocomposite based Memristive Device Fabricated by Reverse Offset

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Gul, Jahan Zeb; Kim, Soo-Wan; Lim, Jong Hwan; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing interest in the nonvolatile memory devices, resistive switching based on hybrid nanocomposite of a 2D material, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is explored in this work. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a memory device with the configuration of PET/Ag/MoS2-PVA/Ag via an all printed, hybrid, and state of the art fabrication approach. Bottom Ag electrodes, active layer of hybrid MoS2-PVA nanocomposite and top Ag electrode are deposited by reverse offset, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) atomization and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) patterning respectively. The fabricated device displayed characteristic bistable, nonvolatile and rewritable resistive switching behavior at a low operating voltage. A decent off/on ratio, high retention time, and large endurance of 1.28 × 102, 105 sec and 1000 voltage sweeps were recorded respectively. Double logarithmic curve satisfy the trap controlled space charge limited current (TCSCLC) model in high resistance state (HRS) and ohmic model in low resistance state (LRS). Bendability test at various bending diameters (50-2 mm) for 1500 cycles was carried out to show the mechanical robustness of fabricated device. PMID:27811977

  1. Switching to Another SSRI or to Venlafaxine With or Without Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With SSRI-Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Keller, Marty; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Iyengar, Satish; Abebe, Kaleab; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Kennard, Betsy; Hughes, Carroll; DeBar, Lynn; McCracken, James; Strober, Michael; Suddath, Robert; Spirito, Anthony; Leonard, Henrietta; Melhem, Nadine; Porta, Giovanna; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Context Only about 60% of adolescents with depression will show an adequate clinical response to an initial treatment trial with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). There are no data to guide clinicians on subsequent treatment strategy. Objective To evaluate the relative efficacy of 4 treatment strategies in adolescents who continued to have depression despite adequate initial treatment with an SSRI. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled trial of a clinical sample of 334 patients aged 12 to 18 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder that had not responded to a 2-month initial treatment with an SSRI, conducted at 6 US academic and community clinics from 2000–2006. Interventions Twelve weeks of: (1) switch to a second, different SSRI (paroxetine, citalopram, or fluoxetine, 20–40 mg); (2) switch to a different SSRI plus cognitive behavioral therapy; (3) switch to venlafaxine (150–225 mg); or (4) switch to venlafaxine plus cognitive behavioral therapy. Main Outcome Measures Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score of 2 or less (much or very much improved) and a decrease of at least 50% in the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R); and change in CDRS-R over time. Results Cognitive behavioral therapy plus a switch to either medication regimen showed a higher response rate (54.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47%–62%) than a medication switch alone (40.5%; 95% CI, 33%–48%; P=.009), but there was no difference in response rate between venlafaxine and a second SSRI (48.2%; 95% CI, 41%–56% vs 47.0%; 95% CI, 40%–55%; P=.83). There were no differential treatment effects on change in the CDRS-R, self-rated depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, or on the rate of harm-related or any other adverse events. There was a greater increase in diastolic blood pressure and pulse and more frequent occurrence of skin problems during venlafaxine than SSRI treatment. Conclusions For adolescents with

  2. Intrinsic SiO{sub x}-based unipolar resistive switching memory. II. Thermal effects on charge transport and characterization of multilevel programing

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yao-Feng, E-mail: yfchang@utexas.edu; Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Yen-Ting

    2014-07-28

    Multilevel programing and charge transport characteristics of intrinsic SiO{sub x}-based resistive switching memory are investigated using TaN/SiO{sub x}/n{sup ++}Si (MIS) and TiW/SiO{sub x}/TiW (MIM) device structures. Current transport characteristics of high- and low-resistance states (HRS and LRS) are studied in both device structures during multilevel operation. Analysis of device thermal response demonstrates that the effective electron energy barrier is strongly dependent on the resistance of the programed state, with estimates of 0.1 eV in the LRS and 0.6 eV in the HRS. Linear data fitting and conductance analyses indicate Poole-Frenkel emission or hopping conductance in the low-voltage region, whereas Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) ormore » trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) is indicated at moderate voltage. Characterizations using hopping transport lead to hopping distance estimates of ∼1 nm in the LRS for both device structures. Relative permittivity values (ε{sub r}) were extracted using the Poole-Frenkel formulism and estimates of local filament temperature, where ε{sub r} values were ∼80 in the LRS and ∼4 in the HRS, suggesting a strongly polarized medium in the LRS. The onset of F-N tunneling or TAT corresponds to an observed “overshoot” in the I-V response with an estimated threshold of 1.6 ± 0.2 V, in good agreement with reported electro-luminescence results for LRS devices. Resistive switching is discussed in terms of electrochemical reactions between common SiO{sub 2} defects, and specific defect energy levels are assigned to the dominant transitions in the I-V response. The overshoot response in the LRS is consistent with TAT through either the Eγ' oxygen vacancy or the hydrogen bridge defect, both of which are reported to have an effective bandgap of 1.7 eV. The SET threshold at ∼2.5 V is modeled as hydrogen release from the (Si-H){sub 2} defect to generate the hydrogen bridge, and the RESET transition is modeled as an

  3. Ultraviolet-assisted direct patterning and low-temperature formation of flexible ZrO2 resistive switching arrays on PET/ITO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lingwei; Chen, Yuanqing; Yin, Xiaoru; Song, Yang; Li, Na; Niu, Jinfen; Wu, Huimin; Qu, Wenwen

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost and facile photochemical solution method to prepare the ZrO2 resistive switching arrays as memristive units on flexible PET/ITO substrates. ZrO2 solution sensitive to UV light of 337 nm was synthesized using zirconium n-butyl alcohol as the precursor, and benzoylacetone as the complexing agent. After the dip-coated ZrO2 gel films were irradiated through a mask under the UV lamp (with wavelength of 325-365 nm) at room temperature and rinsed in ethanol, the ZrO2 gel arrays were obtained on PET/ITO substrates. Subsequently, the ZrO2 gel arrays were irradiated by deep UV light of 254 and 185 nm at 150 °C, resulting in the amorphous ZrO2 memristive micro-arrays. The ZrO2 units on flexible PET/ITO substrates exhibited excellent memristive properties. A high ratio of 104 of on-state and off-state resistance was obtained. The resistive switching behavior of the flexible device remained stable after being bent for 103 times. The device showed stable flexibility up to a minimum bending diameter of 1.25 cm.

  4. Voltage Control of Metal-insulator Transition and Non-volatile Ferroelastic Switching of Resistance in VOx/PMN-PT Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-01-01

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or ‘Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices. PMID:25088796

  5. Voltage control of metal-insulator transition and non-volatile ferroelastic switching of resistance in VOx/PMN-PT heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X

    2014-08-04

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or 'Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices.

  6. Thin TiOx layer as a voltage divider layer located at the quasi-Ohmic junction in the Pt/Ta2O5/Ta resistance switching memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang Yuan; Shao, Xing Long; Wang, Yi Chuan; Jiang, Hao; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Zhao, Jin Shi

    2017-02-09

    Ta 2 O 5 has been an appealing contender for the resistance switching random access memory (ReRAM). The resistance switching (RS) in this material is induced by the repeated formation and rupture of the conducting filaments (CFs) in the oxide layer, which are accompanied by the almost inevitable randomness of the switching parameters. In this work, a 1 to 2 nm-thick Ti layer was deposited on the 10 nm-thick Ta 2 O 5 RS layer, which greatly improved the RS performances, including the much-improved switching uniformity. The Ti metal layer was naturally oxidized to TiO x (x < 2) and played the role of a series resistor, whose resistance value was comparable to the on-state resistance of the Ta 2 O 5 RS layer. The series resistor TiO x efficiently suppressed the adverse effects of the voltage (or current) overshooting at the moment of switching by the appropriate voltage partake effect, which increased the controllability of the CF formation and rupture. The switching cycle endurance was increased by two orders of magnitude even during the severe current-voltage sweep tests compared with the samples without the thin TiO x layer. The Ti deposition did not induce any significant overhead to the fabrication process, making the process highly promising for the mass production of a reliable ReRAM.

  7. Impulse voltage control of continuously tunable bipolar resistive switching in Pt/Bi0.9Eu0.1FeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Maocai; Liu, Meifeng; Wang, Xiuzhang; Li, Meiya; Zhu, Yongdan; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Feng; Xie, Shuai; Hu, Zhongqiang; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Epitaxial Bi0.9Eu0.1FeO3 (BEFO) thin films are deposited on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition to fabricate the Pt/BEFO/NSTO (001) heterostructures. These heterostructures possess bipolar resistive switching, where the resistances versus writing voltage exhibits a distinct hysteresis loop and a memristive behavior with good retention and anti-fatigue characteristics. The local resistive switching is confirmed by the conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), suggesting the possibility to scale down the memory cell size. The observed memristive behavior could be attributed to the ferroelectric polarization effect, which modulates the height of potential barrier and width of depletion region at the BEFO/NSTO interface. The continuously tunable resistive switching behavior could be useful to achieve non-volatile, high-density, multilevel random access memory with low energy consumption.

  8. Performance Evaluation and Modeling of Erosion Resistant Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to the rotorcraft engine performance and durability. The objective of this work was to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments, thus validating a new thermal barrier coating turbine blade technology for future rotorcraft applications. A high velocity burner rig based erosion test approach was established and a new series of rare earth oxide- and TiO2/Ta2O5- alloyed, ZrO2-based low conductivity thermal barrier coatings were designed and processed. The low conductivity thermal barrier coating systems demonstrated significant improvements in the erosion resistance. A comprehensive model based on accumulated strain damage low cycle fatigue is formulated for blade erosion life prediction. The work is currently aiming at the simulated engine erosion testing of advanced thermal barrier coated turbine blades to establish and validate the coating life prediction models.

  9. Effects of Piezoelectric Potential of ZnO on Resistive Switching Characteristics of Flexible ZnO/TiO2 Heterojunction Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxia; Zhou, You; Du, Gang; Huang, Yanwei; Ji, Zhenguo

    2018-03-01

    Flexible resistance random access memory (ReRAM) devices with a heterojunction structure of PET/ITO/ZnO/TiO2/Au were fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate/indium tin oxide (PET/ITO) substrates by different physical and chemical preparation methods. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were carried out to investigate the crystal structure, surface topography and cross-sectional structure of the prepared films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was also used to identify the chemical state of Ti, O and Zn elements. Theoretical and experimental analyses were conducted to identify the effect of piezoelectric potential of ZnO on resistive switching characteristics of flexible ZnO/TiO2 heterojunction cells. The results showed a pathway to enhance the performance of ReRAM devices by engineering the interface barrier, which is also feasible for other electronics, optoelectronics and photovoltaic devices.

  10. Coexistence of bipolar and unipolar resistive switching behaviors in the double-layer Ag/ZnS-Ag/CuAlO2/Pt memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongqiang; Yu, Hao; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of uniform bipolar and unipolar resistive-switching (RS) characteristics was demonstrated in a double-layer Ag/ZnS-Ag/CuAlO2/Pt memory device. By changing the compliance current (CC) from 1 mA to 10 mA, the RS behavior can be converted from the bipolar mode (BRS) to the unipolar mode (URS). The temperature dependence of low resistance states further indicates that the CFs are composed of the Ag atoms and Cu vacancies for the BRS mode and URS mode, respectively. For this double-layer structure device, the thicker conducting filaments (CFs) will be formed in the ZnS-Ag layer, and it can act as tip electrodes. Thus, the formation and rupture of these two different CFs are located in the CuAlO2 layer, realizing the uniform and stable BRS and URS.

  11. Transparent-conductive-oxide (TCO) buffer layer effect on the resistive switching process in metal/TiO2/TCO/metal assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatova, E. O.; Baraban, A. P.; Konashuk, A. S.; Konyushenko, M. A.; Selivanov, A. A.; Sokolov, A. A.; Schaefers, F.; Drozd, V. E.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) buffer layer on the insulator matrix and on the resistive switching process in the metal/TiO2/TCO/metal assembly was studied depending on the material of the TCO (ITO-(In2O3)0.9(SnO2)0.1 or SnO2 or ZnO). For the first time electro-physical studies and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) studies were carried out jointly and at the same point of the sample, providing direct experimental evidence that the switching process strongly influences the lowest unoccupied bands and the local atomic structure of the TiO2 layers. It was established that a TCO layer in a metal/TiO2/TCO/metal assembly is an additional source of oxygen vacancies for the TiO2 film. The RL (RH) states are achieved presumably with the formation (rupture) of the electrically conductive path of oxygen vacancies. Inserting an Al2O3 thin layer between the TiO2 and TCO layers to some extent restricts the processes of migration of the oxygen ions and vacancies, and does not allow the anti-clockwise bipolar resistive switching in a Au/TiO2/Al2O3/ITO/Au assembly. The greatest value of the ratio RH/RL is observed for the assembly with a SnO2 buffer layer that will provide the maximum set of intermediate states (recording analog data) and increase the density of information recording in this case.

  12. Resistive switching of Sn-doped In2O3/HfO2 core-shell nanowire: geometry architecture engineering for nonvolatile memory.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Hsin; Chang, Wen-Chih; Huang, Jian-Shiou; Lin, Shih-Ming; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2017-05-25

    Core-shell NWs offer an innovative approach to achieve nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) heterostructures along the wire radial direction, realizing three-dimensional geometry architecture rather than planar type thin film devices. This work demonstrated the tunable resistive switching characteristics of ITO/HfO 2 core-shell nanowires with controllable shell thicknesses by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the first time. Compared to planar HfO 2 thin film device configuration, ITO/HfO 2 core-shell nanowire shows a prominent resistive memory behavior, including lower power consumption with a smaller SET voltage of ∼0.6 V and better switching voltage uniformity with variations (standard deviation(σ)/mean value (μ)) of V SET and V RESET from 0.38 to 0.14 and from 0.33 to 0.05 for ITO/HfO 2 core-shell nanowire and planar HfO 2 thin film, respectively. In addition, endurance over 10 3 cycles resulting from the local electric field enhancement can be achieved, which is attributed to geometry architecture engineering. The concept of geometry architecture engineering provides a promising strategy to modify the electric-field distribution for solving the non-uniformity issue of future RRAM.

  13. Improved performance of Ta2O5-x resistive switching memory by Gd-doping: Ultralow power operation, good data retention, and multilevel storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, K. X.; Xu, H. Y.; Wang, Z. Q.; Zhao, X. N.; Liu, W. Z.; Ma, J. G.; Liu, Y. C.

    2017-11-01

    Resistive-switching memory with ultralow-power consumption is very promising technology for next-generation data storage and high-energy-efficiency neurosynaptic chips. Herein, Ta2O5-x-based multilevel memories with ultralow-power consumption and good data retention were achieved by simple Gd-doping. The introduction of a Gd ion, as an oxygen trapper, not only suppresses the generation of oxygen vacancy defects and greatly increases the Ta2O5-x resistance but also increases the oxygen-ion migration barrier. As a result, the memory cells can operate at an ultralow current of 1 μA with the extrapolated retention time of >10 years at 85 °C and the high switching speeds of 10 ns/40 ns for SET/RESET processes. The energy consumption of the device is as low as 60 fJ/bit, which is comparable to emerging ultralow-energy consumption (<100 fJ/bit) memory devices.

  14. Multifunctional BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure: Photo-ferroelectricity, rectifying transport, and nonvolatile resistive switching property

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Ayan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal, E-mail: gobinda.gk@gmail.com; Chaudhuri, Arka

    Multifunctional BiFeO{sub 3} nanostructure anchored TiO{sub 2} nanotubes are fabricated by coupling wet chemical and electrochemical routes. BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure exhibits white-light-induced ferroelectricity at room temperature. Studies reveal that the photogenerated electrons trapped at the domain/grain boundaries tune the ferroelectric polarization in BiFeO{sub 3} nanostructures. The photon controlled saturation and remnant polarization opens up the possibility to design ferroelectric devices based on BiFeO{sub 3.} The nano-heterostructure also exhibits substantial photovoltaic effect and rectifying characteristics. Photovoltaic property is found to be correlated with the ferroelectric polarization. Furthermore, the nonvolatile resistive switching in BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure has been studied, whichmore » demonstrates that the observed resistive switching is most likely caused by the electric-field-induced carrier injection/migration and trapping/detrapping process at the hetero-interfaces. Therefore, BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure coupled with logic, photovoltaics and memory characteristics holds promises for long-term technological applications in nanoelectronics devices.« less

  15. A Pt/TiO(2)/Ti Schottky-type selection diode for alleviating the sneak current in resistance switching memory arrays.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo Young; Kim, Gun Hwan; Seok, Jun Yeong; Kim, Kyung Min; Song, Seul Ji; Lee, Min Hwan; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2010-05-14

    This study examined the properties of Schottky-type diodes composed of Pt/TiO(2)/Ti, where the Pt/TiO(2) and TiO(2)/Ti junctions correspond to the blocking and ohmic contacts, respectively, as the selection device for a resistive switching cross-bar array. An extremely high forward-to-reverse current ratio of approximately 10(9) was achieved at 1 V when the TiO(2) film thickness was 19 nm. TiO(2) film was grown by atomic layer deposition at a substrate temperature of 250 degrees C. Conductive atomic force microscopy revealed that the forward current flew locally, which limits the maximum forward current density to < 10 A cm(-2) for a large electrode (an area of approximately 60 000 microm(2)). However, the local current measurement showed a local forward current density as high as approximately 10(5) A cm(-2). Therefore, it is expected that this type of Schottky diode effectively suppresses the sneak current without adverse interference effects in a nano-scale resistive switching cross-bar array with high block density.

  16. Reproducibility of ZrO2-based freeze casting for biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Naleway, Steven E; Fickas, Kate C; Maker, Yajur N; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    The processing technique of freeze casting has been intensely researched for its potential to create porous scaffold and infiltrated composite materials for biomedical implants and structural materials. However, in order for this technique to be employed medically or commercially, it must be able to reliably produce materials in great quantities with similar microstructures and properties. Here we investigate the reproducibility of the freeze casting process by independently fabricating three sets of eight ZrO2-epoxy composite scaffolds with the same processing conditions but varying solid loading (10, 15 and 20 vol.%). Statistical analyses (One-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests) run upon measurements of the microstructural dimensions of these composite scaffold sets show that, while the majority of microstructures are similar, in all cases the composite scaffolds display statistically significant variability. In addition, composite scaffolds where mechanically compressed and statistically analyzed. Similar to the microstructures, almost all of their resultant properties displayed significant variability though most composite scaffolds were similar. These results suggest that additional research to improve control of the freeze casting technique is required before scaffolds and composite scaffolds can reliably be reproduced for commercial or medical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of a Ta oxygen scavenger layer on HfO 2-based resistive switching behavior: Thermodynamic stability, electronic structure, and low-bias transport

    DOE PAGES

    Zhong, Xiaoliang; Rungger, Ivan; Zapol, Peter; ...

    2016-02-15

    Reversible resistive switching between high-resistance and low-resistance states in metal-oxide-metal heterostructures makes them very interesting for applications in random access memories. While recent experimental work has shown that inserting a metallic "oxygen scavenger layer'' between the positive electrode and oxide improves device performance, the fundamental understanding of how the scavenger layer modifies the heterostructure properties is lacking. We use density functional theory to calculate thermodynamic properties and conductance of TiN/HfO 2/TiN heterostructures with and without a Ta scavenger layer. First, we show that Ta insertion lowers the formation energy of low-resistance states. Second, while the Ta scavenger layer reduces themore » Schottky barrier height in the high-resistance state by modifying the interface charge at the oxide-electrode interface, the heterostructure maintains a high resistance ratio between high-and low-resistance states. Lastly, we show that the low-bias conductance of device on-states becomes much less sensitive to the spatial distribution of oxygen removed from the HfO 2 in the presence of the Ta layer. By providing a fundamental understanding of the observed improvements with scavenger layers, we open a path to engineer interfaces with oxygen scavenger layers to control and enhance device performance. In turn, this may enable the realization of a non-volatile low-power memory technology with concomitant reduction in energy consumption by consumer electronics and offering significant benefits to society.« less

  18. Frequency of ABL gene mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant to imatinib and results of treatment switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Marcé, Silvia; Zamora, Lurdes; Cabezón, Marta; Xicoy, Blanca; Boqué, Concha; Fernández, Cristalina; Grau, Javier; Navarro, José-Tomás; Fernández de Sevilla, Alberto; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Feliu, Evarist; Millá, Fuensanta

    2013-08-04

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have improved the management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, a significant proportion of patients do not achieve the optimal response or are resistant to TKI. ABL kinase domain mutations have been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of TKI resistance. Treatment with second-generation TKI has produced high rates of hematologic and cytogenetic responses in mutated ABL patients. The aim of this study was to determine the type and frequency of ABL mutations in patients who were resistant to imatinib or had lost the response, and to analyze the effect of second-generation TKI on their outcome. The presence of ABL mutations in 45 CML patients resistant to imatinib was evaluated by direct sequencing and was correlated with the results of the cytogenetic study (performed in 39 cases). The outcome of these patients after therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib was analyzed. ABL mutations were detected in 14 out of 45 resistant patients. Patients with clonal cytogenetic evolution tended to develop mutations more frequently than those without clonal evolution. Nine out of the 15 patients with ABL mutation responded to a treatment switch to nilotinib (n=4), dasatinib (n=2), interferon (n=1) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=2). The frequency of ABL mutations in CML patients resistant to imatinib is high and is more frequent among those with clonal cytogenetic evolution. The change to second-generation TKI can overcome imatinib resistance in most of the mutated patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. PMMA interlayer-modulated memory effects by space charge polarization in resistive switching based on CuSCN-nanopyramids/ZnO-nanorods p-n heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Baochang; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Li; Cai, Qiangsheng; Guo, Rui; Xiao, Yanhe; Lei, Shuijin

    2015-01-01

    Resistive switching (RS) devices are commonly believed as a promising candidate for next generation nonvolatile resistance random access memory. Here, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) interlayer was introduced at the heterointerface of p-CuSCN hollow nanopyramid arrays and n-ZnO nanorod arrays, resulting in a typical bipolar RS behavior. We propose the mechanism of nanostructure trap-induced space charge polarization modulated by PMMA interlayer. At low reverse bias, PMMA insulator can block charges through the heterointerface, and and trapped states are respectively created on both sides of PMMA, resulting in a high resistance state (HRS) due to wider depletion region. At high reverse bias, however, electrons and holes can cross PMMA interlayer by Fowler-Nordeim tunneling due to a massive tilt of energy band, and then inject into the traps of ZnO and CuSCN, respectively. and trapped states are created, resulting in the formation of degenerate semiconductors on both sides of PMMA. Therefore, quantum tunneling and space charge polarization lead to a low resistance state (LRS). At relatively high forward bias, subsequently, the trapped states of and are recreated due to the opposite injection of charges, resulting in a recovery of HRS. The introduction of insulating interlayer at heterointerface, point a way to develop next-generation nonvolatile memories. PMID:26648249

  20. Observation of indium ion migration-induced resistive switching in Al/Mg{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}/ITO

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zong-Han; Wang, Yeong-Her, E-mail: yhw@ee.ncku.edu.tw

    2016-08-01

    Understanding switching mechanisms is very important for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. This letter reports an investigation of Al/Mg{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (MCTO)/ITO RRAM, which exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior. The filaments that connect Al electrodes with indium tin oxide electrodes across the MCTO layer at a low-resistance state are identified. The filaments composed of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals are observed through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, nanobeam diffraction, and comparisons of Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) cards. Finally, a switching mechanism resulting from an electrical field induced by In{sup 3+} ion migration is proposed.more » In{sup 3+} ion migration forms/ruptures the conductive filaments and sets/resets the RRAM device.« less

  1. Electric field-induced resistive switching, magnetism, and photoresponse modulation in a Pt/Co0.03Zn0.97O/Nb:SrTiO3 multi-function heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhipeng; Pei, Ling; Li, Meiya; Zhu, Yongdan; Xie, Shuai; Cheng, Xiangyang; Liu, Jiaxian; Ding, Huaqi; Xiong, Rui

    2018-04-01

    A Co0.03Zn0.97O (CZO) thin film was epitaxially grown on a Nb doped (001) SrTiO3 (NSTO) single-crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition to form a Pt/CZO/NSTO heterostructure. This device exhibits stable bipolar resistive switching, well retention and endurance, multilevel memories, and a resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS)/low resistance state (LRS) up to 7 × 105. Under the illumination of a 405 nm laser, the HRS of the device showed distinct photoelectricity with an open-circuit voltage of 0.5 V. A stronger ferromagnetism was observed at the HRS than at the LRS. The above phenomenon is attributable to the accumulation and migration of oxygen vacancies at the interface of CZO/NSTO. Our results demonstrated a pathway towards making multifunctional devices that simultaneously exhibit resistive switching, photoelectricity, and ferromagnetism.

  2. Impact of composition and crystallization behavior of atomic layer deposited strontium titanate films on the resistive switching of Pt/STO/TiN devices

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, N.; Rodenbücher, C.; Szot, K.

    2014-08-14

    The resistive switching (RS) properties of strontium titanate (Sr{sub 1+x}Ti{sub 1+y}O{sub 3+(x+2y)}, STO) based metal-oxide-metal structures prepared from industrial compatible processes have been investigated focusing on the effects of composition, microstructure, and device size. Metastable perovskite STO films were prepared on Pt-coated Si substrates utilizing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) from cyclopentadienyl-based metal precursors and oxygen plasma at 350 °C, and a subsequent annealing at 600 °C in nitrogen. Films of 15 nm and 12 nm thickness with three different compositions [Sr]/([Sr] + [Ti]) of 0.57 (Sr-rich STO), 0.50 (stoichiometric STO), and 0.46 (Ti-rich STO) were integrated into Pt/STO/TiN crossbar structures with sizes ranging from 100 μm{supmore » 2} to 0.01 μm{sup 2}. Nano-structural characterizations revealed a clear effect of the composition of the as-deposited STO films on their crystallization behavior and thus on the final microstructures. Local current maps obtained by local-conductivity atomic force microscopy were in good agreement with local changes of the films' microstructures. Correspondingly, also the initial leakage currents of the Pt/STO/TiN devices were affected by the STO compositions and by the films' microstructures. An electroforming process set the Pt/STO/TiN devices into the ON-state, while the forming voltage decreased with increasing initial leakage current. After a RESET process under opposite voltage has been performed, the Pt/STO/TiN devices showed a stable bipolar RS behavior with non-linear current-voltage characteristics for the high (HRS) and the low (LRS) resistance states. The obtained switching polarity and nearly area independent LRS values agree with a filamentary character of the RS behavior according to the valence change mechanism. The devices of 0.01 μm{sup 2} size with a 12 nm polycrystalline stoichiometric STO film were switched at a current compliance of 50

  3. Rugged switch responds to minute pressure differentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, L. C.; Shaub, K. D.

    1967-01-01

    Pressure responsive switching device exhibits high sensitivity but is extremely rugged and resistant to large amplitude shock and velocity loading. This snap-action, single pole-double throw switch operates over a wide temperature range.

  4. Resistance Switching Memory Characteristics of Si/CaF2/CdF2 Quantum-Well Structures Grown on Metal (CoSi2) Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denda, Junya; Uryu, Kazuya; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    A novel scheme of resistance switching random access memory (ReRAM) devices fabricated using Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si quantum-well structures grown on metal CoSi2 layer formed on a Si substrate has been proposed, and embryonic write/erase memory operation has been demonstrated at room temperature. It has been found that the oxide-mediated epitaxy (OME) technique for forming the CoSi2 layer on Si dramatically improves the stability and reproducibility of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. This technology involves 10-nm-thick Co layer deposition on a protective oxide prepared by boiling in a peroxide-based solution followed by annealing at 550 °C for 30 min for silicidation in ultrahigh vacuum. A switching voltage of lower than 1 V, a peak current density of 32 kA/cm2, and an ON/OFF ratio of 10 have been observed for the sample with the thickness sequence of 0.9/0.9/2.5/0.9/5.0 nm for the respective layers in the Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si structure. Results of surface morphology analysis suggest that the grain size of crystal islands with flat surfaces strongly affects the quality of device characteristics.

  5. What can we learn from AC impedance study about the bipolar resistive switching effect in LaAlO3/Nb:SrTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xingli; Zhao, Yonggang; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Meihong; Zhang, Huiyun; Shang, Dashan; Sun, Jirong

    2013-03-01

    Recently, resistive switching (RS) effect has attracted much attention due to its importance in potential applications in resistance random access memory. It has been shown that traps play an important role in RS effect. However, a direct and in-depth study on the characteristics of traps is still lacking so far, including the spatial and energy distribution of traps, relaxation of trapped carriers and transport of carriers via traps, especially the effect of historical process on the transport of carriers, which are important for understanding the mechanism of RS effect and also essential for optimizing devices. We studied the RS effect in heterostructures composed of LaAlO3 (LAO) and Nb:SrTiO3 (NSTO) from 80 to 300 K by using AC impedance technique. It was demonstrated that the bipolar RS effect originates from the LAO/NSTO interface and the resistance states are controlled by the filling status of traps via the trapping/detrapping of electrons. Moreover, the spatial and energy distributions of traps and the effect of history on the transport of carriers were obtained. A model was proposed to explain the experimental results. This work demonstrates that AC impedance technique is powerful for uncovering the mechanism of RS effect.

  6. An in-depth description of bipolar resistive switching in Cu/HfOx/Pt devices, a 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, S.; Roldán, J. B.; García-Fernández, P.; Suñe, J.; Romero-Zaliz, R.; Jiménez-Molinos, F.; Long, S.; Gómez-Campos, F.; Liu, M.

    2018-04-01

    A simulation tool based on a 3D kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm has been employed to analyse bipolar conductive bridge RAMs fabricated with Cu/HfOx/Pt stacks. Resistive switching mechanisms are described accounting for the electric field and temperature distributions within the dielectric. The formation and destruction of conductive filaments (CFs) are analysed taking into consideration redox reactions and the joint action of metal ion thermal diffusion and electric field induced drift. Filamentary conduction is considered when different percolation paths are formed in addition to other conventional transport mechanisms in dielectrics. The simulator was tuned by using the experimental data for Cu/HfOx/Pt bipolar devices that were fabricated. Our simulation tool allows for the study of different experimental results, in particular, the current variations due to the electric field changes between the filament tip and the electrode in the High Resistance State. In addition, the density of metallic atoms within the CF can also be characterized along with the corresponding CF resistance description.

  7. Transparent and flexible resistive switching memory devices with a very high ON/OFF ratio using gold nanoparticles embedded in a silk protein matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Mondal, Suvra P.; Sinha, Arun K.; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Banerjee, Writam; Kundu, Subhas C.; Ray, Samit K.

    2013-08-01

    The growing demand for biomaterials for electrical and optical devices is motivated by the need to make building blocks for the next generation of printable bio-electronic devices. In this study, transparent and flexible resistive memory devices with a very high ON/OFF ratio incorporating gold nanoparticles into the Bombyx mori silk protein fibroin biopolymer are demonstrated. The novel electronic memory effect is based on filamentary switching, which leads to the occurrence of bistable states with an ON/OFF ratio larger than six orders of magnitude. The mechanism of this process is attributed to the formation of conductive filaments through silk fibroin and gold nanoparticles in the nanocomposite. The proposed hybrid bio-inorganic devices show promise for use in future flexible and transparent nanoelectronic systems.

  8. Current rectifying and resistive switching in high density BiFeO3 nanocapacitor arrays on Nb-SrTiO3 substrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Lu, Zengxing; Zhang, Fengyuan; Tian, Guo; Song, Xiao; Li, Zhongwen; Huang, Kangrong; Zhang, Zhang; Qin, Minghui; SujuanWu; Lu, Xubing; Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen; Dai, Jiyan; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Ultrahigh density well-registered oxide nanocapacitors are very essential for large scale integrated microelectronic devices. We report the fabrication of well-ordered multiferroic BiFeO3 nanocapacitor arrays by a combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template method. The capacitor cells consist of BiFeO3/SrRuO3 (BFO/SRO) heterostructural nanodots on conductive Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb-STO) substrates with a lateral size of ~60 nm. These capacitors also show reversible polarization domain structures, and well-established piezoresponse hysteresis loops. Moreover, apparent current-rectification and resistive switching behaviors were identified in these nanocapacitor cells using conductive-AFM technique, which are attributed to the polarization modulated p-n junctions. These make it possible to utilize these nanocapacitors in high-density (>100 Gbit/inch2) nonvolatile memories and other oxide nanoelectronic devices. PMID:25853937

  9. Analysis of Ti valence states in resistive switching regions of a rutile TiO2‑ x four-terminal memristive device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Kengo; Takeuchi, Shotaro; Tohei, Tetsuya; Ikarashi, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Akira

    2018-06-01

    We have performed Ti valence state analysis of our four-terminal rutile TiO2‑ x single-crystal memristors using scanning transmission electron microscopy–electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM–EELS). Analysis of Ti-L2,3 edge EELS spectra revealed that the electrocolored region formed by the application of voltage includes a valence state reflecting highly reduced TiO2‑ x due to the accumulation of oxygen vacancies. Such a valence state mainly exists within ∼50 nm from the crystal surface and extends along specific crystal directions. These electrically reduced surface layers are considered to directly contribute to the resistive switching (RS) in the four-terminal device. The present results add new insights into the microscopic mechanisms of the RS phenomena and should contribute to further development and improvements of TiO2‑ x based memristive devices.

  10. Exciter switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  11. A Single Phase 7-Level Cascade Inverter Topology with Reduced Number of Switches on Resistive Load by Using PWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzah, H. H.; Ponniran, A.; Kasiran, A. N.; Harimon, M. A.; Gendum, D. A.; Yatim, M. H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper discussing design principles of inverter structure with reduced number of semiconductor devices of seven levels symmetric H-bridge multilevel inverter (MLI) topology. The aim of this paper is to design an inverter circuit with reduction of semiconductor losses, converter size and development cost. The H-bridge and auxiliary structures were considered in order to achieve seven levels output voltage. The performance of design circuit is compared with conventional seven levels structure in terms of voltage output. The circuit development consists of seven switches and three diode. A basic modulation technique is used to confirm the designed circuit. The results show that the designed circuit is able to convert seven level output voltage with low total harmonics distortion (THD) in voltage fundamental output. According to the results, fundamental output voltage is increased up to 8.314%, and the THD is decreased up to 0.81% compared to the conventional seven level inverter.

  12. Switch wear leveling

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  13. Realization of the Switching Mechanism in Resistance Random Access Memory™ Devices: Structural and Electronic Properties Affecting Electron Conductivity in a Hafnium Oxide-Electrode System Through First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspera, Susan Meñez; Kasai, Hideaki; Kishi, Hirofumi; Awaya, Nobuyoshi; Ohnishi, Shigeo; Tamai, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The resistance random access memory (RRAM™) device, with its electrically induced nanoscale resistive switching capacity, has attracted considerable attention as a future nonvolatile memory device. Here, we propose a mechanism of switching based on an oxygen vacancy migration-driven change in the electronic properties of the transition-metal oxide film stimulated by set pulse voltages. We used density functional theory-based calculations to account for the effect of oxygen vacancies and their migration on the electronic properties of HfO2 and Ta/HfO2 systems, thereby providing a complete explanation of the RRAM™ switching mechanism. Furthermore, computational results on the activation energy barrier for oxygen vacancy migration were found to be consistent with the set and reset pulse voltage obtained from experiments. Understanding this mechanism will be beneficial to effectively realizing the materials design in these devices.

  14. Resistive switching mechanisms in random access memory devices incorporating transition metal oxides: TiO2, NiO and Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3.

    PubMed

    Magyari-Köpe, Blanka; Tendulkar, Mihir; Park, Seong-Geon; Lee, Hyung Dong; Nishi, Yoshio

    2011-06-24

    Resistance change random access memory (RRAM) cells, typically built as MIM capacitor structures, consist of insulating layers I sandwiched between metal layers M, where the insulator performs the resistance switching operation. These devices can be electrically switched between two or more stable resistance states at a speed of nanoseconds, with long retention times, high switching endurance, low read voltage, and large switching windows. They are attractive candidates for next-generation non-volatile memory, particularly as a flash successor, as the material properties can be scaled to the nanometer regime. Several resistance switching models have been suggested so far for transition metal oxide based devices, such as charge trapping, conductive filament formation, Schottky barrier modulation, and electrochemical migration of point defects. The underlying fundamental principles of the switching mechanism still lack a detailed understanding, i.e. how to control and modulate the electrical characteristics of devices incorporating defects and impurities, such as oxygen vacancies, metal interstitials, hydrogen, and other metallic atoms acting as dopants. In this paper, state of the art ab initio theoretical methods are employed to understand the effects that filamentary types of stable oxygen vacancy configurations in TiO(2) and NiO have on the electronic conduction. It is shown that strong electronic interactions between metal ions adjacent to oxygen vacancy sites results in the formation of a conductive path and thus can explain the 'ON' site conduction in these materials. Implication of hydrogen doping on electroforming is discussed for Pr(0.7)Ca(0.3)MnO(3) devices based on electrical characterization and FTIR measurements.

  15. Negative voltage modulated multi-level resistive switching by using a Cr/BaTiOx/TiN structure and quantum conductance through evidence of H2O2 sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Somsubhra; Ginnaram, Sreekanth; Jana, Surajit; Wu, Zong-Yi; Singh, Kanishk; Roy, Anisha; Kumar, Pankaj; Maikap, Siddheswar; Qiu, Jian-Tai; Cheng, Hsin-Ming; Tsai, Ling-Na; Chang, Ya-Ling; Mahapatra, Rajat; Yang, Jer-Ren

    2017-07-05

    Negative voltage modulated multi-level resistive switching with quantum conductance during staircase-type RESET and its transport characteristics in Cr/BaTiO x /TiN structure have been investigated for the first time. The as-deposited amorphous BaTiO x film has been confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy shows different oxidation states of Ba in the switching material, which is responsible for tunable more than 10 resistance states by varying negative stop voltage owing to slow decay value of RESET slope (217.39 mV/decade). Quantum conductance phenomenon has been observed in staircase RESET cycle of the memory devices. By inspecting the oxidation states of Ba + and Ba 2+ through measuring H 2 O 2 with a low concentration of 1 nM in electrolyte/BaTiO x /SiO 2 /p-Si structure, the switching mechanism of each HRS level as well as the multi-level phenomenon has been explained by gradual dissolution of oxygen vacancy filament. Along with negative stop voltage modulated multi-level, current compliance dependent multi-level has also been demonstrated and resistance ratio up to 2000 has been achieved even for a thin (<5 nm) switching material. By considering oxidation-reduction of the conducting filaments, the current-voltage switching curve has been simulated as well. Hence, multi-level resistive switching of Cr/BaTiO x /TiN structure implies the promising applications in high dense, multistate non-volatile memories in near future.

  16. Endurance and Cycle-to-cycle Uniformity Improvement in Tri-Layered CeO2/Ti/CeO2 Resistive Switching Devices by Changing Top Electrode Material

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Akbar, Tahira; Ismail, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ejaz; Hussain, Fayyaz; Talib, Ijaz; Imran, Muhammad; Mehmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Khalid; Nadeem, M. Younus

    2017-01-01

    Resistance switching characteristics of CeO2/Ti/CeO2 tri-layered films sandwiched between Pt bottom electrode and two different top electrodes (Ti and TaN) with different work functions have been investigated. RRAM memory cells composed of TaN/CeO2/Ti/CeO2/Pt reveal better resistive switching performance instead of Ti/CeO2/Ti/CeO2/Pt memory stacks. As compared to the Ti/CeO2 interface, much better ability of TaN/CeO2 interface to store and exchange plays a key role in the RS performance improvement, including lower forming/SET voltages, large memory window (~102) and no significant data degradation during endurance test of >104 switching cycles. The formation of TaON thinner interfacial layer between TaN TE and CeO2 film is found to be accountable for improved resistance switching behavior. Partial charge density of states is analyzed using density functional theory. It is found that the conductive filaments formed in CeO2 based devices is assisted by interstitial Ti dopant. Better stability and reproducibility in cycle-to-cycle (C2C) resistance distribution and Vset/Vreset uniformity were achieved due to the modulation of current conduction mechanism from Ohmic in low field region to Schottky emission in high field region. PMID:28079056

  17. Effect of AlN layer on the bipolar resistive switching behavior in TiN thin film based ReRAM device for non-volatile memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaur, Davinder

    2018-05-01

    The effect of an additional AlN layer in the Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt stack configuration deposited using sputtering has been investigated. The Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt device shows a tristate resistive switching. Multilevel switching is facilitated by ionic and metallic filament formation, and the nature of the filaments formed is confirmed by performing a resistance vs. temperature measurement. Ohmic behaviour and trap controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction mechanisms are confirmed as dominant conduction mechanism at low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS). High resistance ratio (102) corresponding to HRS and LRS, good write/erase endurance (105) and non-volatile long retention (105s) are also observed. Higher thermal conductivity of the AlN layer is the main reasons for the enhancement of resistive switching performance in Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt cell. The above result suggests the feasibility of Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt devices for multilevel nonvolatile ReRAM application.

  18. Megavolt, Multigigawatt Pulsed Plasma Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma switch proposed for use in high-voltage, high-current pulse power system. Designed not only to out-perform conventional spark-gap switch but also relatively compact and lightweight. Features inverse-pinch configuration to prevent constriction of current sheets into filaments, plus multiple-ring-electrode structure to resist high-voltage breakdown.

  19. Ferroelastically and magnetically co-coupled resistive switching in Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3/PMN-PT(011) multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Ni, Hao; Qi, Ya-Ping; Li, Xiao-Min; Gao, Ju

    2018-03-01

    The phase separation, i.e., the competition between coexisting multi-phases, can be adjusted by external stimuli, such as magnetic field, electric field, current, light, and strain. Here, a multiferroic heterostructure composed of a charge-ordered Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 thin film and a ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal is fabricated to investigate the lattice strain and magnetic field co-control of phase separation in resistive switching. The stable and nonvolatile resistance tuning is realized at room temperature using the electric-field-induced reversible ferroelastic strain effect, which can be enhanced by 84% under the magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetoresistance can be effectively tuned by the electrically driven ferroelastic strain. These findings reveal that the ferroelastic strain and the magnetic field strongly correlate with each other and are mediated by phase separation. Our work provides an approach to design strain-engineered multifunctional memory devices based on complex oxides by introducing an extra magnetic field stimulus.

  20. Resistance is Futile: STScI's Science Planning and Scheduling Team Switches From VMS to Unix Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, D. S.

    2000-12-01

    The Science Planning and Scheduling Team (SPST) of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has historically operated exclusively under VMS. Due to diminished support for VMS-based platforms at STScI, SPST is in the process of transitioning to Unix operations. In the summer of 1999, SPST selected Python as the primary scripting language for the operational tools and began translation of the VMS DCL code. As of October 2000, SPST has installed a utility library of 16 modules consisting of 8000 lines of code and 80 Python tools consisting of 13000 lines of code. All tasks related to calendar generation have been switched to Unix operations. Current work focuses on translating the tools used to generate the Science Mission Specifications (SMS). The software required to generate the Mission Schedule and Command Loads (PASS), maintained by another team at STScI, will take longer to translate than the rest of the SPST operational code. SPST is planning on creating tools to access PASS from Unix in the short term. We are on schedule to complete the work needed to fully transition SPST to Unix operations (while remotely accessing PASS on VMS) by the fall of 2001.

  1. Resistive switching of Cu/Cu2O junction fabricated using simple thermal oxidation at 423 K for memristor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ani, M. H.; Helmi, F.; Herman, S. H.; Noh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, extensive researches have been done on memristor to replace current memory storage technologies. Study on active layer of memristor mostly involving n-type semiconductor oxide such as TiO2 and ZnO. This paper highlight a simple water vapour oxidation method at 423 K to form Cu/Cu2O electronic junction as a new type of memristor. Cu2O is a p-type semiconductor oxide, was used as the active layer of memristor. Cu/Cu2O/Au memristor was fabricated by thermal oxidation of copper foil, followed by sputtering of gold. Structural, morphological and memristive properties were characterized using XRD, FESEM, and current-voltage, I-V measurement respectively. Its memristivity was indentified by pinch hysteresis loop and measurement of high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state (LRS) of the sample. The Cu/Cu2O/Au memristor demonstrates comparable performances to previous studies using other methods.

  2. Coaxial Switch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-23

    0005] RF coaxial switches are typically used in environments that are prone to mechanical shocks and vibrations . For example, in military...withstand mechanical shocks and vibrations and to maintain an RF connection throughout a shock or a vibration event. Attorney Docket No. 102139...3 of 16 [0006] It has been found that shocks and vibrations on prior art rotary-type coaxial switches may cause the shaft in the coaxial switch

  3. Controlling the ferroelectric and resistive switching properties of a BiFeO3 thin film prepared using sub-5 nm dimension nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shirolkar, Mandar M; Li, Jieni; Dong, Xiaolei; Li, Ming; Wang, Haiqian

    2017-10-04

    In recent years, BiFeO 3 has attracted significant attention as an interesting multiferroic material in the exploration of fundamental science and development of novel applications. Our previous study (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.18, 2016, 25409) highlighted the interesting physicochemical features of BiFeO 3 of sub-5 nm dimension. The study also accentuated the existence of weak ferroelectricity at sub-5 nm dimensions in BiFeO 3 . Based on this feature, we have prepared thin films using sub-5 nm BiFeO 3 nanoparticles and explored various physicochemical properties of the thin film. We report that during the formation of the thin film, the nanoparticles aggregated; particularly, annihilation of their nanotwinning nature was observed. Qualitatively, the Gibbs free energy change ΔG governed the abovementioned processes. The thin film exhibited an R3c phase and enhanced Bi-O-Fe coordination as compared to the sub-5 nm nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy under the influence of a magnetic field shows a magnetoelectric effect, spin phonon coupling, and magnetic anisotropy. We report room-temperature ferroelectric behavior in the thin film, which enhances with the application of a magnetic field; this confirms the multiferroic nature of the thin film. The thin film shows polarization switching ability at multiple voltages and read-write operation at low bias (±0.5 V). Furthermore, the thin film shows negative differential-complementary resistive switching behavior in the nano-microampere current range. We report nearly stable 1-bit operation for 10 2 cycles, 10 5 voltage pulses, and 10 5 s, demonstrating the paradigm device applications. The observed results thus show that the thin films prepared using sub-5 nm BiFeO 3 nanoparticles are a promising candidate for future spintronics and memory applications. The reported approach can also be pertinent to explore the physicochemical properties and develop potential applications of several other nanoparticles.

  4. Resistive switching mechanism of ZnO/ZrO2-stacked resistive random access memory device annealed at 300 °C by sol-gel method with forming-free operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wen-Yi; You, Hsin-Chiang; Wu, Cheng-Yen

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we used a sol-gel process to fabricate a ZnO-ZrO2-stacked resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) device and investigated its switching mechanism. The Gibbs free energy in ZnO, which is higher than that in ZrO2, facilitates the oxidation and reduction reactions of filaments in the ZnO layer. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the device revealed a forming-free operation because of nonlattice oxygen in the oxide layer. In addition, the device can operate under bipolar or unipolar conditions with a reset voltage of 0 to ±2 V, indicating that in this device, Joule heating dominates at reset and the electric field dominates in the set process. Furthermore, the characteristics reveal why the fabricated device exhibits a greater discrete distribution phenomenon for the set voltage than for the reset voltage. These results will enable the fabrication of future ReRAM devices with double-layer oxide structures with improved characteristics.

  5. Multi-level resistive switching behaviors and retention characteristics in ZnO/Nb:SrTiO3 heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yong; Li, Jiachen; Zhang, Weifeng; Jia, Caihong

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial ZnO thin films were grown on SrTiO3:Nb (NSTO) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering method. The multi-level resistance states were observed by applying different amplitudes and/or polarities of voltage pulses, which is supposed to be related to the drift of oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the decay of retention is also corresponding to the migration of oxygen vacancies. The retention and cycle stability implies that the ZnO/Nb:SrTiO3 heterojunctions are promising for high density memory application.

  6. Voltage control of a magnetic switching field for magnetic tunnel junctions with low resistance and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezuka, N.; Oikawa, S.; Matsuura, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Irisawa, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Tsunekawa, K.

    2018-05-01

    The authors investigated the voltage control of a magnetic anisotropy field for perpendicular-magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with low and high resistance-area (RA) products and for synthetic antiferromagnetic free and pinned layers. It was found that the sample with low RA products was more sensitive to the applied bias voltage than the sample with high RA products. The bias voltage effect was less pronounced for our sample with the synthetic antiferromagnetic layer for high RA products compared to the MTJs with single free and pinned layers.

  7. Toward understanding of the role of reversibility of phenotypic switching in the evolution of resistance to therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, D.; Brutovsky, B.

    2018-06-01

    Reversibility of state transitions is intensively studied topic in many scientific disciplines over many years. In cell biology, it plays an important role in epigenetic variation of phenotypes, known as phenotypic plasticity. More interestingly, the cell state reversibility is probably crucial in the adaptation of population phenotypic heterogeneity to environmental fluctuations by evolving bet-hedging strategy, which might confer to cancer cells resistance to therapy. In this article, we propose a formalization of the evolution of highly reversible states in the environments of periodic variability. Two interrelated models of heterogeneous cell populations are proposed and their behavior is studied. The first model captures selection dynamics of the cell clones for the respective levels of phenotypic reversibility. The second model focuses on the interplay between reversibility and drug resistance in the particular case of cancer. Overall, our results show that the threshold dependencies are emergent features of the investigated model with eventual therapeutic relevance. Presented examples demonstrate importance of taking into account cell to cell heterogeneity within a system of clones with different reversibility quantified by appropriately chosen genetic and epigenetic entropy measures.

  8. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  9. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOEpatents

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  10. Diplexer switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauling, C. H., Jr.; Parker, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Switch achieves high isolation and continuous input/output matching by using resonant coupling structure of diplexer. Additionally, dc bias network used to control switch is decoupled from RF input and output lines. Voltage transients in external circuits are thus minimized.

  11. Treatment of resistant tattoos using a new generation Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: influence of beam profile and spot size on clearance success.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Syrus; Pfirrmann, Gudrun; Hammes, Stefan; Raulin, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Multiple treatments of resistant tattoos often result in fibrosis and visible textural changes that lessen response to subsequent treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of beam profile and spot size on clearance rates and side effects in the setting of resistant tattoos. Thirty-six professional, black tattoos (32 patients) were treated unsuccessfully with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (MedLite C3, HoyaConBio Inc., Fremont, CA). Because of therapy resistance all tattoos were re-treated using a new generation Nd:YAG laser (MedLite C6, HoyaConBio Inc.). Maximum energy fluence (E (max)), mean energy fluence, mean spot size, level of clearance, side effects and beam profile (irradiance distribution) of both laser systems were assessed and evaluated in a retrospective study. All tattoos were previously treated with the C3 laser at 1,064 nm using a mean E(max) of 5.8+/-0.8 J/cm(2) (range 3.8-7.5 J/cm(2)) as compared with a mean E(max) of 6.4+/-1.6 J/cm(2) (range 3.2-9.0 J/cm(2)) during the C6 treatment course. Corresponding spot sizes were larger during C6 treatments as compared with C3 (5.0+/-0.9 and 3.6+/-0.2 mm, respectively). The C6 laser had a "flat top" and homogenous profile regardless of the spot size. For the C3 laser the beam shape was "Gaussian," and the homogeneity was reduced by numerous micro-spikes and micro-nadirs. After the C6 treatment course 33.3% of the tattoos showed clearance of grade 1 (0-25%), 16.7% of grade 2 (26-50%), 16.7% of grade 3 (51-75%), 30.5% of grade 4 (76-95%), 2.8% of grade 5 (96-100%). The total rate of side effects due to C6 treatment was 8.3% in all tattoos (hyperpigmentation 5.6%, hypopigmentation 2.7%, textural changes/scars 0%). This clinical study documents for the first time the impact of a 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser with a more homogenous beam profile and a larger spot size on the management of resistant tattoos. Only a few treatment sessions were necessary to achieve an additional clearance with a low rate of

  12. Ti-Doped GaOx Resistive Switching Memory with Self-Rectifying Behavior by Using NbOx/Pt Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyun; Jeon, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Geun

    2017-12-13

    Crossbar arrays (CBAs) with resistive random access memory (ReRAM) constitute an established architecture for high-density memory. However, sneak paths via unselected cells increase the total power consumption of these devices and limit the array size. To eliminate such sneak-path problems, we propose a Ti/GaO x /NbO x /Pt structure with a self-rectifying resistive-switching (RS) behavior. In this structure, to reduce the operating voltage, we used a Ti/GaO x stack to increase the number of trap sites in the RS GaO x layer through interfacial reactions between the Ti and GaO x layers. This increase enables easier carrier transport with reduced electric fields. We then adopted a NbO x /Pt stack to add rectifying behavior to the RS GaO x layer. This behavior is a result of the large Schottky barrier height between the NbO x and Pt layers. Finally, both the Ti/GaO x and NbO x /Pt stacks were combined to realize a self-rectifying ReRAM device, which exhibited excellent performance. Characteristics of the device include a low operating voltage range (-2.8 to 2.5 V), high on/off ratios (∼20), high selectivity (∼10 4 ), high operating speeds (200-500 ns), a very low forming voltage (∼3 V), stable operation, and excellent uniformity for high-density CBA-based ReRAM applications.

  13. Microscopic origin of read current noise in TaOx-based resistive switching memory by ultra-low temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yue; Cai, Yimao; Liu, Yefan; Fang, Yichen; Yu, Muxi; Tan, Shenghu; Huang, Ru

    2016-04-01

    TaOx-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) attracts considerable attention for the development of next generation nonvolatile memories. However, read current noise in RRAM is one of the critical concerns for storage application, and its microscopic origin is still under debate. In this work, the read current noise in TaOx-based RRAM was studied thoroughly. Based on a noise power spectral density analysis at room temperature and at ultra-low temperature of 25 K, discrete random telegraph noise (RTN) and continuous average current fluctuation (ACF) are identified and decoupled from the total read current noise in TaOx RRAM devices. A statistical comparison of noise amplitude further reveals that ACF depends strongly on the temperature, whereas RTN is independent of the temperature. Measurement results combined with conduction mechanism analysis show that RTN in TaOx RRAM devices arises from electron trapping/detrapping process in the hopping conduction, and ACF is originated from the thermal activation of conduction centers that form the percolation network. At last, a unified model in the framework of hopping conduction is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of both RTN and ACF noise, which can provide meaningful guidelines for designing noise-immune RRAM devices.

  14. Comprehensive dynamic on-resistance assessments in GaN-on-Si MIS-HEMTs for power switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Po-Chien; Hsieh, Ting-En; Cheng, Stone; del Alamo, Jesús A.; Chang, Edward Yi

    2018-05-01

    This study comprehensively analyzed the reliability of trapping and hot-electron effects responsible for the dynamic on-resistance (Ron) of GaN-based metal–insulator–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors. Specifically, this study performed the following analyses. First, we developed the on-the-fly Ron measurement to analyze the effects of traps during stress. With this technique, the faster one (with a pulse period of 20 ms) can characterize the degradation; the transient behavior could be monitored accurately by such short measurement pulse. Then, dynamic Ron transients were investigated under different bias conditions, including combined off state stress conditions, back-gating stress conditions, and semi-on stress conditions, in separate investigations of surface- and buffer-, and hot-electron-related trapping effects. Finally, the experiments showed that the Ron increase in semi-on state is significantly correlated with the high drain voltage and relatively high current levels (compared with the off-state current), involving the injection of greater amount of hot electrons from the channel into the AlGaN/insulator interface and the GaN buffer. These findings provide a path for device engineering to clarify the possible origins for electron traps and to accelerate the development of emerging GaN technologies.

  15. Resistive switching mechanism in the one diode-one resistor memory based on p+-Si/n-ZnO heterostructure revealed by in-situ TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Liang; Li, Xiaomei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong

    2017-03-01

    One diode-one resistor (1D1R) memory is an effective architecture to suppress the crosstalk interference, realizing the crossbar network integration of resistive random access memory (RRAM). Herein, we designed a p+-Si/n-ZnO heterostructure with 1D1R function. Compared with the conventional multilayer 1D1R devices, the structure and fabrication technique can be largely simplified. The real-time imaging of formation/rupture process of conductive filament (CF) process demonstrated the RS mechanism by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, we observed that the formed CF is only confined to the outside of depletion region of Si/ZnO pn junction, and the formation of CF does not degrade the diode performance, which allows the coexistence of RS and rectifying behaviors, revealing the 1D1R switching model. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that the CF is consisting of the oxygen vacancy by in-situ TEM characterization.

  16. Energy loss in spark gap switches

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, V. I., E-mail: oreshkin@ovpe.hcei.tsc.ru; Lavrinovich, I. V.; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, 634050 Tomsk

    2014-04-15

    The paper reports on numerical study of the energy loss in spark gap switches. The operation of the switches is analyzed using the Braginsky model which allows calculation of the time dependence of the spark channel resistance. The Braginsky equation is solved simultaneously with generator circuit equations for different load types. Based on the numerical solutions, expressions which determine both the energy released in a spark gap switch and the switching time are derived.

  17. ION SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  18. Terminal Galactosylation and Sialylation Switching on Membrane Glycoproteins upon TNF-Alpha-Induced Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Benjamin L.; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Holliday, Mira; Packer, Nicolle H.; James, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a complex pathophysiological state that arises from both environmental and genetic perturbations and leads to a variety of diseases, including type-2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity is associated with enhanced adipose tissue inflammation, which may play a role in disease progression. Inflammation modulates protein glycosylation in a variety of cell types, and this has been associated with biological dysregulation. Here, we have examined the effects of an inflammatory insult on protein glycosylation in adipocytes. We performed quantitative N-glycome profiling of membrane proteins derived from mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes that had been incubated with or without the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha to induce IR. We identified the regulation of specific terminal N-glycan epitopes, including an increase in terminal di-galactose- and a decrease in biantennary alpha-2,3-sialoglycans. The altered N-glycosylation of TNF-alpha-treated adipocytes correlated with the regulation of specific glycosyltransferases, including the up-regulation of B4GalT5 and Ggta1 galactosyltransferases and down-regulation of ST3Gal6 sialyltransferase. Knockdown of B4GalT5 down-regulated the terminal di-galactose N-glycans, confirming the involvement of this enzyme in the TNF-alpha-regulated N-glycome. SILAC-based quantitative glycoproteomics of enriched N-glycopeptides with and without deglycosylation were used to identify the protein and glycosylation sites modified with these regulated N-glycans. The combined proteome and glycoproteome workflow provided a relative quantification of changes in protein abundance versus N-glycosylation occupancy versus site-specific N-glycans on a proteome-wide level. This revealed the modulation of N-glycosylation on specific proteins in IR, including those previously associated with insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane. PMID:26537798

  19. Impact of AlO x layer on resistive switching characteristics and device-to-device uniformity of bilayered HfO x -based resistive random access memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Kai-Chi; Chung, Hao-Tung; Chu, Chi-Yan; Luo, Jun-Dao; Li, Wei-Shuo; Li, Yi-Shao; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2018-06-01

    An AlO x layer was deposited on HfO x , and bilayered dielectric films were found to confine the formation locations of conductive filaments (CFs) during the forming process and then improve device-to-device uniformity. In addition, the Ti interposing layer was also adopted to facilitate the formation of oxygen vacancies. As a result, the resistive random access memory (RRAM) device with TiN/Ti/AlO x (1 nm)/HfO x (6 nm)/TiN stack layers demonstrated excellent device-to-device uniformity although it achieved slightly larger resistive switching characteristics, which were forming voltage (V Forming) of 2.08 V, set voltage (V Set) of 1.96 V, and reset voltage (V Reset) of ‑1.02 V, than the device with TiN/Ti/HfO x (6 nm)/TiN stack layers. However, the device with a thicker 2-nm-thick AlO x layer showed worse uniformity than the 1-nm-thick one. It was attributed to the increased oxygen atomic percentage in the bilayered dielectric films of the 2-nm-thick one. The difference in oxygen content showed that there would be less oxygen vacancies to form CFs. Therefore, the random growth of CFs would become severe and the device-to-device uniformity would degrade.

  20. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devulder, Wouter; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Belmonte, Attilio; Muller, Robert; De Schutter, Bob; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu0.6Te0.4 based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu0.6Te0.4-C/Al2O3/Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al2O3 under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al2O3 before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents.

  1. Uniform Self-rectifying Resistive Switching Behavior via Preformed Conducting Paths in a Vertical-type Ta2O5/HfO2-x Structure with a Sub-μm(2) Cell Area.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Ho; Yoo, Sijung; Song, Seul Ji; Yoon, Kyung Jean; Kwon, Dae Eun; Kwon, Young Jae; Park, Tae Hyung; Kim, Hye Jin; Shao, Xing Long; Kim, Yumin; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-07-20

    To replace or succeed the present NAND flash memory, resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) should be implemented in the vertical-type crossbar array configuration. The ReRAM cell must have a highly reproducible resistive switching (RS) performance and an electroforming-free, self-rectifying, low-power-consumption, multilevel-switching, and easy fabrication process with a deep sub-μm(2) cell area. In this work, a Pt/Ta2O5/HfO2-x/TiN RS memory cell fabricated in the form of a vertical-type structure was presented as a feasible contender to meet the above requirements. While the fundamental RS characteristics of this material based on the electron trapping/detrapping mechanisms have been reported elsewhere, the influence of the cell scaling size to 0.34 μm(2) on the RS performance by adopting the vertical integration scheme was carefully examined in this work. The smaller cell area provided much better switching uniformity while all the other benefits of this specific material system were preserved. Using the overstressing technique, the nature of RS through the localized conducting path was further examined, which elucidated the fundamental difference between the present material system and the general ionic-motion-related bipolar RS mechanism.

  2. Switching dynamics of TaOx-based threshold switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwill, Jonathan M.; Gala, Darshil K.; Bain, James A.; Skowronski, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Bi-stable volatile switching devices are being used as access devices in solid-state memory arrays and as the active part of compact oscillators. Such structures exhibit two stable states of resistance and switch between them at a critical value of voltage or current. A typical resistance transient under a constant amplitude voltage pulse starts with a slow decrease followed by a rapid drop and leveling off at a low steady state value. This behavior prompted the interpretation of initial delay and fast transition as due to two different processes. Here, we show that the entire transient including incubation time, transition time, and the final resistance values in TaOx-based switching can be explained by one process, namely, Joule heating with the rapid transition due to the thermal runaway. The time, which is required for the device in the conducting state to relax back to the stable high resistance one, is also consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  3. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  4. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  5. Ferroelectricity-induced resistive switching in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 epitaxial heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md. Sadaf, Sharif; Mostafa Bourim, El; Liu, Xinjun; Hasan Choudhury, Sakeb; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin film on the generation of resistive switching in a stacked Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO)/Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) heterostructure forming a p-n junction. To promote the ferroelectric effect, the thin PZT active layer was deposited on an epitaxially grown p-type PCMO film on a lattice-matched n-type Nb:STO single crystal. It was concluded that the observed resistive switching behavior in the all-perovskite Pt/PZT/PCMO/Nb:STO heterostructure was related to the modulation of PCMO/Nb:STO p-n junction's depletion width, which was caused either by the PZT ferroelectric polarization field effect, the electrochemical drift of oxygen ions under an electric field, or both simultaneously.

  6. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  7. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  8. Temperature dependence of carrier transport and resistance switching in Pt/SrTi1-xNbxO3 Schottky junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianyong; Ohashi, Naoki; Okushi, Hideyo; Haneda, Hajime

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the temperature dependence of carrier transport and resistance switching of Pt/SrTi1-xNbxO3 Schottky junctions in the temperature range 80-400 K by measuring the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and the frequency dependence of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The I-V curves displayed a high degree of hysteresis, known as the colossal electroresistance (CER) effect, and their temperature dependence showed an anomalous behavior, i.e., the magnitude of the hysteresis increased with decreasing T. The experimental results were analyzed by taking into account the temperature and electric-field dependence of the relative permittivity of SrTi1-xNbxO3 as well as the inhomogeneity of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) (a model in which two parallel current paths coexist in the Schottky barrier). It was confirmed that the observed I-V and C-V curves were well simulated by this model, thus indicating that the CER effects originated in the field emission current through different SBHs and at different locations of the Schottky junctions. Based on these results, we explain the mechanism of the CER effect qualitatively in terms of this model. For this purpose, we take into account the pinched-off effect caused by the small-scale inhomogeneity of SBH and the existence of deep levels as a result of defects and unintentional impurities in the depletion layer of the Pt/SrTi1-xNbxO3 Schottky junctions.

  9. Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide Shunt MEMS Switches for Switched Line Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Simons, Rainee N.; Scardelletti, Maximillian; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    Switches with low insertion loss and high isolation are required for switched line phase shifters and the transmit/receive switch at the front end of communication systems. A Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) waveguide capacitive, shunt MEMS switch has been implemented on high resistivity Si. The switch has demonstrated an insertion loss of less than 0.3 dB and a return loss greater than 15 dB from 10 to 20, GHz. The switch design, fabrication, and characteristics are presented.

  10. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, Kristian

    1983-01-01

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  11. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  12. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.

    1985-01-18

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  13. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  14. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  15. Switching Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  16. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device I–V characteristics suggests the source of the

  17. Randomized, Noncomparative, Phase II Trial of Early Switch From Docetaxel to Cabazitaxel or Vice Versa, With Integrated Biomarker Analysis, in Men With Chemotherapy-Naïve, Metastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Scott T.; Galletti, Giuseppe; Worroll, Daniel; Ballman, Karla; Vanhuyse, Marie; Sonpavde, Guru; North, Scott; Albany, Costantine; Tsao, Che-Kai; Stewart, John; Zaher, Atef; Szatrowski, Ted; Zhou, Wei; Gjyrezi, Ada; Tasaki, Shinsuke; Portella, Luigi; Bai, Yang; Lannin, Timothy B.; Suri, Shalu; Gruber, Conor N.; Pratt, Erica D.; Kirby, Brian J.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Nanus, David M.; Saad, Fred; Giannakakou, Paraskevi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The TAXYNERGY trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01718353) evaluated clinical benefit from early taxane switch and circulating tumor cell (CTC) biomarkers to interrogate mechanisms of sensitivity or resistance to taxanes in men with chemotherapy-naïve, metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to docetaxel or cabazitaxel. Men who did not achieve ≥ 30% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline by cycle 4 (C4) switched taxane. The primary clinical endpoint was confirmed ≥ 50% PSA decline versus historical control (TAX327). The primary biomarker endpoint was analysis of post-treatment CTCs to confirm the hypothesis that clinical response was associated with taxane drug-target engagement, evidenced by decreased percent androgen receptor nuclear localization (%ARNL) and increased microtubule bundling. Results Sixty-three patients were randomly assigned to docetaxel (n = 41) or cabazitaxel (n = 22); 44.4% received prior potent androgen receptor–targeted therapy. Overall, 35 patients (55.6%) had confirmed ≥ 50% PSA responses, exceeding the historical control rate of 45.4% (TAX327). Of 61 treated patients, 33 (54.1%) had ≥ 30% PSA declines by C4 and did not switch taxane, 15 patients (24.6%) who did not achieve ≥ 30% PSA declines by C4 switched taxane, and 13 patients (21.3%) discontinued therapy before or at C4. Of patients switching taxane, 46.7% subsequently achieved ≥ 50% PSA decrease. In 26 CTC-evaluable patients, taxane-induced decrease in %ARNL (cycle 1 day 1 v cycle 1 day 8) was associated with a higher rate of ≥ 50% PSA decrease at C4 (P = .009). Median composite progression-free survival was 9.1 months (95% CI, 4.9 to 11.7 months); median overall survival was not reached at 14 months. Common grade 3 or 4 adverse events included fatigue (13.1%) and febrile neutropenia (11.5%). Conclusion The early taxane switch strategy was associated with improved PSA response rates

  18. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-04-12

    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  19. Coexistence of non-volatile bi-polar resistive switching and tunneling magnetoresistance in spatially confined La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, J.; Jung, J.; Chow, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    We report the coexistence of non-volatile bi-polar resistive switching (RS) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in spatially confined La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates. At certain temperatures, the arrangement of electronic phase domains in these narrow systems mimics those found in heterostructured metal-insulator-metal devices. The relative spin orientations between adjacent ferromagnetic metallic phase domains enable the TMR effect, while the creation/annihilation of conduction filaments between the metallic phase domains produces the RS effect.

  20. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    DOEpatents

    Dike, Robert S.; Kewish, Jr., Ralph W.

    1976-01-13

    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor.

  1. Effect of current compliance and voltage sweep rate on the resistive switching of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure as measured by conductive atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, You-Lin, E-mail: ylwu@ncnu.edu.tw; Liao, Chun-Wei; Ling, Jing-Jenn

    2014-06-16

    The electrical characterization of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar resistive switching memory structure was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a semiconductor parameter analyzer, Agilent 4156C. The metal alloy Invar was used as the metal substrate to ensure good ohmic contact with the substrate holder of the AFM. A conductive Pt/Ir AFM tip was placed in direct contact with the HfO{sub 2} surface, such that it acted as the top electrode. Nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure were measured by applying a ramp voltage through the conductive AFM tip at various current compliances and ramp voltage sweep rates.more » It was found that the resistance of the low resistance state (RLRS) decreased with increasing current compliance value, but resistance of high resistance state (RHRS) barely changed. However, both the RHRS and RLRS decreased as the voltage sweep rate increased. The reasons for this dependency on current compliance and voltage sweep rate are discussed.« less

  2. Kinetics of nitric oxide and oxygen gases on porous Y-stabilized ZrO2-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Killa, Sajin; Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P; Mainardi, Daniela S

    2013-08-16

    Using impedance spectroscopy the electrical response of sensors with various porous Y-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) microstructures was measured for gas concentrations containing 0-100 ppm NO with 10.5%O2 at temperatures ranging from 600-700 °C. The impedance response increased substantially as the sensor porosity increased from 46%-50%. Activation energies calculated based on data from the impedance measurements increased in magnitude (97.4-104.9 kJ/mol for 100 ppm NO) with respect to increasing YSZ porosity. Analysis of the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the sensors suggested that dissociative adsorption was the dominant rate limiting. The PWC/DNP theory level was used to investigate the gas-phase energy barrier of the 2NO+O2 → 2NO2 reaction on a 56-atom YSZ/Au model cluster using Density Functional Theory and Linear Synchronous Transit/Quadratic Synchronous Transit calculations. The reaction path shows oxygen surface reactions that begin with NO association with adsorbed O2 on a Zr surface site, followed by O2 dissociative adsorption, atomic oxygen diffusion, and further NO2 formation. The free energy barrier was calculated to be 181.7 kJ/mol at PWC/DNP. A qualitative comparison with the extrapolated data at 62% ± 2% porosity representing the YSZ model cluster indicates that the calculated barriers are in reasonable agreement with experiments, especially when the RPBE functional is used.

  3. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on

  4. Influence of oxygen vacancies in ALD HfO2-x thin films on non-volatile resistive switching phenomena with a Ti/HfO2-x/Pt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey Sergeevich; Jeon, Yu-Rim; Kim, Sohyeon; Ku, Boncheol; Lim, Donghwan; Han, Hoonhee; Chae, Myeong Gyoon; Lee, Jaeho; Ha, Beom Gil; Choi, Changhwan

    2018-03-01

    We report a modulation of oxygen vacancies profile in atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfO2-x thin films by reducing oxidant pulse time (0.7 s-0.1 s) and study its effect on resistive switching behavior with a Ti/HfO2-x/Pt structure. Hf 4f spectra of x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) and depth profile confirm varied oxygen vacancies profiles by shifts of binding energies of Hf 4f5/2 and Hf 4f7/2 main peaks and its according HfO2-x sub-oxides for each device. The ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) confirms different electron affinity (χ) of HfO2 and HfO2-x thin films, implying that barrier height at Ti/oxide interface is reduced. Current transport mechanism is dictated by Ohmic conduction in fully oxidized HfO2 thin films - Device A (0.7 s) and by Trap Filled Space Charge Limited Conduction (TF-SCLC) in less oxidized HfO2-x thin films - Device B (0.3 s) and Device C (0.1 s). A switching mechanism related to the oxygen vacancies modulation in Ti/HfO2-x/Pt based resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices is used to explain carefully notified current transport mechanism variations from device-to-device. A proper endurance and long-time retention characteristics of the devices are also obtained.

  5. Resistive switching effect in the planar structure of all-printed, flexible and rewritable memory device based on advanced 2D nanocomposite of graphene quantum dots and white graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muqeet Rehman, Muhammad; Uddin Siddiqui, Ghayas; Kim, Sowon; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Pursuit of the most appropriate materials and fabrication methods is essential for developing a reliable, rewritable and flexible memory device. In this study, we have proposed an advanced 2D nanocomposite of white graphene (hBN) flakes embedded with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as the functional layer of a flexible memory device owing to their unique electrical, chemical and mechanical properties. Unlike the typical sandwich type structure of a memory device, we developed a cost effective planar structure, to simplify device fabrication and prevent sneak current. The entire device fabrication was carried out using printing technology followed by encapsulation in an atomically thin layer of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) for protection against environmental humidity. The proposed memory device exhibited attractive bipolar switching characteristics of high switching ratio, large electrical endurance and enhanced lifetime, without any crosstalk between adjacent memory cells. The as-fabricated device showed excellent durability for several bending cycles at various bending diameters without any degradation in bistable resistive states. The memory mechanism was deduced to be conductive filamentary; this was validated by illustrating the temperature dependence of bistable resistive states. Our obtained results pave the way for the execution of promising 2D material based next generation flexible and non-volatile memory (NVM) applications.

  6. Heat switch technology for cryogenic thermal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Q. S.; Demko, J. A.; E Fesmire, J.

    2017-12-01

    Systematic review is given of development of novel heat switches at cryogenic temperatures that alternatively provide high thermal connection or ideal thermal isolation to the cold mass. These cryogenic heat switches are widely applied in a variety of unique superconducting systems and critical space applications. The following types of heat switch devices are discussed: 1) magnetic levitation suspension, 2) shape memory alloys, 3) differential thermal expansion, 4) helium or hydrogen gap-gap, 5) superconducting, 6) piezoelectric, 7) cryogenic diode, 8) magneto-resistive, and 9) mechanical demountable connections. Advantages and limitations of different cryogenic heat switches are examined along with the outlook for future thermal management solutions in materials and cryogenic designs.

  7. Lysine N[superscript zeta]-Decarboxylation Switch and Activation of the [beta]-Lactam Sensor Domain of BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg; Kumarasiri, Malika; Wilson, Brian

    The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of {beta}-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N{sup {zeta}}-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed themore » lysine N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ('on') state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.« less

  8. Novel strategy to mitigate cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling via the atmospheric resistive switching mechanism of a hydrogen anode with a platinum catalyst supported on tantalum-doped titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Haruhiko; Kojima, Yuya; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new strategy for alleviating the reverse current phenomenon using a unique ;atmospheric resistive switching mechanism; (ARSM) of a metal oxide semiconductor support, such that the electrical resistivity changes depending on the gas atmosphere. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) using Ta-doped TiO2-supported platinum (Pt/Ta-TiO2) as the anode catalyst showed approximately one order of magnitude greater resistance in air than in hydrogen. The overpotential of the hydrogen oxidation reaction was negligible up to at least 1.5 A cm-2. The losses of electrochemically active surface area and carbon corrosion of the cathode catalyst during air/air startup cycling were significantly suppressed by the use of the Pt/Ta-TiO2 anode. The decrease in the degradation is attributed to a reduction of the reverse current due to a low oxygen reduction reaction rate at the anode, which showed high resistivity in air. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ARSM in mitigating cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling.

  9. Forming-free and self-rectifying resistive switching of the simple Pt/TaOx/n-Si structure for access device-free high-density memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuang; Zeng, Fei; Li, Fan; Wang, Minjuan; Mao, Haijun; Wang, Guangyue; Song, Cheng; Pan, Feng

    2015-03-01

    The search for self-rectifying resistive memories has aroused great attention due to their potential in high-density memory applications without additional access devices. Here we report the forming-free and self-rectifying bipolar resistive switching behavior of a simple Pt/TaOx/n-Si tri-layer structure. The forming-free phenomenon is attributed to the generation of a large amount of oxygen vacancies, in a TaOx region that is in close proximity to the TaOx/n-Si interface, via out-diffusion of oxygen ions from TaOx to n-Si. A maximum rectification ratio of ~6 × 102 is obtained when the Pt/TaOx/n-Si devices stay in a low resistance state, which originates from the existence of a Schottky barrier between the formed oxygen vacancy filament and the n-Si electrode. More importantly, numerical simulation reveals that the self-rectifying behavior itself can guarantee a maximum crossbar size of 212 × 212 (~44 kbit) on the premise of 10% read margin. Moreover, satisfactory switching uniformity and retention performance are observed based on this simple tri-layer structure. All of these results demonstrate the great potential of this simple Pt/TaOx/n-Si tri-layer structure for access device-free high-density memory applications.The search for self-rectifying resistive memories has aroused great attention due to their potential in high-density memory applications without additional access devices. Here we report the forming-free and self-rectifying bipolar resistive switching behavior of a simple Pt/TaOx/n-Si tri-layer structure. The forming-free phenomenon is attributed to the generation of a large amount of oxygen vacancies, in a TaOx region that is in close proximity to the TaOx/n-Si interface, via out-diffusion of oxygen ions from TaOx to n-Si. A maximum rectification ratio of ~6 × 102 is obtained when the Pt/TaOx/n-Si devices stay in a low resistance state, which originates from the existence of a Schottky barrier between the formed oxygen vacancy filament and the n

  10. Evolution of resistive switching mechanism through H2O2 sensing by using TaOx-based material in W/Al2O3/TaOx/TiN structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Somsubhra; Panja, Rajeswar; Roy, Sourav; Roy, Anisha; Samanta, Subhranu; Dutta, Mrinmoy; Ginnaram, Sreekanth; Maikap, Siddheswar; Cheng, Hsin-Ming; Tsai, Ling-Na; Chang, Ya-Ling; Mahapatra, Rajat; Jana, Debanjan; Qiu, Jian-Tai; Yang, Jer-Ren

    2018-03-01

    Understanding of resistive switching mechanism through H2O2 sensing and improvement of switching characteristics by using TaOx-based material in W/Al2O3/TaOx/TiN structure have been reported for the first time. Existence of amorphous Al2O3/TaOx layer in the RRAM devices has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. By analyzing the oxidation states of Ta2+/Ta5+ for TaOx switching material and W0/W6+ for WOx layer at the W/TaOx interface through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and H2O2 sensing, the reduction-oxidation mechanism under Set/Reset occurs only in the TaOx layer for the W/Al2O3/TaOx/TiN structures. This leads to higher Schottky barrier height at the W/Al2O3 interface (0.54 eV vs. 0.46 eV), higher resistance ratio, and long program/erase endurance of >108 cycles with 100 ns pulse width at a low operation current of 30 μA. Stable retention of more than 104 s at 85 °C is also obtained. Using conduction mechanism and reduction-oxidation reaction, current-voltage characteristic has been simulated. Both TaOx and WOx membranes have high pH sensitivity values of 47.65 mV/pH and 49.25 mV/pH, respectively. Those membranes can also sense H2O2 with a low concentration of 1 nM in an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor structure because of catalytic activity, while the Al2O3 membrane does not show sensing. The TaOx material in W/Al2O3/TaOx/TiN structure does not show only a path towards high dense, small size memory application with understanding of switching mechanism but also can be used for H2O2 sensors.

  11. Solid-state switch increases switching speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, G. F.

    1966-01-01

    Solid state switch for commutating capacitors in an RC commutated network increases switching speed and extends the filtering or commutating frequency spectrum well into the kilocycle region. The switch is equivalent to the standard double- pole double-throw /DPDT/ relay and is driven from digital micrologic circuits.

  12. Attaching Copper Wires to Magnetic-Reed-Switch Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamila, Rudolf

    1987-01-01

    Bonding method reliably joins copper wires to short iron-alloy leads from glass-encased dry magnetic-reed switch without disturbing integrity of glass-to-metal seal. Joint resistant to high temperatures and has low electrical resistance.

  13. Facile synthesis, phase transition, optical switching and oxidation resistance properties of belt-like VO{sub 2}(A) and VO{sub 2}(M) with a rectangular cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yifu; Huang, Yanfen; Zhang, Juecheng

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Belt-like VO{sub 2}(A) with a rectangular cross section was synthesized. ► The formation mechanism of belt-like VO{sub 2}(A) was proposed. ► Belt-like VO{sub 2}(M) was prepared by the irreversible transformation of VO{sub 2}(A). ► VO{sub 2}(A) and VO{sub 2}(M) can be used as the optical switching materials. ► VO{sub 2}(A) and VO{sub 2}(M) have good oxidation resistance below 400 °C in air. -- Abstract: Belt-like VO{sub 2}(A) with a rectangular cross section (VA-RCS) was successfully synthesized using V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O as the starting materials by a facile hydrothermal approach. Somemore » synthetic parameters, such as, the reaction time, reaction temperature and concentration of H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, were systematically investigated to control the fabrication of belt-like VA-RCS. The formation mechanism of belt-like VA-RCS was proposed. Subsequently, belt-like VO{sub 2}(M) with a rectangular cross section (VM-RCS) was prepared by the irreversible transformation of VA-RCS at 700 °C for 2 h under the inert atmosphere. The phase transition temperature (T{sub c}) of VA-RCS and VM-RCS was evaluated by DSC test. The optical switching properties of VA-RCS and VM-RCS were studied by the variable-temperature infrared spectra, and it was found that the as-obtained VA-RCS and VM-RCS could be used as the optical switching materials. Furthermore, the oxidation resistance properties of VA-RCS and VM-RCS were investigated by TGA, indicating that they have good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 400 °C in air.« less

  14. Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas

    1995-03-01

    B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.

  15. Resistance switching behavior of atomic layer deposited SrTiO3 film through possible formation of Sr2Ti6O13 or Sr1Ti11O20 phases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woongkyu; Yoo, Sijung; Yoon, Kyung Jean; Yeu, In Won; Chang, Hye Jung; Choi, Jung-Hae; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne; Waser, Rainer; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    Identification of microstructural evolution of nanoscale conducting phase, such as conducting filament (CF), in many resistance switching (RS) devices is a crucial factor to unambiguously understand the electrical behaviours of the RS-based electronic devices. Among the diverse RS material systems, oxide-based redox system comprises the major category of these intriguing electronic devices, where the local, along both lateral and vertical directions of thin films, changes in oxygen chemistry has been suggested to be the main RS mechanism. However, there are systems which involve distinctive crystallographic phases as CF; the Magnéli phase in TiO2 is one of the very well-known examples. The current research reports the possible presence of distinctive local conducting phase in atomic layer deposited SrTiO3 RS thin film. The conducting phase was identified through extensive transmission electron microscopy studies, which indicated that oxygen-deficient Sr2Ti6O13 or Sr1Ti11O20 phase was presumably present mainly along the grain boundaries of SrTiO3 after the unipolar set switching in Pt/TiN/SrTiO3/Pt structure. A detailed electrical characterization revealed that the samples showed typical bipolar and complementary RS after the memory cell was unipolar reset. PMID:26830978

  16. Resistance switching mode transformation in SrRuO3/Cr-doped SrZrO3/Pt frameworks via a thermally activated Ti out-diffusion process

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yongcheol; Jung, Kyooho; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang; Hong, Jinpyo; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Im, Hyunsik

    2014-01-01

    This work reports on a mechanism for irreversible resistive switching (RS) transformation from bipolar to unipolar RS behavior in SrRuO3 (SRO)/Cr-doped SrZrO3 (SZO:Cr)/Pt capacitor structures prepared on a Ti/SiO2/Si substrate. Counter-clockwise bipolar RS memory current-voltage (I–V) characteristics are observed within the RS voltage window of −2.5 to +1.9 V, with good endurance and retention properties. As the bias voltage increases further beyond 4 V under a forward bias, a forming process occurs resulting in irreversible RS mode transformation from bipolar to unipolar mode. This switching mode transformation is a direct consequence of thermally activated Ti out-diffusion from a Ti adhesion layer. Transition metal Ti effectively out-diffuses through the loose Pt electrode layer at high substrate temperatures, leading to the unintended formation of a thin titanium oxide (TiOx where x < 2) layer between the Pt electrode and the SZO:Cr layer as well as additional Ti atoms in the SZO:Cr layer. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements provided apparent evidence of the Ti out-diffusion phenomenon. We propose that the out-diffusion-induced additional Ti atoms in the SZO:Cr layer contributes to the creation of the metallic filamentary channels. PMID:25483325

  17. Insertion of a pentacene layer into the gold/poly(methyl methacrylate)/heavily doped p-type Si/indium device leading to the modulation of resistive switching characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Cheng-Chun; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2018-01-01

    In order to get a physical insight into the pentacene interlayer-modulated resistive switching (RS) characteristics, the Au/pentacene/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/heavily doped p-type Si (p+-Si)/In and Au/PMMA/p+-Si/In devices are fabricated and the device performance is provided. The Au/pentacene/PMMA/p+-Si/In device shows RS behavior, whereas the Au/PMMA/p+-Si/In device exhibits the set/reset-free hysteresis current-voltage characteristics. The insertion of a pentacene layer is a noticeable contribution to the RS characteristic. This is because of the occurrence of carrier accumulation/depletion in the pentacene interlayer. The transition from carrier depletion to carrier accumulation (carrier accumulation to carrier depletion) in pentacene occurring under negative (positive) voltage induces the process of set (reset). The switching conduction mechanism is primarily described as space charge limited conduction according to the electrical transport properties measurement. The concept of a pentacene/PMMA heterostructure opens a promising direction for organic memory devices.

  18. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  19. Miniature intermittent contact switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A.

    1972-01-01

    Design of electric switch for providing intermittent contact is presented. Switch consists of flexible conductor surrounding, but separated from, fixed conductor. Flexing of outside conductor to contact fixed conductor completes circuit. Advantage is small size of switch compared to standard switches.

  20. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  1. Digital switched hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Min; Plummer, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in digital switched hydraulics particularly the switched inertance hydraulic systems (SIHSs). The performance of SIHSs is presented in brief with a discussion of several possible configurations and control strategies. The soft switching technology and high-speed switching valve design techniques are discussed. Challenges and recommendations are given based on the current research achievements.

  2. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  3. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  4. Temporal switching jitter in photoconductive switches

    SciTech Connect

    GAUDET,JOHN A.; SKIPPER,MICHAEL C.; ABDALLA,MICHAEL D.

    This paper reports on a recent comparison made between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the temporal switch jitter times. It is found that the optical trigger laser characteristics are dominant in determining the PCSS jitter.

  5. Temporary formation of highly conducting domain walls for non-destructive read-out of ferroelectric domain-wall resistance switching memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Bai, Zi Long; Chen, Zhi Hui; He, Long; Zhang, David Wei; Zhang, Qing Hua; Shi, Jin An; Park, Min Hyuk; Scott, James F.; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jiang, An Quan

    2018-01-01

    Erasable conductive domain walls in insulating ferroelectric thin films can be used for non-destructive electrical read-out of the polarization states in ferroelectric memories. Still, the domain-wall currents extracted by these devices have not yet reached the intensity and stability required to drive read-out circuits operating at high speeds. This study demonstrated non-destructive read-out of digital data stored using specific domain-wall configurations in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films formed in mesa-geometry structures. Partially switched domains, which enable the formation of conductive walls during the read operation, spontaneously retract when the read voltage is removed, reducing the accumulation of mobile defects at the domain walls and potentially improving the device stability. Three-terminal memory devices produced 14 nA read currents at an operating voltage of 5 V, and operated up to T = 85 °C. The gap length can also be smaller than the film thickness, allowing the realization of ferroelectric memories with device dimensions far below 100 nm.

  6. Doxorubicin resistance mediated by cytoplasmic macrophage colony-stimulating factor is associated with switch from apoptosis to autophagic cell death in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mengxia; Zhang, Hailiang; Tang, Fan; Wang, Yuhua; Mo, Zhongcheng; Lei, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a vital factor in maintaining the biological function of monocyte–macrophage lineage. It is expressed in many tumor tissues and cancer cells. Recent findings indicate that macrophage colony-stimulating factor might contribute to chemoresistance, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. This study was to explore the effect of macrophage colony-stimulating factor on doxorubicin resistance in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the possible mechanism. In the study, the human breast cancer cells, MCF-7, were transfected with macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We document that cytoplasmic macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces doxorubicin resistance and inhibits apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Further studies demonstrated that cytoplasmic macrophage colony-stimulating factor-mediated apoptosis inhibition was dependent on the activation of PI3K/Akt/Survivin pathway. More importantly, we found that macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced autophagic cell death in doxorubicin-treated MCF-7 cells. Taken together, we show for the first time that macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced doxorubicin resistance is associated with the changes in cell death response with defective apoptosis and promotion of autophagic cell death. PMID:27439542

  7. Forming-free performance of a-SiN x :H-based resistive switching memory obtained by oxygen plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jian; Yang, Huafeng; Sun, Yang; Tan, Dinwen; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kuiji; Feng, Duan

    2018-06-15

    An a-SiN x -based resistive random access memory (RRAM) device with a forming-free characteristic has significant potentials for the industrialization of the next-generation memories. We demonstrate that a forming-free a-SiN x O y RRAM device can be achieved by an oxygen plasma treatment of ultra-thin a-SiN x :H films. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy reveals that Si dangling bonds with a high density (10 19 cm -3 ) are distributed in the initial state, which exist in the forms of Si 2 N≡Si·, SiO 2 ≡Si·, O 3 ≡Si·, and N 3 ≡Si·. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-dependent current analyses reveal that the silicon dangling bonds induced by the oxygen plasma treatment and external electric field contribute to the low resistance state (LRS). For the high resistance state (HRS), the rupture of the silicon dangling bond pathway is attributed to the partial passivation of Si dangling bonds by H + and O 2- . Both LRS and HRS transmissions obey the hopping conduction model. The proposed oxygen plasma treatment, introduced to generate a high density of Si dangling bonds in the SiN x O y :H films, provides a new approach to forming-free RRAM devices.

  8. Forming-free performance of a-SiN x :H-based resistive switching memory obtained by oxygen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jian; Yang, Huafeng; Sun, Yang; Tan, Dinwen; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kuiji; Feng, Duan

    2018-06-01

    An a-SiN x -based resistive random access memory (RRAM) device with a forming-free characteristic has significant potentials for the industrialization of the next-generation memories. We demonstrate that a forming-free a-SiN x O y RRAM device can be achieved by an oxygen plasma treatment of ultra-thin a-SiN x :H films. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy reveals that Si dangling bonds with a high density (1019 cm‑3) are distributed in the initial state, which exist in the forms of Si2N≡Si·, SiO2≡Si·, O3≡Si·, and N3≡Si·. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-dependent current analyses reveal that the silicon dangling bonds induced by the oxygen plasma treatment and external electric field contribute to the low resistance state (LRS). For the high resistance state (HRS), the rupture of the silicon dangling bond pathway is attributed to the partial passivation of Si dangling bonds by H+ and O2‑. Both LRS and HRS transmissions obey the hopping conduction model. The proposed oxygen plasma treatment, introduced to generate a high density of Si dangling bonds in the SiN x O y :H films, provides a new approach to forming-free RRAM devices.

  9. Latching micro optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  10. Early-switch/early-discharge opportunities for hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections: proof of concept in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    El Houfi, Ashraf; Javed, Nadeem; Solem, Caitlyn T; Macahilig, Cynthia; Stephens, Jennifer M; Raghubir, Nirvana; Chambers, Richard; Li, Jim Z; Haider, Seema

    2015-01-01

    To describe real-world treatment patterns and health care resource use and to estimate opportunities for early-switch (ES) from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) antibiotics and early-discharge (ED) for patients hospitalized in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) complicated skin and soft tissue infections. This retrospective observational medical chart review study enrolled physicians from four UAE sites to collect data for 24 patients with documented MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections, hospitalized between July 2010 and June 2011, and discharged alive by July 2011. Data include clinical characteristics and outcomes, hospital length of stay (LOS), MRSA-targeted IV and PO antibiotic use, and ES and ED eligibility using literature-based and expert-validated criteria. Five included patients (20.8%) were switched from IV to PO antibiotics while being inpatients. Actual length of MRSA-active treatment was 10.8±7.0 days, with 9.8±6.6 days of IV therapy. Patients were hospitalized for a mean 13.9±9.3 days. The most frequent initial MRSA-active therapies used were vancomycin (37.5%), linezolid (16.7%), and clindamycin (16.7%). Eight patients were discharged with MRSA-active antibiotics, with linezolid prescribed most frequently (n=3; 37.5%). Fifteen patients (62.5%) met ES criteria and potentially could have discontinued IV therapy 8.3±6.0 days sooner, and eight (33.3%) met ED criteria and potentially could have been discharged 10.9±5.8 days earlier. While approximately one-fifth of patients were switched from IV to PO antibiotics in the UAE, there were clear opportunities for further optimization of health care resource use. Over half of UAE patients hospitalized for MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections could be eligible for ES, with one-third eligible for ED opportunities, resulting in substantial potential for reductions in IV days and bed days.

  11. Nd2-xCexCuO4-y/Nd2-xCexOy boundary and resistive switchings in mesoscopic structures on base of epitaxial Nd1.86Ce0.14CuO4-у films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulina, N. A.; Rossolenko, A. N.; Ivanov, A. A.; Sirotkin, V. V.; Shmytko, I. M.; Borisenko, I. Yu.; Ionov, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Reverse and stable bipolar resistive switching effect (BRSE) was observed in planar Nd2-xCex CuO4-y/Nd2-xCexOx/Ag heterostructure. It was shown that the СVС of the BRSE observed has a diode character. Simulations were used to consider the influence of the nonuniform distribution of an electric field at the interface of a heterojunction on the effect of bipolar resistive switching in investigated structures. The inhomogeneous distribution of the electric field near the contact edge creates regions of higher electric field strength which, in turn, stimulates motion and redistribution of defects, changes of the resistive properties of the whole structure and formation of a percolation channel.

  12. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductivemore » switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.« less

  13. Interface Modification of Bernal- and Rhombohedral-Stacked Trilayer-Graphene/Metal Electrode on Resistive Switching of Silver Electrochemical Metallization Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jer-Chyi; Chan, Ya-Ting; Chen, Wei-Fan; Wu, Ming-Chung; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2017-10-25

    Bernal- and rhombohedral-stacked trilayer graphene (B- and r-TLG) on nickel (Ni) and iridium (Ir) films acting as bottom electrodes (BEs) of silver electrochemical metallization cells (Ag-EMCs) have been investigated in this study. Prior to the fabrication of the EMC devices, Raman mapping and atomic force microscopy are applied to identify the B- and r-TLG sheets, with the latter revealing a significant D peak and a rough surface for the Ir film. The Ag-EMCs with the stacked BE of r-TLG on the Ir film show a conductive mechanism of Schottky emission at the positive top electrode bias for both high- and low-resistance states that can be examined by the resistance change with the device area and are modulated by pulse bias operation. Thus, an effective electron barrier height of 0.262 eV at the r-TLG and Ir interface is obtained because of the conspicuous energy gap of r-TLG on the Ir film and the van der Waals (vdW) gap between the r-TLG and Ir contact metal. With the use of Ni instead of Ir contact metal, the Ag-EMCs with TLG BE demonstrate +0.3 V/-0.75 V operation voltages, more than 10 4 s data retention at 115 °C and 250 times endurance testing, making the TLG sheets suitable for low-power nonvolatile memory applications on flexible substrates.

  14. Remote switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  15. Heat Switches for ADRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  16. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  17. Apollo Ring Optical Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Maestas, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

  18. Scalable cross-point resistive switching memory and mechanism through an understanding of H2O2/glucose sensing using an IrOx/Al2O3/W structure.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Somsubhra; Maikap, Siddheswar; Samanta, Subhranu; Jana, Surajit; Roy, Anisha; Qiu, Jian-Tai

    2017-10-04

    The resistive switching characteristics of a scalable IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /W cross-point structure and its mechanism for pH/H 2 O 2 sensing along with glucose detection have been investigated for the first time. Porous IrO x and Ir 3+ /Ir 4+ oxidation states are observed via high-resolution transmission electron microscope, field-emission scanning electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The 20 nm-thick IrO x devices in sidewall contact show consecutive long dc cycles at a low current compliance (CC) of 10 μA, multi-level operation with CC varying from 10 μA to 100 μA, and long program/erase endurance of >10 9 cycles with 100 ns pulse width. IrO x with a thickness of 2 nm in the IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 /p-Si structure has shown super-Nernstian pH sensitivity of 115 mV per pH, and detection of H 2 O 2 over the range of 1-100 nM is also achieved owing to the porous and reduction-oxidation (redox) characteristics of the IrO x membrane, whereas a pure Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 membrane does not show H 2 O 2 sensing. A simulation based on Schottky, hopping, and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling conduction, and a redox reaction, is proposed. The experimental I-V curve matches very well with simulation. The resistive switching mechanism is owing to O 2- ion migration, and the redox reaction of Ir 3+ /Ir 4+ at the IrO x /Al 2 O 3 interface through H 2 O 2 sensing as well as Schottky barrier height modulation is responsible. Glucose at a low concentration of 10 pM is detected using a completely new process in the IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /W cross-point structure. Therefore, this cross-point memory shows a method for low cost, scalable, memory with low current, multi-level operation, which will be useful for future highly dense three-dimensional (3D) memory and as a bio-sensor for the future diagnosis of human diseases.

  19. An investigation into dispersion upon switching between solvents within a microfluidic system using a chemically resistant integrated optical refractive index sensor.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard M; Gates, James C; Wales, Dominic J; Smith, Peter G R; Grossel, Martin C

    2013-02-07

    A planar Bragg grating device has been developed that is capable of detecting changes in the refractive index of a wide range of fluids including solvents, acids and bases. The integration of this high precision refractive index sensor within a chemically resistant microfluidic flow system has enabled the investigation of diverse fluid interactions. By cycling between different solvents, both miscible and immiscible, within the microfluidic system it is shown that the previous solvent determines the nature of the refractive index profile across the transition in composition. This solvent dispersion effect is investigated with particular attention to the methanol-water transition, where transients in refractive index are observed that are an order of magnitude larger in amplitude than the difference between the bulk fluids. The potential complications of such phenomenon are discussed together with an example of a device that exploits this effect for the unambiguous composition measurement of a binary solvent system.

  20. Correlation between the transport mechanisms in conductive filaments inside Ta2O5-based resistive switching devices and in substoichiometric TaOx thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosário, Carlos M. M.; Thöner, Bo; Schönhals, Alexander; Menzel, Stephan; Wuttig, Matthias; Waser, Rainer; Sobolev, Nikolai A.; Wouters, Dirk J.

    2018-05-01

    Conductive filaments play a key role in redox-based resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices based on the valence change mechanism, where the change of the resistance is ascribed to the modulation of the oxygen content in a local region of these conductive filaments. However, a deep understanding of the filaments' composition and structure is still a matter of debate. We approached the problem by comparing the electronic transport, at temperatures from 300 K down to 2 K, in the filaments and in TaOx films exhibiting a substoichiometric oxygen content. The filaments were created in Ta (15 nm)/Ta2O5 (5 nm)/Pt crossbar ReRAM structures. In the TaOx thin films with various oxygen contents, the in-plane transport was studied. There is a close similarity between the electrical properties of the conductive filaments in the ReRAM devices and of the TaOx films with x ˜ 1, evidencing also no dimensionality difference for the electrical transport. More specifically, for both systems there are two different conduction processes: one in the higher temperature range (from 50 K up to ˜300 K), where the conductivity follows a √{ T } dependence, and one at lower temperatures (<50 K), where the conductivity follows the exp(-1 / √{ T } ) dependence. This suggests a strong similarity between the material composition and structure of the filaments and those of the substoichiometric TaOx films. We also discuss the temperature dependence of the conductivity in the framework of possible transport mechanisms, mainly of those normally observed for granular metals.

  1. REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, J.C.

    1959-02-01

    An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

  2. Switching antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Weiden, P J; Aquila, R; Dalheim, L; Standard, J M

    1997-01-01

    Compared with conventional antipsychotics, the so-called "atypical" antipsychotics promise improved side effect profiles and better control of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, most patients currently taking conventional antipsychotics could potentially benefit from a switch to an atypical antipsychotic. Often, the key issue in deciding whether to switch is the presence of countervailing factors that mitigate against the change. This paper discusses the indications and contraindications for switching antipsychotics, plus issues that require consideration before a switch is made. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of various switching techniques are discussed, with a particular focus on the newer antipsychotic olanzapine.

  3. Microscopic origin of read current noise in TaO{sub x}-based resistive switching memory by ultra-low temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yue; Cai, Yimao, E-mail: caiyimao@pku.edu.cn; Liu, Yefan

    TaO{sub x}-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) attracts considerable attention for the development of next generation nonvolatile memories. However, read current noise in RRAM is one of the critical concerns for storage application, and its microscopic origin is still under debate. In this work, the read current noise in TaO{sub x}-based RRAM was studied thoroughly. Based on a noise power spectral density analysis at room temperature and at ultra-low temperature of 25 K, discrete random telegraph noise (RTN) and continuous average current fluctuation (ACF) are identified and decoupled from the total read current noise in TaO{sub x} RRAM devices. A statisticalmore » comparison of noise amplitude further reveals that ACF depends strongly on the temperature, whereas RTN is independent of the temperature. Measurement results combined with conduction mechanism analysis show that RTN in TaO{sub x} RRAM devices arises from electron trapping/detrapping process in the hopping conduction, and ACF is originated from the thermal activation of conduction centers that form the percolation network. At last, a unified model in the framework of hopping conduction is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of both RTN and ACF noise, which can provide meaningful guidelines for designing noise-immune RRAM devices.« less

  4. Roles of grain boundary and oxygen vacancies in Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} films for resistive switching device application

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xiaobing, E-mail: xiaobing-yan@126.com, E-mail: mseyanx@nus.edu.sg; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117576; Li, Yucheng

    2016-01-18

    Oxygen vacancies are widely thought to be responsible for resistive switching (RS) effects based on polycrystalline oxides films. It is also well known that grain boundaries (GB) serve as reservoirs for accumulating oxygen vacancies. Here, Ar gas was introduced to enlarge the size of GB and increase the quantity of oxygen vacancies when the Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films were deposited by pulse laser deposition technique. The experimental results indicate that the RS properties of the device exhibits better in the Ar-introduced BST films than in the O{sub 2}-grown BST films. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show thatmore » an amorphous region GB with large size appears between two lattice planes corresponding to oxygen vacancies defects in the Ar-introduced BST. Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity spectroscopy results also reveal highly accumulated oxygen vacancies in the Ar-introduced BST films. And we propose that the conduction transport of the cell was dominantly contributed from not ions migration of oxygen vacancies but the electrons in our case according to the value of activation energies of two kinds of films.« less

  5. Mechanism of rectification and two-type bipolar resistance switching behaviors of Pt /Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 /Nb:SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. W.; Jia, C. H.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    Epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films have been grown on Nb:SrTiO3 (NSTO) (1 0 0) substrates. The films are a tetragonal perovskite phase with good density and homogeneity. Rectification behavior and two types of bipolar resistance switching (BRS) have been observed in the Pt/PZT/NSTO device. It exhibits rectification below 3 V. According to piezo force microscopy analysis, PZT film has a multidomain structure below 8 V and the device shows abnormal BRS between 3 V and 8 V. When the voltage increases above 8 V, the polarization of the PZT film tends to saturation and it becomes single domain and displays normal BRS behavior. In addition, the device demonstrates good retention and anti-fatigue properties. The transition from abnormal bipolar to normal bipolar behavior caused by ferroelectric polarization can broaden device applications and enable large flexibility in terms of memory architecture.

  6. An insight into the dopant selection for CeO2-based resistive-switching memory system: a DFT and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Fayyaz; Imran, Muhammad; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Khalil, R. M. Arif; Khera, Ejaz Ahmad; Kiran, Saira; Javid, M. Arshad; Sattar, M. Atif; Ismail, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to figure out better metal dopants for CeO2 for designing highly efficient non-volatile memory (NVM) devices. The present DFT work involves four different metals doped interstitially and substitutionally in CeO2 thin films. First principle calculations involve electron density of states (DOS) and partial density of states (PDOS), and isosurface charge densities are carried out within the plane-wave density functional theory using GGA and GGA + U approach by employing the Vienna ab initio simulation package VASP. Isosurface charge density plots confirmed that interstitial doping of Zr and Ti metals truly assists in generating conduction filaments (CFs), while substitutional doping of these metals cannot do so. Substitutional doping of W may contribute in generating CFs in CeO2 directly, but its interstitial doping improves conductivity of CeO2. However, Ni-dopant is capable of directly generating CFs both as substitutional and interstitial dopants in ceria. Such a capability of Ni appears acting as top electrode in Ni/CeO2/Pt memory devices, but its RS behavior is not so good. On inserting Zr layer to make Ni/Zr:CeO2/Pt memory stacks, Ni does not contribute in RS characteristics, but Zr plays a vital role in forming CFs by creating oxygen vacancies and forming ZrO2 interfacial layer. Therefore, Zr-doped devices exhibit high-resistance ratio of 104 and good endurance as compared to undoped devices suitable for RRAM applications.

  7. Radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Li, Qiang

    A radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch is described. A superconductor is closely coupled to a radio frequency (RF) coil. To turn the switch "off," i.e., to induce a transition to the normal, resistive state in the superconductor, a voltage burst is applied to the RF coil. This voltage burst is sufficient to induce a current in the coupled superconductor. The combination of the induced current with any other direct current flowing through the superconductor is sufficient to exceed the critical current of the superconductor at the operating temperature, inducing a transition to the normal, resistive state. A by-pass MOSFET maymore » be configured in parallel with the superconductor to act as a current shunt, allowing the voltage across the superconductor to drop below a certain value, at which time the superconductor undergoes a transition to the superconducting state and the switch is reset.« less

  8. Intermittent metabolic switching, neuroplasticity and brain health

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Moehl, Keelin; Ghena, Nathaniel; Schmaedick, Maggie; Cheng, Aiwu

    2018-01-01

    During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease. Here, we consider how intermittent metabolic switching, repeating cycles of a metabolic challenge that induces ketosis (fasting and/or exercise) followed by a recovery period (eating, resting and sleeping), may optimize brain function and resilience throughout the lifespan, with a focus on the neuronal circuits involved in cognition and mood. Such metabolic switching impacts multiple signalling pathways that promote neuroplasticity and resistance of the brain to injury and disease. PMID:29321682

  9. Improved Thermal-Switch Disks Protect Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Bragg, Bobby

    1990-01-01

    Improved thermal-switch disks help protect electrical batteries against high currents like those due to short circuits or high demands for power in circuits supplied by batteries. Protects batteries against excessive temperatures. Centered by insulating fiberglass washer. Contains conductive polymer that undergoes abrupt increase in electrical resistance when excessive current raises its temperature above specific point. After cooling, polymer reverts to low resistance. Disks reusable.

  10. An acoustic switch.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé

    2014-01-01

    The benefits derived from the development of acoustic transistors which act as switches or amplifiers have been reported in the literature. Here we propose a model of acoustic switch. We theoretically demonstrate that the device works: the input signal is totally restored at the output when the switch is on whereas the output signal nulls when the switch is off. The switch, on or off, depends on a secondary acoustic field capable to manipulate the main acoustic field. The model relies on the attenuation effect of many oscillating bubbles on the main travelling wave in the liquid, as well as on the capacity of the secondary acoustic wave to move the bubbles. This model evidences the concept of acoustic switch (transistor) with 100% efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Switching-type regulator circuit has increased efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Switching series regulator circuit uses an inductive network to feed most of the current applied to the control circuit to the load. This circuit eliminates resistive losses and the need for heat sinks.

  12. Non-volatile, solid state bistable electrical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A bistable switching element is made of a material whose electrical resistance reversibly decreases in response to intercalation by positive ions. Flow of positive ions between the bistable switching element and a positive ion source is controlled by means of an electrical potential applied across a thermal switching element. The material of the thermal switching element generates heat in response to electrical current flow therethrough, which in turn causes the material to undergo a thermal phase transition from a high electrical resistance state to a low electrical resistance state as the temperature increases above a predetermined value. Application of the electrical potential in one direction renders the thermal switching element conductive to pass electron current out of the ion source. This causes positive ions to flow from the source into the bistable switching element and intercalate the same to produce a non-volatile, low resistance logic state. Application of the electrical potential in the opposite direction causes reverse current flow which de-intercalates the bistable logic switching element and produces a high resistance logic state.

  13. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Oak Ridge, TN; Peng, Fang Z [Okemos, MI

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  14. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  15. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, Donald M.; Shires, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  16. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  17. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  18. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P.; Emin, David

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  19. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  20. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  1. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…

  2. Quantum cryptography without switching.

    PubMed

    Weedbrook, Christian; Lance, Andrew M; Bowen, Warwick P; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-10-22

    We propose a new coherent state quantum key distribution protocol that eliminates the need to randomly switch between measurement bases. This protocol provides significantly higher secret key rates with increased bandwidths than previous schemes that only make single quadrature measurements. It also offers the further advantage of simplicity compared to all previous protocols which, to date, have relied on switching.

  3. Power-Switching Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praver, Gerald A.; Theisinger, Peter C.; Genofsky, John

    1987-01-01

    Functions of circuit breakers, meters, and switches combined. Circuit that includes power field-effect transistors (PFET's) provides on/off switching, soft starting, current monitoring, current tripping, and protection against overcurrent for 30-Vdc power supply at normal load currents up to 2 A. Has no moving parts.

  4. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  5. Switching synchronization in one-dimensional memristive networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slipko, Valeriy A.; Shumovskyi, Mykola; Pershin, Yuriy V.

    2015-11-01

    We report on a switching synchronization phenomenon in one-dimensional memristive networks, which occurs when several memristive systems with different switching constants are switched from the high- to low-resistance state. Our numerical simulations show that such a collective behavior is especially pronounced when the applied voltage slightly exceeds the combined threshold voltage of memristive systems. Moreover, a finite increase in the network switching time is found compared to the average switching time of individual systems. An analytical model is presented to explain our observations. Using this model, we have derived asymptotic expressions for memory resistances at short and long times, which are in excellent agreement with results of our numerical simulations.

  6. Membrane Switches Check Seal Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgetts, P. J.; Stuckenberg, F. H.; Morrissey, E. T.

    1984-01-01

    Array of flexible membrane switches used to indicate closure of seal. Switch membrane responds to pressure exerted by rigid surface on compliant sealing medium and provides switch contacts monitored electronically. Membrane switches connected in series and placed under seal. When all switches are closed lamp or LED lights up, indicating requisite seal pressure has been realized at all switch positions. Principle used to ensure integrity of seals on refrigerator and oven doors, weatherstripping, hatches, spacecraft, airplanes, and submarines.

  7. Switch on the high thermal conductivity of graphene paper.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangsu; Yuan, Pengyu; Wang, Tianyu; Hashemi, Nastaran; Wang, Xinwei

    2016-10-14

    This work reports on the discovery of a high thermal conductivity (κ) switch-on phenomenon in high purity graphene paper (GP) when its temperature is reduced from room temperature down to 10 K. The κ after switch-on (1732 to 3013 W m -1 K -1 ) is 4-8 times that before switch-on. The triggering temperature is 245-260 K. The switch-on behavior is attributed to the thermal expansion mismatch between pure graphene flakes and impurity-embedded flakes. This is confirmed by the switch behavior of the temperature coefficient of resistance. Before switch-on, the interactions between pure graphene flakes and surrounding impurity-embedded flakes efficiently suppress phonon transport in GP. After switch-on, the structure separation frees the pure graphene flakes from the impurity-embedded neighbors, leading to a several-fold κ increase. The measured κ before and after switch-on is consistent with the literature reported κ values of supported and suspended graphene. By conducting comparison studies with pyrolytic graphite, graphene oxide paper and partly reduced graphene paper, the whole physical picture is illustrated clearly. The thermal expansion induced switch-on is feasible only for high purity GP materials. This finding points out a novel way to switch on/off the thermal conductivity of graphene paper based on substrate-phonon scattering.

  8. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  9. Photoconductive switch package

    DOEpatents

    Ca[rasp, George J

    2013-10-22

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  10. Sleep state switching.

    PubMed

    Saper, Clifford B; Fuller, Patrick M; Pedersen, Nigel P; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E

    2010-12-22

    We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep State Switching

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. PMID:21172606

  12. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  13. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  14. Cmos spdt switch for wlan applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, M. A. S.; Reaz, M. B. I.; Rahman, L. F.; Minhad, K. N.

    2015-04-01

    WLAN has become an essential part of our today's life. The advancement of CMOS technology let the researchers contribute low power, size and cost effective WLAN devices. This paper proposes a single pole double through transmit/receive (T/R) switch for WLAN applications in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. The proposed switch exhibit 1.36 dB insertion loss, 25.3 dB isolation and 24.3 dBm power handling capacity. Moreover, it only dissipates 786.7 nW power per cycle. The switch utilizes only transistor aspect ratio optimization and resistive body floating technique to achieve such desired performance. In this design the use of bulky inductor and capacitor is avoided to evade imposition of unwanted nonlinearities to the communication signal.

  15. Submicrosecond Power-Switching Test Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folk, Eric N.

    2006-01-01

    A circuit that changes an electrical load in a switching time shorter than 0.3 microsecond has been devised. This circuit can be used in testing the regulation characteristics of power-supply circuits . especially switching power-converter circuits that are supposed to be able to provide acceptably high degrees of regulation in response to rapid load transients. The combination of this power-switching circuit and a known passive constant load could be an attractive alternative to a typical commercially available load-bank circuit that can be made to operate in nominal constant-voltage, constant-current, and constant-resistance modes. The switching provided by a typical commercial load-bank circuit in the constant-resistance mode is not fast enough for testing of regulation in response to load transients. Moreover, some test engineers do not trust the test results obtained when using commercial load-bank circuits because the dynamic responses of those circuits are, variously, partly unknown and/or excessively complex. In contrast, the combination of this circuit and a passive constant load offers both rapid switching and known (or at least better known) load dynamics. The power-switching circuit (see figure) includes a signal-input section, a wide-hysteresis Schmitt trigger that prevents false triggering in the event of switch-contact bounce, a dual-bipolar-transistor power stage that drives the gate of a metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), and the MOSFET, which is the output device that performs the switching of the load. The MOSFET in the specific version of the circuit shown in the figure is rated to stand off a potential of 100 V in the "off" state and to pass a current of 20 A in the "on" state. The switching time of this circuit (the characteristic time of rise or fall of the potential at the drain of the MOSFET) is .300 ns. The circuit can accept any of three control inputs . which one depending on the test that one seeks to perform: a

  16. An optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-04-30

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

  17. Heteroclinic switching between chimeras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bick, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Functional oscillator networks, such as neuronal networks in the brain, exhibit switching between metastable states involving many oscillators. We give exact results how such global dynamics can arise in paradigmatic phase oscillator networks: Higher-order network interactions give rise to metastable chimeras—localized frequency synchrony patterns—which are joined by heteroclinic connections. Moreover, we illuminate the mechanisms that underly the switching dynamics in these experimentally accessible networks.

  18. A Superconducting Dual-Channel Photonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Manjappa, Manukumara; Cong, Longqing; Krishnamoorthy, Harish N S; Savinov, Vassili; Pitchappa, Prakash; Singh, Ranjan

    2018-06-05

    The mechanism of Cooper pair formation and its underlying physics has long occupied the investigation into high temperature (high-T c ) cuprate superconductors. One of the ways to unravel this is to observe the ultrafast response present in the charge carrier dynamics of a photoexcited specimen. This results in an interesting approach to exploit the dissipation-less dynamic features of superconductors to be utilized for designing high-performance active subwavelength photonic devices with extremely low-loss operation. Here, dual-channel, ultrafast, all-optical switching and modulation between the resistive and the superconducting quantum mechanical phase is experimentally demonstrated. The ultrafast phase switching is demonstrated via modulation of sharp Fano resonance of a high-T c yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconducting metamaterial device. Upon photoexcitation by femtosecond light pulses, the ultrasensitive cuprate superconductor undergoes dual dissociation-relaxation dynamics, with restoration of superconductivity within a cycle, and thereby establishes the existence of dual switching windows within a timescale of 80 ps. Pathways are explored to engineer the secondary dissociation channel which provides unprecedented control over the switching speed. Most importantly, the results envision new ways to accomplish low-loss, ultrafast, and ultrasensitive dual-channel switching applications that are inaccessible through conventional metallic and dielectric based metamaterials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. RF Reference Switch for Spaceflight Radiometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuble, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this technology is to provide improved calibration and measurement sensitivity to the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) radiometer. While RF switches have been used in the past to calibrate microwave radiometers, the switch used on SMAP employs several techniques uniquely tailored to the instrument requirements and passive remote-sensing in general to improve radiometer performance. Measurement error and sensitivity are improved by employing techniques to reduce thermal gradients within the device, reduce insertion loss during antenna observations, increase insertion loss temporal stability, and increase rejection of radar and RFI (radio-frequency interference) signals during calibration. The two legs of the single-pole double-throw reference switch employ three PIN diodes per leg in a parallel-shunt configuration to minimize insertion loss and increase stability while exceeding rejection requirements at 1,413 MHz. The high-speed packaged diodes are selected to minimize junction capacitance and resistance while ensuring the parallel devices have very similar I-V curves. Switch rejection is improved by adding high-impedance quarter-wave tapers before and after the diodes, along with replacing the ground via of one diode per leg with an open circuit stub. Errors due to thermal gradients in the switch are reduced by embedding the 50-ohm reference load within the switch, along with using a 0.25-in. (approximately equal to 0.6-cm) aluminum prebacked substrate. Previous spaceflight microwave radiometers did not embed the reference load and thermocouple directly within the calibration switch. In doing so, the SMAP switch reduces error caused by thermal gradients between the load and switch. Thermal issues are further reduced by moving the custom, highspeed regulated driver circuit to a physically separate PWB (printed wiring board). Regarding RF performance, previous spaceflight reference switches have not employed high-impedance tapers to improve

  20. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  1. A coaxial radial opening switch for a distributed-energy-store rail launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upshaw, J. L.; Zowarka, R. C.

    1984-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial testing results for a coaxial radial opening switch for a distributed-energy-store rail launcher are presented. In this nonarcing switch, the voltage needed to transfer current to the rail launcher is generated in a fixed resistor sized to absorb the energy required to accomplish the switching. The coaxial geometry consisting of concentric rings allowed flexibility in defining the conductive and resistive portions of the switch, and also provided tight coupling by minimizing the inductance of the current path between the charging path and the load path to minimize the energy absorption requirements. The resistive portion of the switch is composed of a series of stacked circular steel ring laminations. Switching is completed in three intervals through radial actuation. The switch parts were machined from ETP 110 electrical tough pitch copper plate, 2000 series aluminum plate, and close-tolerance standed GFR epoxy. Current may be transferred at levels less than 20 kA.

  2. Pulse power switch development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R.; Gallagher, H.; Hansen, S.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this study program has been to define an optimum technical approach to the longer range goal of achieving practical high repetition rate high power spark gap switches. Requirements and possible means of extending the state of the art of crossed field closing switches, vacuum spark gaps, and pressurized spark gaps are presented with emphasis on reliable, efficient and compact devices operable in burst mode at 250-300 kV, 40-60 kA, =1 kHz with approximately 50 nsec pulses rising in approximately 3 ns. Models of these devices are discussed which are based upon published and generated design data and on underlying physical principles. Based upon its relative advantages, limitations and tradeoffs we conclude that the Hughes Crossatron switch is the nearest term approach to reach the switch goal levels. Theoretical, experimental, and computer simulation models of the plasma show a collective ion acceleration mechanism to be active which is predicted to result in current rise times approaching 10 nsec. A preliminary design concept is presented. For faster rise times we have shown a vacuum surface flashover switch to be an interesting candidate. This device is limited by trigger instabilities and will require further basic development. The problem areas relevant to high pressure spark gaps are reviewed.

  3. Thermionic gas switch

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  4. Multiple switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Beyer, Edward T.

    1976-01-06

    The present invention relates to switches and switch actuating devices to be operated for purposes of arming a bomb or other missile as it is dropped or released from an aircraft. The particular bomb or missile in which this invention is applied is one in which there is a plurality of circuits which are to be armed by the closing of switches upon dropping or releasing of the bomb. The operation of the switches to closed position is normally accomplished by means of a pull-out wire; that is, a wire which is withdrawn from the bomb or missile at the time of release of the bomb, one end of the wire being attached to the aircraft. The conditions to be met are that the arming switches must be positively and surely maintained in open position until the bomb is released and the arming action is effected. The action of the pull-out wire in achieving the arming action must be sure and positive with minimum danger of malfunctioning, jamming or binding.

  5. Calibrating pressure switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, N. J. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A pressure switch assembly comprising a body portion and a switch mechanism having a contact element operable between opposite limit positions is described. A diaphragm chamber is provided in the body portion which mounts therein a system diaphragm and a calibration diaphragm which are of generally the same configuration and having outer faces conforming to the inner and outer walls of the diaphragm chamber. The space between the inner faces of the diaphragms defines a first chamber section and the space between the outer face of one of the diaphragms and the outer wall of the diaphragm chamber defines a second chamber section. The body portion includes a system pressure port communicating with one of the chamber sections and a calibration pressure port communicating with the other chamber section. An actuator connected to one of the diaphragms and the contact element of the switch operates upon pressure change in the diaphragm sections to move said contact element between limit positions.

  6. SWITCH user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

  7. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  8. Optical computer switching network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  9. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  10. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  11. Photoconductive switch package

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.

    2015-10-27

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the centralmore » portion to actuate the switch.« less

  12. Novel ZrO2 based ceramics stabilized by Fe2O3, SiO2 and Y2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rada, S.; Culea, E.; Rada, M.

    2018-03-01

    Samples in the 5Fe2O3·10SiO2·xY2O3·(85-x)ZrO2 composition where x = 5, 10 and 15 mol% Y2O3 were synthesized and investigated by XRD, SEM, density measurements, FTIR, UV-Vis, EPR and PL spectroscopies. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the presence of the tetragonal and cubic ZrO2 crystalline phases in all samples. The IR data show the overlaps of absorption bands assigned to Zrsbnd Osbnd Zr and Sisbnd Osbnd linkages in samples. UV-Vis and PL data indicate higher concentrations of intrinsic defects by doping with Y2O3 concentrations. The EPR spectra are characterized by two resonance lines situated at about g ∼ 4.3 and g ∼ 2 for lower Y2O3 contents.

  13. Influence of PCL on mechanical properties and bioactivity of ZrO2-based hybrid coatings synthesized by sol-gel dip coating technique.

    PubMed

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Veronesi, Paolo; Lamanna, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    The biological properties of medical implants can be enhanced through surface modifications such as to provide a firm attachment of the implant. In this study, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings have been synthesized via sol-gel dip coating. They consist of an inorganic ZrO2 matrix in which different amounts of poly(ε-caprolactone) have been entrapped to improve the mechanical properties of the films. The influence of the PCL amount on the microstructural, biological and mechanical properties of the coating has been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses have shown that the hybrids used for the coating are homogenous and totally amorphous materials; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has demonstrated that hydrogen bonds arise between the organic and inorganic phases. SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have highlighted the nanostructured nature of the film. SEM and EDS analyses, after soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF), have pointed out the apatite formation on the coating surface, which proves the bone-bonding ability of the nanocomposite bioactive films. Scratch and nano-indentation tests have shown that the coating hardness, stiffness and Young's modulus decrease in the presence of large amounts of the organic phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Thermionic gas switch

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, George L.; Brummond, William A.; Barrus, Donald M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature responsive thermionic gas switch having folded electron emitting surfaces. An ionizable gas is located between the emitter and an interior surface of a collector, coaxial with the emitter. In response to the temperature exceeding a predetermined level, sufficient electrons are derived from the emitter to cause the gas in the gap between the emitter and collector to become ionized, whereby a very large increase in current in the gap occurs. Due to the folded emitter surface area of the switch, increasing the "on/off" current ratio and adjusting the "on" current capacity is accomplished.

  15. Plasma Switch Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-08

    Appendix II), the progress to date will be detailed here. II° K -BEAM CONTROLLED SWITCH The EBCS is an opening switch concept that has the potential for...such plasma in ᝺ uis. To accurately assess the viability of this scheme, more effort than what was provided to date is required. 0 00 LL k CCj2 E - w...1962 e+A* -A +A (2) ... 2OOOz t~ -- whs A is, in enera, any positive molecular ion (simple or cluster ) of species A. We define the effective rate at

  16. SHOCKPROOF MAGNETIC REED SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Medal, E.

    1962-03-13

    A shockproof magnetic reed switch is described which comprises essentially a plurality of pairs of reed contacts of magnetic, electrical conducting material which are arranged generally in circumferential spaced relationship. At least two of the pairs are disposed to operate at a predetermined angle with respect to each other, and the contacts are wired in the circuit, so that the continuity, or discontinuity, of the circuit is not affected by a shock imposed on the switch. The contacts are hermetically sealed within an outer tubular jacket. (AEC)

  17. MEMS, Ka-Band Single-Pole Double-Throw (SPDT) Switch for Switched Line Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2002-01-01

    Ka-band MEMS doubly anchored cantilever beam capacitive shunt devices are used to demonstrate a MEMS SPDT switch fabricated on high resistivity silicon (HRS) utilizing finite ground coplanar waveguide (FGC) transmission lines. The SPDT switch has an insertion loss (IL), return loss (RL), and isolation of 0.3dB, 40dB, and 30 dB, respectively at Ka-band.

  18. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  20. Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  1. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  3. Vibration Control via Stiffness Switching of Magnetostrictive Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidler, Justin J.; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a computational study is presented of structural vibration control that is realized by switching a magnetostrictive transducer between high and low stiffness states. Switching is accomplished by either changing the applied magnetic field with a voltage excitation or changing the shunt impedance on the transducer's coil (i.e., the magnetostrictive material's magnetic boundary condition). Switched-stiffness vibration control is simulated using a lumped mass supported by a damper and the magnetostrictive transducer (mount), which is represented by a nonlinear, electromechanical model. Free vibration of the mass is calculated while varying the mount's stiffness according to a reference switched-stiffness vibration control law. The results reveal that switching the magnetic field produces the desired change in stiffness, but also an undesired actuation force that can significantly degrade the vibration control. Hence, a modified switched-stiffness control law that accounts for the actuation force is proposed and implemented for voltage-controlled stiffness switching. The influence of the magneto-mechanical bias condition is also discussed. Voltage-controlled stiffness switching is found to introduce damping equivalent to a viscous damping factor up to about 0.13; this is shown to primarily result from active vibration reduction caused by the actuation force. The merit of magnetostrictive switched-stiffness vibration control is then quantified by comparing the results of voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching to the performance of optimal magnetostrictive shunt damping. For the cases considered, optimal resistive shunt damping performed considerably better than both voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching.

  4. Electrical switching in Sb doped Al23Te77 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumlianmunga; Ramesh, K.

    2017-08-01

    Bulk glasses (Al23Te77)Sbx (0≤ x≤10) prepared by melt quenching method show a change in switching type from threshold to memory for x≥5. An increase in threshold current (Ith) and a concomitant decrease in threshold voltage (Vth) and resisitivity(ρ) have been observed with the increase of Sb content. Raman spectra of the switched region in memory switching compositions show a red shift with respect to the as prepared glasses whereas in threshold switching compositions no such shift is observed. The magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) of 27Al atom shows three different environments for Al ([4]Al, [5]Al and [6]Al). The samples annealed at their respective crystallization temperatures show rapid increase in [4]Al sites by annihilating [5]Al sites. The melts of threshold switching glasses (x≤2.5) quenched in water at room temperature (27 °C) show amorphous structure whereas, the melt of memory switching glasses (x>2.5) solidify into crystalline structure. The higher coordination of Al increases the cross-linking and rigidity. The addition of Sb increases the glass transition(Tg) and decreases the crystallization temperature(Tc). The decrease in the interval between the Tg and Tc eases the transition between the amorphous and crystalline states and improves the memory properties. The temperature rise at the time of switching can be as high as its melting temperature and the material in between the electrodes may melt to form a filament. The filament may consists of temporary (high resistive amorphous) and permanent (high conducting crystalline) units. The ratio between the temporary and the permanent units may decide the switching type. The filament is dominated by the permanent units in memory switching compositions and by the temporary units in threshold switching compositions. The present study suggests that both the threshold and memory switching can be understood by the thermal model and filament formation.

  5. Modular protein switches derived from antibody mimetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicholes, N; Date, A; Beaujean, P; Hauk, P; Kanwar, M; Ostermeier, M

    2016-02-01

    Protein switches have potential applications as biosensors and selective protein therapeutics. Protein switches built by fusion of proteins with the prerequisite input and output functions are currently developed using an ad hoc process. A modular switch platform in which existing switches could be readily adapted to respond to any ligand would be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of a modular protein switch platform based on fusions of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase (BLA) with two different antibody mimetic proteins: designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) and monobodies. We created libraries of random insertions of the gene encoding BLA into genes encoding a DARPin or a monobody designed to bind maltose-binding protein (MBP). From these libraries, we used a genetic selection system for β-lactamase activity to identify genes that conferred MBP-dependent ampicillin resistance to Escherichia coli. Some of these selected genes encoded switch proteins whose enzymatic activity increased up to 14-fold in the presence of MBP. We next introduced mutations into the antibody mimetic domain of these switches that were known to cause binding to different ligands. To different degrees, introduction of the mutations resulted in switches with the desired specificity, illustrating the potential modularity of these platforms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A.

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease ofmore » manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.« less

  7. An integrated circuit switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  8. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  9. Novel control system of the high-voltage IGBT-switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Mamontov, Y. I.; Gusev, A. I.; Pedos, M. S.

    2017-05-01

    HV solid-state switch control circuit was developed and tested. The switch was made with series connection IGBT-transistors. The distinctive feature of the circuit is an ability to fine-tune the switching time of every transistor. Simultaneous switching provides balancing of the dynamic voltage at all switch elements. A separate control board switches on and off every transistor. On and off signals from the main conductor are sent to the board by current pulses of different polarity. A positive pulse provides the transistor switch-on, while a negative pulse provides their switch-off. The time interval between pulses defines the time when the switch is turned on. The minimum time when the switch is turned on equals to a few microseconds, while the maximum time is not limited. This paper shows the test results of 4 kV switch prototype. The switch was used to produce rectangular pulses of a microsecond range under resistive load. The possibility to generate the damped harmonic oscillations was also tested. On the basis of this approach, positive testing results open up a possibility to design switches under an operating voltage of tens kilovolts.

  10. A mechanically driven switch for decoupling cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, M. T. G.; Tax, R.; Ten Kate, H. H. J.; van de Klundert, L. J. M.

    A superconductive magnet system solely cooled by thermal conduction and two Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers has been developed. One cooler is redundant to obtain reliable and serviceable operation. The magnet operates at a temperature of 12 K. In order to reduce the heat flux into the system when one cooler is out of service, two thermal switches were developed with the following features. In both cases, thermal contact is made by pressing two or more pieces of metal against each other. The first switch is a lathe-chuck type and consists of three metal pieces symmetrically arranged around a metal bar. They are simultaneously pushed in a radial direction thus making mechanical and thermal contact. The second is a bench-vise type. A metal bar is clamped between two metal jaws by means of the action of a screw driven by an external torque. In both cases, relatively fast switching is possible. The thermal resistance obtained in the on-state was better than 0.5 W/K, and in the off-state at least a factor of 1000 less. Thermal and mechanical cycling appeared to have no large influence on the switch performance.

  11. Repetitive switching for an electromagnetic rail gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruden, J. M.

    1983-12-01

    Previous testing on a repetitive opening switch for inductive energy storage has proved the feasibility of the rotary switch concept. The concept consists of a rotating copper disk (rotor) with a pie-shaped insulator section and brushes which slide along each of the rotor surfaces. While on top of the copper surface, the brushes and rotor conduct current allowing the energy storage inductor to charge. When the brushes slide onto the insulator section, the current cannot pass through the rotor and is diverted into the load. This study investigates two new brush designs and a rotor modification designed to improve the current commutating capabilities of the switch. One brush design (fringe fiber) employs carbon fibers on the leading and trailing edge of the brush to increase the resistive commutating action as the switch opens and closes. The other brush design uses fingers to conduct current to the rotor surface, effectively increasing the number of brush contact points. The rotor modification was the placement of tungsten inserts at the copper-insulator interfaces.

  12. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  13. Easily-wired toggle switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.

  14. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  15. Improved Electro-Optical Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bruce N.; Cooper, Ronald F.

    1994-01-01

    Improved single-pole, double-throw electro-optical switches operate in switching times less than microsecond developed for applications as optical communication systems and networks of optical sensors. Contain no moving parts. In comparison with some prior electro-optical switches, these are simpler and operate with smaller optical losses. Beam of light switched from one output path to other by applying, to electro-optical crystal, voltage causing polarization of beam of light to change from vertical to horizontal.

  16. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-01-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  17. High-power microstrip switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. D.

    1974-01-01

    Switch, which uses only two p-i-n diodes on microstrip substrate, has been developed for application in spacecraft radio systems. Switch features improved power drain, weight, volume, magnetic cleanliness, and reliability, over currently-used circulator and electromechanical switches.

  18. Organic Materials For Optical Switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    1993-01-01

    Equations predict properties of candidate materials. Report presents results of theoretical study of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials. Such materials used in optical switching devices for computers and telecommunications, replacing electronic switches. Optical switching potentially offers extremely high information throughout in compact hardware.

  19. Memristive switching of MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzysteczko, Patryk; Reiss, Günter; Thomas, Andy

    2009-09-01

    Here we demonstrate that both, tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and resistive switching (RS), can be observed simultaneously in nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions. The devices show bipolar RS of 6% and TMR ratios of about 100%. For each magnetic state, multiple resistive states are created depending on the bias history, which provides a method for multibit data storage and logic. The electronic transport measurements are discussed in the framework of a memristive system. Differently prepared MgO barriers are compared to gain insight into the switching mechanism.

  20. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.