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Sample records for zt-40m reversed field

  1. Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process. Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change (although problematic) shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years.

  2. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  3. Zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetya, E. B.; Utari; Purnama, B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discussed about zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal (TAMR). Appearance of reversal probability in zero field investigated through micromagnetic simulation by solving stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gibert (LLG). The perpendicularly anisotropy magnetic dot of 50×50×20 nm3 is considered as single cell magnetic storage of magnetic random acces memory (MRAM). Thermally assisted magnetization reversal was performed by cooling writing process from near/almost Curie point to room temperature on 20 times runs for different randomly magnetized state. The results show that the probability reversal under zero magnetic field decreased with the increase of the energy barrier. The zero-field probability switching of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T and the reversal probability become zero noted at energy barrier of 2348 k B T. The higest zero-field switching probability of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T which corespond to magnetif field of 150 Oe for switching.

  4. How the geomagnetic field vector reverses polarity

    Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Coe, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. Geomagnetic impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during geomagnetic reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Earth's magnetic field is probably not reversing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Maxwell; Korte, Monika; Holme, Richard; Wardinski, Ingo; Gunnarson, Sydney

    2018-05-15

    The geomagnetic field has been decaying at a rate of ∼5% per century from at least 1840, with indirect observations suggesting a decay since 1600 or even earlier. This has led to the assertion that the geomagnetic field may be undergoing a reversal or an excursion. We have derived a model of the geomagnetic field spanning 30-50 ka, constructed to study the behavior of the two most recent excursions: the Laschamp and Mono Lake, centered at 41 and 34 ka, respectively. Here, we show that neither excursion demonstrates field evolution similar to current changes in the geomagnetic field. At earlier times, centered at 49 and 46 ka, the field is comparable to today's field, with an intensity structure similar to today's South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA); however, neither of these SAA-like fields develop into an excursion or reversal. This suggests that the current weakened field will also recover without an extreme event such as an excursion or reversal. The SAA-like field structure at 46 ka appears to be coeval with published increases in geomagnetically modulated beryllium and chlorine nuclide production, despite the global dipole field not weakening significantly in our model during this time. This agreement suggests a greater complexity in the relationship between cosmogenic nuclide production and the geomagnetic field than is commonly assumed.

  6. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  7. Dynamical similarity of geomagnetic field reversals.

    PubMed

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre; Courtillot, Vincent; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2012-10-04

    No consensus has been reached so far on the properties of the geomagnetic field during reversals or on the main features that might reveal its dynamics. A main characteristic of the reversing field is a large decrease in the axial dipole and the dominant role of non-dipole components. Other features strongly depend on whether they are derived from sedimentary or volcanic records. Only thermal remanent magnetization of lava flows can capture faithful records of a rapidly varying non-dipole field, but, because of episodic volcanic activity, sequences of overlying flows yield incomplete records. Here we show that the ten most detailed volcanic records of reversals can be matched in a very satisfactory way, under the assumption of a common duration, revealing common dynamical characteristics. We infer that the reversal process has remained unchanged, with the same time constants and durations, at least since 180 million years ago. We propose that the reversing field is characterized by three successive phases: a precursory event, a 180° polarity switch and a rebound. The first and third phases reflect the emergence of the non-dipole field with large-amplitude secular variation. They are rarely both recorded at the same site owing to the rapidly changing field geometry and last for less than 2,500 years. The actual transit between the two polarities does not last longer than 1,000 years and might therefore result from mechanisms other than those governing normal secular variation. Such changes are too brief to be accurately recorded by most sediments.

  8. Domino model for geomagnetic field reversals.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Schmitt, D; Wicht, J; Ferriz-Mas, A; Mouri, H; Nakamichi, A; Morikawa, M

    2013-01-01

    We solve the equations of motion of a one-dimensional planar Heisenberg (or Vaks-Larkin) model consisting of a system of interacting macrospins aligned along a ring. Each spin has unit length and is described by its angle with respect to the rotational axis. The orientation of the spins can vary in time due to spin-spin interaction and random forcing. We statistically describe the behavior of the sum of all spins for different parameters. The term "domino model" in the title refers to the interaction among the spins. We compare the model results with geomagnetic field reversals and dynamo simulations and find strikingly similar behavior. The aggregate of all spins keeps the same direction for a long time and, once in a while, begins flipping to change the orientation by almost 180 degrees (mimicking a geomagnetic reversal) or to move back to the original direction (mimicking an excursion). Most of the time the spins are aligned or antialigned and deviate only slightly with respect to the rotational axis (mimicking the secular variation of the geomagnetic pole with respect to the geographic pole). Reversals are fast compared to the times in between and they occur at random times, both in the model and in the case of the Earth's magnetic field.

  9. Confinement of translated field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Armstrong, W. T.; Chrien, R. E.; Klingner, P. L.; McKenna, K. F.; Rej, D. J.; Sherwood, E. G.; Siemon, R. E.

    1986-03-01

    The confinement properties of translating field-reversed configurations (FRC) in the FRX-C/T device [Phys. Fluids 29, (1986)] are analyzed and compared to previous data without translation and to available theory. Translation dynamics do not appear to appreciably modify the FRC confinement. Some empirical scaling laws with respect to various plasma parameters are extracted from the data. These are qualitatively similar to those obtained in the TRX-1 device [Phys. Fluids 28, 888 (1985)] without translation and with a different formation method. Translation with a static gas fill offers new opportunities such as improved particle confinement or refueling of the FRC particle inventory.

  10. Atmospheric helium and geomagnetic field reversals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.; Kern, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of the earth's helium budget is examined in the light of recent work on the interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetic planets. It is proposed that the dominant mode of helium (He4) loss is ion pumping by the solar wind during geomagnetic field reversals, when the earth's magnetic field is very small. The interaction of the solar wind with the earth's upper atmosphere during such a period is found to involve the formation of a bow shock. The penetration altitude of the shock-heated solar plasma is calculated to be about 700 km, and ionization rates above this level are estimated for a cascade ionization (electron avalanche) process to average 10 to the 9th power ions/sq cm/sec. The calculated ionization rates and the capacity of the solar wind to remove ionized helium (He4) from the upper atmosphere during geomagnetic dipole reversals are sufficient to yield a secular equilibrium over geologic time scales. The upward transport of helium from the lower atmosphere under these conditions is found to be adequate to sustain the proposed loss rate.

  11. Coupled transport in field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Berk, H. L.; TAE Team

    2018-02-01

    Coupled transport is the close interconnection between the cross-field and parallel fluxes in different regions due to topological changes in the magnetic field. This occurs because perpendicular transport is necessary for particles or energy to leave closed field-line regions, while parallel transport strongly affects evolution of open field-line regions. In most toroidal confinement systems, the periphery, namely, the portion with open magnetic surfaces, is small in thickness and volume compared to the core plasma, the portion with closed surfaces. In field-reversed configurations (FRCs), the periphery plays an outsized role in overall confinement. This effect is addressed by an FRC-relevant model of coupled particle transport that is well suited for immediate interpretation of experiments. The focus here is particle confinement rather than energy confinement since the two track together in FRCs. The interpretive tool yields both the particle transport rate χn and the end-loss time τǁ. The results indicate that particle confinement depends on both χn across magnetic surfaces throughout the plasma and τǁ along open surfaces and that they provide roughly equal transport barriers, inhibiting particle loss. The interpretation of traditional FRCs shows Bohm-like χn and inertial (free-streaming) τǁ. However, in recent advanced beam-driven FRC experiments, χn approaches the classical rate and τǁ is comparable to classic empty-loss-cone mirrors.

  12. Magnetic flux trapping during field reversal in the formation of a field-reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    1985-11-01

    The flow of plasma and magnetic flux toward a wall is examined in a slab geometry where the magnetic field is parallel to the wall. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with a quasisteady approximation is assumed that reduces the problem to three coupled ordinary differential equations. The calculated behavior shows that a thin current sheath is established at the wall in which a variety of phenomena appear, including significant resistive heating and rapid deceleration of the plasma flow. The sheath physics determines the speed at which flux and plasma flow toward the wall. The model has been applied to the field-reversal phase of a field-reversed theta pinch, during which the reduced magnetic field near the wall drives an outward flow of plasma and magnetic flux. The analysis leads to approximate expressions for the instantaneous flow speed, the loss of magnetic flux during the field reversal phase, the integrated heat flow to the wall, and the highest possible magnetic flux retained after reversal. Predictions from this model are compared with previous time-dependent MHD calculations and with experimental results from the TRX-1 [Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on the Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids, 27-29 October 1981 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 1982), p. 61] and TRX-2 [Proceedings of the 6th U.S. Symposium on Compact Toroid Research, 20-23 February, 1984 (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, 1984), p. 154] experiments.

  13. Hybrid reconstruction of field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, Loren; TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    Field-reversed configurations (FRC) are poorly represented by fluid-based models and require instead an ion-distribution function. Two such populations are needed since ``core'' ions are roughly restricted to the region inside the separatrix, whereas ``periphery'' ions can escape along open field lines. The Vlasov equation governs the distribution, the general solution to which is an arbitrary function of the constants of motion (Hamiltonian, canonical angular momentum). Only a small subset of such distributions are realistic in view of collisions, which smooth the distribution, and instabilities, which reorganize the field structure. Collisions and end loss are included if the distribution is a solution to the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation. Vlasov and FP solutions are nearly identical in weakly-collisional plasmas. Numerical construction of such equilibria requires solving both Ampere's law for the magnetic flux variable and the ponderous task of a full velocity-space integration at each point. The latter can be done analytically by expressing the distribution as the superposition of simple basis elements. This procedure allows rapid reconstruction of evolving equilibria based on limited diagnostic observables in FRC experiments.

  14. A high performance field-reversed configuration

    SciT

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Steinhauer, L. C.

    2015-05-15

    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRCs), high-beta, prolate compact toroids embedded in poloidal magnetic fields, face notable stability and confinement concerns. These can be ameliorated by various control techniques, such as introducing a significant fast ion population. Indeed, adding neutral beam injection into the FRC over the past half-decade has contributed to striking improvements in confinement and stability. Further, the addition of electrically biased plasma guns at the ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved stability. Together, these enabled the build-up of a well-confined and dominant fast-ion population. Under such conditions,more » highly reproducible, macroscopically stable hot FRCs (with total plasma temperature of ∼1 keV) with record lifetimes were achieved. These accomplishments point to the prospect of advanced, beam-driven FRCs as an intriguing path toward fusion reactors. This paper reviews key results and presents context for further interpretation.« less

  15. Magnetic field diffusion and dissipation in reversed-field plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, J. F.; Gladd, N. T.; Huba, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    A diffusion equation is derived which describes the evolution of a magnetic field in a plasma of arbitrary beta and resistivity. The equation is valid for a one-dimensional slab geometry, assumes the plasma remains in quasi-equilibrium throughout its evolution and does not include thermal transport. Scaling laws governing the rate of change of the magnetic energy, particle drift energy, and magnetic flux are calculated. It is found that the magnetic free energy can be substantially larger than the particle drift energy and can be an important energy reservoir in driving plasma instabilities (e.g., the lower-hybrid-drift instability). In addition, the effect of a spatially varying resistivity on the evolution of a reversed-field plasma is studied. The resistivity model used is based upon the anomalous transport properties associated with the nonlocal mode structure of the lower-hybrid-drift instability. The relevance of this research to laboratory plasmas (e.g., theta pinches, reversed-field theta pinches) and space plasmas (e.g., the earth's magnetotail) is discussed.

  16. Faraday Rotation: Effect of Magnetic Field Reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, ψ = RMλ2, due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution Δψ needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick & Blandford, Δψ is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.

  17. Dipole-quadrupole dynamics during magnetic field reversals

    SciT

    Gissinger, Christophe

    The shape and the dynamics of reversals of the magnetic field in a turbulent dynamo experiment are investigated. We report the evolution of the dipolar and the quadrupolar parts of the magnetic field in the VKS experiment, and show that the experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of a recent model of reversals: when the dipole reverses, part of the magnetic energy is transferred to the quadrupole, reversals begin with a slow decay of the dipole and are followed by a fast recovery, together with an overshoot of the dipole. Random reversals are observed at the borderlinemore » between stationary and oscillatory dynamos.« less

  18. Magnetic field evolution and reversals in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, C. L.; Price, D. J.; Pettitt, A. R.; Bate, M. R.; Tricco, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the evolution of galactic magnetic fields using 3D smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of galaxies with an imposed spiral potential. We consider the appearance of reversals of the field, and amplification of the field. We find that magnetic field reversals occur when the velocity jump across the spiral shock is above ≈20 km s-1, occurring where the velocity change is highest, typically at the inner Lindblad resonance in our models. Reversals also occur at corotation, where the direction of the velocity field reverses in the corotating frame of a spiral arm. They occur earlier with a stronger amplitude spiral potential, and later or not at all with weaker or no spiral arms. The presence of a reversal at radii of around 4-6 kpc in our fiducial model is consistent with a reversal identified in the Milky Way, though we caution that alternative Galaxy models could give a similar reversal. We find that relatively high resolution, a few million particles in SPMHD, is required to produce consistent behaviour of the magnetic field. Amplification of the magnetic field occurs in the models, and while some may be genuinely attributable to differential rotation or spiral arms, some may be a numerical artefact. We check our results using ATHENA, finding reversals but less amplification of the field, suggesting that some of the amplification of the field with SPMHD is numerical.

  19. The topology of intrasector reversals of the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Crooker, N. U.; Gosling, J. T.

    1996-11-01

    A technique has been developed recently to determine the polarities of interplanetary magnetic fields relative to their origins at the Sun by comparing energetic electron flow directions with local magnetic field directions. Here we use heat flux electrons from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plasma detector on the ISEE 3 spacecraft to determine the field polarities. We examine periods within well-defined magnetic sectors when the field directions appear to be reversed from the normal spiral direction of the sector. About half of these intrasector field reversals (IFRs) are cases in which the polarities match those of the surrounding sectors, indicating that those fields have been folded back toward the Sun. The more interesting cases are those with polarity reversals. We find no clear cases of isolated reverse polarity fields, which suggests that islands of reverse polarity in the solar source dipole field probably do not exist. The IFRs with polarity reversals are strongly associated with periods of bidirectional electron flows, suggesting that those fields occur only in conjunction with closed fields. We propose that both those IFRs and the bidirectional flows are signatures of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In that case, many interplanetary CMEs are larger and more complex than previously thought, consisting of both open and closed field components.

  20. Reversal of radial glow distribution in helicon plasma induced by reversed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.; Niu, C.; Liu, Z. W.; Ouyang, J. T.; Chen, Q.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the reversal of radial glow distribution induced by reversed magnetic field is reported. Based on the Boswell antenna which is symmetric and insensitive to the magnetic field direction, it seems such a phenomenon in theory appears impossible. However, according to the diagnostic of the helicon waves by magnetic probe, it is found that the direction of magnetic field significantly affects the propagation characteristic of helicon waves, i.e., the interchange of the helicon waves at the upper and the lower half of tube was caused by reversing the direction of magnetic field. It is suggested that the variation of helicon wave against the direction of magnetic field causes the reversed radial glow distribution. The appearance of the traveling wave does not only improve the discharge strength, but also determines the transition of the discharge mode.

  1. Paleomagnetic Study of a Reversal of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J R; Fuller, M; Ito, H; Schmidt, V A

    1971-05-21

    A detailed record of a field reversal has been obtained from the natural remanent magnetization of the Tatoosh intrusion in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. The reversal took place at 14.7 +/- 1 million years and is interpreted to be from reverse to normal. A decrease in the intensity of the field of about an order of magnitude occurs immediately before the reversal, while its orientation remains substantially unchanged. The onset of the reversal is marked by abrupt swinging of the virtual geomagnetic pole along an arc of a great circle. During the reversal the pole traces a path across the Pacific. In the last stage of the process recorded in the sections, the succession of virtual geomagnetic poles is very similar to those generated by secular variation in the recent past. Although the cooling rate of the intrusion is not sufficiently well known to permit a useful calculation of the duration of the reversal process, an estimate based on the length of the supposed secular variation cycles gives 1 to 4 x 103 years for the reversal of field direction and approximately 1 x 104 years for the time scale of the intensity changes.

  2. A gaussian model for simulated geomagnetic field reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicht, Johannes; Meduri, Domenico G.

    2016-10-01

    Field reversals are the most spectacular events in the geomagnetic history but remain little understood. Here we explore the dipole behaviour in particularly long numerical dynamo simulations to reveal statistically significant conditions required for reversals and excursions to happen. We find that changes in the axial dipole moment behaviour are crucial while the equatorial dipole moment plays a negligible role. For small Rayleigh numbers, the axial dipole always remains strong and stable and obeys a clearly Gaussian probability distribution. Only when the Rayleigh number is increased sufficiently the axial dipole can reverse and its distribution becomes decisively non-Gaussian. Increased likelihoods around zero indicate a pronounced lingering in a new low dipole moment state. Reversals and excursions can only happen when axial dipole fluctuations are large enough to drive the system from the high dipole moment state assumed during stable polarity epochs into the low dipole moment state. Since it is just a matter of chance which polarity is amplified during dipole recovery, reversals and grand excursions, i.e. excursions during which the dipole assumes reverse polarity, are equally likely. While the overall reversal behaviour seems Earth-like, a closer comparison to palaeomagnetic findings suggests that the simulated events last too long and that grand excursions are too rare. For a particularly large Ekman number we find a second but less Earth-like type of reversals where the total field decays and recovers after a certain time.

  3. Coronal Polarization of Pseudostreamers and the Solar Polar Field Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Guennou, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The reversal of the solar polar magnetic field is notoriously hard to pin down due to the extreme viewing angle of the pole. In Cycle 24, the southern polar field reversal can be pinpointed with high accuracy due to a large-scale pseudostreamer that formed over the pole and persisted for approximately a year. We tracked the size and shape of this structure with multiple observations and analysis techniques including PROBA2/SWAP EUV images, AIA EUV images, CoMP polarization data, and 3D tomographic reconstructions. We find that the heliospheric field reversed polarity in February 2014, whereas in the photosphere, the last vestiges of the previous polar field polarity remained until March 2015. We present here the evolution of the structure and describe its identification in the Fe XII 1074nm coronal emission line, sensitive to the Hanle effect in the corona.

  4. Field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemon, R. E.; Chrien, R. E.; Hugrass, W. N.; Okada, S.; Rej, D. J.; Taggart, D. P.; Tuszewski, M.; Webster, R. B.; Wright, B. L.; Slough, J. T.

    FRCs with equilibrium separatrix radii up to 0.18 m have been formed and studied in FRX-C/LSM. For best formation conditions at low fill pressure, the particle confinement exceeds the predictions of LHD transport calculations by up to a factor of two; however, the inferred flux confinement is more anomalous than in smaller FRCs. Higher bias field produces axial shocks and degradation in confinement, while higher fill pressure results in gross fluting during formation. FRCs have been formed in TRX with s from 2 to 6. These relatively collisional FRCs exhibit flux lifetimes of 10 yields 20 kinetic growth times for the internal tilt mode. The coaxial slow source has produced annular FRCs in a coaxial coil geometry on slow time scales using low voltages.

  5. A study on dynamic heat assisted magnetization reversal mechanisms under insufficient reversal field conditions

    SciT

    Chen, Y. J.; Yang, H. Z.; Leong, S. H.

    2014-10-20

    We report an experimental study on the dynamic thermomagnetic (TM) reversal mechanisms at around Curie temperature (Tc) for isolated 60 nm pitch single-domain [Co/Pd] islands heated by a 1.5 μm spot size laser pulse under an applied magnetic reversal field (Hr). Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) observations with high resolution MFM tips clearly showed randomly trapped non-switched islands within the laser irradiated spot after dynamic TM reversal process with insufficient Hr strength. This observation provides direct experimental evidence by MFM of a large magnetization switching variation due to increased thermal fluctuation/agitation over magnetization energy at the elevated temperature of around Tc. The averagemore » percentage of non-switched islands/magnetization was further found to be inversely proportional to the applied reversal field Hr for incomplete magnetization reversal when Hr is less than 13% of the island coercivity (Hc), showing an increased switching field distribution (SFD) at elevated temperature of around Tc (where main contributions to SFD broadening are from Tc distribution and stronger thermal fluctuations). Our experimental study and results provide better understanding and insight on practical heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) process and recording performance, including HAMR writing magnetization dynamics induced SFD as well as associated DC saturation noise that limits areal density, as were previously observed and investigated by theoretical simulations.« less

  6. Findings suggest possible link between geomagnetic reversals and field intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    For the past 2000 years the Earth's magnetic field has been weakening. At the going rate of decay, the field's dipole—generated within the convecting metallic fluid of the outer core—would totally vanish, perhaps passing through zero and reversing polarity, in the coming millennia. This scenario of a coming attempt by Earth's dynamo to reverse its polarity is suggested by direct observation of the field since the 19th century and laboratory investigation of historic lavas and other fired materials that record the ambient field while cooling.The ongoing weakening of the field does not insure that a reversal will occur. After all, the north-south axial dipole changes to the opposite direction only on occasion; it currently reverses a few times each million years. How the dynamo actually approaches an attempted change of polarity and, moreover, the degree to which such a process can be predicted, are unclear. Nonetheless, a major step toward such an understanding may have been made through recently reported paleomagnetic findings obtained from the long, quasi-continuous records derived from Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) marine sediment cores.

  7. Lower hybrid accessibility in a large, hot reversed field pinch

    SciT

    Dziubek, R.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Hokin, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    Accessibility and damping of the slow wave in a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma is investigated theoretically, using projected Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) plasma parameters. By numerically solving the hot plasma dispersion relation, regions of propagation are found and the possibility of mode conversion is analyzed. If the parallel index of refraction of the wave is chosen judiciously at the edge of the plasma, the slow wave is accessible to a target region located just inside the reversal surface without mode conversion. Landau damping is also optimized in this region. A representative fast electron population is then added in ordermore » to determine its effect on accessibility and damping. The presence of these electrons, whose parameters were estimated by extrapolation of Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) data, does not affect the accessibility of the wave. However, the initial phase velocity of the wave needs to be increased somewhat in order to maintain optimal damping in the target zone.« less

  8. Midlatitude cooling caused by geomagnetic field minimum during polarity reversal.

    PubMed

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-22

    The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR-cloud connection suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two geomagnetic polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to <40% of its present value, for which we estimate >40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that geomagnetic field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux.

  9. Spurious behavior in volcanic records of geomagnetic field reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlut, Julie; Vella, Jerome; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Soler, Vicente; Legoff, Maxime

    2016-04-01

    Very large directional variations of magnetization have been reported in several lava flows recording a geomagnetic reversal. Such behavior could reflect real geomagnetic changes or be caused by artifacts due to post-emplacement alteration and/or non-ideal magnetic behavior. More recently, a high resolution paleomagnetic record from sediments pleads also for an extremely rapid reversal process during the last reversal. Assuming that the geomagnetic field would have moved by tens of degrees during cooling of moderate thickness lava flows implies brief episodes of rapid changes by a few degrees per day that are difficult to reconcile with the rate of liquid motions at the core surface. Systematical mineralogical bias is a most likely explanation to promote such behavior as recently reconsidered by Coe et al., 2014 for the rapid field changes recorded at Steens Mountain. We resampled three lava flows at La Palma island (Canarias) that are sandwiched between reverse polarity and normal polarity flows associated with the last reversal. The results show an evolution of the magnetization direction from top to bottom. Thermal demagnetization experiments were conducted using different heating and cooling rates. Similarly, continuous demagnetization and measurements. In both cases, we did not notice any remagnetization associated with mineralogical transformations during the experiments. Magnetic grain sizes do not show any correlation with the amplitude of the deviations. Microscopic observations indicate poor exsolution, which could suggests post-cooling thermochemical remagnetization processes.

  10. Multi-Fluid Simulations of Field Reversed Configuration Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Eder; Martin, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The use of field reversed configuration (FRC) have been studied extensively for fusion application but here we investigate them for propulsion purposes. FRCs have the potential to produce highly variable thrust and specific impulse using different gases as propellant. Aspects of the FRC formation physics, using a rotating magnetic field (RMF) at low power, are simulated using a multi-fluid plasma model. Results are compared with experimental observations with emphasis in the development of instabilities and robustness of the field reversal. The use of collisional radiative models are used to help compare experiment versus simulation results. Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; Clearance No. 17445. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant Number 17RQCOR465.

  11. NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS ON REVERSED FIELD HEATING IN THE THETATRON

    SciT

    Niblett, G.B.F.; Fisher, D.L.

    1962-03-01

    Numerical solutions of the two-fluid hydromagnetic equations designed to study the effect of trapped magnetic fields on the properties of a plasma compressed in the theta are discussed. Conditions typical of the AWRE Maggi condenser banks were selected: deuterium at an initial pressure of lOO mu contained in a tube 4 cm in diameter is compressed by a field rising to 100 kilogauss in 2.5 mu sec. Initial bias fields of between +5 and --5 kilogauss were used, and the effects of preheat and rate of compression were assessed. The calculations showed that rapid joule heating is niaintained by themore » large field gradients characteristic of reversed field discharges, and for an initial bias field of --5 kg a peak electron temperature of 1.3 kev was predicted. (auth)« less

  12. Rotational stability of a long field-reversed configuration

    SciT

    Barnes, D. C., E-mail: coronadocon@msn.com; Steinhauer, L. C.

    2014-02-15

    Rotationally driven modes of long systems with dominantly axial magnetic field are considered. We apply the incompressible model and order axial wavenumber small. A recently developed gyro-viscous model is incorporated. A one-dimensional equilibrium is assumed, but radial profiles are arbitrary. The dominant toroidal (azimuthal) mode numbers ℓ=1 and ℓ=2 modes are examined for a variety of non-reversed (B) and reversed profiles. Previous results for both systems with rigid rotor equilibria are reproduced. New results are obtained by incorporation of finite axial wavenumber and by relaxing the assumption of rigid electron and ion rotation. It is shown that the frequently troublesomemore » ℓ=2 field reversed configuration (FRC) mode is not strongly affected by ion kinetic effects (in contrast to non-reversed cases) and is likely stabilized experimentally only by finite length effects. It is also shown that the ℓ=1 wobble mode has a complicated behavior and is affected by a variety of configuration and profile effects. The rotationally driven ℓ=1 wobble is completely stabilized by strong rotational shear, which is anticipated to be active in high performance FRC experiments. Thus, observed wobble modes in these systems are likely not driven by rotation alone.« less

  13. High Fidelity Modeling of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    space propulsion . This effort consists of numerical model development, physical model development, and systematic studies of the non-linear plasma...studies of the physical characteristics of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma for advanced space propulsion . This effort consists of numerical...FRCs for propulsion application. Two of the most advanced designs are based on the theta-pinch formation and the RMF formation mechanism, which

  14. A plasma model for reversed field pinch circuit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, J. W.

    1981-03-01

    A plasma model has been developed for use in the design of circuits for reversed field pinch experiments. The magnetic field is assumed to evolve through a given series of relaxed states with the plasma resistivity specified as a function of time. At any instant the magnetic field configuration is determined by the field energy and the toroidal flux. If the Bessel function model is chosen as the relaxed state then the magnetic helicity can be used as an alternative to the magnetic energy without altering the results. Simulations of discharges on ZETA and ETA BETA II are presented. By suitable choices of the relaxed field configuration and plasma resistivity it is possible to obtain close agreement with the experimental waveforms. Application to the proposed RFX device is discussed.

  15. Model for the loop voltage of reversed field pinches

    SciT

    Jarboe, T.R.; Alper, B.

    1987-04-01

    A simple model is presented that uses the concept of helicity balance to predict the toroidal loop voltage of reversed field pinches (RFP's). Data from the RFP's at Culham (Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 1307 (1985)) are used to calibrate and verify the model. The model indicates that most of the helicity dissipation occurs in edge regions that are outside the limiters or in regions where field lines contact the walls. The value of this new interpretation to future RFP and spheromak experiments is discussed.

  16. Magnetic field reversals, polar wander, and core-mantle coupling.

    PubMed

    Courtillot, V; Besse, J

    1987-09-04

    True polar wander, the shifting of the entire mantle relative to the earth's spin axis, has been reanalyzed. Over the last 200 million years, true polar wander has been fast (approximately 5 centimeters per year) most of the time, except for a remarkable standstill from 170 to 110 million years ago. This standstill correlates with a decrease in the reversal frequency of the geomagnetic field and episodes of continental breakup. Conversely, true polar wander is high when reversal frequency increases. It is proposed that intermittent convection modulates the thickness of a thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and consequently the core-to-mantle heat flux. Emission of hot thermals from the boundary layer leads to increases in mantle convection and true polar wander. In conjunction, cold thermals released from a boundary layer at the top of the liquid core eventually lead to reversals. Changes in the locations of subduction zones may also affect true polar wander. Exceptional volcanism and mass extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary and Permo-Triassic boundaries may be related to thermals released after two unusually long periods with no magnetic reversals. These environmental catastrophes may therefore be a consequence of thermal and chemical couplings in the earth's multilayer heat engine rather than have an extraterrestrial cause.

  17. Numerical characterization of plasma breakdown in reversed field pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yanli; Zhang, Ya; Mao, Wenzhe; Yang, Zhoujun; Hu, Xiwei; Jiang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    In the reversed field pinch, there is considerable interest in investigating the plasma breakdown. Indeed, the plasma formed during the breakdown may have an influence on the confinement and maintenance in the latter process. However, up to now there has been no related work, experimentally or in simulation, regarding plasma breakdown in reversed field pinch (RFP). In order to figure out the physical mechanism behind plasma breakdown, the effects of the toroidal and error magnetic field, as well as the loop voltage have been studied. We find that the error magnetic field cannot be neglected even though it is quite small in the short plasma breakdown phase. As the toroidal magnetic field increases, the averaged electron energy is reduced after plasma breakdown is complete, which is disadvantageous for the latter process. In addition, unlike the voltage limits in the tokamak, loop voltages can be quite high because there are no requirements for superconductivity. Volt-second consumption has a small difference under different loop voltages. The breakdown delay still exists in various loop voltage cases, but it is much shorter compared to that in the tokamak case. In all, successful breakdowns are possible in the RFP under a fairly broad range of parameters.

  18. Midlatitude cooling caused by geomagnetic field minimum during polarity reversal

    PubMed Central

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L.; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR–cloud connection suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two geomagnetic polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama–Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to <40% of its present value, for which we estimate >40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that geomagnetic field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux. PMID:23297205

  19. Gyrokinetic particle simulation of a field reversed configuration

    SciT

    Fulton, D. P., E-mail: dfulton@uci.edu; Lau, C. K.; Holod, I.

    2016-01-15

    Gyrokinetic particle simulation of the field-reversed configuration (FRC) has been developed using the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is mapped from cylindrical coordinates to Boozer coordinates for the FRC core and scrape-off layer (SOL), respectively. A field-aligned mesh is constructed for solving self-consistent electric fields using a semi-spectral solver in a partial torus FRC geometry. This new simulation capability has been successfully verified and driftwave instability in the FRC has been studied using the gyrokinetic simulation for the first time. Initial GTC simulations find that in the FRC core, the ion-scale driftwave is stabilized by the large ionmore » gyroradius. In the SOL, the driftwave is unstable on both ion and electron scales.« less

  20. The moving-ring field-reversed mirror prototype reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. C., Jr.; Carlson, G. A.; Fleischmann, H. H.; Grossman, W., Jr.; Kammash, T.; Schultz, K. R.; Woodall, D. M.

    1981-03-01

    A prototype fusion reactor was designed based on magnetic field reversed plasma confinement. A set of physics, technology, and mechanical design criteria were developed in order to make this concept attractive. Six major criteria guide the commercial prototype design. The prototype must: (1) produce net electricity decisively P sub net 70% of P sub gross; (2) scale to an economical commercial plant and have small physical size; (3) have all features required of a correcial upgrade plant (H-3 breeding, etc.); (4) minimize exotic technology and maintenance complexity; (5) promise significantly lower safety hazards than fission plants (environmentally and socially acceptable); and (6) be modular in design to permit repetitive production of components.

  1. Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-04-01

    The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.

  2. Coherent structures and anomalous transport in reversed field pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoni, V.; Drake, J. R.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Bergsåker, H.; Cavazzana, R.; Cecconello, M.; Martines, E.; Serianni, G.

    2006-02-01

    The results leading to the identification of coherent structures emerging from the background turbulence in the edge region of the reversed field pinch experiments EXTRAP-T2R and RFX are reviewed. These structures have traits of vortices in velocity field and blobs in density, and the reconstruction of their spatial structure and of their time evolution is discussed focusing on the analysis tools applied. The role of these structures in the particle anomalous transport is addressed, showing that their collisions can contribute up to 50% the total particle losses.This process is shown to be responsible for bursts in particle flux and it is found to set a characteristic collision time, which is in agreement with the statistical properties of laminar times for particle flux bursts.

  3. Relaxation models for single helical reversed field pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a relaxation theory for plasmas where a single dominant mode is present [Bhattacharjee et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 347 (1980)], is revisited. The solutions of a related eigenvalue problem are numerically calculated and discussed. Although these solutions can reproduce well, the magnetic fields measured in experiments, there is no way within the theory to determine the dominant mode, whose pitch is a free parameter in the model. To find the preferred helical perturbation, a procedure is proposed that minimizes the "distance" of the relaxed state from a state which is constructed as a two region generalization of the Taylor's relaxation model [Taylor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1139 (1974); Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 751 (1986)] and that allows current discontinuities. It is found that this comparison is able to predict the observed scaling with the aspect ratio and reversal parameter for the dominant mode in the Single Helical states. The aspect ratio scaling alone is discussed in a previous paper [Paccagnella, Nucl. Fusion 56, 046010 (2016)] in terms of the efficient response of a toroidal shell to specific modes (leaving a sign undetermined), showing that the ideal wall boundary condition, a key ingredient in relaxation theories, is particularly well matched for them. Therefore, the present paper altogether [Paccagnella, Nucl. Fusion 56, 046010 (2016)] can give a new and satisfactory explanation of some robust and reproducible experimental facts observed in the Single Helical Reversed Field Pinch plasmas and never explained before.

  4. Effects of head field and AC field on magnetization reversal for microwave assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, Aina; Akagi, Fumiko; Yoshida, Kazuetsu

    2018-05-01

    Microwave assisted magnetic recording (MAMR) is a promising recording method for achieving high recording densities in hard disk drives. In MAMR, the AC field from a spin-torque oscillator (STO) assists the head field with magnetization reversal in a medium. Therefore, the relationship between the head field and the AC field is very important. In this study, the effects of the head field and the AC field on magnetization reversal were analyzed using a micromagnetic simulator that takes the magnetic interactions between a single-pole type (SPT) write-head, an exchange coupled composite (ECC) medium, and the STO into account. As a result, the magnetization reversal was assisted not just by the y-component of the AC field (Hstoy) but also by the y-component of the head field (Hhy) in the medium. The Hhy over 100 kA/m with a frequency of about 15.5 GHz induced the magnetic resonance. The large Hhy was produced by the field from the STO to the SPT head.

  5. Change of Paradigm for the Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escande, D. F.

    2010-11-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) is a magnetic configuration germane to the tokamak, but it produces most of its magnetic field by the currents flowing inside the plasma; external coils provide only a small edge toroidal field whose sign is reversed with respect to the central one, whence the name of the configuration. Because of the presence of magnetic turbulence and chaos, the RFP had been considered for a long period as a terrible confinement configuration. However, recently a change of paradigm occurred for this device. Indeed, when the toroidal current is increased in the RFX-mod RFP in Padua (Italy), a self-organized helical state with an internal transport barrier (ITB) develops, and a broad zone of the plasma becomes hot (above 1 keV for a magnetic field above 0.8 T). The present theoretical picture of the RFP mainly comes from three-dimensional nonlinear visco-resistive MHD simulations whose dynamics has strong similarities with the experimental one, and triggered the experimental search for RFP states with improved confinement. The RFP ohmic state involves a helical electrostatic potential generating, as an electric drift, the so-called dynamo velocity field. The magnetic topology can bifurcate from a magnetic island to kink-like magnetic surfaces with higher resilience to magnetic chaos. This theoretical scenario was found to be relevant when ITB's enclosing a broad hot domain were discovered. The ITBs occur in the vicinity of the maximum of the safety factor. The new paradigm for the RFP supports its reappraisal as a low-external field, non-disruptive, ohmically heated approach to magnetic fusion, exploiting both self-organization and technological simplicity. Furthermore the RFP has the same Greenwald density limit as the tokamak, and it is an excellent test bed for the efficient control of multiple resistive wall modes. Its helical magnetic structure makes it germane to the stellarator too. As a result the RFP is also useful to bring support to the

  6. Anomalous transport theory for the reversed field pinch

    SciT

    Terry, P.W.; Hegna, C.C; Sovinec, C.R.

    1996-09-01

    Physically motivated transport models with predictive capabilities and significance beyond the reversed field pinch (RFP) are presented. It is shown that the ambipolar constrained electron heat loss observed in MST can be quantitatively modeled by taking account of the clumping in parallel streaming electrons and the resultant self-consistent interaction with collective modes; that the discrete dynamo process is a relaxation oscillation whose dependence on the tearing instability and profile relaxation physics leads to amplitude and period scaling predictions consistent with experiment; that the Lundquist number scaling in relaxed plasmas driven by magnetic turbulence has a weak S{sup {minus}1/4} scaling; andmore » that radial E{times}B shear flow can lead to large reductions in the edge particle flux with little change in the heat flux, as observed in the RFP and tokamak. 24 refs.« less

  7. Ideal-Magnetohydrodynamic-Stable Tilting in Field-Reversed Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Ishida, Akio; Steinhauer, Loren

    1995-02-01

    The tilting mode in field-reversed configurations (FRC) is examined using ideal-magnetohydrodynamic stability theory. Tilting, a global mode, is the greatest threat for disruption of FRC confinement. Previous studies uniformly found tilting to be unstable in ideal theory: the objective here is to ascertain if stable equilibria were overlooked in past work. Solving the variational problem with the Rayleigh-Ritz technique, tilting-stable equilibria are found for sufficiently hollow current profile and sufficient racetrackness of the separatrix shape. Although these equilibria were not examined previously, the present conclusion is quite surprising. Consequently checks of the method are offered. Even so it cannot yet be claimed with complete certainty that stability has been proved: absolute confirmation of ideal-stable tilting awaits the application of more complete methods.

  8. Experimental study of the formation of field-reversed configurations employing high-order multipole fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slough, J. T.; Hoffman, A. L.

    1990-04-01

    A high-order multipole ``barrier'' field was applied at the vacuum tube wall in the TRX experiment [Phys. Fluids B 1, 840 (1989)] during both the preionization and field reversal phases of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation. Use of this field during field reversal resulted in a significant reduction of impurities as well as increased flux trapping. With a large enough Bθ at the wall, sheath detachment from the wall became apparent, and flux loss through the sheath became negligible (<10%). At larger wall Bθ (>1.5 kG), destructive rotational spin-up occurred, driven by Hall current forces. When the multipole barrier field was also applied during either axial discharge or ringing theta current preionization, a very symmetric and uniform breakdown of the fill gas was achieved. In particular, using ringing theta preionization, complete ionization of the fill gas was accomplished with purely inductive fields of remarkably low magnitude, where Ez≤3 V/cm, and Eθ≤20 V/cm. Due to the improved ionization symmetry, about 65% to 75% of the lift-off flux (flux remaining after field reversal) could be retained through the remaining formation processes into an equilibrium FRC. Using the multipole field during both preionization and formation, it was possible to form FRC's with good confinement with greater than 3 mWb of trapped flux at 15 mTorr D2 or H2 in a 10 cm radius device. Values of s in excess of 4 could be achieved in this manner.

  9. Gyrokinetic simulation of driftwave instability in field-reversed configuration

    SciT

    Fulton, D. P., E-mail: dfulton@trialphaenergy.com; University of California, Irvine, California 92697; Lau, C. K.

    2016-05-15

    Following the recent remarkable progress in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability control in the C-2U advanced beam driven field-reversed configuration (FRC), turbulent transport has become one of the foremost obstacles on the path towards an FRC-based fusion reactor. Significant effort has been made to expand kinetic simulation capabilities in FRC magnetic geometry. The recently upgraded Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) now accommodates realistic magnetic geometry from the C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. and is optimized to efficiently handle the FRC's magnetic field line orientation. Initial electrostatic GTC simulations find that ion-scale instabilities are linearly stable in the FRC core for realisticmore » pressure gradient drives. Estimated instability thresholds from linear GTC simulations are qualitatively consistent with critical gradients determined from experimental Doppler backscattering fluctuation data, which also find ion scale modes to be depressed in the FRC core. Beyond GTC, A New Code (ANC) has been developed to accurately resolve the magnetic field separatrix and address the interaction between the core and scrape-off layer regions, which ultimately determines global plasma confinement in the FRC. The current status of ANC and future development targets are discussed.« less

  10. Parallel heat transport in reversed shear magnetic field configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazevski, D.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

    2012-03-01

    Transport in magnetized plasmas is a key problem in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), χ, and the perpendicular, χ, conductivities (χ/χ may exceed 10^10 in fusion plasmas); (ii) Magnetic field lines chaos; and (iii) Nonlocal parallel transport. We have recently developed a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method to solve the local and non-local parallel (χ/χ->∞) transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields. footnotetext D. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, PRL, 106, 195004 (2011); D. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, Phys. Plasmas, APS Invited paper, submitted (2011). The proposed method overcomes many of the difficulties faced by standard finite different methods related to the three issues mentioned above. Here we apply the LG method to study transport in reversed shear configurations. We focus on the following problems: (i) separatrix reconnection of magnetic islands and transport; (ii) robustness of shearless, q'=0, transport barriers; (iii) leaky barriers and shearless Cantori.

  11. Gyrokinetic simulation of driftwave instability in field-reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, D. P.; Lau, C. K.; Schmitz, L.; Holod, I.; Lin, Z.; Tajima, T.; Binderbauer, M. W.

    2016-05-01

    Following the recent remarkable progress in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability control in the C-2U advanced beam driven field-reversed configuration (FRC), turbulent transport has become one of the foremost obstacles on the path towards an FRC-based fusion reactor. Significant effort has been made to expand kinetic simulation capabilities in FRC magnetic geometry. The recently upgraded Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) now accommodates realistic magnetic geometry from the C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. and is optimized to efficiently handle the FRC's magnetic field line orientation. Initial electrostatic GTC simulations find that ion-scale instabilities are linearly stable in the FRC core for realistic pressure gradient drives. Estimated instability thresholds from linear GTC simulations are qualitatively consistent with critical gradients determined from experimental Doppler backscattering fluctuation data, which also find ion scale modes to be depressed in the FRC core. Beyond GTC, A New Code (ANC) has been developed to accurately resolve the magnetic field separatrix and address the interaction between the core and scrape-off layer regions, which ultimately determines global plasma confinement in the FRC. The current status of ANC and future development targets are discussed.

  12. Method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.

  13. Transport and equilibrium in field-reversed mirrors

    SciT

    Boyd, J.K.

    Two plasma models relevant to compact torus research have been developed to study transport and equilibrium in field reversed mirrors. In the first model for small Larmor radius and large collision frequency, the plasma is described as an adiabatic hydromagnetic fluid. In the second model for large Larmor radius and small collision frequency, a kinetic theory description has been developed. Various aspects of the two models have been studied in five computer codes ADB, AV, NEO, OHK, RES. The ADB code computes two dimensional equilibrium and one dimensional transport in a flux coordinate. The AV code calculates orbit average integralsmore » in a harmonic oscillator potential. The NEO code follows particle trajectories in a Hill's vortex magnetic field to study stochasticity, invariants of the motion, and orbit average formulas. The OHK code displays analytic psi(r), B/sub Z/(r), phi(r), E/sub r/(r) formulas developed for the kinetic theory description. The RES code calculates resonance curves to consider overlap regions relevant to stochastic orbit behavior.« less

  14. Direct Measurement of Impurity Transport in a Field Reversed Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, T.; Bolte, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R.; Wessel, F.

    2011-10-01

    An optical tomography system has been developed and implemented in the Flux Coil Generated Field Reversed Configuration (FCG-FRC) at Tri Alpha Energy. Sixteen chords view ~ 35 % of the FRC at the mid-plane. The chords are arranged in two identical fans of eight chords each. To measure transport of an impurity species, argon, an FRC is generated using either Nitrogen or Deuterium as the primary species. A puff valve is activated prior to the shot such that the argon begins to bleed in to the vacuum chamber as the FRC is formed. The gas is puffed at the optimal location for tomographic reconstruction. Each chord is collimated to illuminate a fiber optic cable which is fed to an array of photomultiplier tubes which are fitted with neutral density and band pass filters to allow the appropriate amount of light from the emitting, singly ionized, argon at 434 . 8 nm to be measured. Using a preliminary assumption that density of argon is proportional to light intensity gathered data have been used to reconstruct density profiles. These profiles often peak near the field null. The data are being analyzed to determine diffusive and convective transport coefficients.

  15. Phenomenology of beam driven modes in the field reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Richard; Bolte, Nathan; Clary, Ryan; Necas, Ales; Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Thompson, Matthew; Tajima, Toshiki; THE TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    The C-2U experiment offers a unique plasma environment combining a high beta field reversed configuration (FRC) embedded in a low beta magnetic mirror with high power neutral beam injection. The beams are injected tangentially into a modest magnetic field so that the orbits of the resulting fast ions encircle the entire plasma. These large orbit particles sustain and stabilize the plasma and suppress turbulence. Measurements of magnetic fluctuations at the edge of the plasma reveal the presence of three coherent beam driven modes: a low frequency, chirping mode, a mode near the ion cyclotron frequency, and a high frequency compressional Alfven mode. Remarkably, none of these modes are observed to have a deleterious effect on global plasma confinement. In fact, the cyclotron mode has the beneficial effect of dramatically enhancing the DD fusion reaction rate by drawing a trail from the plasma ion energy distribution on a sub-collisional timescale. In this presentation, we experimentally characterize the beam driven modes in the C-2U FRC with data from multiple diagnostics including magnetics, spectroscopy, neutral particle analyzers and fusion product diagnostics. Results are compared to a particle-in-cell simulation in a simplified geometry.

  16. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Kim, J.-H.; King, J.; Ko, J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; Magee, R.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J. P.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stephens, H.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Belykh, V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST programme on physics important for the advancement of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as well as for improved understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement more generally is reported. Evidence for the classical confinement of ions in the RFP is provided by analysis of impurity ions and energetic ions created by 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI). The first appearance of energetic-particle-driven modes by NBI in a RFP plasma is described. MST plasmas robustly access the quasi-single-helicity state that has commonalities to the stellarator and ‘snake’ formation in tokamaks. In MST the dominant mode grows to 8% of the axisymmetric field strength, while the remaining modes are reduced. Predictive capability for tearing mode behaviour has been improved through nonlinear, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamic computation using the measured resistivity profile and Lundquist number, which reproduces the sawtooth cycle dynamics. Experimental evidence and computational analysis indicates two-fluid effects, e.g., Hall physics and gyro-viscosity, are needed to understand the coupling of parallel momentum transport and current profile relaxation. Large Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, plus separately measured kinetic stress, indicate an intricate momentum balance and a possible origin for MST's intrinsic plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic analysis indicates that micro-tearing modes can be unstable at high beta, with a critical gradient for the electron temperature that is larger than for tokamak plasmas by roughly the aspect ratio.

  17. [Are Visual Field Defects Reversible? - Visual Rehabilitation with Brains].

    PubMed

    Sabel, B A

    2017-02-01

    local activation of the visual cortex and global reorganisation of neuronal brain networks. Because modulation of neuroplasticity can strengthen residual vision, the brain deserves a better reputation in ophthalmology for its role in visual rehabilitation. For patients, there is now more light at the end of the tunnel, because vision loss in some areas of the visual field defect is indeed reversible. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Comparison study of toroidal-field divertors for a compact reversed-field pinch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathke, C. G.; Krakowski, R. A.; Miller, R. L.

    Two divertor configurations for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) based on diverting the minority (toroidal) field have been reported. A critical factor in evaluating the performance of both poloidally symmetric and bundle divertor configurations is the accurate determination of the divertor connection length and the monitoring of magnetic islands introduced by the divertors, the latter being a three-dimensional effect. To this end the poloidal-field, toroidal-field, and divertor coils and the plasma currents are simulated in three dimensions for field-line trackings in both the divertor channel and the plasma-edge regions. The results of this analysis indicate a clear preference for the poloidally symmetric toroidal-field divertor. Design modifications to the limiter-based CRFPR design that accommodate this divertor are presented.

  19. Oblate Field-Reversed Configuration Experiments with Neutral Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T., II; Gi, K.; Umezawa, T.; Inomoto, M.; Ono, Y.

    2011-11-01

    The effect of energetic beam ions on oblate Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) has been studied experimentally in the TS-4 plasma merging device. In order to examine its kinetic effects, we developed an economical pulsed Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system by using a washer gun plasma source and finally attained the beam power of 0.6 MW (15 kV, 40 A) for its pulse length of 0.5 ms, longer than the FRC lifetime in TS-4. The Monte Carlo simulation indicates that the tangential NB ions of 15 keV are trapped between the magnetic axis and the separatrix. We found that two merging high-s (s is plasma size normalized by ion gyroradius) hydrogen spheromaks with opposite helicities relaxed into the large scale FRC with poloidal flux as high as 15 mWb under the assistance of the NBI. Without the assistance of NBI, however, they did not relax to an FRC but to another spheromak. These facts suggest some ion kinetic effects such as toroidal ion flow are essential to FRC stability. Recently, two new NB sources with acceleration voltage and current of 15 kV and 20 A were installed on the TS-4 device on the midplane for tangential injection, increasing the beam power over 1 MW. We will start the upgraded FRC experiments using the 1 MW NBI for ion flow control.

  20. Transport studies in high-performance field reversed configuration plasmas

    SciT

    Gupta, S., E-mail: sgupta@trialphaenergy.com; Barnes, D. C.; Dettrick, S. A.

    2016-05-15

    A significant improvement of field reversed configuration (FRC) lifetime and plasma confinement times in the C-2 plasma, called High Performance FRC regime, has been observed with neutral beam injection (NBI), improved edge stability, and better wall conditioning [Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)]. A Quasi-1D (Q1D) fluid transport code has been developed and employed to carry out transport analysis of such C-2 plasma conditions. The Q1D code is coupled to a Monte-Carlo code to incorporate the effect of fast ions, due to NBI, on the background FRC plasma. Numerically, the Q1D transport behavior with enhanced transport coefficients (butmore » with otherwise classical parametric dependencies) such as 5 times classical resistive diffusion, classical thermal ion conductivity, 20 times classical electron thermal conductivity, and classical fast ion behavior fit with the experimentally measured time evolution of the excluded flux radius, line-integrated density, and electron/ion temperature. The numerical study shows near sustainment of poloidal flux for nearly 1 ms in the presence of NBI.« less

  1. Two-dimensional interpreter for field-reversed configurations

    SciT

    Steinhauer, Loren, E-mail: lstein@uw.edu

    2014-08-15

    An interpretive method is developed for extracting details of the fully two-dimensional (2D) “internal” structure of field-reversed configurations (FRC) from common diagnostics. The challenge is that only external and “gross” diagnostics are routinely available in FRC experiments. Inferring such critical quantities as the poloidal flux and the particle inventory has commonly relied on a theoretical construct based on a quasi-one-dimensional approximation. Such inferences sometimes differ markedly from the more accurate, fully 2D reconstructions of equilibria. An interpreter based on a fully 2D reconstruction is needed to enable realistic within-the-shot tracking of evolving equilibrium properties. Presented here is a flexible equilibriummore » reconstruction with which an extensive data base of equilibria was constructed. An automated interpreter then uses this data base as a look-up table to extract evolving properties. This tool is applied to data from the FRC facility at Tri Alpha Energy. It yields surprising results at several points, such as the inferences that the local β (plasma pressure/external magnetic pressure) of the plasma climbs well above unity and the poloidal flux loss time is somewhat longer than previously thought, both of which arise from full two-dimensionality of FRCs.« less

  2. Fusion proton diagnostic for the C-2 field reversed configurationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, R. M.; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Garate, E.; Knapp, K.; Tkachev, A.

    2014-11-01

    Measurements of the flux of fusion products from high temperature plasmas provide valuable insights into the ion energy distribution, as the fusion reaction rate is a very sensitive function of ion energy. In C-2, where field reversed configuration plasmas are formed by the collision of two compact toroids and partially sustained by high power neutral beam injection [M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010); M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)], measurements of DD fusion neutron flux are used to diagnose ion temperature and study fast ion confinement and dynamics. In this paper, we will describe the development of a new 3 MeV proton detector that will complement existing neutron detectors. The detector is a large area (50 cm2), partially depleted, ion implanted silicon diode operated in a pulse counting regime. While the scintillator-based neutron detectors allow for high time resolution measurements (˜100 kHz), they have no spatial or energy resolution. The proton detector will provide 10 cm spatial resolution, allowing us to determine if the axial distribution of fast ions is consistent with classical fast ion theory or whether anomalous scattering mechanisms are active. We will describe in detail the diagnostic design and present initial data from a neutral beam test chamber.

  3. Study of fusion product effects in field-reversed mirrors

    SciT

    Driemeyer, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of fusion products (fps) on Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) reactor concepts has been evaluated through the development of two new computer models. The first code (MCFRM) treats fps as test particles in a fixed background plasma, which is represented as a fluid. MCFRM includes a Monte Carlo treatment of Coulomb scattering and thus provides an accurate treatment of fp behavior even at lower energies where pitch-angle scattering becomes important. The second code (FRMOD) is a steady-state, globally averaged, two-fluid (ion and electron), point model of the FRM plasma that incorporates fp heating and ash buildup values which are consistentmore » with the MCFRM calculations. These codes have been used extensively in the development of an advanced-fuel FRM reactor design (SAFFIRE). A Catalyzed-D version of the plant is also discussed along with an investigation of the steady-state energy distribution of fps in the FRM. User guides for the two computer codes are also included.« less

  4. Adiabatic model and design of a translating field reversed configuration

    SciT

    Intrator, T. P.; Siemon, R. E.; Sieck, P. E.

    We apply an adiabatic evolution model to predict the behavior of a field reversed configuration (FRC) during decompression and translation, as well as during boundary compression. Semi-empirical scaling laws, which were developed and benchmarked primarily for collisionless FRCs, are expected to remain valid even for the collisional regime of FRX-L experiment. We use this approach to outline the design implications for FRX-L, the high density translated FRC experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A conical theta coil is used to accelerate the FRC to the largest practical velocity so it can enter a mirror bounded compression region, where it mustmore » be a suitable target for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) implosion. FRX-L provides the physics basis for the integrated MTF plasma compression experiment at the Shiva-Star pulsed power facility at Kirtland Air Force Research Laboratory, where the FRC will be compressed inside a flux conserving cylindrical shell.« less

  5. Resonance and Chaotic Trajectories in Magnetic Field Reversed Configuration

    SciT

    A.S. Landsman; S.A. Cohen; M. Edelman

    The nonlinear dynamics of a single ion in a field-reversed configuration (FRC) were investigated. FRC is a toroidal fusion device which uses a specific type of magnetic field to confine ions. As a result of angular invariance, the full three-dimensional Hamiltonian system can be expressed as two coupled, highly nonlinear oscillators. Due to the high nonlinearity in the equations of motion, the behavior of the system is extremely complex, showing different regimes, depending on the values of the conserved canonical angular momentum and the geometry of the fusion vessel. Perturbation theory and averaging were used to derive the unperturbed Hamiltonianmore » and frequencies of the two degrees of freedom. The derived equations were then used to find resonances and compare to Poincar{copyright} surface-of-section plots. A regime was found where the nonlinear resonances were clearly separated by KAM [Kolmogorov-Arnold-Mosher] curves. The structure of the observed island chains was explained. The condition for the destruction of KAM curves and the onset of strong chaos was derived, using Chirikov island overlap criterion, and shown qualitatively to depend both on the canonical angular momentum and geometry of the device. After a brief discussion of the adiabatic regime the paper goes on to explore the degenerate regime that sets in at higher values of angular momenta. In this regime, the unperturbed Hamiltonian can be approximated as two uncoupled linear oscillators. In this case, the system is near-integrable, except in cases of a universal resonance, which results in large island structures, due to the smallness of nonlinear terms, which bound the resonance. The linear force constants, dominant in this regime, were derived and the geometry for a large one-to-one resonance identified. The above analysis showed good agreement with numerical simulations and was able to explain characteristic features of the dynamics.« less

  6. Electric-Field-Induced Magnetization Reversal in a Ferromagnet-Multiferroic Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, J. T.; Trassin, M.; Ashraf, K.; Gajek, M.; He, Q.; Yang, S. Y.; Nikonov, D. E.; Chu, Y.-H.; Salahuddin, S.; Ramesh, R.

    2011-11-01

    A reversal of magnetization requiring only the application of an electric field can lead to low-power spintronic devices by eliminating conventional magnetic switching methods. Here we show a nonvolatile, room temperature magnetization reversal determined by an electric field in a ferromagnet-multiferroic system. The effect is reversible and mediated by an interfacial magnetic coupling dictated by the multiferroic. Such electric-field control of a magnetoelectric device demonstrates an avenue for next-generation, low-energy consumption spintronics.

  7. Electric-field-induced magnetization reversal in a ferromagnet-multiferroic heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Heron, J T; Trassin, M; Ashraf, K; Gajek, M; He, Q; Yang, S Y; Nikonov, D E; Chu, Y-H; Salahuddin, S; Ramesh, R

    2011-11-18

    A reversal of magnetization requiring only the application of an electric field can lead to low-power spintronic devices by eliminating conventional magnetic switching methods. Here we show a nonvolatile, room temperature magnetization reversal determined by an electric field in a ferromagnet-multiferroic system. The effect is reversible and mediated by an interfacial magnetic coupling dictated by the multiferroic. Such electric-field control of a magnetoelectric device demonstrates an avenue for next-generation, low-energy consumption spintronics.

  8. Strong radial electric field shear and reduced fluctuations in a reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Chapman, B.E.; Chiang, C.S.; Prager, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    A strongly sheared radial electric field is observed in enhanced confinement discharges in the MST reversed-field pinch. The strong shear develops in a narrow region in the plasma edge. Electrostatic fluctuations are reduced over the entire plasma edge with an extra reduction in the shear region. Magnetic fluctuations, resonant in the plasma core but global in extent, are also reduced. The reduction of fluctuations in the shear region is presumably due to the strong shear, but the causes of the reductions outside this region have not been established.

  9. Flux-trapping during the formation of field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, W. T.; Harding, D. G.; Crawford, E. A.; Hoffman, A. L.

    1981-10-01

    Optimized trapping of bias flux during the early formation phases of a Field Reversed Configuration was studied experimentally on the field reversed theta pinch TRX-1. An annular z-pinch preionizer was employed to permit ionization at high values of initial reverse bias flux. Octopole barrier fields are pulsed during field reversal to minimize plasma/wall contact and associated loss of reverse flux. Also, second half cycle operation was examined in obtaining very high values of reverse flux. Flux loss is generally observed to be governed by resistive diffusion through a current sheath at the plasma boundary, rather than flux convection to the plasma boundary. Trapped reverse flux at the time of field reversal, as well as after the radial implosion, is observed to increase with the applied bias field. This increase is greatest, and in fact nearly linear with bias field, when barrier fields are employed. Barrier fields also appear to broaden the current sheath, which results in some flux loss and a less dynamic radial implosion. A general model and one dimensional simulation of flux loss is described and correlated with experimental results.

  10. Structural and temporal requirements for geomagnetic field reversal deduced from lava flows.

    PubMed

    Singer, Brad S; Hoffman, Kenneth A; Coe, Robert S; Brown, Laurie L; Jicha, Brian R; Pringle, Malcolm S; Chauvin, Annick

    2005-03-31

    Reversals of the Earth's magnetic field reflect changes in the geodynamo--flow within the outer core--that generates the field. Constraining core processes or mantle properties that induce or modulate reversals requires knowing the timing and morphology of field changes that precede and accompany these reversals. But the short duration of transitional field states and fragmentary nature of even the best palaeomagnetic records make it difficult to provide a timeline for the reversal process. 40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the most recent 'Matuyama-Brunhes' reversal, gives an age of 795 +/- 7 kyr, indistinguishable from that of lavas in Chile and La Palma that record a transition in the Earth's magnetic field, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the 'transitional' lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 kyr), agree with the astronomical age for the reversal. Here we propose that the older lavas record the onset of a geodynamo process, which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began approximately 18 kyr before the actual polarity switch. These data support the claim that complete reversals require a significant period for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect.

  11. Magnetic field reversals in the Milky Way- "cherchez le champ magnetique".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallee, J. P.

    1996-04-01

    Radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies have tremendously enhanced our knowledge of their global magnetic field distributions. Recent theoretical developments in the area of dynamos have also helped in the interpretation of magnetic field data in spiral galaxies. When it comes to the magnetic field in the Milky Way galaxy, our position in the Milky Way's galactic disk hinders our attempts at interpreting the observational data. This makes the proposition of "cherchez le champ magnetique" a difficult one to follow. Some recent papers have attempted to fit magnetic field models to spiral galaxies, and in particular to the Milky Way galaxy. Magnetic field reversals in the Milky Way are crucial to all interpretations, be they axisymmetric spiral (ASS) or bisymmetric spiral (BSS) global magnetic field models. Magnetic field reversals can be found in both ASS and BSS magnetic field models, not just BSS ones. The axisymmetric spiral (ASS) magnetic field models produced by the dynamo theory already predict magnetic field reversals, and they are of the type observed in the Milky Way. The small number of magnetic field reversals observed in the Milky Way is compatible with the ASS magnetic field models. The bisymmetric spiral (BSS) magnetic field models as applied to the pulsar RM data and to the QSO and galaxies data have many problems, due to the many pitfalls in model fitting the magnetic field reversals observed in the Milky Way. Many pitfalls are discussed here, including the incomplete comparisons of BSS versus ASS models, the number of spiral arms to be used in modelling, and the proper distance to pulsars via the more accurate distribution of thermal electrons within spiral arms. The two magnetic field reversals in our Milky Way are clearly located in the interarm regions. Predicted magnetic field reversals are periodic, while observed ones are not periodic. Magnetic field reversals cannot be masked effectively by local interstellar magnetised shells. The

  12. Electron transport in the stochastic fields of the reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Punjabi, Alkesh

    1996-08-01

    We employ the Monte Carlo method for the calculation of anomalous transport developed by Punjabi and Boozer to calculate the particle diffusion coefficient for electrons in the stochastic magnetic fields of the reversed-field pinch (RFP). in the Monte Carlo calculations represented here, the transport mechanism is the loss of magnetic surfaces due to resistive perturbations. The equilibrium magnetic fields are represented by the Bessel function model for the RFP. The diffusion coefficient D is calculated as a function of a, the amplitude of the perturbation. We see three regimes as the amplitude of the tearing modes is increased: the Rechester—Rosenbluth regime where D scales as a2 the anomalous regime where D scales more rapidly than a2 and the Mynick—Krornmes regime where D scales more slowly than a2. Inclusion of the effects of loop voltage on the particle drift orbits in the RFP does not affect the intervals in the amplitude a where these regimes operate.

  13. Extended magnetohydrodynamic simulations of field reversed configuration formation and sustainment with rotating magnetic field current drive

    SciT

    Milroy, R. D.; Kim, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    Three-dimensional simulations of field reversed configuration (FRC) formation and sustainment with rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive have been performed with the NIMROD code [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)]. The Hall term is a zeroth order effect with strong coupling between Fourier components, and recent enhancements to the NIMROD preconditioner allow much larger time steps than was previously possible. Boundary conditions to capture the effects of a finite length RMF antenna have been added, and simulations of FRC formation from a uniform background plasma have been performed with parameters relevant to the translation, confinement,more » and sustainment-upgrade experiment at the University of Washington [H. Y. Guo, A. L. Hoffman, and R. D. Milroy, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112502 (2007)]. The effects of both even-parity and odd-parity antennas have been investigated, and there is no evidence of a disruptive instability for either antenna type. It has been found that RMF effects extend considerably beyond the ends of the antenna, and that a large n=0 B{sub t}heta can develop in the open-field line region, producing a back torque opposing the RMF.« less

  14. Plasma wall sheath contributions to flux retention during the formation of field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, R. D.; Slough, J. T.; Hoffman, A. L.

    1984-06-01

    Flux loss during field reversal on the TRX-1 field-reversed θ pinch is found to be much less than predicted by the inertial model of Green and Newton. This can be explained by a pressure bearing, conducting sheath which naturally forms at the wall and limits the flux loss. A one-dimensional (r-t) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model has been used to study the formation and effectiveness of the sheath. The calculations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements over a wide range of operating parameters. The results indicate that good flux trapping can be achieved through the field reversal phase of FRC formation with much slower external field reversal rates than in current experiments.

  15. Flux-trapping during the formation of field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, W. T.; Harding, D. G.; Crawford, E. A.; Hoffman, A. L.

    1982-11-01

    Flux-trapping during the early formation phases of a field-reversed configuration has been studied experimentally on the field-reversed theta-pinch TRX-1. An annular z-pinch preionizer was employed to permit ionization at high values of reverse-bias flux. Contrary to previous analysis, the rate of flux loss was not governed exclusively by inertially limited plasma convection to the tube walls. At high reverse flux levels, a pressure bearing sheath was observed to form at the tube walls and the flux loss was restricted by resistive diffusion across this sheath. The characteristic time for flux loss was 0.08rt (cm) μsec, independent of the bias field and independent of the fill pressure for fill pressures above 15 mTorr D2. Octopole barrier fields were found to be effective in limiting the inertially governed flux loss at very early times before the wall sheath formed.

  16. Illusory motion reversal is caused by rivalry, not by perceptual snapshots of the visual field.

    PubMed

    Kline, Keith; Holcombe, Alex O; Eagleman, David M

    2004-10-01

    In stroboscopic conditions--such as motion pictures--rotating objects may appear to rotate in the reverse direction due to under-sampling (aliasing). A seemingly similar phenomenon occurs in constant sunlight, which has been taken as evidence that the visual system processes discrete "snapshots" of the outside world. But if snapshots are indeed taken of the visual field, then when a rotating drum appears to transiently reverse direction, its mirror image should always appeared to reverse direction simultaneously. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found that when observers watched a rotating drum and its mirror image, almost all illusory motion reversals occurred for only one image at a time. This result indicates that the motion reversal illusion cannot be explained by snapshots of the visual field. The same result is found when the two images are presented within one visual hemifield, further ruling out the possibility that discrete sampling of the visual field occurs separately in each hemisphere. The frequency distribution of illusory reversal durations approximates a gamma distribution, suggesting perceptual rivalry as a better explanation for illusory motion reversal. After adaptation of motion detectors coding for the correct direction, the activity of motion-sensitive neurons coding for motion in the reverse direction may intermittently become dominant and drive the perception of motion.

  17. Adiabatic model of field reversal by fast ions in an axisymmetric open trap

    SciT

    Tsidulko, Yu. A., E-mail: tsidulko@mail.ru

    2016-06-15

    A model of field reversal by fast ions has been developed under the assumption of preservation of fast-ion adiabatic invariants. Analytical solutions obtained in the approximation of a narrow fast-ion layer and numerical solutions to the evolutionary problem are presented. The solutions demonstrate the process of formation of a field reversed configuration with parameters close to those of the planned experiment.

  18. Interactions and reversal-field memory in complex magnetic nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Aurelian; Lim, Jin-Hee; Lenormand, Denny; Diaconu, Andrei; Wiley, John. B.; Postolache, Petronel; Stancu, Alexandru; Spinu, Leonard

    2011-10-01

    Interactions and magnetization reversal of Ni nanowire arrays have been investigated by the first-order reversal curve (FORC) method. Several series of samples with controlled spatial distribution were considered including simple wires of different lengths and diameters (70 and 110 nm) and complex wires with a single modulated diameter along their length. Subtle features of magnetic interactions are revealed through a quantitative analysis of the local interaction field profile distributions obtained from the FORC method. In addition, the FORC analysis indicates that the nanowire systems with a mean diameter of 70 nm appear to be organized in symmetric clusters indicative of a reversal-field memory effect.

  19. Particle-in-cell simulations of Earth-like magnetosphere during a magnetic field reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, M. V. G.; Alves, M. V.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Schmitz, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The geologic record shows that hundreds of pole reversals have occurred throughout Earth's history. The mean interval between the poles reversals is roughly 200 to 300 thousand years and the last reversal occurred around 780 thousand years ago. Pole reversal is a slow process, during which the strength of the magnetic field decreases, become more complex, with the appearance of more than two poles for some time and then the field strength increases, changing polarity. Along the process, the magnetic field configuration changes, leaving the Earth-like planet vulnerable to the harmful effects of the Sun. Understanding what happens with the magnetosphere during these pole reversals is an open topic of investigation. Only recently PIC codes are used to modeling magnetospheres. Here we use the particle code iPIC3D [Markidis et al, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 2010] to simulate an Earth-like magnetosphere at three different times along the pole reversal process. The code was modified, so the Earth-like magnetic field is generated using an expansion in spherical harmonics with the Gauss coefficients given by a MHD simulation of the Earth's core [Glatzmaier et al, Nature, 1995; 1999; private communication to L.E.A.V.]. Simulations show the qualitative behavior of the magnetosphere, such as the current structures. Only the planet magnetic field was changed in the runs. The solar wind is the same for all runs. Preliminary results show the formation of the Chapman-Ferraro current in the front of the magnetosphere in all the cases. Run for the middle of the reversal process, the low intensity magnetic field and its asymmetrical configuration the current structure changes and the presence of multiple poles can be observed. In all simulations, a structure similar to the radiation belts was found. Simulations of more severe solar wind conditions are necessary to determine the real impact of the reversal in the magnetosphere.

  20. Annual Report 2015: High Fidelity Modeling of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    simulations become unstable as time evolves leading to the magnetic island collision with the boundary and destruction of the close magnetic field structure...compares well with the results of the Hall-MHD code. 1 R. D. Milroy, "A magnetohydrodynamic model of rotating magnetic field current drive in a field...reversed configuration," Physics of Plasmas, vol. 7, no. 10. 2 Distribution A: Approved for Public Release. PA# 16202 Figure 1. Magnetic field

  1. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system

    PubMed Central

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638

  2. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices.

  3. Control of reversible magnetization switching by pulsed circular magnetic field in glass-coated amorphous microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhik, Alexander; Zhukov, Arkady; Gonzalez, Julian; Stupakiewicz, Andrzej

    2018-02-01

    Magnetization reversal in magnetic microwires was studied in the presence of external mechanical stress and helical magnetic fields using the magneto-optical Kerr effect. It was found that a combination of tuned magnetic anisotropy and a direct current or pulsed circular magnetic field activated different types of magnetization reversal scenarios. The application of the pulsed magnetic field of 10 ns time duration induced a transient controlling action to switch the magnetic states without activating a domain wall motion. This created a promising method for tuning the giant magneto-impedance effect.

  4. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Anisotropy of ion temperature in a reversed-field-pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Hörling, P.; Fall, T.; Brzozowski, J. H.; Brunsell, P.; Hokin, S.; Tennfors, E.; Sallander, J.; Drake, J. R.; Inoue, N.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Yoshida, Z.

    1997-03-01

    Anomalous heating of ions has been observed in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasma. Ions are heated primarily in the parallel direction (with respect to the magnetic field), resulting in an appreciable anisotropy of the ion temperature. This observation suggests that the magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations are dissipated primarily by the ion viscosity.

  5. Electric-field-driven magnetization reversal in square-shaped nanomagnet-based multiferroic heterostructure

    SciT

    Peng, Ren-Ci; Nan, Ce-Wen, E-mail: jzw12@psu.edu, E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, J. J., E-mail: jzw12@psu.edu, E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn

    Based on phase field modeling and thermodynamic analysis, purely electric-field-driven magnetization reversal was shown to be possible in a multiferroic heterostructure of a square-shaped amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} nanomagnet on top of a ferroelectric layer through electrostrain. The reversal is made possible by engineering the mutual interactions among the built-in uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, the geometry-dependent magnetic configuration anisotropy, and the magnetoelastic anisotropy. Particularly, the incorporation of the built-in uniaxial anisotropy made it possible to reverse magnetization with one single unipolar electrostrain pulse, which is simpler than previous designs involving the use of bipolar electrostrains and may alleviate ferroelectric fatigue.more » Critical conditions for triggering the magnetization reversal are identified.« less

  6. Probe measurements of the three-dimensional magnetic field structure in a rotating magnetic field sustained field-reversed configuration

    SciT

    Velas, K. M.; Milroy, R. D.

    A translatable three-axis probe was constructed and installed on the translation, confinement, and sustainment upgrade (TCSU) experiment. With ninety windings, the probe can simultaneously measure B{sub r}, B{sub θ}, and B{sub z} at 30 radial positions, and can be placed at any desired axial position within the field reversed configuration (FRC) confinement chamber. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Measurements were made for odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) antennas and even-parity RMF. The steady state data from applying a 10 kHz low pass filter usedmore » in conjunction with data at the RMF frequency yields a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. Comparisons will be made to the 3D magnetic structure predicted by NIMROD simulations, with parameters adjusted to match that of the TCSU experiments. The probe provides sufficient data to utilize a Maxwell stress tensor approach to directly measure the torque applied to the FRC's electrons, which combined with a resistive torque model, yields an estimate of the average FRC resistivity.« less

  7. PIC simulations of post-pulse field reversal and secondary ionization in nanosecond argon discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. Y.; Gołkowski, M.; Gołkowski, C.; Stoltz, P.; Cohen, M. B.; Walker, M.

    2018-05-01

    Post-pulse electric field reversal and secondary ionization are investigated with a full kinetic treatment in argon discharges between planar electrodes on nanosecond time scales. The secondary ionization, which occurs at the falling edge of the voltage pulse, is induced by charge separation in the bulk plasma region. This process is driven by a reverse in the electric field from the cathode sheath to the formerly driven anode. Under the influence of the reverse electric field, electrons in the bulk plasma and sheath regions are accelerated toward the cathode. The electron movement manifests itself as a strong electron current generating high electron energies with significant electron dissipated power. Accelerated electrons collide with Ar molecules and an increased ionization rate is achieved even though the driving voltage is no longer applied. With this secondary ionization, in a single pulse (SP), the maximum electron density achieved is 1.5 times higher and takes a shorter time to reach using 1 kV 2 ns pulse as compared to a 1 kV direct current voltage at 1 Torr. A bipolar dual pulse excitation can increase maximum density another 50%–70% above a SP excitation and in half the time of RF sinusoidal excitation of the same period. The first field reversal is most prominent but subsequent field reversals also occur and correspond to electron temperature increases. Targeted pulse designs can be used to condition plasma density as required for fast discharge applications.

  8. Detailed Jaramillo field reversals recorded in lake sediments from Armenia - Lower mantle influence on the magnetic field revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirscher, U.; Winklhofer, M.; Hackl, M.; Bachtadse, V.

    2018-02-01

    While it is well established that the Earth's magnetic field is generated by a self sustaining dynamo that reversed its polarity at irregular intervals in the geological past, the very mechanisms causing field reversals remain obscure. Paleomagnetic reconstructions of polarity transitions have been essential for physically constraining the underlying mechanisms in terms of time scale, but thus far remain ambiguous with regard to the transitional field geometry. Here we present new paleomagnetic records from a rapidly deposited lacustrine sediment sequence with extraordinarily stable paleomagnetic signals, which has captured in unprecedented detail the bottom (reverse to normal: R-N) and top (normal to reverse: N-R) transitions of the Jaramillo subchron (at 1.072 Ma and at 0.988 Ma). The obtained virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path indicates an oscillatory transitional field behavior with four abrupt transequatorial precursory jumps across the Pacific. The distribution of VGP positions indicates regions of preferred occurrence. Our results are in agreement with previously proposed bands of transitional VGP occurrence over the Americas and Australia/northwest Pacific. Additionally, our VGP positions seem to avoid large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) above the core mantle boundary (CMB). Thus, our data supports the idea that the transitional field geometry is controlled by heat flux heterogeneities at the CMB linked to LLSVPs.

  9. A possible mechanism of current termination in a reversed field pinch

    SciT

    Nagata, A.; Masamune, S.; Arimoto, H.

    1989-10-01

    A rapid growth of magnetic fluctuations resulting from the {ital m}=1 and {ital m}=2 modes and succeeding stop of rotation of these modes have been found as the precursor phenomena of current termination in the STP-3(M) (Trans. Inst. Elec. Eng. Jpn. {bold 107}-{bold B}, 469 (1987)) reversed field pinch. By deepening the field reversal at the wall, these precursors disappear and the current duration becomes much longer. It is found that sudden current termination is caused by a rapid growth of resistive tearing modes mainly because of nonlinear coupling of the {ital m}=1 mode.

  10. ON POLAR MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSAL AND SURFACE FLUX TRANSPORT DURING SOLAR CYCLE 24

    SciT

    Sun, Xudong; Todd Hoeksema, J.; Liu, Yang

    As each solar cycle progresses, remnant magnetic flux from active regions (ARs) migrates poleward to cancel the old-cycle polar field. We describe this polarity reversal process during Cycle 24 using four years (2010.33-2014.33) of line-of-sight magnetic field measurements from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. The total flux associated with ARs reached maximum in the north in 2011, more than two years earlier than the south; the maximum is significantly weaker than Cycle 23. The process of polar field reversal is relatively slow, north-south asymmetric, and episodic. We estimate that the global axial dipole changed sign in 2013 October; the northernmore » and southern polar fields (mean above 60° latitude) reversed in 2012 November and 2014 March, respectively, about 16 months apart. Notably, the poleward surges of flux in each hemisphere alternated in polarity, giving rise to multiple reversals in the north. We show that the surges of the trailing sunspot polarity tend to correspond to normal mean AR tilt, higher total AR flux, or slower mid-latitude near-surface meridional flow, while exceptions occur during low magnetic activity. In particular, the AR flux and the mid-latitude poleward flow speed exhibit a clear anti-correlation. We discuss how these features can be explained in a surface flux transport process that includes a field-dependent converging flow toward the ARs, a characteristic that may contribute to solar cycle variability.« less

  11. Ultra-fast magnetic vortex core reversal by a local field pulse

    SciT

    Rückriem, R.; Albrecht, M., E-mail: manfred.albrecht@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Schrefl, T.

    2014-02-03

    Magnetic vortex core reversal of a 20-nm-thick permalloy disk with a diameter of 100 nm was studied by micromagnetic simulations. By applying a global out-of-plane magnetic field pulse, it turned out that the final core polarity is very sensitive to pulse width and amplitude, which makes it hard to control. The reason for this phenomenon is the excitation of radial spin waves, which dominate the reversal process. The excitation of spin waves can be strongly suppressed by applying a local field pulse within a small area at the core center. With this approach, ultra-short reversal times of about 15 ps weremore » achieved, which are ten times faster compared to a global pulse.« less

  12. Improved confinement region without large magnetohydrodynamic activity in TPE-RX reversed-field pinch plasma

    SciT

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Hirano, Yoichi; Sakakita, Hajime

    2014-11-15

    We found that spontaneous improved confinement was brought about depending on the operating region in the Toroidal Pinch Experiment-Reversed eXperiment (TPE-RX) reversed-field pinch plasma [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)]. Gradual decay of the toroidal magnetic field at plasma surface B{sub tw} reversal makes it possible to realize a prolonged discharge, and the poloidal beta value and energy confinement time increase in the latter half of the discharge, where reversal and pinch parameters become shallow and low, respectively. In the latter half of the discharge, the plasma current and volume-averaged toroidal magnetic field 〈B{sub t}〉 increasemore » again, the electron density slowly decays, the electron temperature and soft X-ray radiation intensity increase, and the magnetic fluctuations are markedly reduced. In this period of improved confinement, the value of (〈B{sub t}〉-B{sub tw})/B{sub pw}, where B{sub pw} is the poloidal magnetic field at the plasma surface, stays almost constant, which indicates that the dynamo action occurs without large magnetohydrodynamic activities.« less

  13. Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedqvist, Anders; Rachlew-Källne, Elisabeth

    1998-09-01

    Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy has been used to investigate the effects of impurities in a reversed field pinch operating with a resistive shell. Results of electron temperature, impurity ion densities, particle confinement time and 0741-3335/40/9/004/img1 together with a description of the interpretation and the equipment are presented.

  14. Changes in transport and confinement in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallander, E.; Sallander, J.; Hedqvist, A.

    1999-09-01

    At the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch a non-intrusive approach has been undertaken to monitor transport driven by magnetic fluctuations. Correlations are presented between fluctuations observed in the core and at the edge of the plasma. The fluctuations are characterized and their effect on the confinement of core electron energy is estimated.

  15. Sudden motility reversal indicates sensing of magnetic field gradients in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 strain

    PubMed Central

    González, Lina M; Ruder, Warren C; Mitchell, Aaron P; Messner, William C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Many motile unicellular organisms have evolved specialized behaviors for detecting and responding to environmental cues such as chemical gradients (chemotaxis) and oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). Magnetotaxis is found in magnetotactic bacteria and it is defined as the passive alignment of these cells to the geomagnetic field along with active swimming. Herein we show that Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1) show a unique set of responses that indicates they sense and respond not only to the direction of magnetic fields by aligning and swimming, but also to changes in the magnetic field or magnetic field gradients. We present data showing that AMB-1 cells exhibit sudden motility reversals when we impose them to local magnetic field gradients. Our system employs permalloy (Ni80Fe20) islands to curve and diverge the magnetic field lines emanating from our custom-designed Helmholtz coils in the vicinity of the islands (creating a drop in the field across the islands). The three distinct movements we have observed as they approach the permalloy islands are: unidirectional, single reverse and double reverse. Our findings indicate that these reverse movements occur in response to magnetic field gradients. In addition, using a permanent magnet we found further evidence that supports this claim. Motile AMB-1 cells swim away from the north and south poles of a permanent magnet when the magnet is positioned less than ∼30 mm from the droplet of cells. All together, these results indicate previously unknown response capabilities arising from the magnetic sensing systems of AMB-1 cells. These responses could enable them to cope with magnetic disturbances that could in turn potentially inhibit their efficient search for nutrients. PMID:25478682

  16. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Charles W.; Shearer, James W.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  17. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  18. Sudden motility reversal indicates sensing of magnetic field gradients in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 strain.

    PubMed

    González, Lina M; Ruder, Warren C; Mitchell, Aaron P; Messner, William C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2015-06-01

    Many motile unicellular organisms have evolved specialized behaviors for detecting and responding to environmental cues such as chemical gradients (chemotaxis) and oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). Magnetotaxis is found in magnetotactic bacteria and it is defined as the passive alignment of these cells to the geomagnetic field along with active swimming. Herein we show that Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1) show a unique set of responses that indicates they sense and respond not only to the direction of magnetic fields by aligning and swimming, but also to changes in the magnetic field or magnetic field gradients. We present data showing that AMB-1 cells exhibit sudden motility reversals when we impose them to local magnetic field gradients. Our system employs permalloy (Ni(80)Fe(20)) islands to curve and diverge the magnetic field lines emanating from our custom-designed Helmholtz coils in the vicinity of the islands (creating a drop in the field across the islands). The three distinct movements we have observed as they approach the permalloy islands are: unidirectional, single reverse and double reverse. Our findings indicate that these reverse movements occur in response to magnetic field gradients. In addition, using a permanent magnet we found further evidence that supports this claim. Motile AMB-1 cells swim away from the north and south poles of a permanent magnet when the magnet is positioned less than ∼30 mm from the droplet of cells. All together, these results indicate previously unknown response capabilities arising from the magnetic sensing systems of AMB-1 cells. These responses could enable them to cope with magnetic disturbances that could in turn potentially inhibit their efficient search for nutrients.

  19. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Villante, U.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper gives the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic-field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 earth radii downstream from earth. The principal observations are: (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma.

  20. Magnetic and velocity fluctuations from nonlinearly coupled tearing modes in the reversed field pinch with and without the reversal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, D.; Martin, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the role of poloidal mode number m = 0 fluctuations on m = 1 velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Removing the m = 0 resonant surface in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST), results in suppressed m = 0 activity without a reduction in m = 1 magnetic activity. However, the m = 1 velocity fluctuations and fluctuation-induced mean emf are reduced as m = 0 modes are suppressed. Velocity fluctuations are measured directly using fast Doppler spectroscopy. Similar results are seen in visco-resistive MHD simulation with the DEBS code. An artificial line-averaged velocity diagnostic is developed for DEBS simulations to facilitate direct comparisons with experimental measurements. The sensitivity of the m = 1 velocity fluctuations and corresponding emf to changes in m = 0 mode activity is a feature of tearing modes in the nonlinear regime with a spectrum of interacting modes. These results have implications for RFP sustainment strategies and inform our understanding of the role of magnetic turbulence in astrophysical contexts.

  1. The Steens Mountain (Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition, 2. Field intensity variations and discussion of reversal models

    Prevot, M.; Mankinen, Edward A.; Coe, Robert S.; Gromme, C. Sherman

    1985-01-01

    We carried out an extensive paleointensity study of the 15.5±0.3 m.y. Miocene reversed‐to‐normal polarity transition recorded in lava flows from Steens Mountain (south central Oregon). One hundred eighty‐five samples from the collection whose paleodirectional study is reported by Mankinen et al. (this issue) were chosen for paleointensity investigations because of their low viscosity index, high Curie point and reversibility, or near reversibility, of the strong field magnetization curve versus temperature. Application of the Thellier stepwise double heating method was very successful, yielding 157 usable paleointensity estimates corresponding to 73 distinct lava flows. After grouping successive lava flows that did not differ significantly in direction and intensity, we obtained 51 distinguishable, complete field vectors of which 10 are reversed, 28 are transitional, and 13 are normal. The record is complex, quite unlike that predicted by simple flooding or standing nondipole field models. It begins with an estimated several thousand years of reversed polarity with an average intensity of 31.5±8.5 μT, about one third lower than the expected Miocene intensity. This difference is interpreted as a long‐term reduction of the dipole moment prior to the reversal. When site directions and intensities are considered, truly transitional directions and intensities appear almost at the same time at the beginning of the transition, and they disappear simultaneously at the end of the reversal. Large deviations in declination occur during this approximately 4500±1000 year transition period that are compatible with roughly similar average magnitudes of zonal and nonzonal field components at the site. The transitional intensity is generally low, with an average of 10.9±4.9 μT for directions more than 45° away from the dipole field and a minimum of about 5 μT. The root‐mean‐square of the three field components X, Y, and Z are of the same order of magnitude

  2. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    DOE PAGES

    Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-29

    We show through injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns, during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation how to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. Our approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ~350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densitiesmore » and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.« less

  3. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ˜350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.

  4. Paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal from late miocene mafic intrusions, southern nevada.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, C D; Geissman, J W; Perry, F V; Crowe, B M; Zeitler, P K

    1994-10-21

    Late Miocene (about 8.65 million years ago) mafic intrusions and lava flows along with remagnetized host rocks from Paiute Ridge, southern Nevada, provide a high-quality paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal. These rocks yield thermoremanent magnetizations with declinations of 227 degrees to 310 degrees and inclinations of -7 degrees to 49 degrees , defining a reasonably continuous virtual geomagnetic pole path over west-central Pacific longitudes. Conductive cooling estimates for the intrusions suggest that this field transition, and mafic magmatism, lasted only a few hundred years. Because this record comes principally from intrusive rocks, rather than sediments or lavas, it is important in demonstrating the longitudinal confinement of the geomagnetic field during a reversal.

  5. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    SciT

    Weber, T. E., E-mail: tweber@lanl.gov; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-15

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ∼350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and highermore » temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.« less

  6. Enhanced electrocaloric cooling in ferroelectric single crystals by electric field reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yang-Bin; Novak, Nikola; Koruza, Jurij; Yang, Tongqing; Albe, Karsten; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    An improved thermodynamic cycle is validated in ferroelectric single crystals, where the cooling effect of an electrocaloric refrigerant is enhanced by applying a reversed electric field. In contrast to the conventional adiabatic heating or cooling by on-off cycles of the external electric field, applying a reversed field is significantly improving the cooling efficiency, since the variation in configurational entropy is increased. By comparing results from computer simulations using Monte Carlo algorithms and experiments using direct electrocaloric measurements, we show that the electrocaloric cooling efficiency can be enhanced by more than 20% in standard ferroelectrics and also relaxor ferroelectrics, like Pb (Mg1 /3 /Nb2 /3)0.71Ti0.29O3 .

  7. Heating of field-reversed plasma rings estimated with two scaling models

    SciT

    Shearer, J.W.

    1978-05-18

    Scaling calculations are presented of the one temperature heating of a field-reversed plasma ring. Two sharp-boundary models of the ring are considered: the long thin approximation and a pinch model. Isobaric, adiabatic, and isovolumetric cases are considered, corresponding to various ways of heating the plasma in a real experiment by using neutral beams, or by raising the magnetic field. It is found that the shape of the plasma changes markedly with heating. The least sensitive shape change (as a function of temperature) is found for the isovolumetric heating case, which can be achieved by combining neutral beam heating with compression.more » The complications introduced by this heating problem suggest that it is desirable, if possible, to create a field reversed ring which is already quite hot, rather than cold.« less

  8. 40Ar/39Ar Dating of the Brunhes-Matuyama Geomagnetic Field Reversal.

    PubMed

    Baksi, A K; Hsu, V; McWilliams, M O; Farrar, E

    1992-04-17

    Magnetostratigraphic studies are widely used in conjunction with the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) to date events in the range 0 to 5 million years ago. A critical tie point on the GPTS is the potassium-argon age of the most recent (Brunhes-Matuyama) geomagnetic field reversal. Astronomical values for the forcing frequencies observed in the oxygen isotope record in Ocean Drilling Project site 677 suggest that the age of this last reversal is 780 ka (thousand years ago), whereas the potassium-argon-based estimate is 730 ka. Results from 4039; Ar incremental heating studies on a series of lavas from Maui that straddle the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal give an age of 783 + 11 ka, in agreement with the astronomically derived value. The astronomically based technique appears to be a viable tool for dating young sedimentary sequences.

  9. Field reversed configuration confinement enhancement through edge biasing and neutral beam injection.

    PubMed

    Tuszewski, M; Smirnov, A; Thompson, M C; Korepanov, S; Akhmetov, T; Ivanov, A; Voskoboynikov, R; Schmitz, L; Barnes, D; Binderbauer, M W; Brown, R; Bui, D Q; Clary, R; Conroy, K D; Deng, B H; Dettrick, S A; Douglass, J D; Garate, E; Glass, F J; Gota, H; Guo, H Y; Gupta, D; Gupta, S; Kinley, J S; Knapp, K; Longman, A; Hollins, M; Li, X L; Luo, Y; Mendoza, R; Mok, Y; Necas, A; Primavera, S; Ruskov, E; Schroeder, J H; Sevier, L; Sibley, A; Song, Y; Sun, X; Trask, E; Van Drie, A D; Walters, J K; Wyman, M D

    2012-06-22

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) with high confinement are obtained in the C-2 device by combining plasma gun edge biasing and neutral beam injection. The plasma gun creates an inward radial electric field that counters the usual FRC spin-up. The n = 2 rotational instability is stabilized without applying quadrupole magnetic fields. The FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The plasma gun also produces E × B shear in the FRC edge layer, which may explain the observed improved particle transport. The FRC confinement times are improved by factors 2 to 4, and the plasma lifetimes are extended from 1 to up to 4 ms.

  10. Macroscopic electromagnetic properties of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration: Equilibrium, power balance and fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trask, Erik Harold

    The plasma parameters and characteristics of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration (IFRC) are summarized in this thesis. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of the different diagnostics used to make measurements in the experiment, as well as the measurements themselves. Whenever possible, actual measurements are used in lieu of theoretical or analytical fits to data. Analysis of magnetic probes (B-dots) comprises the bulk of what is known about the IFRC. From these B-dot probes, the magnetic field structure in a two dimensional plane at constant toroidal position has been determined, and has been found to be consistent with a field-reversed configuration. Peak reversed fields of approximately 250 Gauss have been observed. Further analyses have been developed to extract information from the magnetic field structure, including components of the electric field, the current density, and plasma pressure in the same two dimensional plane. Electric field magnitudes reach 600 V/m, concurrent with current densities greater than 105 Amps/m2 and thermal pressures over 200 Pa. Spectroscopic analysis of hydrogen lines has been done to make estimates of the electron temperature, while spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler broadening of the Halpha line31 have allowed an estimate of the ion temperature. Particle losses out one axial end plane measured by an array of Faraday cups quantify the how well the configuration traps particles. Spectral information derived from B-dot probes indicates that there is substantial power present at frequencies lying between the hydrogen cyclotron and mean gyrofrequency. These various measurements are used to find the following parameters that characterize the Irvine FRC: (1) Electromagnetic and thermal stored energies as functions of time. (2) Power balance, including input power from the field coils, resistive heating, power lost by particle transport and radiation, and particle and energy confinement times. (3) Strong

  11. The effect of the solar field reversal on the modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, B. T.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    There is now a growing awareness that solar cycle related changes in the large-scale structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) may play an important role in the modulation of galactic cosmic rays. To date, attention focussed on two aspects of the magnetic field structure: large scale compression regions produced by fast solar wind streams and solar flares, both of which are known to vary in intensity and number over the solar cycle, and the variable warp of the heliospheric current sheet. It is suggested that another feature of the solar cycle is worthy of consideration: the field reversal itself. If the Sun reverses its polarity by simply overturning the heliospheric current sheet (northern fields migrating southward and vice-versa) then there may well be an effect on cosmic ray intensity. However, such a simple picture of solar reversal seems improbable. Observations of the solar corona suggest the existence of not one but several current sheets in the heliosphere at solar maximum. The results of a simple calculation to demonstrate that the variation in cosmic ray intensities that will result can be as large as is actually observed over the solar cycle are given.

  12. Reversal Frequency, Core-Mantle Conditions, and the SCOR-field Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most intriguing results from paleomagnetic data spanning the past 108 yr comes from the work of McFadden et al. (1991) who found that the variation in the rate of polarity reversal is apparently tied to the temporal variation in the harmonic content of the full-polarity field. Their finding indicates that it is the relative importance of the two dynamo families--i.e. the Primary Family (PF), the field antisymmetric about the equator, and the Secondary Family (SF), the field symmetric about the equator--that largely determines reversal frequency. More specifically, McFadden et al. found that as the relative significance of the SF increases, as is observed during the Cenozoic, so too does reversal rate. Such a finding is reminiscent of the seminal work of Allan Cox who some forty years ago proposed that interactions with the non-dipole field may provide the trigger for reversal of the axial dipole (AD) field. Hence, new questions arise: Do the two dynamo family fields interact in this manner, and, if so, how can such an interaction physically occur in the fluid core? Gaussian coefficient terms comprising the PF and SF have degree and order (n + m) that sum to an odd and even number, respectively. The most significant field term in the PF is by far that of the axial dipole (g10). The entire SF, starting with the equatorial dipole terms (g11 and h11) and the axial quadrupole (g20), are constituents of the non-axial dipole (NAD) field. By way of both paleomagnetic transition and geomagnetic data Hoffman and Singer (2008) recently proposed (1) that field sources exist within the shallow core (SCOR-field) associated with fluid motions affected by long-lived core-mantle boundary conditions; (2) that these SCOR-field sources are largely separated from, i.e. in “poor communication” with, deep field convection roll-generated sources; and (3) that the deep sources are largely responsible for the AD field, leaving the SCOR-field to be the primary source for the

  13. Reversible wavefront shaping between Gaussian and Airy beams by mimicking gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyang; Liu, Hui; Sheng, Chong; Zhu, Shining

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate reversible wavefront shaping through mimicking gravitational field. A gradient-index micro-structured optical waveguide with special refractive index profile was constructed whose effective index satisfying a gravitational field profile. Inside the waveguide, an incident broad Gaussian beam is firstly transformed into an accelerating beam, and the generated accelerating beam is gradually changed back to a Gaussian beam afterwards. To validate our experiment, we performed full-wave continuum simulations that agree with the experimental results. Furthermore, a theoretical model was established to describe the evolution of the laser beam based on Landau’s method, showing that the accelerating beam behaves like the Airy beam in the small range in which the linear potential approaches zero. To our knowledge, such a reversible wavefront shaping technique has not been reported before.

  14. Reversal of Glaucoma Hemifield Test Results and Visual Field Features in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyu; Pasquale, Louis R; Shen, Lucy Q; Boland, Michael V; Wellik, Sarah R; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Myers, Jonathan S; Wang, Hui; Baniasadi, Neda; Li, Dian; Silva, Rafaella Nascimento E; Bex, Peter J; Elze, Tobias

    2018-03-01

    To develop a visual field (VF) feature model to predict the reversal of glaucoma hemifield test (GHT) results to within normal limits (WNL) after 2 consecutive outside normal limits (ONL) results. Retrospective cohort study. Visual fields of 44 503 eyes from 26 130 participants. Eyes with 3 or more consecutive reliable VFs measured with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard 24-2) were included. Eyes with ONL GHT results for the 2 baseline VFs were selected. We extracted 3 categories of VF features from the baseline tests: (1) VF global indices (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation), (2) mismatch between baseline VFs, and (3) VF loss patterns (archetypes). Logistic regression was applied to predict the GHT results reversal. Cross-validation was applied to evaluate the model on testing data by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We ascertained clinical glaucoma status on a patient subset (n = 97) to determine the usefulness of our model. Predictive models for GHT results reversal using VF features. For the 16 604 eyes with 2 initial ONL results, the prevalence of a subsequent WNL result increased from 0.1% for MD < -12 dB to 13.8% for MD ≥-3 dB. Compared with models with VF global indices, the AUC of predictive models increased from 0.669 (MD ≥-3 dB) and 0.697 (-6 dB ≤ MD < -3 dB) to 0.770 and 0.820, respectively, by adding VF mismatch features and computationally derived VF archetypes (P < 0.001 for both). The GHT results reversal was associated with a large mismatch between baseline VFs. Moreover, the GHT results reversal was associated more with VF archetypes of nonglaucomatous loss, severe widespread loss, and lens rim artifacts. For a subset of 97 eyes, using our model to predict absence of glaucoma based on clinical evidence after 2 ONL results yielded significantly better prediction accuracy (87.7%; P < 0.001) than predicting GHT results reversal (68.8%) with a

  15. Directed Energy HPM, PP, & PPS Efforts: Magnetized Target Fusion - Field Reversed Configuration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-04

    interior. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC), Alternative Confinement Concepts, Fusion Energy 16...research, the Department of Energy’s Office of Fusion Energy Studies (DOE OFES). Sections 2 through 4, which follow, describe in detail SAIC’s, FabTek’s...the plasma physics areas (FRCs and fusion energy ) in which we are working. The conference paper was submitted at this time, as well, and will

  16. Heavy ion beam probe operation in time varying equilibria of improved confinement reversed field pinch discharges.

    PubMed

    Demers, D R; Chen, X; Schoch, P M; Fimognari, P J

    2010-10-01

    Operation of a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) on a reversed field pinch is unique from other toroidal applications because the magnetic field is more temporal and largely produced by plasma current. Improved confinement, produced through the transient application of a poloidal electric field which leads to a reduction of dynamo activity, exhibits gradual changes in equilibrium plasma quantities. A consequence of this is sweeping of the HIBP trajectories by the dynamic magnetic field, resulting in motion of the sample volume. In addition, the plasma potential evolves with the magnetic equilibrium. Measurement of the potential as a function of time is thus a combination of temporal changes of the equilibrium and motion of the sample volume. A frequent additional complication is a nonideal balance of ion current on the detectors resulting from changes in the beam trajectory (magnetic field) and energy (plasma potential). This necessitates use of data selection criteria. Nevertheless, the HIBP on the Madison Symmetric Torus has acquired measurements as a function of time throughout improved confinement. A technique developed to infer the potential in the improved confinement reversed field pinch from HIBP data in light of the time varying plasma equilibrium will be discussed.

  17. Resistivity profile effects in numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sätherblom, H.-E.; Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P.

    1996-12-01

    The influence of the resistivity profile on reversed-field pinch (RFP) dynamics is investigated numerically using a three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic code. This investigation is motivated by experimental observations on the EXTRAP-T1 RFP (Nordlund P et al 1994 Int. Conf. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research IAEA-CN-60/A6/C-P-6). Two cases with profiles mainly differing in the edge region, i.e. in the region outside the reversal surface, are simulated. It is found that increasing the resistivity in this region results in a factor of two increase in magnetic fluctuation energy and an equal amount in the fluctuation-induced electric field. In spite of this, the parallel current decreases in the edge region, resulting in a factor two reduction of the field reversal ratio. The dynamics become more irregular and the characteristic timescale is reduced. The final state is characterized by a higher loop voltage, slightly lower values of the total (fluctuating plus mean part) magnetic energy and the magnetic helicity, but almost unchanged Taylor relaxation ratio. The results indicate that the edge region can be important for RFP confinement since cooling of the plasma in this region can lead to an increased fluctuation level and degraded performance.

  18. Spontaneous Generation of a Sheared Plasma Rotation in a Field-Reversed θ-Pinch Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelchenko, Y. A.; Karimabadi, H.

    2012-08-01

    By conducting two-dimensional hybrid simulations of an infinitely long field-reversed θ-pinch discharge we discover a new type of plasma rotation, which rapidly develops at the plasma edge in the ion diamagnetic direction due to the self-consistent generation of a Hall-driven radial electric field. This effect is different from the previously identified end-shorting and particle-loss mechanisms. We also demonstrate flutelike perturbations frequently inferred in experiments and show that in the absence of axial contraction effects they may quickly alter the toroidal symmetry of the plasma.

  19. Turbulent energy transfer in electromagnetic turbulence: hints from a Reversed Field Pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Bergsaker, H.

    2005-10-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic turbulence and sheared plasma flow in a Reversed Field Pinch is addressed. ExB sheared flows and turbulence at the edge tends to organize themeselves near marginal stability, suggesting an underlying energy exchange process between turbulence and mean flow. In MHD this process is well described through the quantity P which represents the energy transfer (per mass and time unit) from turbulence to mean fields. In the edge region of RFP configuration, where magnetic field is mainly poloidal and the mean ExB is consequently toroidal, the quantity P results: P =[ -ρμ0 + ]Vφr where Vφ is the mean ExB toroidal flow, ρ the mean mass density and b and v the fluctuations of velocity and magnetic field respectively. Both the radial profiles and the temporal evolution of P have been measured in the edge region of Extrap-T2R Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The results support the existence of oscillating energy exchange process between fluctuations and mean flow.

  20. Cupping reversal in pediatric glaucoma--evaluation of the retinal nerve fiber layer and visual field.

    PubMed

    Ely, Amanda L; El-Dairi, Mays A; Freedman, Sharon F

    2014-11-01

    To identify optic nerve head (ONH) cupping reversal and associated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Humphrey visual field changes in pediatric glaucoma. Retrospective observational case series. Sequential surgical cases of juvenile open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) with sustained postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Group 1 had preoperative and postoperative ONH photographs and OCT; Group 2 had preoperative clinical ONH assessment and postoperative imaging. Cupping evaluation was confirmed by masked glaucoma and neuro-ophthalmology specialists. Of 80 cases, 9 eyes (9 children) met criteria for Group 1; 24 eyes (19 children) met criteria for Group 2. Group 1: Five of 9 eyes (56%) demonstrated cupping reversal, with preoperative vs postoperative mean IOP 34.2 ± 6.6 mm Hg vs 10.6 ± 4.1 mm Hg (P < .00001) and mean average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) 71.0 ± 30 μm vs 62.8 ± 24 μm (P = .4), respectively. RNFL was stable in 4 of 5 eyes (all juvenile OAG), but thinned (Δ = -41 μm) in 1 eye with PCG. Humphrey visual fields (reliable in 2 of 3 eyes) showed no significant change. Group 2: Fourteen of 24 PCG eyes (58%) demonstrated cupping reversal, with preoperative vs postoperative mean IOP 36.1 ± 8.9 mm Hg vs 13.3 ± 2.1 mm Hg (P < .00001). Two eyes had thin RNFL postoperatively despite healthy-appearing ONH. Postoperative RNFL showed statistically significant linear correlation with preoperative (but not postoperative) cup-to-disc ratio. Limitations include small numbers, few reliable Humphrey visual fields, and absent preoperative imaging (Group 2). Some eyes with IOP reduction and ONH cupping reversal show continued RNFL thinning postoperatively. The preoperative ONH cup-to-disc ratio predicted the postoperative RNFL better than the postoperative "reversed and smaller" cup-to-disc ratio. Cupping reversal in pediatric glaucoma may not predict improved ONH health and deserves further study. Copyright © 2014

  1. ON THE ENHANCED CORONAL MASS EJECTION DETECTION RATE SINCE THE SOLAR CYCLE 23 POLAR FIELD REVERSAL

    SciT

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2015-10-10

    Compared to cycle 23, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with angular widths >30° have been observed to occur at a higher rate during solar cycle 24, per sunspot number. This result is supported by data from three independent databases constructed using Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment coronagraph images, two employing automated detection techniques and one compiled manually by human observers. According to the two databases that cover a larger field of view, the enhanced CME rate actually began shortly after the cycle 23 polar field reversal, in 2004, when the polar fields returned with a 40% reduction in strength andmore » the interplanetary radial magnetic field became ≈30% weaker. This result is consistent with the link between anomalous CME expansion and the heliospheric total pressure decrease recently reported by Gopalswamy et al.« less

  2. A Statistical Model of the Fluctuations in the Geomagnetic Field from Paleosecular Variation to Reversal

    PubMed

    Camps; Prevot

    1996-08-09

    The statistical characteristics of the local magnetic field of Earth during paleosecular variation, excursions, and reversals are described on the basis of a database that gathers the cleaned mean direction and average remanent intensity of 2741 lava flows that have erupted over the last 20 million years. A model consisting of a normally distributed axial dipole component plus an independent isotropic set of vectors with a Maxwellian distribution that simulates secular variation fits the range of geomagnetic fluctuations, in terms of both direction and intensity. This result suggests that the magnitude of secular variation vectors is independent of the magnitude of Earth's axial dipole moment and that the amplitude of secular variation is unchanged during reversals.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of noninductive helicity injection in the reversed-field pinch and tokamak

    SciT

    Sovinec, Carl R.

    1995-11-01

    Numerical computation is used to investigate resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) and in tokamak-like configurations driven solely by direct current (DC) helicity injection. A Lundquist number (S) scan of RFP turbulence without plasma pressure produces the weak scaling of S -0.18 for the root-mean-square magnetic fluctuation level for 2.5x10 3≤S≤4x10 4. The temporal behavior of fluctuations and the reversal parameter becomes more regular as S is increased, acquiring a "sawtooth" shape at the largest value of S. Simulations with plasma pressure and anisotropic thermal conduction demonstrate energy transport resulting from parallel heat fluctuations. To investigate meansmore » of improving RFP energy confinement, three forms of current profile modification are tested. Radio frequency (RF) current drive is modeled with an auxiliary electron force, and linear stability calculations are used.« less

  4. Sensing Reversible Protein–Ligand Interactions with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on the reversible detection of CaptAvidin, a tyrosine modified avidin, with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) noncovalently functionalized with biotin moieties using 1-pyrenebutyric acid as a linker. Binding affinities at different pH values were quantified, and the sensor’s response at various ionic strengths was analyzed. Furthermore, protein “fingerprints” of NeutrAvidin and streptavidin were obtained by monitoring their adsorption at several pH values. Moreover, gold nanoparticle decorated SWNT FETs were functionalized with biotin using 1-pyrenebutyric acid as a linker for the CNT surface and (±)-α-lipoic acid linkers for the gold surface, and reversible CaptAvidin binding is shown, paving the way for potential dual mode measurements with the addition of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). PMID:25126155

  5. Research on external flow field of a car based on reverse engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shushan; Liu, Ronge

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the point cloud data of FAW-VOLKSWAGEN car body shape is obtained by three coordinate measuring instrument and laser scanning method. The accurate three dimensional model of the car is obtained using CATIA software reverse modelling technology. The car body is gridded, the calculation field and boundary condition type of the car flow field are determined, and the numerical simulation is carried out in Hyper Mesh software. The pressure cloud diagram, velocity vector diagram, air resistance coefficient and lift coefficient of the car are obtained. The calculation results reflect the aerodynamic characteristics of the car's external flow field. The motion of the separation flow on the surface of the vehicle body is well simulated, and the area where the vortex motion is relatively intense has been determined. The results provide a theoretical basis for improving and optimizing the body shape.

  6. Suppression of the n=2 rotational instability in field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Alan L.; Slough, J.; Harding, Dennis G.

    1983-06-01

    Compact toroid plasmas formed in field-reversed theta pinches are generally destroyed after 30-50 μsec by a rotating n=2 instability. In the reported experiment, instability is controlled, and the plasma destruction is avoided in the TRX-1 theta pinch through the application of octopole magnetic fields. The decay times for loss of poloidal flux and particles are unaffected by the octopole fields. These decay times are about 100 μsec based on inferences from interferometry and excluded flux measurements. The weak, rotating elliptical disturbance (controlled n=2 mode) also made possible a novel determination of the density profile near the separatrix using single-chord interferometry. The local density gradient scale length in this region is found to be about one ion gyrodiameter.

  7. Resistive wall modes in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.

    2003-10-01

    Resistive wall modes (RWM) in the reversed field pinch are studied and a detailed comparison of experimental growth rates and linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is made. RWM growth rates are experimentally measured in the thin shell device EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1 (2001)]. Linear MHD calculations of RWM growth rates are based on experimental equilibria. Experimental and linear MHD RWM growth rate dependency on the equilibrium profiles is investigated experimentally by varying the pinch parameter Θ=Bθ(a)/ in the range Θ=1.5-1.8. Quantitative agreement between experimental and linear MHD growth rates is seen. The dominating RWMs are the internal on-axis modes (having the same helicity as the central equilibrium field). At high Θ, external nonresonant modes are also observed. For internal modes experimental growth rates decrease with Θ while for external modes, growth rates increase with Θ. The effect of RWMs on the reversed-field pinch plasma performance is discussed.

  8. Formation, spin-up, and stability of field-reversed configurations

    DOE PAGES

    Omelchenko, Yuri A.

    2015-08-24

    Formation, spontaneous spin-up and stability of theta-pinch formed field-reversed configurations are studied self-consistently in three dimensions with a multiscale hybrid model that treats all plasma ions as full-orbit collisional macro-particles and the electrons as a massless quasineutral fluid. The end-to-end hybrid simulations for the first time reveal poloidal profiles of implosion-driven fast toroidal plasma rotation and demonstrate three well-known discharge regimes as a function of experimental parameters: the decaying stable configuration, the tilt unstable configuration and the nonlinear evolution of a fast growing tearing mode.

  9. Tearing relaxation and the globalization of transport in field-reversed configurations

    SciT

    Steinhauer, Loren; Barnes, D. C.

    2009-09-15

    Tearing instability of field-reversed configurations (FRC) is investigated using the method of neighboring equilibria. It is shown that the conducting wall position in experiment lies very close to the location needed for tearing stability. This strongly suggests that vigorous but benign tearing modes, acting globally, are the engine of continual self-organization in FRCs, i.e., tearing relaxation. It also explains the ''profile consistency'' and anomalous loss rate of magnetic flux. In effect, tearing globalizes the effect of edge-driven transport.

  10. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E × B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport.

  11. Quantification of electrical field-induced flow reversal in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Pirat, C; Naso, A; van der Wouden, E J; Gardeniers, J G E; Lohse, D; van den Berg, A

    2008-06-01

    We characterize the electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with field effect flow control. High resolution measurements of the flow velocity, performed by micro particle image velocimetry, evidence the flow reversal induced by a local modification of the surface charge due to the presence of the gate. The shape of the microchannel cross-section is accurately extracted from these measurements. Experimental velocity profiles show a quantitative agreement with numerical results accounting for this exact shape. Analytical predictions assuming a rectangular cross-section are found to give a reasonable estimate of the velocity far enough from the walls.

  12. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    SciT

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed tomore » sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.« less

  13. Regular flow reversals in Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a horizontal magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Yuji; Igaki, Kazuto; Yanagisawa, Takatoshi; Vogt, Tobias; Zuerner, Till; Eckert, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Bénard convection was studied experimentally using a liquid metal inside a box with a square horizontal cross section and aspect ratio of five. Systematic flow measurements were performed by means of ultrasonic velocity profiling that can capture time variations of instantaneous velocity profiles. Applying a horizontal magnetic field organizes the convective motion into a flow pattern of quasi-two-dimensional rolls arranged parallel to the magnetic field. The number of rolls has the tendency to decrease with increasing Rayleigh number Ra and to increase with increasing Chandrasekhar number Q. We explored convection regimes in a parameter range, at 2×10^{3}reversals in which five rolls periodically change the direction of their circulation with gradual skew of the roll axes can be considered as the most remarkable one. The regime appears around a range of Ra/Q=10, where irregular flow reversals were observed in Yanagisawa et al. We performed the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis on the spatiotemporal velocity distribution and detected that the regular flow reversals can be interpreted as a periodic emergence of a four-roll state in a dominant five-roll state. The POD analysis also provides the definition of the effective number of rolls as a more objective approach.

  14. Observations of toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in a reversed field pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnoli, G.; Bergsâker, H.; Tennfors, E.; Zonca, F.; Martines, E.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Cecconello, M.; Antoni, V.; Cavazzana, R.; Malmberg, J.-A.

    2005-04-01

    High frequency peaks in the spectra of magnetic field signals have been detected at the edge of Extrap-T2R [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsåker, M. Cecconello, J. R. Drake, R. M. Gravestijn, A. Hedqvist, and J.-A. Malmberg, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 43, 1457 (2001)]. The measured fluctuation is found to be mainly polarized along the toroidal direction, with high toroidal periodicity n and Alfvénic scaling (f∝B/√mini ). Calculations for a reversed field pinch plasma predict the existence of an edge resonant, high frequency, high-n number toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmode with the observed frequency scaling. In addition, gas puffing experiments show that edge density fluctuations are responsible for the rapid changes of mode frequency. Finally a coupling with the electron drift turbulence is proposed as drive mechanism for the eigenmode.

  15. Electric field-induced reversible trapping of microtubules along metallic glass microwire electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyongwan; Sikora, Aurélien; Nakayama, Koji S.; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Hwang, Wonmuk; Teizer, Winfried

    2015-04-01

    Microtubules are among bio-polymers providing vital functions in dynamic cellular processes. Artificial organization of these bio-polymers is a requirement for transferring their native functions into device applications. Using electrophoresis, we achieve an accumulation of microtubules along a metallic glass (Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20) microwire in solution. According to an estimate based on migration velocities of microtubules approaching the wire, the electrophoretic mobility of microtubules is around 10-12 m2/Vs. This value is four orders of magnitude smaller than the typical mobility reported previously. Fluorescence microscopy at the individual-microtubule level shows microtubules aligning along the wire axis during the electric field-induced migration. Casein-treated electrodes are effective to reversibly release trapped microtubules upon removal of the external field. An additional result is the condensation of secondary filamentous structures from oriented microtubules.

  16. Cost Modeling and Design of Field-Reversed Configuration Fusion Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtley, David; Slough, John; Helion Team

    2017-10-01

    The Inductively Driven Liner (IDL) fusion concept uses the magnetically driven implosion of thin (0.5-1 mm) Aluminum hoops to magnetically compress a merged Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma to fusion conditions. Both the driver and the target have been studied experimentally and theoretically by researchers at Helion Energy, MSNW, and the University of Washington, demonstrating compression fields greater than 100 T and suitable fusion targets. In the presented study, a notional power plant facility using this approach will be described. In addition, a full cost study based on the LLNL Z-IFE and HYLIFE-II studies, the ARIES Tokamak concept, and RAND power plant studies will be described. Finally, the expected capital costs, development requirements, and LCOE for 50 and 500 MW power plants will be given. This analysis includes core FRC plant scaling, metallic liner recycling, radiation shielding, operations, and facilities capital requirements.

  17. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOEpatents

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-12-16

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  18. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOEpatents

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2007-02-20

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  19. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOEpatents

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-02-07

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  20. Weak-field ELF magnetic interactions: Implications for biological change during paleomagnetic reversals.

    PubMed

    Liboff, Abraham R

    2013-12-01

    Contrary to the belief that paleomagnetic reversals are not biologically significant, we find good reason to think otherwise. Attention is drawn to polarity transitions, time intervals a few thousand years long that follow the collapse of the existing geomagnetic dipole moment and precede the establishment of the new, oppositely directed moment. The geomagnetic field during transitions is reduced to a maximal mean intensity about 10% of the stable field and can exhibit low-frequency perturbations comparable to numerous laboratory-based extremely low frequency (ELF) studies reporting biological interactions, making it very likely that similar interactions must occur over the course of a polarity transition. This conclusion is strengthened by reports of medical problems that significantly correlate with intense solar winds, events that also generate ELF perturbations similar to those that can occur during polarity transitions.

  1. Applying "domino" model to study dipolar geomagnetic field reversals and secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peqini, Klaudio; Duka, Bejo

    2014-05-01

    Aiming to understand the physical processes underneath the reversals events of geomagnetic field, different numerical models have been conceived. We considered the so named "domino" model, an Ising-Heisenberg model of interacting magnetic spins aligned along a ring [Mazaud and Laj, EPSL, 1989; Mori et al., arXiv:1110.5062v2, 2012]. We will present here some results which are slightly different from the already published results, and will give our interpretation on the differences. Following the empirical studies of the long series of the axial magnetic moment (dipolar moment or "magnetization") generated by the model varying all model parameters, we defined the set of parameters that supply the longest mean time between reversals. Using this set of parameters, a short time series (about 10,000 years) of axial magnetic moment was generated. After de-noising the fluctuation of this time series, we compared it with the series of dipolar magnetic moment values supplied by CALS10K.1b model for the last 10000 years. We found similar behavior of the both series, even if the "domino" model could not supply a full explanation of the geomagnetic field SV. In a similar way we will compare a 14000 years long series with the dipolar magnetic moment obtained by the model SHA.DIF.14k [Pavón-Carrasco et al., EPSL, 2014].

  2. Magnetic moment scattering in a field reversal with nonzero BY component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, D. C.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the nonadiabatic motion of charged particles in a field reversal with nonzero BY. We show that magnetic moment variations are organized into three categories: (1) at small equatorial pitch angles, large magnetic moment enhancements regardless of gyration phase, (2) at intermediate pitch angles, a prominent dependence upon phase with either magnetic moment enhancement or damping, and (3) at large pitch angles, negligible magnetic moment changes. This three-branch pattern of magnetic moment variations resembles that obtained for zero BY, but it is here more or less developed when particles enter above or below the field reversal. We investigate this effect using the centrifugal impulse model developed for zero BY, whereby nonadiabatic behavior is viewed as the result of perturbation of the gyromotion by an impulsive centrifugal force. We show that nonzero BY leads to a rotation of the centrifugal impulse in the gyration plane and that the nonadiabatic particle behavior is attenuated or enhanced when this rotation opposes or goes together with the gyromotion, respectively. As a consequence of this, particles with opposite charge states or originating from opposite hemispheres behave in quite distinct manners, exhibiting for instance large or negligible magnetic moment changes depending upon their direction of propagation. More generally, we demonstrate that prominent hemispherical differences are obtained as a result of nonzero BY, be it for injection inside the loss cone or gyrophase bunching near the current sheet midplane.

  3. Reynolds stress flow shear and turbulent energy transfer in reversed field pinch configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, Nicola; Spolaore, Monica; Serianni, Gianluigi; Regnoli, Giorgio; Spada, Emanuele; Antoni, Vanni; Bergsåker, Henric; Drake, James R.

    2003-10-01

    The role of Reynolds Stress tensor on flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas is still an open question and the comprehension of its behavior may assist the understanding of improved confinement scenario. It is generally believed that shear flow generation may occur by an interaction of the turbulent Reynolds stress with the shear flow. It is also generally believed that this mechanism may influence the generation of zonal flow shears. The evaluation of the complete Reynolds Stress tensor requires contemporary measurements of its electrostatic and magnetic part: this requirement is more restrictive for Reversed Field Pinch configuration where magnetic fluctuations are larger than in tokamak . A new diagnostic system which combines electrostatic and magnetic probes has been installed in the edge region of Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch. With this new probe the Reynolds stress tensor has been deduced and its radial profile has been reconstructed on a shot to shot basis exploring differen plasma conditions. These profiles have been compared with the naturally occurring velocity flow profile, in particular during Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive experiment, where a strong variation of ExB flow radial profile has been registered. The study of the temporal evolution of Reynolds stress reveals the appearance of strong localized bursts: these are considered in relation with global MHD relaxation phenomena, which naturally occur in the core of an RFP plasma sustaining its configuration.

  4. Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J. R.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-11-01

    Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size.

  5. Dynamics of a reconnection-driven runaway ion tail in a reversed field pinch plasma

    SciT

    Anderson, J. K., E-mail: jkanders@wisc.edu; Kim, J.; Bonofiglo, P. J.

    2016-05-15

    While reconnection-driven ion heating is common in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, the underlying mechanisms for converting magnetic to kinetic energy remain not fully understood. Reversed field pinch discharges are often characterized by rapid ion heating during impulsive reconnection, generating an ion distribution with an enhanced bulk temperature, mainly perpendicular to magnetic field. In the Madison Symmetric Torus, a subset of discharges with the strongest reconnection events develop a very anisotropic, high energy tail parallel to magnetic field in addition to bulk perpendicular heating, which produces a fusion neutron flux orders of magnitude higher than that expected from a Maxwellian distribution.more » Here, we demonstrate that two factors in addition to a perpendicular bulk heating mechanism must be considered to explain this distribution. First, ion runaway can occur in the strong parallel-to-B electric field induced by a rapid equilibrium change triggered by reconnection-based relaxation; this effect is particularly strong on perpendicularly heated ions which experience a reduced frictional drag relative to bulk ions. Second, the confinement of ions varies dramatically as a function of velocity. Whereas thermal ions are governed by stochastic diffusion along tearing-altered field lines (and radial diffusion increases with parallel speed), sufficiently energetic ions are well confined, only weakly affected by a stochastic magnetic field. High energy ions traveling mainly in the direction of toroidal plasma current are nearly classically confined, while counter-propagating ions experience an intermediate confinement, greater than that of thermal ions but significantly less than classical expectations. The details of ion confinement tend to reinforce the asymmetric drive of the parallel electric field, resulting in a very asymmetric, anisotropic distribution.« less

  6. Interaction of Fast Ions with Global Plasma Modes in the C-2 Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Clary, Ryan; Korepanov, Sergey; Thompson, Matthew; Trask, Erik; Tuszewski, Michel

    2012-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime [1] with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment [2, 3]. We present experimental and computational results on the interaction of fast ions with the n=2 rotational and n=1 wobble modes in the C-2 FRC. It is found that the n=2 mode is similar to quadrupole magnetic fields in its detrimental effect on the fast ion transport due to symmetry breaking. The plasma gun generates an inward radial electric field, thus stabilizing the n=2 rotational instability without applying the quadrupole magnetic fields. The resultant FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The NBI further suppresses the n=2 mode, improves the plasma confinement characteristics, and increases the plasma configuration lifetime [4]. The n=1 wobble mode has relatively little effect on the fast ion transport, likely due to the approximate axisymmetry about the displaced plasma column. [4pt] [1] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012).[0pt] [2] M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010).[0pt] [3] H.Y. Guo et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056110 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056108 (2012)

  7. Hall effect on a Merging Formation Process of a Field-Reversed Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Guo, Xuehan; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; Horiuchi, Ritoku

    2015-11-01

    Counter-helicity spheromak merging is one of the formation methods of a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). In counter-helicity spheromak merging, two spheromaks with opposing toroidal fields merge together, through magnetic reconnection events and relax into a FRC, which has no or little toroidal field. This process contains magnetic reconnection and a relaxation phenomena, and the Hall effect has some essential effects on these process because the X-point in the magnetic reconnection or the O-point of the FRC has no or little magnetic field. However, the Hall effect as both global and local effect on counter-helicity spheromak merging has not been elucidated. In this poster, we conducted 2D/3D Hall-MHD simulations and experiments of counter-helicity spheromak merging. We find that the Hall effect enhances the reconnection rate, and reduces the generation of toroidal sheared-flow. The suppression of the ``slingshot effect'' affects the relaxation process. We will discuss details in the poster.

  8. New reversing freeform lens design method for LED uniform illumination with extended source and near field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhili; Zhang, Honghai; Zheng, Huai; Liu, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    In light-emitting diode (LED) array illumination (e.g. LED backlighting), obtainment of high uniformity in the harsh condition of the large distance height ratio (DHR), extended source and near field is a key as well as challenging issue. In this study, we present a new reversing freeform lens design algorithm based on the illuminance distribution function (IDF) instead of the traditional light intensity distribution, which allows uniform LED illumination in the above mentioned harsh conditions. IDF of freeform lens can be obtained by the proposed mathematical method, considering the effects of large DHR, extended source and near field target at the same time. In order to prove the claims, a slim direct-lit LED backlighting with DHR equal to 4 is designed. In comparison with the traditional lenses, illuminance uniformity of LED backlighting with the new lens increases significantly from 0.45 to 0.84, and CV(RMSE) decreases dramatically from 0.24 to 0.03 in the harsh condition. Meanwhile, luminance uniformity of LED backlighting with the new lens is obtained as high as 0.92 at the condition of extended source and near field. This new method provides a practical and effective way to solve the problem of large DHR, extended source and near field for LED array illumination.

  9. Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.

    2006-07-01

    Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of td≈10τw is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system.

  10. Magnetized Reverse Shock: Density-fluctuation-induced Field Distortion, Polarization Degree Reduction, and Application to GRBs

    SciT

    Deng Wei; Zhang Bing; Li Hui

    The early optical afterglow emission of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) shows a high linear polarization degree (PD) of tens of percent, suggesting an ordered magnetic field in the emission region. The light curves are consistent with being of a reverse shock (RS) origin. However, the magnetization parameter, σ , of the outflow is unknown. If σ is too small, an ordered field in the RS may be quickly randomized due to turbulence driven by various perturbations so that the PD may not be as high as observed. Here we use the “Athena++” relativistic MHD code to simulate a relativistic jetmore » with an ordered magnetic field propagating into a clumpy ambient medium, with a focus on how density fluctuations may distort the ordered magnetic field and reduce PD in the RS emission for different σ values. For a given density fluctuation, we discover a clear power-law relationship between the relative PD reduction and the σ value of the outflow. Such a relation may be applied to estimate σ of the GRB outflows using the polarization data of early afterglows.« less

  11. Magnetized Reverse Shock: Density-fluctuation-induced Field Distortion, Polarization Degree Reduction, and Application to GRBs

    SciT

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hui

    We report that the early optical afterglow emission of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) shows a high linear polarization degree (PD) of tens of percent, suggesting an ordered magnetic field in the emission region. The light curves are consistent with being of a reverse shock (RS) origin. However, the magnetization parameter, σ, of the outflow is unknown. If σ is too small, an ordered field in the RS may be quickly randomized due to turbulence driven by various perturbations so that the PD may not be as high as observed. Here we use the "Athena++" relativistic MHD code to simulate amore » relativistic jet with an ordered magnetic field propagating into a clumpy ambient medium, with a focus on how density fluctuations may distort the ordered magnetic field and reduce PD in the RS emission for different σ values. For a given density fluctuation, we discover a clear power-law relationship between the relative PD reduction and the σ value of the outflow. Finally, such a relation may be applied to estimate σ of the GRB outflows using the polarization data of early afterglows.« less

  12. Magnetized Reverse Shock: Density-fluctuation-induced Field Distortion, Polarization Degree Reduction, and Application to GRBs

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hui; ...

    2017-08-03

    We report that the early optical afterglow emission of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) shows a high linear polarization degree (PD) of tens of percent, suggesting an ordered magnetic field in the emission region. The light curves are consistent with being of a reverse shock (RS) origin. However, the magnetization parameter, σ, of the outflow is unknown. If σ is too small, an ordered field in the RS may be quickly randomized due to turbulence driven by various perturbations so that the PD may not be as high as observed. Here we use the "Athena++" relativistic MHD code to simulate amore » relativistic jet with an ordered magnetic field propagating into a clumpy ambient medium, with a focus on how density fluctuations may distort the ordered magnetic field and reduce PD in the RS emission for different σ values. For a given density fluctuation, we discover a clear power-law relationship between the relative PD reduction and the σ value of the outflow. Finally, such a relation may be applied to estimate σ of the GRB outflows using the polarization data of early afterglows.« less

  13. Error field assessment from driven rotation of stable external kinks at EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.

    2013-04-01

    A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n = 10 and n = 8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behaviour was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic EFs of n = 8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mode rotation in response to a uniformly rotating perturbation. The results are in good agreement with theory, and the extension to lower n, to tearing modes and to tokamaks, including ITER, is discussed.

  14. Effects of the resistivity profile on the formation of a reversed configuration and single helicity states in compressible simulations of the reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.

    2013-10-15

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. Previous simulations of the RFP, including density and pressure evolution, showed that a stationary state with a reversed toroidal magnetic field could not be obtained, contrary to the results produced with numerical codes neglecting density and pressure dynamics. The simulations described in the present paper show that including density and pressure evolution, a stationary RFP configuration can be obtained if the resistivity has a radial profile steeply increasing close to the wall. Such resistivity profile is more realistic than a uniform resistivity, since the temperature at the wall is lowermore » than in the plasma core.« less

  15. Microturbulence studies of pulsed poloidal current drive discharges in the reversed field pinch

    SciT

    Carmody, D., E-mail: dcarmody@wisc.edu; Pueschel, M. J.; Anderson, J. K.

    2015-01-15

    Experimental discharges with pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch are investigated using a semi-analytic equilibrium model in the gyrokinetic turbulence code GENE. PPCD cases, with plasma currents of 500 kA and 200 kA, exhibit a density-gradient-driven trapped electron mode (TEM) and an ion temperature gradient mode, respectively. Relative to expectations of tokamak core plasmas, the critical gradients for the onset of these instabilities are found to be greater by roughly a factor of the aspect ratio. A significant upshift in the nonlinear TEM transport threshold, previously found for tokamaks, is confirmed in nonlinear reversed fieldmore » pinch simulations and is roughly three times the threshold for linear instability. The simulated heat fluxes can be brought in agreement with measured diffusivities by introducing a small, resonant magnetic perturbation, thus modeling the residual fluctuations from tearing modes. These fluctuations significantly enhance transport.« less

  16. Stability and confinement improvement of an oblate field-reversed configuration by using neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T., Ii; Inomoto, M.; Gi, K.; Umezawa, T.; Ito, T.; Kadowaki, K.; Kaminou, Y.; Ono, Y.

    2013-07-01

    A low-energy, high-current neutral beam injection (NBI) was applied to an oblate field-reversed configuration (FRC) for the first time. The NB fast ions reduce growth rates of low-n modes dangerous for the oblate FRC, extending the FRC lifetime by a factor of 1.2. The reduced loss power of 5 MW is much higher than the NBI power of 0.5 MW, indicating that the NBI not only heats the FRC plasma but also improves its stability and transport properties. The NBI also maintains higher pressure and current density profiles of the FRC, improving its flux and energy decay times by a factor of 2.

  17. Advanced Biasing Experiments on the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Korepanov, Sergey; Garate, Eusebio; Yang, Xiaokang; Gota, Hiroshi; Douglass, Jon; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Uchizono, Nolan; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    The C-2 experiment seeks to study the evolution, heating and sustainment effects of neutral beam injection on field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. Recently, substantial improvements in plasma performance were achieved through the application of edge biasing with coaxial plasma guns located in the divertors. Edge biasing provides rotation control that reduces instabilities and E × B shear that improves confinement. Typically, the plasma gun arcs are run at ~ 10 MW for the entire shot duration (~ 5 ms), which will become unsustainable as the plasma duration increases. We have conducted several advanced biasing experiments with reduced-average-power plasma gun operating modes and alternative biasing cathodes in an effort to develop an effective biasing scenario applicable to steady state FRC plasmas. Early results show that several techniques can potentially provide effective, long-duration edge biasing.

  18. Field-Reversed Configuration Power Plant Critical-Issue Scoping Study

    SciT

    Santarius, J. F.; Mogahed, E. A.; Emmert, G. A.

    A team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed an engineering scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis for deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core. For the engineering conceptual design of the fusion core, the project team focused on intermediate-term technology. For example, one decision was to use steele structure. The FRC systems analysis led to a fusion power plant with attractive features including modest size, cylindrical symmetry, goodmore » thermal efficiency (52%), relatively easy maintenance, and a high ratio of electric power to fusion core mass, indicating that it would have favorable economics.« less

  19. Field-Free Programmable Spin Logics via Chirality-Reversible Spin-Orbit Torque Switching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Wan, Caihua; Kong, Wenjie; Zhang, Xuan; Xing, Yaowen; Fang, Chi; Tao, Bingshan; Yang, Wenlong; Huang, Li; Wu, Hao; Irfan, Muhammad; Han, Xiufeng

    2018-06-21

    Spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced magnetization switching exhibits chirality (clockwise or counterclockwise), which offers the prospect of programmable spin-logic devices integrating nonvolatile spintronic memory cells with logic functions. Chirality is usually fixed by an applied or effective magnetic field in reported studies. Herein, utilizing an in-plane magnetic layer that is also switchable by SOT, the chirality of a perpendicular magnetic layer that is exchange-coupled with the in-plane layer can be reversed in a purely electrical way. In a single Hall bar device designed from this multilayer structure, three logic gates including AND, NAND, and NOT are reconfigured, which opens a gateway toward practical programmable spin-logic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Wide angle near-field optical probes by reverse tube etching.

    PubMed

    Patanè, S; Cefalì, E; Arena, A; Gucciardi, P G; Allegrini, M

    2006-04-01

    We present a simple modification of the tube etching process for the fabrication of fiber probes for near-field optical microscopy. It increases the taper angle of the probe by a factor of two. The novelty is that the fiber is immersed in hydrofluoric acid and chemically etched in an upside-down geometry. The tip formation occurs inside the micrometer tube cavity formed by the polymeric jacket. By applying this approach, called reverse tube etching, to multimode fibers with 200/250 microm core/cladding diameter, we have fabricated tapered regions featuring high surface smoothness and average cone angles of approximately 30 degrees . A simple model based on the crucial role of the gravity in removing the etching products, explains the tip formation process.

  1. Positional stability of field-reversed-configurations in the presence of resistive walls

    SciT

    Rath, N., E-mail: nrath@trialphanenergy.com; Onofri, M.; Barnes, D. C.

    2016-06-15

    We show that in a field-reversed-configuration, the plasma is unstable to either transverse or axial rigid displacement, but never to both. Driving forces are found to be parallel to the direction of displacement with no orthogonal components. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the properties of a resistive wall (geometry and resistivity) in the vicinity of the plasma do not affect whether the plasma is stable or unstable, but in the case of an unstable system determine the instability growth rate. Depending on the properties of the wall, the instability growth is dominated by plasma inertia (and not affected by wall resistivity)more » or dominated by ohmic dissipation of wall eddy currents (and thus proportional to the wall resistivity).« less

  2. A model for inferring transport rates from observed confinement times in field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.; Milroy, Richard D.; Slough, John T.

    1985-03-01

    A one-dimensional transport model is developed to simulate the confinement of plasma and magnetic flux in a field-reversed configuration. Given the resistivity, the confinement times can be calculated. Approximate expressions are found which yield the magnitude and gross profile of the resistivity if the confinement times are known. These results are applied to experimental data from experiments, primarily TRX-1, to uncover trends in the transport properties. Several important conclusions emerge. The transport depends profoundly, and inexplicably, on the plasma formation mode. The inferred transport differs in several ways from the predictions of local lower-hybrid-drift turbulence theory. Finally, the gross resistivity exhibits an unusual trend with xs (separatrix radius rs divided by the conducting wall radius rc ), and is peaked near the magnetic axis for certain predictable conditions.

  3. Experiments and modelling of active quasi-single helicity regime generation in a reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.

    2009-07-01

    The interaction of a static resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) with a tearing mode (TM) is becoming a relevant topic in fusion plasma physics. RMPs can be generated by active coils and then used to affect the properties of TMs and of the corresponding magnetic islands. This paper shows how the feedback system of the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch (RFP) can produce a RMP that affects a rotating TM and stimulate the transition to the so-called quasi-single helicity (QSH) regime, a RFP plasma state characterized by a magnetic island surrounded by low magnetic chaos. The application of the RMP can increase the QSH probability up to 10% and enlarge the size of the corresponding island. Part of the experimental results are supported by a theoretical study that models the effect of the active coils on the magnetic island.

  4. A titanium hydride gun for plasma injection into the T2-reversed field pinch device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. V.; Hellblom, K. G.

    1999-02-01

    A study of a plasma gun (modified Bostic type) with titanium hydride electrodes has been carried out. The total number of released hydrogen atoms was in the range 1016-1018 and the maximum plasma flow velocity was 2.5×105 m s-1. The ion density near the gun edge reached 1.8×1020 m-3 and the electron temperature was around 40 eV as estimated from probe measurements. No species other than hydrogen or titanium were seen in the plasma line radiation. The plasma injector was successfully used for gas pre-ionization in the Extrap T2 reversed-field pinch device (ohmic heating toroidal experiment (OHTE)).

  5. Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallander, J.

    1999-05-01

    Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities.

  6. Coherent structure diffusivity in the edge region of Reversed Field Pinch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spolaore, M.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Bergsåker, H.; Cavazzana, R.; Drake, J. R.; Martines, E.; Regnoli, G.; Serianni, G.; Vianello, N.

    2005-01-01

    Coherent structures emerging from the background turbulence have been detected by electrostatic measurements in the edge region of two Reversed Field Pinch experiments, RFX (Padua) and Extrap-T2R (Stockholm). Measurements have been performed by arrays of Langmuir probes which allowed simultaneous measurements of temperature, potential and density to be carried out. These structures have been interpreted as a dynamic balance of dipolar and monopolar vortices, whose relative population are found to depend on the local mean E × B flow shear. The contribution to the anomalous transport of these structures has been investigated and it has been found that the corresponding diffusion coeffcient accounts up to 50% of the total diffusivity. The experimental findings indicate that the diffusion coeffcient associated to the coherent structures depends on the relative population of the two types of vortices and is minimum when the two populations are equal. An interpretative model is proposed to explain this feature.

  7. Sheared E×B flow and plasma turbulence viscosity in a Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Regnoli, G.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-11-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic turbulence and sheared plasma flow in Reversed Field Pinch configuration is addressed. The momentum balance equation for a compressible plasma is considered and the terms involved are measured in the outer region of Extrap-T2R RFP device. It results that electrostatic fluctuations determine the plasma flow through the electrostatic component of Reynolds Stress tensor. This term involves spatial and temporal scales comparable to those of MHD activity. The derived experimental perpendicular viscosity is consistent with anomalous diffusion, the latter being discussed in terms of electrostatic turbulence background and coherent structures emerging from fluctuations. The results indicate a dynamical interplay between turbulence, anomalous transport and mean E×B profiles. The momentum balance has been studied also in non-stationary condition during the application of Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive, which is known to reduce the amplitude of MHD modes.

  8. Electrically reversible cracks in an intermetallic film controlled by an electric field

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Z. Q.; Liu, J. H.; Biegalski, M. D.; ...

    2018-01-03

    Cracks in solid-state materials are typically irreversible. We report electrically reversible opening and closing of nanoscale cracks in an intermetallic thin film grown on a ferroelectric substrate driven by a small electric field (~0.83 kV/cm). Accordingly, a nonvolatile colossal electroresistance on-off ratio of more than 10 8 is measured across the cracks in the intermetallic film at room temperature. Cracks are easily formed with low-frequency voltage cycling and remain stable when the device is operated at high frequency, which offers intriguing potential for next-generation high-frequency memory applications. Moreover, endurance testing demonstrates that the opening and closing of such cracks canmore » reach over 10 7 cycles under 10-μs pulses, without catastrophic failure of the film.« less

  9. Electrically reversible cracks in an intermetallic film controlled by an electric field

    SciT

    Liu, Z. Q.; Liu, J. H.; Biegalski, M. D.

    Cracks in solid-state materials are typically irreversible. We report electrically reversible opening and closing of nanoscale cracks in an intermetallic thin film grown on a ferroelectric substrate driven by a small electric field (~0.83 kV/cm). Accordingly, a nonvolatile colossal electroresistance on-off ratio of more than 10 8 is measured across the cracks in the intermetallic film at room temperature. Cracks are easily formed with low-frequency voltage cycling and remain stable when the device is operated at high frequency, which offers intriguing potential for next-generation high-frequency memory applications. Moreover, endurance testing demonstrates that the opening and closing of such cracks canmore » reach over 10 7 cycles under 10-μs pulses, without catastrophic failure of the film.« less

  10. A short introduction to the status and motivation for reversed field pinch and compact toroid research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreicer, H.

    1987-09-01

    Potential commercial fusion power systems must be acceptable from a safety and environmental standpoint. They must also promise to be competitive with other sources of energy (i.e., fossil, fission, etc.) when considered from the standpoint of the cost of electricity (COE) and the unit direct cost (UDC) in dollars/kWe. These costs are affected by a host of factors including recirculating power, plant availability, construction time, capital cost, etc., and are influenced by technological complexity. In an attempt to meet these requirements, the emphasis of fusion research in the United States has been moving toward smaller, lower-cost systems. There is increased interest in higher beta tokamaks and stellarators, and in compact alternate concepts such as the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) and the Compact Toroids (CTs) which are, in part, the subject of this paper.

  11. Acoustic Longitudinal Field NIF Optic Feature Detection Map Using Time-Reversal & MUSIC

    SciT

    Lehman, S K

    2006-02-09

    We developed an ultrasonic longitudinal field time-reversal and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) based detection algorithm for identifying and mapping flaws in fused silica NIF optics. The algorithm requires a fully multistatic data set, that is one with multiple, independently operated, spatially diverse transducers, each transmitter of which, in succession, launches a pulse into the optic and the scattered signal measured and recorded at every receiver. We have successfully localized engineered ''defects'' larger than 1 mm in an optic. We confirmed detection and localization of 3 mm and 5 mm features in experimental data, and a 0.5 mm in simulated datamore » with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. We present the theory, experimental results, and simulated results.« less

  12. Fluctuation reduction and enhanced confinement in the MST reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Chapman, Brett Edward

    1997-10-01

    Plasmas with a factor of ≥3 improvement in energy confinement have been achieved in the MST reversed-field pinch (RFP). These plasmas occur spontaneously, following sawtooth crashes, subject to constraints on, eg, toroidal magnetic field reversal and wall conditioning. Possible contributors to the improved confinement include a reduction of core-resonant, global magnetic fluctuations and a reduction of electrostatic fluctuations over the entire plasma edge. One feature of these plasmas is a region of strong ExB flow shear in the edge. Never before observed in conjunction with enhanced confinement in the RFP, such shear is common in enhanced confinement discharges in tokamaks and stellarators. Another feature of these plasmas is a new type of discrete dynamo event. Like sawtooth crashes, a common form of discrete dynamo, these events correspond to bursts of edge parallel current. The reduction of electrostatic fluctuations in these plasmas occurs within and beyond the region of strong ExB flow shear, similar to what is observed in tokamaks and stellarators. However, the reductions in the MST include fluctuations whose correlation lengths are larger than the width of the shear region. The reduction of the global magnetic fluctuations is most likely due to flattening of the μ=μ 0more » $$\\vec{J}$$∙$$\\vec{B}$$/B 2 profile. Flattening can occur, eg, due to the new type of discrete dynamo event and reduced edge resistivity. Enhanced confinement plasmas are also achieved in the MST when auxiliary current is applied to flatten the μ profile and reduce magnetic fluctuations. Unexpectedly, these plasmas also exhibit a region (broader than in the case above) of strong ExB flow shear in the edge, an edge-wide reduction of electrostatic fluctuations, and the new type of discrete dynamo event. Auxiliary current drive has historically been viewed as the principal route to fusion reactor viability for the RFP.« less

  13. Detection and Analysis of X Ray Emission from the Princeton-Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosh, Alexandra; Swanson, Charles; Jandovitz, Peter; Cohen, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    The PFRC is an odd-parity rotating-magnetic-field-driven field-reversed-configuration magnetic confinement experiment. Studying X rays produced via electron Bremsstrahlung with neutral particles is crucial to the further understanding of the energy and particle confinement of the PFRC. The data on the x rays are collected using a detector system comprised of two, spatially scannable Amptek XR-100 CR detectors and a Amptek XR-100 SDD detector that view the plasma column at two axial locations, one in the divertor and one near the axial midplane. These provide X-ray energy and arrival-time information. (Data analysis requires measurement of each detector's efficiency, a parameter that is modified by window transmission. Detector calibrations were performed with a custom-made X-ray tube that impinged 1-microamp 1-5 kV electron beams onto a carbon target.) From the analyzed data, the average electron energy, effective temperature, and electron density can be extracted. Spatial scans then allow the FRC's internal energy to be measured. We present recent measurements of the Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 0.8 to 6 keV and the inferred electron temperature in the PFRC device as functions of heating power, magnetic field and fill gas pressure. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. Increasing The Electric Field For An Improved Search For Time-Reversal Violation Using Radium-225

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Radium-225 atoms, because of their unusual pear-shaped nuclei, have an enhanced sensitivity to the violation of time reversal symmetry. A breakdown of this fundamental symmetry could help explain the apparent scarcity of antimatter in the Universe. Our goal is to improve the statistical sensitivity of an ongoing experiment that precisely measures the EDM of Radium-225. This can be done by increasing the electric field acting on the Radium atoms. We do this by increasing the voltage that can be reliably applied between two electrodes, and narrowing the gap between them. We use a varying high voltage system to condition the electrodes using incremental voltage ramp tests to achieve higher voltage potential differences. Using an adjustable gap mount to change the distance between the electrodes, specific metals for their composition, and a clean room procedure to keep particulates out of the system, we produce a higher and more stable electric field. Progress is marked by measurements of the leakage current between the electrodes during our incremental voltage ramp tests or emulated tests of the actual experiment, with low and constant current showing stability of the field. This project is supported by Michigan State University, and the US DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  15. Modelling of Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment with Large Safety Factor

    SciT

    Steinhauer, L; Guo, H; Hoffman, A

    2005-11-28

    The Translation-Confinement-Sustainment facility has been operated in the 'translation-formation' mode in which a plasma is ejected at high-speed from a {theta}-pinch-like source into a confinement chamber where it settles into a field-reversed-configuration state. Measurements of the poloidal and toroidal field have been the basis of modeling to infer the safety factor. It is found that the edge safety factor exceeds two, and that there is strong forward magnetic shear. The high-q arises because the large elongation compensates for the modest ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal field in the plasma. This is the first known instance of a very high-{beta} plasma with amore » safety factor greater than unity. Two-fluid modeling of the measurements also indicate several other significant features: a broad 'transition layer' at the plasma boundary with probable line-tying effects, complex high-speed flows, and the appearance of a two-fluid minimum-energy state in the plasma core. All these features may contribute to both the stability and good confinement of the plasma.« less

  16. Observation of energetic electron confinement in a largely stochastic reversed-field pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.; Chapman, B. E.; O'Connell, R.; Almagri, A. F.; Burke, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Kaufman, M. C.; Bonomo, F.; Franz, P.; Gobbin, M.; Piovesan, P.

    2010-01-01

    Runaway electrons with energies >100 keV are observed with the appearance of an m =1 magnetic island in the core of otherwise stochastic Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed-field-pinch plasmas. The island is associated with the innermost resonant tearing mode, which is usually the largest in the m =1 spectrum. The island appears over a range of mode spectra, from those with a weakly dominant mode to those, referred to as quasi single helicity, with a strongly dominant mode. In a stochastic field, the rate of electron loss increases with electron parallel velocity. Hence, high-energy electrons imply a region of reduced stochasticity. The global energy confinement time is about the same as in plasmas without high-energy electrons or an island in the core. Hence, the region of reduced stochasticity must be localized. Within a numerical reconstruction of the magnetic field topology, high-energy electrons are substantially better confined inside the island, relative to the external region. Therefore, it is deduced that the island provides a region of reduced stochasticity and that the high-energy electrons are generated and well confined within this region.

  17. Reversed Field Pinch helical self-organization studies with the volume preserving field line tracing code NEMATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfiglio, D.; Veranda, M.; Cappello, S.; Chacon, L.; Escande, D. F.; Piovesan, P.

    2009-11-01

    The existence of a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) dynamo as a (laminar) helical self-organization was anticipated by MHD numerical studies [1]. High current operation in RFX-mod experiment shows such a helical self-organization: strong internal electron transport barriers (ITB) appear and magnetic chaos healing is diagnosed when Single Helical Axis (SHAx) regimes are achieved [2]. We present results of the field line tracing code NEMATO [3] applied to study the magnetic topology resulting from 3D MHD simulations, with the aim of clarifying the conditions for chaos healing in SHAx states. First tests confirm the basic picture: the magnetic chaos due to island overlap is significantly reduced after the expulsion of the dominant mode separatrix. The possible synergy with the presence of magnetic and/or flow shear at the SHAx ITB will also be discussed [4].[4pt] [1] S. Cappello, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion (2004) & references therein [0pt] [2] R. Lorenzini et al., Nature Phys. (2009) [0pt] [3] J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas (2005) [0pt] [4] M.E. Puiatti et al invited presentation EPS 2009 conference, submitted to Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion

  18. Turbulence, transport, and zonal flows in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Z. R.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hauff, T.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness and the effect of zonal flows in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are investigated from numerical solutions of the gyrokinetic equations with and without magnetic external perturbations introduced to model tearing modes. For simulations without external magnetic field perturbations, zonal flows produce a much larger reduction of transport for the density-gradient-driven TEM turbulence than they do for the ITG turbulence. Zonal flows are studied in detail to understand the nature of their strong excitation in the RFP and to gain insight into the key differences between the TEM- and ITG-driven regimes. The zonal flow residuals are significantly larger in the RFP than in tokamak geometry due to the low safety factor. Collisionality is seen to play a significant role in the TEM zonal flow regulation through the different responses of the linear growth rate and the size of the Dimits shift to collisionality, while affecting the ITG only minimally. A secondary instability analysis reveals that the TEM turbulence drives zonal flows at a rate that is twice that of the ITG turbulence. In addition to interfering with zonal flows, the magnetic perturbations are found to obviate an energy scaling relation for fast particles.

  19. Solar Open Flux Migration from Pole to Pole: Magnetic Field Reversal.

    PubMed

    Huang, G-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, L C

    2017-08-25

    Coronal holes are solar regions with low soft X-ray or low extreme ultraviolet intensities. The magnetic fields from coronal holes extend far away from the Sun, and thus they are identified as regions with open magnetic field lines. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. In this work, we identify coronal holes with outward and inward open magnetic fluxes being in the opposite poles during solar quiet period. We find that during the sunspot rising phase, the outward and inward open fluxes perform pole-to-pole trans-equatorial migrations in opposite directions. The migration of the open fluxes consists of three parts: open flux areas migrating across the equator, new open flux areas generated in the low latitude and migrating poleward, and new open flux areas locally generated in the polar region. All three components contribute to the reversal of magnetic polarity. The percentage of contribution from each component is different for different solar cycle. Our results also show that the sunspot number is positively correlated with the lower-latitude open magnetic flux area, but negatively correlated with the total open flux area.

  20. Langmuir probe diagnostic suite in the C-2 field-reversed configuration

    SciT

    Roche, T., E-mail: troche@trialphaenergy.com; Armstrong, S.; Knapp, K.

    2014-11-15

    Several in situ probes have been designed and implemented into the diagnostic array of the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) at Tri Alpha Energy [M. Tuszewski et al. (the TAE Team), Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)]. The probes are all variations on the traditional Langmuir probe. They include linear arrays of triple probes, linear arrays of single-tipped swept probes, a multi-faced Gundestrup probe, and an ion-sensitive probe. The probes vary from 5 to 7 mm diameter in size to minimize plasma perturbations. They also have boron nitride outer casings that prevent unwanted electrical breakdown and reduce the introduction of impurities.more » The probes are mounted on motorized linear-actuators allowing for programmatic scans of the various plasma parameters over the course of several shots. Each probe has a custom set of electronics that allows for measurement of the desired signals. High frequency ( > 5MHz) analog optical-isolators ensure that plasma parameters can be measured at sub-microsecond time scales while providing electrical isolation between machine and data acquisition systems. With these probes time-resolved plasma parameters (temperature, density, spatial potential, flow, and electric field) can be directly/locally measured in the FRC jet and edge/scrape-off layer.« less

  1. Locked modes in two reversed-field pinch devices of different size and shell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmberg, J.-A.; Brunsell, P. R.; Yagi, Y.; Koguchi, H.

    2000-10-01

    The behavior of locked modes in two reversed-field pinch devices, the Toroidal Pinch Experiment (TPE-RX) [Y. Yagi et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, 2552 (1999)] and Extrap T2 [J. R. Drake et al., in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1996, Montreal (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1996), Vol. 2, p. 193] is analyzed and compared. The main characteristics of the locked mode are qualitatively similar. The toroidal distribution of the mode locking shows that field errors play a role in both devices. The probability of phase locking is found to increase with increasing magnetic fluctuation levels in both machines. Furthermore, the probability of phase locking increases with plasma current in TPE-RX despite the fact that the magnetic fluctuation levels decrease. A comparison with computations using a theoretical model estimating the critical mode amplitude for locking [R. Fitzpatrick et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 3878 (1999)] shows a good correlation with experimental results in TPE-RX. In Extrap T2, the magnetic fluctuations scale weakly with both plasma current and electron densities. This is also reflected in the weak scaling of the magnetic fluctuation levels with the Lundquist number (˜S-0.06). In TPE-RX, the corresponding scaling is ˜S-0.18.

  2. Fusion Ash Separation in the Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Joseph; Yeh, Meagan; McGreivy, Nick; Cohen, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) concept relies on low-neutron production by D-3He fusion to enable small, safe nuclear-fusion reactors to be built, an approach requiring rapid and efficient extraction of fusion ash and energy produced by D-3He fusion reactions. The ash exhaust stream would contain energetic (0.1-1 MeV) protons, T, 3He, and 4He ions and nearly 1e5 cooler (ca. 100 eV) D ions. The T extracted from the reactor would be a valuable fusion product in that it decays into 3He, which could be used as fuel. If the T were not extracted it would be troublesome because of neutron production by the D-T reaction. This paper discusses methods to separate the various species in a PFRC reactor's exhaust stream. First, we discuss the use of curved magnetic fields to separate the energetic from the cool components. Then we discuss exploiting material properties, specifically reflection, sputtering threshold, and permeability, to allow separation of the hydrogen from the helium isotopes. DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    SciT

    Cheng, Hongguang, E-mail: chenghg7932@gmail.com; Deng, Ning

    2013-12-15

    We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor Δ of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10{sup −9} can be achieved for the device of thermalmore » stability factor Δ of 40. Low damping factor α material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM) applications.« less

  4. Design and Construction of Field Reversed Configuration Plasma Chamber for Plasma Material Interaction Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, DuWayne L.

    A Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma source was designed and constructed to conduct high energy plasma-materials interaction studies. The purpose of these studies is the development of advanced materials for use in plasma based electric propulsion systems and nuclear fusion containment vessels. Outlined within this thesis is the basic concept of FRC plasmoid creation, an overview of the device design and integration of various diagnostics systems for plasma conditions and characterization, discussion on the variety of material defects resulting from the plasma exposure with methods and tools designed for characterization. Using a Michelson interferometer it was determined that the FRC plasma densities are on the order of ~1021 m-3. A novel dynamic pressure probe was created to measure ion velocities averaging 300 km/s. Compensating flux loop arrays were used to measure magnetic field strength and verify the existence of the FRC plasmoid and when used in combination with density measurements it was determined that the average ion temperatures are ~130 eV. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was employed as a means of characterizing the size and shape of the plasma jet in the sample exposure positions. SEM results from preliminary studies reveal significant morphological changes on plasma facing material surfaces, and use of XRD to elucidate fuel gas-ion implantation strain rates correlated to plasma exposure energies.

  5. Temperature-dependent magnetic field effect study on exciplex luminescence: probing the triton X-100 reverse micelle in cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Das, Doyel; Nath, Deb Narayan

    2007-09-20

    The microenvironment within the reverse micelle of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in cyclohexane has been investigated by studying the magnetic field effect (MFE) on pyrene-dimethylaniline exciplex luminescence. The nature of exciplex fluorescence and its behavior in the presence of a magnetic field have been found to vary significantly with the water content of the medium. Results are discussed in light of multiple exciplex formation within the micelle which is further supported by the fluorescence lifetime measurements. Those exciplexes emitting at longer wavelength are found to be magnetic field sensitive while those emitting toward the blue region of the spectrum are insensitive toward magnetic field. Since the exciplex's emission characteristics and magnetic field sensitivity depend on its immediate surrounding, it has been concluded that the environment within the micelle is nonuniform. With an increase in hydration level, different zones of varying polarity are created within the reverse micelle. It has been pointed out that the magnetic field sensitive components reside inside the polar core of the micelle while those located near the hydrocarbon tail are field insensitive. However it has been presumed that an interconversion between the different types of exciplexes is possible. The environment within the reverse micelle is found to be largely affected by the change in temperature, and this is reflected in the exciplex emission property and the extent of magnetic field effect. Interestingly, the variation of MFE with temperature follows different trends in the dry and the wet reverse micelle. A comparison has been drawn with the reverse micelle of the ionic surfactant to get an insight into the difference between the various types of micellar environment.

  6. Strain-assisted current-induced magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions: A micromagnetic study with phase-field microelasticity

    SciT

    Huang, H. B., E-mail: houbinghuang@gmail.com; Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083; Hu, J. M.

    2014-09-22

    Effect of substrate misfit strain on current-induced in-plane magnetization reversal in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase-field microelasticity theory. It is found that the critical current density for in-plane magnetization reversal decreases dramatically with an increasing substrate strain, since the effective elastic field can drag the magnetization to one of the four in-plane diagonal directions. A potential strain-assisted multilevel bit spin transfer magnetization switching device using substrate misfit strain is also proposed.

  7. Density and beta limits in the Madison Symmetric Torus Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspary, Kyle Jonathan

    Operational limits and the underlying physics are explored on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) using deuterium pellet fueling. The injection of a fast pellet provides a large source of fuel in the plasma edge upon impact with the vessel wall, capable of triggering density limit terminations for the full range of plasma current, up to 600 kA. As the pellet size and plasma density increase, approaching the empirical Greenwald limit, plasma degradation is observed in the form of current decay, increased magnetic activity in the edge and core, increased radiation and plasma cooling. The complete termination of the plasma is consistent with the Greenwald limit; however, a slightly smaller maximum density is observed in discharges without toroidal field reversal. The plasma beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the confining magnetic pressure. Beta limits are known to constrain other magnetic confinement devices, but no beta limit has yet been established on the RFP. On MST, the highest beta values are obtained in improved confinement discharges with pellet fueling. By using pellet injection to scan the plasma density during PPCD, we also achieve a scan of Ohmic input power due to the increase in plasma resistivity. We observe a factor of 3 or more increase in Ohmic power as we increase the density from 1*1019 to 3*10 19 m-3. Despite this increased Ohmic power, the electron contribution to beta is constant, suggesting a confinement limited beta for the RFP. The electrons and ions are classically well coupled in these cold, dense pellet fueled plasmas, so the increase in total beta at higher density is primarily due to the increased ion contribution. The interaction of pellet fueling and NBI heating is explored. Modeling of MST's neutral heating beam suggests an optimal density for beam power deposition of 2-3*1019 m-3. Low current, NBI heated discharges show evidence of an increased electron beta in this density range. Additionally, the

  8. Global power balance on high density field reversed configurations for use in magnetized target fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renneke, Richard M.

    Field Reversed Configuration plasmas (FRCs) have been created in the Field Reversed Experiment-Liner (FRX-L) with density 2--6 x 10 22 m-3, total temperature 300--400 eV, and lifetime on the order of 10 micros. This thesis investigates global energy balance on high-density FRCs for the first time. The zero-dimensional approach to global energy balance developed by Rej and Tuszewski (Phys. Fluids 27, p. 1514, 1984) is utilized here. From the shots analyzed with this method, it is clear that energy loss from these FRCs is dominated by particle and thermal (collisional) losses. The percentage of radiative losses versus total loss is an order of magnitude lower than previous FRC experiments. This is reasonable for high density based on empirical scaling from the extensive database of tokamak plasma experiments. Ohmic dissipation, which heats plasma when trapped magnetic field decays to create electric field, is an important source of heating for the plasma. Ohmic heating shows a correlation with increasing the effective Lundquist number (S*). Empirical evidence suggest S* can be increased by lowering the density, which does not achieve the goals of FRX-L. A better way to improve ohmic heating is to trap more poloidal flux. This dissertation shows that FRX-L follows a semi-empirical scaling law which predicts plasma temperature gains for larger poloidal flux. Flux (tauφ) and particle (tauN) lifetimes for these FRCs were typically shorter than 10 micros. Approximately 1/3 of the particle and flux lifetimes for these FRCs did not scale with the usual tauN ≈ tauφ scaling of low-density FRCs, but instead showed tauN ≥ tau φ. However, scatter in the data indicates that the average performance of FRCs on FRX-L yields the typical (for FRCs) relationship tau N ≈ tauφ. Fusion energy gain Q was extrapolated for the shots analyzed in this study using a zero-dimensional scaling code with liner effects. The predicted Q is below the desired value of 0.1 (Schoenberg et al

  9. Measurements of Plasma Power Losses in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Garate, Eusebio; Donin, Alexandr; Kondakov, Alexey; Singatulin, Shavkat

    2013-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment. To analyze the power balance in C-2, two new diagnostic instruments - the pyroelectric (PE) and infrared (IR) bolometers - were developed. The PE bolometer, designed to operate in the incident power density range from 0.1-100 W/cm2, is used to measure the radial power loss, which is dominated by charge-exchange neutrals and radiation. The IR bolometer, which measures power irradiated onto a thin metal foil inserted in the plasma, is designed for the power density range from 0.5-5 kW/cm2. The IR bolometer is used to measure the axial power loss from the plasma near the end divertors. The maximum measurable pulse duration of ~ 10 ms is limited by the heat capacitance of the IR detector. Both detectors have time resolution of about 10-100 μs and were calibrated in absolute units using a high power neutral beam. We present the results of first direct measurements of axial and radial plasma power losses in C-2.

  10. Intrinsic Flow Behavior During Improved Confinement in MST Reversed-field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, E.; Craig, D.; Schott, B.; Boguski, J.; Xing, Z. A.; Nornberg, M. D.; Anderson, J. K.

    2017-10-01

    We used active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy to measure impurity ion flow velocity in high-current plasmas during periods of improved confinement. Velocity measurements througout the core reveal that ion flow parallel to the magnetic field is dominant compared to the perpendicular flow. The poloidal flow profile reverses at r/a = 0.6, and the flow near the core is larger on outboard positions compared to the inboard positions. A strong shear in the toroidal flow develops near the axis as PPCD proceeds. In the past, the mode velocity has been used to infer the toroidal flow based on the `no-slip' assumption that the mode and local plasma co-rotate. We tested this assumption with direct measurements near the m = 1, n = 6 resonant surface. Inboard flow measurements are consistent with the no-slip condition and exhibit a time dependence where the flow decreases together with the n = 6 mode velocity. The outboard flow is consistent in magnitude with the no-slip condition but the variations in time and across shots do not correlate well with the n = 6 mode velocity. Possible reasons why the inboard and outboard flow exhibit different behavior are discussed. This work has been supported by the US DOE and the Wheaton College summer research program.

  11. Current profile redistribution driven by neutral beam injection in a reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.; Anderson, J. K.; Brower, D. L.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ding, W. X.; Johnson, C. A.; Lin, L.

    2016-05-01

    Neutral beam injection in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas on the Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] drives current redistribution with increased on-axis current density but negligible net current drive. Internal fluctuations correlated with tearing modes are observed on multiple diagnostics; the behavior of tearing mode correlated structures is consistent with flattening of the safety factor profile. The first application of a parametrized model for island flattening to temperature fluctuations in an RFP allows inferrence of rational surface locations for multiple tearing modes. The m = 1, n = 6 mode is observed to shift inward by 1.1 ± 0.6 cm with neutral beam injection. Tearing mode rational surface measurements provide a strong constraint for equilibrium reconstruction, with an estimated reduction of q0 by 5% and an increase in on-axis current density of 8% ± 5%. The inferred on-axis current drive is consistent with estimates of fast ion density using TRANSP [Goldston et al., J. Comput. Phys. 43, 61 (1981)].

  12. Control of nonlinear systems using periodic parametric perturbations with application to a reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirus, Kevin Andrew

    In this thesis, the possibility of controlling low- and high-dimensional chaotic systems by periodically driving an accessible system parameter is examined. This method has been carried out on several numerical systems and the MST Reversed Field Pinch. The numerical systems investigated include the logistic equation, the Lorenz equations, the Rossler equations, a coupled lattice of logistic equations, a coupled lattice of Lorenz equations, the Yoshida equations, which model tearing mode fluctuations in a plasma, and a neural net model for magnetic fluctuations on MST. This method was tested on the MST by sinusoidally driving a magnetic flux through the toroidal gap of the device. Numerically, periodic drives were found to be most effective at producing limit cycle behavior or significantly reducing the dimension of the system when the perturbation frequency was near natural frequencies of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractor of the unperturbed system. Several different unstable periodic orbits have been stabilized in this way for the low-dimensional numerical systems, sometimes with perturbation amplitudes that were less than 5% of the nominal value of the parameter being perturbed. In high- dimensional systems, limit cycle behavior and significant decreases in the system dimension were also achieved using perturbations with frequencies near the natural unstable periodic orbit frequencies. Results for the MST were not this encouraging, most likely because of an insufficient drive amplitude, the extremely high dimension of the plasma behavior, large amounts of noise, and a lack of stationarity in the transient plasma pulses.

  13. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    DOE PAGES

    Yamada, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    This study briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactormore » program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.« less

  14. Spontaneous generation and reversals of mean flows in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, Louis-Alexandre; Lecoanet, Daniel; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We investigate via direct numerical simulations the spontaneous generation and reversals of mean zonal flows in a stably-stratified fluid layer lying above a turbulent convective fluid. Contrary to the leading idealized theories of mean flow generation by self-interacting internal waves, the emergence of a mean flow in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field is not always possible because nonlinear interactions of waves of different frequencies can disrupt the mean flow generation mechanism. Strong mean flows thus emerge when the divergence of the Reynolds stress resulting from the nonlinear interactions of internal waves produces a strong enough anti-diffusive acceleration for the mean flow, which, as we will demonstrate, is the case when the Prandtl number is sufficiently low, or when the energy input into the internal wavefield by the convection and density stratification are sufficiently large. Implications for mean zonal flow production as observed in the equatorial stratospheres of the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter, and possibly occurring in other geophysical systems such as planetary and stellar interiors will be briefly discussed. Funding provided by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG.

  15. Overview of C-2W Field-Reversed Configuration Experimental Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gota, H.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Dettrick, S.; Korepanov, S.; Romero, J.; Smirnov, A.; Song, Y.; Thompson, M. C.; van Drie, A.; Yang, X.; Ivanov, A. A.; TAE Team

    2017-10-01

    Tri Alpha Energy's research has been devoted to producing a high temperature, stable, long-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma state by neutral-beam injection (NBI) and edge biasing/control. C-2U experiments have demonstrated drastic improvements in particle and energy confinement properties of FRC's, and the plasma performance obtained via 10 MW NBI has achieved plasma sustainment of up to 5 ms and plasma (diamagnetism) lifetimes of 10 + ms. The emerging confinement scaling, whereby electron energy confinement time is proportional to a positive power of the electron temperature, is very attractive for higher energy plasma confinement; accordingly, verification of the observed Te scaling law will be a key future research objective. The new experimental device, C-2W (now also called ``Norman''), has the following key subsystem upgrades from C-2U: (i) higher injected power, optimum energies, and extended pulse duration of the NBI system; (ii) installation of inner divertors with upgraded edge-biasing systems; (iii) fast external equilibrium/mirror-coil current ramp-up capability; and (iv) installation of trim/saddle coils for active feedback control of the FRC plasma. This paper will review highlights of the C-2W program.

  16. Spectroscopic Measurement of Ion Flow During Merging Start-up of Field-Reversed Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hirotaka; Inomoto, Michiaki; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Annoura, Masanobu; Ono, Yasushi; Nemoto, Koshichi

    2012-10-01

    The counter-helicity merging method [1] of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation involves generation of bidirectional toroidal flow, known as a ``sling-shot.'' In two fluids regime, reconnection process is strongly affected by the Hall effect [2]. In this study, we have investigated the behavior of toroidal bidirectional flow generated by the counter-helicity merging in two-fluids regime. We use 2D Ion Doppler Spectroscopy to mesure toroidal ion flow during merging start-up of FRC from Ar gas. We defined two cases: one case with a radially pushed-in X line (case I) and the other case with a radially pushed-out X line(case O). The flow during the plasma merging shows radial asymmetry, as expected from the magnetic measurement, but finally relaxes to a unidirectional flow in plasma current direction in both cases. We observed larger toroidal flow in the plasma current direction in case I after FRC is formed, though the FRC in case O has larger magnetic flux. These results suggest that more ions are lost during merging start-up in case I. This selective ion loss might account for stability and confinement of FRCs probably maintained by high energy ions.[4pt] [1] Y. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, pp. 2001-2008 (1999).[0pt] [2] M. Inomoto, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 97, 135002, (2006)

  17. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    SciT

    Yamada, Masaaki

    2016-03-25

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactormore » program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.« less

  18. Modeling of the merging of two colliding field reversed configuration plasmoids

    SciT

    Wang, Guanqiong; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Lulu

    2016-06-15

    The field reversed configuration (FRC) is one of the candidate plasma targets for the magneto-inertial fusion, and a high temperature FRC can be formed by using the collision-merging technology. Although the merging process and mechanism of FRC are quite complicated, it is thinkable to build a simple model to investigate the macroscopic equilibrium parameters including the density, the temperature and the separatrix volume, which may play an important role in the collision-merging process of FRC. It is quite interesting that the estimates of the related results based on our simple model are in agreement with the simulation results of amore » two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic code (MFP-2D), which has being developed by our group since the last couple of years, while these results can qualitatively fit the results of C-2 experiments by Tri-alpha energy company. On the other hand, the simple model can be used to investigate how to increase the density of the merged FRC. It is found that the amplification of the density depends on the poloidal flux-increase factor and the temperature increases with the translation speed of two plasmoids.« less

  19. Calibration of an advanced neutral particle analyzer for the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Reusch, J. A.; Anderson, J. K.; Eilerman, S.

    2012-10-15

    A new E Parallel-To B neutral particle analyzer, which has recently been installed on Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch (RFP), has now been calibrated, allowing the measurement of the fast ion density and energy distribution. This diagnostic, dubbed the advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA), can simultaneously produce time resolved measurements of the efflux of both hydrogen and deuterium ions from the plasma over a 35 keV energy range with an energy resolution of 2-4 keV and a time resolution of 10 {mu}s. These capabilities are needed to measure both majority ion heating that occurs during magnetic reconnection events inmore » MST and the behavior of the fast ions from the 1 MW hydrogen neutral beam injector on MST. Calibration of the ANPA was performed using a custom ion source that resides in the flight tube between the MST and the ANPA. In this work, the ANPA will be described, the calibration procedure and results will be discussed, and initial measurements of the time evolution of 25 keV neutral beam injection-born fast ions will be presented.« less

  20. Current profile redistribution driven by neutral beam injection in a reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Parke, E.; Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706; Anderson, J. K.

    2016-05-15

    Neutral beam injection in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas on the Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] drives current redistribution with increased on-axis current density but negligible net current drive. Internal fluctuations correlated with tearing modes are observed on multiple diagnostics; the behavior of tearing mode correlated structures is consistent with flattening of the safety factor profile. The first application of a parametrized model for island flattening to temperature fluctuations in an RFP allows inferrence of rational surface locations for multiple tearing modes. The m = 1, n = 6 mode is observed to shift inward by 1.1 ± 0.6 cm withmore » neutral beam injection. Tearing mode rational surface measurements provide a strong constraint for equilibrium reconstruction, with an estimated reduction of q{sub 0} by 5% and an increase in on-axis current density of 8% ± 5%. The inferred on-axis current drive is consistent with estimates of fast ion density using TRANSP [Goldston et al., J. Comput. Phys. 43, 61 (1981)].« less

  1. Ion heating during reconnection in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch

    SciT

    Gangadhara, S.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartog, D. J. den

    2008-05-15

    Measurements of localized ion heating during magnetic reconnection in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] are presented using two beam-based diagnostics: Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy and Rutherford scattering. Data have been collected from three types of impulsive reconnection event, in which the resistive tearing mode activity associated with reconnection is present either in the edge plasma, the core plasma, or throughout the plasma volume. A drop in the stored magnetic energy is required for ion heating to bemore » observed during magnetic reconnection, and when this occurs, heating is concentrated in regions where reconnection is taking place. The magnitude of the observed temperature rise during reconnection varies with ion species, suggesting that the heating mechanism has a mass and/or charge dependence. Both the magnitude and spatial structure of the observed temperature rise also depend on the plasma current and density. Nonetheless, the fraction of released magnetic energy converted to ion thermal energy remains roughly constant over a range of plasma conditions.« less

  2. Blanket activation and afterheat for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, J. W.; Battat, M. E.

    A detailed assessment has been made of the activation and afterheat for a Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) blanket using a two-dimensional model that included the limiter, the vacuum ducts, and the manifolds and headers for cooling the limiter and the first and second walls. Region-averaged, multigroup fluxes and prompt gamma-ray/neutron heating rates were calculated using the two-dimensional, discrete-ordinates code TRISM. Activation and depletion calculations were performed with the code FORIG using one-group cross sections generated with the TRISM region-averaged fluxes. Afterheat calculations were performed for regions near the plasma, i.e., the limiter, first wall, etc. assuming a 10-day irradiation. Decay heats were computed for decay periods up to 100 minutes. For the activation calculations, the irradiation period was taken to be one year and blanket activity inventories were computed for decay times to 4 x 10 years. These activities were also calculated as the toxicity-weighted biological hazard potential (BHP).

  3. Observation of trapped-electron-mode microturbulence in reversed field pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, J. R.; Williams, Z. R.; Brower, D. L.; Chapman, B. E.; Ding, W. X.; Pueschel, M. J.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W.

    2018-01-01

    Density fluctuations in the large-density-gradient region of improved confinement Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas exhibit multiple features that are characteristic of the trapped-electron mode (TEM). Core transport in conventional RFP plasmas is governed by magnetic stochasticity stemming from multiple long-wavelength tearing modes. Using inductive current profile control, these tearing modes are reduced, and global confinement is increased to that expected for comparable tokamak plasmas. Under these conditions, new short-wavelength fluctuations distinct from global tearing modes appear in the spectrum at a frequency of f ˜ 50 kHz, which have normalized perpendicular wavenumbers k⊥ρs≲ 0.2 and propagate in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. They exhibit a critical-gradient threshold, and the fluctuation amplitude increases with the local electron density gradient. These characteristics are consistent with predictions from gyrokinetic analysis using the Gene code, including increased TEM turbulence and transport from the interaction of remnant tearing magnetic fluctuations and zonal flow.

  4. Measurements of hot electrons in the Extrap T1 reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welander, A.; Bergsåker, H.

    1998-02-01

    The presence of an anisotropic energetic electron population in the edge region is a characteristic feature of reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. In the Extrap T1 RFP, the anisotropic, parallel heat flux in the edge region measured by calorimetry was typically several hundred 0741-3335/40/2/011/img1. To gain more insight into the origin of the hot electron component and to achieve time resolution of the hot electron flow during the discharge, a target probe with a soft x-ray monitor was designed, calibrated and implemented. The x-ray emission from the target was measured with a surface barrier detector covered with a set of different x-ray filters to achieve energy resolution. A calibration in the range 0.5-2 keV electron energy was performed on the same target and detector assembly using a 0741-3335/40/2/011/img2 cathode electron gun. The calibration data are interpolated and extrapolated numerically. A directional asymmetry of more than a factor of 100 for the higher energy electrons is observed. The hot electrons are estimated to constitute 10% of the total electron density at the edge and their energy distribution is approximated by a half-Maxwellian with a temperature slightly higher than the central electron temperature. Scalings with plasma current, as well as correlations with local 0741-3335/40/2/011/img3 measurements and radial dependences, are presented.

  5. Edge resonant fluctuations and particle transport in a reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, A.

    1998-12-01

    Electrostatic fluctuations are measured in the Extrap T2 reversed-field pinch [J. R. Drake et al., in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1996 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 193-199] using a Langmuir probe array. The electrostatic fluctuation, driven particle transport ΓnΦ is derived and found to constitute a large fraction of the total particle transport. The spectral density of all measured quantities exhibits a peak in the frequency range 100-250 kHz, which originates from fluctuations that are resonant close to the edge [n=-(40-80)]. This peak contains only about 10-20% of the total fluctuation power, but is shown to dominate ΓnΦ. The main reason for this is the high toroidal mode number as compared with internally resonant magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations. The edge resonant fluctuations also features a higher coherence (γ=0.5) and close to 90° phase shift between density and potential fluctuations.

  6. Numerical studies of the reversed-field pinch at high aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sätherblom, H.-E.; Drake, J. R.

    1998-10-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration at an aspect ratio of 8.8 is studied numerically by means of the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code DEBS [D. D. Schnack et al., J. Comput. Phys. 70, 330 (1987)]. This aspect ratio is equal to that of the Extrap T1 experiment [S. Mazur et al., Nucl. Fusion 34, 427 (1994)]. A numerical study of a RFP with this level of aspect ratio requires extensive computer achievements and has hitherto not been performed. The results are compared with previous studies [Y. L. Ho et al., Phys. Plasmas 2, 3407 (1995)] of lower aspect ratio RFP configurations. In particular, an evaluation of the extrapolation to the aspect ratio of 8.8 made in this previous study shows that the extrapolation of the spectral spread, as well as most of the other findings, are confirmed. An important exception, however, is the magnetic diffusion coefficient, which is found to decrease with aspect ratio. Furthermore, an aspect ratio dependence of the magnetic energy and of the helicity of the RFP is found.

  7. Scaling of confinement and profiles in the EXTRAP T2 reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welander, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the EXTRAP T2 reversed-field pinch the diagnostic techniques for the measurement of electron density and temperature include; Thomson scattering which gives values at three radial positions in the core (r/a = 0, 0.28, 0.56), Langmuir probes which give values at the edge (r/a > 0.9) and interferometry which gives a line-averaged density. The empirical scaling of electron density and temperature including profile information with global plasma parameters has been studied. The density profile is subject to large variations, with an average parabolic shape when the density is low and flatter shapes when the density is increased. The change in the profile shape can be attributed to a shift in the penetration length of neutrals from the vicinity of the wall. The temperature scales roughly as I/n1/2 where I is the plasma current and n is the density. The temperature profile is always quite flat with lower variations and there is a tendency for a flatter profile at higher temperatures.

  8. Self-Organisation and Intermittent Coherent Oscillations in the EXTRAP T2 Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Sallander, E.; Drake, J. R.

    Many reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiments exhibit a coherent oscillatory behaviour that is characteristic of discrete dynamo events and is associated with intermittent current profile self-organisation phenomena. However, in the vast majority of the discharges in the resistive shell RFP experiment EXTRAP T2, the dynamo activity does not show global, coherent oscillatory behaviour. The internally resonant tearing modes are phase-aligned and wall-locked resulting in a large localised magnetic perturbation. Equilibrium and plasma parameters have a level of high frequency fluctuations but the average values are quasi-steady. For some discharges, however, the equilibrium parameters exhibit the oscillatory behaviour characteristic of the discrete dynamo events. For these discharges, the trend observed in the tearing mode spectra, associated with the onset of the discrete relaxation event behaviour, is a relative higher amplitude of m = 0 mode activity and relative lower amplitude of the m = 1 mode activity compared with their average values. Global plasma parameters and model profile calculations for sample discharges representing the two types of relaxation dynamics are presented.

  9. Mode- and plasma rotation in a resistive shell reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmberg, J.-A.; Brzozowski, J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    Mode rotation studies in a resistive shell reversed-field pinch, EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1 (2001)] are presented. The phase relations and nonlinear coupling of the resonant modes are characterized and compared with that expected from modeling based on the hypothesis that mode dynamics can be described by a quasi stationary force balance including electromagnetic and viscous forces. Both m=0 and m=1 resonant modes are studied. The m=1 modes have rotation velocities corresponding to the plasma flow velocity (20-60 km/s) in the core region. The rotation velocity decreases towards the end of the discharge, although the plasma flow velocity does not decrease. A rotating phase locked m=1 structure is observed with a velocity of about 60 km/s. The m=0 modes accelerate throughout the discharges and reach velocities as high as 150-250 km/s. The observed m=0 phase locking is consistent with theory for certain conditions, but there are several conditions when the dynamics are not described. This is not unexpected because the assumption of quasi stationarity for the mode spectra is not fulfilled for many conditions. Localized m=0 perturbations are formed in correlation with highly transient discrete dynamo events. These perturbations form at the location of the m=1 phase locked structure, but rotate with a different velocity as they spread out in the toroidal direction.

  10. Spontaneous quasi single helicity regimes in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.

    2007-11-01

    In recent years, good progress toward a better understanding and control of the plasma performance in reversed-field pinch devices has been made. These improvements consist both of the discovery of spontaneous plasma regimes, termed the quasi single helicity (QSH) regime, in which part of the plasma core is no longer stochastic, and of the development of techniques for active control of plasma instabilities. In this paper, a systematic study of spontaneous QSH in the EXTRAP T2R device [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsaker, M. Cecconello et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] is presented. In this device, QSH states can occur spontaneously and it is associated with magnetic and thermal structures. A statistical analysis to determine the most favorable experimental conditions to have a transition to the QSH regime will be presented. The results described here are useful to understand the underlying properties of QSH regimes in view of future applications of the QSH active control in EXTRAP T2R; they are also important to have a comparison with the QSH studied in other devices.

  11. Feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes in a reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.

    2005-09-01

    An array of saddle coils having Nc=16 equally spaced positions along the toroidal direction has been installed for feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsaker, M. Cecconello et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)]. Using feedback, multiple nonresonant RWMs are simultaneously suppressed for three to four wall times. Feedback stabilization of RWMs results in a significant prolongation of the discharge duration. This is linked to a better sustainment of the plasma and tearing mode toroidal rotation with feedback. Due to the limited number of coils in the toroidal direction, pairs of modes with toroidal mode numbers n ,n' that fulfill the condition ∣n-n'∣=Nc are coupled by the feedback action from the discrete coil array. With only one unstable mode in a pair of coupled modes, the suppression of the unstable mode is successful. If two modes are unstable in a coupled pair, two possibilities exist: partial suppression of both modes or, alternatively, complete stabilization of one target mode while the other is left unstable.

  12. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  13. Simulation of drift wave instability in field-reversed configurations using global magnetic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, D. P.; Lau, C. K.; Lin, Z.; Tajima, T.; Holod, I.; the TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    Minimizing transport in the field-reversed configuration (FRC) is essential to enable FRC-based fusion reactors. Recently, significant progress on advanced beam-driven FRCs in C-2 and C-2U (at Tri Alpha Energy) provides opportunities to study transport properties using Doppler backscattering (DBS) measurements of turbulent fluctuations and kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of driftwaves in realistic equilibria via the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC). Both measurements and simulations indicate relatively small fluctuations in the scrape-off layer (SOL). In the FRC core, local, single flux surface simulations reveal strong stabilization, while experiments indicate quiescent but finite fluctuations. One possible explanation is that turbulence may originate in the SOL and propagate at very low levels across the separatrix into the core. To test this hypothesis, a significant effort has been made to develop A New Code (ANC) based on GTC physics formulations, but using cylindrical coordinates which span the magnetic separatrix, including both core and SOL. Here, we present first results from global ANC simulations.

  14. Modeling of Resistive Wall Modes in Tokamak and Reversed Field Pinch Configurations of KTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Rui; Zhu, Ping; Bai, Wei; Lan, Tao; Liu, Wandong

    2016-10-01

    Resistive wall mode is believed to be one of the leading causes for macroscopic degradation of plasma confinement in tokamaks and reversed field pinches (RFP). In this study, we evaluate the linear RWM instability of Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) in both tokamak and RFP configurations. For the tokamak configuration, the extended MHD code NIMROD is employed for calculating the dependence of the RWM growth rate on the position and conductivity of the vacuum wall for a model tokamak equilibrium of KTX in the large aspect-ratio approximation. For the RFP configuration, the standard formulation of dispersion relation for RWM based on the MHD energy principle has been evaluated for a cylindrical α- Θ model of KTX plasma equilibrium, in an effort to investigate the effects of thin wall on the RWM in KTX. Full MHD calculations of RWM in the RFP configuration of KTX using the NIMROD code are also being developed. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grant Nos. 2014GB124002, 2015GB101004, 2011GB106000, and 2011GB106003.

  15. Development of Field-Reversed Configuration Plasma Gun Formation Techniques for Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Alan; Gilmore, Mark; Wynkoop, Tyler; Intrator, Thomas; Weber, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an innovative approach for a relatively fast and cheap path to the production of fusion energy that utilizes magnetic confinement to assist in the compression of a hot plasma to thermonuclear conditions by an external driver. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently pursing demonstration of the MTF concept via compression of an FRC (field-reversed configuration) plasma by a metal liner z-pinch in conjunction with the Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM. A key physics issue for the FRC as an MTF target lies in the initial pre-ionization (PI) stage. The PI formation process determines the amount of magnetic flux that can be trapped to form the FRC. This trapped flux plays an important role in the FRC's final equilibrium, transport, and stability properties. It also provides the route to greatest potential gains in FRC lifetime, which is essential to provide enough time to translate and compress the FRC effectively. In conjunction with LANL we plan to test and characterize a new system to improve the initial PI plasma formation. This system will use an array of plasma guns to form the initial plasma. Initial characterization of the plasma gun behavior will be presented.

  16. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields can impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; Ferreira Filho, Moisés Bonifacio Alves; Jimenez, George Chaves; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-06-01

    Male infertility is often related to reproductive age couples experiencing fertility-related issues. Men may have fertility problems associated with reversible testicular damage. Considering that men have been increasingly exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields generated by the production, distribution and use of electricity, this study analyzed whether 60 Hz and 1 mT magnetic field exposure may impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat shock using rats as an experimental model. Adult male rats were subjected to a single testicular heat shock (HS, 43 °C for 12 min) and then exposed to the magnetic field for 15, 30 and 60 d after HS. Magnetic field exposure during the spermatogenesis recovery induced changes in testis components volume, cell ultrastructure and histomorphometrical parameters. Control animals had a reestablished and active spermatogenesis at 60 d after heat shock, while animals exposed to magnetic field still showed extensive testicular degeneration. Magnetic field exposure did not change the plasma testosterone. In conclusion, extremely low-frequency magnetic field may be harmful to fertility recovery in males affected by reversible testicular damage.

  17. A molecular-field-based similarity study of non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestres, Jordi; Rohrer, Douglas C.; Maggiora, Gerald M.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a molecular-field-based similarity method for aligning molecules by matching their steric and electrostatic fields and an application of the method to the alignment of three structurally diverse non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. A brief description of the method, as implemented in the program MIMIC, is presented, including a discussion of pairwise and multi-molecule similarity-based matching. The application provides an example that illustrates how relative binding orientations of molecules can be determined in the absence of detailed structural information on their target protein. In the particular system studied here, availability of the X-ray crystal structures of the respective ligand-protein complexes provides a means for constructing an 'experimental model' of the relative binding orientations of the three inhibitors. The experimental model is derived by using MIMIC to align the steric fields of the three protein P66 subunit main chains, producing an overlay with a 1.41 Å average rms distance between the corresponding Cα's in the three chains. The inter-chain residue similarities for the backbone structures show that the main-chain conformations are conserved in the region of the inhibitor-binding site, with the major deviations located primarily in the 'finger' and RNase H regions. The resulting inhibitor structure overlay provides an experimental-based model that can be used to evaluate the quality of the direct a priori inhibitor alignment obtained using MIMIC. It is found that the 'best' pairwise alignments do not always correspond to the experimental model alignments. Therefore, simply combining the best pairwise alignments will not necessarily produce the optimal multi-molecule alignment. However, the best simultaneous three-molecule alignment was found to reproduce the experimental inhibitor alignment model. A pairwise consistency index has been derived which gauges the quality of combining the pairwise

  18. Propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a strontium barium niobate photorefractive crystal under reverse external electric field.

    PubMed

    Guo, Q L; Liang, B L; Wang, Y; Deng, G Y; Jiang, Y H; Zhang, S H; Fu, G S; Simmonds, P J

    2014-10-01

    The propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a SBN:75 photorefractive crystal strongly depend on the signal-to-background intensity ratio (R=Is/Ib) under reverse external electric field. In the range 20>R>0.05, the laser beam shows enhanced self-defocusing behavior with increasing external electric field, while it shows self-focusing in the range 0.03>R>0.01. Spatial solitons are observed under a suitable reverse external electric field for R=0.025. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the experimental observations, which suggest a new type of soliton formation due to "enhancement" not "screening" of the external electrical field.

  19. Analysis of the flow field generated near an aircraft engine operating in reverse thrust. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledwith, W. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A computer solution is developed to the exhaust gas reingestion problem for aircraft operating in the reverse thrust mode on a crosswind-free runway. The computer program determines the location of the inlet flow pattern, whether the exhaust efflux lies within the inlet flow pattern or not, and if so, the approximate time before the reversed flow reaches the engine inlet. The program is written so that the user is free to select discrete runway speeds or to study the entire aircraft deceleration process for both the far field and cross-ingestion problems. While developed with STOL applications in mind, the solution is equally applicable to conventional designs. The inlet and reversed jet flow fields involved in the problem are assumed to be noninteracting. The nacelle model used in determining the inlet flow field is generated using an iterative solution to the Neuman problem from potential flow theory while the reversed jet flow field is adapted using an empirical correlation from the literature. Sample results obtained using the program are included.

  20. Community College Reverse Transfer Students: A Field Study of a Nontraditional Student Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Paul A.; Harris, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    Data from a survey directed at reverse transfer students in the University of Kentucky Community College System was analyzed based upon the responses from two groups: 734 completers (those who had completed a baccalaureate) and 148 noncompleters. Profiles of reverse transfer students are compiled. Contains 28 references. (TGO)

  1. Measured and simulated electron thermal transport in the Madisom symmetric torus reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigue Mbombo, Brice

    New high time resolution measurements of the evolution of the electron temperature profile through a sawtooth event in high current reversed-field pinch (RFP) discharges in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) have been made using the enhanced capabilities of the multipoint, multi-pulse Thomson scattering system. Using this and other data, the electron thermal diffusion chie determined and is found to vary by orders of magnitude over the course of the sawtooth cycle. This experimental data is compared directly to simulations run at experimentally relevant parameters. This includes zero beta, single fluid, nonlinear, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations run with the aspect ratio, resistivity profile, and Lundquist number (S ˜ 4 x 106) of high current RFP discharges in MST. These simulations display MHD activity and sawtooth like behavior similar to that observed in the MST. This includes both the sawtooth period and the duration of the sawtooth crash. The radial shape of the magnetic mode amplitudes, scaled to match edge measurements made in MST, are then used to compute the expected level of thermal diffusion due to parallel losses along diffusing magnetic field lines, chiMD = upsilon∥Dmag. The evolution of the Dmag profile was determined for over 20 sawteeth so that the ensemble averaged evolution could be compared to the sawtooth ensembled data from MST. The resulting comparison to the measured chi e shows that chiMD is larger than chi e at most times. However, if electrons are trapped in a magnetic well, they cannot carry energy along the diffusing magnetic field lines, reducing the thermal transport. Accounting for trapped particles brings chi MD to within uncertainty of chie in the mid radius at most times throughout the sawtooth cycle. In the core, the measured chie is greater than chi MD leading up to and including the sawtooth crash, suggesting other transport mechanisms are important at these times. Additionally, in a simulation including

  2. Evaluation of using ferrofluid as an interface material for a field-reversible thermal connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Ahmed S.

    The electrical functionality of an avionics chassis is limited due to heat dissipation limits. The limits arise due to the fact that components in an avionic computer boxes are packed very compactly, with the components mounted onto plug-in cards, and the harsh environment experienced by the chassis limits how heat can be dissipated from the cards. Convective and radiative heat transfer to the ambient are generally not possible. Therefore it is necessary to have heat transferred from the components conducted to the edge of the plug-in cards. The heat then needs to conduct from the card edge to a cold block that not only holds the card in place, but also removes the generated heat by some heat transfer fluid that is circulated through the cold block. The interface between the plug-in card and the cold block typically has a high thermal resistance since it is necessary for the card to have the capability to be re-workable, meaning that the card can be removed and then returned to the chassis. Reducing the thermal resistance of the interface is the objective of the current study and the topic of this thesis. The current design uses a pressure interface between the card and cold block. The contact pressure is increased through the addition of a wedgelock, which is a field-reversible mechanical connector. To use a wedgelock, the cold block has channels milled on the surface with widths that are larger than the thickness of the plug-in card and the un-expanded wedgelock. The card edge is placed in the channel and placed against one of the channel walls. A wedgelock is then placed between the card and the other channel wall. The wedgelock is then expanded by using either a screw or a lever. As the wedgelock expands it fills in the remaining channel gap and bears against the other face of the plug-in card. The majority of heat generated by the components on the plug-in card is forced to conduct from the card into the wall of the cold block, effectively a single sided, dry

  3. Compact toroid injection fueling in a large field-reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Gota, H.; Sekiguchi, J.; Edo, T.; Garate, E.; Takahashi, Ts.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.

    2017-07-01

    A repetitively driven compact toroid (CT) injector has been developed for the large field-reversed configuration (FRC) facility of the C-2/C-2U, primarily for particle refueling. A CT is formed and injected by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) exclusively developed for the C-2/C-2U FRC. To refuel the particles of long-lived FRCs, multiple CT injections are required. Thus, a multi-stage discharge circuit was developed for a multi-pulsed CT injection. The drive frequency of this system can be adjusted up to 1 kHz and the number of CT shots per injector is two; the system can be further upgraded for a larger number of injection pulses. The developed MCPG can achieve a supersonic ejection velocity in the range of ~100 km s-1. The key plasma parameters of electron density, electron temperature and the number of particles are ~5  ×  1021 m-3, ~30 eV and 0.5-1.0  ×  1019, respectively. In this project, single- and double-pulsed counter CT injection fueling were conducted on the C-2/C-2U facility by two CT injectors. The CT injectors were mounted 1 m apart in the vicinity of the mid-plane. To avoid disruptive perturbation on the FRC, the CT injectors were operated at the lower limit of the particle inventory. The experiments demonstrated successful refueling with a significant density build-up of 20-30% of the FRC particle inventory per single CT injection without any deleterious effects on the C-2/C-2U FRC.

  4. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconello, M.; Menmuir, S.; Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.

    2006-09-01

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  5. Observation of Trapped-Electron Mode Microturbulence in Improved Confinement Reversed-Field Pinch Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, James R.

    This is a dissertation for the completion of a Doctorate of Philosophy in Physics degree granted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Density fluctuations in the large-density-gradient region of improved confinement Madison Sym- metric Torus (MST) RFP plasmas exhibit multiple features that are characteristic of the trapped- electron mode (TEM). In fusion relevant plasmas, thermal transport is a key avenue of research in order to achieve a burning plasma. In the reversed field pinch (RFP) magnetic geometry, the dy- namics of conventional plasma discharges are primarily governed by magnetic stochasticity stem- ming from multiple long-wavelength tearing modes, that sustain the RFP discharge but have an adverse effect on the plasma confinement. Using inductive current profile control, these tearing modes are reduced, and global confinement is increased to that expected for comparable tokamak plasma. Under these conditions with certain plasma equilibria, new short-wavelength fluctuations distinct from global tearing modes appear in the spectrum at frequencies f 50 kHz that have normalized perpendicular wavenumbers k⊥rhos ≤ 0.2, and propagate in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. By adjusting the plasma current or the inductive suppression, there are observable variations in the spectral features. They exhibit a critical-gradient threshold, and the fluctuation amplitude increases with a local density gradient dependent parameter. These characteristics are consistent with the predictions of unstable TEMs based on gyrokinetic analysis using the GENE code. This thesis represents the first observation and description of TEM-like instabilities in the RFP geometry.

  6. Super-Alfvénic translation of a field-reversed configuration into a large-bore dielectric chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2018-01-01

    An experimental device to demonstrate additional heating and control methods for a field-reversed configuration (FRC) has been developed. The newly developed device, named FRC Amplification via Translation (FAT), has a field-reversed theta-pinch plasma source and a low-elongation dielectric (transparent quartz) confinement chamber with quasi-static confinement field. In the initial experiments on the FAT device, FRC translation and trapping were successfully demonstrated. Although the typical elongation of the trapped FRC in the confinement region was roughly three, no disruptive global instability, such as tilt, was observed. The FAT device increases the latitude to perform translation-related experiments, such as those concerning inductive current drive, equivalent neutral beam injection effects, and wave applications.

  7. On Reverse Stackelberg Game and Optimal Mean Field Control for a Large Population of Thermostatically Controlled Loads

    SciT

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming

    This paper studies a multi-stage pricing problem for a large population of thermostatically controlled loads. The problem is formulated as a reverse Stackelberg game that involves a mean field game in the hierarchy of decision making. In particular, in the higher level, a coordinator needs to design a pricing function to motivate individual agents to maximize the social welfare. In the lower level, the individual utility maximization problem of each agent forms a mean field game coupled through the pricing function that depends on the average of the population control/state. We derive the solution to the reverse Stackelberg game bymore » connecting it to a team problem and the competitive equilibrium, and we show that this solution corresponds to the optimal mean field control that maximizes the social welfare. Realistic simulations are presented to validate the proposed methods.« less

  8. Limitations of Reverse Polyethylene Samplers (RePES) for Evaluating Toxicity of Field Contaminated Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers are used to measure dissolved nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) in environmental media. More recently, reverse polyethylene samplers (RePES) have been used with spiked sediments to recreate interstitial water exposure concentrations and observed toxicity. In...

  9. Effects of Hypomagnetic Conditions and Reversed Geomagnetic Field on Calcium-Dependent Proteases of Invertebrates and Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantserova, N. P.; Krylov, V. V.; Lysenko, L. A.; Ushakova, N. V.; Nemova, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of hypomagnetic conditions and the reversal of the geomagnetic field (GMF) on intracellular Ca2+-dependent proteases (calpains) of fish and invertebrates have been studied in vivo and in vitro. It is found that the intravital exposure of examined animals to hypomagnetic conditions leads to a significant decrease in its calpain activity. The activity of preparations of calcium-dependent proteases was tested in separate experiments. It is shown that preparations of Ca2+-dependent proteases from invertebrates and fish are also inactivated substantially under effect of hypomagnetic conditions. The ambiguous results obtained in the experiments with a reversed GMF do not make it possible to discuss the biological response of calcium-dependent proteases to the reversal of the GMF.

  10. Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: female removal experiments in the field.

    PubMed

    Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Shohei; Kadota, Tatsuru

    2011-12-01

    Sex change, either protogyny (female to male) or protandry (male to female), is well known among fishes, but evidence of bidirectional sex change or reversed sex change in natural populations is still very limited. This is the first report on female removal experiments for polygnous and protogynous fish species to induce reversed sex change in the widowed males in the field. We removed all of the females and juveniles from the territories of dominant males in the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) and the rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) on the coral reefs of Okinawa. In both species, if new females or juveniles did not immigrate into the territories of the widowed males, some of them emigrated to form male-male pairs. When a male-male pair formed, the smaller, subordinate partner began to perform female sexual behaviours (n = 4 in L. dimidiatus; n = 2 in C. ferrugata) and, finally, released eggs (n = 1, respectively). Thus, the reversed sex change occurred in the widowed males according to the change of their social status. These results suggest that such female removal experiments will contribute to the discovery of reversed sex change in the field also in other polygnous and protogynous species.

  11. Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: female removal experiments in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Shohei; Kadota, Tatsuru

    2011-12-01

    Sex change, either protogyny (female to male) or protandry (male to female), is well known among fishes, but evidence of bidirectional sex change or reversed sex change in natural populations is still very limited. This is the first report on female removal experiments for polygnous and protogynous fish species to induce reversed sex change in the widowed males in the field. We removed all of the females and juveniles from the territories of dominant males in the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) and the rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) on the coral reefs of Okinawa. In both species, if new females or juveniles did not immigrate into the territories of the widowed males, some of them emigrated to form male-male pairs. When a male-male pair formed, the smaller, subordinate partner began to perform female sexual behaviours ( n = 4 in L. dimidiatus; n = 2 in C. ferrugata) and, finally, released eggs ( n = 1, respectively). Thus, the reversed sex change occurred in the widowed males according to the change of their social status. These results suggest that such female removal experiments will contribute to the discovery of reversed sex change in the field also in other polygnous and protogynous species.

  12. Reversible electric-field manipulation of the adsorption morphology and magnetic anisotropy of small Fe and Co clusters on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanveer, M.; Dorantes-Dávila, J.; Pastor, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    First-principles electronic calculations show how the adsorption morphology, orbital magnetism, and magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of small CoN and FeN clusters (N ≤3 ) on graphene (G) can be reversibly controlled under the action of an external electric field (EF). A variety of cluster-specific and EF-induced effects are revealed, including (i) perpendicular or canted adsorption configurations of the dimers and trimers, (ii) significant morphology-dependent permanent dipole moments and electric susceptibilities, (iii) EF-induced reversible transitions among the different metastable adsorption morphologies of Fe3 and Co3 on graphene, (iv) qualitative changes in the MAE landscape driven by structural changes, (v) colossal values of the magnetic anisotropy Δ E ≃45 meV per atom in Co2/G , (vi) EF-induced spin-reorientation transitions in Co3/G , and (vii) reversibly tunable coercive field and blocking temperatures, which in some cases allow a barrierless magnetization reversal of the cluster. These remarkable electric and magnetic fingerprints open new possibilities of characterizing and exploiting the size- and structural-dependent properties of magnetic nanostructures at surfaces.

  13. Expansions for infinite or finite plane circular time-reversal mirrors and acoustic curtains for wave-field-synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mellow, Tim; Kärkkäinen, Leo

    2014-03-01

    An acoustic curtain is an array of microphones used for recording sound which is subsequently reproduced through an array of loudspeakers in which each loudspeaker reproduces the signal from its corresponding microphone. Here the sound originates from a point source on the axis of symmetry of the circular array. The Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral for a plane circular curtain is solved analytically as fast-converging expansions, assuming an ideal continuous array, to speed up computations and provide insight. By reversing the time sequence of the recording (or reversing the direction of propagation of the incident wave so that the point source becomes an "ideal" point sink), the curtain becomes a time reversal mirror and the analytical solution for this is given simultaneously. In the case of an infinite planar array, it is demonstrated that either a monopole or dipole curtain will reproduce the diverging sound field of the point source on the far side. However, although the real part of the sound field of the infinite time-reversal mirror is reproduced, the imaginary part is an approximation due to the missing singularity. It is shown that the approximation may be improved by using the appropriate combination of monopole and dipole sources in the mirror.

  14. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment.

    PubMed

    Sheftman, D; Gupta, D; Roche, T; Thompson, M C; Giammanco, F; Conti, F; Marsili, P; Moreno, C D

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  15. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    SciT

    Sheftman, D., E-mail: dsheftman@trialphaenergy.com; Gupta, D.; Roche, T.

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  16. A high voltage pulse generator based on silicon-controlled rectifier for field-reversed configuration experiment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Munan; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Guanghui; Wang, Yanpeng; Shi, Peiyun; Sun, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    A high voltage pulse generator based on a silicon-controlled rectifier has been designed and implemented for a field reversed configuration experiment. A critical damping circuit is used in the generator to produce the desired pulse waveform. Depending on the load, the rise time of the output trigger signal can be less than 1 μs, and the peak amplitudes of trigger voltage and current are up to 8 kV and 85 A in a single output. The output voltage can be easily adjusted by changing the voltage on a capacitor of the generator. In addition, the generator integrates an electrically floating heater circuit so it is capable of triggering either pseudosparks (TDI-type hydrogen thyratron) or ignitrons. Details of the circuits and their implementation are described in the paper. The trigger generator has successfully controlled the discharging sequence of the pulsed power supply for a field reversed configuration experiment.

  17. A high voltage pulse generator based on silicon-controlled rectifier for field-reversed configuration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Munan; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Guanghui; Wang, Yanpeng; Shi, Peiyun; Sun, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    A high voltage pulse generator based on a silicon-controlled rectifier has been designed and implemented for a field reversed configuration experiment. A critical damping circuit is used in the generator to produce the desired pulse waveform. Depending on the load, the rise time of the output trigger signal can be less than 1 μs, and the peak amplitudes of trigger voltage and current are up to 8 kV and 85 A in a single output. The output voltage can be easily adjusted by changing the voltage on a capacitor of the generator. In addition, the generator integrates an electrically floating heater circuit so it is capable of triggering either pseudosparks (TDI-type hydrogen thyratron) or ignitrons. Details of the circuits and their implementation are described in the paper. The trigger generator has successfully controlled the discharging sequence of the pulsed power supply for a field reversed configuration experiment.

  18. A Critical Fast Ion Beta in the Madison Symmetric Torus Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecchi, William J.

    The first fast-ion profile measurements have been made in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma. A large population of fast-ions are deposited in the core of the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) through use of a 1 MW neutral beam injector (NBI) giving rise to a variety of beam-driven instabilities. One such mode, the energetic-particle mode (EPM) has been shown to reduce fast-ion content in MST, evident through drops in signal levels of the advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA). EPMs in MST appear as bursts of magnetic fluctuations at a lab frequency of ˜100 kHz reaching peak amplitude and decaying away within 100 microseconds. A burst ensemble of the neutron data does not reveal a drop in neutron emission across a burst, implying the population of fast-ions transported by a burst constitute a small fraction of the total. The burst may also pitch-angle scatter out of the ANPA phase space or be transported to mid-radius where charge-exchange with the background neutrals or fast-ion orbit stochasticity may reduce fast-ion confinement. Data gathered from the expanded neutron diagnostic suite including a new collimated neutron detector (CiNDe) was used to reconstruct the fast-ion profile in MST and measure critical fast-ion beta quantities. Measurements were made in plasma conditions with varying magnetic field strength in order to investigate the interplay between the energetic particle (EP) drive and Alfven continuum damping. The measured values of the core fast-ion beta (7.5% (1.2%) in 300 (500) kA plasmas) are reduced from classical predictions (TRANSP predicts up to 10% core value) due to EPM activity. The frequency, magnitude, and rate of occurrence of the bursts depends on the tearing mode amplitude, Alfven continuum damping rate, fast-ion profile shape, and resonant orbit dynamics. Marginal stability was reached in both moderate- (300 kA) and high- (500 kA) current discharges, marked by sustained EPM activity and a saturated global neutron signal during NBI

  19. End-on soft x ray imaging of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) on the Field-Reversal-C (FRX-C)/Large Scale Modification (LSM) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, D. P.; Gribble, R. J.; Bailey, A. D., III; Sugimoto, S.

    Recently, a prototype soft x ray pinhole camera was fielded on FRX-C/LSM at Los Alamos and TRX at Spectra Technology. The soft x ray FRC images obtained using this camera stand out in high contrast to their surroundings. It was particularly useful for studying the FRC during and shortly after formation when, at certain operating conditions, flute-like structures at the edge and internal structures of the FRC were observed which other diagnostics could not resolve. Building on this early experience, a new soft x ray pinhole camera was installed on FRX-C/LSM, which permits more rapid data acquisition and briefer exposures. It will be used to continue studying FRC formation and to look for internal structure later in time which could be a signature of instability. The initial operation of this camera is summarized.

  20. Electric-Field-Induced Magnetization Reversal in a Ferromagnet-Multiferroic Heterostructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-14

    Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS multiferroic J. Heron, M. Trassin, K. Ashraf, M. Gajek , Q. He, S...Reversal in a Ferromagnet-Multiferroic Heterostructure J. T. Heron,1 M. Trassin,2,* K. Ashraf,3 M. Gajek ,2 Q. He,2 S. Y. Yang,2 D. E. Nikonov,4 Y-H. Chu

  1. Reversing the Underachievement of Gifted Middle School Students: Lessons from Another Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchotte, Jennifer; Rubenstein, Lisa; Murry, Francie

    2015-01-01

    Underachievement often begins in middle school for gifted students. Unfortunately, there is no single intervention that will ameliorate underachievement for all gifted students. To date, interventions aimed at reversing the underachieving behaviors of gifted middle school students have been inconsistent and inconclusive. To create an effective…

  2. Large reversible magnetostrictive effect of MnCoSi-based compounds prepared by high-magnetic-field solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q. B.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Tang, W.; He, X. J.; Li, Z.; Cao, Q. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2018-01-01

    The MnCoSi compound is a potential magnetostriction material since the magnetic field can drive a metamagnetic transition from an antiferromagnetic phase to a high magnetization phase in it, which accompanies a large lattice distortion. However, a large driving magnetic field, magnetic hysteresis, and poor mechanical properties seriously hinder its application for magnetostriction. By substituting Fe for Mn and introducing vacancies of the Mn element, textured and dense Mn0.97Fe0.03CoSi and Mn0.88CoSi compounds are prepared through a high-magnetic-field solidification approach. As a result, large room-temperature and reversible magnetostriction effects are observed in these compounds at a low magnetic field. The origin of this large magnetostriction effect and potential applications are discussed.

  3. Geomagnetic Field (Gmf) and Plant Evolution: Investigating the Effects of Gmf Reversal on Arabidopsis thaliana Development and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bertea, Cinzia M.; Narayana, Ravishankar; Agliassa, Chiara; Rodgers, Christopher T.; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most stimulating observations in plant evolution is a correlation between the occurrence of geomagnetic field (GMF) reversals (or excursions) and the moment of the radiation of Angiosperms. This led to the hypothesis that alterations in GMF polarity may play a role in plant evolution. Here, we describe a method to test this hypothesis by exposing Arabidopsis thaliana to artificially reversed GMF conditions. We used a three-axis magnetometer and the collected data were used to calculate the magnitude of the GMF. Three DC power supplies were connected to three Helmholtz coil pairs and were controlled by a computer to alter the GMF conditions. Plants grown in Petri plates were exposed to both normal and reversed GMF conditions. Sham exposure experiments were also performed. Exposed plants were photographed during the experiment and images were analyzed to calculate root length and leaf areas. Arabidopsis total RNA was extracted and Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qPCR) analyses were performed on gene expression of CRUCIFERIN 3 (CRU3), copper transport protein1 (COTP1), Redox Responsive Transcription Factor1 (RRTF1), Fe Superoxide Dismutase 1, (FSD1), Catalase3 (CAT3), Thylakoidal Ascorbate Peroxidase (TAPX), a cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase1 (APX1), and NADPH/respiratory burst oxidase protein D (RbohD). Four different reference genes were analysed to normalize the results of the qPCR. The best of the four genes was selected and the most stable gene for normalization was used. Our data show for the first time that reversing the GMF polarity using triaxial coils has significant effects on plant growth and gene expression. This supports the hypothesis that GMF reversal contributes to inducing changes in plant development that might justify a higher selective pressure, eventually leading to plant evolution. PMID:26649488

  4. Geomagnetic Field (Gmf) and Plant Evolution: Investigating the Effects of Gmf Reversal on Arabidopsis thaliana Development and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Bertea, Cinzia M; Narayana, Ravishankar; Agliassa, Chiara; Rodgers, Christopher T; Maffei, Massimo E

    2015-11-30

    One of the most stimulating observations in plant evolution is a correlation between the occurrence of geomagnetic field (GMF) reversals (or excursions) and the moment of the radiation of Angiosperms. This led to the hypothesis that alterations in GMF polarity may play a role in plant evolution. Here, we describe a method to test this hypothesis by exposing Arabidopsis thaliana to artificially reversed GMF conditions. We used a three-axis magnetometer and the collected data were used to calculate the magnitude of the GMF. Three DC power supplies were connected to three Helmholtz coil pairs and were controlled by a computer to alter the GMF conditions. Plants grown in Petri plates were exposed to both normal and reversed GMF conditions. Sham exposure experiments were also performed. Exposed plants were photographed during the experiment and images were analyzed to calculate root length and leaf areas. Arabidopsis total RNA was extracted and Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qPCR) analyses were performed on gene expression of CRUCIFERIN 3 (CRU3), copper transport protein1 (COTP1), Redox Responsive Transcription Factor1 (RRTF1), Fe Superoxide Dismutase 1, (FSD1), Catalase3 (CAT3), Thylakoidal Ascorbate Peroxidase (TAPX), a cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase1 (APX1), and NADPH/respiratory burst oxidase protein D (RbohD). Four different reference genes were analysed to normalize the results of the qPCR. The best of the four genes was selected and the most stable gene for normalization was used. Our data show for the first time that reversing the GMF polarity using triaxial coils has significant effects on plant growth and gene expression. This supports the hypothesis that GMF reversal contributes to inducing changes in plant development that might justify a higher selective pressure, eventually leading to plant evolution.

  5. A novel feedback algorithm for simulating controlled dynamics and confinement in the advanced reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Dahlin, J.-E.; Scheffel, J.

    2005-06-15

    In the advanced reversed-field pinch (RFP), the current density profile is externally controlled to diminish tearing instabilities. Thus the scaling of energy confinement time with plasma current and density is improved substantially as compared to the conventional RFP. This may be numerically simulated by introducing an ad hoc electric field, adjusted to generate a tearing mode stable parallel current density profile. In the present work a current profile control algorithm, based on feedback of the fluctuating electric field in Ohm's law, is introduced into the resistive magnetohydrodynamic code DEBSP [D. D. Schnack and D. C. Baxter, J. Comput. Phys. 55,more » 485 (1984); D. D. Schnack, D. C. Barnes, Z. Mikic, D. S. Marneal, E. J. Caramana, and R. A. Nebel, Comput. Phys. Commun. 43, 17 (1986)]. The resulting radial magnetic field is decreased considerably, causing an increase in energy confinement time and poloidal {beta}. It is found that the parallel current density profile spontaneously becomes hollow, and that a formation, being related to persisting resistive g modes, appears close to the reversal surface.« less

  6. Reversible “triple-Q” elastic field structures in a chiral magnet

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao

    2016-01-01

    The analytical solution of the periodic elastic fields in chiral magnets caused by presence of periodically distributed eigenstrains is obtained. For the skyrmion phase, both the periodic displacement field and the stress field are composed of three “triple-Q” structures with different wave numbers. The periodic displacement field, obtained by combining the three “triple-Q” displacement structures, is found to have the same lattice vectors with the magnetic skyrmion lattice. We find that for increasing external magnetic field, one type of “triple-Q” displacement structure and stress structure undergo a “configurational reversal”, where the initial and the final field configuration share similar pattern but with opposite direction of all the field vectors. The solution obtained is of fundamental significance for understanding the emergent mechanical properties of skyrmions in chiral magnets. PMID:27457629

  7. Reversible electrical-field control of magnetization and anomalous Hall effect in Co/PMN-PT hybrid heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Huang, Q. K.; Lu, S. Y.; Tian, Y. F.; Chen, Y. X.; Bai, L. H.; Dai, Y.; Yan, S. S.

    2018-04-01

    Room-temperature reversible electrical-field control of the magnetization and the anomalous Hall effect was reported in hybrid multiferroic heterojunctions based on Co/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT). We demonstrate herein that electrical-field-induced strain and oxygen-ion migration in ZnO/Co/PMN-PT junctions exert opposing effects on the magnetic properties of the Co sublayer, and the competition between these effects determines the final magnitude of magnetization. This proof-of-concept investigation opens an alternative way to optimize and enhance the electrical-field effect on magnetism through the combination of multiple electrical manipulation mechanisms in hybrid multiferroic devices.

  8. Using Polar Coronal Hole Area Measurements to Determine the Solar Polar Magnetic Field Reversal in Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karna, N.; Webber, S.A. Hess; Pesnell, W.D.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of solar polar coronal hole (PCH) areas since the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) shows how the polar regions have evolved during Solar Cycle 24. We present PCH areas from mid-2010 through 2013 using data from the Atmospheric Imager Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instruments onboard SDO. Our analysis shows that both the northern and southern PCH areas have decreased significantly in size since 2010. Linear fits to the areas derived from the magnetic-field properties indicate that, although the northern hemisphere went through polar-field reversal and reached solar-maximum conditions in mid-2012, the southern hemisphere had not reached solar-maximum conditions in the polar regions by the end of 2013. Our results show that solar-maximum conditions in each hemisphere, as measured by the area of the polar coronal holes and polar magnetic field, will be offset in time.

  9. High sensitivity far infrared laser diagnostics for the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasmas

    SciT

    Deng, B. H., E-mail: bdeng@trialphaenergy.com; Beall, M.; Schroeder, J.

    2016-11-15

    A high sensitivity multi-channel far infrared laser diagnostics with switchable interferometry and polarimetry operation modes for the advanced neutral beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is described. The interferometer achieved superior resolution of 1 × 10{sup 16} m{sup −2} at >1.5 MHz bandwidth, illustrated by measurement of small amplitude high frequency fluctuations. The polarimetry achieved 0.04° instrument resolution and 0.1° actual resolution in the challenging high density gradient environment with >0.5 MHz bandwidth, making it suitable for weak internal magnetic field measurements in the C-2U plasmas, where the maximum Faraday rotation angle is less than 1°. The polarimetry resolution datamore » is analyzed, and high resolution Faraday rotation data in C-2U is presented together with direct evidences of field reversal in FRC magnetic structure obtained for the first time by a non-perturbative method.« less

  10. A multi-channel capacitive probe for electrostatic fluctuation measurement in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mingsheng; Stone, Douglas R; Triana, Joseph C; Almagri, Abdulgader F; Fiksel, Gennady; Ding, Weixing; Sarff, John S; McCollam, Karsten J; Li, Hong; Liu, Wandong

    2017-02-01

    A 40-channel capacitive probe has been developed to measure the electrostatic fluctuations associated with the tearing modes deep into Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch plasma. The capacitive probe measures the ac component of the plasma potential via the voltage induced on stainless steel electrodes capacitively coupled with the plasma through a thin annular layer of boron nitride (BN) dielectric (also serves as the particle shield). When bombarded by the plasma electrons, BN provides a sufficiently large secondary electron emission for the induced voltage to be very close to the plasma potential. The probe consists of four stalks each with ten cylindrical capacitors that are radially separated by 1.5 cm. The four stalks are arranged on a 1.3 cm square grid so that at each radial position, there are four electrodes forming a square grid. Every two adjacent radial sets of four electrodes form a cube. The fluctuating electric field can be calculated by the gradient of the plasma potential fluctuations at the eight corners of the cube. The probe can be inserted up to 15 cm (r/a = 0.7) into the plasma. The capacitive probe has a frequency bandwidth from 13 Hz to 100 kHz, amplifier-circuit limit, sufficient for studying the tearing modes (5-30 kHz) in the MST reversed-field pinch.

  11. Modular Adder Designs Using Optimal Reversible and Fault Tolerant Gates in Field-Coupled QCA Nanocomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Bisma; Ahmed, Suhaib; Kakkar, Vipan

    2018-02-01

    The challenges which the CMOS technology is facing toward the end of the technology roadmap calls for an investigation of various logical and technological solutions to CMOS at the nano scale. Two such paradigms which are considered in this paper are the reversible logic and the quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology. Firstly, a new 3 × 3 reversible and universal gate, RG-QCA, is proposed and implemented in QCA technology using conventional 3-input majority voter based logic. Further the gate is optimized by using explicit interaction of cells and this optimized gate is then used to design an optimized modular full adder in QCA. Another configuration of RG-QCA gate, CRG-QCA, is then proposed which is a 4 × 4 gate and includes the fault tolerant characteristics and parity preserving nature. The proposed CRG-QCA gate is then tested to design a fault tolerant full adder circuit. Extensive comparisons of gate and adder circuits are drawn with the existing literature and it is envisaged that our proposed designs perform better and are cost efficient in QCA technology.

  12. Observation of Electron Bernstein Wave Heating in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzman, Andrew; Anderson, Jay; Dubois, Ami; Almagri, Abdulgader; Nonn, Paul; McCollam, Karsten; Chapman, Brett; Goetz, John; Forest, Cary

    2016-10-01

    We report the first observation of electron Bernstein wave heating in the MST RFP. Similar to a high density stellarator, the RFP is inaccessible to electromagnetic ECRH. The plasma current and |B|operating range of MST allows a 5.5 GHz RF source (100kW, 4ms pulse) to heat on the fundamental and up to 4th harmonic EC resonances. With an x-ray diagnostic most sensitive to edge electrons located +12 degrees toroidally from the antenna, the measured emission is a strong function of predicted heating inside versus outside the Bt =0 reversal layer of the RFP. Measured during a scan of plasma current, distinct edges in a plot of emissivity versus predicted deposition layer align with the deposition layers crossing of this reversal layer and confirm EBW heating on the fundamental through 4th EC harmonic. Additional confirmation of the absorption location has been demonstrated by using auxiliary poloidal current drive to reduce electron diffusion rates and sweep the location of the Bt =0 surface across a static RF absorption location in RFP discharges. In these discharges EBW enhancement of the 15-40keV x-ray energies has been observed. Work supported by USDOE.

  13. Mean-field studies of time reversal breaking states in super-heavy nuclei with the Gogny force

    SciT

    Robledo, L. M., E-mail: luis.robledo@uam.es

    2015-10-15

    Recent progress on the description of time reversal breaking (odd mass and multi-quasiparticle excitation) states in super-heavy nuclei within a mean field framework and using several flavors of the Gogny interaction is reported. The study includes ground and excited states in selected odd mass isotopes of nobelium and mendelevium as well as high K isomeric states in {sup 254}No. These are two and four-quasiparticle excitations that are treated in the same self-consistent HFB plus blocking framework as the odd mass states.

  14. Properties of the edge plasma in the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Bergsåker, H.; Antoni, V.; Drake, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    The edge region of the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment has been investigated using Langmuir probes. Radial profiles of main plasma parameters are obtained and compared with those of the previous device Extrap-T2. The spontaneous setting up of a double shear layer of E×B toroidal velocity is confirmed. The particle flux induced by electrostatic fluctuations is calculated and the resulting effective diffusion coefficient is consistent with the Bohm estimate. A close relationship between electrostatic fluctuations at the edge and non-linear coupling of MHD modes in the core is found.

  15. Space fusion energy conversion using a field reversed configuration reactor: A new technical approach for space propulsion and power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Miley, George H.; Santarius, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The fusion energy conversion design approach, the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) - when burning deuterium and helium-3, offers a new method and concept for space transportation with high energy demanding programs, like the Manned Mars Mission and planetary science outpost missions require. FRC's will increase safety, reduce costs, and enable new missions by providing a high specific power propulsion system from a high performance fusion engine system that can be optimally designed. By using spacecraft powered by FRC's the space program can fulfill High Energy Space Missions (HESM) in a manner not otherwise possible. FRC's can potentially enable the attainment of high payload mass fractions while doing so within shorter flight times.

  16. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    SciT

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrappedmore » around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.« less

  17. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-10-01

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  18. Origin of the magnetic-field controlled polarization reversal in multiferroic TbMn2 O 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, N.; Meier, D.; Pisarev, R. V.; Park, S.; Cheong, S.-W.; Fiebig, M.

    2011-03-01

    The interplay of multi-dimensional complex magnetic order parameters leads to interesting effects like magnetically induced ferroelectricity. A particular interesting example is TbMn 2 O5 because of the associated magnetic-field controllable electric polarization. By optical second harmonic generation we show that the gigantic magnetoelectric effect originates in three independent ferroelectric contributions. Two of these are manganese-generated. The third contribution is related to the magnetism of the Tb 3+ sublattice and has not been identified so far. It mediates the remarkable magnetic-field induced polarization reversal. This model is verified by experiments on the isostructural YMn 2 O5 where Y3+ ions are nonmagnetic and only two polarization contributions are present and no magnetoelectric coupling is observed. These results underline the importance of the 3 d - 4 f -interaction for the intricate magnetoelectric coupling in the class of isostructural RMn 2 O5 compounds. This work was supported by the DFG through SFB 608.

  19. Alpha effect of Alfv{acute e}n waves and current drive in reversed-field pinches

    SciT

    Litwin, C.; Prager, S.C.

    Circularly polarized Alfv{acute e}n waves give rise to an {alpha}-dynamo effect that can be exploited to drive parallel current. In a {open_quotes}laminar{close_quotes} magnetic the effect is weak and does not give rise to significant currents for realistic parameters (e.g., in tokamaks). However, in reversed-field pinches (RFPs) in which magnetic field in the plasma core is stochastic, a significant enhancement of the {alpha} effect occurs. Estimates of this effect show that it may be a realistic method of current generation in the present-day RFP experiments and possibly also in future RFP-based fusion reactors. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Comparison of confinement in resistive-shell reversed-field pinch devices with two different magnetic shell penetration times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravestijn, R. M.; Drake, J. R.; Hedqvist, A.; Rachlew, E.

    2004-01-01

    A loop voltage is required to sustain the reversed-field pinch (RFP) equilibrium. The configuration is characterized by redistribution of magnetic helicity but with the condition that the total helicity is maintained constant. The magnetic field shell penetration time, tgrs, has a critical role in the stability and performance of the RFP. Confinement in the EXTRAP device has been studied with two values of tgrs, first (EXTRAP-T2) with tgrs of the order of the typical relaxation cycle timescale and then (EXTRAP-T2R) with tgrs much longer than the relaxation cycle timescale, but still much shorter than the pulse length. Plasma parameters show significant improvements in confinement in EXTRAP-T2R. The typical loop voltage required to sustain comparable electron poloidal beta values is a factor of 3 lower in the EXTRAP-T2R device. The improvement is attributed to reduced magnetic turbulence.

  1. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-09-01

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4×1010cm-3 for a central electron density of 1×1013cm-3. Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20m2 s-1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ˜2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.

  2. Neutron and Gamma-ray Detection in Reversed-Field Pinch Deuterium Plasmas in the RFX-mod Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuin, Matteo; Stevanato, Luca; Martines, Emilio; Gonzalez, Winder; Cavazzana, Roberto; Cester, Davide; Nebbia, G.; Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Viesti, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    An experimental analysis of neutron and gamma-ray fluxes exiting purely ohmically heated plasmas in reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration is presented. The diagnostic system, installed in the RFX-mod, is made of 2 scintillators (EJ-301 liquid and NaI(Tl)) coupled to flat-panel photomultipliers, which can be operated under magnetic fields. The production of neutrons and gamma rays in Deuterium plasmas is found to be strongly dependent on the Ohmic input power, with a threshold value of about 1.2 MA in terms of plasma current level, below which low levels of gamma rays and almost no neutrons are detected. Neutron and gamma production is characterized by a bursty behavior, correlated to the spontaneous magnetic reconnection events, occurring almost cyclically in the RFP plasmas. The role of ion heating and particle acceleration during such events is discussed.

  3. Compact and lightweight support platform with electromagnetic disturbance elimination for interferometer on reversed field pinch Keda Torus eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenzhe; Yuan, Peng; Zheng, Jian; Ding, Weixing; Li, Hong; Lan, Tao; Liu, Adi; Liu, Wandong; Xie, Jinlin

    2016-11-01

    A compact and lightweight support platform has been used as a holder for the interferometer system on the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX), which is a reversed field pinch device. The vibration caused by the interaction between the time-varying magnetic field and the induced current driven in the metal optical components has been measured and, following comparison with the mechanical vibration of the KTX device and the refraction effect of the ambient turbulent air flow, has been identified as the primary vibration source in this case. To eliminate this electromagnetic disturbance, nonmetallic epoxy resin has been selected as the material for the support platform and the commercially available metal optical mounts are replaced. Following these optimization steps and mechanical reinforcements, the stability of the interferometer platform has improved significantly. The phase shift caused by the vibration has been reduced to the level of background noise.

  4. Vortex pairing and reverse cascade in a simulated two-dimensional rocket motor-like flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional large eddy simulation of a flow experiment intended for studying and understanding transition and parietal vortex shedding has brought to light some interesting features that have never been seen in previous similar simulations and have implications for future computational work on combustion instabilities in rocket motors. The frequency spectrum of pressure at head end shows a peak at the expected value associated with parietal vortex shedding but an additional peak at half this frequency emerges at downstream location. Using vorticity spectra at various distances away from the wall, it is shown that the frequency halving is due to vortex pairing as hypothesized by Dunlap et al. ["Internal flow field studies in a simulated cylindrical port rocket chamber," J. Propul. Power 6(6), 690-704 (1990)] for a similar experiment. As the flow transitions to turbulence towards the nozzle end, inertial range with Kolmogorov scaling becomes evident in the velocity spectrum. Given that the simulation is two-dimensional, such a scaling could be associated with a reverse energy cascade as per Kraichnan-Leith-Bachelor theory. By filtering the simulated flow field and identifying where the energy backscatters into the filtered scales, the regions with a reverse cascade are identified. The implications of this finding on combustion modeling are discussed.

  5. THE DYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD: POLARITY REVERSALS, BUTTERFLY DIAGRAM, AND QUASI-BIENNIAL OSCILLATIONS

    SciT

    Vecchio, A.; Meduri, D.; Carbone, V.

    2012-04-10

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of the solar magnetic field has been investigated by using NSO/Kitt Peak magnetic synoptic maps covering the period 1976 August-2003 September. The field radial component, for each heliographic latitude, has been decomposed in intrinsic mode functions through the Empirical Mode Decomposition in order to investigate the time evolution of the various characteristic oscillating modes at different latitudes. The same technique has also been applied on synoptic maps of the meridional and east-west components, which were derived from the observed line-of-sight projection of the field by using the differential rotation. Results obtained for the {approx}22 yr cycle, relatedmore » to the polarity inversions of the large-scale dipolar field, show an antisymmetric behavior with respect to the equator in all the field components and a marked poleward flux migration in the radial and meridional components (from about -35 Degree-Sign and +35 Degree-Sign in the southern and northern hemispheres, respectively). The quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) are also identified as a fundamental timescale of variability of the magnetic field and associated with poleward magnetic flux migration from low latitudes around the maximum and descending phase of the solar cycle. Moreover, signs of an equatorward drift, at a {approx}2 yr rate, seem to appear in the radial and toroidal components. Hence, the QBO patterns suggest a link to a dynamo action. Finally, the high-frequency component of the magnetic field, at timescales less than 1 yr, provides the most energetic contribution and it is associated with the outbreaks of the bipolar regions on the solar surface.« less

  6. Electroporation of Mammalian Cells by Nanosecond Electric Field Oscillations and its Inhibition by the Electric Field Reversal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-08

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) March 2013 to July 2015 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electroporation of mammalian cells by nanosecond electric field...NEFO was a damped sine wave with 140 ns first phase duration at 50% height; the peak amplitude of phases 2- 4 decreased to 35%, 12%, and 7% of the...first phase. This waveform was rectified to produce unipolar NEFO by cutting off phases 2 and 4 . Membrane permeabilization was quantified in CHO and

  7. Reversible control of magnetic interactions by electric field in a single-phase material.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P J; Kim, J-W; Birol, T; Thompson, P; Lee, J-H; Ke, X; Normile, P S; Karapetrova, E; Schiffer, P; Brown, S D; Fennie, C J; Schlom, D G

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the interaction between magnetic and electric polarization through an inherent microscopic mechanism in a single-phase material. This phenomenon has the potential to control the magnetic state of a material with an electric field, an enticing prospect for device engineering. Here, we demonstrate 'giant' magnetoelectric cross-field control in a tetravalent titanate film. In bulk form, EuTiO(3), is antiferromagnetic. However, both anti and ferromagnetic interactions coexist between different nearest europium neighbours. In thin epitaxial films, strain was used to alter the relative strength of the magnetic exchange constants. We not only show that moderate biaxial compression precipitates local magnetic competition, but also demonstrate that the application of an electric field at this strain condition switches the magnetic ground state. Using first-principles density functional theory, we resolve the underlying microscopic mechanism resulting in G-type magnetic order and illustrate how it is responsible for the 'giant' magnetoelectric effect.

  8. Analysis techniques for diagnosing runaway ion distributions in the reversed field pinch

    SciT

    Kim, J., E-mail: jkim536@wisc.edu; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.

    2016-11-15

    An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) on the Madison Symmetric Torus measures deuterium ions of energy ranges 8-45 keV with an energy resolution of 2-4 keV and time resolution of 10 μs. Three different experimental configurations measure distinct portions of the naturally occurring fast ion distributions: fast ions moving parallel, anti-parallel, or perpendicular to the plasma current. On a radial-facing port, fast ions moving perpendicular to the current have the necessary pitch to be measured by the ANPA. With the diagnostic positioned on a tangent line through the plasma core, a chord integration over fast ion density, background neutral density,more » and local appropriate pitch defines the measured sample. The plasma current can be reversed to measure anti-parallel fast ions in the same configuration. Comparisons of energy distributions for the three configurations show an anisotropic fast ion distribution favoring high pitch ions.« less

  9. An attempt to determine the absolute geomagnetic field intensity in Southwestern Iceland during the Gauss-Matuyama reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Prévot, Michel; Thompson, John; Roberts, Neil

    1999-08-01

    We have measured the variation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field during the Gauss-Matuyama (N4-R3) polarity reversal by application of the Thelliers' method to specimens of lava flows from Hvalfjördur district in Western Iceland (Reynivallahals Mts.). Eleven lava flows all show very similar directions corresponding to an equatorial VGP (Plat=2.9°N, Plong=81.9°E, A95=4.2, K=119). Twenty-nine specimens from nine of the flows were pre-selected for palaeointensity determination on the basis that specimens from the same drill cores showed a single component of magnetisation upon thermal or AF demagnetisation, and possessed low magnetic viscosity and reversible susceptibility curves upon heating at 600-650°C. Observation that the directional data obtained in the course of the palaeointensity experiments occasionally showed substantial non-linearity indicates that a significant chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) can be acquired in the direction of the laboratory field during heating at T. For each double heating step we calculated the ratio of CRM( T) to the magnitude of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM( T)) in the direction of characteristic remanence (obtained independently from another specimen from the same core). When this ratio exceeded 15%, the paleointensity data was rejected. In addition, specimens for which the quality factor was less than 5 were rejected. Twelve reliable palaeointensity values were obtained from specimens representing five lava flows. The results confirm that the palaeointensity was substantially reduced during the N4-R3 reversal. The range of mean palaeointensity values obtained for the five flows is 8.8 to 20.5 and the overall mean is 14.8±4.6 μT. This corresponds to an equivalent VDM of 3.81±1.19 (10 22 A m 2). A comparison of all Thellier palaeointensity data from the R3 magnetozone in the Rayinivallahals Mts. area reveals a progressive although irregular increase in the palaeointensity between the Gauss

  10. Magnetic chaos healing in the helical reversed-field pinch: indications from the volume-preserving field line tracing code NEMATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfiglio, D.; Veranda, M.; Cappello, S.; Chacón, L.; Spizzo, G.

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of a self-organized reversed-field pinch (RFP) helical regime, first shown by 3D MHD numerical simulations, has been highlighted in the RFX-mod experiment at high current operation (IP above 1 MA). In fact, a quasi-stationary helical configuration spontaneously appears, characterized by strong internal electron transport barriers. In such regime electron temperature and density become, to a very good approximation, functions of the helical flux coordinate related to the dominant helical magnetic component. In addition, this regime is diagnosed to be associated with the topological transition to a single-helical-axis (SHAx) state, achieved after the expulsion of the separatrix of the dominant mode's magnetic island. The SHAx state is theoretically predicted to be resilient to the magnetic chaos induced by secondary modes. In this paper, we present initial results of the volume-preserving field line tracing code NEMATO [Finn J M and Chacón L 2005 Phys. Plasmas 12 054503] applied to study the magnetic topology resulting from 3D MHD simulations of the RFP. First, a successful 2D verification test of the code is shown, then, initial application to a systematic study of chaos healing in the helical RFP is discussed. The separatrix disappearance is confirmed to play an essential role for chaos healing. The triggering effect of a reversed magnetic shear for the formation of ordered surfaces within magnetic chaos is also diagnosed.

  11. Magnetic chaos healing in hte helical reversed-field pinch: indications from the volume-preserving field line tracing code NEMATO

    SciT

    Bonfiglio, Daniele; Veranda, M.; Cappello, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of a self-organized reversed-field pinch (RFP) helical regime, first shown by 3D MHD numerical simulations, has been highlighted in the RFX-mod experiment at high current operation (IP above 1 MA). In fact, a quasi-stationary helical configuration spontaneously appears, characterized by strong internal electron transport barriers. In such regime electron temperature and density become, to a very good approximation, functions of the helical flux coordinate related to the dominant helical magnetic component. In addition, this regime is diagnosed to be associated with the topological transition to a single-helical-axis (SHAx) state, achieved after the expulsion of the separatrix of themore » dominant mode's magnetic island. The SHAx state is theoretically predicted to be resilient to the magnetic chaos induced by secondary modes. In this paper, we present initial results of the volume-preserving field line tracing code nemato [Finn J M and Chacon L 2005 Phys. Plasmas 12 054503] applied to study the magnetic topology resulting from 3D MHD simulations of the RFP. First, a successful 2D verification test of the code is shown, then, initial application to a systematic study of chaos healing in the helical RFP is discussed. The separatrix disappearance is confirmed to play an essential role for chaos healing. The triggering effect of a reversed magnetic shear for the formation of ordered surfaces within magnetic chaos is also diagnosed.« less

  12. Direct observation of λ-DNA molecule reversal movement within microfluidic channels under electric field with single molecule imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengyun, Yang; Kaige, Wang; Dan, Sun; Wei, Zhao; Hai-qing, Wang; Xin, He; Gui-ren, Wang; Jin-tao, Bai

    2016-07-01

    The electrodynamic characteristics of single DNA molecules moving within micro-/nano-fluidic channels are important in the design of biomedical chips and bimolecular sensors. In this study, the dynamic properties of λ-DNA molecules transferring along the microchannels driven by the external electrickinetic force were systemically investigated with the single molecule fluorescence imaging technique. The experimental results indicated that the velocity of DNA molecules was strictly dependent on the value of the applied electric field and the diameter of the channel. The larger the external electric field, the larger the velocity, and the more significant deformation of DNA molecules. More meaningfully, it was found that the moving directions of DNA molecules had two completely different directions: (i) along the direction of the external electric field, when the electric field intensity was smaller than a certain threshold value; (ii) opposite to the direction of the external electric field, when the electric field intensity was greater than the threshold electric field intensity. The reversal movement of DNA molecules was mainly determined by the competition between the electrophoresis force and the influence of electro-osmosis flow. These new findings will theoretically guide the practical application of fluidic channel sensors and lab-on-chips for precisely manipulating single DNA molecules. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378083), the International Cooperation Foundation of the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2011DFA12220), the Major Research Plan of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91123030), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (Grant Nos. 2010JS110 and 2013SZS03-Z01).

  13. A Reverse Taxonomic Approach to Assess Macrofaunal Distribution Patterns in Abyssal Pacific Polymetallic Nodule Fields

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Annika; Kaiser, Stefanie; Meißner, Karin; Brenke, Nils; Menot, Lenaick; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Heightened interest in the exploitation of deep seafloor minerals is raising questions on the consequences for the resident fauna. Assessing species ranges and determination of processes underlying current species distributions are prerequisites to conservation planning and predicting faunal responses to changing environmental conditions. The abyssal central Pacific nodule belt, located between the Clarion and Clipperton Fracture Zones (CCZ), is an area prospected for mining of polymetallic nodules. We examined variations in genetic diversity and broad-scale connectivity of isopods and polychaetes across the CCZ. Faunal assemblages were studied from two mining claims (the eastern German and French license areas) located 1300 km apart and influenced by different productivity regimes. Using a reverse taxonomy approach based on DNA barcoding, we tested to what extent distance and large-scale changes in environmental parameters lead to differentiation in two macrofaunal taxa exhibiting different functions and life-history patterns. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI) was analyzed. At a 97% threshold the molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) corresponded well to morphological species. Molecular analyses indicated high local and regional diversity mostly because of large numbers of singletons in the samples. Consequently, variation in composition of genotypic clusters between sites was exceedingly large partly due to paucity of deep-sea sampling and faunal patchiness. A higher proportion of wide-ranging species in polychaetes was contrasted with mostly restricted distributions in isopods. Remarkably, several cryptic lineages appeared to be sympatric and occurred in taxa with putatively good dispersal abilities, whereas some brooding lineages revealed broad distributions across the CCZ. Geographic distance could explain variation in faunal connectivity between regions and sites to some extent, while assumed dispersal

  14. Electric field controlled strain induced reversible switching of magnetization in Galfenol nanomagnets delineated on PMN-PT substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    We report a non-volatile converse magneto-electric effect in elliptical Galfenol (FeGa) nanomagnets of ~300 nm lateral dimensions and ~10nm thickness delineated on a PMN-PT substrate. This effect can be harnessed for energy-efficient non-volatile memory. The nanomagnets are fabricated with e-beam lithography and sputtering. Their major axes are aligned parallel to the direction in which the substrate is poled and they are magnetized in this direction with a magnetic field. An electric field in the opposite direction generates compressive strain in the piezoelectric substrate which is partially transferred to the nanomagnets and rotates their magnetization away from the major axes to metastable orientations. There they remain after the field is removed, resulting in non-volatility. Reversing the electric field generates tensile strain which returns the magnetization to the original state. The two states can encode two binary bits which can be written using the correct voltage polarity, resulting in non-toggle behavior. Scaled memory fashioned on this effect can exhibit write energy dissipation of only ~2 aJ. Work is supported by NSF under ECCS-1124714 and CCF-1216614. Sputtering was carried out at NIST Gaithersburg.

  15. Resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmberg, J.-A.; Brunsell, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell (τw=6 ms) reversed field pinch are described. A nonresonant mode (m=1,n=-10) with the same handedness as the internal field grows nearly exponentially with an average growth time of about 2.6 ms (less than 1/2 of the shell time) consistent with linear stability theory. The externally nonresonant unstable modes (m=1,n>0), predicted by linear stability theory, are observed to have only low amplitudes (in the normal low-Θ operation mode of the device). The radial field of the dominant internally resonant tearing modes (m=1,n=-15 to n=-12) remain low due to spontaneous fast mode rotation, corresponding to angular phase velocities up to 280 krad/s. Phase aligned mode structures are observed to rotate toroidally with an average angular velocity of 40 krad/s, in the opposite direction of the plasma current. Toward the end of the discharge, the radial field of the internally resonant modes grows as the modes slow down and become wall-locked, in agreement with nonlinear computations. Fast rotation of the internally resonant modes has been observed only recently and is attributed to a change of the front-end system (vacuum vessel, shell, and TF coil) of the device.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Neutral Entrainment Effect on Field-Reversed Configuration Thruster Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    and acceleration. Whereas such a high Isp may be highly desirable for deep space missions, the low - Earth - orbit and geosynchronous- Earth - orbit ...Due to the aforementioned factors, the optimal conditions are achieved for low -Z plasma at high (∼50 eV) temperature and in strong magnetic fields...cannot capture strongly nonequilibrium velocity distributions of charged and neutral species typical for high-energy plasma –neutral interaction . A

  17. Telomerase reverse transcriptase locus polymorphisms and cancer risk: a field synopsis and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Simone; Verdi, Daunia; Pooley, Karen A; Landi, Maria T; Egan, Kathleen M; Baird, Duncan M; Prescott, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Nitti, Donato

    2012-06-06

    Several recent studies have provided evidence that polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene sequence are associated with cancer development, but a comprehensive synopsis is not available. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available molecular epidemiology data regarding the association between TERT locus polymorphisms and predisposition to cancer. A systematic review of the English literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cancerlit, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for studies on associations between TERT locus polymorphisms and cancer risk. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to pool per-allele odds ratios for TERT locus polymorphisms and risk of cancer, and between-study heterogeneity and potential bias sources (eg, publication and chasing bias) were assessed. Because the TERT locus includes the cleft lip and palate transmembrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) gene, which is in linkage disequilibrium with TERT, CLPTM1L polymorphisms were also analyzed. Cumulative evidence for polymorphisms with statistically significant associations was graded as "strong," "moderate," and "weak" according to the Venice criteria. The joint population attributable risk was calculated for polymorphisms with strong evidence of association. Eighty-five studies enrolling 490 901 subjects and reporting on 494 allelic contrasts were retrieved. Data were available on 67 TERT locus polymorphisms and 24 tumor types, for a total of 221 unique combinations of polymorphisms and cancer types. Upon meta-analysis, a statistically significant association with the risk of any cancer type was found for 22 polymorphisms. Strong, moderate, and weak cumulative evidence for association with at least one tumor type was demonstrated for 11, 9, and 14 polymorphisms, respectively. For lung cancer, which was the most studied tumor type, the estimated joint population attributable risk for three polymorphisms (TERT rs2736100, intergenic

  18. Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Locus Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Field Synopsis and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Verdi, Daunia; Pooley, Karen A.; Landi, Maria T.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Baird, Duncan M.; Prescott, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Nitti, Donato

    2012-01-01

    Background Several recent studies have provided evidence that polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene sequence are associated with cancer development, but a comprehensive synopsis is not available. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available molecular epidemiology data regarding the association between TERT locus polymorphisms and predisposition to cancer. Methods A systematic review of the English literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cancerlit, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for studies on associations between TERT locus polymorphisms and cancer risk. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to pool per-allele odds ratios for TERT locus polymorphisms and risk of cancer, and between-study heterogeneity and potential bias sources (eg, publication and chasing bias) were assessed. Because the TERT locus includes the cleft lip and palate transmembrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) gene, which is in linkage disequilibrium with TERT, CLPTM1L polymorphisms were also analyzed. Cumulative evidence for polymorphisms with statistically significant associations was graded as “strong,” “moderate,” and “weak” according to the Venice criteria. The joint population attributable risk was calculated for polymorphisms with strong evidence of association. Results Eighty-five studies enrolling 490 901 subjects and reporting on 494 allelic contrasts were retrieved. Data were available on 67 TERT locus polymorphisms and 24 tumor types, for a total of 221 unique combinations of polymorphisms and cancer types. Upon meta-analysis, a statistically significant association with the risk of any cancer type was found for 22 polymorphisms. Strong, moderate, and weak cumulative evidence for association with at least one tumor type was demonstrated for 11, 9, and 14 polymorphisms, respectively. For lung cancer, which was the most studied tumor type, the estimated joint population attributable risk for three

  19. Two-fluid Magnetic Relaxation in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, Joseph; Almagri, Af; McCollam, Kj; Sarff, Js; Sovinec, Cr

    2016-10-01

    Recent measurements and extended MHD simulations expose the importance of two-fluid physics in the relaxation and self-organization of the current and momentum profiles in RFP plasmas. A hallmark of relaxation is that the inductive electric field is not balanced by resistive dissipation, prompting the study of fluctuation-induced emfs in the generalized Ohm's law, E- ηJ =- +/ne, the two terms on the right known as the MHD and Hall dynamo terms, respectively. The Hall emf is measured in the outer half of the MST plasma minor radius using an armored deep-insertion probe. The emf matches previous measurements in the edge (r/a>0.8) but in the new region examined (0.8>r/a>0.6) it is much larger than E- ηJ, implying the MHD dynamo must also be large and oppositely directed. Recent nonlinear simulations that include two-fluid effects using the extended-MHD NIMROD code show complex radial structure for the emf terms, but the size of the measured Hall emf is much larger than predicted by the simulations. In the two-fluid model, the Hall dynamo couples to the parallel momentum as the mean-field Maxwell stress. The simulations predict relaxation of the parallel flow profiles that is also qualitatively consistent with measurements in MST plasmas. Work supported by US DoE and NSF.

  20. A search for lower-hybrid-drift fluctuations in a field-reversed configuration using CO2 heterodyne scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Arthur W.

    1987-05-01

    An upper bound of (ñe/ne) <10-4 for frequencies and wavenumbers relevant to the lower-hybrid-drift (LHD) instability is set on fluctuations in field-reversed configurations (FRC's) produced by TRX-2 [Fusion Techn. 9, 48 (1986)]. LHD is a well-studied microinstability that is often invoked to explain particle loss rates in FRC's. The conventional technique of CO2 laser scattering with heterodyne detection is here modified to compensate for severe refraction. The calibration of the system is verified by scattering from acoustic waves in salt. The measured bound is two orders of magnitude below both the fluctuation level usually predicted and the level needed to account for observed particle loss rates. Electron collisionality is identified as the most likely LHD stabilization mechanism. Some alternative explanations of anomalous loss rates are discussed.

  1. Stabilization of lower hybrid drift modes by finite parallel wavenumber and electron temperature gradients in field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farengo, R.; Guzdar, P. N.; Lee, Y. C.

    1989-08-01

    The effect of finite parallel wavenumber and electron temperature gradients on the lower hybrid drift instability is studied in the parameter regime corresponding to the TRX-2 device [Fusion Technol. 9, 48 (1986)]. Perturbations in the electrostatic potential and all three components of the vector potential are considered and finite beta electron orbit modifications are included. The electron temperature gradient decreases the growth rate of the instability but, for kz=0, unstable modes exist for ηe(=T'en0/Ten0)>6. Since finite kz effects completely stabilize the mode at small values of kz/ky(≂5×10-3), magnetic shear could be responsible for stabilizing the lower hybrid drift instability in field-reversed configurations.

  2. A study of the possible relation of the cardiac arrhythmias occurrence to the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromichalaki, H.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Theodoropoulou, A.; Paouris, E.; Apostolou, Th.

    2017-01-01

    The biological human system is probably affected by the solar and geomagnetic disturbances as well as the cosmic ray variations. In this work, the relation between the solar activity and cosmic ray variations and the cardiac arrhythmias over the time period 1997-2009 covering the solar cycle 23, is studied. The used medical data set refers to 4741 patients with cardiac arrhythmias and 2548 of whom were diagnosed with atrial fibrillation, obtained from the 2nd Cardiological Clinic of the General Hospital of Nicaea, Piraeus, in Greece. The smoothing method on a 365-day basis and the Pearson r-coefficient were used in order to compare these records with the number of sunspots, flares, solar proton events, coronal mass ejections and cosmic ray intensity. Applying a moving correlation function to ±1500 days, it is suggested that a change of the correlation sign between the medical data and each one of the above parameters occurs during a time interval of about 2-3 years. This interval corresponds to the time span of the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field of this solar cycle, which always takes place around the solar cycle maximum. After then a correlation analysis was carried out corresponding to the rise (1997-2001) and the decay (2002-2009) phases of the solar cycle 23. It is noticeable that the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field coincides with the period where the sign of the correlation between the incidence of arrhythmias and the occurrence number of the solar eruptive events and the cosmic ray intensity, changes sign. The results are comparable with those obtained from the previous solar cycle 22 based on medical data from another country.

  3. Effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in reversed field pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. C.; Chu, M. S.

    2002-11-01

    The effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas are studied. Most RFP machines are equipped with one or more metal shells outside of the vacuum vessel. These shells have finite resistivities. The eddy currents induced in each of the shells contribute to the braking electromagnetic (EM) torque which slows down the plasma rotation. In this work we study the electromagnetic torque acting on the plasma (tearing) modes produced by a system of resistive shells. These shells may consist of several nested thin shells or several thin shells enclosed within a thick shell. The dynamics of the plasma mode is investigated by balancing the EM torque from the resistive shells with the plasma viscous torque. Both the steady state theory and the time-dependent theory are developed. The steady state theory is shown to provide an accurate account of the resultant EM torque if (dω/dt)ω-2≪1 and the time scale of interest is much longer than the response (L/R) time of the shell. Otherwise, the transient theory should be adopted. As applications, the steady state theory is used to evaluate the changes of the EM torque response from the resistive shells in two variants of two RFP machines: (1) modification from Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) [Gnesotto et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 335 (1995)] to the modified RFX: both of them are equipped with one thin shell plus one thick shell; (2) modification from Extrap T2 to Extrap T2R [Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)]: both of them are equipped with two thin shells. The transient theory has been applied numerically to study the time evolution of the EM torque during the unlocking of a locked tearing mode in the modified RFX.

  4. Electric-Field-Driven Dual Vacancies Evolution in Ultrathin Nanosheets Realizing Reversible Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Mengjie; Liu, Youwen; Zhi, Yuduo; Xiao, Chong; Gu, Bingchuan; Hua, Xuemin; Fan, Shaojuan; Lin, Yue; Bai, Wei; Tong, Wei; Zou, Youming; Pan, Bicai; Ye, Bangjiao; Xie, Yi

    2015-12-02

    Fabricating a flexible room-temperature ferromagnetic resistive-switching random access memory (RRAM) device is of fundamental importance to integrate nonvolatile memory and spintronics both in theory and practice for modern information technology and has the potential to bring about revolutionary new foldable information-storage devices. Here, we show that a relatively low operating voltage (+1.4 V/-1.5 V, the corresponding electric field is around 20,000 V/cm) drives the dual vacancies evolution in ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets at room temperature, which causes the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal, accompanyied by an abrupt conductivity change up to 10(3) times, exhibiting room-temperature ferromagnetism in two resistance states. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron spin resonance results show that the Sn/O dual vacancies in the ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets evolve to isolated Sn vacancy under electric field, accounting for the switching behavior of SnO2 ultrathin nanosheets; on the other hand, the different defect types correspond to different conduction natures, realizing the transition between semiconductor and half-metal. Our result represents a crucial step to create new a information-storage device realizing the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal with flexibility and room-temperature ferromagnetism at low energy consumption. The as-obtained half-metal in the low-resistance state broadens the application of the device in spintronics and the semiconductor to half-metal transition on the basis of defects evolution and also opens up a new avenue for exploring random access memory mechanisms and finding new half-metals for spintronics.

  5. Effect of electric field on the performance of soil electro-bioremediation with a periodic polarity reversal strategy.

    PubMed

    Mena, E; Villaseñor, J; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-03-01

    In this work, it is studied the effect of the electric fields (within the range 0.0-1.5 V cm(-1)) on the performance of electrobioremediation with polarity reversal, using a bench scale plant with diesel-spiked kaolinite with 14-d long tests. Results obtained show that the periodic changes in the polarity of the electric field results in a more efficient treatment as compared with the single electro-bioremediation process, and it does not require the addition of a buffer to keep the pH within a suitable range. The soil heating was not very important and it did not cause a change in the temperature of the soil up to values incompatible with the life of microorganisms. Low values of water transported by the electro-osmosis process were attained with this strategy. After only 14 d of treatment, by using the highest electric field studied in this work (1.5 V cm(-1)), up to 35.40% of the diesel added at the beginning of the test was removed, value much higher than the 10.5% obtained by the single bioremediation technology in the same period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamo generation of magnetic fields in three-dimensional space - Solar cycle main flux tube formation and reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, H.

    1983-08-01

    The case of the solar magnetic cycle is investigated as a prototype of the dynamo processes involved in the generation of magnetic fields in astrophysics. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations are solved using a numerical method with a prescribed velocity field in order follow the movement and deformation. It is shown that a simple combination of differential rotation and global convection, given by a linear analysis of fluid dynamics in a rotating sphere, can perpetually create and reverse great magnetic flux tubes encircling the sun. These main flux tubes of the solar cycle are the progenitors of small-scale flux ropes of the solar activity. These findings indicate that magnetic fields can be generated by fluid motions and that MHD equations have a new type of oscillatory solution. It is shown that the solar cycle can be identified with one of these oscillatory solutions. It is proposed that the formation of magnetic flux tubes by streaming plasma flows is a universal mechanism of flux tube formation in astrophysics.

  7. Dual wavelength imaging of a scrape-off layer in an advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration

    SciT

    Osin, D.; Schindler, T., E-mail: dosin@trialphaenergy.com

    2016-11-15

    A dual wavelength imaging system has been developed and installed on C-2U to capture 2D images of a He jet in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) of an advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. The system was designed to optically split two identical images and pass them through 1 nm FWHM filters. Dual wavelength images are focused adjacent on a large format CCD chip and recorded simultaneously with a time resolution down to 10 μs using a gated micro-channel plate. The relatively compact optical system images a 10 cm plasma region with a spatial resolution of 0.2 cm and can bemore » used in a harsh environment with high electro-magnetic noise and high magnetic field. The dual wavelength imaging system provides 2D images of either electron density or temperature by observing spectral line pairs emitted by He jet atoms in the SOL. A large field of view, combined with good space and time resolution of the imaging system, allows visualization of macro-flows in the SOL. First 2D images of the electron density and temperature observed in the SOL of the C-2U FRC are presented.« less

  8. Bifurcation in the MHD behaviour of a self-organizing system: the reversed field pinch (RFP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, S.

    2004-12-01

    Within the framework of MHD modelling the RFP is shown to develop turbulent or laminar regimes switching from the former to the latter in a continuous way depending on the strength of dissipative forces (the higher they are the more laminar is the corresponding regime). In either of these cases interesting features can be observed such as the occurrence of quasi-periodic relaxation events involving reconnection processes, or the formation of stationary helical symmetric configurations. The first case corresponds to the conventional turbulent dynamo in the RFP where perturbations with multiple helical harmonic content are present. The second case corresponds to a global single helical deformation of the current channel. This simpler configuration is associated with a laminar electrostatic dynamo field and may also be found as a solution of a helical Ohmic equilibrium problem where a finite beta is necessary. The continuity of the transition between the two regimes suggests that the simple helical symmetric solution can provide a fruitful intuitive description of the RFP dynamo in general. Many of the MHD predictions are in good agreement with experimental findings and suggest possible improvements for the confinement properties of the RFP configuration.

  9. MHD control experiments in the Extrap T2R Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrelli, L.; Bolzonella, T.; Brunsell, P.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.; Franz, P.; Gregoratto, D.; Manduchi, G.; Martin, P.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Piovesan, P.; Spizzo, G.; Yadikin, D.; Zanca, P.

    2004-11-01

    We report here on MHD active control experiments performed in the Extrap T2R device, which has been recently equipped with a set of 32 feedback controlled saddle coils couples. Experiments aiming at selectively exciting a resonant resistive instability in order to actively induce Quasi Single Helicity states will be presented. Open loop experiments have in fact shown that a spectrum with one dominant mode can be excited in a high aspect ratio device like T2R. In addition, evidences of controlled braking of tearing modes, which spontaneously rotate in T2R, have been gathered, allowing the determination of a threshold for mode wall locking. Different feedback control schemes have been implemented. In particular, mode suppression schemes proved successful in delaying resistive wall modes growth and in increasing the discharge duration: this suggests a hybrid mode control scenario, in which RWM are suppressed and QSH is induced. Radiation imaging and internal magnetic field reconstructions performed with the ORBIT code will be presented.

  10. Reverse Engineering Field Isolates of Myxoma Virus Demonstrates that Some Gene Disruptions or Losses of Function Do Not Explain Virulence Changes Observed in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, June; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Sim, Derek G.; Eden, John-Sebastian; Read, Andrew F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and wild European rabbits in Australia and Europe is a paradigm for the evolution of a pathogen in a new host species. Genomic analyses have identified the mutations that have characterized this evolutionary process, but defining causal mutations in the pathways from virulence to attenuation and back to virulence has not been possible. Using reverse genetics, we examined the roles of six selected mutations found in Australian field isolates of MYXV that fall in known or potential virulence genes. Several of these mutations occurred in genes previously identified as virulence genes in whole-gene knockout studies. Strikingly, no single or double mutation among the mutations tested had an appreciable impact on virulence. This suggests either that virulence evolution was defined by amino acid changes other than those analyzed here or that combinations of multiple mutations, possibly involving epistatic interactions or noncoding sequences, have been critical in the ongoing evolution of MYXV virulence. In sum, our results show that single-gene knockout studies of a progenitor virus can have little power to predict the impact of individual mutations seen in the field. The genetic determinants responsible for this canonical case of virulence evolution remain to be determined. IMPORTANCE The species jump of myxoma virus (MYXV) from the South American tapeti to the European rabbit populations of Australia and Europe is a canonical example of host-pathogen coevolution. Detailed molecular studies have identified multiple genes in MYXV that are critical for virulence, and genome sequencing has revealed the evolutionary history of MYXV in Australia and Europe. However, it has not been possible to categorically identify the key mutations responsible for the attenuation of or reversion to virulence during this evolutionary process. Here we use reverse genetics to examine the role of mutations in viruses isolated early and late in the

  11. Possibility of Ionospheric Cause of FACs and Convection Field in the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere System: The Harang Reversal, Premidnight Upward-FAC, and the Ionospheric Hall Polarization Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamizo, A.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas it is generally thought that Birkeland Currents (FACs) are generated in the magnetosphere and that the ionospheric convection reflects the magnetospheric convection, we present a possibility that the ionosphere drives FACs and the convection field in the M-I system. We apply this idea to the Harang Reversal (HR) for demonstration. By using an ionospheric potential solver we calculate the electrostatic field for given distributions of FACs and conductance. The result shows that a conspicuous structure resembling HR is generated even for a symmetric distribution of the R1-type FACs and that the Hall polarization field is produced at the equatorward boundary of the auroral region as the primary currents diverge/converge at the conductance gradient there, which causes the potential deformation (HR). Conventionally HR has been considered to be of the magnetospheric origin, and a ring current model actually produces the corresponding structure in the magnetosphere [e.g., Erickson et al., 1991]. Observationally the divE equivalent to HR is consistent with the premidnight upward-FAC seen in Iijima and Potemra's diagram. A recent theoretical study [Ohtani et al., 2016] proposes that HR is a required structure for the interchange stability of the magnetotail in the presence of the R1 and R2-FAC systems including a premidnight upward-FAC. Returning to our result, the important point is that HR is reproduced at the conductance edge by the ionospheric polarization field, for which the primary field originates from the R1-FACs distributed far from that region. We also suggest: (i) In a more realistic finite ΣA, the total ionospheric polarization is partly released by a FAC, which may be a part of the premidnight upward-FAC. (ii) However, existing simulation models do not allow this type of current closure, and accordingly they may enhance the HR structure in the magnetosphere. This discussion should hold generally and would promote the global M-I coupling studies to the

  12. Enhanced magnetic field probe array for improved excluded flux calculations on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment.

    PubMed

    Roche, T; Thompson, M C; Mendoza, R; Allfrey, I; Garate, E; Romero, J; Douglass, J

    2016-11-01

    External flux conserving coils were installed onto the exterior of the C-2U [M. W. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)] confinement vessel to increase the flux confinement time of the system. The 0.5 in. stainless steel vessel wall has a skin time of ∼5 ms. The addition of the external copper coils effectively increases this time to ∼7 ms. This led to better-confined/longer-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The fringing fields generated by the external coils have the side effect of rendering external field measurements invalid. Such measurements were key to the previous method of excluded flux calculation [M. C. Thompson et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D709 (2012)]. A new array of B-dot probes and Rogowski coils were installed to better determine the amount of flux leaked out of the system and ultimately provide a more robust measurement of plasma parameters related to pressure balance including the excluded flux radius. The B-dot probes are surface mountable chip inductors with inductance of 33 μH capable of measuring the DC magnetic field and transient field, due to resistive current decay in the wall/coils, when coupled with active integrators. The Rogowski coils measure the total change in current in each external coil (150 A/2 ms). Currents were also actively driven in the external coils. This renders the assumption of total flux conservation invalid which further complicates the analysis process. The ultimate solution to these issues and the record breaking resultant FRC lifetimes will be presented.

  13. Enhanced magnetic field probe array for improved excluded flux calculations on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Mendoza, R.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Romero, J.; Douglass, J.

    2016-11-01

    External flux conserving coils were installed onto the exterior of the C-2U [M. W. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)] confinement vessel to increase the flux confinement time of the system. The 0.5 in. stainless steel vessel wall has a skin time of ˜5 ms. The addition of the external copper coils effectively increases this time to ˜7 ms. This led to better-confined/longer-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The fringing fields generated by the external coils have the side effect of rendering external field measurements invalid. Such measurements were key to the previous method of excluded flux calculation [M. C. Thompson et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D709 (2012)]. A new array of B-dot probes and Rogowski coils were installed to better determine the amount of flux leaked out of the system and ultimately provide a more robust measurement of plasma parameters related to pressure balance including the excluded flux radius. The B-dot probes are surface mountable chip inductors with inductance of 33 μH capable of measuring the DC magnetic field and transient field, due to resistive current decay in the wall/coils, when coupled with active integrators. The Rogowski coils measure the total change in current in each external coil (150 A/2 ms). Currents were also actively driven in the external coils. This renders the assumption of total flux conservation invalid which further complicates the analysis process. The ultimate solution to these issues and the record breaking resultant FRC lifetimes will be presented.

  14. Enhanced magnetic field probe array for improved excluded flux calculations on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    SciT

    Roche, T., E-mail: troche@trialphaenergy.com; Thompson, M. C.; Mendoza, R.

    2016-11-15

    External flux conserving coils were installed onto the exterior of the C-2U [M. W. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)] confinement vessel to increase the flux confinement time of the system. The 0.5 in. stainless steel vessel wall has a skin time of ∼5 ms. The addition of the external copper coils effectively increases this time to ∼7 ms. This led to better-confined/longer-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The fringing fields generated by the external coils have the side effect of rendering external field measurements invalid. Such measurements were key to the previous method of excluded flux calculation [M.more » C. Thompson et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D709 (2012)]. A new array of B-dot probes and Rogowski coils were installed to better determine the amount of flux leaked out of the system and ultimately provide a more robust measurement of plasma parameters related to pressure balance including the excluded flux radius. The B-dot probes are surface mountable chip inductors with inductance of 33 μH capable of measuring the DC magnetic field and transient field, due to resistive current decay in the wall/coils, when coupled with active integrators. The Rogowski coils measure the total change in current in each external coil (150 A/2 ms). Currents were also actively driven in the external coils. This renders the assumption of total flux conservation invalid which further complicates the analysis process. The ultimate solution to these issues and the record breaking resultant FRC lifetimes will be presented.« less

  15. Active magnetic force microscopy of Sr-ferrite magnet by stimulating magnetization under an AC magnetic field: Direct observation of reversible and irreversible magnetization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongze; Kumar, Pawan; Zhao, Yue; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the dynamic magnetization process of magnetic materials is crucial to improving their fundamental properties and technological applications. Here, we propose active magnetic force microscopy for observing reversible and irreversible magnetization processes by stimulating magnetization with an AC magnetic field based on alternating magnetic force microscopy with a sensitive superparamagnetic tip. This approach simultaneously measures sample's DC and AC magnetic fields. We used this microscopy approach to an anisotropic Sr-ferrite (SrF) sintered magnet. This is a single domain type magnet where magnetization mainly changes via magnetic rotation. The proposed method can directly observe the reversible and irreversible magnetization processes of SrF and clearly reveal magnetic domain evolution of SrF (without stimulating magnetization—stimulating reversible magnetization—stimulating irreversible magnetization switching) by slowly increasing the amplitude of the external AC magnetic field. This microscopy approach can evaluate magnetic inhomogeneity and explain the local magnetic process within the permanent magnet.

  16. Development of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for compact toroid injection into the C-2 field-reversed configuration device

    SciT

    Matsumoto, T., E-mail: cstd14003@g.nihon-u.ac.jp; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.

    A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode.more » A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, ∼40 eV, and 0.5–1.0 × 10{sup 19}, respectively.« less

  17. Development of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for compact toroid injection into the C-2 field-reversed configuration device.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Sekiguchi, J; Asai, T; Gota, H; Garate, E; Allfrey, I; Valentine, T; Morehouse, M; Roche, T; Kinley, J; Aefsky, S; Cordero, M; Waggoner, W; Binderbauer, M; Tajima, T

    2016-05-01

    A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10(21) m(-3), ∼40 eV, and 0.5-1.0 × 10(19), respectively.

  18. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on three dimensional equilibria in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Munaretto, S., E-mail: smunaretto@wisc.edu; Chapman, B. E.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2016-05-15

    The orientation of 3D equilibria in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed-field pinch can now be controlled with a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Absent the RMP, the orientation of the stationary 3D equilibrium varies from shot to shot in a semi-random manner, making its diagnosis difficult. Produced with a poloidal array of saddle coils at the vertical insulated cut in MST's thick conducting shell, an m = 1 RMP with an amplitude b{sub r}/B ∼ 10% forces the 3D structure into any desired orientation relative to MST's diagnostics. This control has led to improvedmore » diagnosis, revealing enhancements in both the central electron temperature and density. With sufficient amplitude, the RMP also inhibits the generation of high-energy (>20 keV) electrons, which otherwise emerge due to a reduction in magnetic stochasticity in the core. Field line tracing reveals that the RMP reintroduces stochasticity to the core. A m = 3 RMP of similar amplitude has little effect on the magnetic topology or the high-energy electrons.« less

  19. Measurements of the momentum and current transport from tearing instability in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Kuritsyn, A.; Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A. F.

    2009-05-15

    In this paper measurements of momentum and current transport caused by current driven tearing instability are reported. The measurements are done in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] in a regime with repetitive bursts of tearing instability causing magnetic field reconnection. It is established that the plasma parallel momentum profile flattens during these reconnection events: The flow decreases in the core and increases at the edge. The momentum relaxation phenomenon is similar in nature to the well established relaxationmore » of the parallel electrical current and could be a general feature of self-organized systems. The measured fluctuation-induced Maxwell and Reynolds stresses, which govern the dynamics of plasma flow, are large and almost balance each other such that their difference is approximately equal to the rate of change of plasma momentum. The Hall dynamo, which is directly related to the Maxwell stress, drives the parallel current profile relaxation at resonant surfaces at the reconnection events. These results qualitatively agree with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. It is plausible that current-driven instabilities can be responsible for momentum transport in other laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.« less

  20. Possible influence of the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field on the various types of arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaropoulou, E.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Gigolashvili, M.; Tvildiani, L.; Janashia, K.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Papadima, Th

    2013-02-01

    Over the last few years various researches have reached the conclusion that cosmic ray variations and geomagnetic disturbances are related to the condition of the human physiological state. In this study medical data concerning the number of incidents of different types of cardiac arrhythmias for the time period 1983 - 1992 which refer to 1902 patients in Tbilisi, Georgia were used. The smoothing method and the Pearson r-coefficients were used to examine the possible effect of different solar and geomagnetic activity parameters and cosmic ray intensity variations on the different types of arrhythmias. The time interval under examination was separated into two different time periods which coincided with the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field that occurred in the years 1989-1990 and as a result a different behavior of all the above mentioned parameters as well as of the different types of arrhythmias was noticed during the two time intervals. In addition, changing of polarity sign of the solar magnetic field was found to affect the sign of correlation between the incidence of arrhythmias and the aforementioned parameters. The primary and secondary maxima observed in the solar parameters during the solar cycle 22, also appeared in several types of arrhythmias with a time lag of about five months.

  1. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on three dimensional equilibria in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaretto, S.; Chapman, B. E.; Nornberg, M. D.; Boguski, J.; DuBois, A. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Sarff, J. S.

    2016-05-01

    The orientation of 3D equilibria in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed-field pinch can now be controlled with a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Absent the RMP, the orientation of the stationary 3D equilibrium varies from shot to shot in a semi-random manner, making its diagnosis difficult. Produced with a poloidal array of saddle coils at the vertical insulated cut in MST's thick conducting shell, an m = 1 RMP with an amplitude br/B ˜ 10% forces the 3D structure into any desired orientation relative to MST's diagnostics. This control has led to improved diagnosis, revealing enhancements in both the central electron temperature and density. With sufficient amplitude, the RMP also inhibits the generation of high-energy (>20 keV) electrons, which otherwise emerge due to a reduction in magnetic stochasticity in the core. Field line tracing reveals that the RMP reintroduces stochasticity to the core. A m = 3 RMP of similar amplitude has little effect on the magnetic topology or the high-energy electrons.

  2. Influence of time dependent longitudinal magnetic fields on the cooling process, exchange bias and magnetization reversal mechanism in FM core/AFM shell nanoparticles: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Yusuf; Akıncı, Ümit

    2016-12-07

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the dynamic phase transition properties of magnetic nanoparticles with ferromagnetic core coated by an antiferromagnetic shell structure. Effects of field amplitude and frequency on the thermal dependence of magnetizations, magnetization reversal mechanisms during hysteresis cycles, as well as on the exchange bias and coercive fields have been examined, and the feasibility of applying dynamic magnetic fields on the particle have been discussed for technological and biomedical purposes.

  3. A detailed record of paleomagnetic field change from Searles Lake, California: 1. Long-term secular variation bounding the Gauss/Matuyama polarity reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Coe, Robert S.

    1999-06-01

    More than 33 m of 2.5 Ma sediment from Searles Lake, California was studied in order to construct a record of secular variation (SV) across the Gauss/Matuyama (G/M) normal-to-reverse polarity transition. The behavior of the field preceding and following the reversal is considered here, while in a companion paper [Glen et al., this issue] the details of the transition are discussed. The record encompasses an interval of roughly 183,000 years beginning 50 kyr (9 m) before and extending more than 128 kyr (23 m) beyond the transition, while the main phase of the transition lasts for nearly 5 kyr (1 m). Because the core was rotary drilled, and declinations lost, SV was characterized by the inclination and its angular dispersion. Inclination-only statistics reveal that (1) the record displays overall higher than expected values of angular dispersion (normal S˜20°; reverse S˜19°; expected S˜15.5°), suggesting that the field proximal to transitions may be more noisy than the distal field. In addition, normal data from immediately before the transition display higher S than reverse data immediately following it, implying that the postransitional field is more stable than the pretransitional field. One of the most prominent features of this record is an excursion of the field occurring roughly 4 kyr prior to the onset of the reversal. A record of the G/M transition from Chinese loess (R. Zhu et al., submitted manuscript, 1999) displays a similar event (also occurring roughly 4 kyr before the transition). This and the fact that the event is associated with anomalously low intensities suggest that the disturbance may be global in nature. The fact that comparable features are associated with other transitions [Hartl and Tauxe, 1996; Clement, 1992] intimates that the field may commonly show signs of early instability. This precursory event is actually one of a sequence of oscillations (in inclination and intensity) preceding the transition. That these fluctuations occur at

  4. Error Field Assessment from Driven Mode Rotation: Results from Extrap-T2R Reversed-Field-Pinch and Perspectives for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.

    2012-10-01

    A new ITER-relevant non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch. Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) were generated and their rotation sustained by rotating magnetic perturbations. In particular, stable modes of toroidal mode number n=8 and 10 and unstable modes of n=1 were used in this experiment. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the RWMs were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude (in the case of unstable modes, the observed oscillation was superimposed to the mode growth). This behavior was used to infer the amplitude and toroidal phase of n=1, 8 and 10 EFs. The method was first tested against known, deliberately applied EFs, and then against actual intrinsic EFs. Applying equal and opposite corrections resulted in longer discharges and more uniform mode rotation, indicating good EF compensation. The results agree with a simple theoretical model. Extensions to tearing modes, to the non-uniform plasma response to rotating perturbations, and to tokamaks, including ITER, will be discussed.

  5. Fast imaging diagnostics on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granstedt, E. M.; Petrov, P.; Knapp, K.; Cordero, M.; Patel, V.

    2016-11-01

    The C-2U device employed neutral beam injection, end-biasing, and various particle fueling techniques to sustain a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. As part of the diagnostic suite, two fast imaging instruments with radial and nearly axial plasma views were developed using a common camera platform. To achieve the necessary viewing geometry, imaging lenses were mounted behind re-entrant viewports attached to welded bellows. During gettering, the vacuum optics were retracted and isolated behind a gate valve permitting their removal if cleaning was necessary. The axial view incorporated a stainless-steel mirror in a protective cap assembly attached to the vacuum-side of the viewport. For each system, a custom lens-based, high-throughput optical periscope was designed to relay the plasma image about half a meter to a high-speed camera. Each instrument also contained a remote-controlled filter wheel, set between shots to isolate a particular hydrogen or impurity emission line. The design of the camera platform, imaging performance, and sample data for each view is presented.

  6. Fast imaging diagnostics on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration device

    SciT

    Granstedt, E. M., E-mail: egranstedt@trialphaenergy.com; Petrov, P.; Knapp, K.

    2016-11-15

    The C-2U device employed neutral beam injection, end-biasing, and various particle fueling techniques to sustain a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. As part of the diagnostic suite, two fast imaging instruments with radial and nearly axial plasma views were developed using a common camera platform. To achieve the necessary viewing geometry, imaging lenses were mounted behind re-entrant viewports attached to welded bellows. During gettering, the vacuum optics were retracted and isolated behind a gate valve permitting their removal if cleaning was necessary. The axial view incorporated a stainless-steel mirror in a protective cap assembly attached to the vacuum-side of the viewport.more » For each system, a custom lens-based, high-throughput optical periscope was designed to relay the plasma image about half a meter to a high-speed camera. Each instrument also contained a remote-controlled filter wheel, set between shots to isolate a particular hydrogen or impurity emission line. The design of the camera platform, imaging performance, and sample data for each view is presented.« less

  7. Chaos and simple determinism in reversed field pinch plasmas: Nonlinear analysis of numerical simulation and experimental data

    SciT

    Watts, Christopher A.

    In this dissertation the possibility that chaos and simple determinism are governing the dynamics of reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas is investigated. To properly assess this possibility, data from both numerical simulations and experiment are analyzed. A large repertoire of nonlinear analysis techniques is used to identify low dimensional chaos in the data. These tools include phase portraits and Poincare sections, correlation dimension, the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and short term predictability. In addition, nonlinear noise reduction techniques are applied to the experimental data in an attempt to extract any underlying deterministic dynamics. Two model systems are used to simulatemore » the plasma dynamics. These are the DEBS code, which models global RFP dynamics, and the dissipative trapped electron mode (DTEM) model, which models drift wave turbulence. Data from both simulations show strong indications of low dimensional chaos and simple determinism. Experimental date were obtained from the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP and consist of a wide array of both global and local diagnostic signals. None of the signals shows any indication of low dimensional chaos or low simple determinism. Moreover, most of the analysis tools indicate the experimental system is very high dimensional with properties similar to noise. Nonlinear noise reduction is unsuccessful at extracting an underlying deterministic system.« less

  8. Study of the confinement properties in a reversed-field pinch with mode rotation and gas fuelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Nielsen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Drake, J. R.

    2002-08-01

    An extensive investigation of the global confinement properties in different operating scenarios in the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiment is reported here. In particular, the role of a fast gas puff valve system, used to control plasma density, on confinement is studied. Without gas puffing, the electron density decays below 0.5×1019 m-3. The poloidal beta varies between 5% and 15%, decreasing at large I/N. The energy confinement time ranges from 70 to 225 μs. With gas puffing, the density is sustained at ne≈1.5×1019 m-3. However, a general slight deterioration of the plasma performances is observed for the same values of I/N: the plasma becomes cooler and more radiative. The poloidal beta is comparable to that in the scenarios without puff but the energy confinement time drops ranging from 60 to 130 μs. The fluctuation level and the energy confinement time have been found to scale with the Lundquist number as S-0.05+/-0.07 and S0.5+/-0.1, respectively. Mode rotation is typical for all the discharges and rotation velocity is observed to increase with increasing electron diamagnetic velocity.

  9. Effect of iron ions and electric field on nitrification process in the periodic reversal bio-electrocoagulation system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guangsheng; Hu, Xiaomin; Li, Liang; Ye, Linlin; Lv, Weijian

    2017-11-01

    This study explored the nitrification mechanism of a periodic reversal bio-electrocoagulation system with Fe-C electrodes. The ammonia nitrogen removal was compared in four identical cylindrical sequencing bath reactors. Two of them were reactors with Fe-C electrodes (S1) and C-C electrodes (S2), respectively. The other two were a reactor with iron ions (S3) and a traditional SBR (S4), respectively. The results demonstrated that the effect on enhancing nitrification in S1 was the best among all four SBRs, followed by S3, S2 and S4. Iron ions increased the biomass, and electric field improved the proton transfer and enzyme activity. The dominant bacterial genera in the four SBRs were Hyphomicrobium, Thauera, Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas, Paracoccus and Hydrogenophaga. The iron ions may increase the levels of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter, both of which were the main microbes of the nitrification process. This study provided a significant and meaningful understanding of nitrification in a bio-electrocoagulation system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flexible ambipolar organic field-effect transistors with reverse-offset-printed silver electrodes for a complementary inverter.

    PubMed

    Park, Junsu; Kim, Minseok; Yeom, Seung-Won; Ha, Hyeon Jun; Song, Hyenggun; Min Jhon, Young; Kim, Yun-Hi; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-06-03

    We report ambipolar organic field-effect transistors and complementary inverter circuits with reverse-offset-printed (ROP) Ag electrodes fabricated on a flexible substrate. A diketopyrrolopyrrole-based co-polymer (PDPP-TAT) was used as the semiconductor and poly(methyl methacrylate) was used as the gate insulator. Considerable improvement is observed in the n-channel electrical characteristics by inserting a cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as the electron-injection/hole-blocking layer at the interface between the semiconductors and the electrodes. The saturation mobility values are 0.35 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the p-channel and 0.027 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the n-channel. A complementary inverter is demonstrated based on the ROP process, and it is selectively controlled by the insertion of Cs2CO3 onto the n-channel region via thermal evaporation. Moreover, the devices show stable operation during the mechanical bending test using tensile strains ranging from 0.05% to 0.5%. The results confirm that these devices have great potential for use in flexible and inexpensive integrated circuits over a large area.

  11. An energy confinement study of the MST (Madison Symmetric Torus) reversed field pinch using a Thomson scattering diagnostic

    SciT

    Den Hartog, D.J.

    1989-11-01

    Thomson scattering measurements of the central electron temperature and density during the plasma current peak have been performed on the MST Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). This Thomson scattering diagnostic was calibrated for absolute electron density measurements. These measurements of T{sub e} and n{sub e}, when combined with profile assumptions, were used to calculate estimates of energy confinement time ({tau}{sub E}) and poloidal beta ({beta}{sub {theta}}). A standard discharge with I{sub p} {approx} 400 kA, F {approx} {minus}0.1, and {theta} {approx} 1.6 typically exhibited T{sub e} {approx} 275 eV, n{sub e} {approx} 2.0 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}, {tau}{sub E} {le}more » 1 ms, and {beta}{sub {theta}} {le} 8%. The results of a limited plasma current scaling study did not indicate a strong scaling of T{sub e} or {tau}{sub E} with I{sub p}. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was used in conjunction with a bolometer, VUV radiation monitor, and edge magnetic coils to study the loss of energy from the plasma. Results indicate that thermal transport from stochastic magnetic fields, particle loss, and radiation are important energy loss processes. The experiments done for this study included an F-scan, a paddle limiter insertion series, and an argon doping series. The plasma maintained a constant {beta}{tau} during these perturbation experiments, suggesting that increases in one energy loss channel are compensated by drops in other channels and increases in input power to the plasma.« less

  12. An energy-confinement study of the MST reversed-field pinch using a Thomson-scattering diagnostic

    SciT

    Den Hartog, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Thomson scattering measurements of the central electron temperature and density during the plasma current peak have been performed on the MST Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). This Thomson scattering diagnostic was calibrated for absolute electron density measurements. These measurements of T{sub e} and n{sub e}, when combined with profile assumptions, were used to calculate estimates of energy confinement time ({tau}{sub E}) and poloidal beta ({beta}{sub {theta}}). A standard discharge with I{sub p} {approx} 400 kA, F {approx} {minus}0.1, and {theta} {approx} 1.6 typically exhibited T{sub e} {approx} 275 eV, n{sub e} {approx} 2.0 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}, {tau}{sub E} fields, particle loss, and radiation are important energy loss processes. The experiments done for this study included an F-scan, a paddle limiter insertion series, and an argon doping series. The plasma maintained a constant {beta}{sub {theta}} during these perturbation experiments, suggesting that increases in one energy loss channel are compensated by drops in other channels and increases in input power to the plasma.« less

  13. Entropy Production in Field Theories without Time-Reversal Symmetry: Quantifying the Non-Equilibrium Character of Active Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, Cesare; Fodor, Étienne; Tjhung, Elsen; van Wijland, Frédéric; Tailleur, Julien; Cates, Michael E.

    2017-04-01

    Active-matter systems operate far from equilibrium because of the continuous energy injection at the scale of constituent particles. At larger scales, described by coarse-grained models, the global entropy production rate S quantifies the probability ratio of forward and reversed dynamics and hence the importance of irreversibility at such scales: It vanishes whenever the coarse-grained dynamics of the active system reduces to that of an effective equilibrium model. We evaluate S for a class of scalar stochastic field theories describing the coarse-grained density of self-propelled particles without alignment interactions, capturing such key phenomena as motility-induced phase separation. We show how the entropy production can be decomposed locally (in real space) or spectrally (in Fourier space), allowing detailed examination of the spatial structure and correlations that underly departures from equilibrium. For phase-separated systems, the local entropy production is concentrated mainly on interfaces, with a bulk contribution that tends to zero in the weak-noise limit. In homogeneous states, we find a generalized Harada-Sasa relation that directly expresses the entropy production in terms of the wave-vector-dependent deviation from the fluctuation-dissipation relation between response functions and correlators. We discuss extensions to the case where the particle density is coupled to a momentum-conserving solvent and to situations where the particle current, rather than the density, should be chosen as the dynamical field. We expect the new conceptual tools developed here to be broadly useful in the context of active matter, allowing one to distinguish when and where activity plays an essential role in the dynamics.

  14. Reverse Correlation in Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringach, Dario; Shapley, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a review of reverse correlation in neurophysiology. We discuss the basis of reverse correlation in linear transducers and in spiking neurons. The application of reverse correlation to measure the receptive fields of visual neurons using white noise and m-sequences, and classical findings about spatial and color processing in…

  15. Investigation of the Sensitivity, Selectivity, and Reversibility of the Chemically-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (CHEMFET) to Detect Nitrogen Dioxide, Dimethyl Methylphosphonate, and Boron Trifluoride

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    SENSITIVE FIELD- EFFECT TRANSISTOR (CHEMFET) TO DETECT NITROGEN DIOXIDE, DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE, AND BORON TRIFLUORIDE CHAPTER 1 1 Introduction Our rapidly...AND REVERSIBILITY OF THE CHEMICALLY-SENSITIVE FIELD- EFFECT TRANSISTOR (CHEMFET) TO DETECT NITROGEN 3 E I1• DIOXIDE, DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE, ELECTE...AND BORON TRIFLUORIDE Neal Terence Hauschild Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/9 3S-10 93-23815I II11l11l11 l gll I 1i 1111 11 I DEPARTMENT OF THE

  16. Final Report on Development of Optimized Field-Reversed Configuration Plasma Formation Techniques for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciT

    Lynn, Alan

    2013-11-01

    The University of New Mexico (UNM) proposed a collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop and test methods for improved formation of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas relevant to magnetized target fusion (MTF) energy research. MTF is an innovative approach for a relatively fast and cheap path to the production of fusion energy that utilizes magnetic confinement to assist in the compression of a hot plasma to thermonuclear conditions by an external driver. LANL is currently pursing demonstration of the MTF concept via compression of an FRC plasma by a metal liner z-pinch in conjunction with the Air Forcemore » Research Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM. A key physics issue for the FRC's ultimate success as an MTF target lies in the initial pre-ionization (PI) stage. The PI plasma sets the initial conditions from which the FRC is created. In particular, the PI formation process determines the amount of magnetic flux that can be trapped to form the FRC. A ringing theta pinch ionization (RTPI) technique, such as currently used by the FRX-L device at LANL, has the advantages of high ionization fraction, simplicity (since no additional coils are required), and does not require internal electrodes which can introduce impurities into the plasma. However RTPI has been shown to only trap 50% of the initial bias flux at best and imposes additional engineering constraints on the capacitor banks. The amount of trapped flux plays an important role in the FRC's final equilibrium, transport, and stability properties, and provides increased ohmic heating of the FRC through induced currents as the magnetic field decays. Increasing the trapped flux also provides the route to greatest potential gains in FRC lifetime, which is essential to provide enough time to translate and compress the FRC effectively. In conjunction with LANL we initially planned to develop and test a microwave break- down system to improve the initial PI plasma formation. The UNM

  17. How important is the spatiotemporal structure of a rainfall field when generating a streamflow hydrograph? An investigation using Reverse Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, Ann; Tych, Wlodek; Beven, Keith; Chappell, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is the most widely occurring natural disaster affecting thousands of lives and businesses worldwide each year, and the size and frequency of flood-events are predicted to increase with climate change. The main input-variable for models used in flood prediction is rainfall. Estimating the rainfall input is often based on a sparse network of raingauges, which may or may not be representative of the salient rainfall characteristics responsible for generating of storm-hydrographs. A method based on Reverse Hydrology (Kretzschmar et al 2014 Environ Modell Softw) has been developed and is being tested using the intensively-instrumented Brue catchment (Southwest England) to explore the spatiotemporal structure of the rainfall-field (using 23 rain gauges over the 135.2 km2 basin). We compare how well the rainfall measured at individual gauges, or averaged over the basin, represent the rainfall inferred from the streamflow signal. How important is it to get the detail of the spatiotemporal rainfall structure right? Rainfall is transformed by catchment processes as it moves to streams, so exact duplication of the structure may not be necessary. 'True' rainfall estimated using 23 gauges / 135.2 km2 is likely to be a good estimate of the overall-catchment-rainfall, however, the integration process 'smears' the rainfall patterns in time, i.e. reduces the number of and lengthens rain-events as they travel across the catchment. This may have little impact on the simulation of stream-hydrographs when events are extensive across the catchment (e.g., frontal rainfall events) but may be significant for high-intensity, localised convective events. The Reverse Hydrology approach uses the streamflow record to infer a rainfall sequence with a lower time-resolution than the original input time-series. The inferred rainfall series is, however, able simulate streamflow as well as the observed, high resolution rainfall (Kretzschmar et al 2015 Hydrol Res). Most gauged catchments in

  18. Sabin Vaccine Reversion in the Field: a Comprehensive Analysis of Sabin-Like Poliovirus Isolates in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Stewart; Iber, Jane; Zhao, Kun; Adeniji, Johnson A.; Bukbuk, David; Baba, Marycelin; Behrend, Matthew; Burns, Cara C.; Oberste, M. Steven

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To assess the dynamics of genetic reversion of live poliovirus vaccine in humans, we studied molecular evolution in Sabin-like poliovirus isolates from Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis cases obtained from routine surveillance. We employed a novel modeling approach to infer substitution and recombination rates from whole-genome sequences and information about poliovirus infection dynamics and the individual vaccination history. We confirmed observations from a recent vaccine trial that VP1 substitution rates are increased for Sabin-like isolates relative to the rate for the wild type due to increased nonsynonymous substitution rates. We also inferred substitution rates for attenuating nucleotides and confirmed that reversion can occur in days to weeks after vaccination. We combine our observations for Sabin-like virus evolution with the molecular clock for VP1 of circulating wild-type strains to infer that the mean time from the initiating vaccine dose to the earliest detection of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) is 300 days for Sabin-like virus type 1, 210 days for Sabin-like virus type 2, and 390 days for Sabin-like virus type 3. Phylogenetic relationships indicated transient local transmission of Sabin-like virus type 3 and, possibly, Sabin-like virus type 1 during periods of low wild polio incidence. Comparison of Sabin-like virus recombinants with known Nigerian vaccine-derived poliovirus recombinants shows that while recombination with non-Sabin enteroviruses is associated with cVDPV, the recombination rates are similar for Sabin isolate-Sabin isolate and Sabin isolate–non-Sabin enterovirus recombination after accounting for the time from dosing to the time of detection. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the oral polio vaccine in the field. IMPORTANCE The global polio eradication effort has completed its 26th year. Despite success in eliminating wild poliovirus from most of the world, polio

  19. Sabin Vaccine Reversion in the Field: a Comprehensive Analysis of Sabin-Like Poliovirus Isolates in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Famulare, Michael; Chang, Stewart; Iber, Jane; Zhao, Kun; Adeniji, Johnson A; Bukbuk, David; Baba, Marycelin; Behrend, Matthew; Burns, Cara C; Oberste, M Steven

    2016-01-01

    To assess the dynamics of genetic reversion of live poliovirus vaccine in humans, we studied molecular evolution in Sabin-like poliovirus isolates from Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis cases obtained from routine surveillance. We employed a novel modeling approach to infer substitution and recombination rates from whole-genome sequences and information about poliovirus infection dynamics and the individual vaccination history. We confirmed observations from a recent vaccine trial that VP1 substitution rates are increased for Sabin-like isolates relative to the rate for the wild type due to increased nonsynonymous substitution rates. We also inferred substitution rates for attenuating nucleotides and confirmed that reversion can occur in days to weeks after vaccination. We combine our observations for Sabin-like virus evolution with the molecular clock for VP1 of circulating wild-type strains to infer that the mean time from the initiating vaccine dose to the earliest detection of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) is 300 days for Sabin-like virus type 1, 210 days for Sabin-like virus type 2, and 390 days for Sabin-like virus type 3. Phylogenetic relationships indicated transient local transmission of Sabin-like virus type 3 and, possibly, Sabin-like virus type 1 during periods of low wild polio incidence. Comparison of Sabin-like virus recombinants with known Nigerian vaccine-derived poliovirus recombinants shows that while recombination with non-Sabin enteroviruses is associated with cVDPV, the recombination rates are similar for Sabin isolate-Sabin isolate and Sabin isolate-non-Sabin enterovirus recombination after accounting for the time from dosing to the time of detection. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the oral polio vaccine in the field. The global polio eradication effort has completed its 26th year. Despite success in eliminating wild poliovirus from most of the world, polio persists in populations

  20. Far-field detection of sub-wavelength Tetris without extra near-field metal parts based on phase prints of time-reversed fields with intensive background interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingming; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2014-07-14

    Time-reversal (TR) phase prints are first used in far-field (FF) detection of sub-wavelength (SW) deformable scatterers without any extra metal structure positioned in the vicinity of the target. The 2D prints derive from discrete short-time Fourier transform of 1D TR electromagnetic (EM) signals. Because the time-invariant intensive background interference is effectively centralized by TR technique, the time-variant weak indication from FF SW scatterers can be highlighted. This method shows a different use of TR technique in which the focus peak of TR EM waves is unusually removed and the most useful information is conveyed by the other part.

  1. A Field-Tailored Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Assay for High Sensitivity Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kemleu, Sylvie; Guelig, Dylan; Eboumbou Moukoko, Carole; Essangui, Estelle; Diesburg, Steven; Mouliom, Abas; Melingui, Bernard; Manga, Jeanne; Donkeu, Christiane; Epote, Annie; Texier, Gaëtan; LaBarre, Paul; Burton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Highly sensitive and field deployable molecular diagnostic tools are critically needed for detecting submicroscopic, yet transmissible levels of malaria parasites prevalent in malaria endemic countries worldwide. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed and evaluated in comparison with thick blood smear microscopy, an antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and an in-house RT-PCR targeting the same RT-LAMP transcript. The optimized assay detected Plasmodium falciparum infections in as little as 0.25ng of total parasite RNA, and exhibited a detection limit of 0.08 parasites/ μL when tested directly on infected whole blood lysates, or ~0.0008 parasites/ μL when using RNA extracts. Assay positivity was observed as early as eight minutes from initiation of the RT-LAMP and in most cases the reaction was complete before twenty minutes. Clinical evaluation of the assay on 132 suspected malaria cases resulted in a positivity rate of 90% for RT-LAMP using extracted RNA, and 85% when using whole blood lysates. The positivity rates were 70% for P. falciparum-specific RDT, 83% for RT-PCR, and 74% for thick blood smear microscopy (Mean parasite density = 36,986 parasites/ μL). Concordance rates between the developed RT-LAMP and comparator tests were greater than 75%, the lowest being with light microscopy (78%, McNemar’s test: P = 0.0002), and the highest was with RT-PCR (87%, McNemar’s test: P = 0.0523). Compared to reference RT-PCR, assay sensitivity was 90% for RT-LAMP on whole blood, and 96% for RT-LAMP using corresponding RNA extracts. Electricity-free heaters were further developed and evaluated in comparison with a battery-operated isothermal amplification machine for use with the developed test in resource-limited settings. Taken together, the data highlight the benefits of targeting high abundant RNA transcripts in molecular diagnosis, as well as the potential usefulness of the developed RT-LAMP-assay in

  2. Reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation over a wide temperature window in Ni42-xCoxCu8Mn37Ga13 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hui; Wang, Jingmin; Jiang, Chengbao; Xu, Huibin

    2018-05-01

    Ni42-xCoxCu8Mn37Ga13 (0 ≤ x ≤ 14) alloys are reported to exhibit a magnetostructural transition from weakly-magnetic martensite to ferromagnetic austenite over a rather wide temperature window ranging from 200 K to 380 K. Simultaneously a large magnetization change Δσ of up to 105 Am2 kg-1 is obtained at the martensitic transformation. A reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation is realized, resulting in a large magnetocaloric effect related to the high magnetic entropy change with a broad working temperature span. This work shows how it is possible to effectively tailor the magnetostructural transition in Ni-Mn-Ga alloys so as to achieve a reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation and associated functionalities.

  3. Investigation of wing upper surface flow-field disturbance due to NASA DC-8-72 in-flight inboard thrust-reverser deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamid, Hedayat U.; Margason, Richard J.; Hardy, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the wing upper surface flow-field disturbance due to in-flight inboard thrust reverser deployment on the NASA DC-8-72, which was conducted cooperatively by NASA Ames, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), McDonnell Douglas, and the Aerospace Industry Association (AIA), is outlined and discussed in detail. The purpose of this flight test was to obtain tufted flow visualization data which demonstrates the effect of thrust reverser deployment on the wing upper surface flow field to determine if the disturbed flow regions could be modeled by computational methods. A total of six symmetric thrust reversals of the two inboard engines were performed to monitor tuft and flow cone patterns as well as the character of their movement at the nominal Mach numbers of 0.55, 0.70, and 0.85. The tufts and flow cones were photographed and video-taped to determine the type of flow field that occurs with and without the thrust reversers deployed. In addition, the normal NASA DC-8 onboard Data Acquisition Distribution System (DADS) was used to synchronize the cameras. Results of this flight test will be presented in two parts. First, three distinct flow patterns associated with the above Mach numbers were sketched from the motion videos and discussed in detail. Second, other relevant aircraft parameters, such as aircraft's angular orientation, altitude, Mach number, and vertical descent, are discussed. The flight test participants' comments were recorded on the videos and the interested reader is referred to the video supplement section of this report for that information.

  4. Studies on the response of resistive-wall modes to applied magnetic perturbations in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoratto, D.; Drake, J. R.; Yadikin, D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Paccagnella, R.; Brunsell, P. R.; Bolzonella, T.; Marchiori, G.; Cecconello, M.

    2005-09-01

    Arrays of magnetic coils and sensors in the EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43 1457 (2001)] reversed-field pinch have been used to investigate the plasma response to an applied resonant magnetic perturbation in the range of the resistive-wall modes (RWMs). Measured RWM growth rates agree with predictions of a cylindrical ideal-plasma model. The linear growth of low-n marginally stable RWMs is related to the so-called resonant-field amplification due to a dominant ∣n∣=2 machine error field of about 2 G. The dynamics of the m =1 RWMs interacting with the applied field produced by the coils can be accurately described by a two-pole system. Estimated poles and residues are given with sufficient accuracy by the cylindrical model with a thin continuous wall.

  5. Effects of the shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sichen; Yin, Jianfeng; Tang, Rujun; Zhang, Wenxu; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-11-01

    The effects of the planar shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process (MRP) of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films have been investigated by micromagnetic simulations. Results show that when the length to width ratio (LWR) of the diamond-shaped film is small, the MRP of the diamond-shaped films are sensitive to LWR. But when LWR is larger than 2, a stable domain switching mode is observed which nucleates from the center of the diamond and then expands to the edges. At a fixed LWR, the magnitude of the switching fields decrease with the increase of the biasing field, but the domain switching mode is not affected by the biasing field. Further analysis shows that demagnetization energy dominates over the MRP of the diamond-shaped films. The above LWR dependence of MRP can be well explained by a variation of the shape anisotropic factor with LWR.

  6. Temperature and field direction dependences of first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogita, Takahiro; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Kitakami, Osamu; Sepehri-Amin, Hossein; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Hono, Kazuhiro; Akiya, Takahiro; Hioki, Keiko; Hattori, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagram has been previously adopted for the analyses of magnetization reversal process and/or quantitative evaluation of coercivity and interaction field dispersions in various magnetic samples. Although these kinds of information are valuable for permanent magnets, previously reported FORC diagrams of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets exhibit very complicated patterns. In this paper, we have studied the FORC diagrams of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets under various conditions. Contrary to the previous reports on sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, the FORC diagram of the hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnet exhibits a very simple pattern consisting of a strong spot and a weak line. From this FORC diagram pattern, it is revealed that the coercivity dispersion of the hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets is surprisingly small. Moreover, this feature of the FORC diagram pattern is very robust and unaffected by changes in various conditions such as grain boundary diffusion process, temperature, and field direction, whereas these conditions significantly change the coercivity and the shape of magnetization curve. This fact indicates that the magnetization reversal process of the hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets is almost unchanged against these conditions.

  7. Reverse Algols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reverse Algols, binary systems with a semidetached configuration in which the more massive component is in contact with the critical equipotential surface, are examined. Observational evidence for reverse Algols is presented and the parameters of seven reverse Algols are listed. The evolution of Algols and reverse Algols is discussed. It is suggested that, because reverse Algols represent the premass-reversal semidetached phase of close binary evolution, the evolutionary time scale between regular and reverse Algols is the ratio of the number of confirmed systems of these two Algol types.

  8. Application of time-reversal guided waves to field bridge testing for baseline-free damage diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Sohn, H.

    2006-03-01

    There is ongoing research at Carnegie Mellon University to develop a "baseline-free" nondestructive evaluation technique. The uniqueness of this baseline-free diagnosis lies in that certain types of damage can be identified without direct comparison of test signals with previously stored baseline signals. By relaxing dependency on the past baseline data, false positive indications of damage, which might take place due to varying operational and environmental conditions of in-service structures, can be minimized. This baseline-free diagnosis technique is developed based on the concept of a time reversal process (TRP). According to the TRP, an input signal at an original excitation location can be reconstructed if a response signal obtained from another point is emitted back to the original point after being reversed in a time domain. Damage diagnosis lies in the premise that the time reversibility breaks down when a certain type of defect such as nonlinear damage exists along the wave propagation path. Then, the defect can be sensed by examining a reconstructed signal after the TRP. In this paper, the feasibility of the proposed NDT technique is investigated using actual test data obtained from the Buffalo Creek Bridge in Pennsylvania.

  9. Simulation design of uniform low turn-on voltage and high reverse blocking AlGaN/GaN power field effect rectifier with trench heterojunction anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fangzhou; Chen, Wanjun; Wang, Zeheng; Sun, Ruize; Wei, Jin; Li, Xuan; Shi, Yijun; Jin, Xiaosheng; Xu, Xiaorui; Chen, Nan; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Bo

    2017-05-01

    To achieve uniform low turn-on voltage and high reverse blocking capability, an AlGaN/GaN power field effect rectifier with trench heterojunction anode (THA-FER) is proposed and investigated in this work which includes only simulated data and no real experimental result. VT has a low saturation value when trench height (HT) is beyond 300 nm, confirming it is possible to control the VT accurately without precisely controlling the HT in the THA-FER. Meanwhile, high HT anode reduces reverse leakage current and yields high breakdown voltage (VB). A superior high Baliga's Figure of Merits (BFOM = VB2/Ron,sp, Ron,sp is specific-on resistance) of 1228 MW/cm2 reveals the THA-FER caters for the demands of high efficiency GaN power applications.

  10. Reversible deactivation of higher-order posterior parietal areas. I. Alterations of receptive field characteristics in early stages of neocortical processing

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Dylan F.; Goldring, Adam B.; Baldwin, Mary K. L.; Recanzone, Gregg H.; Chen, Arnold; Pan, Tingrui; Simon, Scott I.

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensory processing in the anesthetized macaque monkey was examined by reversibly deactivating posterior parietal areas 5L and 7b and motor/premotor cortex (M1/PM) with microfluidic thermal regulators developed by our laboratories. We examined changes in receptive field size and configuration for neurons in areas 1 and 2 that occurred during and after cooling deactivation. Together the deactivated fields and areas 1 and 2 form part of a network for reaching and grasping in human and nonhuman primates. Cooling area 7b had a dramatic effect on receptive field size for neurons in areas 1 and 2, while cooling area 5 had moderate effects and cooling M1/PM had little effect. Specifically, cooling discrete locations in 7b resulted in expansions of the receptive fields for neurons in areas 1 and 2 that were greater in magnitude and occurred in a higher proportion of sites than similar changes evoked by cooling the other fields. At some sites, the neural receptive field returned to the precooling configuration within 5–22 min of rewarming, but at other sites changes in receptive fields persisted. These results indicate that there are profound top-down influences on sensory processing of early cortical areas in the somatosensory cortex. PMID:25143546

  11. Accurate Predictions of Mean Geomagnetic Dipole Excursion and Reversal Frequencies, Mean Paleomagnetic Field Intensity, and the Radius of Earth's Core Using McLeod's Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.; Conrad, Joy

    1996-01-01

    The geomagnetic spatial power spectrum R(sub n)(r) is the mean square magnetic induction represented by degree n spherical harmonic coefficients of the internal scalar potential averaged over the geocentric sphere of radius r. McLeod's Rule for the magnetic field generated by Earth's core geodynamo says that the expected core surface power spectrum (R(sub nc)(c)) is inversely proportional to (2n + 1) for 1 less than n less than or equal to N(sub E). McLeod's Rule is verified by locating Earth's core with main field models of Magsat data; the estimated core radius of 3485 kn is close to the seismologic value for c of 3480 km. McLeod's Rule and similar forms are then calibrated with the model values of R(sub n) for 3 less than or = n less than or = 12. Extrapolation to the degree 1 dipole predicts the expectation value of Earth's dipole moment to be about 5.89 x 10(exp 22) Am(exp 2)rms (74.5% of the 1980 value) and the expected geomagnetic intensity to be about 35.6 (mu)T rms at Earth's surface. Archeo- and paleomagnetic field intensity data show these and related predictions to be reasonably accurate. The probability distribution chi(exp 2) with 2n+1 degrees of freedom is assigned to (2n + 1)R(sub nc)/(R(sub nc). Extending this to the dipole implies that an exceptionally weak absolute dipole moment (less than or = 20% of the 1980 value) will exist during 2.5% of geologic time. The mean duration for such major geomagnetic dipole power excursions, one quarter of which feature durable axial dipole reversal, is estimated from the modern dipole power time-scale and the statistical model of excursions. The resulting mean excursion duration of 2767 years forces us to predict an average of 9.04 excursions per million years, 2.26 axial dipole reversals per million years, and a mean reversal duration of 5533 years. Paleomagnetic data show these predictions to be quite accurate. McLeod's Rule led to accurate predictions of Earth's core radius, mean paleomagnetic field

  12. Improved particle confinement in transition from multiple-helicity to quasi-single-helicity regimes of a reversed-field pinch.

    PubMed

    Frassinetti, L; Predebon, I; Koguchi, H; Yagi, Y; Hirano, Y; Sakakita, H; Spizzo, G; White, R B

    2006-10-27

    The quasi-single-helicity (QSH) state of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma is a regime in which the RFP configuration can be sustained by a dynamo produced mainly by a single tearing mode and in which a helical structure with well-defined magnetic flux surfaces arises. In this Letter, we show that spontaneous transitions to the QSH regime enhance the particle confinement. This improvement is originated by the simultaneous and cooperative action of the increase of the magnetic island and the reduction of the magnetic stochasticity.

  13. Stable, polymer-directed and SPION-nucleated magnetic amphiphilic block copolymer nanoprecipitates with readily reversible assembly in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardiello, Marco; Hatton, Fiona L.; Slater, Rebecca A.; Chambon, Pierre; North, Jocelyn; Peacock, Anita K.; He, Tao; McDonald, Tom O.; Owen, Andrew; Rannard, Steve P.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of inorganic-organic magnetic nanocomposites using reactive chemistry often leads to a loss of super-paramagnetisim when conducted in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles. We present here a low energy and chemically-mild process of co-nanoprecipitation using SPIONs and homopolymers or amphiphilic block copolymers, of varying architecture and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, which efficiently generates near monodisperse SPION-containing polymer nanoparticles with complete retention of magnetism, and highly reversible aggregation and redispersion behaviour. When linear and branched block copolymers with inherent water-solubility are used, a SPION-directed nanoprecipitation mechanism appears to dominate the nanoparticle formation presenting new opportunities for tailoring and scaling highly functional systems for a range of applications.The formation of inorganic-organic magnetic nanocomposites using reactive chemistry often leads to a loss of super-paramagnetisim when conducted in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles. We present here a low energy and chemically-mild process of co-nanoprecipitation using SPIONs and homopolymers or amphiphilic block copolymers, of varying architecture and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, which efficiently generates near monodisperse SPION-containing polymer nanoparticles with complete retention of magnetism, and highly reversible aggregation and redispersion behaviour. When linear and branched block copolymers with inherent water-solubility are used, a SPION-directed nanoprecipitation mechanism appears to dominate the nanoparticle formation presenting new opportunities for tailoring and scaling highly functional systems for a range of applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental details, NMR spectra, GPC chromatograms, kinetics experiments, graphs of nanopreciptate aggregation and cycling studies and SPION characterisation. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00788k

  14. Compact toroid generation, lifetime, and stability studies in linear reversed-field theta pinch geometries, (TRX-1): Second annual and final report, June 1981-March 1983

    SciT

    Hoffman, A.L.; Slough, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Four major areas have been investigated in the triggered reconnection experiment (TRX) program. These areas are flux trapping; formation (reconnection and axial dynamics); stability; and lifetime. This report describes the progress in each of these areas. Flux trapping for relatively slow field reversal rates due to the formation of a wall sheath has been accomplished and techniques have been developed for both triggered and programmed reconnection and the formation process has been optimized for maximum flux retention. Rotational n=2 instability has been controlled through the use of octopole barrier fields and long particle lifetimes have been achieved through optimization ofmore » the formation process. 46 refs., 63 figs., 4 tabs. (FI)« less

  15. Control of ion gyroscale fluctuations via electrostatic biasing and sheared E×B flow in the C-2 field reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, L.; Ruskov, E.; Deng, B. H.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.; Gota, H.; Tuszewski, M.

    2016-03-01

    Control of radial particle and thermal transport is instrumental for achieving and sustaining well-confined high-β plasma in a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). Radial profiles of low frequency ion gyro-scale density fluctuations (0.5≤kρs≤40), consistent with drift- or drift-interchange modes, have been measured in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and core of the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC), together with the toroidal E×B velocity. It is shown here that axial electrostatic SOL biasing controls and reduces gyro-scale density fluctuations, resulting in very low FRC core fluctuation levels. When the radial E×B flow shearing rate decreases below the turbulence decorrelation rate, fluctuation levels increase substantially, concomitantly with onset of the n=2 instability and rapid loss of diamagnetism. Low turbulence levels, improved energy/particle confinement and substantially increased FRC life times are achieved when E×B shear near the separatrix is maintained via axial SOL biasing using an annular washer gun.

  16. Electric-Field Induced Reversible Switching of the Magnetic Easy Axis in Co/BiFeO3 on SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tieren; Zhang, Xiaohang; Ratcliff, William; Maruyama, Shingo; Murakami, Makoto; Varatharajan, Anbusathaiah; Yamani, Zahra; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Huairuo; Shull, Robert; Bendersky, Leonid A; Unguris, John; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2017-05-10

    Electric-field (E-field) control of magnetism enabled by multiferroic materials has the potential to revolutionize the landscape of present memory devices plagued with high energy dissipation. To date, this E-field controlled multiferroic scheme has only been demonstrated at room temperature using BiFeO 3 films grown on DyScO 3 , a unique and expensive substrate, which gives rise to a particular ferroelectric domain pattern in BiFeO 3 . Here, we demonstrate reversible electric-field-induced switching of the magnetic state of the Co layer in Co/BiFeO 3 (BFO) (001) thin film heterostructures fabricated on (001) SrTiO 3 (STO) substrates. The angular dependence of the coercivity and the remanent magnetization of the Co layer indicates that its easy axis reversibly switches back and forth 45° between the (100) and the (110) crystallographic directions of STO as a result of alternating application of positive and negative voltage pulses between the patterned top Co electrode layer and the (001) SrRuO 3 (SRO) layer on which the ferroelectric BFO is epitaxially grown. The coercivity (H C ) of the Co layer exhibits a hysteretic behavior between two states as a function of voltage. A mechanism based on the intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic BFO involving projection of antiferromagnetic G-type domains is used to explain the observation. We have also measured the exact canting angle of the G-type domain in strained BFO films for the first time using neutron diffraction. These results suggest a pathway to integrating BFO-based devices on Si wafers for implementing low power consumption and nonvolatile magnetoelectronic devices.

  17. Evaluation of RealStar Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction Kits for Filovirus Detection in the Laboratory and Field

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Toni; Kerber, Romy; El Halas, Hussein; Pallasch, Elisa; Duraffour, Sophie; Günther, Stephan; Ölschläger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diagnosis of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) requires laboratory testing. Methods. The RealStar Filovirus Screen reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit and the derived RealStar Zaire Ebolavirus RT-PCR kit were validated using in vitro transcripts, supernatant of infected cell cultures, and clinical specimens from patients with EVD. Results. The Filovirus Screen kit detected EBOV, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus, Bundibugyo virus, Reston virus, and Marburg virus and differentiated between the genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus. The amount of filovirus RNA that could be detected with a probability of 95% ranged from 11 to 67 RNA copies/reaction on a LightCycler 480 II. The Zaire Ebolavirus kit is based on the Filovirus Screen kit but was optimized for detection of EBOV. It has an improved signal-to-noise ratio at low EBOV RNA concentrations and is somewhat more sensitive than the Filovirus kit. Both kits show significantly lower analytical sensitivity on a SmartCycler II. Clinical evaluation revealed that the SmartCycler II, compared with other real-time PCR platforms, decreases the clinical sensitivity of the Filovirus Screen kit to diagnose EVD at an early stage. Conclusions. The Filovirus Screen kit detects all human-pathogenic filoviruses with good analytical sensitivity if performed on an appropriate real-time PCR platform. High analytical sensitivity is important for early diagnosis of EVD. PMID:27549586

  18. Generalizing the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation to include the effects of an applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2014-03-01

    All observations of photodegradation and self-healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model [Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013), 10.1039/c3py00263b]. In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species, which we propose involves damage to the polymer mediated through energy transfer from a dopant molecule after absorbing a photon. As in previous studies, the model with one-dimensional domains best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the precise nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated dye molecules along polymer chains. Furthermore, the voltage-dependent measurements suggest that the largest polarizability axis of the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the chain.

  19. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    PubMed

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-09

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

  20. Modifications to the edge current profile with auxiliary edge current drive and improved confinement in a reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Chapman, B.E.; Biewer, T.M.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.

    2000-09-01

    Auxiliary edge current drive is routinely applied in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R.N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T.W. Lovell et.al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] with the goal of modifying the parallel current profile to reduce current- driven magnetic fluctuations and the associated particle and energy transport. Provided by an inductive electric field, the current drive successfully reduces energy transport. First-time measurements of the modified edge current profile reveal that, relative to discharges without auxiliary current drive, the edge current density decreases. This decrease is explicable in terms of newly measured reductions in the dynamo (fluctuation-based) electric field and themore » electrical conductivity. Induced by the current drive, these two changes to the edge plasma play as much of a role in determining the resultant edge current profile as does the current drive itself.« less

  1. Modifications to the edge current profile with auxiliary edge current drive and improved confinement in a reversed-field pinch

    SciT

    Chapman, B. E.; Biewer, T. M.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    2000-09-01

    Auxiliary edge current drive is routinely applied in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] with the goal of modifying the parallel current profile to reduce current-driven magnetic fluctuations and the associated particle and energy transport. Provided by an inductive electric field, the current drive successfully reduces fluctuations and transport. First-time measurements of the modified edge current profile reveal that, relative to discharges without auxiliary current drive, the edge current density decreases. This decrease is explicable in terms of newly measured reductions in the dynamo (fluctuation-based) electricmore » field and the electrical conductivity. Induced by the current drive, these two changes to the edge plasma play as much of a role in determining the resultant edge current profile as does the current drive itself. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.« less

  2. Reversal of the Upper Critical Field Anisotropy and Spin-Locked Superconductivity in K 2Cr 3As 3

    SciT

    Balakirev, Fedor Fedorovich; Kong, T.; Jaime, Marcelo

    2016-02-08

    Recently, superconductivity in K 2Cr 3As 3 (T c =6.1 K) was discovered. The crystalline lattice contains an array of weakly coupled, double well [(Cr 3As 3) 2-] ∞ linkages stretched along the c axis, suggesting the possibility of quasi-one-dimensional superconductivity. Moderately anisotropic upper critical field was revealed in single crystals, with very large initial slopes, dH ∥ c2 /dT=12 T/K along the Cr chains and dH perpendicular c2 /dT =7 T/K perpendicular to the chains. Given the ambiguity of conclusions based on the extrapolations of H c2(T) measured near T c to low temperatures, we performed high-field measurements ofmore » H c2(T) on K 2Cr 3As 3 single crystals in pulsed magnetic fields which enabled us to reveal the full anisotropic H c2(T) curves from T c down to 600 mK.« less

  3. Field signatures of non-Fickian transport processes: transit time distributions, spatial correlations, reversibility and hydrogeophysical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Borgne, T.; Kang, P. K.; Guihéneuf, N.; Shakas, A.; Bour, O.; Linde, N.; Dentz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Non-Fickian transport phenomena are observed in a wide range of scales across hydrological systems. They are generally manifested by a broad range of transit time distributions, as measured for instance in tracer breakthrough curves. However, similar transit time distributions may be caused by different origins, including broad velocity distributions, flow channeling or diffusive mass transfer [1,2]. The identification of these processes is critical for defining relevant transport models. How can we distinguish the different origins of non-Fickian transport in the field? In this presentation, we will review recent experimental developments to decipher the different causes of anomalous transport, based on tracer tests performed at different scales in cross borehole and push pull conditions, and time lapse hydrogeophysical imaging of tracer motion [3,4]. References:[1] de Anna-, P., T. Le Borgne, M. Dentz, A. M. Tartakovsky, D. Bolster, P. Davy (2013) Flow Intermittency, Dispersion and Correlated Continuous Time Random Walks in Porous Media, Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 184502 [2] Le Borgne T., Dentz M., and Carrera J. (2008) Lagrangian Statistical Model for Transport in Highly Heterogeneous Velocity Fields. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090601 [3] Kang, P. K., T. Le Borgne, M. Dentz, O. Bour, and R. Juanes (2015), Impact of velocity correlation and distribution on transport in fractured media : Field evidence and theoretical model, Water Resour. Res., 51, 940-959 [4] Dorn C., Linde N., Le Borgne T., O. Bour and L. Baron (2011) Single-hole GPR reflection imaging of solute transport in a granitic aquifer Geophys. Res. Lett. Vol.38, L08401

  4. Development of field-based real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darci R; Lee, John S; Jahrling, Jordan; Kulesh, David A; Turell, Michael J; Groebner, Jennifer L; O'Guinn, Monica L

    2009-10-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) and O'nyong-nyong (ONN) are important emerging arthropod-borne diseases. Molecular diagnosis of these two viruses in mosquitoes has not been evaluated, and the effects of extraneous mosquito tissue on assay performance have not been tested. Additionally, no real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay exists for detecting ONN virus (ONNV) RNA. We describe the development of sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detecting CHIK and ONN viral RNA in mosquitoes, which have application for field use. In addition, we compared three methods for primer/probe design for assay development by evaluating their sensitivity and specificity. This comparison resulted in development of virus-specific assays that could detect less than one plaque-forming unit equivalent of each of the viruses in mosquitoes. The use of these assays will aid in arthropod-borne disease surveillance and in the control of the associated diseases.

  5. Predictor-based multivariable closed-loop system identification of the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch external plasma response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J.; Brunsell, Per R.; Rojas, Cristian R.; Drake, James R.; Hjalmarsson, Håkan

    2011-08-01

    The usage of computationally feasible overparametrized and nonregularized system identification signal processing methods is assessed for automated determination of the full reversed-field pinch external plasma response spectrum for the experiment EXTRAP T2R. No assumptions on the geometry of eigenmodes are imposed. The attempted approach consists of high-order autoregressive exogenous estimation followed by Markov block coefficient construction and Hankel matrix singular value decomposition. It is seen that the obtained 'black-box' state-space models indeed can be compared with the commonplace ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) resistive thin-shell model in cylindrical geometry. It is possible to directly map the most unstable autodetected empirical system pole to the corresponding theoretical resistive shell MHD eigenmode.

  6. A spectroscopic system for time- and space-resolved studies of impurities on the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallander, J.

    1998-06-01

    The radial distribution of impurity line emission in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP) is studied with a five viewing chord, absolutely calibrated, spectrometer system. The light is analyzed with a single 0.5 m grating spectrometer. Different parts of the entrance slit are used for different channels. This arrangement makes it possible to use the system over a wide wavelength range, from 2500 to 6500 Å, without having to recalibrate the relative sensitivity for the different channels. The rather short plasma pulses of 10-15 ms require a high time resolution. The use of photomultiplier tubes provides a time resolution of 10 μs which is limited by the transient recorders used. The result is a robust, low-cost system that produces reliable measurements of the radial dependence of emission from a wide range of impurity ions.

  7. Synthesis and operation of an FFT-decoupled fixed-order reversed-field pinch plasma control system based on identification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J.; Brunsell, Per R.; Witrant, Emmanuel; Drake, James R.

    2010-10-01

    Recent developments and applications of system identification methods for the reversed-field pinch (RFP) machine EXTRAP T2R have yielded plasma response parameters for decoupled dynamics. These data sets are fundamental for a real-time implementable fast Fourier transform (FFT) decoupled discrete-time fixed-order strongly stabilizing synthesis as described in this work. Robustness is assessed over the data set by bootstrap calculation of the sensitivity transfer function worst-case H_{\\infty} -gain distribution. Output tracking and magnetohydrodynamic mode m = 1 tracking are considered in the same framework simply as two distinct weighted traces of a performance channel output-covariance matrix as derived from the closed-loop discrete-time Lyapunov equation. The behaviour of the resulting multivariable controller is investigated with dedicated T2R experiments.

  8. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  9. Entropic uncertainty for spin-1/2 XXX chains in the presence of inhomogeneous magnetic fields and its steering via weak measurement reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ming, Fei; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu

    2017-09-01

    The uncertainty principle configures a low bound to the measuring precision for a pair of non-commuting observables, and hence is considerably nontrivial to quantum precision measurement in the field of quantum information theory. In this letter, we consider the entropic uncertainty relation (EUR) in the context of quantum memory in a two-qubit isotropic Heisenberg spin chain. Specifically, we explore the dynamics of EUR in a practical scenario, where two associated nodes of a one-dimensional XXX-spin chain, under an inhomogeneous magnetic field, are connected to a thermal entanglement. We show that the temperature and magnetic field effect can lead to the inflation of the measuring uncertainty, stemming from the reduction of systematic quantum correlation. Notably, we reveal that, firstly, the uncertainty is not fully dependent on the observed quantum correlation of the system; secondly, the dynamical behaviors of the measuring uncertainty are relatively distinct with respect to ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism chains. Meanwhile, we deduce that the measuring uncertainty is dramatically correlated with the mixedness of the system, implying that smaller mixedness tends to reduce the uncertainty. Furthermore, we propose an effective strategy to control the uncertainty of interest by means of quantum weak measurement reversal. Therefore, our work may shed light on the dynamics of the measuring uncertainty in the Heisenberg spin chain, and thus be important to quantum precision measurement in various solid-state systems.

  10. Ultrasonic Time Reversal Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Mathias; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tanter, Mickael

    2004-11-01

    For more than ten years, time reversal techniques have been developed in many different fields of applications including detection of defects in solids, underwater acoustics, room acoustics and also ultrasound medical imaging and therapy. The essential property that makes time reversed acoustics possible is that the underlying physical process of wave propagation would be unchanged if time were reversed. In a non dissipative medium, the equations governing the waves guarantee that for every burst of sound that diverges from a source there exists in theory a set of waves that would precisely retrace the path of the sound back to the source. If the source is pointlike, this allows focusing back on the source whatever the medium complexity. For this reason, time reversal represents a very powerful adaptive focusing technique for complex media. The generation of this reconverging wave can be achieved by using Time Reversal Mirrors (TRM). It is made of arrays of ultrasonic reversible piezoelectric transducers that can record the wavefield coming from the sources and send back its time-reversed version in the medium. It relies on the use of fully programmable multi-channel electronics. In this paper we present some applications of iterative time reversal mirrors to target detection in medical applications.

  11. Mars Crustal Remanent Magnetism: An Extinct Dynamo Leaves a Record of Field Reversals in the Heavily Cratered Highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, John E.; Acuna, Mario H.; Ness, Norman F.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, in a highly elliptical polar orbit about Mars, obtained vector magnetic field measurements just above the surface of Mars (altitudes > 100 kilometers). Crustal magnetization, largely confined to the most ancient, heavily cratered Mars highlands, is frequently organized in east-west trending linear features, the largest of which extends over 2000 km. A representative set of survey passes are modeled using uniformly magnetized thin plates and a generalized inverse methodology. Crustal remanent magnetization exceeds that deduced for the largest terrestrial magnetic anomalies by more than an order of magnitude. Groups of quasi-parallel linear features of alternating magnetic polarity are found. They are reminiscent of similar magnetic features associated with sea floor spreading and crustal genesis on Earth but with a much larger spatial scale.

  12. Understanding temperature and magnetic-field actuated magnetization polarity reversal in the Prussian blue analogue Cu 0.73 Mn 0.77 [Fe(CN) 6 ]. z H 2 O, using XMCD

    SciT

    Lahiri, Debdutta; Choi, Yongseong; Yusuf, S. M.

    2016-02-23

    We have investigated the microscopic origin of temperature and magnetic-field actuated magnetization reversal in Cu0.73Mn0.77[Fe(CN)(6)]center dot zH(2)O, using XMCD. Our results show a fair deviation from the mean-field-theory in the form of different ordering temperatures of Fe and Mn sublattices. A preferential sign reversal of Mn spin under magnetic field and different spin cant angles for the two sublattices have also been observed. An antiferromagnetic coupling between the Fe and Mn sublattices along with different ordering temperatures (sublattice decoupling) for these sublattices explain the temperature-dependent magnetization reversal. Whereas, Mn spin reversal alone (under external magnetic field) is responsible for themore » observed field-dependent magnetization reversal. The dissimilar magnetic behavior of Fe and Mn sublattices in this cubic 3d-orbital system has been understood by invoking disparity and competition among inter-sublattice magnetic control parameters, viz. magnetic Zeeman energy, exchange coupling constant and magnetic anisotropy constant. Our results have significant design implications for future magnetic switches, by optimizing the competition among these magnetic control parameters.« less

  13. Damping Rates of Energetic Particle Modes and Stability With Changing Equilibrium Conditions in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, S. H.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Capecchi, W.; Kim, J.

    2016-10-01

    The damping of Alfvenic waves is an important process, with implications varying from anomalous ion heating in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas to the stability of fusion alpha-driven modes in a burning plasma. With a 1 MW NBI on the MST, a controllable set of energetic particle modes (EPMs) and Alfvenic eigenmodes can be excited. We investigate the damping of these modes as a function of both magnetic and flow shear. Typical EPM damping rates are -104 s-1 in standard RFP discharges. Magnetic shear in the region of large energetic ion density is -2 cm-1 and can be increased up to -2.5 cm-1 by varying the boundary field. Continuum mode damping rates can be reduced up to 50%. New experiments use a bias probe to control the rotation profile. Accelerating the edge plasma relative to the rapidly rotating NBI-driven core decreases the flow shear, while decelerating the edge plasma increases the flow shear in the region of strong energetic ion population. Mode damping rates measured as a function of the local flow shear are compared to ideal MHD predictions. Work supported by US DOE.

  14. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities

    SciT

    Not Available

    1992-07-17

    A field demonstration/study of a novel shoreline erosion protection device called beach cones is planned. These patented, fiberglass- reinforced concreted devices are to be deployed in a number of geometric patterns at seven location in the Bastian Bay area of Western Plaquemines Parish. The purpose of the work described in this report was to evaluate the proposed study's impact on living and non-living shellfish resources within each of the project's seven separate Study Areas. Major accomplishments for this reporting period were as follows: aerial photographs of the experimental sites were taken; all permit applications were filed; information was submitted formore » the Environmental Report; several reconnaissance trips to the experimental sites were made; meetings were held among all participating organizations to further plan the research; permit was obtained from the US Army Corps of Engineers; test sites were surveyed by the Xavier University contingent; survey data were taken at all sites; the Oyster Assessment was completed; permit was obtained from the State of Louisiana Department of Natural Resources; and initial survey data were finalized at all sites.« less

  15. Detection and differentiation of field and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus using reverse transcription followed by nested real time PCR (RT-nqPCR) and RFLP analysis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Cristine Dossin Bastos; Ikuta, Nilo; Canal, Cláudio Wageck; Makiejczuk, Aline; Allgayer, Mariangela da Costa; Cardoso, Cristine Hoffmeister; Lehmann, Fernanda Kieling; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. Practical diagnosis of canine distemper based on clinical signs and laboratory tests are required to confirm CDV infection. The present study aimed to develop a molecular assay to detect and differentiate field and vaccine CDV strains. Reverse transcription followed by nested real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-nqPCR) was developed, which exhibited analytical specificity (all the samples from healthy dogs and other canine infectious agents were not incorrectly detected) and sensitivity (all replicates of a vaccine strain were positive up to the 3125-fold dilution - 10(0.7) TCID50). RT-nqPCR was validated for CDV detection on different clinical samples (blood, urine, rectal and conjunctival swabs) of 103 animals suspected to have distemper. A total of 53 animals were found to be positive based on RT-nqPCR in at least one clinical sample. Blood resulted in more positive samples (50 out of 53, 94.3%), followed by urine (44/53, 83.0%), rectal (38/53, 71%) and conjunctival (27/53, 50.9%) swabs. A commercial immunochromatography (IC) assay had detected CDV in only 30 conjunctival samples of these positive dogs. Nucleoprotein (NC) gene sequencing of 25 samples demonstrated that 23 of them were closer to other Brazilian field strains and the remaining two to vaccine strains. A single nucleotide sequences difference, which creates an Msp I restriction enzyme digestion, was used to differentiate between field and vaccine CDV strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The complete assay was more sensitive than was IC for the detection of CDV. Blood was the more frequently positive specimen and the addition of a restriction enzyme step allowed the differentiation of vaccine and Brazilian field strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies of active control of resistive wall mode growth in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, J. R.; Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J. A.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Bolzonella, T.; Manduchi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Ortolani, S.; Spizzo, G.; Zanca, P.; Bondeson, A.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2005-07-01

    Active feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been demonstrated in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. The control system includes a sensor consisting of an array of magnetic coils (measuring mode harmonics) and an actuator consisting of a saddle coil array (producing control harmonics). Closed-loop (feedback) experiments using a digital controller based on a real time Fourier transform of sensor data have been studied for cases where the feedback gain was constant and real for all harmonics (corresponding to an intelligent-shell) and cases where the feedback gain could be set for selected harmonics, with both real and complex values (targeted harmonics). The growth of the dominant RWMs can be reduced by feedback for both the intelligent-shell and targeted-harmonic control systems. Because the number of toroidal positions of the saddle coils in the array is half the number of the sensors, it is predicted and observed experimentally that the control harmonic spectrum has sidebands. Individual unstable harmonics can be controlled with real gains. However if there are two unstable mode harmonics coupled by the sideband effect, control is much less effective with real gains. According to the theory, complex gains give better results for (slowly) rotating RWMs, and experiments support this prediction. In addition, open loop experiments have been used to observe the effects of resonant field errors applied to unstable, marginally stable and robustly stable modes. The observed effects of field errors are consistent with the thin-wall model, where mode growth is proportional to the resonant field error amplitude and the wall penetration time for that mode harmonic.

  17. The Feasibility of Formation and Kinetics of NMR Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE) at High Magnetic Field (9.4 T)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    1H NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) was observed for pyridine and pyridine-d5 at 9.4 T, a field that is orders of magnitude higher than what is typically utilized to achieve the conventional low-field SABRE effect. In addition to emissive peaks for the hydrogen spins at the ortho positions of the pyridine substrate (both free and bound to the metal center), absorptive signals are observed from hyperpolarized orthohydrogen and Ir-complex dihydride. Real-time kinetics studies show that the polarization build-up rates for these three species are in close agreement with their respective 1H T1 relaxation rates at 9.4 T. The results suggest that the mechanism of the substrate polarization involves cross-relaxation with hyperpolarized species in a manner similar to the spin-polarization induced nuclear Overhauser effect. Experiments utilizing pyridine-d5 as the substrate exhibited larger enhancements as well as partial H/D exchange for the hydrogen atom in the ortho position of pyridine and concomitant formation of HD molecules. While the mechanism of polarization enhancement does not explicitly require chemical exchange of hydrogen atoms of parahydrogen and the substrate, the partial chemical modification of the substrate via hydrogen exchange means that SABRE under these conditions cannot rigorously be referred to as a non-hydrogenative parahydrogen induced polarization process. PMID:24528143

  18. The feasibility of formation and kinetics of NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) at high magnetic field (9.4 T).

    PubMed

    Barskiy, Danila A; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Koptyug, Igor V; He, Ping; Groome, Kirsten A; Best, Quinn A; Shi, Fan; Goodson, Boyd M; Shchepin, Roman V; Coffey, Aaron M; Waddell, Kevin W; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-03-05

    (1)H NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) was observed for pyridine and pyridine-d5 at 9.4 T, a field that is orders of magnitude higher than what is typically utilized to achieve the conventional low-field SABRE effect. In addition to emissive peaks for the hydrogen spins at the ortho positions of the pyridine substrate (both free and bound to the metal center), absorptive signals are observed from hyperpolarized orthohydrogen and Ir-complex dihydride. Real-time kinetics studies show that the polarization build-up rates for these three species are in close agreement with their respective (1)H T1 relaxation rates at 9.4 T. The results suggest that the mechanism of the substrate polarization involves cross-relaxation with hyperpolarized species in a manner similar to the spin-polarization induced nuclear Overhauser effect. Experiments utilizing pyridine-d5 as the substrate exhibited larger enhancements as well as partial H/D exchange for the hydrogen atom in the ortho position of pyridine and concomitant formation of HD molecules. While the mechanism of polarization enhancement does not explicitly require chemical exchange of hydrogen atoms of parahydrogen and the substrate, the partial chemical modification of the substrate via hydrogen exchange means that SABRE under these conditions cannot rigorously be referred to as a non-hydrogenative parahydrogen induced polarization process.

  19. A high density field reversed configuration (FRC) target for magnetized target fusion: First internal profile measurements of a high density FRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Degnan, J. H.; Furno, I.; Grabowski, C.; Hsu, S. C.; Ruden, E. L.; Sanchez, P. G.; Taccetti, J. M.; Tuszewski, M.; Waganaar, W. J.; Wurden, G. A.

    2004-05-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a potentially low cost path to fusion, intermediate in plasma regime between magnetic and inertial fusion energy. It requires compression of a magnetized target plasma and consequent heating to fusion relevant conditions inside a converging flux conserver. To demonstrate the physics basis for MTF, a field reversed configuration (FRC) target plasma has been chosen that will ultimately be compressed within an imploding metal liner. The required FRC will need large density, and this regime is being explored by the FRX-L (FRC-Liner) experiment. All theta pinch formed FRCs have some shock heating during formation, but FRX-L depends further on large ohmic heating from magnetic flux annihilation to heat the high density (2-5×1022m-3), plasma to a temperature of Te+Ti≈500 eV. At the field null, anomalous resistivity is typically invoked to characterize the resistive like flux dissipation process. The first resistivity estimate for a high density collisional FRC is shown here. The flux dissipation process is both a key issue for MTF and an important underlying physics question.

  20. Simulations of High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating on the C-2U Advanced Beam-Driven Field-Reversed Configuration Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaokang; Petrov, Yuri; Ceccherini, Francesco; Koehn, Alf; Galeotti, Laura; Dettrick, Sean; Binderbauer, Michl

    2017-10-01

    Numerous efforts have been made at Tri-Alpha Energy (TAE) to theoretically explore the physics of microwave electron heating in field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. For the fixed 2D profiles of plasma density and temperature for both electrons and thermal ions and equilibrium field of the C-2U machine, simulations with GENRAY-C ray-tracing code have been conducted for the ratios of ω/ωci[D] in the range of 6 - 20. Launch angles and antenna radial and axial positions have been optimized in order to simultaneously achieve good wave penetration into the core of FRC plasmas and efficient power damping on electrons. It is found that in an optimal regime, single pass absorption efficiency is 100% and most of the power is deposited inside the separatrix of FRC plasmas, with power damping efficiency of about 72% on electrons and less than 19% on ions. Calculations have clearly demonstrated that substantial power absorption on electrons is mainly attributed to high beta enhancement of magnetic pumping; complete power damping occurs before Landau damping has a significant effect on power absorption.

  1. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Zhang, Yijun; Ren, Wei; Ren, Tao; Yang, Xi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shifted by up to |∆Hex|/Hex = 8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |∆Hex|/Hc = 67.5 ~ 125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30 ~ 38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies. PMID:26576658

  2. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Zhang, Yijun; Ren, Wei; Ren, Tao; Yang, Xi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Liu, Ming

    2015-11-01

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shifted by up to |ΔHex|/Hex = 8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |ΔHex|/Hc = 67.5 ~ 125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30 ~ 38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies.

  3. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Zhang, Yijun; Ren, Wei; Ren, Tao; Yang, Xi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X; Liu, Ming

    2015-11-18

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shifted by up to |∆Hex|/Hex = 8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |∆Hex|/Hc = 67.5 ~ 125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30 ~ 38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies.

  4. Three dimensional equilibrium solutions for a current-carrying reversed-field pinch plasma with a close-fitting conducting shell

    SciT

    Koliner, J. J.; Boguski, J., E-mail: boguski@wisc.edu; Anderson, J. K.

    2016-03-15

    In order to characterize the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas that bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, the V3FIT equilibrium reconstruction code was modified to include a conducting boundary. RFP plasmas become helical at a high plasma current, which induces large eddy currents in MST's thick aluminum shell. The V3FIT conducting boundary accounts for the contribution from these eddy currents to external magnetic diagnostic coil signals. This implementation of V3FIT was benchmarked against MSTFit, a 2D Grad-Shafranov solver, for axisymmetric plasmas. The two codes both fit B{sub θ} measurement loops around the plasma minor diameter with qualitative agreementmore » between each other and the measured field. Fits in the 3D case converge well, with q-profile and plasma shape agreement between two distinct toroidal locking phases. Greater than 60% of the measured n = 5 component of B{sub θ} at r = a is due to eddy currents in the shell, as calculated by the conducting boundary model.« less

  5. Three dimensional equilibrium solutions for a current-carrying reversed-field pinch plasma with a close-fitting conducting shell

    DOE PAGES

    Koliner, J. J.; Boguski, J.; Anderson, J. K.; ...

    2016-03-25

    In order to characterize the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch(RFP)plasmas that bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, the V3FIT equilibrium reconstruction code was modified to include a conducting boundary. RFPplasmas become helical at a high plasma current, which induces large eddy currents in MST's thick aluminum shell. The V3FIT conducting boundary accounts for the contribution from these eddy currents to external magnetic diagnostic coil signals. This implementation of V3FIT was benchmarked against MSTFit, a 2D Grad-Shafranov solver, for axisymmetric plasmas. The two codes both fit B measurement loops around the plasma minor diameter with qualitative agreement between each other andmore » the measured field. Fits in the 3D case converge well, with q-profile and plasma shape agreement between two distinct toroidal locking phases. Greater than 60% of the measured n = 5 component of B at r = a is due to eddy currents in the shell, as calculated by the conducting boundary model.« less

  6. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  7. A key discovery at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface: slow local charge compensation and a reversible electric field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxing; Pazoki, Meysam; Eriksson, Anna I K; Hao, Yan; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-07-14

    Dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 films have been widely applied in energy and environmental science related research fields. The interaction between accumulated electrons inside TiO2 and cations in the surrounding electrolyte at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface is, however, still poorly understood. This interaction is undoubtedly important for both device performance and fundamental understanding. In the present study, Stark effects of an organic dye, LEG4, adsorbed on TiO2 were well characterized and used as a probe to monitor the local electric field at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface. By using time-resolved photo- and potential-induced absorption techniques, we found evidence for a slow (t > 0.1 s) local charge compensation mechanism, which follows electron accumulation inside the mesoporous TiO2. This slow local compensation was attributed to the penetration of cations from the electrolyte into the adsorbed dye layer, leading to a more localized charge compensation of the electrons inside TiO2. Importantly, when the electrons inside TiO2 were extracted, a remarkable reversal of the surface electric field was observed for the first time, which is attributed to the penetrated and/or adsorbed cations now being charge compensated by anions in the bulk electrolyte. A cation electrosorption model is developed to account for the overall process. These findings give new insights into the mesoporous TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface and the electron-cation interaction mechanism. Electrosorbed cations are proposed to act as electrostatic trap states for electrons in the mesoporous TiO2 electrode.

  8. Reverse Dynamization

    PubMed Central

    Glatt, Vaida; Bartnikowski, Nicole; Quirk, Nicholas; Schuetz, Michael; Evans, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reverse dynamization is a technology for enhancing the healing of osseous defects. With use of an external fixator, the axial stiffness across the defect is initially set low and subsequently increased. The purpose of the study described in this paper was to explore the efficacy of reverse dynamization under different conditions. Methods: Rat femoral defects were stabilized with external fixators that allowed the stiffness to be modulated on living animals. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was implanted into the defects on a collagen sponge. Following a dose-response experiment, 5.5 μg of rhBMP-2 was placed into the defect under conditions of very low (25.4-N/mm), low (114-N/mm), medium (185-N/mm), or high (254-N/mm) stiffness. Reverse dynamization was evaluated with 2 different starting stiffnesses: low (114 N/mm) and very low (25.4 N/mm). In both cases, high stiffness (254 N/mm) was imposed after 2 weeks. Healing was assessed with radiographs, micro-computed tomography (μCT), histological analysis, and mechanical testing. Results: In the absence of dynamization, the medium-stiffness fixators provided the best healing. Reverse dynamization starting with very low stiffness was detrimental to healing. However, with low initial stiffness, reverse dynamization considerably improved healing with minimal residual cartilage, enhanced cortication, increased mechanical strength, and smaller callus. Histological analysis suggested that, in all cases, healing provoked by rhBMP-2 occurred by endochondral ossification. Conclusions: These data confirm the potential utility of reverse dynamization as a way of improving bone healing but indicate that the stiffness parameters need to be selected carefully. Clinical Relevance: Reverse dynamization may reduce the amount of rhBMP-2 needed to induce healing of recalcitrant osseous lesions, reduce the time to union, and decrease the need for prolonged external fixation. PMID:27098327

  9. Negative magnetization and the sign reversal of exchange bias field in Co(Cr1-xMnx)2O4 (0≤x≤0.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Canglong; Yan, Tengyun; Chakrabarti, Chiranjib; Zhang, Run; Chen, Xinghan; Fu, Qingshan; Yuan, Songliu; Barasa, Godfrey Okumu

    2018-03-01

    A series of Co(Cr1-xMnx)2O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) ceramic samples have been synthesized by using the sol-gel method. The magnetic properties of the ceramics are experimentally studied through different protocols of dc magnetization measurements. It is found that Mn-doping continuously decreases the total magnetization for x in the range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 and the net magnetization becomes negative in the range of 0.3 ≤ x ≤ 0.5. The net magnetization reverses and becomes positive upon further increasing x to 0.6. This unusual magnetic phenomenon in the system for x = 0.3-0.5 can be called as negative magnetization. It is regarded as arising from the competition of the two magnetic sublattices at different crystallographic sites. For the sample x = 0.3, the magnetic switching effect near the compensation temperature Tcomp has been studied, and it shows potential applications in the spintronic devices. The magnetic configuration of the sample could be changed under a high magnetic field, and the spin is reoriented at TSR. Both positive and negative exchange bias effects are observed, which are ascribed to the pinning force of uncompensated spins on ferromagnetic moments and the magneto-structural transition, respectively.

  10. a Search for Lower-Hybrid Drift Fluctuations in a Field-Reversed Configuration by Means of Carbon Dioxide Heterodyne Scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Arthur William

    A measurement is reported which sets an upper bound on LHD-like density fluctuations in an FRC which is two orders of magnitude below the predicted levels. Particle loss from FRC's is known to occur anomalously fast, and this is usually attributed to effects of the LHD instability. If LHD waves are present, they can be measured using heterodyne detection of CO(,2) laser light scattered from the associated density fluctuations. In the present case, the usual scattering system was successfully modified to compensate for severe refraction of the beams by the plasma. This system was calibrated by detection of an electrooptically modulated CO(,2) laser beam, and by detection of light scattered from acoustic waves in salt. The plasma measurements made on the TRX-2 field-reversed theta-pinch covered all parameters at which LHD fluctuations might be expected to occur, namely wavenumbers from 30 to 240 cm('-1), frequencies from 10 to 300 MHz, and radii from one centimeter inside the separatrix to two centimeters outside. The lack of detectable scattered light under any of these conditions indicates ((delta)n/n) < 1 x 10('-4), compared to predictions of ((delta)n/n) ('(TURN)) 1 x 10('-2) based on mode coupling theory, ion -trapping theory, and observed transport rates. Several mechanisms are discussed which may stabilize LHD in these plasmas. Several alternate explanations of the observed anomalous transport rates in FRC's are also discussed.

  11. Measurements of neutral hydrogen profiles on the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field pinch from time-resolved ? line emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallander, J.; Hedqvist, A.; Rachlew-Källne, E.

    1998-09-01

    The investigations of the radial distributions of 0953-4075/31/17/015/img2 emission from the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma show that the emission profile varies a lot, even during one plasma discharge. At central electron temperatures of about 150 eV it was expected that the 0953-4075/31/17/015/img2 emission should emerge from the plasma centre. In comparison, 0953-4075/31/17/015/img4 is always observed to radiate from the centre. Our measurements of 0953-4075/31/17/015/img2 emission have, however, shown that this is not always the case, the emission often comes from the plasma edge. The analysis of the measurements has led us to conclude that the edge emission comes from charge-exchange recombination with neutral hydrogen near the carbon first wall. These observations provide a way to estimate the change in neutral hydrogen density during local plasma-wall interaction.

  12. Intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch with partial coverage of the toroidal surface by a discrete active coil array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    An active feedback system is required for long pulse operation of the reversed field pinch (RFP) device to suppress resistive wall modes (RWMs). A general feature of a feedback system using a discrete active coil array is a coupling effect which arises when a set of side band modes determined by the number of active coils is produced. Recent results obtained on the EXTRAP T2R RFP demonstrated the suppression of independent m = 1 RWMs using an active feedback system with a two-dimensional array of discrete active coils in the poloidal and toroidal directions. One of the feedback algorithms used is the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Active feedback systems having different number of active coils in the poloidal (Mc) and toroidal (Nc) directions (Mc × Nc = 2 × 32 and Mc × Nc = 4 × 16) are studied. Different side band effects are seen for these configurations. A significant prolongation of the plasma discharge is achieved for the intelligent shell feedback scheme using the 2 × 32 active coil configuration. This is attributed to the side band sets including only one of the dominant unstable RWMs and avoiding coupling to resonant modes. Analog proportional-integral-derivative controllers are used in the feedback system. Regimes with different values of the proportional gain are studied. The requirement of the proportional-integral control for low proportional gain and proportional-derivative control for high proportional gain is seen in the experiments.

  13. Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) Assay for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Ambagala, A; Fisher, M; Goolia, M; Nfon, C; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2017-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which can decimate the livestock industry and economy of countries previously free of this disease. Rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is critical to containing an FMD outbreak. Availability of a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, yet simple and field-deployable assay would support local decision-making during an FMDV outbreak. Here we report validation of a novel reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay that can be performed on a commercially available, compact and portable POCKIT ™ analyser that automatically analyses data and displays '+' or '-' results. The FMDV RT-iiPCR assay targets the 3D region of the FMDV genome and was capable of detecting 9 copies of in vitro-transcribed RNA standard with 95% confidence. It accurately identified 63 FMDV strains belonging to all seven serotypes and showed no cross-reactivity with viruses causing similar clinical diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. The assay was able to identify FMDV RNA in multiple sample types including oral, nasal and lesion swabs, epithelial tissue suspensions, vesicular and oral fluid samples, even before the appearance of clinical signs. Clinical sensitivity of the assay was comparable or slightly higher than the laboratory-based real-time RT-PCR assay in use. The assay was able to detect FMDV RNA in vesicular fluid samples without nucleic acid extraction. For RNA extraction from more complex sample types, a commercially available taco ™ mini transportable magnetic bead-based, automated extraction system was used. This assay provides a potentially useful field-deployable diagnostic tool for rapid detection of FMDV in an outbreak in FMD-free countries or for routine diagnostics in endemic countries with less structured laboratory systems. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.

  14. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates

    SciT

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin

    2015-11-18

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shiftedmore » by up to |ΔH ex|/H ex=8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |ΔH ex|/H c=67.5~125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30~38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Lastly, electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies.« less

  15. Reverse Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    reverse logistics was to pick up the damage or obsolete items from the vendor and discard them into a land fill. Estee Lauder Companies, Inc. dumped as...Quality Center, Benchmarking and Leveraging “Best Practices” Strategies , Houston, TX, AQPC, 1995. 2. Brauner, Marygail, “Evaluating Five Proposed Price

  16. Kinematic reversal schemes for the geomagnetic dipole.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Fluctuations in the distribution of cyclonic convective cells, in the earth's core, can reverse the sign of the geomagnetic field. Two kinematic reversal schemes are discussed. In the first scheme, a field maintained by cyclones concentrated at low latitude is reversed by a burst of cyclones at high latitude. Conversely, in the second scheme, a field maintained predominantly by cyclones in high latitudes is reversed by a fluctuation consisting of a burst of cyclonic convection at low latitude. The precise fluid motions which produce the geomagnetic field are not known. However, it appears that, whatever the details are, a fluctuation in the distribution of cyclonic cells over latitude can cause a geomagnetic reversal.

  17. A field based detection method for Rose rosette virus using isothermal probe-based Reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Babu, Binoy; Washburn, Brian K; Ertek, Tülin Sarigül; Miller, Steven H; Riddle, Charles B; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Olson, Jennifer; Katırcıoğlu, Yakup Zekai; Paret, Mathews L

    2017-09-01

    Rose rosette disease, caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is a major threat to the rose industry in the U.S. The only strategy currently available for disease management is early detection and eradication of the infected plants, thereby limiting its potential spread. Current RT-PCR based diagnostic methods for RRV are time consuming and are inconsistent in detecting the virus from symptomatic plants. Real-time RT-qPCR assay is highly sensitive for detection of RRV, but it is expensive and requires well-equipped laboratories. Both the RT-PCR and RT-qPCR cannot be used in a field-based testing for RRV. Hence a novel probe based, isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-exoRPA) assay, using primer/probe designed based on the nucleocapsid gene of the RRV has been developed. The assay is highly specific and did not give a positive reaction to other viruses infecting roses belonging to both inclusive and exclusive genus. Dilution assays using the in vitro transcript showed that the primer/probe set is highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1 fg/μl. In addition, a rapid technique for the extraction of viral RNA (<5min) has been standardized from RRV infected tissue sources, using PBS-T buffer (pH 7.4), which facilitates the virus adsorption onto the PCR tubes at 4°C for 2min, followed by denaturation to release the RNA. RT-exoRPA analysis of the infected plants using the primer/probe indicated that the virus could be detected from leaves, stems, petals, pollen, primary roots and secondary roots. In addition, the assay was efficiently used in the diagnosis of RRV from different rose varieties, collected from different states in the U.S. The entire process, including the extraction can be completed in 25min, with less sophisticated equipments. The developed assay can be used with high efficiency in large scale field testing for rapid detection of RRV in commercial nurseries and landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  18. The reversal of the spontaneous exchange bias effect and zero-field-cooling magnetization in La1.5Sr0.5Co1-xFexMnO6: the effect of Fe doping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H G; Xie, L; Liu, X C; Xiong, M X; Cao, L L; Li, Y T

    2017-09-20

    The crystal structure, electronic structure and magnetic properties were systematically studied in a series of Fe-doped La 1.5 Sr 0.5 CoMnO 6 double perovskites. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples are all refined with a rhombohedral (R3[combining macron]c) structure. The parameters a and c continuously increase with increasing Fe doping concentration x. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Mn, Co, and Fe 2p core levels, consistent with the soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of Mn, Co, and Fe L 2,3 edges, indicate that their valence states are Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ , Co 2+ and Co 3+ , and Fe 3+ , respectively. However, relative to samples with x ≤ 0.1, there is an abrupt change of photon energy in the Co- and Fe-2p XAS spectra for x ≥ 0.2, implying the spin state transition is from high to low. In addition, this is further confirmed by a comparison between the calculated effective spin moment from the paramagnetic data and the theoretical value. Interestingly, we demonstrate the reversal of both zero-field-cooling magnetization and the sign switching of the spontaneous exchange bias (SEB) with the doping concentration from magnetic measurements. The magnetization reverses from positive to negative with the temperature decreasing across the compensation temperature at the critical concentration x = 0.2. Meanwhile, the exchange bias field of the SEB reverses from large negative values to positive ones. Our findings allow us to propose that the spin state transition caused by inhomogeneity is considered to play an important role in the reversal of the magnetization and the SEB effect.

  19. Geophysics: A reversal of geomagnetic polarity

    Mankinen, Edward A.

    1986-01-01

    The detailed behaviour of the geomagnetic field during reversals is documented by palaeomagnetists to constrain models of the geomagnetic dynamo. Reversals are studied by measuring the magnetic remanence preserved in rocks to obtain both the direction and intensity of the ancient magnetic field.

  20. Reverse current in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. W.; Sturrock, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    We examine the proposal that impulsive X-ray bursts are produced by high-energy electrons streaming from the corona to the chromosphere. It is known that the currents associated with these streams are so high that either the streams do not exist or their current is neutralized by a reverse current. Analysis of a simple model in which the reverse current is stable indicates that the primary electron stream leads to the development of an electric field in the ambient corona which (a) decelerates the primary beam and (b) produces a neutralizing reverse current. It appears that, in some circumstances, this electric field could prevent the primary beam from reaching the chromosphere. In any case, the electric field acts as an energy exchange mechanism, extracting kinetic energy from the primary beam and using it to heat the ambient plasma. This heating is typically so rapid that it must be expected to have important dynamical consequences.

  1. Magnetic field effect in fluorescence of excited fluorophore equilibrated with exciplex that reversibly dissociates into radical-ion pair undergoing the spin conversion.

    PubMed

    Dodin, Dmitry V; Ivanov, Anatoly I; Burshtein, Anatoly I

    2012-07-14

    The fluorescence of the photoexcited electron acceptor, (1)A∗, and the exciplex, (1)[D(+δ)A(-δ)] formed at contact of (1)A∗ with an electron donor (1)D, is known to be very sensitive to a magnetic field, assisting the spin conversion in the resulting geminate radical ion pair (RIP), (1, 3)[D(+)...A(-)]. The relative increase of the fluorescence in the highest magnetic field compared to the lowest one, known as the magnetic field effect, crucially depends on the dielectric constant of the solvent, ɛ. This phenomenon first studied experimentally is at first reproduced here theoretically by means of the so called integral encounter theory. It was shown to be very sensitive to the position of the exciplex energy level relative to the levels of exciplex precursors and the charged products of its dissociation. The results obtained strongly depend on the dielectric properties of the solvents as well as on the exciplex and RIP formation rates.

  2. Gender Differences in Expressed Interests in Engineering-Related Fields ACT 30-Year Data Analysis Identified Trends and Suggested Avenues to Reverse Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskander, E. Tiffany; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Furse, Cynthia; Bergerson, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Historically, women have been underrepresented in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields both as college majors and in the professional community. This disturbing trend, observed in many countries, is more serious and evident in American universities and is reflected in the U.S. workforce statistics. In this article, we…

  3. A simple statistical model for geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constable, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The diversity of paleomagnetic records of geomagnetic reversals now available indicate that the field configuration during transitions cannot be adequately described by simple zonal or standing field models. A new model described here is based on statistical properties inferred from the present field and is capable of simulating field transitions like those observed. Some insight is obtained into what one can hope to learn from paleomagnetic records. In particular, it is crucial that the effects of smoothing in the remanence acquisition process be separated from true geomagnetic field behavior. This might enable us to determine the time constants associated with the dominant field configuration during a reversal.

  4. Sex Reversal in Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Flament, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Reverse Current in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. W.; Sturrock, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    The theory that impulsive X ray bursts are produced by high energy electrons streaming from the corona to the chromosphere is investigated. Currents associated with these streams are so high that either the streams do not exist or their current is neutralized by a reverse current. Analysis of a simple model indicates that the primary electron stream leads to the development of an electric field in the ambient corona which decelerates the primary beam and produces a neutralizing reverse current. It appears that, in some circumstances, this electric field could prevent the primary beam from reaching the chromosphere. In any case, the electric field acts as an energy exchange mechanism, extracting kinetic energy from the primary beam and using it to heat the ambient plasma. This heating is typically so rapid that it must be expected to have important dynamical consequences.

  6. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  7. Anisotropy reversal of the upper critical field at low temperatures and spin-locked superconductivity in K 2 Cr 3 As 3

    DOE PAGES

    Balakirev, F. F.; Kong, T.; Jaime, M.; ...

    2015-06-23

    We report measurements of the anisotropic upper critical field H c2(T) for K 2Cr 3As 3 single crystals up to 60 T and T>0.6K. Our results show that the upper critical field parallel to the Cr chains, H ∥ c2(T), exhibits a paramagnetically limited behavior, whereas the shape of the H ⊥ c2(T) curve (perpendicular to the Cr chains) has no evidence of paramagnetic effects. As a result, the curves H ⊥ c2(T) and H ∥ c2(T) cross at T≈4K, so that the anisotropy parameter γ H(T)=H ⊥ c2/H ∥ c2(T) increases from γ H(T c)≈0.35 near T c tomore » γ H(0)≈1.7 at 0.6 K. The paramagnetically limited behavior of H ∥ c2(T) is inconsistent with triplet superconductivity but suggests a form of singlet superconductivity with the electron spins locked onto the direction of Cr chains.« less

  8. Neuritin reverses deficits in murine novel object associative recognition memory caused by exposure to extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian-Ru; Lu, Jun-Mei; Yao, Jin-Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Ling, Chen; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2015-07-03

    Animal studies have shown that electromagnetic field exposure may interfere with the activity of brain cells, thereby generating behavioral and cognitive disturbances. However, the underlying mechanisms and possible preventions are still unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine the effects of exposure to extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields (ELF MFs) on a recognition memory task and morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. The data showed that ELF MFs exposure (1 mT, 12 h/day) induced a time-dependent deficit in novel object associative recognition memory and also decreased hippocampal dendritic spine density. This effect was observed without corresponding changes in spontaneous locomotor activity and was transient, which has only been seen after exposing mice to ELF MFs for 7-10 days. The over-expression of hippocampal neuritin, an activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector significantly increased the neuritin level and dendritic spine density. This increase was paralleled with ELF MFs exposure-induced deficits in recognition memory and reductions of dendritic spine density. Collectively, our study provides evidence for the association between ELF MFs exposure, impairment of recognition memory, and resulting changes in hippocampal dendritic spine density. Neuritin prevented this ELF MFs-exposure-induced effect by increasing the hippocampal spine density.

  9. Neuritin reverses deficits in murine novel object associative recognition memory caused by exposure to extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian-Ru; Lu, Jun-Mei; Yao, Jin-Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Ling, Chen; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that electromagnetic field exposure may interfere with the activity of brain cells, thereby generating behavioral and cognitive disturbances. However, the underlying mechanisms and possible preventions are still unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine the effects of exposure to extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields (ELF MFs) on a recognition memory task and morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. The data showed that ELF MFs exposure (1 mT, 12 h/day) induced a time-dependent deficit in novel object associative recognition memory and also decreased hippocampal dendritic spine density. This effect was observed without corresponding changes in spontaneous locomotor activity and was transient, which has only been seen after exposing mice to ELF MFs for 7-10 days. The over-expression of hippocampal neuritin, an activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector significantly increased the neuritin level and dendritic spine density. This increase was paralleled with ELF MFs exposure-induced deficits in recognition memory and reductions of dendritic spine density. Collectively, our study provides evidence for the association between ELF MFs exposure, impairment of recognition memory, and resulting changes in hippocampal dendritic spine density. Neuritin prevented this ELF MFs-exposure-induced effect by increasing the hippocampal spine density. PMID:26138388

  10. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  11. Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves.

    PubMed

    Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Christopher C; Jackson, Andrew

    2016-11-24

    A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines by columnar convection. Here we present an example of another class of reversing-geodynamo model, which operates in a regime of comparatively low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity. This class does not fit into the paradigm of reversal regimes that are dictated by the value of the local Rossby number (the ratio of advection to Coriolis force). Instead, stretching of the magnetic field by a strong shear in the east-west flow near the imaginary cylinder just touching the inner core and parallel to the axis of rotation is crucial to the reversal mechanism in our models, which involves a process akin to kinematic dynamo waves. Because our results are relevant in a regime of low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity, and with geophysically appropriate boundary conditions, this form of dynamo wave may also be involved in geomagnetic reversals.

  12. Brain histamine depletion enhances the behavioural sequences complexity of mice tested in the open-field: Partial reversal effect of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Andrea; Provensi, Gustavo; Costa, Alessia; Blandina, Patrizio; Ricca, Valdo; Crescimanno, Giuseppe; Casarrubea, Maurizio; Passani, M Beatrice

    2017-02-01

    Markers of histaminergic dysregulation were found in several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by repetitive behaviours, thoughts and stereotypies. We analysed the effect of acute histamine depletion by means of i. c.v. injections of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, a blocker of histidine decarboxylase, on the temporal organization of motor sequences of CD1 mice behaviour in the open-field test. An ethogram encompassing 9 behavioural components was employed. Durations and frequencies were only slightly affected by treatments. However, as revealed by multivariate t-pattern analysis, histamine depletion was associated with a striking increase in the number of behavioural patterns. We found 42 patterns of different composition occurring, on average, 520.90 ± 50.23 times per mouse in the histamine depleted (HD) group, whereas controls showed 12 different patterns occurring on average 223.30 ± 20.64 times. Exploratory and grooming behaviours clustered separately, and the increased pattern complexity involved exclusively exploratory patterns. To test the hypothesis of a histamine-dopamine interplay on behavioural pattern phenotype, non-sedative doses of the D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride (12.5-25-50 mg/kg) were additionally administered to different groups of HD mice. Sulpiride counterbalanced the enhancement of exploratory patterns of different composition, but it did not affect the mean number of patterns at none of the doses used. Our results provide new insights on the role of histamine on repetitive behavioural sequences of freely moving mice. Histamine deficiency is correlated with a general enhancement of pattern complexity. This study supports a putative involvement of histamine in the pathophysiology of tics and related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ice911 Research: A Reversible Localized Geo-Engineering Technique to Mitigate Climate Change Effects: Field Testing, Instrumentation and Climate Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L. A.; Sholtz, A.; Chetty, S.; Manzara, A.; Johnson, D.; Christodoulou, E.; Decca, R.; Walter, P.; Katuri, K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Ivanova, D.; Mlaker, V.; Perovich, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    This work uses ecologically benign surface treatment of silica-based materials in carefully selected, limited areas to reduce polar ice melt by reflecting energy from summertime polar sun to attempt to slow ice loss due to the Ice-Albedo Feedback Effect. Application of Ice911's materials can be accomplished within a season, at a comparatively low cost, and with far less secondary environmental impact than many other proposed geo-engineering solutions. Field testing, instrumentation, safety testing, data-handling and modeling results will be presented. The albedo modification has been tested over a number of melt seasons with an evolving array of instrumentation, at multiple sites and on progressively larger scales, most recently in a small artificial pond in Minnesota and in a lake in Barrow, Alaska's BEO (Barrow Experimental Observatory) area. The test data show that the glass bubbles can provide an effective material for increasing albedo, significantly reducing the melting rate of ice. Using NCAR's CESM package the environmental impact of the approach of surface albedo modification was studied. During two separate runs, region-wide Arctic albedo modification as well as more targeted localized treatments were modeled and compared. The parameters of a surface snow layer are used as a proxy to simulate Ice911's high-albedo materials, and the modification is started in January over selected ice/snow regions in the Arctic. Preliminary results show promising possibilities of enhancements in surface albedo, sea ice area and sea-ice concentration, as well as temperature reductions of .5 to 3 degree Kelvin in the Arctic, and global average temperature reductions of .5 to 1 degrees.

  14. Transitional paleointensities from Kauai, Hawaii, and geomagnetic reversal models

    Bogue, Scott W.; Coe, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    Previously presented paleointensity results from an R-N transition zone in Kauai, Hawaii, show that field intensity dropped from 0. 431 Oe to 0. 101 Oe while the field remained within 30 degree of the reversed axial dipole direction. A recovery in intensity and the main directional change followed this presumably short period of low field strength. As the reversal neared completion, the field has an intensity of 0. 217 Oe while still 40 degree from the final direction. The relationship of paleointensity to field direction during the early part of the reversal thus differs from that toward the end, a feature that only some reversal models are consistent with. For example, a model in which a standing nondipole component persists through the dipole reversal predicts only symmetric intensity patterns. In contrast, zonal flooding models generate suitably complex field behavior if multiple flooding schemes operate during a single reversal or if the flooding process is itself asymmetric.

  15. Neonatal tactile stimulation reverses the effect of neonatal isolation on open-field and anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity in male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, A; Morinobu, S; Toki, S; Yamamoto, S; Matsuki, A; Kozuru, T; Yamawaki, S

    2008-01-10

    It is well known that early life events induce long-lasting psychophysiological and psychobiological influences in later life. In rodent studies, environmental enrichment after weaning prevents the adulthood behavioral and emotional disturbances in response to early adversities. We compared the behavioral effect of neonatal isolation (NI) with the effect of NI accompanied by tactile stimulation (NTS) to determine whether NTS could reverse or prevent the effects of NI on the adulthood behavioral and emotional responses to environmental stimuli. In addition, we also examined the sex difference of the NTS effect. Measurements of body weights, an open-field locomotor test, an elevated plus maze test, a hot-plate test, and a contextual fear-conditioning test were performed on postnatal day 60. As compared with rats subjected to NI, rats subjected to NTS showed significantly higher activity and exploration in the open-field locomotor test, lower anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test, and significantly prolonged latencies in the hot-plate test, and this effect was equal among males and females. In the contextual fear-conditioning test, whereas NTS significantly reduced the enhanced freezing time due to NI in females, no significant difference in the freezing time between NI and NTS was found in males. These findings indicate that adequate tactile stimulation in early life plays an important role in the prevention of disturbances in the behavioral and emotional responses to environmental stimuli in adulthood induced by early adverse experiences.

  16. Earth's magnetic moment during geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    The behavior of the dipole magnetic moment of the geomagnetic field during the reversals is considered. By analogy with the reversals of the magnetic field of the Sun, the scenario is suggested in which during the reversal the mean dipole moment becomes zero, whereas the instantaneous value of the dipole magnetic moment remains nonzero and the corresponding vector rotates from the vicinity of one geographical pole to the other. A thorough discussion concerning the definition of the mean magnetic moment, which is used in this concept, is presented. Since the behavior of the geomagnetic field during the reversal is far from stationary, the ensemble average instead of the time average has to be considered.

  17. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Reverse Core Engine with Thrust Reverser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor); Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An engine system has a gas generator, a bi-fi wall surrounding at least a portion of the gas generator, a casing surrounding a fan, and the casing having first and second thrust reverser doors which in a deployed position abut each other and the bi-fi wall.

  19. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    PubMed

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  20. Time reversibility in the quantum frame

    SciT

    Masot-Conde, Fátima

    2014-12-04

    Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.

  1. Time reversal acoustics for small targets using decomposition of the time reversal operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simko, Peter C.

    The method of time reversal acoustics has been the focus of considerable interest over the last twenty years. Time reversal imaging methods have made consistent progress as effective methods for signal processing since the initial demonstration that physical time reversal methods can be used to form convergent wave fields on a localized target, even under conditions of severe multipathing. Computational time reversal methods rely on the properties of the so-called 'time reversal operator' in order to extract information about the target medium. Applications for which time reversal imaging have previously been explored include medical imaging, non-destructive evaluation, and mine detection. Emphasis in this paper will fall on two topics within the general field of computational time reversal imaging. First, we will examine previous work on developing a time reversal imaging algorithm based on the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. MUSIC, though computationally very intensive, has demonstrated early promise in simulations using array-based methods applicable to true volumetric (three-dimensional) imaging. We will provide a simple algorithm through which the rank of the time reversal operator subspaces can be properly quantified so that the rank of the associated null subspace can be accurately estimated near the central pulse wavelength in broadband imaging. Second, we will focus on the scattering from small acoustically rigid two dimensional cylindrical targets of elliptical cross section. Analysis of the time reversal operator eigenmodes has been well-studied for symmetric response matrices associated with symmetric systems of scattering targets. We will expand these previous results to include more general scattering systems leading to asymmetric response matrices, for which the analytical complexity increases but the physical interpretation of the time reversal operator remains unchanged. For asymmetric responses, the qualitative properties of the

  2. Magnetic field reversal of electric polarization and magnetoelectric phase diagram of the hexaferrite Ba{sub 1.3}Sr{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 1.1}Fe{sub 10.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 22}

    SciT

    Shen, Shipeng; Yan, Liqin; Chai, Yisheng

    2014-01-20

    Low magnetic field reversal of electric polarization has been demonstrated in the multiferroic Y-type hexaferrite Ba{sub 1.3}Sr{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 1.1}Fe{sub 10.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 22} single crystal. The maximum magnetoelectric coefficient at 200 K reaches 1065 ps/m near zero magnetic field. By a systematic investigation of magnetic field dependence of magnetic and dielectric responses at various temperatures, we obtained the magnetoelectric phase diagram describing the detailed evolution of the spin-induced ferroelectric phases with temperature and magnetic field. Below 225 K, the transverse spin cone can be stabilized at zero magnetic field, which is responsible for the reversal behavior of electric polarization. Our study reveals howmore » to eventually achieve magnetic field reversal of electric polarization in hexaferrites at room temperature.« less

  3. An algebra of reversible computation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  4. Asymmetric Thrust Reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor); Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An aircraft includes a propulsion supported within an aft portion of a fuselage A thrust reverser is mounted in the aft portion of the fuselage proximate the propulsion system for directing thrust in a direction to slow the aircraft. The thrust reverser includes an upper blocker door movable about a first pivot axis to a deployed position and a lower blocker door movable about a second pivot axis not parallel to the first pivot axis.

  5. STOL landing thrust: Reverser jet flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotansky, D. R.; Glaze, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis tools and modeling concepts for jet flow fields encountered upon use of thrust reversers for high performance military aircraft are described. A semi-empirical model of the reverser ground wall jet interaction with the uniform cross flow due to aircraft forward velocity is described. This ground interaction model is used to demonstrate exhaust gas ingestion conditions. The effects of control of exhaust jet vector angle, lateral splay, and moving versus fixed ground simulation are discussed. The Adler/Baron jet-in-cross flow model is used in conjunction with three dimensional panel methods to investigate the upper surface jet induced flow field.

  6. Tubulin Dimer Reversible Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Peter; Sackett, Dan L.

    2016-01-01

    Tubulins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that reversibly polymerize and direct intracellular traffic. Of the tubulin family only αβ-tubulin forms stable dimers. We investigated the monomer-dimer equilibrium of rat brain αβ-tubulin using analytical ultracentrifugation and fluorescence anisotropy, observing tubulin in virtually fully monomeric and dimeric states. Monomeric tubulin was stable for a few hours and exchanged into preformed dimers, demonstrating reversibility of dimer dissociation. Global analysis combining sedimentation velocity and fluorescence anisotropy yielded Kd = 84 (54–123) nm. Dimer dissociation kinetics were measured by analyzing the shape of the sedimentation boundary and by the relaxation of fluorescence anisotropy following rapid dilution of labeled tubulin, yielding koff in the range 10−3–10−2 s−1. Thus, tubulin dimers reversibly dissociate with moderately fast kinetics. Monomer-monomer association is much less sensitive than dimer-dimer association to solution changes (GTP/GDP, urea, and trimethylamine oxide). PMID:26934918

  7. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Claudius D; Brown, Brandon T; Schmidt, Christopher C

    2013-07-01

    The reverse shoulder arthroplasty is considered to be one of the most significant technological advancements in shoulder reconstructive surgery over the past 30 years. It is able to successfully decrease pain and improve function for patients with rotator cuff-deficient shoulders. The glenoid is transformed into a sphere that articulates with a humeral socket. The current reverse prosthesis shifts the center of rotation more medial and distal, improving the deltoid's mechanical advantage. This design has resulted in successful improvement in both active shoulder elevation and in quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  9. Postscript: Contrasting Predictions for Preference Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Marius; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Chater, Nick

    2010-01-01

    In this post scrit, the authors discuss an article by Hotaling, Busemeyer, and Li which provided a valuable reply to the challenges the current authors raised for the decision field theory (DFT) account of preference reversal in multiattribute choice. They agree with Hotaling, Busemeyer, and Li's observation that with the addition of an internal…

  10. Time reversal communication system

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  11. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  12. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    PubMed

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Reverse coherent information.

    PubMed

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H

    2009-05-29

    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  14. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 8. Performance of Mobile Water-Purification Unit (MWPU) and Pretreatment Components of the 600-GPH Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU), and Consideration of Reverse Osmosis (RO) Bypass, Potable-Water Disinfection, and Water-Quality Analysis Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Health Risks in Potential Theaters of Operation for U.S. Military Forces. The nine volumes of this study contain a comprehensive assessment of the chemical...module. The percentage of total free chlorine ( hypochlorous acid , HOCl) plus hypochlorlte ion (OClN), measured by the Model 453 membrane sensor, varies...between the performances of the 600-Sph Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) operated in the bypass node and ’the Mobile Water Purification

  15. Reversing Glass Wettability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, J. E., Jr.; Kaukler, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment reverses wettability of glassware: Liquids that normally wet glass no longer do, and those that do not wet glass are made to do so. Useful in research on container effects in nucleation and growth of secondary phase from solution. Treatment consists of spreading 3 percent (by weight) solution of silicone oil in hexane isomers over glass, drying in air, and curing at 300 degrees C in vacuum for one hour.

  16. Lassa Virus Reverse Genetics.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Paessler, Slobodan; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The Old World (OW) arenavirus Lassa (LASV ) is estimated to infect several hundred thousand people yearly in West Africa, resulting in high numbers of Lassa fever (LF), a viral hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. To date, no licensed vaccines are available to LASV infections, and anti-LASV drug therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin (Rib) that is only partially effective. The development of reverse genetics has provided investigators with a novel and powerful approach for the investigation of the molecular, cell biology, and pathogenesis of LASV. The use of cell-based LASV minigenome (MG) systems has allowed examining the cis- and trans-acting factors involved in genome replication and gene transcription and the identification of novel drugable LASV targets. Likewise, it is now feasible to rescue infectious recombinant (r)LASV entirely from cloned cDNAs containing predetermined mutations in their genomes to investigate virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis, as well as to facilitate screens to identify antiviral drugs against LASV and the implementation of novel strategies to develop live-attenuated vaccines (LAV). In this chapter we will summarize the state-of-the-art experimental procedures for implementation of LASV reverse genetics. In addition, we will briefly discuss some significant translational research developments that have been made possible upon the development of LASV reverse genetics.

  17. Reversible infantile mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Boczonadi, Veronika; Bansagi, Boglarka; Horvath, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are usually severe and progressive conditions; however, there are rare forms that show remarkable spontaneous recoveries. Two homoplasmic mitochondrial tRNA mutations (m.14674T>C/G in mt-tRNA(Glu)) have been reported to cause severe infantile mitochondrial myopathy in the first months of life. If these patients survive the first year of life by extensive life-sustaining measures they usually recover and develop normally. Another mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of the 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) causes severe liver failure in infancy, but similar to the reversible mitochondrial myopathy, within the first year of life these infants may also recover completely. Partial recovery has been noted in some other rare forms of mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of mitochondrial tRNA synthetases and mitochondrial tRNA modifying enzymes. Here we summarize the clinical presentation of these unique reversible mitochondrial diseases and discuss potential molecular mechanisms behind the reversibility. Understanding these mechanisms may provide the key to treatments of potential broader relevance in mitochondrial disease, where for the majority of the patients no effective treatment is currently available.

  18. Electrical detection of microwave assisted magnetization reversal by spin pumping

    SciT

    Rao, Siddharth; Subhra Mukherjee, Sankha; Elyasi, Mehrdad

    2014-03-24

    Microwave assisted magnetization reversal has been investigated in a bilayer system of Pt/ferromagnet by detecting a change in the polarity of the spin pumping signal. The reversal process is studied in two material systems, Pt/CoFeB and Pt/NiFe, for different aspect ratios. The onset of the switching behavior is indicated by a sharp transition in the spin pumping voltage. At a threshold value of the external field, the switching process changes from partial to full reversal with increasing microwave power. The proposed method provides a simple way to detect microwave assisted magnetization reversal.

  19. Pattern-reversal electroretinograms in unilateral glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wanger, P; Persson, H E

    1983-06-01

    Pattern-reversal and flash electroretinograms (ERG) and oscillatory potentials (OP) were recorded from 11 patients with unilateral glaucoma. All glaucomatous eyes had reduced amplitudes both compared to the opposite eye in the same patient and to reference values. In 10 of the 11 cases this reduction was below the level of normal variation. The difference in pattern-reversal ERG amplitude means from glaucomatous and opposite eyes was statistically significant. No differences were observed in flash ERGs or OPs. The histopathologic correlate to the visual field defects in glaucoma is retinal ganglion cell degeneration. The present electrophysiologic findings support the view, based on results from animal experiments, that the pattern-reversal ERG reflects ganglion cell activity.

  20. Reverse triage: more than just another method.

    PubMed

    Pollaris, Gwen; Sabbe, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Reverse triage is a way to rapidly create inpatient surge capacity by identifying hospitalized patients who do not require major medical assistance for at least 96 h and who only have a small risk for serious complications resulting from early discharge. Electronic searches were conducted in the MEDLINE, TRIP, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases to identify relevant publications published from 2004 to 2014. The reference lists of all relevant articles were screened for additional relevant studies that might have been missed in the primary searches. There will always be small individual differences in the reverse triage decision process, influencing the potential effect on surge capacity, but at most, 10-20% of hospital total bed capacity can be made available within a few hours. Reverse triage could be a response to Emergency Department (ED) crowding, as it gives priority to ED patients with urgent needs over inpatients who can be discharged with little to no health risks. The early discharge of inpatients entails negative consequences. They often return to the ED for further assessment, treatment, and even readmission. When time to a medical referral or bed is less than 4-6 h, 100 additional lives per annum are predicted to be potentially saved. The results of our systematic review identified only a small number of publications addressing reverse triage, indicating that reverse triage and surge capacity are relatively new subjects of research within the medical field. Not all research questions could be fully answered.

  1. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  2. Reversible brazing process

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  3. Reverse-mode microdroplet liquid crystal display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yao-Dong; Wu, Bao Gang; Xu, Gang

    1990-04-01

    This paper presents the production of the a reverse-mode microdroplet liquid crystal (RMLC) light shutter display. In this unit, the display is formed by a thin polymer film with dispersed liquid crystal microdroplets. The display is light transmissive in the absence of an applied electrical field. The display is converted to a non-transmissive state (i.e. absorbing or scattering) when an electrical field is applied. The "off' and "on" state. of this display are thus exactly opposite to that encountered in "normal-mode" microdroplet liquid crystal display devices such as polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC)15 or Nematic Curvilinear Aligned Phase (NCAP)6. The Reverse Mode Microdroplet Liquid Crystal is obtained by modification of the surface energy of the polymer which encases liquid crystals via reaction of a dopant incorporated inside of the microdroplet during the droplet formation within the inside polymer layer. The liquid crystal used in RMLC is of negative dielectric anisotropy.

  4. 2004 Reversible Associations in Structure & Molecular Biology

    SciT

    Edward Eisenstein Nancy Ryan Gray

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Gordon Research Conference on Reversible Associations in Structure & Molecular Biology was held at Four Points Sheraton, CA, 1/25-30/2004. The Conference was well attended with 82 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students.

  5. How reverse shoulder arthroplasty works.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew; Brooks, Jordan; Willis, Matthew; Frankle, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was introduced to treat the rotator cuff-deficient shoulder. Since its introduction, an improved understanding of the biomechanics of rotator cuff deficiency and reverse shoulder arthroplasty has facilitated the development of modern reverse arthroplasty designs. We review (1) the basic biomechanical challenges associated with the rotator cuff-deficient shoulder; (2) the biomechanical rationale for newer reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs; (3) the current scientific evidence related to the function and performance of reverse shoulder arthroplasty; and (4) specific technical aspects of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. A PubMed search of the English language literature was conducted using the key words reverse shoulder arthroplasty, rotator cuff arthropathy, and biomechanics of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Articles were excluded if the content fell outside of the biomechanics of these topics, leaving the 66 articles included in this review. Various implant design factors as well as various surgical implantation techniques affect stability of reverse shoulder arthroplasty and patient function. To understand the implications of individual design factors, one must understand the function of the normal and the cuff-deficient shoulder and coalesce this understanding with the pathology presented by each patient to choose the proper surgical technique for reconstruction. Several basic science and clinical studies improve our understanding of various design factors in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. However, much work remains to further elucidate the performance of newer designs and to evaluate patient outcomes using validated instruments such as the American Society for Elbow Surgery, simple shoulder test, and the Constant-Murley scores.

  6. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  7. 46,XX sex reversal.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Ruiz, J C; Kofman-Alfaro, S; Méndez, J P

    2001-01-01

    In humans, sexual differentiation is directed by SRY, a master regulatory gene located at the Y chromosome. This gene initiates the male pathway or represses the female pathway by regulating the transcription of downstream genes; however, the precise mechanisms by which SRY acts are largely unknown. Moreover, several genes have recently been implicated in the development of the bipotential gonad even before SRY is expressed. In some individuals, the normal process of sexual differentiation is altered and a sex reversal disorder is observed. These subjects present the chromosomes of one sex but the physical attributes of the other. Over the past years, considerable progress has been achieved in the molecular characterization of these disorders by using a combination of strategies including cell biology, animal models, and by studying patients with these pathologic entities.

  8. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOEpatents

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2003-12-09

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  9. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOEpatents

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2006-04-25

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  10. Biochemical Reversal of Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2006-03-01

    We cite our progress on biochemical reversal of aging. However, it may be circa 2 years before we have necessary substances at low cost. Meanwhile, without them, a number of measures can be adopted providing marked improvement for the problems of aging in modern societies. For example, enzymes are needed to excrete toxins that accelerate aging; Hg is the ultimate toxin that disables all enzymes (including those needed to excrete Hg itself). Low Hg level in the urine, due to loss of excretory ability, causes the diagnosis of Hg toxicity to almost always be missed. Hg sources must be removed from the body! Another example is excess sugar; hyperglycemia decreases intracellular ascorbic acid (AA) by competitively inhibiting the insulin- mediated active transport of AA into cells. Thus, immunity is impaired by low leucocyte AA. AA is needed for new proteins in aging tissues. Humans must supplement AA; their need same as in AA-synthesizing mammals.

  11. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Familiari, Filippo; Rojas, Jorge; Nedim Doral, Mahmut; Huri, Gazi; McFarland, Edward G.

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) in 1987 (in Europe) and 2004 (in the United States), the number of RTSAs performed annually has increased. Although the main indication for RTSA has been rotator cuff tears, indications have expanded to include several shoulder conditions, many of which involve dysfunction of the rotator cuff. RTSA complications have been reported to affect 19% to 68% of patients and include acromial fracture, haematoma, infection, instability, mechanical baseplate failure, neurological injury, periprosthetic fracture and scapular notching. Current controversies in RTSA include optimal baseplate positioning, humeral neck-shaft angle (135° versus 155°), glenosphere placement (medial, lateral or bony increased offset RTSA) and subscapularis repair. Improvements in prosthesis design, surgeon experience and clinical results will need to occur to optimize this treatment for many shoulder conditions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:58–69 DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170044 PMID:29657846

  12. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciT

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them tomore » make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬« less

  13. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciT

    None

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them tomore » make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.« less

  14. Reverse slapper detonator

    DOEpatents

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

  15. Time reversal technique for gas leakage detection.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, A O; Polovinka, Yu A

    2015-04-01

    The acoustic remote sensing of subsea gas leakage traditionally uses sonars as active acoustic sensors and hydrophones picking up the sound generated by a leak as passive sensors. When gas leaks occur underwater, bubbles are produced and emit sound at frequencies intimately related to their sizes. The experimental implementation of an acoustic time-reversal mirror (TRM) is now well established in underwater acoustics. In the basic TRM experiment, a probe source emits a pulse that is received on an array of sensors, time reversed, and re-emitted. After time reversal, the resulting field focuses back at the probe position. In this study, a method for enhancing operation of the passive receiving system has been proposed by using it in the regime of TRM. Two factors, the local character of the acoustic emission signal caused by the leakage and a resonant nature of the bubble radiation at their birth, make particularly effective scattering with the conjugate wave (CW). Analytical calculations are performed for the scattering of CW wave on a single bubble when CW is formed by bubble birthing wail received on an array, time reversed, and re-emitted. The quality of leakage detection depends on the spatio-temporal distribution of ambient noise.

  16. Reverse ray tracing for transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2015-06-29

    Ray tracing is an important technique for predicting optical system performance. In the field of transformation optics, the Hamiltonian equations of motion for ray tracing are well known. The numerical solutions to the Hamiltonian equations of motion are affected by the complexities of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices of the optical device. Based on our knowledge, no previous work has been conducted on ray tracing for transformation optics with extreme inhomogeneity and anisotropicity. In this study, we present the use of 3D reverse ray tracing in transformation optics. The reverse ray tracing is derived from Fermat's principle based on a sweeping method instead of finding the full solution to ordinary differential equations. The sweeping method is employed to obtain the eikonal function. The wave vectors are then obtained from the gradient of that eikonal function map in the transformed space to acquire the illuminance. Because only the rays in the points of interest have to be traced, the reverse ray tracing provides an efficient approach to investigate the illuminance of a system. This approach is useful in any form of transformation optics where the material property tensor is a symmetric positive definite matrix. The performance and analysis of three transformation optics with inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices are explored. The ray trajectories and illuminances in these demonstration cases are successfully solved by the proposed reverse ray tracing method.

  17. Reverse Genetics for Mammalian Orthoreovirus.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Johnasha D; Phillips, Matthew B; Boehme, Karl W

    2017-01-01

    Reverse genetics allows introduction of specific alterations into a viral genome. Studies performed with mutant viruses generated using reverse genetics approaches have contributed immeasurably to our understanding of viral replication and pathogenesis, and also have led to development of novel vaccines and virus-based vectors. Here, we describe the reverse genetics system that allows for production and recovery of mammalian orthoreovirus, a double-stranded (ds) RNA virus, from plasmids that encode the viral genome.

  18. Intrinsic subpicosecond magnetization reversal driven by femtosecond laser pulses in GdFeCo amorphous films

    SciT

    Li, Shufa; Gao, Ruixin; Cheng, Chuyuan

    2013-12-09

    Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in GdFeCo films triggered by femtosecond laser pulses with and without an external field applied is studied experimentally for different excitation fluence. It is found that subpicosecond magnetization reversal occurs simultaneously in the ultrafast dynamics of both saturation and remnant magnetization states and almost identical within 13 ps, whereas relatively slow magnetization reversal across compensation point appears only in the dynamics of saturation magnetization state. It shows the subpicosecond magnetization reversal is external field independent, and originates from intrinsic magnetic evolution in ferrimagnetic system. The intrinsic subpicosecond reversal is qualitatively explained by linear reversal.

  19. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse gear...

  20. Time-reversed wave mixing in nonlinear optics

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; Wan, Wenjie; Chen, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Time-reversal symmetry is important to optics. Optical processes can run in a forward or backward direction through time when such symmetry is preserved. In linear optics, a time-reversed process of laser emission can enable total absorption of coherent light fields inside an optical cavity of loss by time-reversing the original gain medium. Nonlinearity, however, can often destroy such symmetry in nonlinear optics, making it difficult to study time-reversal symmetry with nonlinear optical wave mixings. Here we demonstrate time-reversed wave mixings for optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and optical parametric amplification (OPA) by exploring this well-known but underappreciated symmetry in nonlinear optics. This allows us to observe the annihilation of coherent beams. Our study offers new avenues for flexible control in nonlinear optics and has potential applications in efficient wavelength conversion, all-optical computing. PMID:24247906

  1. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  2. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  3. Wavefront reversal technique for self-referencing collimation testing

    SciT

    Hii, King Ung; Kwek, Kuan Hiang

    2010-02-01

    We present a wavefront reversal technique to produce a dual-field fringe pattern for self-referencing collimation testing in wedge-plate lateral-shear interferometry. The method requires only a suitably placed cubic beam splitter to produce two replicas of the fringe field formed by the wedge-plate lateral-shear interferometer. One of the replicas has a fringe pattern that is the reverse of the other. With these two fringe fields, the collimation testing has a built-in reference, and the detection sensitivity is twice that of a single-wedge-plate technique.

  4. Preference Reversal in Multiattribute Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Usher, Marius; Chater, Nick

    2010-01-01

    A central puzzle for theories of choice is that people's preferences between options can be reversed by the presence of decoy options (that are not chosen) or by the presence of other irrelevant options added to the choice set. Three types of reversal effect reported in the decision-making literature, the attraction, compromise, and similarity…

  5. Play: The Reversal Theory Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, J. H.

    The intention of this theoretical paper is to present a reversal theory interpretation of play phenomena. Reversal theory, a developing theory in psychology, concerns the complex relationship between experience and motivation. One of the central charactieristics of the theory is that it attempts to understand why so much of human behavior is…

  6. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Ali; Hajj-Ali, Rula A

    2014-09-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by recurrent thunderclap headache, with or without neurologic symptoms, and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries. RCVS affects patients in various racial and ethnic groups and in all age groups, although most commonly in the fourth decade of life. Many conditions and exposures have been linked to RCVS, including vasoactive drugs and the peripartum period. Disturbance of the cerebral vascular tone is thought to contribute to the disease's pathophysiology. RCVS generally follows a monophasic course. Associated strokes and cerebral hemorrhages are not uncommon. In this review we will attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of RCVS, with emphasis on the controversies in the field and the newest findings in the reported literature.

  7. Reversible simulation of irreversible computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Tromp, John; Vitányi, Paul

    1998-09-01

    Computer computations are generally irreversible while the laws of physics are reversible. This mismatch is penalized by among other things generating excess thermic entropy in the computation. Computing performance has improved to the extent that efficiency degrades unless all algorithms are executed reversibly, for example by a universal reversible simulation of irreversible computations. All known reversible simulations are either space hungry or time hungry. The leanest method was proposed by Bennett and can be analyzed using a simple ‘reversible’ pebble game. The reachable reversible simulation instantaneous descriptions (pebble configurations) of such pebble games are characterized completely. As a corollary we obtain the reversible simulation by Bennett and, moreover, show that it is a space-optimal pebble game. We also introduce irreversible steps and give a theorem on the tradeoff between the number of allowed irreversible steps and the memory gain in the pebble game. In this resource-bounded setting the limited erasing needs to be performed at precise instants during the simulation. The reversible simulation can be modified so that it is applicable also when the simulated computation time is unknown.

  8. How decision reversibility affects motivation.

    PubMed

    Bullens, Lottie; van Harreveld, Frenk; Förster, Jens; Higgins, Tory E

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making, strengthening prevention-related motivation relatively more than promotion-related motivation. If so, then decision reversibility should have effects associated with the relative differences between prevention and promotion motivation. In 5 studies, we manipulated the reversibility of a decision and used different indicators of regulatory focus motivation to test these predictions. Specifically, Study 1 tested for differences in participants' preference for approach versus avoidance strategies toward a desired end state. In Study 2, we used speed and accuracy performance as indicators of participants' regulatory motivation, and in Study 3, we measured global versus local reaction time performance. In Study 4, we approached the research question in a different way, making use of the value-from-fit hypothesis (Higgins, 2000, 2002). We tested whether a fit between chronic regulatory focus and focus induced by the reversibility of the decision increased participants' subjective positive feelings about the decision outcome. Finally, in Study 5, we tested whether regulatory motivation, induced by decision reversibility, also influenced participants' preference in specific product features. The results generally support our hypothesis showing that, compared to irreversible decisions, reversible decisions strengthen a prevention focus more than a promotion focus. Implications for research on decision making are discussed.

  9. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  10. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  11. Reversed rainbow with a nonlocal metamaterial

    SciT

    Morgado, Tiago A., E-mail: tiago.morgado@co.it.pt; Marcos, João S.; Silveirinha, Mário G., E-mail: mario.silveirinha@co.it.pt

    2014-12-29

    One of the intriguing potentials of metamaterials is the possibility to realize a nonlocal electromagnetic reaction, such that the effective medium response at a given point is fundamentally entangled with the macroscopic field distribution at long distances. Here, it is experimentally and numerically verified that a microwave nonlocal metamaterial formed by crossed metallic wires enables a low-loss broadband anomalous material response such that the refractive index decreases with frequency. Notably, it is shown that an electromagnetic beam refracted by our metamaterial prism creates a reversed microwave rainbow.

  12. Simulation studies of nucleation of ferroelectric polarization reversal.

    SciT

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Winchester, Benjamin Michael

    2014-08-01

    Electric field-induced reversal of spontaneous polarization is the defining characteristic of a ferroelectric material, but the process(es) and mechanism(s) associated with the initial nucleation of reverse-polarity domains are poorly understood. This report describes studies carried out using phase field modeling of LiTaO 3, a relatively simple prototype ferroelectric material, in order to explore the effects of either mechanical deformation or optically-induced free charges on nucleation and resulting domain configuration during field-induced polarization reversal. Conditions were selected to approximate as closely as feasible those of accompanying experimental work in order to provide not only support for the experimental work but alsomore » ensure that additional experimental validation of the simulations could be carried out in the future. Phase field simulations strongly support surface mechanical damage/deformation as effective for dramatically reducing the overall coercive field (Ec) via local field enhancements. Further, optically-nucleated polarization reversal appears to occur via stabilization of latent nuclei via the charge screening effects of free charges.« less

  13. Model of reversible vesicular transport with exclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Karamched, Bhargav R.

    2016-08-01

    A major question in neurobiology concerns the mechanics behind the motor-driven transport and delivery of vesicles to synaptic targets along the axon of a neuron. Experimental evidence suggests that the distribution of vesicles along the axon is relatively uniform and that vesicular delivery to synapses is reversible. A recent modeling study has made explicit the crucial role that reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses plays in achieving uniformity in vesicle distribution, so called synaptic democracy (Bressloff et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 168101). In this paper we generalize the previous model by accounting for exclusion effects (hard-core repulsion) that may occur between molecular motor-cargo complexes (particles) moving along the same microtubule track. The resulting model takes the form of an exclusion process with four internal states, which distinguish between motile and stationary particles, and whether or not a particle is carrying vesicles. By applying a mean field approximation and an adiabatic approximation we reduce the system of ODEs describing the evolution of occupation numbers of the sites on a 1D lattice to a system of hydrodynamic equations in the continuum limit. We find that reversibility in vesicular delivery allows for synaptic democracy even in the presence of exclusion effects, although exclusion does exacerbate nonuniform distributions of vesicles in an axon when compared with a model without exclusion. We also uncover the relationship between our model and other models of exclusion processes with internal states.

  14. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1980-01-01

    The 58 RPRS studied have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions and have no tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment. They seem to have stable configurations with no apparent evidence suggesting stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. Magnetic complexity in RPRs is the key to flare productivity just as it is in normal regions - weak field RPRs produced no flares and regions with complex spots produced more flares than regions with noncomplex spots by a factor of 5. The RPRs however, differ from normal regions in the frequency of having complex spots, particularly the long lived complex spots, in them. Less than 17 percent of normal ARs have complex spots; less than 1.8 percent have long lived complex spots. In contrast, 41 percent of RPRs have complex spots and 24 percent have long lived complex spots.

  15. Reverse Current in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. W., III

    1978-01-01

    An idealized steady state model of a stream of energetic electrons neutralized by a reverse current in the pre-flare solar plasma was developed. These calculations indicate that, in some cases, a significant fraction of the beam energy may be dissipated by the reverse current. Joule heating by the reverse current is a more effective mechanism for heating the plasma than collisional losses from the energetic electrons because the Ohmic losses are caused by thermal electrons in the reverse current which have much shorter mean free paths than the energetic electrons. The heating due to reverse currents is calculated for two injected energetic electron fluxes. For the smaller injected flux, the temperature of the coronal plasma is raised by about a factor of two. The larger flux causes the reverse current drift velocity to exceed the critical velocity for the onset of ion cyclotron turbulence, producing anomalous resistivity and an order of magnitude increase in the temperature. The heating is so rapid that the lack of ionization equilibrium may produce a soft X-ray and EUV pulse from the corona.

  16. Effect of Photogenerated Carriers on Ferroelectric Polarization Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Martin; Li, Jun; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2011-12-01

    Three non-symmetric switching peaks were observed in current-voltage (J-V) characteristic of the pentacene/poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) double-layer device. However, upon illumination only two symmetric switching peaks appeared during the same J-V measurement. The similar difference between dark and illumination were also obtained in capacitance-voltage characteristics. These results showed the strong influence of internal fields by photogenerated carriers, which modifies the polarization reversal process of ferroelectric layer. The gradual shift of the polarization reversal with increase of illumination intensity is assigned to the space-charge field of trapped electrons.

  17. Reverse radiance: a fast accurate method for determining luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kenneth E.; Rykowski, Ronald F.; Gangadhara, Sanjay

    2012-10-01

    Reverse ray tracing from a region of interest backward to the source has long been proposed as an efficient method of determining luminous flux. The idea is to trace rays only from where the final flux needs to be known back to the source, rather than tracing in the forward direction from the source outward to see where the light goes. Once the reverse ray reaches the source, the radiance the equivalent forward ray would have represented is determined and the resulting flux computed. Although reverse ray tracing is conceptually simple, the method critically depends upon an accurate source model in both the near and far field. An overly simplified source model, such as an ideal Lambertian surface substantially detracts from the accuracy and thus benefit of the method. This paper will introduce an improved method of reverse ray tracing that we call Reverse Radiance that avoids assumptions about the source properties. The new method uses measured data from a Source Imaging Goniometer (SIG) that simultaneously measures near and far field luminous data. Incorporating this data into a fast reverse ray tracing integration method yields fast, accurate data for a wide variety of illumination problems.

  18. A Probabilistic Assessment of the Next Geomagnetic Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffett, Bruce; Davis, William

    2018-02-01

    Deterministic forecasts for the next geomagnetic reversal are not feasible due to large uncertainties in the present-day state of the Earth's core. A more practical approach relies on probabilistic assessments using paleomagnetic observations to characterize the amplitude of fluctuations in the geomagnetic dipole. We use paleomagnetic observations for the past 2 Myr to construct a stochastic model for the axial dipole field and apply well-established methods to evaluate the probability of the next geomagnetic reversal as a function of time. For a present-day axial dipole moment of 7.6 × 1022 A m2, the probability of the dipole entering a reversed state is less than 2% after 20 kyr. This probability rises to 11% after 50 kyr. An imminent geomagnetic reversal is not supported by paleomagnetic observations. The current rate of decline in the dipole moment is unusual but within the natural variability predicted by the stochastic model.

  19. The neural basis of reversal learning: An updated perspective

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Brigman, Jonathan L.; Radke, Anna K.; Rudebeck, Peter H.; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Reversal learning paradigms are among the most widely used tests of cognitive flexibility and have been used as assays, across species, for altered cognitive processes in a host of neuropsychiatric conditions. Based on recent studies in humans, non-human primates, and rodents, the notion that reversal learning tasks primarily measure response inhibition, has been revised. In this review, we describe how cognitive flexibility is measured by reversal learning and discuss new definitions of the construct validity of the task that are serving as an heuristic to guide future research in this field. We also provide an update on the available evidence implicating certain cortical and subcortical brain regions in the mediation of reversal learning, and an overview of the principle neurotransmitter systems involved. PMID:26979052

  20. Over-the-wing model thrust reverser noise tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodykoontz, J.; Gutierrez, O.

    1977-01-01

    Static acoustic tests were conducted on a 1/12 scale model over-the-wing target type thrust reverser. The model configuration simulates a design that is applicable to the over-the-wing short-haul advanced technology engine. Aerodynamic screening tests of a variety of reverser designs identified configurations that satisfied a reverse thrust requirement of 35 percent of forward thrust at a nozzle pressure ratio of 1.29. The variations in the reverser configuration included, blocker door angle, blocker door lip angle and shape, and side skirt shape. Acoustic data are presented and compared for the various configurations. The model data scaled to a single full size engine show that peak free field perceived noise (PN) levels at a 152.4 meter sideline distance range from 98 to 104 PNdb.

  1. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove; Pedersen, Alma B; Overgaard, Søren; Kärrholm, Johan; Garellick, Göran; Mäkelä, Keijo; Eskelinen, Antti; Nordsletten, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) has already published 2 papers describing results of reverse hybrid THAs in different age groups. Based on data collected over 2 additional years, we wanted to perform in depth analyses of not only the reverse hybrid concept but also of the different cup/stem combinations used. Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk of revision. The main endpoint was revision for any reason. We also performed specific analyses regarding the different reasons for revision and analyses regarding the cup/stem combinations used in more than 500 cases. Results - We found a higher rate of revision for reverse hybrids than for cemented THAs, with an adjusted relative risk of revision (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.5). At 10 years, the survival rate was 94% (CI: 94-95) for cemented THAs and 92% (95% CI: 92-93) for reverse hybrids. The results for the reverse hybrid THAs were inferior to those for cemented THAs in patients aged 55 years or more (RR =1.1, CI: 1.0-1.3; p < 0.05). We found a higher rate of early revision due to periprosthetic femoral fracture for reverse hybrids than for cemented THAs in patients aged 55 years or more (RR =3.1, CI: 2.2-4.5; p < 0.001). Interpretation - Reverse hybrid THAs had a slightly higher rate of revision than cemented THAs in patients aged 55 or more. The difference in survival was mainly caused by a higher incidence of early revision due to periprosthetic femoral fracture in

  2. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Technical progress report, April--June 1992 and Project status report, June 1992

    SciT

    Not Available

    1992-07-17

    A field demonstration/study of a novel shoreline erosion protection device called beach cones is planned. These patented, fiberglass- reinforced concreted devices are to be deployed in a number of geometric patterns at seven location in the Bastian Bay area of Western Plaquemines Parish. The purpose of the work described in this report was to evaluate the proposed study`s impact on living and non-living shellfish resources within each of the project`s seven separate Study Areas. Major accomplishments for this reporting period were as follows: aerial photographs of the experimental sites were taken; all permit applications were filed; information was submitted formore » the Environmental Report; several reconnaissance trips to the experimental sites were made; meetings were held among all participating organizations to further plan the research; permit was obtained from the US Army Corps of Engineers; test sites were surveyed by the Xavier University contingent; survey data were taken at all sites; the Oyster Assessment was completed; permit was obtained from the State of Louisiana Department of Natural Resources; and initial survey data were finalized at all sites.« less

  3. Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (L<2). Hodograms of the electric field in the plane transverse to the magnetic field showed that the transmitter waves underwent periodic polarization reversals. Specifically, their polarization would cycle through a pattern of right-hand to linear to left-hand polarization at a rate of roughly 200 Hz. The lightning whistlers were observed to be left-hand polarized at frequencies greater than the lower hybrid frequency and less than the transmitter frequency (21.4 kHz) and right-hand polarized otherwise. Only righthand polarized waves in the inner radiation belt should exist in the frequency range of the whistler mode and these reversals were not explained in the previous paper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.

  4. Reversal of Thermoelectric Current in Tubular Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlingsson, Sigurdur I.; Manolescu, Andrei; Nemnes, George Alexandru; Bardarson, Jens H.; Sanchez, David

    2017-07-01

    We calculate the charge current generated by a temperature bias between the two ends of a tubular nanowire. We show that in the presence of a transversal magnetic field the current can change sign; i.e., electrons can either flow from the hot to the cold reservoir, or in the opposite direction, when the temperature bias increases. This behavior occurs when the magnetic field is sufficiently strong, such that Landau and snaking states are created, and the energy dispersion is nonmonotonic with respect to the longitudinal wave vector. The sign reversal can survive in the presence of impurities. We predict this result for core-shell nanowires, for uniform nanowires with surface states due to the Fermi level pinning, and for topological insulator nanowires.

  5. Ultrafast magnetization reversal by picosecond electrical pulses

    SciT

    Yang, Yang; Wilson, Richard B.; Gorchon, Jon

    The field of spintronics involves the study of both spin and charge transport in solid-state devices. Ultrafast magnetism involves the use of femtosecond laser pulses to manipulate magnetic order on subpicosecond time scales. Here, we unite these phenomena by using picosecond charge current pulses to rapidly excite conduction electrons in magnetic metals. We observe deterministic, repeatable ultrafast reversal of the magnetization of a GdFeCo thin film with a single sub–10-ps electrical pulse. The magnetization reverses in ~10 ps, which is more than one order of magnitude faster than any other electrically controlled magnetic switching, and demonstrates a fundamentally new electricalmore » switching mechanism that does not require spin-polarized currents or spin-transfer/orbit torques. The energy density required for switching is low, projecting to only 4 fJ needed to switch a (20 nm) 3 cell. This discovery introduces a new field of research into ultrafast charge current–driven spintronic phenomena and devices.« less

  6. Ultrafast magnetization reversal by picosecond electrical pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yang; Wilson, Richard B.; Gorchon, Jon; ...

    2017-11-03

    The field of spintronics involves the study of both spin and charge transport in solid-state devices. Ultrafast magnetism involves the use of femtosecond laser pulses to manipulate magnetic order on subpicosecond time scales. Here, we unite these phenomena by using picosecond charge current pulses to rapidly excite conduction electrons in magnetic metals. We observe deterministic, repeatable ultrafast reversal of the magnetization of a GdFeCo thin film with a single sub–10-ps electrical pulse. The magnetization reverses in ~10 ps, which is more than one order of magnitude faster than any other electrically controlled magnetic switching, and demonstrates a fundamentally new electricalmore » switching mechanism that does not require spin-polarized currents or spin-transfer/orbit torques. The energy density required for switching is low, projecting to only 4 fJ needed to switch a (20 nm) 3 cell. This discovery introduces a new field of research into ultrafast charge current–driven spintronic phenomena and devices.« less

  7. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Abhishek P; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42–60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%–6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery. PMID:26975488

  8. Asymmetric Cherenkov acoustic reverse in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2014-09-01

    A general phenomenon of the Cherenkov radiation known in optics or acoustics of conventional materials is a formation of a forward cone of, respectively, photons or phonons emitted by a particle accelerated above the speed of light or sound in those materials. Here we suggest three-dimensional topological insulators as a unique platform to fundamentally explore and practically exploit the acoustic aspect of the Cherenkov effect. We demonstrate that by applying an in-plane magnetic field to a surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator one may suppress the forward Cherenkov sound up to zero at a critical magnetic field. Above the critical field the Cherenkov sound acquires pure backward nature with the polar distribution differing from the forward one generated below the critical field. Potential applications of this asymmetric Cherenkov reverse are in the design of low energy electronic devices such as acoustic ratchets or, in general, in low power design of electronic circuits with a magnetic field control of the direction and magnitude of the Cherenkov dissipation.

  9. Research on the influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint under sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    With the concerns of ecological and circular economy along with sustainable development, reverse logistics has attracted the attention of enterprise. How to achieve sustainable development of reverse logistics has important practical significance of enhancing low carbon competitiveness. In this paper, the system boundary of reverse logistics carbon footprint is presented. Following the measurement of reverse logistics carbon footprint and reverse logistics carbon capacity is provided. The influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint are classified into five parts such as intensity of reverse logistics, energy structure, energy efficiency, reverse logistics output, and product remanufacturing rate. The quantitative research methodology using ADF test, Johansen co-integration test, and impulse response is utilized to interpret the relationship between reverse logistics carbon footprint and the influencing factors more accurately. This research finds that energy efficiency, energy structure, and product remanufacturing rate are more capable of inhibiting reverse logistics carbon footprint. The statistical approaches will help practitioners in this field to structure their reverse logistics activities and also help academics in developing better decision models to reduce reverse logistics carbon footprint.

  10. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    PubMed

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  11. Reverse Transfection Using Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Eiichiro; Miyake, Masato; Miyake, Jun

    Reverse transfection from a solid surface has the potential to deliver genes into various types of cell and tissue more effectively than conventional methods of transfection. We present a method for reverse transfection using a gold colloid (GC) as a nanoscaffold by generating nanoclusters of the DNA/reagentcomplex on a glass surface, which could then be used for the regulation of the particle size of the complex and delivery of DNA into nuclei. With this method, we have found that the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (20 nm in particle size) to the pEGFP-N1/Jet-PEI complex resulted in an increase in the intensity of fluorescence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (based on the efficiency of transfection) from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), as compared with the control without GC. In this manner, we constructed a method for reverse transfection using GC to deliver genes into the cells effectively.

  12. The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, K Mandal; Partha, P Chakraborty

    2008-09-01

    The posterior/potentially reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a unique syndrome encountered commonly in hypertensive encephalopathy. A 13-year-old boy presented with of intermittent high grade fever, throbbing headache and non-projective vomiting for 5 days. The patient had a blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg but fundoscopy documented grade 3 hypertensive retinopathy. The patient improved symptomatically following conservative management. However, on the 5(th) post-admission day headache reappeared, and blood pressure measured at that time was 240/120 mmHg. Neuroimaging suggested white matter abnormalities. Search for the etiology of secondary hypertension led to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Repeated MRI after successful surgical excision of the tumor patient showed reversal of white matter abnormalities. Reversible leucoencephalopathy due to pheochromocytoma have not been documented in literature previously.

  13. The Discovery of Reverse Transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Coffin, John M; Fan, Hung

    2016-09-29

    In 1970 the independent and simultaneous discovery of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses (then RNA tumor viruses) by David Baltimore and Howard Temin revolutionized molecular biology and laid the foundations for retrovirology and cancer biology. In this historical review we describe the formulation of the controversial provirus hypothesis by Temin, which ultimately was proven by his discovery of reverse transcriptase in Rous sarcoma virus virions. Baltimore arrived at the same discovery through his studies on replication of RNA-containing viruses, starting with poliovirus and then moving to vesicular stomatitis virus, where he discovered a virion RNA polymerase. Subsequent studies of reverse transcriptase led to the elucidation of the mechanism of retrovirus replication, the discovery of oncogenes, the advent of molecular cloning, the search for human cancer viruses, and the discovery and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

  14. Time-reversed, flow-reversed ballistics simulations

    SciT

    Zernow, L.; Chapyak, E. J.; Scheffler, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of planar sheet jet formation are studied to examine the hydrodynamic issues involved when simulations are carried out in the inverse direction, that is, with reversed time and flow. Both a realistic copper equation of state and a shockless equation of state were used. These studies are an initial step in evaluating this technique as a ballistics design tool.

  15. Stagnation point reverse flow combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Ben T. (Inventor); Neumeier, Yedidia (Inventor); Seitzman, Jerry M. (Inventor); Jagoda, Jechiel (Inventor); Weksler, Yoav (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for combusting a combustible fuel includes providing a vessel having an opening near a proximate end and a closed distal end defining a combustion chamber. A combustible reactants mixture is presented into the combustion chamber. The combustible reactants mixture is ignited creating a flame and combustion products. The closed end of the combustion chamber is utilized for directing combustion products toward the opening of the combustion chamber creating a reverse flow of combustion products within the combustion chamber. The reverse flow of combustion products is intermixed with combustible reactants mixture to maintain the flame.

  16. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems. PMID:27338448

  17. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-06-22

    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  18. Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics are being studied as part of a TRW program directed towards development of a high current battery cell bypass switch. The following are discussed: cell bypass switch; nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics; and nickel-hydrogen cell chemistry: discharge/reversal and overdischarge (reversal) with nickel and hydrogen precharge.

  19. Ecological Impacts of Reverse Speciation in Threespine Stickleback.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Seth M; Schluter, Dolph

    2016-02-22

    Young species are highly prone to extinction via increased gene flow after human-caused environmental changes. This mechanism of biodiversity loss, often termed reverse speciation or introgressive extinction, is of exceptional interest because the parent species are typically highly differentiated ecologically. Reverse speciation events are potentially powerful case studies for the role of evolution in driving ecological changes, as the phenotypic shifts associated with introgressive extinction can be large and they occur over particularly short timescales. Furthermore, reverse speciation can lead to novel phenotypes, which may in turn produce novel ecological effects. Here we investigate the ecological shift associated with reverse speciation in threespine stickleback fish using a field study and a replicated experiment. We find that an instance of introgressive extinction had cascading ecological consequences that altered the abundance of both aquatic prey and the pupating aquatic insects that emerged into the terrestrial ecosystem. The community and ecosystem impacts of reverse speciation were novel, and yet they were also predictable based on ecological and morphological considerations. The study suggests that knowledge about the community ecology and changes in functional morphology of a dominant species may lead to some predictive power for the ecological effects of evolutionary change. Moreover, the rapid nature and resultant ecological impacts associated with reverse speciation demonstrates the interplay between biodiversity, evolutionary change, and ecosystem function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetization reversal dynamics in Co nanowires with competing magnetic anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Semanti; Saha, Susmita; Polley, Debanjan; Barman, Anjan

    2011-12-01

    We present the magnetization reversal dynamics of Co nanowires with competing magnetic anisotropies. The aspect ratio ( R) of the nanowires is varied between 2.5 and 60, and we observe a cross-over of the directions of the magnetic easy and hard axes at R=6.8. Micromagnetic simulations qualitatively reproduce the observed cross-over and give detailed insight into the reversal mechanisms associated with the cross-over. The reversal mechanism for a field applied along the long axis of the nanowire exhibits a quasi-coherent rotation mode and a corkscrew-like mode, respectively, above and below the cross-over, with the formation of a Bloch domain near the cross-over region. For a field applied along the short axis, the reversal occurs by nucleation and propagation of reversed domains from the two ends of the nanowires for very high values of the aspect ratio down to the cross-over region, but it transforms into quasi-coherent rotation mode for smaller aspect ratios (below the cross-over region).

  1. Reversible thermosalience of 4-aminobenzonitrile.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Lukman O; van Heerden, Dewald P; Lama, Prem; Smith, Vincent J; Barbour, Leonard J

    2018-05-31

    Crystals of 4-aminobenzonitrile grown by sublimation undergo reversible thermosalient phase changes during cooling and subsequent heating. Single-crystal diffraction studies have been carried out at 20 K intervals during cooling from 300 to 100 K in order to explain the structural change that occurs.

  2. CAPSULE REPORT: REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...

  3. Dynamic origin of segment magnetization reversal in thin-film Penrose tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L.; Farmer, B.; De Long, L.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the low-frequency spin wave dynamics involved in the magnetization reversal of a Penrose P2 tiling using the dynamical matrix method. This system consists of a two-dimensional, connected wire network of elongated thin-film segments, whose complete reversal occurs as a cascade of successive local segment reversals. Using soft mode theory, we interpret the reversal of an individual segment as a first order magnetic transition, in which magnetization curve of the system suffers a small discontinuity. Near this discontinuity a specific mode of the spin wave spectrum goes soft (i.e., its frequency goes to zero), triggering a local instability of the magnetization. We show that this mode is localized, and is at the origin of the local reversal. We discuss the correlation of the mode spatial profile with the ;reversal mechanism;, which is the passage of a domain wall through the segment. This process differs from reversal in periodic square or honeycomb artificial spin ices, where a cascade of reversing segments (e.g., ;Dirac string;) follows an extended (though irregular) path across the sample; here the spatial distribution of successive segment reversals is discontinuous, but strictly associated with the area where a soft mode is localized. The migration of the localization area across the P2 tiling (during reversal in decreasing applied fields) depends on changes in the internal effective field map. We discuss these results in the context of spin wave localization due to the unique topology of the P2 tiling.

  4. Is perpendicular magnetic anisotropy essential to all-optical ultrafast spin reversal in ferromagnets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. P.; Bai, Y. H.; George, Thomas F.

    2017-10-01

    All-optical spin reversal presents a new opportunity for spin manipulations, free of a magnetic field. Most of all-optical-spin-reversal ferromagnets are found to have a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), but it has been unknown whether PMA is necessary for spin reversal. Here we theoretically investigate magnetic thin films with either PMA or in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA). Our results show that spin reversal in IMA systems is possible, but only with a longer laser pulse and within a narrow laser parameter region. Spin reversal does not show a strong helicity dependence where the left- and right-circularly polarized light lead to the identical results. By contrast, the spin reversal in PMA systems is robust, provided both the spin angular momentum and laser field are strong enough while the magnetic anisotropy itself is not too strong. This explains why experimentally the majority of all-optical spin-reversal samples are found to have strong PMA and why spins in Fe nanoparticles only cant out of plane. It is the laser-induced spin-orbit torque that plays a key role in the spin reversal. Surprisingly, the same spin-orbit torque results in laser-induced spin rectification in spin-mixed configuration, a prediction that can be tested experimentally. Our results clearly point out that PMA is essential to spin reversal, though there is an opportunity for in-plane spin reversal.

  5. Development of a robust reverse tone pattern transfer process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; Doyle, Gary; Resnick, Douglas J.; Ye, Zhengmao; LaBrake, Dwayne; Milligan, Brennan; Alokozai, Fred; Chen, Jerry

    2017-03-01

    Pattern transfer is critical to any lithographic technology, and plays a significant role in defining the critical features in a device layer. As both the memory and logic roadmaps continue to advance, greater importance is placed on the scheme used to do the etching. For many critical layers, a need has developed which requires a multilayer stack to be defined in order to perform the pattern transfer. There are many cases however, where this standard approach does not provide the best results in terms of critical dimension (CD) fidelity and CD uniformity. As an example, when defining a contact pattern, it may be advantageous to apply a bright field mask (in order to maximize the normalized inverse log slope (NILS)) over the more conventional dark field mask. The result of applying the bright field mask in combination with positive imaging resist is to define an array of pillar patterns, which then must be converted back to holes before etching the underlying dielectric material. There have been several publications on tone reversal that is introduced in the resist process itself, but often an etch transfer process is applied to reverse the pattern tone. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of a three layer reverse tone process (RTP) that is capable of reversing the tone of every printed feature type. The process utilizes a resist pattern, a hardmask layer and an additional protection layer. The three layer approach overcomes issues encountered when using a single masking layer. Successful tone reversal was demonstrated both on 300mm wafers and imprint masks, including the largest features in the pattern, with dimensions as great as 60 microns. Initial in-field CD uniformity is promising. CDs shifted by about 2.6nm and no change was observed in either LER or LWR. Follow-up work is required to statistically qualify in-field CDU and also understand both across wafer uniformity and feature linearity.

  6. Reverse amblyopia with atropine treatment.

    PubMed

    Hainline, Bryan C; Sprunger, Derek C; Plager, David A; Neely, Daniel E; Guess, Matthew G

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion, pharmacologic pernalization and combined therapy have been documented in controlled studies to effectively treat amblyopia with few complications. However, there remain concerns about the effectiveness and complications when, as in this case, there are not standardized treatment protocols. A retrospective chart review of 133 consecutive patients in one community based ophthalmology practice treated for amblyopia was performed. Treatments evaluated were occlusion only, atropine penalization, and combination of occlusion and atropine. Reverse amblyopia was defined as having occured when the visual acuity of the sound eye was 3 LogMar units worse than visual acuity of the amblyopia eye after treatment. Improvement in vision after 6 months and 1 year of amblyopia therapy was similar among all three groups: 0.26 LogMar lines and 0.30 in the atropine group, 0.32 and 0.34 in the occlusion group, and 0.24 and 0.32 in the combined group. Eight (6%) patients demonstrated reverse amblyopia. The mean age of those who developed reverse amblyopia was 3.5 years, 1.5 years younger than the mean age of the study population, 7/8 had strabismic amblyopia, 6/8 were on daily atropine and had a mean refractive error of +4.77 diopters in the amblyopic eye and +5.06 diopters in the sound eye. Reverse amblyopia did not occur with occlusion only therapy. In this community based ophthalmology practice, atropine, patching, and combination therapy appear to be equally effective modalities to treat ambyopia. Highly hyperopic patients under 4 years of age with dense, strabismic amblyopia and on daily atropine appeared to be most at risk for development of reverse amblyopia.

  7. Topological-charge-driven reversal of ferromagnetic rings via 360∘ domain-wall formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarce, A. L. Gonzalez; Trypiniotis, T.; Roy, P. E.; Barnes, C. H. W.

    2013-05-01

    We study the reversal mechanism between opposite closed flux states of ferromagnetic nanorings driven by an azimuthal magnetic field. The reversal proceeds via the formation of 360∘ domain walls, and we show that the role of interacting nucleation sites is essential for the process to take place. Such nucleation is seen to create domain walls with the right topological charge conditions for 360∘ domain-wall formation. Given the symmetry of the system, we utilize an energetic description as a function of the azimuthal field magnitude, which clearly reveals the different stages of this reversal process. The annihilation of the 360∘ domain walls that is necessary for the reversal process to complete is controlling the field value at the final stage of the process. Such a fundamental mechanism for ring reversal has several implications and will guide the design of the various data-storage-device proposals based on nanorings.

  8. Magnetization reversal mechanism of magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cun-Ye; Li, Jian; Wang, Yue; Chen, Jian-Yong; Xu, Qing-Yu; Ni, Gang; Sang, Hai; Du, You-Wei

    2002-01-01

    Using the ion-beam-sputtering technique, we have fabricated Fe/Al2O3/Fe magnetic tunnelling junctions (MTJs). We have observed double-peaked shapes of curves, which have a level summit and a symmetrical feature, showing the magnetoresistance of the junction as a function of applied field. We have measured the tunnel conductance of MTJs which have insulating layers of different thicknesses. We have studied the dependence of the magnetoresistance of MTJs on tunnel conductance. The microstructures of hard- and soft-magnetic layers and interfaces of ferromagnets and insulators were probed. Analysing the influence of MJT microstructures, including those having clusters or/and granules in magnetic and non-magnetic films, a magnetization reversal mechanism (MRM) is proposed, which suggests that the MRM of tunnelling junctions may be explained by using a group-by-group reversal model of magnetic moments of the mesoscopical particles. We discuss the influence of MTJ microstructures, including those with clusters or/and granules in the ferromagnetic and non-magnetic films, on the MRM.

  9. Magnetic stripes and skyrmions with helicity reversals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuzhen; Mostovoy, Maxim; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Zhang, Weizhu; Kimoto, Koji; Matsui, Yoshio; Kaneko, Yoshio; Nagaosa, Naoto; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2012-06-05

    It was recently realized that topological spin textures do not merely have mathematical beauty but can also give rise to unique functionalities of magnetic materials. An example is the skyrmion--a nano-sized bundle of noncoplanar spins--that by virtue of its nontrivial topology acts as a flux of magnetic field on spin-polarized electrons. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy recently emerged as a powerful tool for direct visualization of skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric helimagnets. Topologically, skyrmions are equivalent to magnetic bubbles (cylindrical domains) in ferromagnetic thin films, which were extensively explored in the 1970s for data storage applications. In this study we use Lorentz microscopy to image magnetic domain patterns in the prototypical magnetic oxide-M-type hexaferrite with a hint of scandium. Surprisingly, we find that the magnetic bubbles and stripes in the hexaferrite have a much more complex structure than the skyrmions and spirals in helimagnets, which we associate with the new degree of freedom--helicity (or vector spin chirality) describing the direction of spin rotation across the domain walls. We observe numerous random reversals of helicity in the stripe domain state. Random helicity of cylindrical domain walls coexists with the positional order of magnetic bubbles in a triangular lattice. Most unexpectedly, we observe regular helicity reversals inside skyrmions with an unusual multiple-ring structure.

  10. Hybrid supercapacitors for reversible control of magnetism

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Alan; Leufke, Philipp M.; Reitz, Christian; Dasgupta, Subho; Witte, Ralf; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst

    2017-01-01

    Electric field tuning of magnetism is one of the most intensely pursued research topics of recent times aiming at the development of new-generation low-power spintronics and microelectronics. However, a reversible magnetoelectric effect with an on/off ratio suitable for easy and precise device operation is yet to be achieved. Here we propose a novel route to robustly tune magnetism via the charging/discharging processes of hybrid supercapacitors, which involve electrostatic (electric-double-layer capacitance) and electrochemical (pseudocapacitance) doping. We use both charging mechanisms—occurring at the La0.74Sr0.26MnO3/ionic liquid interface to control the balance between ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic phases of La1−xSrxMnO3 to an unprecedented extent. A magnetic modulation of up to ≈33% is reached above room temperature when applying an external potential of only about 2.0 V. Our case study intends to draw attention to new, reversible physico-chemical phenomena in the rather unexplored area of magnetoelectric supercapacitors. PMID:28489078

  11. Reversion phenomena of Cu-Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, S.; Nagata, K.; Kobayashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-Cr alloys which were given various aging and reversion treatments were investigated in terms of electrical resistivity and hardness. Transmission electron microscopy was one technique employed. Some results obtained are as follows: the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion at a constant temperature decreases as the aging temperature rises. In a constant aging condition, the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion increases, and the time required for a maximum reversion becomes shorter as the reversion temperature rises. The reversion phenomena can be repeated, but its amount decreases rapidly by repetition. At first, the amount of reversion increases with aging time and reaches its maximum, and then tends to decrease again. Hardness changes by the reversion are very small, but the hardness tends to soften slightly. Any changes in transmission electron micrographs by the reversion treatment cannot be detected.

  12. Low Vision Enhancement: The Use of Figure-Ground Reversals with Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Laurence R.

    1985-01-01

    The study employed the use of field reversals--printing white and yellow foregrounds on a black background--to decrease the amount of light reflected from printed materials to the eye with 18 visually impaired children (9-14 years old). The findings indicated that neither reversals in contrast nor chromaticity differences were effective measures…

  13. An activity index for geomagnetic paleosecular variation, excursions, and reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panovska, S.; Constable, C. G.

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic indices provide quantitative measures of space weather phenomena that are widely used by researchers in geomagnetism. We introduce an index focused on the internally generated field that can be used to evaluate long term variations or climatology of modern and paleomagnetic secular variation, including geomagnetic excursions, polarity reversals, and changes in reversal rate. The paleosecular variation index, Pi, represents instantaneous or average deviation from a geocentric axial dipole field using normalized ratios of virtual geomagnetic pole colatitude and virtual dipole moment. The activity level of the index, σPi, provides a measure of field stability through the temporal standard deviation of Pi. Pi can be calculated on a global grid from geomagnetic field models to reveal large scale geographic variations in field structure. It can be determined for individual time series, or averaged at local, regional, and global scales to detect long term changes in geomagnetic activity, identify excursions, and transitional field behavior. For recent field models, Pi ranges from less than 0.05 to 0.30. Conventional definitions for geomagnetic excursions are characterized by Pi exceeding 0.5. Strong field intensities are associated with low Pi unless they are accompanied by large deviations from axial dipole field directions. σPi provides a measure of geomagnetic stability that is modulated by the level of PSV or frequency of excursional activity and reversal rate. We demonstrate uses of Pi for paleomagnetic observations and field models and show how it could be used to assess whether numerical simulations of the geodynamo exhibit Earth-like properties.

  14. Translation Studies on an Annular Field Reversed Configuration Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    maturity, but have all shown that a plasmoid can be ejected with significant velocity. Most of the thrusters have 1 a unique drawback , however. In some [11...operation were not possible due to interaction of the ballistic pendulum with background gases, imperfect reflections, and other complications. Steady...energy efficiency. The drawback to larger inner coil diameters is that it increases the chance of wall contact with the plasma since finite thickness

  15. Time-Resolved Emission Spectroscopy of Field Reversed Configuration Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-31

    radiation Collection Optics to 600um fiber Source: Scharer Research Group Source: PEARL 1. Acquire Spectrum 2. Compare to Collisional‐Radiative Model ( CRM ...calibration (deuterium lamp) • Obtain Argon FRC data and use Collisional Radiative Model ( CRM ) to extract plasma properties • Apply knowledge to improve FRC

  16. Lower hybrid accessibility in a large, hot reversed field pinch

    SciT

    Dziubek, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that driving a current in the outer radius of an RPF suppresses sawtooth activity and increases particle and energy confinement times. One candidate for a form of steady state current drive is the slow wave at the lower hybrid frequency. Here, the accessibility of such a wave in an RFP plasma is investigated theoretically, with focus on the RFX machine of Padua, Italy. To drive current, the slow wave with frequency between 1.0--1.5 GHz is considered where optimal Landau damping is desired at r/a {approximately} 0.7. By numerically determining the values of the wave`smore » perpendicular index of refraction which satisfy the hot plasma dispersion relation, regions of propagation and evanescence can be found. The path of the wave can then be traced over a contour map of these regions so that accessibility can be clearly seen. The possibility of mode conversion events can be ascertained by plotting the values of the perpendicular index of refraction for the fast and slow wave and observing convergence points. To locate regions of maximum Landau damping, a technique developed by Stix was adapted for use with the slow wave in an RFP plasma. Results show that the slow wave is accessible to the target region without mode conversion so long as the value of the parallel index of refraction is correctly chosen at the edge of the plasma. Landau damping can also be optimized with this method. In an RFP, 2--20% of the electron population consists of fast electrons. Because this species alters the total electron distribution function and raises the effective temperature in the outer regions of the plasma, its presence is expected to shift the location of ideal Landau damping.« less

  17. International Field Reversible Thermal Connector (RevCon) Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Design ....................................................................... 80 Figure 74: Pulsating - heat - pipe Embedded Design Delivered by MissStateU...University MissStateU finally delivered a pulsating - heat - pipe thermal connector. However, the performance did not amaze the audiences. The size and...We also cannot observe any oscillating dynamics during heating . Figure 74: Pulsating - heat - pipe Embedded Design Delivered by MissStateU

  18. High Fidelity Modeling of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-22

    signatures which can be used for direct, non -invasive, comparison with experimental diagnostics can be produced. This research will be directly... experimental campaign is critical to developing general design philosophies for low-power plasmoid formation, the complexity of non -linear plasma processes...advanced space propulsion. The work consists of numerical method development, physical model development, and systematic studies of the non -linear

  19. Metastability of Reversible Random Walks in Potential Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landim, C.; Misturini, R.; Tsunoda, K.

    2015-09-01

    Let be an open and bounded subset of , and let be a twice continuously differentiable function. Denote by the discretization of , , and denote by the continuous-time, nearest-neighbor, random walk on which jumps from to at rate . We examine in this article the metastable behavior of among the wells of the potential F.

  20. High Fidelity Modeling of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    dispersion depends on the Riemann solver • Variables are allowed to be discontinuous at the cell interfaces Advantages - Method is conservative...release; distribution unlimited Discontinuous Galerkin (2) • Riemann problems are solved at each interface to compute fluxes • The source of dissipation