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Sample records for zucchini squash involves

  1. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan

    PubMed Central

    Lust, Teresa A.; Paris, Harry S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. Findings The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria. Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo. The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. PMID:27343231

  2. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan.

    PubMed

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S

    2016-07-01

    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  3. Incidence and behavior of Salmonella and Escherichia coli on whole and sliced zucchini squash (Cucurbitapepo) fruit.

    PubMed

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Santos López, Eva María; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos Alberto; González Ramírez, Cesar Abelardo; Villagomez-Ibarra, José Roberto; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto José; López, Angélica Villarruel; del Refugio Torres-Vitela, M

    2010-08-01

    The incidence of coliform bacteria (CB), thermotolerant coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, and Salmonella was determined for zucchini squash fruit. In addition, the behavior of four serotypes of Salmonella and a cocktail of three E. coli strains on whole and sliced zucchini squash at 25+/-2 degrees C and 3 to 5 degrees C was tested. Squash fruit was collected in the markets of Pachuca city, Hidalgo State, Mexico. CB, TC, E. coli, and Salmonella were detected in 100, 70, 62, and 10% of the produce, respectively. The concentration ranged from 3.8 to 7.4 log CFU per sample for CB, and >3 to 1,100 most probable number per sample for TC and E. coli. On whole fruit stored at 25+/-2 degrees C or 3 to 5 degrees C, no growth was observed for any of the tested microorganisms or cocktails thereof. After 15 days at 25+/-2 degrees C, the tested Salmonella serotypes had decreased from an initial inoculum level of 7 log CFU to <1 log, and at 3 to 5 degrees C they decreased to approximately 2 log. Survival of E. coli was significantly greater than for the Salmonella strains at the same times and temperatures; after 15 days, at 25+/-2 degrees C E. coli cocktail strains had decreased to 3.4 log CFU per fruit and at 3 to 5 degrees C they decreased to 3.6 log CFU per fruit. Both the Salmonella serotypes and E. coli strains grew when inoculated onto sliced squash: after 24 h at 25+/-2 degrees C, both bacteria had grown to approximately 6.5 log CFU per slice. At 3 to 5 degrees C, the bacterial growth was inhibited. The squash may be an important factor contributing to the endemicity of Salmonella in Mexico.

  4. Investigating differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of organic compounds between zucchini, squash and soybean using a pressure chamber method.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Naho; Doucette, William J; White, Jason C

    2015-07-01

    A pressure chamber method was used to examine differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of caffeine (log Kow=-0.07), triclocarban (log Kow=3.5-4.2) and endosulfan (log Kow=3.8-4.8) for zucchini (cucurbita pepo ssp pepo), squash (cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera), and soybean (glycine max L.). Transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) for caffeine (TSCF=0.8) were statistically equivalent for all plant species. However, for the more hydrophobic endosulfan and triclocarban, the TSCF values for zucchini (TSCF=0.6 and 0.4, respectively) were 3 and 10 times greater than the soybean and squash (TSCF=0.2 and 0.05, respectively). The difference in TSCF values was examined by comparing the measured solubilities of caffeine, endosulfan and triclocarban in deionized water to those in soybean and zucchini xylem saps using a modified shake flask method. The measured solubility of organic contaminants in xylem sap has not previously been reported. Caffeine solubilities in the xylem saps of soybean and zucchini were statistically equal to deionized water (21500mgL(-1)) while endosulfan and triclocarban solubilities in the zucchini xylem sap were significantly greater (0.43 and 0.21mgL(-1), respectively) than that of the soybean xylem sap (0.31 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively) and deionized water (0.34 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively). This suggests that the enhanced root to shoot transfer of hydrophobic organics reported for zucchini is partly due to increased solubility in the xylem sap. Further xylem sap characterization is needed to determine the mechanism of solubility enhancement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of Ascorbic Acid Oxidase in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, L S; Varner, J E

    1991-05-01

    The expression of ascorbic acid oxidase was studied in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), one of the most abundant natural sources of the enzyme. In the developing fruit, specific activity of ascorbic acid oxidase was highest between 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Protein and mRNA levels followed the same trend as enzyme activity. Highest growth rate of the fruit occurred before 6 days after anthesis. Within a given fruit, ascorbic acid oxidase activity and mRNA level were highest in the epidermis, and lowest in the central placental region. In leaf tissue, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the slow-growing region (near leaf apex). High expression of ascorbic acid oxidase at a stage when rapid growth is occurring (in both fruits and leaves), and localization of the enzyme in the fruit epidermis, where cells are under greatest tension during rapid growth in girth, suggest that ascorbic acid oxidase might be involved in reorganization of the cell wall to allow for expansion. Based on the known chemistry of dehydroascorbic acid, the end product of the ascorbic acid oxidase-catalyzed reaction, we have proposed several hypotheses to explain how dehydroascorbic acid might cause cell wall "loosening."

  6. Comparative spatial spread overtime of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon Mosaic Virus (WMV) in fields of transgenic squash expressing the coat protein genes of ZYMV and WMV, and in fields of nontransgenic squash.

    PubMed

    Klas, Ferdinand E; Fuchs, Marc; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns of aphid-vectored spread of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon Mosaic Virus (WMV) were monitored over two consecutive years in plantings of nontransgenic and transgenic squash ZW-20H (commercial cv. Freedom II) and ZW-20B, both expressing the coat protein genes of ZYMV and WMV. All test plants were surrounded by nontransgenic plants that were mechanically inoculated with ZYMV or WMV, and served as primary virus source. Across all trials, none of the transgenic plants exhibited systemic symptoms upon infection by ZYMV and WMV but a few of them developed localized chlorotic dots and/or blotches, and had low mixed infection rates [4% (6 of 139) of ZW-20H and 9% (13 of 139) of ZW-20B], as shown by ELISA. Geostatistical analysis of ELISA positive transgenic plants indicated, (i) a lack of spatial relationship on spread of ZYMV and WMV for ZW-20H with flat omnidirectional experimental semivariograms that fitted poorly theoretical models, and (ii) some extent of spatial dependence on ZYMV spread for ZW-20B with a well structured experimental semivariogram that fitted poorly theoretical models during the first but not the second growing season. In contrast, a strong spatial dependence on spread of ZYMV and WMV was found for nontransgenic plants, which developed severe systemic symptoms, had prevalent mixed infection rates (62%, 86 of 139), and well-defined omnidirectional experimental semivariograms that fitted a spherical model. Geostatistical data were sustained by virus transmission experiments with Myzus persicae in screenhouses, showing that commercial transgenic squash ZW-20H alter the dynamics of ZYMV and WMV epidemics by preventing secondary plant-to-plant spread.

  7. Engineering zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus as a non-pathogenic vector for expression of heterologous proteins in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Arazi, T; Slutsky, S G; Shiboleth, Y M; Wang, Y; Rubinstein, M; Barak, S; Yang, J; Gal-On, A

    2001-04-27

    Plant virus vectors provide an attractive biotechnological tool for the transient expression of foreign genes in whole plants. As yet there has been no use of recombinant viruses for the improvement of commercial crops. This is mainly because the viruses used to create vectors usually cause significant yield loss and can be transmitted in the field. A novel attenuated zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (AG) was used for the development of an environmentally safe non-pathogenic virus vector. The suitability of AG as an expression vector in plants was tested by analysis of two infectious viral constructs, each containing a distinct gene insertion site. Introduction of a foreign viral coat protein gene into AG genome between the P1 and HC-Pro genes, resulted in no expression in planta. In contrast, the same gene was stably expressed when inserted between NIb and CP genes, suggesting that this site is more suitable for a gene vector. Virus-mediated expression of reporter genes was observed in squash and cucumber leaves, stems, roots and edible fruit. Furthermore, AG stably expressed human interferon-alpha 2, an important human anti-viral drug, without affecting plant development and yield. Interferon biological activity was measured in cucumber and squash fruit. Together, these data corroborate a biotechnological utility of AG as a non-pathogenic vector for the expression of a foreign gene, as a benefit trait, in cucurbits and their edible fruit.

  8. Operational Audit Model for a Small Not-for-Profit Organization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    is projected to lose only il0. Presently, they grow kiwi fruit, raspberries, olallieberries, asparagus, banana squash, acorn squash and zucchini...California 93940 0. LT Johnnie Johnson III 2 Procurement Division NTaval Supply Center Oakland, California 94617 7. Henry Flowers 2 Seventh Day

  9. Without the Academic Part, It Wouldn't Be Squash": Youth Development in an Urban Squash Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine youth development outcomes in an Urban Squash program. Methods: A mixed method approach to was employed to address three research questions: 1) to what extent did the Urban Squash program exhibit features of a quality OST program?; 2) what aspects of the Urban Squash program were most valued by…

  10. Uptake of organochlorine pesticides by zucchini cultivars grown in polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, L; Pompi, V; Faraci, A; Conte, E

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this trial was to verify the occurrence and the distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in zucchini cultivated varieties grown in glasshouses and in open field with different levels of pollutants in soil. Residues of OCPs have been detected in soils and crops in the province of Latina, an intensively agricultural area of Lazio Region, in Italy. The study has been focused at crop harvest in less contaminated glasshouses and during crop life cycle in contaminated field in spring-summer time. Dieldrin distribution in different part of plant is similar among zucchini cultivars grown in contaminated field. In crop grown in field and in glasshouses with soil pollution >0.01 mg/kg, we found dieldrin in all zucchini fruits and flowers, at the same level or higher than the maximum residue limit (RML) fixed by European law for edible vegetables (0.02 mg/kg). Instead in soil with pollution < or = 0.01 mg/kg total OCPs it would be possible to grow zucchini cultivars.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Strain Kurdistan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Maghamnia, Hamid Reza; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Azizi, Abdolbaset

    2018-03-01

    The complete genome sequence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus strain Kurdistan (ZYMV-Kurdistan) infecting squash from Iran was determined from 13 overlapping fragments. Excluding the poly (A) tail, ZYMV-Kurdistan genome consisted of 9593 nucleotides (nt), with 138 and 211 nt at the 5' and 3' non-translated regions, respectively. It contained two open-reading frames (ORFs), the large ORF encoding a polyprotein of 3080 amino acids (aa) and the small overlapping ORF encoding a P3N-PIPO protein of 74 aa. This isolate had six unique aa differences compared to other ZYMV isolates and shared 79.6-98.8% identities with other ZYMV genome sequences at the nt level and 90.1-99% identities at the aa level. A phylogenetic tree of ZYMV complete genomic sequences showed that Iranian and Central European isolates are closely related and form a phylogenetically homogenous group. All values in the ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites ( d N / d S ) were below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ZYMV protein history. This is the first report of complete genome sequence information of the most prevalent virus in the west of Iran. This study helps our understanding of the genetic diversity of ZYMV isolates infecting cucurbit plants in Iran, virus evolution and epidemiology and can assist in designing better diagnostic tools.

  12. Stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kimura, Masashi; Ishihara, Hideki; Murata, Keiju

    2008-03-15

    The stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes is studied. The squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole looks like a five-dimensional black hole in the vicinity of horizon and looks like a four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime with a circle at infinity. In this sense, squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes can be regarded as black holes in the Kaluza-Klein spacetimes. Using the symmetry of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes, SU(2)xU(1){approx_equal}U(2), we obtain master equations for a part of the metric perturbations relevant to the stability. The analysis based on the master equations gives strong evidence for the stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes. Hence, the squashed Kaluza-Kleinmore » black holes deserve to be taken seriously as realistic black holes in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime.« less

  13. Conductance Oscillations in Squashed Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrez, H.; Anantram, M. P.; Svizhenko, A.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of molecular dynamics and electrical conductance calculations are used to probe the electromechanical properties of squashed metallic carbon nanotubes. We find that the conductance and bandgap of armchair nanotubes show oscillations upon squashing. The physical origin of these oscillations is attributed to interaction of carbon atoms with a fourth neighbor. Squashing of armchair and zigzag nanotubes ultimately leads to metallic behavior.

  14. Faithful Squashed Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Christandl, Matthias; Yard, Jon

    2011-09-01

    Squashed entanglement is a measure for the entanglement of bipartite quantum states. In this paper we present a lower bound for squashed entanglement in terms of a distance to the set of separable states. This implies that squashed entanglement is faithful, that is, it is strictly positive if and only if the state is entangled. We derive the lower bound on squashed entanglement from a lower bound on the quantum conditional mutual information which is used to define squashed entanglement. The quantum conditional mutual information corresponds to the amount by which strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy fails to be saturated. Our result therefore sheds light on the structure of states that almost satisfy strong subadditivity with equality. The proof is based on two recent results from quantum information theory: the operational interpretation of the quantum mutual information as the optimal rate for state redistribution and the interpretation of the regularised relative entropy of entanglement as an error exponent in hypothesis testing. The distance to the set of separable states is measured in terms of the LOCC norm, an operationally motivated norm giving the optimal probability of distinguishing two bipartite quantum states, each shared by two parties, using any protocol formed by local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) between the parties. A similar result for the Frobenius or Euclidean norm follows as an immediate consequence. The result has two applications in complexity theory. The first application is a quasipolynomial-time algorithm solving the weak membership problem for the set of separable states in LOCC or Euclidean norm. The second application concerns quantum Merlin-Arthur games. Here we show that multiple provers are not more powerful than a single prover when the verifier is restricted to LOCC operations thereby providing a new characterisation of the complexity class QMA.

  15. Faba Greens, Globe Artichoke's Offshoots, Crenate Broomrape and Summer Squash Greens: Unconventional Vegetables of Puglia (Southern Italy) With Good Quality Traits.

    PubMed

    Renna, Massimiliano; Signore, Angelo; Paradiso, Vito M; Santamaria, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Globe artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. [L.] scolymus Hayek), summer squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.) and faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) are widely cultivated for their immature inflorescences, fruits and seeds, respectively. Nevertheless, in some areas of Puglia (Southern Italy), other organs of these species are traditionally used as vegetables, instead of being considered as by-products. Offshoots (so-called cardoni or carducci ) of globe artichoke, produced during the vegetative growing cycle and removed by common cultural procedures, are used like to the cultivated cardoons ( C. cardunculus L. var. altilis DC). The stems, petioles, flowers and smaller leaves of summer squash are used as greens (so-called cime di zucchini ), like other leafy vegetables such as chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) and Swiss chard ( Beta vulgaris L.). Also the plant apex of faba bean, about 5-10 cm long, obtained from the green pruning, are used as greens (so-called cime di fava ) like spinach leaves. Moreover, crenate broomrape ( Orobanche crenata Forssk.), a root parasite plant that produces devastating effects on many crops (mostly legumes), is used like asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) to prepare several traditional dishes. In this study ethnobotanical surveys and quality assessment of these unconventional vegetables were performed. For their content of fiber, offshoots of globe artichokes can be considered a useful food to bowel. Summer squash greens could be recommended as a vegetable to use especially in the case of hypoglycemic diets considering both content and composition of their carbohydrates. For their low content of nitrate, faba greens could be recommended as a substitute of nitrate-rich leafy vegetables. Crenate broomrape shows a high antioxidant activity and may be considered as a very nutritious agri-food product. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that offshoots of globe artichoke, summer squash greens, faba greens and crenate broomrape have good

  16. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of GTP binding and hydrolysis in plasma membranes of zucchini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. O.; Lomax, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that G-protein-like entities may be present in the plasma membrane (PM) of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyls by examining a number of criteria common to animal and yeast G-proteins. The GTP binding and hydrolysis characteristics of purified zucchini PM are similar to the characteristics of a number of known G-proteins. Our results demonstrate GTP binding to a single PM site having a Kd value between 16-31 nM. This binding has a high specificity for guanine nucleotides, and is stimulated by Mg2+, detergents, and fluoride or aluminium ions. The GTPase activity (Km = 0.49 micromole) of zucchini PM shows a sensitivity to NaF similar to that seen for other G-proteins. Localization of GTP mu 35S binding to nitrocellulose blots of proteins separated by SDS-PAGE indicates a 30-kDa protein as the predominant GTP-binding species in zucchini PM. Taken together, these data indicate that plant PM contains proteins which are biochemically similar to previously characterized G-proteins.

  18. Characterization of GTP binding and hydrolysis in plasma membranes of zucchini.

    PubMed

    Perdue, D O; Lomax, T L

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that G-protein-like entities may be present in the plasma membrane (PM) of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyls by examining a number of criteria common to animal and yeast G-proteins. The GTP binding and hydrolysis characteristics of purified zucchini PM are similar to the characteristics of a number of known G-proteins. Our results demonstrate GTP binding to a single PM site having a Kd value between 16-31 nM. This binding has a high specificity for guanine nucleotides, and is stimulated by Mg2+, detergents, and fluoride or aluminium ions. The GTPase activity (Km = 0.49 micromole) of zucchini PM shows a sensitivity to NaF similar to that seen for other G-proteins. Localization of GTP mu 35S binding to nitrocellulose blots of proteins separated by SDS-PAGE indicates a 30-kDa protein as the predominant GTP-binding species in zucchini PM. Taken together, these data indicate that plant PM contains proteins which are biochemically similar to previously characterized G-proteins.

  19. Faba Greens, Globe Artichoke’s Offshoots, Crenate Broomrape and Summer Squash Greens: Unconventional Vegetables of Puglia (Southern Italy) With Good Quality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Renna, Massimiliano; Signore, Angelo; Paradiso, Vito M.; Santamaria, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. [L.] scolymus Hayek), summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) are widely cultivated for their immature inflorescences, fruits and seeds, respectively. Nevertheless, in some areas of Puglia (Southern Italy), other organs of these species are traditionally used as vegetables, instead of being considered as by-products. Offshoots (so-called cardoni or carducci) of globe artichoke, produced during the vegetative growing cycle and removed by common cultural procedures, are used like to the cultivated cardoons (C. cardunculus L. var. altilis DC). The stems, petioles, flowers and smaller leaves of summer squash are used as greens (so-called cime di zucchini), like other leafy vegetables such as chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.). Also the plant apex of faba bean, about 5–10 cm long, obtained from the green pruning, are used as greens (so-called cime di fava) like spinach leaves. Moreover, crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forssk.), a root parasite plant that produces devastating effects on many crops (mostly legumes), is used like asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) to prepare several traditional dishes. In this study ethnobotanical surveys and quality assessment of these unconventional vegetables were performed. For their content of fiber, offshoots of globe artichokes can be considered a useful food to bowel. Summer squash greens could be recommended as a vegetable to use especially in the case of hypoglycemic diets considering both content and composition of their carbohydrates. For their low content of nitrate, faba greens could be recommended as a substitute of nitrate-rich leafy vegetables. Crenate broomrape shows a high antioxidant activity and may be considered as a very nutritious agri-food product. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that offshoots of globe artichoke, summer squash greens, faba greens and crenate broomrape have good potential

  20. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    PubMed

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  1. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  2. Energy Requirements of Squash and Racquetball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montpetit, Richard R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and heart rate were monitored in 32 male adults playing racquetball and squash. Results indicated that energy expenditure in racquetball was only slightly less than for squash, suggesting that either sport is appropriate for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. (Author/CB)

  3. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber. PMID:25861120

  4. Evaluation of different pulverisation methods for RNA extraction in squash fruit: lyophilisation, cryogenic mill and mortar grinding.

    PubMed

    Román, Belén; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Peña, Francisco; Nadal, Salvador; Gómez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Quality and integrity of RNA are critical for transcription studies in plant molecular biology. In squash fruit and other high water content crops, the grinding of tissue with mortar and pestle in liquid nitrogen fails to produce a homogeneous and fine powered sample desirable to ensure a good penetration of the extraction reagent. To develop an improved pulverisation method to facilitate the homogenisation process of squash fruit tissue prior to RNA extraction without reducing quality and yield of the extracted RNA. Three methods of pulverisation, each followed by the same extraction protocol, were compared. The first approach consisted of the lyophilisation of the sample in order to remove the excess of water before grinding, the second one used a cryogenic mill and the control one a mortar grinding of frozen tissue. The quality of the isolated RNA was tested by carrying out a quantitative real time downstream amplification. In the three situations considered, mean values for A(260) /A(280) indicated minimal interference by proteins and RNA quality indicator (RQI) values were considered appropriate for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification. Successful qRT-PCR amplifications were obtained with cDNA isolated with the three protocols. Both apparatus can improve and facilitate the grinding step in the RNA extraction process in zucchini, resulting in isolated RNA of high quality and integrity as revealed by qRT-PCR downstream application. This is apparently the first time that a cryogenic mill has been used to prepare fruit samples for RNA extraction, thereby improving the sampling strategy because the fine powder obtained represents a homogeneous mix of the organ tissue. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  6. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  7. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  8. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  9. Unprotected eyes in squash: not seeing the risk of injury.

    PubMed

    Eime, R; McCarty, C; Finch, C F; Owen, N

    2005-03-01

    The use of appropriate eyewear in squash can protect the eyes against injury. However, few adult squash players adequately protect their eyes against potential severe injuries. We describe the characteristics of non-users of protective eyewear and examine predictors of appropriate eyewear use. Self-report surveys of adult players were conducted in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Information on players' knowledge, behaviours and attitudes associated with protective eyewear use was collected, in addition to player demographic data. Appropriate eyewear was defined as Standards-approved polycarbonate lens eyewear. The majority 92.2% of players did not adequately protect their eyes while playing squash. Significant predictors of reported eyewear use were: previous eye injury: playing squash on average more than 2 hr per wk: having played for more than 20 y; and having more favourable attitudes towards eye safety in squash. The significant predictors of appropriate eyewear use were: being female; previous eye injury; playing squash on average more than 2 hr per week; and having more favourable attitudes towards eye safety in squash. Understanding the characteristics of both users and non-users of appropriate eye protection in squash is essential for informing future prevention strategies.

  10. Are squash players protecting their eyes?

    PubMed

    Eime, R M; Finch, C F; Sherman, C A; Garnham, A P

    2002-09-01

    To determine factors associated with adult squash players' protective eyewear behaviours. A survey of 303 players (aged >or =18 years) was conducted at three squash venues in Melbourne, Australia over a three week period in June 2000 to obtain information about protective eyewear use. Of 303 participants the response rate was 98.1%; 66.1% were males, with a mean age of 40.5 years. The majority (68.4%) had played squash for 10 years or more. Although 18.8% of players reported using protective eyewear, only 8.9% reported wearing approved eyewear. Both age group (p<0.05) and years of squash experience (p<0.01) were significantly associated with any eyewear use. The two main influences were personal experience of eye injuries (50.0%) and knowledge of eye injury risk (33.9%). A commonly reported barrier was restriction of vision (34.2%). These findings demonstrate a low prevalence of voluntary use of appropriate protective eyewear. Future prevention strategies incorporating education campaigns should focus on increasing players' knowledge of risks. The barriers to use and misconceptions about which types of eyewear is most protective need to be addressed as a priority.

  11. What do adult squash players think about protective eyewear?

    PubMed Central

    Finch, C.; Vear, P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the attitudes of adult squash players towards protective eyewear. METHODS: A survey of 197 competition and social squash players from seven squash centres in the outer eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia was conducted in September to October 1995. Information about participation in squash, previous injuries, use of protective eyewear, barriers towards eyewear use, and attitudes towards protective eyewear was obtained by a self report questionnaire. RESULTS: Squash is a popular sport in Australia. Of the players surveyed, 6% played in junior competitions, 67% in senior competitions, and 27% were social players. Most had been playing for more than ten years. Some 15% of players had previously suffered an eye injury, most commonly caused by a racquet. Less than 10% of players reported that they wore protective eyewear when they played squash, and 35% of these wore prescriptive lenses which they considered to be protective. The major reason for not wearing protective eyewear was the perception that it was unnecessary. Poor vision and a lack of comfort were also stated as reasons by a significant number of players. More than half (57%) of the respondents agreed that more players should wear protective eyewear, yet only 16% thought it should be compulsory for all players. There was considerable support for protective eyewear use by junior players, however. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of protective eyewear use is low among competition and social squash players in Melbourne. The major areas that need to be addressed are the ignorance of the need for protective eyewear among social and experienced players and the mistaken belief that prescription lenses provide adequate protection on a squash court. 


 PMID:9631225

  12. Handicapping in Squash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagaman, John; Fletcher, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This article considers how a handicapping system should be devised for squash. It looks at the American scoring system, and whether it is possible to have a fair system of handicapping. We consider "fair" from a perspective of expected number of rallies won and probability of winning.

  13. The structural biochemistry of Zucchini implicates it as a nuclease in piRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ipsaro, Jonathan J.; Haase, Astrid D.; Knott, Simon R.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    PIWI-family proteins and their associated small RNAs (piRNAs) act in an evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanism that provides an essential protection for germ cell genomes against the activity of mobile genetic elements1. piRNA populations comprise a molecular definition of transposons that permits them to be distinguished from host genes and selectively silenced. piRNAs can be generated in two distinct ways. Primary piRNAs emanate from discrete genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters, and appear to be derived from long, single-stranded precursors2. The biogenesis of primary piRNAs involves at least two nucleolytic steps. An unknown enzyme cleaves piRNA cluster transcripts to generate monophosphorylated piRNA 5' ends. piRNA 3' ends are likely formed by exonucleolytic trimming, after a piRNA precursor is loaded into its PIWI partner1,3. Secondary piRNAs arise during the adaptive ping-pong cycle, with their 5' termini being formed by the activity of PIWIs themselves2,4. A number of proteins have been implicated genetically in primary piRNA biogenesis. One of these, Zucchini, is a member of the phospholipase D family of phosphodiesterases, which includes both phospholipases and nucleases5–7. We have produced a dimeric, soluble fragment of the mouse Zucchini homolog (mZuc/PLD6) and have shown that it possesses single strand-specific nuclease activity. A crystal structure of mZuc at 1.75 Å resolution indicates greater architectural similarity to PLD-family nucleases than to phospholipases. Considered together, our data suggest that the Zucchini proteins act in primary piRNA biogenesis as nucleases, perhaps generating the 5' ends of primary piRNAs. PMID:23064227

  14. 40 CFR 180.1279 - Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1279 Section 180.1279 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1279 Zucchini yellow mosaic virus—weak...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1279 - Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1279 Section 180.1279 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1279 Zucchini yellow mosaic virus—weak...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1279 - Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1279 Section 180.1279 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1279 Zucchini yellow mosaic virus—weak...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1279 - Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1279 Section 180.1279 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1279 Zucchini yellow mosaic virus—weak...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1279 - Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1279 Section 180.1279 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1279 Zucchini yellow mosaic virus—weak...

  19. Evolution of perturbations of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: Escape from instability

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ishihara, Hideki; Kimura, Masashi; Konoplya, Roman A.

    2008-04-15

    The squashed Kaluza-Klien (KK) black holes differ from the Schwarzschild black holes with asymptotic flatness or the black strings even at energies for which the KK modes are not excited yet, so that squashed KK black holes open a window in higher dimensions. Another important feature is that the squashed KK black holes are apparently stable and, thereby, let us avoid the Gregory-Laflamme instability. In the present paper, the evolution of scalar and gravitational perturbations in time and frequency domains is considered for these squashed KK black holes. The scalar field perturbations are analyzed for general rotating squashed KK blackmore » holes. Gravitational perturbations for the so-called zero mode are shown to be decayed for nonrotating black holes, in concordance with the stability of the squashed KK black holes. The correlation of quasinormal frequencies with the size of extra dimension is discussed.« less

  20. Physiological profiles and sport specific fitness of Asian elite squash players.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, M K; Steininger, K; So, R C; Clark, C R; Wong, A S

    1995-01-01

    There is a scarcity of descriptive data on the physiological characteristics of elite Asian squash players. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological profile and sports specific fitness of Hong Kong elite squash players. It was conducted before the selection of the Hong Kong national squash team for the 1992 Asian Squash Championship. Ten elite squash players were selected as subjects for the study. Maximum oxygen uptake was measured using a continuous treadmill running test. A sports specific field test was performed in a squash court. The following means (s.d.) were observed: height 172.6(4.3) cm; weight 67.7(6.9) kg; body fat 7.4(3.4)%; forced vital capacity (FVC) 5.13(0.26) litres; maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) 61.7(3.4) ml.kg-1.min-1; anaerobic threshold (AT) 80.2(3.3)% of VO2max; alactic power index 15.5(1.8) W.kg-1; lactic work index 323.5(29.4) J.kg-1, peak isokinetic dominant knee extensor and flexor strengths 3.11(0.29) Nm.kg-1 and 1.87(0.18) Nm.kg-1. The results show that the Hong Kong squash players have relatively high cardiorespiratory sports specific fitness and muscle strength which may be one of the key factors that contributed to the success of the Hong Kong team in the Asian Championship. PMID:8800847

  1. Squash vein yellowing virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of SqVYV and the disease it causes....

  2. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  3. Are squash players protecting their eyes?

    PubMed Central

    Eime, R; Finch, C; Sherman, C; Garnham, A

    2002-01-01

    Methods: A survey of 303 players (aged ≥18 years) was conducted at three squash venues in Melbourne, Australia over a three week period in June 2000 to obtain information about protective eyewear use. Results: Of 303 participants the response rate was 98.1%; 66.1% were males, with a mean age of 40.5 years. The majority (68.4%) had played squash for 10 years or more. Although 18.8% of players reported using protective eyewear, only 8.9% reported wearing approved eyewear. Both age group (p<0.05) and years of squash experience (p<0.01) were significantly associated with any eyewear use. The two main influences were personal experience of eye injuries (50.0%) and knowledge of eye injury risk (33.9%). A commonly reported barrier was restriction of vision (34.2%). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate a low prevalence of voluntary use of appropriate protective eyewear. Future prevention strategies incorporating education campaigns should focus on increasing players' knowledge of risks. The barriers to use and misconceptions about which types of eyewear is most protective need to be addressed as a priority. PMID:12226124

  4. Squashed Entanglement, k-Extendibility, Quantum Markov Chains, and Recovery Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Winter, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Squashed entanglement (Christandl and Winter in J. Math. Phys. 45(3):829-840, 2004) is a monogamous entanglement measure, which implies that highly extendible states have small value of the squashed entanglement. Here, invoking a recent inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information (Fawzi and Renner in Commun. Math. Phys. 340(2):575-611, 2015) greatly extended and simplified in various work since, we show the converse, that a small value of squashed entanglement implies that the state is close to a highly extendible state. As a corollary, we establish an alternative proof of the faithfulness of squashed entanglement (Brandão et al. Commun. Math. Phys. 306:805-830, 2011). We briefly discuss the previous and subsequent history of the Fawzi-Renner bound and related conjectures, and close by advertising a potentially far-reaching generalization to universal and functorial recovery maps for the monotonicity of the relative entropy.

  5. Hawking radiation from squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: A window to extra dimensions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ishihara, Hideki; Soda, Jiro

    2007-09-15

    We explore the observability of extra dimensions through five-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes residing in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime. With the expectation that the Hawking radiation reflects the five-dimensional nature of the squashed horizon, we study the Hawking radiation of a scalar field in the squashed black hole background. As a result, we show that the luminosity of Hawking radiation tells us the size of the extra dimension, namely, the squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes open a window to extra dimensions.

  6. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, ‘Sweet REBA’, and an oilseed pumpkin, ‘Lady Godiva’. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality. PMID:27688889

  7. Role of Zucchini and Its Distinctive Components in the Modulation of Degenerative Processes: Genotoxicity, Anti-Genotoxicity, Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael; Fernández-Bedmar, Zahira; Merinas-Amo, Tania; Gómez, Pedro; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo) is a seasonal vegetable with high nutritional and medical values. Many useful properties of this fruit are attributed to bioactive compounds. Zucchini fruits (“Yellow” and “Light Green” varieties) and four distinctive components (lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid) were selected. Firstly, the lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid contents were determined in these fruits. Then, in order to evaluate the safety and suitability of their use, different assays were carried out: (i) genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity tests to determine the safety and DNA-protection against hydrogen peroxide; (ii) cytotoxicity; and (iii) DNA fragmentation and Annexin V/PI (Propidium Iodide) assays to evaluate the pro-apoptotic effect. Results showed that: (i) all the substances were non-genotoxic; (ii) all the substances were anti-genotoxic except the highest concentration of lutein; (iii) “Yellow” zucchini epicarp and mesocarp exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 0.1 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively); and (iv) “Light Green” zucchini skin induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, β-carotene being the possible molecule responsible for its pro-apoptotic activity. To sum up, zucchini fruit could play a positive role in human health and nutrition due to this fruit and its components were safe, able to inhibit significantly the H2O2-induced damage and exhibit anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities toward HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cells) tumor cells. The information generated from this research should be considered when selecting potential accessions for breeding program purposes. PMID:28708122

  8. Role of Zucchini and Its Distinctive Components in the Modulation of Degenerative Processes: Genotoxicity, Anti-Genotoxicity, Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael; Fernández-Bedmar, Zahira; Merinas-Amo, Tania; Gómez, Pedro; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes

    2017-07-14

    Zucchini ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo ) is a seasonal vegetable with high nutritional and medical values. Many useful properties of this fruit are attributed to bioactive compounds. Zucchini fruits ("Yellow" and "Light Green" varieties) and four distinctive components (lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid) were selected. Firstly, the lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid contents were determined in these fruits. Then, in order to evaluate the safety and suitability of their use, different assays were carried out: (i) genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity tests to determine the safety and DNA-protection against hydrogen peroxide; (ii) cytotoxicity; and (iii) DNA fragmentation and Annexin V/PI (Propidium Iodide) assays to evaluate the pro-apoptotic effect. Results showed that: (i) all the substances were non-genotoxic; (ii) all the substances were anti-genotoxic except the highest concentration of lutein; (iii) "Yellow" zucchini epicarp and mesocarp exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity (IC 50 > 0.1 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively); and (iv) "Light Green" zucchini skin induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, β-carotene being the possible molecule responsible for its pro-apoptotic activity. To sum up, zucchini fruit could play a positive role in human health and nutrition due to this fruit and its components were safe, able to inhibit significantly the H₂O₂-induced damage and exhibit anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities toward HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cells) tumor cells. The information generated from this research should be considered when selecting potential accessions for breeding program purposes.

  9. Complete genome sequence of a novel genotype of squash mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complete genome sequence of a novel genotype of Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) infecting squash plants in Spain was obtained using deep sequencing of small ribonucleic acids and assembly. The low nucleotide sequence identities, with 87-88% on RNA1 and 84-86% on RNA2 to known SqMV isolates, suggest a new...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis...

  13. Disappearance of six pesticides in fresh and processed zucchini, bioavailability and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cámara, M A; Martínez, G; Barba, A

    2017-08-15

    A field study was carried out on the dissipation of three insecticides and three fungicides during the freezing of zucchini. A simultaneous residue analysis method is validated using QuEChERS extraction with acetonitrile and CG-MS and LC-MS analysis. The residues detected after field application never exceeded the established maximum residue limits. The processing factors calculated (fresh product/frozen product) are lower than 1, indicating a clear influence of the stages of the freezing process, especially the washing and blanching. The in vitro study of bioavailability establishes a low percentage of stomach absorption capacity. The level of residues detected in fresh zucchini and the Estimated Daily Intake calculated for Spain suggest that there is no risk of acute toxicity due to dietary exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  15. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE® and Scythe®

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season-long weed control. Although corn gluten meal has shown promise as an early-season pre-emergent organic herbicide in squash production, any uncontrolled weeds can inflict serious yield reducti...

  16. Bacterial elicitation of transcriptional response of female squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major pest of squash, pumpkin, and other cucurbits throughout North America. A. tristis is a piercing/sucking feeder which causes extensive foliar wilting, fruit scarring, and in addition transmits plant pathogens. Current biological control agents ava...

  17. Galactinol synthase from kidney bean cotyledon and zucchini leaf. Purification and N-terminal sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J J; Odegard, W; de Lumen, B O

    1995-01-01

    Galactinol synthase (GS) was purified 1591-fold with a 3.9% recovery from the cotyledon of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by a novel scheme consisting of ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by diethylaminoethyl, Affi-Gel Blue, and UDP-hexanolamine affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 8.75 mumol mg-1 min-1, a pH optimum of 7.0, and requirements for manganese ion and DTT. The enzyme exhibited a Km = 0.4 mM for UDP-galactose and a Km = 4.5 mM for myo-inositol. It was identified as a 38-kD peptide that co-purified with a 41- and a 43-kD peptide as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purification to homogeneity was achieved by isolating the 38-kD peptide from the SDS-PAGE gel. To clarify conflicting reports in the literature about the relative molecular mass of purified GS from zucchini leaf (Cucurbita pepo), a similar scheme with modified eluting conditions was used to purify GS from this source. Zucchini leaf GS was purified to homogeneity and identified as a 36-kD peptide on SDS-PAGE. Partial N-terminal sequences of the 38-kD peptide from kidney bean cotyledon and the 36-kD peptide from zucchini leaf were obtained. To facilitate identification of GS during the purification, an assay utilizing thin-layer chromatography and an isotopic analytic imaging scanner was developed. PMID:7480343

  18. Pollination value of male bees: the specialist bee Peponapis pruinosa (Apidae) at summer squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Cane, James H; Sampson, Blair J; Miller, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Male bees can be abundant at flowers, particularly floral hosts of those bee species whose females are taxonomic pollen specialists (oligolecty). Contributions of male bees to host pollination are rarely studied directly despite their prevalence in a number of pollination guilds, including those of some crop plants. In this study, males of the oligolectic bee, Peponapis pruinosa Say, were shown to be effective pollinators of summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. Seven sequential visits from male P. pruinosa maximized squash fruit set and growth. This number of male visits accumulated during the first hour of their foraging and mate searching at flowers soon after sunrise. Pollination efficacy of male P. pruinosa and their abundances at squash flowers were sufficient to account for most summer squash production at our study sites, and by extrapolation, to two-thirds of all 87 North American farms and market gardens growing squashes that were surveyed for pollinators by collaborators in the Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey. We posit that the substantial pollination value of male Peponapis bees is a consequence of their species' oligolecty, their mate seeking strategy, and some extreme traits of Cucurbita flowers (massive rewards, flower size, phenology).

  19. Host-mediated effects of semipersistently transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus on sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) behavior and fitness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alighting, settling and oviposition behavioral assays were conducted on Squash vein yellowing virus- (SqVYV-) infected and mock-inoculated squash and watermelon plants. Developmental time of immature stages, adult longevity, and fecundity were measured on SqVYV-infected and mock-inoculated squash p...

  20. Validity and Reliability of an on-Court Fitness Test for Assessing and Monitoring Aerobic Fitness in Squash.

    PubMed

    James, Carl Alexander; Vallejo, Florencio Tenllado; Kantebeen, Melvin; Farra, Saro

    2018-02-14

    Current on-court assessments of aerobic fitness in squash are not designed to yield a wealth of physiological data. Moreover, tests may require complex computer equipment or involve simulated racket strokes, which are difficult to standardize at high intensities. This study investigated the validity and reliability of a squash-specific fitness test which can yield both a standalone performance score, as well as pertinent physiological markers such as V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, the lactate turnpoint and oxygen cost, in a sport-specific environment. Eight national squash players completed three tests in a counter-balanced order; an incremental laboratory treadmill test (LAB) and two on-court fitness tests (ST) that involved repeated shuttle runs at increasing speeds. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max during ST was agreeable with LAB (Typical error [TE]=3.3 mL.kg.min, r=0.79). The mean bias between LAB and ST was 2.5 mL.kg.min. There were no differences in maximum heart rate, post exercise blood lactate concentration or end of test RPE between LAB and ST (p>0.05). The ST was highly reliable, with 74 (10) laps completed in ST1 and 75 (12) laps in ST2 (mean bias=1 lap, TE=3 laps, r=0.97). Physiological markers were also reliable, including V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, (TE=1.5 mL.kg.min, r=0.95), the lap number at 4 mMol (TE=4 laps, r=0.77) and average VO2 across the first 4 stages (TE=0.94 mL.kg.min, r=0.95). We observed good agreement between LAB and ST for assessing V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and between both on-court trials for assessing test performance and selected physiological markers. Consequently, we recommend this test for monitoring training adaptations and prescribing individualized training in elite squash players.

  1. Heavy metals in summer squash fruits grown in soil amended with municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C; Dennis, Sam O

    2010-02-01

    The increasing awareness of the value of vegetables and fruits in the human diet requires monitoring of heavy metals in food crops. The effects of amending soil with compost made from municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and MSS mixed with yard waste (MSS-YW) on Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations in soil and the potential bioaccumulation of heavy metals in squash fruits at harvest were investigated. A field study was conducted in a silty-loam soil at Kentucky State University Research Farm. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with MSS at 15 t acre(-1), six plots were mixed with MSS-YW at 15 t acre(-1) (on dry weight basis), and six unamended plots (no-mulch) were used for comparison purposes. Plots were planted with summer squash and heavy metals were analyzed in soil and mature fruits at harvest. Analysis of heavy metals in squash fruits was conducted using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Zinc and Cu concentrations in soil mixed with MSS were extremely high compared to other metals. In squash fruits, concentrations of Zn were generally greater than Cu. Total squash marketable yield was greatest in MSS-YW and MSS treatments compared to no-mulch conventional soil. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in soil amended with MSS averaged 0.1 and 1.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. These levels were much lower than the limits in the U.S. guidelines for using MSS in land farming. Data revealed that maximum concentrations of Cd and Pb in squash fruits were 0.03 and 0.01 microg g(-1) dry fruit, respectively. Nickel concentration in squash fruits fluctuated among harvest dates reaching a maximum of 2.5 microg g(-1) dry fruit. However, these concentrations were far below their permissible limits in edible fruits.

  2. Hawking radiation as tunneling from squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Matsuno, Ken; Umetsu, Koichiro

    2011-03-15

    We discuss Hawking radiation from a five-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole on the basis of the tunneling mechanism. A simple method, which was recently suggested by Umetsu, may be used to extend the original derivation by Parikh and Wilczek to various black holes. That is, we use the two-dimensional effective metric, which is obtained by the dimensional reduction near the horizon, as the background metric. Using the same method, we derive both the desired result of the Hawking temperature and the effect of the backreaction associated with the radiation in the squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole background.

  3. Host-Mediated Effects of Semipersistently Transmitted Squash Vein Yellowing Virus on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior and Fitness.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Deepak; McAuslane, Heather J; Adkins, Scott T; Smith, Hugh A; Dufault, Nicholas; Colee, James; Webb, Susan E

    2017-08-01

    Plant viruses may indirectly affect insect vector behavior and fitness via a shared host plant. Here, we evaluated the host-mediated effects of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) on the behavior and fitness of its whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Middle East-Asia Minor 1, formerly biotype B. Alighting, settling, and oviposition behavioral assays were conducted on infected and mock-inoculated squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum and Nakai] plants. Developmental time of immature stages, adult longevity, and fecundity were measured on infected and mock-inoculated squash plants. For adult longevity and fecundity, whiteflies were reared on infected and mock-inoculated squash plants to determine the effects of nymphal rearing host on the adult stage. More whiteflies alighted and remained settled on infected squash than on mock-inoculated squash 0.25, 1, 8, and 24 h after release. No such initial preference was observed on watermelon plants, but by 8 h after release, more whiteflies were found on mock-inoculated watermelon plants than on infected plants. Whiteflies laid approximately six times more eggs on mock-inoculated watermelon than on infected watermelon; however, no differences were observed on squash. Development from egg to adult emergence was 3 d shorter on infected than mock-inoculated squash plants. Females lived 25% longer and had higher fecundity on infected squash plants than on mock-inoculated plants, regardless of infection status of the rearing host. The host-mediated effects of SqVYV infection on whitefly behavior differ on two cucurbit host plants, suggesting the potential for more rapid spread of the virus within watermelon fields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Complex Chern-Simons from M5-branes on the squashed three-sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova, Clay; Jafferis, Daniel L.

    2017-11-01

    We derive an equivalence between the (2,0) superconformal M5-brane field theory dimensionally reduced on a squashed three-sphere, and Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group. In the reduction, the massless fermions obtain an action which is second order in derivatives and are reinterpreted as ghosts for gauge fixing the emergent non-compact gauge symmetry. A squashing parameter in the geometry controls the imaginary part of the complex Chern-Simons level.

  5. 75 FR 29309 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...] Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers From Israel... into the continental United States of fresh male summer squash flowers from Israel. Based on the... importation of fresh male summer squash flowers from Israel. EFFECTIVE DATE: May 25, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  6. 75 FR 6346 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers... evaluates the risks associated with the importation of fresh male summer squash flowers from Israel into the... summer squash flowers, Cucurbita pepo L. into the continental United States. Currently, fresh male summer...

  7. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of squash venue operators relating to use of protective eyewear.

    PubMed

    Eime, Rochelle; Finch, Caroline; Owen, Neville; Gifford, Sandra; Vear, Paul

    2004-03-01

    Sports venues are in a position to potentially influence the safety practices of their patrons. This study examined the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of venue operators that could influence the use of protective eyewear by squash players. A 50% random sample of all private and public squash venues affiliated with the Victorian Squash Federation in metropolitan Melbourne was selected. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 squash venue operators during August 2001. Interviews were transcribed and content and thematic analyses were performed. The content of the interviews covered five topics: (1) overall injury risk perception, (2) eye injury occurrence, (3) knowledge, behaviors, attitudes and beliefs associated with protective eyewear, (4) compulsory protective eyewear and (5) availability of protective eyewear at venues. Venue operators were mainly concerned with the severe nature of eye injuries, rather than the relatively low incidence of these injuries. Some venue operators believed that players should wear any eyewear, rather than none at all, and believed that more players should use protective eyewear. Generally, they did not believe that players with higher levels of experience and expertise needed to wear protective eyewear when playing. Only six venues had at least one type of eyewear available for players to hire or borrow or to purchase. Operators expressed a desire to be informed about correct protective eyewear. Appropriate protective eyewear is not readily available at squash venues. Better-informed venue operators may be more likely to provide suitable protective eyewear.

  8. 78 FR 25620 - Importation of Female Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of female squash flowers from Israel into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, female squash flowers from Israel would be subject to a...

  9. Audio-based performance evaluation of squash players

    PubMed Central

    Hajdú-Szücs, Katalin; Fenyvesi, Nóra; Vattay, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    In competitive sports it is often very hard to quantify the performance. A player to score or overtake may depend on only millesimal of seconds or millimeters. In racquet sports like tennis, table tennis and squash many events will occur in a short time duration, whose recording and analysis can help reveal the differences in performance. In this paper we show that it is possible to architect a framework that utilizes the characteristic sound patterns to precisely classify the types of and localize the positions of these events. From these basic information the shot types and the ball speed along the trajectories can be estimated. Comparing these estimates with the optimal speed and target the precision of the shot can be defined. The detailed shot statistics and precision information significantly enriches and improves data available today. Feeding them back to the players and the coaches facilitates to describe playing performance objectively and to improve strategy skills. The framework is implemented, its hardware and software components are installed and tested in a squash court. PMID:29579067

  10. Effect of Fusarium isolates and their filtrates on respiratory rate and chemical analysis of squash plants.

    PubMed

    El-Shenawy, Z; Mansour, M A; El-Behrawi, S

    1978-01-01

    The highly pathogenic isolate stimulated the emergence of the squash seedlings first, caused, however, the highest death rate of the seedlings finally. Fusarium isolates and their culture filtrates inhibited the respiratory rate of squash plants significantly. However, F. oxysporum isolates inhibited respiration more than F. solani isolates. Seasonal changes of respiration decline show that the respiratory rate decreased with plant growth in the case of infested soil and of plants injected with culture filtrates. However, spraying Fusarium culture filtrates on the foliage gave opposite results when the plants grew older. Fusarium solani isolates decreased nitrogen content of squash stems and leaves, while F. oxysporum isolates gave reverse results. Injecting Fusarium culture filtrate into the plant decreased nitrogen content of both stems and leaves, while spraying the foliage with the filtrates increased nitrogen content more than that of the control. Phosphorus content of the stems of squash plants, sown in infested soil, was less than in the control when the plants were treated with F. solani and higher when they were treated with F. oxysporum isolates. On the other hand, the phosphorus content of squash leaves was higher than in the control. In the case of injected plants, however, the phosphorus content in stems and leaves was equal to that of the control or less, and with sprayed plants it was higher than in the control. Infesting the soil with Fusarium isolates and spraying the foliage with their culture filtrates increased potassium content of squash stems and leaves, while injecting the filtrates into the plants decreased potassium content of both stems and leaves.

  11. Analysis of Tactical, Decisional and Executional Behaviour according to the Level of Expertise in Squash

    PubMed Central

    Catalán-Eslava, María; González-Víllora, Sixto; Pastor-Vicedo, Juan C.; Contreras-Jordán, Onofre R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to analyse the differences in tactical principles, decision-making and execution of the return shot and drop shot of squash players at different levels of proficiency. The sample was composed of 80 players, divided into four levels of expertise (first national category, second national category, autonomous regional level and provincial level). The Squash Performance Evaluation Tool was used for recording the level of decision-making and execution. The results revealed that reading of the context of the game improved as the level of the player’s expertise of both the return shot and the drop shot increased. The correlation between correct decision-making and better quality execution for both the return shot and the drop shot in squash also improved with the player’s level of expertise. According to these results, improvements in situational tactical principles and the application of tactical principles, correct decision-making and high-quality execution are essential to develop the athletic performance level among squash players. PMID:29599875

  12. Squashed Toric Sigma Models and Mock Modular Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Murthy, Sameer

    2018-05-01

    We study a class of two-dimensional N}=(2,2)} sigma models called squashed toric sigma models, using their Gauged Linear Sigma Models (GLSM) description. These models are obtained by gauging the global {U(1)} symmetries of toric GLSMs and introducing a set of corresponding compensator superfields. The geometry of the resulting vacuum manifold is a deformation of the corresponding toric manifold in which the torus fibration maintains a constant size in the interior of the manifold, thus producing a neck-like region. We compute the elliptic genus of these models, using localization, in the case when the unsquashed vacuum manifolds obey the Calabi-Yau condition. The elliptic genera have a non-holomorphic dependence on the modular parameter {τ} coming from the continuum produced by the neck. In the simplest case corresponding to squashed {C / Z_{2 the elliptic genus is a mixed mock Jacobi form which coincides with the elliptic genus of the {N=(2,2)} {SL(2,R) / U(1)} cigar coset.

  13. Metabolizable Energy Intakes and Nitrogen Balance During Saturation Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    TURKEY BREAST-NO SKIN-ROAST 136.1 GMS GRAVY-CHICKEN 119.0 GMS NOODLES -EGG 160.0 GMS ZUCCHINI SQUASH-FROZEN-BOIL 223.0 GMS CRANBERRY SAUCE 277.0 GMS TEA... INSTANT 474.0 GMS EVENING SNACK ICE CREAM 222.0 GMS 12 0v WIRT otZ" O’ -WIRT J5, V ~6 6 d4 C o :_ C’s) W sC N0 %W Wr W Ch V

  14. Glucose Content and In Vitro Bioaccessibility in Sweet Potato and Winter Squash Varieties during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Zaccari, Fernanda; Cabrera, María Cristina; Saadoun, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Glucose content and in vitro bioaccessibility were determined in raw and cooked pulp of Arapey, Cuabé, and Beauregard sweet potato varieties, as well as Maravilla del Mercado and Atlas winter squash, after zero, two, four, and six months of storage (14 °C, 80% relative humidity (RH)). The total glucose content in 100 g of raw pulp was, for Arapey, 17.7 g; Beauregard, 13.2 g; Cuabé, 12.6 g; Atlas, 4.0 g; and in Maravilla del Mercado, 4.1 g. These contents were reduced by cooking process and storage time, 1.1 to 1.5 times, respectively, depending on the sweet potato variety. In winter squash varieties, the total glucose content was not modified by cooking, while the storage increased glucose content 2.8 times in the second month. After in vitro digestion, the glucose content released was 7.0 times higher in sweet potato (6.4 g) than in winter squash (0.91 g) varieties. Glucose released by in vitro digestion for sweet potato stored for six months did not change, but in winter squashes, stored Atlas released glucose content increased 1.6 times. In conclusion, in sweet potato and winter squash, the glucose content and the released glucose during digestive simulation depends on the variety and the storage time. These factors strongly affect the supply of glucose for human nutrition and should be taken into account for adjusting a diet according to consumer needs. PMID:28665302

  15. Glucose Content and In Vitro Bioaccessibility in Sweet Potato and Winter Squash Varieties during Storage.

    PubMed

    Zaccari, Fernanda; Cabrera, María Cristina; Saadoun, Ali

    2017-06-30

    Glucose content and in vitro bioaccessibility were determined in raw and cooked pulp of Arapey, Cuabé, and Beauregard sweet potato varieties, as well as Maravilla del Mercado and Atlas winter squash, after zero, two, four, and six months of storage (14 °C, 80% relative humidity (RH)). The total glucose content in 100 g of raw pulp was, for Arapey, 17.7 g; Beauregard, 13.2 g; Cuabé, 12.6 g; Atlas, 4.0 g; and in Maravilla del Mercado, 4.1 g. These contents were reduced by cooking process and storage time, 1.1 to 1.5 times, respectively, depending on the sweet potato variety. In winter squash varieties, the total glucose content was not modified by cooking, while the storage increased glucose content 2.8 times in the second month. After in vitro digestion, the glucose content released was 7.0 times higher in sweet potato (6.4 g) than in winter squash (0.91 g) varieties. Glucose released by in vitro digestion for sweet potato stored for six months did not change, but in winter squashes, stored Atlas released glucose content increased 1.6 times. In conclusion, in sweet potato and winter squash, the glucose content and the released glucose during digestive simulation depends on the variety and the storage time. These factors strongly affect the supply of glucose for human nutrition and should be taken into account for adjusting a diet according to consumer needs.

  16. Individual Shrink Wrapping of Zucchini Fruit Improves Postharvest Chilling Tolerance Associated with a Reduction in Ethylene Production and Oxidative Stress Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Megías, Zoraida; Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; García, Alicia; Rebolloso-Fuentes, María Del Mar; Garrido, Dolores; Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Jamilena, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of individual shrink wrapping (ISW) on the postharvest performance of refrigerated fruit from two zucchini cultivars that differ in their sensitivity to cold storage: Sinatra (more sensitive) and Natura (more tolerant). The fruit was individually shrink wrapped before storing at 4°C for 0, 7 and 14 days. Quality parameters, ethylene and CO2 productions, ethylene gene expression, and oxidative stress metabolites were assessed in shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit after conditioning the fruit for 6 hours at 20°C. ISW decreased significantly the postharvest deterioration of chilled zucchini in both cultivars. Weight loss was reduced to less than 1%, pitting symptoms were completely absent in ISW fruit at 7 days, and were less than 25% those of control fruits at 14 days of cold storage, and firmness loss was significantly reduced in the cultivar Sinatra. These enhancements in quality of ISW fruit were associated with a significant reduction in cold-induced ethylene production, in the respiration rate, and in the level of oxidative stress metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide and malonyldialdehyde (MDA). A detailed expression analysis of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signaling genes demonstrated a downregulation of CpACS1 and CpACO1 genes in response to ISW, two genes that are upregulated by cold storage. However, the expression patterns of six other ethylene biosynthesis genes (CpACS2 to CpACS7) and five ethylene signal transduction pathway genes (CpCTR1, CpETR1, CpERS1, CpEIN3.1 and CpEN3.2), suggest that they do not play a major role in response to cold storage and ISW packaging. In conclusion, ISW zucchini packaging resulted in improved tolerance to chilling concomitantly with a reduction in oxidative stress, respiration rate and ethylene production, as well as in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes, but not of those involved in ethylene perception and sensitivity.

  17. Individual Shrink Wrapping of Zucchini Fruit Improves Postharvest Chilling Tolerance Associated with a Reduction in Ethylene Production and Oxidative Stress Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Megías, Zoraida; Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; García, Alicia; Rebolloso-Fuentes, María del Mar; Garrido, Dolores; Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Jamilena, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of individual shrink wrapping (ISW) on the postharvest performance of refrigerated fruit from two zucchini cultivars that differ in their sensitivity to cold storage: Sinatra (more sensitive) and Natura (more tolerant). The fruit was individually shrink wrapped before storing at 4°C for 0, 7 and 14 days. Quality parameters, ethylene and CO2 productions, ethylene gene expression, and oxidative stress metabolites were assessed in shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit after conditioning the fruit for 6 hours at 20°C. ISW decreased significantly the postharvest deterioration of chilled zucchini in both cultivars. Weight loss was reduced to less than 1%, pitting symptoms were completely absent in ISW fruit at 7 days, and were less than 25% those of control fruits at 14 days of cold storage, and firmness loss was significantly reduced in the cultivar Sinatra. These enhancements in quality of ISW fruit were associated with a significant reduction in cold-induced ethylene production, in the respiration rate, and in the level of oxidative stress metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide and malonyldialdehyde (MDA). A detailed expression analysis of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signaling genes demonstrated a downregulation of CpACS1 and CpACO1 genes in response to ISW, two genes that are upregulated by cold storage. However, the expression patterns of six other ethylene biosynthesis genes (CpACS2 to CpACS7) and five ethylene signal transduction pathway genes (CpCTR1, CpETR1, CpERS1, CpEIN3.1 and CpEN3.2), suggest that they do not play a major role in response to cold storage and ISW packaging. In conclusion, ISW zucchini packaging resulted in improved tolerance to chilling concomitantly with a reduction in oxidative stress, respiration rate and ethylene production, as well as in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes, but not of those involved in ethylene perception and sensitivity. PMID:26177024

  18. Effect of edible coatings to preserve physico-chemical and sensory quality for fresh and cooked zucchini products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research studied different edible coatings for quality preservation of zucchini slices destined for fresh-cut consumption or for cooking. In the first experiment, antioxidants including calcium ascorbate (CAA), cysteine (CYS) or ethanol (ET) in edible coatings made from chitosan (CHIT), chitosa...

  19. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  20. Crop domestication facilitated rapid geographical expansion of a specialist pollinator, the squash bee Peponapis pruinosa

    PubMed Central

    Cane, James H.; Minckley, Robert L.; Danforth, Bryan N.

    2016-01-01

    Squash was first domesticated in Mexico and is now found throughout North America (NA) along with Peponapis pruinosa, a pollen specialist bee species of the squash genus Cucurbita. The origin and spread of squash cultivation is well-studied archaeologically and phylogenetically; however, no study has documented how cultivation of this or any other crop has influenced species in mutualistic interactions. We used molecular markers to reconstruct the demographic range expansion and colonization routes of P. pruinosa from its native range into temperate NA. Populations east of the Rocky Mountains expanded from the wild host plant's range in Mexico and were established by a series of founder events. Eastern North America was most likely colonized from squash bee populations in the present-day continental Midwest USA and not from routes that followed the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Mexico. Populations of P. pruinosa west of the Rockies spread north from the warm deserts much more recently, showing two genetically differentiated populations with no admixture: one in California and the other one in eastern Great Basin. These bees have repeatedly endured severe bottlenecks as they colonized NA, following human spread of their Cucurbita pollen hosts during the Holocene. PMID:27335417

  1. Different haplotypes encode the same protein for independent sources of zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) production is negatively affected by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Three sources of ZYMV resistance have been commercially deployed and all three resistances are conditioned by a single recessive gene. A vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4-like (VPS4-like)...

  2. Fruit quality of seedless watermelon grafted onto squash rootstocks under different production systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianru; Zhao, Xin; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Sims, Charles A; Sanchez, Tatiana; Dufault, Nicholas S

    2017-11-01

    The market demand for seedless watermelon has been continuously increasing because of consumer preference. Grafting is a useful tool to manage soilborne diseases in watermelon production, but the use of squash rootstocks may negatively affect watermelon fruit quality. Currently, most research has focused on seeded cultivars, while grafting effects on seedless watermelons remain largely unknown. This multi-season study was conducted to assess the effects of squash rootstocks, including both Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata and C. moschata cultivars, with intact or excised and regenerated roots, on fruit quality of seedless watermelon 'Melody' using both instrumental and sensory measurements under different production scenarios. The grafted watermelon plants were also challenged by field inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum. A combination of instrumental measurements and consumer sensory analyses suggested that fruit quality of the seedless watermelon 'Melody' was not impacted by the use of the squash rootstocks used in this study, which included soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and most fruit sensory properties. Watermelon flesh firmness was increased by grafting but the grafting effect on lycopene content was inconclusive. Root excision and regeneration did not influence the grafting effect, whereas the grafting effect on flesh firmness varied among the rootstocks under Fusarium inoculation. Overall, grafting with squash rootstocks did not reduce fruit quality attributes of 'Melody' but improved texture. Our results support incorporating grafting into integrated management programs for seedless watermelon production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Benfer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ≈2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  4. Tennis-Badminton-Squash Guide. June 1974-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This guide is a collection of essays by various authors on tennis, badminton, and squash. The document is divided into three sections, one for each sport. The topics covered include general teaching methods, methods to employ for teaching specific skills such as the lob or the backhand, the use of visual aids, conditioning drills, study questions,…

  5. Crop domestication facilitated rapid geographical expansion of a specialist pollinator, the squash bee Peponapis pruinosa.

    PubMed

    López-Uribe, Margarita M; Cane, James H; Minckley, Robert L; Danforth, Bryan N

    2016-06-29

    Squash was first domesticated in Mexico and is now found throughout North America (NA) along with Peponapis pruinosa, a pollen specialist bee species of the squash genus Cucurbita The origin and spread of squash cultivation is well-studied archaeologically and phylogenetically; however, no study has documented how cultivation of this or any other crop has influenced species in mutualistic interactions. We used molecular markers to reconstruct the demographic range expansion and colonization routes of P. pruinosa from its native range into temperate NA. Populations east of the Rocky Mountains expanded from the wild host plant's range in Mexico and were established by a series of founder events. Eastern North America was most likely colonized from squash bee populations in the present-day continental Midwest USA and not from routes that followed the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Mexico. Populations of P. pruinosa west of the Rockies spread north from the warm deserts much more recently, showing two genetically differentiated populations with no admixture: one in California and the other one in eastern Great Basin. These bees have repeatedly endured severe bottlenecks as they colonized NA, following human spread of their Cucurbita pollen hosts during the Holocene. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Maintenance of coat protein N-terminal net charge and not primary sequence is essential for zucchini yellow mosaic virus systemic infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kimalov, Boaz; Gal-On, Amit; Stav, Ran; Belausov, Eduard; Arazi, Tzahi

    2004-11-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) surface exposed coat protein (CP) N-terminal domain (Nt) is 43 aa long and contains an equal number of positively and negatively charged amino acid residues (CP-Nt net charge = 0). A ZYMV-AGII truncation mutant lacking the first 20 aa of its CP-Nt (AGII-CP Delta 20; CP-Nt net charge = +2) was found to be systemically non-infectious even though AGII mutants harbouring larger CP-Nt deletions were previously demonstrated to be fully infectious. Nevertheless, AGII-CP Delta 20 infectivity was restored by fusion to its CP-Nt two Asp residues or a negatively charged Myc peptide, both predicted to neutralize CP-Nt net positive charge. To evaluate further the significance of CP-Nt net charge for AGII infectivity, a series of CP-Nt net charge mutants was generated and analysed for systemic infectivity of squash plants. AGII-CP(KKK) harbouring a CP-Nt amino fusion of three Lys residues (CP-Nt net charge = +3) was not systemically infectious. Addition of up to four Asp residues to CP-Nt did not abolish virus infectivity, although certain mutants were genetically unstable and had delayed infectivity. Addition of five negatively charged residues abolished infectivity (AGII-CP(DDDDD); CP-Nt net charge = -5) even though a recombinant CP(DDDDD) could assemble into potyviral-like particle in bacteria. Neutralization of CP-Nt net charge by fusing Asp or Lys residues recovered infectivity of AGII-CP(KKK) and AGII-CP(DDDDD). GFP-tagging of these mutants has demonstrated that both viruses have defective cell-to-cell movement. Together, these findings suggest that maintenance of CP-Nt net charge and not primary sequence is essential for ZYMV infectivity.

  7. High-throughput SNP genotyping in Cucurbita pepo for map construction and quantitative trait loci mapping

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cucurbita pepo is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, the second- most important horticultural family in terms of economic importance after Solanaceae. The "summer squash" types, including Zucchini and Scallop, rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide. There are few genomic tools available for this species. The first Cucurbita transcriptome, along with a large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), was recently generated using massive sequencing. A set of 384 SNP was selected to generate an Illumina GoldenGate assay in order to construct the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita and map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Results We herein present the construction of the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita pepo using a population derived from the cross of two varieties with contrasting phenotypes, representing the main cultivar groups of the species' two subspecies: Zucchini (subsp. pepo) × Scallop (subsp. ovifera). The mapping population was genotyped with 384 SNP, a set of selected EST-SNP identified in silico after massive sequencing of the transcriptomes of both parents, using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. The global success rate of the assay was higher than 85%. In total, 304 SNP were mapped, along with 11 SSR from a previous map, giving a map density of 5.56 cM/marker. This map was used to infer syntenic relationships between C. pepo and cucumber and to successfully map QTL that control plant, flowering and fruit traits that are of benefit to squash breeding. The QTL effects were validated in backcross populations. Conclusion Our results show that massive sequencing in different genotypes is an excellent tool for SNP discovery, and that the Illumina GoldenGate platform can be successfully applied to constructing genetic maps and performing QTL analysis in Cucurbita. This is the first SNP-based genetic map in the Cucurbita genus and is an invaluable new tool for biological research, especially considering that most

  8. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-09-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. juncea as amendment before planting squash, whereas the other half did not. Crotalaria juncea amendment increased squash shoot and root weights in all soils tested, except in YWC+ soil where the organic matter content was high without the amendment. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. incognita if the inoculum level was low, and when the soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. incognita and free-living nematodes than frozen or untreated soil, indicating nematode-antagonistic microorganisms played a role in nematode suppression. The effects of C. juncea amendment on nutrient cycling were complex. Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to them in the second experiment but not in the first experiment. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C. juncea amendment.

  9. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Treesearch

    H. E. Simmons; Holly Prendeville; J. P. Dunham; M. J. Ferrari; J. D. Earnest; D. Pilson; G. P. Munkvold; E. C. Holmes; A. G. Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important pathogen of cucurbits that is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Although ZYMV is seed-transmitted in Cucurbita pepo, the potential for seed transmission in virus-resistant transgenic cultivars is not known. We crossed and backcrossed a transgenic...

  10. Predation and Parasitism Rates on Sentinel and Naturally Occurring Egg Masses of the Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Maryland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seasonal changes in egg predation and parasitism rates on sentinel and naturally occurring (wild) egg masses of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer), were evaluated in squash fields in Maryland from June through September in 2013 and 2014. Rates of egg predation and parasitism were significantly ...

  11. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. juncea as amendment before planting squash, whereas the other half did not. Crotalaria juncea amendment increased squash shoot and root weights in all soils tested, except in YWC+ soil where the organic matter content was high without the amendment. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. incognita if the inoculum level was low, and when the soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. incognita and free-living nematodes than frozen or untreated soil, indicating nematode-antagonistic microorganisms played a role in nematode suppression. The effects of C. juncea amendment on nutrient cycling were complex. Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to them in the second experiment but not in the first experiment. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C. juncea amendment. PMID:19262819

  12. Sphingolipid Long-Chain Base Synthesis in Plants (Characterization of Serine Palmitoyltransferase Activity in Squash Fruit Microsomes).

    PubMed

    Lynch, D. V.; Fairfield, S. R.

    1993-12-01

    The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (palmitoyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:L-serine [Ser]-C-palmitoyltransferase [decarboxylating], EC 2.3.1.50), the enzyme catalyzing the first step in the synthesis of the long-chain base required for sphingolipid assembly, has been characterized in a plant system. Enzyme activity in a microsomal membrane fraction from summer squash fruit (Cucurbita pepo L. cv Early Prolific Straightneck) was assayed by monitoring the incorporation of L-[3H]Ser into the chloroform-soluble product, 3-ketosphinganine. Addition of NADPH to the assay system resulted in the conversion of 3-ketosphinganine to sphinganine. The apparent Km for Ser was approximately 1.8 mM. The enzyme exhibited a strong preference for palmitoyl-CoA, with optimal activity at a substrate concentration of 200 [mu]M. Pyridoxal 5[prime]-phosphate was required as a coenzyme. The pH optimum was 7.6, and the temperature optimum was 36 to 40[deg]C. Enzyme activity was greatest in the microsomal fraction obtained by differential centrifugation and was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum using marker enzymes. Two known mechanism-based inhibitors of the mammalian enzyme, L-cycloserine and [beta]-chloro-L-alanine, were effective inhibitors of enzyme activity in squash microsomes. Changes in enzyme activity with size (age) of squash fruit were observed. The results from this study suggest that the properties and catalytic mechanism of Ser palmitoyltransferase from squash are similar to those of the animal, fungal, and bacterial enzyme in most respects. The specific activity of the enzyme in squash microsomes ranged from 0.57 to 0.84 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein, values 2- to 20-fold higher than those previously reported for preparations from animal tissues.

  13. Identification of bacteria in pasteurized zucchini purées stored at different temperatures and comparison with those found in other pasteurized vegetable purées.

    PubMed

    Guinebretiere, M H; Berge, O; Normand, P; Morris, C; Carlin, F; Nguyen-The, C

    2001-10-01

    One hundred nineteen isolates from a commercial zucchini purée stored at 4, 10, and 20 to 25 degrees C were fingerprinted using repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) and classified into 35 REP types. One representative isolate of each REP type was subsequently identified by API50CHB/20E profile and partial rrs gene sequence analysis. Nine REP types were misidentified by the API system. Strains were misidentified as being in the Bacillus circulans (group 2) API taxon or in taxa with a low number of positive API characters such as Brevibacillus brevis. A phylogenetic analysis pointed to one new species of Bacillus and three new species of Paenibacillus among the misidentified REP types. Bacterial components in zucchini purée were compared phenotypically with those obtained in previous work on broccoli, carrot, leek, potato, and split pea purées, based on simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group method with averages cluster analysis. Out of 254 strains, 69 strains previously identified as B. circulans (group 2) or B. circulans/B. macerans/B. polymyxa were assigned to a new Paenibacillus taxon phylogenetically related to P. azotofixans. Storage conditions at 4 degrees C favored the development of "B. macroides/B. maroccanus" and Paenibacillus spp. in zucchini purées and Paenibacillus spp. in other purées. Storage conditions at 20 to 25 degrees C favored the development of B. subtilis group (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis) and B. cereus group strains. At 10 degrees C, Paenibacillus spp. were always present at high frequencies, whereas the occurrence of B. macroides/B. maroccanus (in zucchini purées), B. cereus, and B. pumilus varied with the experiment.

  14. A new method for assessing squash tactics using 15 court areas for ball locations.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Goran; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike; Murray, Stafford; Milanović, Zoran; Perš, Janez; Sporiš, Goran

    2014-04-01

    Tactics in squash have typically been assessed using the frequency of different shot types played at different locations on the court either without reference to other relevant information or on the basis of the preceding shot. This paper presents a new squash specific method for categorizing court locations in which the ball was played, a novel techniques for assessing the reliability of this method and presents typical shots responses in these new areas controlled for preceding shot as well as the time between shots and the handedness of the players. Twelve games were viewed using the SAGIT/Squash software and 2907 shots viewed a second time from a video image taken from behind the court with an overall agreement of 88.90% for the court location data and 99.52% for shot type. 3192 shots from 9 matches from the 2003 World Team Championships were analyzed in SAGIT/Squash. In the court areas analyzed between 2 and 7 shot responses were predominant suggesting tactical patterns were evident. This was supported by differences evident between shot responses played from the two back corners where the backhand side was characterized by a predominance of straight drives whereas straight and crosscourt drives were played on the forehand side. These results tended to confirm that tactics i.e., consistent shot types, are played although these are only apparent when factors that determine shot selection are accounted for. This paper has controlled for some of these factors but others need to be considered e.g., if individual player profiles are to be ascertained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Bacteria in Pasteurized Zucchini Purées Stored at Different Temperatures and Comparison with Those Found in Other Pasteurized Vegetable Purées

    PubMed Central

    Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; Berge, Odile; Normand, Philippe; Morris, Cindy; Carlin, Frédéric; Nguyen-The, Christophe

    2001-01-01

    One hundred nineteen isolates from a commercial zucchini purée stored at 4, 10, and 20 to 25°C were fingerprinted using repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) and classified into 35 REP types. One representative isolate of each REP type was subsequently identified by API50CHB/20E profile and partial rrs gene sequence analysis. Nine REP types were misidentified by the API system. Strains were misidentified as being in the Bacillus circulans (group 2) API taxon or in taxa with a low number of positive API characters such as Brevibacillus brevis. A phylogenetic analysis pointed to one new species of Bacillus and three new species of Paenibacillus among the misidentified REP types. Bacterial components in zucchini purée were compared phenotypically with those obtained in previous work on broccoli, carrot, leek, potato, and split pea purées, based on simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group method with averages cluster analysis. Out of 254 strains, 69 strains previously identified as B. circulans (group 2) or B. circulans/B. macerans/B. polymyxa were assigned to a new Paenibacillus taxon phylogenetically related to P. azotofixans. Storage conditions at 4°C favored the development of “B. macroides/B. maroccanus” and Paenibacillus spp. in zucchini purées and Paenibacillus spp. in other purées. Storage conditions at 20 to 25°C favored the development of B. subtilis group (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis) and B. cereus group strains. At 10°C, Paenibacillus spp. were always present at high frequencies, whereas the occurrence of B. macroides/B. maroccanus (in zucchini purées), B. cereus, and B. pumilus varied with the experiment. PMID:11571151

  16. Rényi squashed entanglement, discord, and relative entropy differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-10-01

    The squashed entanglement quantifies the amount of entanglement in a bipartite quantum state, and it satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. The quantum discord is a measure of quantum correlations that are different from those due to entanglement. What these two measures have in common is that they are both based upon the conditional quantum mutual information. In Berta et al (2015 J. Math. Phys. 56 022205), we recently proposed Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information of a tripartite state on ABC (with C being the conditioning system), which were shown to satisfy some properties that hold for the original quantity, such as non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on the system B (with it being left open to show that the Rényi quantity is monotone with respect to local operations on system A). Here we define a Rényi squashed entanglement and a Rényi quantum discord based on a Rényi conditional quantum mutual information and investigate these quantities in detail. Taking as a conjecture that the Rényi conditional quantum mutual information is monotone with respect to local operations on both systems A and B, we prove that the Rényi squashed entanglement and the Rényi quantum discord satisfy many of the properties of the respective original von Neumann entropy based quantities. In our prior work (Berta et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 91 022333), we also detailed a procedure to obtain Rényi generalizations of any quantum information measure that is equal to a linear combination of von Neumann entropies with coefficients chosen from the set \\{-1,0,1\\}. Here, we extend this procedure to include differences of relative entropies. Using the extended procedure and a conjectured monotonicity of the Rényi generalizations in the Rényi parameter, we discuss potential remainder terms for well known inequalities such as monotonicity of the relative entropy, joint convexity of the relative

  17. Cloning and characterisation of a putative pollen-specific polygalacturonase gene (CpPG1) differentially regulated during pollen development in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Carvajal, F; Garrido, D; Jamilena, M; Rosales, R

    2014-03-01

    Studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. spp. pepo) pollen have been limited to the viability and morphology of the mature pollen grain. The enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) is involved in pollen development and pollination in many species. In this work, we study anther and pollen development of C. pepo and present the cloning and characterisation of a putative PG CpPG1 (Accession no. HQ232488) from pollen cDNA in C. pepo. The predicted protein for CpPG1 has 416 amino acids, with a high homology to other pollen PGs, such as P22 from Oenothera organensis (76%) and PGA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (73%). CpPG1 belongs to clade C, which comprises PGs expressed in pollen, and presents a 34 amino acid signal peptide for secretion towards the cell wall. DNA-blot analysis revealed that there are at least another two genes that code for PGs in C. pepo. The spatial and temporal accumulation of CpPG1 was studied by semi-quantitative- and qRT-PCR. In addition, mRNA was detected only in anthers, pollen and the rudimentary anthers of bisexual flowers (only present in some zucchini cultivars under certain environmental conditions that trigger anther development in the third whorl of female flowers). However, no expression was detected in cotyledons, stem or fruit. Furthermore, CpPG1 mRNA was accumulated throughout anther development, with the highest expression found in mature pollen. Similarly, exo-PG activity increased from immature anther stages to mature anthers and mature pollen. Overall, these data support the pollen specificity of this gene and suggest an involvement of CpPG1 in pollen development in C. pepo. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in watermelon in Guatemala

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  19. On the Magnetic Squashing Factor and the Lie Transport of Tangents

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Scott, Roger B.; Pontin, David I.; Hornig, Gunnar

    The squashing factor (or squashing degree) of a vector field is a quantitative measure of the deformation of the field line mapping between two surfaces. In the context of solar magnetic fields, it is often used to identify gradients in the mapping of elementary magnetic flux tubes between various flux domains. Regions where these gradients in the mapping are large are referred to as quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs), and are a continuous extension of separators and separatrix surfaces. These QSLs are observed to be potential sites for the formation of strong electric currents, and are therefore important for the study ofmore » magnetic reconnection in three dimensions. Since the squashing factor, Q , is defined in terms of the Jacobian of the field line mapping, it is most often calculated by first determining the mapping between two surfaces (or some approximation of it) and then numerically differentiating. Tassev and Savcheva have introduced an alternative method, in which they parameterize the change in separation between adjacent field lines, and then integrate along individual field lines to get an estimate of the Jacobian without the need to numerically differentiate the mapping itself. But while their method offers certain computational advantages, it is formulated on a perturbative description of the field line trajectory, and the accuracy of this method is not entirely clear. Here we show, through an alternative derivation, that this integral formulation is, in principle, exact. We then demonstrate the result in the case of a linear, 3D magnetic null, which allows for an exact analytical description and direct comparison to numerical estimates.« less

  20. Squash cytology findings of subependymomas: A report of three cases and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tokumitsu, Takako; Sato, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Takeshima, Hideo; Sato, Shinya; Asada, Yujiro

    2018-03-01

    Subependymomas are slowly growing glial tumors, corresponding to WHO grade I. Few descriptions of the cytologic features of this neoplasm are available. This study describes the cytologic features of three subependymomas, as well as their differential diagnosis based on cytology. Three men, aged 52, 56, and 63 years, presented with headache. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a nodular intraventricular mass in all three patients. Intraoperative squash cytology specimens from the three intraventricular tumors showed nodular clusters with microcystic changes. Nuclei were round to oval in shape, but showed no evidence of severe nuclear atypia or mitoses. Histological examination showed features of subependymoma. Squash cytology findings, including nodular clusters, mild cellular atypia, microcystic changes, and mucoid material, are useful in the rapid intraoperative diagnosis of subependymoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Management of Powdery Mildew in Squash by Plant and Alga Extract Biopesticides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shouan; Mersha, Zelalem; Vallad, Gary E.; Huang, Cheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although many fungicides are registered for use to control powdery mildew on cucurbits, management of resistance to fungicides in pathogen populations still remains a major challenge. Two biopesticides Regalia SC and HMO 736 were evaluated in the greenhouse and field for their efficacy against powdery mildew in squash. In greenhouses, Regalia SC alone significantly (P < 0.05) reduced powdery mildew compared to the nontreated control, and was as effective as the chemical standard Procure 480SC (triflumizole). In alternation with Procure 480SC, Regalia SC demonstrated greater or equivalent effects on reducing the disease. HMO 736 alone showed varying levels of disease control, but alternating with Procure 480SC significantly improved control efficacy. In addition, application of Regalia SC or HMO 736 each in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly increased the chlorophyll content in leaves and the total fresh weight of squash plants, when compared with the water control, Regalia SC and HMO 736 alone. In field trials, application of Regalia SC and HMO 736 each alone significantly reduced disease severity in one of two field trials during the early stage of disease development, but not during later stages when disease pressure became high. Both Regalia SC and HMO 736 each applied in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly improved the control efficacy compared to Procure 480SC alone. Results from this study demonstrated that an integrated management program can be developed for powdery mildew in squash by integrating the biopesticides Regalia SC, HMO 736 with the chemical fungicide Procure 480SC. PMID:27904459

  2. Management of Powdery Mildew in Squash by Plant and Alga Extract Biopesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouan; Mersha, Zelalem; Vallad, Gary E; Huang, Cheng-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Although many fungicides are registered for use to control powdery mildew on cucurbits, management of resistance to fungicides in pathogen populations still remains a major challenge. Two biopesticides Regalia SC and HMO 736 were evaluated in the greenhouse and field for their efficacy against powdery mildew in squash. In greenhouses, Regalia SC alone significantly ( P < 0.05) reduced powdery mildew compared to the nontreated control, and was as effective as the chemical standard Procure 480SC (triflumizole). In alternation with Procure 480SC, Regalia SC demonstrated greater or equivalent effects on reducing the disease. HMO 736 alone showed varying levels of disease control, but alternating with Procure 480SC significantly improved control efficacy. In addition, application of Regalia SC or HMO 736 each in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly increased the chlorophyll content in leaves and the total fresh weight of squash plants, when compared with the water control, Regalia SC and HMO 736 alone. In field trials, application of Regalia SC and HMO 736 each alone significantly reduced disease severity in one of two field trials during the early stage of disease development, but not during later stages when disease pressure became high. Both Regalia SC and HMO 736 each applied in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly improved the control efficacy compared to Procure 480SC alone. Results from this study demonstrated that an integrated management program can be developed for powdery mildew in squash by integrating the biopesticides Regalia SC, HMO 736 with the chemical fungicide Procure 480SC.

  3. In vitro and in vivo evidence for actin association of the naphthylphthalamic acid-binding protein from zucchini hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. H.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Dixon, M. W.; Muday, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    The N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-binding protein is part of the auxin efflux carrier, the protein complex that controls polar auxin transport in plant tissues. This study tested the hypothesis that the NPA-binding protein (NBP) is associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vitro and that an intact actin cytoskeleton is required for polar auxin transport in vivo. Cytoskeletal polymerization was altered in extracts of zucchini hypocotyls with reagents that stabilized either the polymeric or monomeric forms of actin or tubulin. Phalloidin treatment altered actin polymerization, as demonstrated by immunoblot analyses following native and denaturing electrophoresis. Phalloidin increased both filamentous actin (F-actin) and NPA-binding activity, while cytochalasin D and Tris decreased both F-actin and NPA-binding activity in cytoskeletal pellets. The microtubule stabilizing drug taxol increased pelletable tubulin, but did not alter either the amount of pelletable actin or NPA-binding activity. Treatment of etiolated zucchini hypocotyls with cytochalasin D decreased the amount of auxin transport and its regulation by NPA. These experimental results are consistent with an in vitro actin cytoskeletal association of the NPA-binding protein and with the requirement of an intact actin cytoskeleton for maximal polar auxin transport in vivo.

  4. Tennis-Badminton-Squash Guide with Official Rules. June 1972 - June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Martha, Ed.; And Others

    Rules in tennis, badminton, and squash for girls and women from June 1972 - June 1974 are discussed. Standards in the sports are detailed along with the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with teaching techniques, officiating techniques, and rules for tennis and badminton are presented.…

  5. Cell lines derived from the squash bug, anasa tristis (coreidae: hemiptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis, is a pest of cucurbits that exerts direct damage on crops and is a vector of plant pathogens. We established cell lines from this insect to serve as tools for basic biology, such as virology and immunology, as well as applied studies, such as insecticide development pr...

  6. Weed control in yellow squash using sequential postdirected applications of pelargonic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers would benefit from appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season-long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) during 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of a naturally derived herbicide on weed control ef...

  7. Molecular Cloning and Tissue-Specific Expression of an Anionic Peroxidase in Zucchini1

    PubMed Central

    Carpin, Sabine; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Greppin, Hubert; Penel, Claude

    1999-01-01

    A calcium-pectate-binding anionic isoperoxidase (APRX) from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) was purified and subjected to N-terminal amino acid microsequencing. The cDNA encoding this enzyme was obtained by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from a cDNA library. It encoded a mature protein of 309 amino acids exhibiting all of the sequence characteristics of a plant peroxidase. Despite the presence of a C-terminal propeptide, APRX was found in the apoplast. APRX protein and mRNA were found in the root, hypocotyls, and cotyledons. In situ hybridization showed that the APRX-encoding gene was expressed in many different tissues. The strongest expression was observed in root epidermis and in some cells of the stele, in differentiating tracheary elements of hypocotyl, in the lower and upper epidermis, in the palisade parenchyma of cotyledons, and in lateral and adventitious root primordia. In the hypocotyl hook there was an asymmetric expression, with the inner part containing more transcripts than the outer part. Treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid reduced the expression of the APRX-encoding gene in the lower part of the hypocotyl. Our observations suggest that APRX could be involved in lignin formation and that the transcription of its gene was related to auxin level. PMID:10398715

  8. [Changes in Properties of Water during Germination of Zucchini Seed in Water Used].

    PubMed

    Novikov, S N; Novikov, L N; Ermolaeva, A I; Timoshenkov, S P; Goryunova, E P

    2015-01-01

    In this research the changes in the supramolecular structure of distilled water during germination of the seed in this water were studied. We used three methods: gravimetry, precision thermal analysis, electron work function measurements. In the first stage of seed germination--seed swelling--the seed extracts coherent domains in the water, herewith due to the transition of coherent domains adsorbed in nanofields into a stable state the flow of electromagnetic energy appears. In the second stage of the experiment--germ growing--the flow of biophotons occurs. This is evidenced by the increased water electron work function. A hypothetical model of the process of zucchini seed germination is suggested.

  9. The effectiveness of a squash eyewear promotion strategy

    PubMed Central

    Eime, R; Finch, C; Wolfe, R; Owen, N; McCarty, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective eyewear promotion (PEP) project, which was a comprehensive educational strategy to increase the use of appropriate protective eyewear by squash players. Methods: An ecological study design was used. Four squash venues in one playing association were randomly chosen to receive PEP and four in another association maintained usual practice and hence formed a control group. The primary evaluation measurements were surveys of cross sectional samples of players carried out before and after the intervention. The surveys investigated players' knowledge, behaviours, and attitudes associated with the use of protective eyewear. The survey carried out after the intervention also determined players' exposure to PEP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken to describe differences at PEP venues from pre- to post-intervention and to compare these with the control venues. Results: The PEP players had 2.4 times the odds (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 4.2) of wearing appropriate eyewear compared with control group players post-intervention, relative to the groups' pre-intervention baselines. Components of PEP, such as stickers and posters and the availability and prominent positioning of the project eyewear, were found to contribute to players adopting favourable eyewear behaviours. Conclusions: Components of the PEP intervention were shown to be effective. The true success will be the sustainability and dissemination of the project, favourable eyewear behaviours, and evidence of the prevention of eye injuries long into the future. PMID:16118310

  10. Changes in Bacterial Composition of Zucchini Flowers Exposed to Refrigeration Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Baruzzi, F.; Cefola, M.; Carito, A.; Vanadia, S.; Calabrese, N.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial spoilage is one of the main factors affecting the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables, leading to off-flavor, fermented aroma, and tissue decay. The knowledge of microbial growth kinetics is essential for estimating a correct risk assessment associated with consuming raw vegetables and better managing the development of spoilage microorganisms. This study shows, for the first time, that only a part of total microbial community, originally present on fresh harvested female zucchini flowers, was able to adapt itself to refrigerated conditions. Through the study of microbial growth kinetics it was possible to isolate forty-four strains belonging to twenty-two species of the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pseudoclavibacter, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Staphylococcus, and Weissella, suggesting Enterobacteriaceae as potentially responsible for pistil spoilage. PMID:22566759

  11. Synthesis, salvage, and catabolism of uridine nucleotides in boron-deficient squash roots.

    PubMed

    Lovatt, C J; Albert, L S; Tremblay, G C

    1981-12-01

    Previous work has provided evidence that plants may require boron to maintain adequate levels of pyrimidine nucleotides, suggesting that the state of boron deficiency may actually be one of pyrimidine starvation. Since the availability of pyrimidine nucleotides is influenced by their rates of synthesis, salvage, and catabolism, we compared these activities in the terminal 3 centimeters of roots excised from boron-deficient and -sufficient squash plants (Cucurbita pepo L.). Transferring 5-day-old squash plants to a boron-deficient nutrient solution resulted in cessation of root elongation within 18 hours. However, withholding boron for up to 30 hours did not result in either impaired de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis or a change in the sensitivity of the de novo pathway to regulation by end product inhibition. Boron deprivation had no significant effect on pyrimidine salvage or catabolism. These results provide evidence that boron-deficient plants are not starved for uridine nucleotides collectively. Whether a particular pyrimidine nucleotide or derivative is limiting during boron deprivation remains to be examined.

  12. Cloning, expression and N-terminal myristoylation of CpCPK1, a calcium-dependent protein kinase from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Ellard-Ivey, M; Hopkins, R B; White, T J; Lomax, T L

    1999-01-01

    We have isolated a full-length cDNA clone (CpCDPK1) encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) gene from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.). The predicted amino acid sequence of the cDNA shows a remarkably high degree of similarity to members of the CDPK gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana, especially AtCPK1 and AtCPK2. Northern analysis of steady-state mRNA levels for CpCPK1 in etiolated and light-grown zucchini seedlings shows that the transcript is most abundant in etiolated hypocotyls and overall expression is suppressed by light. As described for other members of the CDPK gene family from different species, the CpCPK1 clone has a putative N-terminal myristoylation sequence. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis and an in vitro coupled transcription/translation system were used to demonstrate that the protein encoded by this cDNA is specifically myristoylated by a plant N-myristoyl transferase. This is the first demonstration of myristoylation of a CDPK protein which may contribute to the mechanism by which this protein is localized to the plasma membrane.

  13. Impact of the egg parasitoid, gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), on sentinel and wild egg masses of the squash bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Maryland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seasonal changes in egg predation and parasitism rates on sentinel and naturally occurring (wild) egg masses of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer), were evaluated in squash fields in Maryland from June through September in 2013 and 2014. Rates of egg predation and parasitism were significantly...

  14. Root foraging elicits niche complementarity-dependent yield advantage in the ancient ‘three sisters’ (maize/bean/squash) polyculture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chaochun; Postma, Johannes A.; York, Larry M.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Since ancient times in the Americas, maize, bean and squash have been grown together in a polyculture known as the ‘three sisters’. This polyculture and its maize/bean variant have greater yield than component monocultures on a land-equivalent basis. This study shows that below-ground niche complementarity may contribute to this yield advantage. Methods Monocultures and polycultures of maize, bean and squash were grown in two seasons in field plots differing in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability. Root growth patterns of individual crops and entire polycultures were determined using a modified DNA-based technique to discriminate roots of different species. Key Results The maize/bean/squash and maize/bean polycultures had greater yield and biomass production on a land-equivalent basis than the monocultures. Increased biomass production was largely caused by a complementarity effect rather than a selection effect. The differences in root crown architecture and vertical root distribution among the components of the ‘three sisters’ suggest that these species have different, possibly complementary, nutrient foraging strategies. Maize foraged relatively shallower, common bean explored the vertical soil profile more equally, while the root placement of squash depended on P availability. The density of lateral root branching was significantly greater for all species in the polycultures than in the monocultures. Conclusions It is concluded that species differences in root foraging strategies increase total soil exploration, with consequent positive effects on the growth and yield of these ancient polycultures. PMID:25274551

  15. A Serving of Vegetables in Pizza? Evaluating the Nutritional Value and Likeability of Pizza Crust with the Addition of Zucchini or Cauliflower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghighi, Amanda; Maioriello, Gina; Piper, Darlene; Waters, Betty; Vollmer, Rachel L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of the meaningful addition of vegetables, using cauliflower and zucchini, to a pizza crust on the likeability of taste, texture, appearance, and overall preference of the pizza. The likeability testing revealed that the cauliflower variation produced an unacceptable product in texture,…

  16. T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia within an adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone positive pituitary adenoma: A cytohistological correlation emphasizing importance of intra-operative squash smear.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh K; Saran, Ravindra K; Srivastava, Arvind K; Jagetia, Anita; Garg, Lalit; Sharma, Mehar C

    2017-08-01

    We present a rare case of primary pituitary T cell lymphoma/leukemia (T-LBL) in association with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) expressing pituitary adenoma in a 55-year-old woman highlighting the importance of intra-operative squash smears examination. The patient presented with complaints of headache, diminution of vision and recent onset altered sensorium. MRI revealed a mass lesion in the sellar-suprasellar region with non-visualization of pituitary gland separately, extending to involve adjacent structures diagnosed as invasive pituitary macroadenoma. Intra-operative tissue was sent for squash smear examination. The cytology showed a tumor comprising of sheets of immature lymphoid cells intermixed with clusters of pituitary acinar cells with many mitoses and tingible body macrophages. A diagnosis of presence of immature lymphoid cells within the pituitary was offered and differentials of infiltration by lymphoma cells from systemic disease versus primary central nervous lymphoma-like lymphoma arising in the pituitary adenoma were considered. Later paraffin section examination and immunohistochemistry corroborated with the squash findings and a final diagnosis of primary pituitary T cell lymphoma/leukemia in association with ACTH and TSH expressing pituitary adenoma was made. To date, only six cases of primary pituitary T cell lymphomas, including three T-LBL cases, have been reported. This is the seventh case and first one additionally describing cytohistological correlation and importance of intra-operative cytology. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Intact Plastids Are Required for Nitrate- and Light-Induced Accumulation of Nitrate Reductase Activity and mRNA in Squash Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Oelmüller, Rolf; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1990-01-01

    Induction of nitrate reductase activity and mRNA by nitrate and light is prevented if chloroplasts are destroyed by photooxidation in norflurazon-treated squash (Cucurbita maxima L.) cotyledons. The enzyme activity and mRNA can be induced if norflurazon-treated squash seedlings are kept in low-intensity red light, which minimizes photodamage to the plastids. It is concluded that induction of nitrate reductase activity and nitrate reductase mRNA requires intact plastids. If squash seedlings grown in low-intensity red light are transferred to photooxidative white light, nitrate reductase activity accumulates during the first 12 hours after the shift and declines thereafter. Thus photodamage to the plastids and the disappearance of nitrate reductase activity and mRNA are events separable in time, and disappearance of the enzyme activity is a consequence of the damage to the plastids. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16667294

  18. Squash preparation: A reliable diagnostic tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sumit; Kumar, Mohan; Sharma, Vivek; Mukhopadhyay, Debasis

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative cytology is an important diagnostic modality improving on the accuracy of the frozen sections. It has shown to play an important role especially in the intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system tumors. Aim: To study the diagnostic accuracy of squash preparation and frozen section (FS) in the intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Materials and Methods: This prospective study of 114 patients with CNS tumors was conducted over a period of 18 months (September 2004 to February 2006). The cytological preparations were stained by the quick Papanicolaou method. The squash interpretation and FS diagnosis were later compared with the paraffin section diagnosis. Results: Of the 114 patients, cytological diagnosis was offered in 96 cases. Eighteen nonneoplastic or noncontributory cases were excluded. Using hematoxylin and eosin-stained histopathology sections as the gold standard, the diagnostic accuracy of cytology was 88.5% (85/96) and the accuracy on FS diagnosis was 90.6% (87/96). Among these cases, gliomas formed the largest category of tumors (55.2%). The cytological accuracy in this group was 84.9% (45/53) and the comparative FS figure was 86.8% (46/53). In cases where the smear and the FS diagnosis did not match, the latter opinion was offered. Conclusions: Squash preparation is a reliable, rapid and easy method and can be used as a complement to FS in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors. PMID:21187881

  19. Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen Songbai; Wang Bin; Su Rukeng

    2008-01-15

    We explore the signature of the extra dimension in the Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons. Comparing with the spherical case, we find that the rotating parameter brings richer physics. We obtain the appropriate size of the extra dimension which can enhance the Hawking radiation and may open a window to detect the extra dimensions.

  20. The cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ranere, Anthony J.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; Dickau, Ruth; Iriarte, José

    2009-01-01

    Molecular evidence indicates that the wild ancestor of maize is presently native to the seasonally dry tropical forest of the Central Balsas watershed in southwestern Mexico. We report here on archaeological investigations in a region of the Central Balsas located near the Iguala Valley in Guerrero state that show for the first time a long sequence of human occupation and plant exploitation reaching back to the early Holocene. One of the sites excavated, the Xihuatoxtla Shelter, contains well-stratified deposits and a stone tool assemblage of bifacially flaked points, simple flake tools, and numerous handstones and milling stone bases radiocarbon dated to at least 8700 calendrical years B.P. As reported in a companion paper (Piperno DR, et al., in this issue of PNAS), starch grain and phytolith residues from the ground and chipped stone tools, plus phytoliths from directly associated sediments, provide evidence for maize (Zea mays L.) and domesticated squash (Cucurbita spp.) in contexts contemporaneous with and stratigraphically below the 8700 calendrical years B.P. date. The radiocarbon determinations, stratigraphic integrity of Xihuatoxtla's deposits, and characteristics of the stone tool assemblages associated with the maize and squash remains all indicate that these plants were early Holocene domesticates. Early agriculture in this region of Mexico appears to have involved small groups of cultivators who were shifting their settlements seasonally and engaging in a variety of subsistence pursuits. PMID:19307573

  1. Zucchini-dependent piRNA processing is triggered by recruitment to the cytoplasmic processing machinery

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Alicia K.; Situ, Kathy; Perkins, Edward M.; Toth, Katalin Fejes

    2017-01-01

    The piRNA pathway represses transposable elements in the gonads and thereby plays a vital role in protecting the integrity of germline genomes of animals. Mature piRNAs are processed from longer transcripts, piRNA precursors (pre-piRNAs). In Drosophila, processing of pre-piRNAs is initiated by piRNA-guided Slicer cleavage or the endonuclease Zucchini (Zuc). As Zuc does not have any sequence or structure preferences in vitro, it is not known how piRNA precursors are selected and channeled into the Zuc-dependent processing pathway. We show that a heterologous RNA that lacks complementary piRNAs is processed into piRNAs upon recruitment of several piRNA pathway factors. This processing requires Zuc and the helicase Armitage (Armi). Aubergine (Aub), Argonaute 3 (Ago3), and components of the nuclear RDC complex, which are required for normal piRNA biogenesis in germ cells, are dispensable. Our approach allows discrimination of proteins involved in the transcription and export of piRNA precursors from components required for the cytoplasmic processing steps. piRNA processing correlates with localization of the substrate RNA to nuage, a distinct membraneless cytoplasmic compartment, which surrounds the nucleus of germ cells, suggesting that sequestration of RNA to this subcellular compartment is both necessary and sufficient for selecting piRNA biogenesis substrates. PMID:29021243

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... McPhail traps (or a similar type with a protein bait that has been approved for the pests of concern) in...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... McPhail traps (or a similar type with a protein bait that has been approved for the pests of concern) in...

  4. The Impact of Location and Growing Medium on Harvest Yield and Flavor of Basil and Squash Microgreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, J.; Ventura, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to discover the most efficient, feasible way to produce a high yield of flavorful microgreens within the best growing medium and building location at the Stanford Educational Farm. In recent years, microgreens, young, small edible greens utilized as flavor garnishes for fine dining, have evolved into an immensely profitable market that will continue to expand and prosper. To capitalize on such opportunities, the primary metrics focused upon are harvest yield and flavor of basil and squash microgreens, as they develop in different concentrations of quick root and compost while located in either a greenhouse or lath house. It was hypothesized that if basil and squash microgreens were grown in a mixture of 50% compost and 50% quick root in the greenhouse, then they would produce the greatest harvest yield and maximum amount of flavor. The general experimental protocol includes monitoring the growth of the microgreens, then harvesting directly after the first true leaves begin to emerge. Upon harvest, each set of microgreens are separated into different clear glass jars to place on a small scale for weighing to determine the yield and tasting the leaves to analyze the flavor content. The highest yield of basil (63 grams) developed in a tray of 100% quick root in the lath house, while the greatest yield of squash (51 grams) succeeded in 100% quick root in the greenhouse. Overall however, the basil grew fastest in the greenhouse but tasted stronger in the lath house. Additionally, because the harvest yield and flavor results were so poor in all other locations and growing mediums for squash during the first trial, it cannot be considered a viable microgreen. In the future, more trials should be conducted for greater numbers of trays of microgreens to collect more data. The nutritional value of microgreens should also be explored further to obtain a holistic approach to the value of these plants from seed to harvest to consumption.

  5. Crop domestication facilitated rapid geographic expansion of a specialist pollinator, the squash bee Peponapis pruinosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past 10,000 years, humans have facilitated rapid range expansions of animal, plants and microorganisms, often accompanying agriculture’s spread. Three squash species were early domesticates in the New World. Their spreading cultivation out of the Southwest across much of today’s USA has bee...

  6. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE (registered trademark) and Scythe (registered trademark)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  7. [Effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash].

    PubMed

    Du, She-ni; Bai, Gang-shuan; Liang, Yin-li

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment with artificial shading was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash variety "Jingyingyihao". Under all test soil moisture conditions, 30% shading promoted the growth of "Jingyingyihao", with the highest yield at 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents. 70% shading inhibited plant growth severely, only flowering and not bearing fruits, no economic yield produced. In all treatments, there was a similar water consumption trend, i. e., both the daily and the total water consumption decreased with increasing shading and decreasing soil moisture content. Among all treatments, 30% shading and 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents had the highest water use efficiency (2.36 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)) and water output rate (1.57 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)). The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content of squash leaves decreased with increasing shading, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration was in adverse. The leaf protective enzyme activity and proline content decreased with increasing shading, and the leaf MAD content decreased in the order of 70% shading, natural radiation, and 30% shading. Under the three light intensities, the change characteristics of squash leaf photosynthesis, protective enzyme activity, and proline and MAD contents differed with the increase of soil relative moisture content.

  8. First Complete Squash leaf curl China virus Genomic Segment DNA-A Sequence from East Timor

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the first complete Squash leaf curl China virus (SLCCV) genomic segment DNA-A sequence from East Timor. It was isolated from a pumpkin plant. When compared with 15 complete SLCCV DNA-A genome sequences from other world regions, it most resembled the Malaysian isolate MC1 sequence. PMID:28619789

  9. Increased germination and growth rates of pea and Zucchini seed by FSG plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatami, Shohreh; Ahmadinia, Arash

    2018-04-01

    Recently, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) with the unique bio-disinfection features is used in various fields of industry, medicine, and agriculture. The main objectives of this work were to design FSG plasma (a semi-automatic device) and investigate the effect of the cold plasma in the enhancement of the Pea and Zucchini seed germination. Plasma irradiation time was studied to obtain a proper condition for the germination enhancement of seeds. The growth rate was calculated by measuring length of root and stem and dry weight of plants treated by plasma. To investigate drought resistance of plants, all treated and untreated samples were kept in darkness without water for 48 h. From the experimental results, it could be confirmed both drought resistance and germination of seedlings increased after plasma was applied to seeds at 30 s, while seeds treated whiten 60 s showed a decrease in both germination rate and seedling growth.

  10. The effect of court location and available time on the tactical shot selection of elite squash players.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Goran; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike; Murray, Stafford; Sporiš, Goran; Perš, Janez

    2013-01-01

    No previous research in squash has considered the time between shots or the proximity of the ball to a wall, which are two important variables that influence shot outcomes. The aim of this paper was to analyse shot types to determine the extent to which they are played in different court areas and a more detailed analysis to determine whether the time available had an influence on the shot selected. Ten elite matches, contested by fifteen of the world's top right handed squash players (age 27 ± 3.2, height 1.81 ± 0.06 m, weight 76.3 ± 3.7 kg), at the men's World Team Championships were processed using the SAGIT/Squash tracking system with shot information manually added to the system. Results suggested that shot responses were dependent upon court location and the time between shots. When these factors were considered repeatable performance existed to the extent that one of two shots was typically played when there was limited time to play the shot (< 1.20s). For example, it was clear that when players did not have a lot of time to hit the ball (low time i.e. < 1.06s, and mid time i.e. 1.06 - 1.20s) in the front left corner close to the side wall, the crosscourt lob was used frequently (44.30% and 36.31% respectively) whereas when there was more time this shot was seldom used (13.64%). Consequently variant and invariant behaviour were shown to exist in elite squash although for the first time it was suggested that the availability of time to play a shot contributed to which of these behaviours was evident. This analysis could be extended by adopting a case study approach to see how individual differences in strategy and tactics affect shot selections. Key pointsPrevious research has suggested that a playing strategy, elements decided in advance of the match, may be evident for elite players by examining court location and preceding shot type, however these parameters alone are unlikely to be sufficient predictors.At present there is no known analysis in squash

  11. The Effect of Court Location and Available Time on the Tactical Shot Selection of Elite Squash Players

    PubMed Central

    Vučković, Goran; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike; Murray, Stafford; Sporiš, Goran; Perš, Janez

    2013-01-01

    No previous research in squash has considered the time between shots or the proximity of the ball to a wall, which are two important variables that influence shot outcomes. The aim of this paper was to analyse shot types to determine the extent to which they are played in different court areas and a more detailed analysis to determine whether the time available had an influence on the shot selected. Ten elite matches, contested by fifteen of the world’s top right handed squash players (age 27 ± 3.2, height 1.81 ± 0.06 m, weight 76.3 ± 3.7 kg), at the men’s World Team Championships were processed using the SAGIT/Squash tracking system with shot information manually added to the system. Results suggested that shot responses were dependent upon court location and the time between shots. When these factors were considered repeatable performance existed to the extent that one of two shots was typically played when there was limited time to play the shot (< 1.20s). For example, it was clear that when players did not have a lot of time to hit the ball (low time i.e. < 1.06s, and mid time i.e. 1.06 - 1.20s) in the front left corner close to the side wall, the crosscourt lob was used frequently (44.30% and 36.31% respectively) whereas when there was more time this shot was seldom used (13.64%). Consequently variant and invariant behaviour were shown to exist in elite squash although for the first time it was suggested that the availability of time to play a shot contributed to which of these behaviours was evident. This analysis could be extended by adopting a case study approach to see how individual differences in strategy and tactics affect shot selections. Key points Previous research has suggested that a playing strategy, elements decided in advance of the match, may be evident for elite players by examining court location and preceding shot type, however these parameters alone are unlikely to be sufficient predictors. At present there is no known analysis in

  12. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6–7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis. PMID:25972878

  14. Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance.

    PubMed

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Jones, R A C

    2011-08-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, 10 field experiments were done at Kununurra, Carnarvon or Medina in Western Australia (WA) which have tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean climates, respectively. These experiments investigated the effectiveness of cultural control measures in limiting ZYMV spread in pumpkin, and single-gene resistance in commercial cultivars of pumpkin, zucchini and cucumber. Melon aphids (Aphis gossypii) colonised field experiments at Kununurra; migrant green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) visited but did not colonise at Carnarvon and Medina. Cultural control measures that diminished ZYMV spread in pumpkin included manipulation of planting date to avoid exposing young plants to peak aphid vector populations, deploying tall non-host barriers (millet, Pennisetum glaucum) to protect against incoming aphid vectors and planting upwind of infection sources. Clustering of ZYMV-infected pumpkin plants was greater without a 25m wide non-host barrier between the infection source and the pumpkin plants than when one was present, and downwind compared with upwind of an infection source. Host resistance gene zym was effective against ZYMV isolate Knx-1 from Kununurra in five cultivars of cucumber. In zucchini, host resistance gene Zym delayed spread of infection (partial resistance) in 2 of 14 cultivars but otherwise did not diminish final ZYMV incidence. Zucchini cultivars carrying Zym often developed severe fruit symptoms (8/14), and only the two cultivars in which spread was delayed and one that was tolerant produced sufficiently high marketable yields to be recommended when ZYMV epidemics are anticipated. In three pumpkin cultivars with Zym, this gene was effective against isolate Cvn-1 from Carnarvon under low inoculum pressure, but not against isolate Knx-1 under high inoculum pressure, although symptoms were milder and marketable yields greater in them than in cultivars without Zym. These findings allowed additional cultural control recommendations to be added

  15. Squashing the Millennium Bug: A Year 2000 Compliance Guide for Elementary/Secondary Schools and School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Mark; Carlson, Robert; Dexter, David; Karinch, Samantha; Kaplan, Heather

    This guide was developed to assist the nation's elementary and secondary schools and school districts address their Year 2000 (Y2K) problem. The guide is divided into three sections: Squashing the Millennium Bug Step-by-Step; Remediating Specific Types of Systems; and Appendix. The first chapter presents the following steps for tackling the Year…

  16. Effects of Cucumber mosaic virus infection on vector and non-vector herbivores of squash.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Kerry E; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2010-11-01

    Plant chemicals mediating interactions with insect herbivores seem a likely target for manipulation by insectvectored plant pathogens. Yet, little is currently known about the chemical ecology of insect-vectored diseases or their effects on the ecology of vector and nonvector insects. We recently reported that a widespread plant pathogen, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), greatly reduces the quality of host-plants (squash) for aphid vectors, but that aphids are nevertheless attracted to the odors of infected plants-which exhibit elevated emissions of a volatile blend otherwise similar to the odor of healthy plants. This finding suggests that exaggerating existing host-location cues can be a viable vector attraction strategy for pathogens that otherwise reduce host quality for vectors. Here we report additional data regarding the effects of CMV infection on plant interactions with a common nonvector herbivore, the squash bug, Anasa tristis, which is a pest in this system. We found that adult A. tristis females preferred to oviposit on healthy plants in the field, and that healthy plants supported higher populations of nymphs. Collectively, our recent findings suggest that CMV-induced changes in host plant chemistry influence the behavior of both vector and non-vector herbivores, with significant implications both for disease spread and for broader community-level interactions.

  17. Development and evaluation of ELISA and qRT-PCR for identification of Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were developed for identification of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. Both assays were capable of detecting SqVYV in a wide range of cucurbit hosts. ...

  18. Influence of insecticides and reflective mulch on watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines a few weeks ...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside the greenhouses at a density of four... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside a buffer area 500 meters wide around the...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside the greenhouses at a density of four... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside a buffer area 500 meters wide around the...

  1. A second gene for acyl-(acyl-carrier-protein): glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in squash, Cucurbita moschata cv. Shirogikuza(*), codes for an oleate-selective isozyme: molecular cloning and protein purification studies.

    PubMed

    Nishida, I; Sugiura, M; Enju, A; Nakamura, M

    2000-12-01

    A new isogene for acyl-(acyl-carrier-protein):glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; EC 2.3.1.15) in squash has been cloned and the gene product was identified as oleate-selective GPAT. Using PCR primers that could hybridise with exons for a previously cloned squash GPAT, we obtained two PCR products of different size: one coded for a previously cloned squash GPAT corresponding to non-selective isoforms AT2 and AT3, and the other for a new isozyme, probably the oleate-selective isoform AT1. Full-length amino acid sequences of respective isozymes were deduced from the nucleotide sequences of genomic genes and cDNAs, which were cloned by a series of PCR-based methods. Thus, we designated the new gene CmATS1;1 and the other one CmATS1;2. Genome blot analysis revealed that the squash genome contained the two isogenes at non-allelic loci. AT1-active fractions were partially purified, and three polypeptide bands were identified as being AT1 polypeptides, which exhibited relative molecular masses of 39.5-40.5 kDa, pI values of 6.75-7.15, and oleate selectivity over palmitate. Partial amino-terminal sequences obtained from two of these bands verified that the new isogene codes for AT1 polypeptides.

  2. The Potential Influence of Bumble Bee Visitation on Foraging Behaviors and Assemblages of Honey Bees on Squash Flowers in Highland Agricultural Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhenghua; Pan, Dongdong; Teichroew, Jonathan; An, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Bee species interactions can benefit plant pollination through synergistic effects and complementary effects, or can be of detriment to plant pollination through competition effects by reducing visitation by effective pollinators. Since specific bee interactions influence the foraging performance of bees on flowers, they also act as drivers to regulate the assemblage of flower visitors. We selected squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and its pollinators as a model system to study the foraging response of honey bees to the occurrence of bumble bees at two types of sites surrounded by a high amount of natural habitats (≥ 58% of land cover) and a low amount of natural habitats (≤ 12% of land cover) in a highland agricultural ecosystem in China. At the individual level, we measured the elapsed time from the departure of prior pollinator(s) to the arrival of another pollinator, the selection of honey bees for flowers occupied by bumble bees, and the length of time used by honey bees to explore floral resources at the two types of sites. At the community level, we explored the effect of bumble bee visitation on the distribution patterns of honey bees on squash flowers. Conclusively, bumble bee visitation caused an increase in elapsed time before flowers were visited again by a honey bee, a behavioral avoidance by a newly-arriving honey bee to select flowers occupied by bumble bees, and a shortened length of time the honey bee takes to examine and collect floral resources. The number of overall bumble bees on squash flowers was the most important factor explaining the difference in the distribution patterns of honey bees at the community level. Furthermore, decline in the number of overall bumble bees on the squash flowers resulted in an increase in the number of overall honey bees. Therefore, our study suggests that bee interactions provide an opportunity to enhance the resilience of ecosystem pollination services against the decline in pollinator diversity. PMID:26765140

  3. The Potential Influence of Bumble Bee Visitation on Foraging Behaviors and Assemblages of Honey Bees on Squash Flowers in Highland Agricultural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhenghua; Pan, Dongdong; Teichroew, Jonathan; An, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Bee species interactions can benefit plant pollination through synergistic effects and complementary effects, or can be of detriment to plant pollination through competition effects by reducing visitation by effective pollinators. Since specific bee interactions influence the foraging performance of bees on flowers, they also act as drivers to regulate the assemblage of flower visitors. We selected squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and its pollinators as a model system to study the foraging response of honey bees to the occurrence of bumble bees at two types of sites surrounded by a high amount of natural habitats (≥ 58% of land cover) and a low amount of natural habitats (≤ 12% of land cover) in a highland agricultural ecosystem in China. At the individual level, we measured the elapsed time from the departure of prior pollinator(s) to the arrival of another pollinator, the selection of honey bees for flowers occupied by bumble bees, and the length of time used by honey bees to explore floral resources at the two types of sites. At the community level, we explored the effect of bumble bee visitation on the distribution patterns of honey bees on squash flowers. Conclusively, bumble bee visitation caused an increase in elapsed time before flowers were visited again by a honey bee, a behavioral avoidance by a newly-arriving honey bee to select flowers occupied by bumble bees, and a shortened length of time the honey bee takes to examine and collect floral resources. The number of overall bumble bees on squash flowers was the most important factor explaining the difference in the distribution patterns of honey bees at the community level. Furthermore, decline in the number of overall bumble bees on the squash flowers resulted in an increase in the number of overall honey bees. Therefore, our study suggests that bee interactions provide an opportunity to enhance the resilience of ecosystem pollination services against the decline in pollinator diversity.

  4. Transcriptome characterization and high throughput SSRs and SNPs discovery in Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cucurbita pepo belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. The "Zucchini" types rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide, and other C. pepo and related Cucurbita spp., are food staples and rich sources of fat and vitamins. A broad range of genomic tools are today available for other cucurbits that have become models for the study of different metabolic processes. However, these tools are still lacking in the Cucurbita genus, thus limiting gene discovery and the process of breeding. Results We report the generation of a total of 512,751 C. pepo EST sequences, using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs were obtained from normalized cDNA libraries (root, leaves, and flower tissue) prepared using two varieties with contrasting phenotypes for plant, flowering and fruit traits, representing the two C. pepo subspecies: subsp. pepo cv. Zucchini and subsp. ovifera cv Scallop. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 49,610 Cucurbita unigenes (average length of 626 bp) that represent the first transcriptome of the species. Over 60% of the unigenes were functionally annotated and assigned to one or more Gene Ontology terms. The distributions of Cucurbita unigenes followed similar tendencies than that reported for Arabidopsis or melon, suggesting that the dataset may represent the whole Cucurbita transcriptome. About 34% unigenes were detected to have known orthologs of Arabidopsis or melon, including genes potentially involved in disease resistance, flowering and fruit quality. Furthermore, a set of 1,882 unigenes with SSR motifs and 9,043 high confidence SNPs between Zucchini and Scallop were identified, of which 3,538 SNPs met criteria for use with high throughput genotyping platforms, and 144 could be detected as CAPS. A set of markers were validated, being 80% of them polymorphic in a set of variable C. pepo and C. moschata accessions. Conclusion We present the first broad survey of gene sequences and allelic variation in C. pepo, where

  5. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  6. Wilson loops and chiral correlators on squashed spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucito, F.; Morales, J. F.; Poghossian, R.

    2015-11-01

    We study chiral deformations of N=2 and N=4 supersymmetric gauge theories obtained by turning on τ J tr Φ J interactions with Φ the N=2 superfield. Using localization, we compute the deformed gauge theory partition function Z(overrightarrow{τ}|q) and the expectation value of circular Wilson loops W on a squashed four-sphere. In the case of the deformed {N}=4 theory, exact formulas for Z and W are derived in terms of an underlying U( N) interacting matrix model replacing the free Gaussian model describing the {N}=4 theory. Using the AGT correspondence, the τ J -deformations are related to the insertions of commuting integrals of motion in the four-point CFT correlator and chiral correlators are expressed as τ-derivatives of the gauge theory partition function on a finite Ω-background. In the so called Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, the entire ring of chiral relations is extracted from the ɛ-deformed Seiberg-Witten curve. As a byproduct of our analysis we show that SU(2) gauge theories on rational Ω-backgrounds are dual to CFT minimal models.

  7. Squashed, magnetized black holes in D = 5 minimal gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen

    2018-02-01

    We construct a new class of black hole solutions in five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with a negative cosmological constant. These configurations are cohomogeneity-1, with two equal-magnitude angular momenta. In the generic case, they possess a non-vanishing magnetic potential at infinity with a boundary metric which is the product of time and a squashed three-dimensional sphere. Both extremal and non-extremal black holes are studied. The non-extremal black holes satisfying a certain relation between electric charge, angular momenta and magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity do not trivialize in the limit of vanishing event horizon size, becoming particle-like (non-topological) solitonic configurations. Among the extremal black holes, we show the existence of a new one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions, which bifurcate from a critical Gutowski-Reall configuration.

  8. Generalized Squashing Factors for Covariant Description of Magnetic Connectivity in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titov, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study of magnetic connectivity in the solar corona reveals a need to generalize the field line mapping technique to arbitrary geometry of the boundaries and systems of coordinates. Indeed, the global description of the connectivity in the corona requires the use of the photospheric and solar wind boundaries. Both are closed surfaces and therefore do not admit a global regular system of coordinates. At least two overlapping regular systems of coordinates for each of the boundaries are necessary in this case to avoid spherical-pole-like singularities in the coordinates of the footpoints. This implies that the basic characteristic of magnetic connectivity-the squashing degree or factor Q of elemental flux tubes, according to Titov and coworkers-must be rewritten in covariant form. Such a covariant expression of Q is derived in this work. The derived expression is very flexible and highly efficient for describing the global magnetic connectivity in the solar corona. In addition, a general expression for a new characteristic Q1, which defines a squashing of the flux tubes in the directions perpendicular to the field lines, is determined. This new quantity makes it possible to filter out the quasi-separatrix layers whose large values of Q are caused by a projection effect at the field lines nearly touching the photosphere. Thus, the value Q1 provides a much more precise description of the volumetric properties of the magnetic field structure. The difference between Q and Q1 is illustrated by comparing their distributions for two configurations, one of which is the Titov-Demoulin model of a twisted magnetic field.

  9. Involving children in cooking activities: A potential strategy for directing food choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

    PubMed

    Allirot, Xavier; da Quinta, Noelia; Chokupermal, Krithika; Urdaneta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Involving children in cooking has been suggested as a strategy to improve dietary habits in childhood. Interventions in schools including cooking, gardening and tasting activities have showed promising results. Several cross-sectional surveys demonstrated associations between frequency of involvement in food preparation and better diet quality. However, experimental studies confirming the beneficial effect of cooking on food choices in children are missing from the literature. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in cooking on their willingness to taste novel foods, food intake, liking and hunger. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 137 children between 7 and 11 years old. 69 children (COOK group) participated in the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple/beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. 68 children (CONTROL group) participated, instead, in a creative workshop. Afterwards, the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple/beetroot juice, potato vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the COOK vs. CONTROL group (P = 0.037). The overall willingness to taste the unfamiliar foods was also higher in the COOK group (P = 0.011). The liking for the whole afternoon snack (P = 0.034), for 2 of 3 unfamiliar foods and for 1 of 3 familiar foods was higher in the COOK group (P < 0.05). We did not demonstrate any difference between the two groups in overall food intake and hunger/satiety scores. This study demonstrated that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct food choices towards foods containing vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Congener specificity in the accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in zucchini plants grown hydroponically.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Wakai, Taketo; Gion, Keiko; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kim, Yun-Seok; Eun, Heesoo

    2011-01-01

    Zucchini cultivars Cucurbita pepo subsp. ovifera cv. Patty Green and subsp. pepo cv. Gold Rush were cultivated hydroponically in a nutrient solution supplemented with a mixture of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Patty Green and Gold Rush showed low and high accumulation of these compounds in the aerial parts respectively. In both cultivars, the accumulation of each congener negatively depended on its hydrophobicity. This suggests that desorption and solubilization were partly responsible for congener specificity of accumulation, since this was not found in soil experiments. In contrast, no clear difference in accumulation in the roots was observed between the cultivars, whereas the translocation factors, which are indicators of efficient translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, differed among the congeners hydrophobicity-dependently. There were positive correlations between accumulation in the roots and the hydrophobicity of the polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in both cultivars. These results indicate that translocation was also partly responsible for the congener specificity and accumulation concentrations.

  11. Rapid immunocytochemistry based on alternating current electric field using squash smear preparation of central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun; Tanino, Mishie Ann; Takenami, Tomoko; Endoh, Tomoko; Urushido, Masana; Kato, Yasutaka; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tsuda, Masumi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections. On the other hand, squash smear preparation of CNS tumors for cytology does not affect the frozen artifacts, and the importance of smear preparation is now being re-recognized as being better than that of the tissue sections. In this study, we established the rapid immunocytochemistry (R-ICC) protocol for squash smears of CNS tumors using AC electric field that takes only 22 min, and demonstrated its usefulness for semi-quantitative Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index and CD 20 by R-ICC for intraoperative diagnosis. R-ICC by AC electric field may become a substantial tool for compensating R-IHC and will be applied for broad antibodies in the future.

  12. Risk assessment of genetically engineered crops: fitness effects of virus-resistance transgenes in wild Cucurbita pepo.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, Karen D; Power, Alison G; Snow, Allison A; Spencer, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    The development of crops genetically engineered for pathogen resistance has raised concerns that crop-to-wild gene flow could release wild or weedy relatives from regulation by the pathogens targeted by the transgenes that confer resistance. Investigation of these risks has also raised questions about the impact of gene flow from conventional crops into wild plant populations. Viruses in natural plant populations can play important roles in plant fecundity and competitive interactions. Here, we show that virus-resistance transgenes and conventional crop genes can increase fecundity of wild plants under virus pressure. We asked how gene flow from a cultivated squash (Cucurbita pepo) engineered for virus resistance would affect the fecundity of wild squash (C. pepo) in the presence and absence of virus pressure. A transgenic squash cultivar was crossed and backcrossed with wild C. pepo from Arkansas. Wild C. pepo, transgenic backcross plants, and non-transgenic backcross plants were compared in field plots in Ithaca, New York, USA. The second and third generations of backcrosses (BC2 and BC3) were used in 2002 and 2003, respectively. One-half of the plants were inoculated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and one-half of the plants were maintained as healthy controls. Virus pressure dramatically decreased the fecundity of wild C. pepo plants and non-transgenic backcross plants relative to transgenic backcross plants, which showed continued functioning of the virus-resistance transgene. In 2002, non-transgenic backcross fecundity was slightly higher than wild C. pepo fecundity under virus pressure, indicating a possible benefit of conventional crop alleles, but they did not differ in 2003 when fecundity was lower in both groups. We detected no fitness costs of the transgene in the absence of the virus. If viruses play a role in the population dynamics of wild C. pepo, we predict that gene flow from transgenic, virus-resistant squash and, to a much lesser

  13. Ovipositional preferences of two squash bug species, Anasa tristis, and Anasa armigera (Heteroptera: Coreidae), for different cultivars and species of Cucurbitaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ovipositional preferences of two squash bug species, Anasa tristis (DeGeer) and Anasa armigera Say, were evaluated in paired choice tests of different species and cultivars of plants in the family Cucurbitaceae. Females of A. tristis preferred to oviposit on the cultivar from which they were rea...

  14. Molecular evidence that zucchini yellow fleck virus is a distinct and variable potyvirus related to papaya ringspot virus and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Desbiez, C; Justafre, I; Lecoq, H

    2007-02-01

    Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV, genus Potyvirus) infects cultivated or wild cucurbits in the Mediterranean basin and occasionally causes severe damage in crops. Biological and serological data tend to indicate that ZYFV is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, mainly papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). In order to establish unambiguously the taxonomic status of ZYFV, the sequence of the 3' part of the genome - encompassing the CP coding region - of two ZYFV strains originating from Italy and France was obtained and compared with other potyviruses. The results obtained indicate that ZYFV belongs to a distinct potyvirus species, related to but different from PRSV and MWMV.

  15. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, E.C.; Stephenson, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical Inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. PMID:25107623

  16. A duplex real-time RT-PCR system with an internal control offers sensitive and reliable broad spectrum detection of Squash mosaic virus variants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) is a seed-borne virus, belonging to the genus Commovirus in the subfamily Comoviridae of family Secoviridae. SqMV has a bipartite single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome (RNA1 and RNA2) encapsidated separately with two capsid proteins. Two serotypes (genotypes) of ...

  17. Characterization of auxin-binding proteins from zucchini plasma membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, G. R.; Rice, M. S.; Lomax, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified two auxin-binding polypeptides in plasma membrane (PM) preparations from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) (Hicks et al. 1989, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4948-4952). These polypeptides have molecular weights of 40 kDa and 42 kDa and label specifically with the photoaffinity auxin analog 5-N3-7-3H-IAA (azido-IAA). Azido-IAA permits both the covalent and radioactive tagging of auxin-binding proteins and has allowed us to characterize further the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, including the nature of their attachment to the PM, their relationship to each other, and their potential function. The azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides remain in the pelleted membrane fraction following high-salt and detergent washes, which indicates a tight and possibly integral association with the PM. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of partially purified azido-IAA-labeled protein demonstrates that, in addition to the major isoforms of the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, which possess isoelectric points (pIs) of 8.2 and 7.2, respectively, several less abundant isoforms that display unique pIs are apparent at both molecular masses. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the auxin-binding proteins indicates that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are closely related or are modifications of the same polypeptide. Phase extraction with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 results in partitioning of the azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides into the aqueous (hydrophilic) phase. This apparently paradoxical behavior is also exhibited by certain integral membrane proteins that aggregate to form channels. The results of gel filtration indicate that the auxin-binding proteins do indeed aggregate strongly and that the polypeptides associate to form a dimer or multimeric complex in vivo. These characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are subunits of a multimeric integral membrane protein which has an auxin-binding site, and which may

  18. Characterization of auxin-binding proteins from zucchini plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hicks, G R; Rice, M S; Lomax, T L

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified two auxin-binding polypeptides in plasma membrane (PM) preparations from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) (Hicks et al. 1989, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4948-4952). These polypeptides have molecular weights of 40 kDa and 42 kDa and label specifically with the photoaffinity auxin analog 5-N3-7-3H-IAA (azido-IAA). Azido-IAA permits both the covalent and radioactive tagging of auxin-binding proteins and has allowed us to characterize further the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, including the nature of their attachment to the PM, their relationship to each other, and their potential function. The azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides remain in the pelleted membrane fraction following high-salt and detergent washes, which indicates a tight and possibly integral association with the PM. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of partially purified azido-IAA-labeled protein demonstrates that, in addition to the major isoforms of the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, which possess isoelectric points (pIs) of 8.2 and 7.2, respectively, several less abundant isoforms that display unique pIs are apparent at both molecular masses. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the auxin-binding proteins indicates that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are closely related or are modifications of the same polypeptide. Phase extraction with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 results in partitioning of the azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides into the aqueous (hydrophilic) phase. This apparently paradoxical behavior is also exhibited by certain integral membrane proteins that aggregate to form channels. The results of gel filtration indicate that the auxin-binding proteins do indeed aggregate strongly and that the polypeptides associate to form a dimer or multimeric complex in vivo. These characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are subunits of a multimeric integral membrane protein which has an auxin-binding site, and which may

  19. Revisiting the ADT mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jun-Jin

    2017-10-01

    We evaluate the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons on two different on-shell reference backgrounds, which are the flat background and the boundary matched Kaluza-Klein (KK) monopole. The mass on the former, identified with the one on the background of the asymptotic geometry, differs from the mass on the latter by that of the KK monopole. However, each mass satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. To test the results in five dimensions, we compute the mass in the context of the dimensionally reduced theory. Finally, in contrast with the original ADT formulation, its off-shell generalisation is applied to calculate the mass as well.

  20. Have the attitudes of Australian squash players towards protective eyewear changed over the past decade?

    PubMed Central

    Eime, R; Finch, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess indicative trends in the use of protective eyewear by Australian squash players and their attitudes towards its use since 1989. Methods: Data were extracted from three Australian surveys of squash players conducted in 1989, 1995, and 2000. Responses to directly similar attitudinal questions relating to protective eyewear use from each survey were compared. The proportion of players giving each response was calculated for each survey, along with 95% confidence intervals for the differences between the 2000 survey and those from the earlier surveys. Results: Self reported use of protective eyewear ranged from 10.0% in 1989, to 8.6% in 1995, and 18.8% in 2000. However, only 8.9% of the players surveyed in 2000 actually wore appropriate standards approved/polycarbonate lens eyewear. This can be compared with 8.0% and 2.0% of players who reported wearing appropriate polycarbonate lens eyewear in the 1989 and 1995 surveys respectively. Compared with the 1995 survey, significantly more players in 2000 believed that more players should wear protective eyewear (95% confidence interval (CI) for difference 1 to 18). A significantly higher proportion of players also supported the compulsory use of protective eyewear by juniors in 2000 than in both 1989 (95% CI for difference 6 to 24) and 1995 (95% CI for difference 5 to 22). No other attitudes had significantly changed over the decade. Conclusion: These data suggest that self reported use of protective eyewear has probably increased over the past decade. However, many players report wearing inappropriate eyewear. A transition from positive attitudes to appropriate eyewear behaviours is required before mandatory protective eyewear use can be effectively introduced. PMID:12453839

  1. Solution Structure of the Squash Aspartic Acid Proteinase Inhibitor (SQAPI) and Mutational Analysis of Pepsin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Headey, Stephen J.; MacAskill, Ursula K.; Wright, Michele A.; Claridge, Jolyon K.; Edwards, Patrick J. B.; Farley, Peter C.; Christeller, John T.; Laing, William A.; Pascal, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel β-sheet gripping an α-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting β-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S′ side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp32–Asp215 diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. PMID:20538608

  2. The responses of antioxidant system in bitter melon, sponge gourd, and winter squash under flooding and chilling stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuong Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the responses of antioxidant system and physiological parameters of bitter melon (BM), sponge gourd (SG), and winter squash (WS) under waterlogged and low temperature conditions. The BM and SG plants were subjected to 0-72 h flooding treatments, and BM and WS plants were exposed to chilling at 12/7 °C (day/night) for 0-72 h. Different genotypes responded differently to environmental stress according to their various antioxidant system and physiological parameters. Increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities provided SG and WS plants with increased waterlogging and chilling stress tolerance, respectively, compared to BM plants. The APX gene from SG and the SOD gene from WS were then cloned, and the regulation of APX and SOD gene expressions under flooding and chilling stress, respectively, were also measured. Increased expression of APX and SOD genes was accompanied by the increased activity of the enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to those stresses. Both APX and SOD activities can be used for selecting BM lines with the best tolerances to water logging and chilling stresses.

  3. Transcriptomic changes in Cucurbita pepo fruit after cold storage: differential response between two cultivars contrasting in chilling sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, F; Rosales, R; Palma, F; Manzano, S; Cañizares, J; Jamilena, M; Garrido, D

    2018-02-07

    Zucchini fruit is susceptible to chilling injury (CI), but the response to low storage temperature is cultivar dependent. Previous reports about the response of zucchini fruit to chilling storage have been focused on the physiology and biochemistry of this process, with little information about the molecular mechanisms underlying it. In this work, we present a comprehensive analysis of transcriptomic changes that take place after cold storage in zucchini fruit of two commercial cultivars with contrasting response to chilling stress. RNA-Seq analysis was conducted in exocarp of fruit at harvest and after 14 days of storage at 4 and 20 °C. Differential expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained comparing fruit stored at 4 °C with their control at 20 °C, and then specific and common up and down-regulated DEGs of each cultivar were identified. Functional analysis of these DEGs identified similarities between the response of zucchini fruit to low temperature and other stresses, with an important number of GO terms related to biotic and abiotic stresses overrepresented in both cultivars. This study also revealed several molecular mechanisms that could be related to chilling tolerance, since they were up-regulated in cv. Natura (CI tolerant) or down-regulated in cv. Sinatra (CI sensitive). These mechanisms were mainly those related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription, signal transduction, and protein transport and degradation. Among DEGs belonging to these pathways, we selected candidate genes that could regulate or promote chilling tolerance in zucchini fruit including the transcription factors MYB76-like, ZAT10-like, DELLA protein GAIP, and AP2/ERF domain-containing protein. This study provides a broader understanding of the important mechanisms and processes related to coping with low temperature stress in zucchini fruit and allowed the identification of some candidate genes that may be involved in the acquisition of chilling tolerance in this crop

  4. α-Carotene and β-Carotene Content in Raw and Cooked Pulp of Three Mature Stage Winter Squash “Type Butternut”

    PubMed Central

    Zaccari, Fernanda; Galietta, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Winter squash “type butternut” is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp of raw and microwave-cooked winter squash “type butternut” (variety CosmoF1) in three states of commercial maturity. Immature, mature, and very mature fruit, defined at the time of the harvest by the percentage of orange peel and green stalk, were evaluated. The highest concentration of carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene) in mg.100 g−1 pulp wet basis was found in very mature fruits (31.96 mg), followed by mature fruits (24.65 mg), and immature fruits (18.82 mg). Microwave cooking caused the loss of β-carotene (28.6% wet basis) and α-carotene (34.1%). Cooking promote a greater reduction of α-carotene in immature (40.3%) and mature (34.5%) fruits. The ratio of β-carotene and α-carotene content increased with commercial maturity from 0.93 for immature fruits to 1.0 for very mature fruit, with higher ratio in cooked pulp (1.04) vs. raw pulp (0.96). PMID:28231218

  5. Effects of virus infection on pollen production and pollen performance: Implications for the spread of resistance alleles.

    PubMed

    Harth, Jacquelyn E; Winsor, James A; Weakland, Danelle R; Nowak, Kayla J; Ferrari, Matthew J; Stephenson, Andrew G

    2016-03-01

    Studies over the past 25 years have shown that environmental stresses adversely affect male function, including pollen production and pollen performance (germination and pollen tube growth rate). Consequently, genetic variation among plants in resistance to a stress has the potential to impact pollen donation to conspecifics and, if deposited onto a stigma, the ability of the pollen to achieve fertilization. We examined the effects of a nonlethal virus epidemic on pollen production and pollen performance in a population of susceptible and resistant (transgenic) wild squash (Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana). We grew 135 susceptible and 45 virus-resistant wild squash plants in each of two 0.4-ha fields, initiated a zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) epidemic, and recorded staminate and pistillate flower production per plant over the field season and the total number of mature fruit. We also assessed pollen production per flower on ZYMV-infected and non-infected plants and the ability of pollen from flowers on infected and non-infected plants to achieve fertilization under competitive conditions. ZYMV infection reduced flower and fruit production per plant and pollen production per flower. Pollen from infected plants was also less likely to sire a seed under competitive conditions. ZYMV infection adversely impacts the amount of pollen that can be donated to conspecifics, and pollen competition within the styles increases the probability that the ovules are fertilized by pollen from plants that are thriving when challenged by a viral disease. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Discovery of a new genotype of Squash mosaic virus through deep sequencing of small RNAs and development of a qRT-PCR for broad spectrum detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), a seed-borne virus belonging to the genus Commovirus in the family Comoviridae, could cause a serious yield loss on cucurbit crops worldwide. SqMV has a bipartite single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome (RNA-1 and RNA-2) encapsidated separately with two capsid prote...

  7. Determination of set potential voltages for cucumber mosaic virus detection using screen printed carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Samsuzana, A. A.; Faridah, S.; Rafidah A., R.; Hashim, U.; Ariffin, Shahrul A. B.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a most dangerous pathogen among the cucurbit plant which it striking cucumbers, zucchinis, squashes, watermelons but it also striking to non-cucurbit such as peppers, tobaccos, celeries, beans and tomatoes. Symptoms shown by this virus when they starting to strike are very significant and at the end can kill the hosts they infected. In order to detect these viruses, biosensor such as screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) is developed and fixes a set potential voltage is defined using Chronoamperometry (CM) immunosensor technique. For short introduction, CM is a process which is a constant applied potential voltage between the working and reference electrode is maintained in order to create an electrons transfer for the oxidation or reduction species taking place at the surface of working electrode is measured and in this manuscript, complete details about measurement were used to finding the stable set potential voltages will be pointed out.

  8. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus): Vertical transmission, seed infection and cryptic infections

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, H.E.; Dunham, J.P.; Zinn, K. E.; Munkvold, G.P.; Holmes, E.C.; Stephenson, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The role played by seed transmission in the evolution and epidemiology of viral crop pathogens remains unclear. We determined the seed infection and vertical transmission rates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), in addition to undertaking Illumina sequencing of nine vertically transmitted ZYMV populations. We previously determined the seed-to-seedling transmission rate of ZYMV in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (a wild gourd) to be 1.6%, and herein observed a similar rate (1.8%) in the subsequent generation. We also observed that the seed infection rate is substantially higher (21.9%) than the seed-to-seedling transmission rate, suggesting that a major population bottleneck occurs during seed germination and seedling growth. In contrast, that two thirds of the variants present in the horizontally transmitted inoculant population were also present in the vertically transmitted populations implies that the bottleneck at vertical transmission may not be particularly severe. Strikingly, all of the vertically infected plants were symptomless in contrast to those infected horizontally, suggesting that vertical infection may be cryptic. Although no known virulence determining mutations were observed in the vertically infected samples, the 5’ untranslated region was highly variable, with at least 26 different major haplotypes in this region compared to the two major haplotypes observed in the horizontally transmitted population. That the regions necessary for vector transmission are retained in the vertically infected populations, combined with the cryptic nature of vertical infection, suggests that seed transmission may be a significant contributor to the spread of ZYMV. PMID:23845301

  9. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus): vertical transmission, seed infection and cryptic infections.

    PubMed

    Simmons, H E; Dunham, J P; Zinn, K E; Munkvold, G P; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2013-09-01

    The role played by seed transmission in the evolution and epidemiology of viral crop pathogens remains unclear. We determined the seed infection and vertical transmission rates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), in addition to undertaking Illumina sequencing of nine vertically transmitted ZYMV populations. We previously determined the seed-to-seedling transmission rate of ZYMV in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (a wild gourd) to be 1.6%, and herein observed a similar rate (1.8%) in the subsequent generation. We also observed that the seed infection rate is substantially higher (21.9%) than the seed-to-seedling transmission rate, suggesting that a major population bottleneck occurs during seed germination and seedling growth. In contrast, that two thirds of the variants present in the horizontally transmitted inoculant population were also present in the vertically transmitted populations implies that the bottleneck at vertical transmission may not be particularly severe. Strikingly, all of the vertically infected plants were symptomless in contrast to those infected horizontally, suggesting that vertical infection may be cryptic. Although no known virulence determining mutations were observed in the vertically infected samples, the 5' untranslated region was highly variable, with at least 26 different major haplotypes in this region compared to the two major haplotypes observed in the horizontally transmitted population. That the regions necessary for vector transmission are retained in the vertically infected populations, combined with the cryptic nature of vertical infection, suggests that seed transmission may be a significant contributor to the spread of ZYMV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cell lines derived from the squash bug, Anasa tristis (Coreidae: Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph A; Li, Yao-Fa; Lincoln, Tamra Reall; Stanley, David

    2017-05-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis, is a pest of cucurbits that exerts direct damage on crops and is a vector of plant pathogens. We established cell lines from this insect to serve as tools for basic biology, including virology and immunology, as well as applied studies, such as insecticide development programs. We initiated 15 cell cultures, using nine media or combinations of media. The media yielding the best results were a modification of Kimura's medium and a combination of two commercially available cell culture media (EX-CELL 420 and L15). We designated the two cell lines as BCIRL-AtE-CLG11 and BCIRL-AtE-CLG15. From the AtE-CLG15 line, we isolated two sub-lines, A and B. Of these, the most consistently replicating line was AtE-CLG15A. We determined the doubling time of this line (190 h) and its mean cell diameter (14.5 ± 0.7 μm). We characterized the AtE-CLG15A line using DAF-PCR. The BCIRL-AtE-CLG15A cell line is now available for researchers world-wide.

  11. Effect of application timing and method on efficacy and phytotoxicity of 1,3-D, chloropicrin and metam-sodium combinations in squash plasticulture.

    PubMed

    Desaeger, Johan A; Seebold, Kenneth W; Csinos, Alex S

    2008-03-01

    Metam-sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin are widely used soil fumigants. Combined application of metam-sodium and 1,3-D + chloropicrin is intended to improve efficacy and broaden spectrum of control, but little is known about the effect on crop safety. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of application timing of fumigant combinations on soilborne pest and disease control (nematodes, soil fungi and weeds) and growth of squash. Two separate tests with chisel-injected and drip-applied fumigant combinations and plant-back times ranging from 1 to 4 weeks were conducted in Tifton, GA, USA, in spring and fall 2002. Fumigant combinations using 1,3-D, chloropicrin and metam-sodium were as effective as methyl bromide in controlling Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, Pythium irregulare Buis., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Cyperus esculentus L. Chisel-applied combinations were more effective in terms of root-knot nematode control than drip-applied combinations. Root-knot nematode reduced squash yields by up to 60%. Phytotoxicity problems and lower yields were observed during spring, especially following 1,3-D + chloropicrin and when plant-back periods were shorter. The main problem with fumigant alternatives to methyl bromide may not be reduced efficacy but, in particular for 1,3-D products, loss of flexibility in terms of longer plant-back periods. (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. [Mechanisms of inhibition of viral replication in plants]. Progress report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Progress is described concerning genetic mapping CMV movement genes for CMV coat protein in squash and ToMV gene in tomato. These gene products appear to be involved in resistance to squash and tomato mosaic viruses respectively.

  13. (Mechanisms of inhibition of viral replication in plants)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress is described concerning genetic mapping CMV movement genes for CMV coat protein in squash and ToMV gene in tomato. These gene products appear to be involved in resistance to squash and tomato mosaic viruses respectively.

  14. Characterization of Hungarian isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, potyvirus) transmitted by seeds of Cucurbita pepo var Styriaca.

    PubMed

    Tóbiás, István; Palkovics, László

    2003-04-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) has emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last few years in Hungary. The Hungarian isolates show a high biological variability, have specific nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region of coat protein and form a distinct branch in the phylogenetic tree. The virus is spread very efficiently in the field by several aphid species in a non-persistent manner. It can be transmitted by seed in holl-less seeded oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo (L) var Styriaca), although at a very low rate. Three isolates from seed transmission assay experiments were chosen and their nucleotide sequences of coat proteins have been compared with the available CP sequences of ZYMV. According to the sequence analysis, the Hungarian isolates belong to the Central European branch in the phylogenetic tree and, together with the ZYMV isolates from Austria and Slovenia, share specific amino acids at positions 16, 17, 27 and 37 which are characteristic only to these isolates. The phylogenetic tree suggests the common origin of distantly distributed isolates which can be attributed to widespread seed transmission.

  15. Differences in cytokinin control on cellular dynamics of zucchini cotyledons cultivated in two experimental systems.

    PubMed

    Stoynova-Bakalova, E; Petrov, P; Gigova, L; Ivanova, N

    2011-01-01

    The effect of endogenous cytokinins on the pattern of palisade cell division post-germination does not depend on the conditions of cotyledon development -in planta (attached to seedlings) or in vitro (isolated from dry zucchini seeds and cultured on water). In cotyledons originating from 4-day-old seedlings (experimental system 1), exogenous cytokinin temporarily (in the first 2 day of cultivation) enhanced post-mitotic cell enlargement of palisade cells, mainly due to enhanced water uptake and use of cell storage compounds, all of which lead to cotyledon senescence. Cytokinin is not able to resume the completed palisade cell division on day 5. As a result, the number of cells and the final areas of treated and control cotyledons are quite similar. By contrast, the effects of cytokinin on cotyledons isolated from dry seeds (experimental system 2) are better expressed, promoting an increase in number of palisade cells accompanied by additional cotyledon area enlargement. However, the prolonged post-mitotic cell expansion in control cotyledons compensates for the reduced speed of cell growth and division activity and decreases differences in final cotyledon area between treatments. The results define cell division as the primary target of cytokinin stimulation in cotyledon tissues competent for division, and determine the temporal patterns of palisade cell cycling related to cotyledon age. This knowledge permits a better choice of experimental system to study effects on cell proliferation and cell growth, as well as cell enlargement and senescence-related events using physiologically homogeneous material. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Emergence of new strains of Watermelon mosaic virus in South-eastern France: evidence for limited spread but rapid local population shift.

    PubMed

    Desbiez, C; Joannon, B; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Chandeysson, C; Lecoq, H

    2009-05-01

    Severe symptoms caused by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in zucchini squash leaves and fruits have been observed since 1999 in South-eastern (SE) France. Their appearance correlates with the introduction of new, "emerging" (EM) isolates distant at the molecular level from the "classic" (CL) isolates present for more than 30 years. To understand the origin and spread of EM isolates, a survey was performed between 2004 and 2007. WMV isolates collected were characterized by sequencing part of the polymerase and coat protein coding regions. This revealed the presence of EM isolates in SE France only, whereas CL isolates were widespread throughout the country. Besides, four subgroups of EM isolates were observed in SE France, suggesting multiple introductions. Recombinants between CL and EM groups, which probably arose locally, were observed during the survey. A strong geographic structure that remained stable during the 4 years was observed between different EM isolates. Our results showed that EM isolates did not spread over long distances, but rapidly replaced the pre-existing CL isolates in all sites where both groups occurred.

  17. Comparative molecular epidemiology provides new insights into Zucchini yellow mosaic virus occurrence in France.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Nozeran, K; Millot, P; Desbiez, C

    2014-06-24

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, genus Potyvirus) causes important crop losses in cucurbits worldwide. In France, ZYMV epidemics are sporadic but occasionally very severe. This contrasts with Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, genus Potyvirus) which causes regular and early epidemics. Factors influencing ZYMV epidemiology are still poorly understood. In order to gain new insights on the ecology and epidemiology of this virus, a 5-year multilocation trial was conducted in which ZYMV spread and populations were studied in each of the 20 plot/year combinations and compared with WMV. Search for ZYMV alternative hosts was conducted by testing weeds growing naturally around one plot and also by checking ZYMV natural infections in selected ornamental species. Although similar ZYMV populations were observed occasionally in the same plot in two successive years suggesting the occurrence of overwintering hosts nearby, only two Lamium amplexicaule plants were found to be infected by ZYMV of 3459 weed samples that were tested. The scarcity of ZYMV reservoirs contrasts with the frequent detection of WMV in the same samples. Since ZYMV and WMV have many aphid vectors in common and are transmitted with similar efficiencies, the differences observed in ZYMV and WMV reservoir abundances could be a major explanatory factor for the differences observed in the typology of ZYMV and WMV epidemics in France. Other potential ZYMV alternative hosts have been identified in ornamental species including begonia. Although possible in a few cases, exchanges of populations between different plots located from 500 m to 4 km apart seem uncommon. Therefore, the potential dissemination range of ZYMV by its aphid vectors seems to be rather limited in a fragmented landscape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Using a situation awareness approach to determine decision-making behaviour in squash.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stafford; James, Nic; Perš, Janez; Mandeljc, Rok; Vučković, Goran

    2018-06-01

    Situation awareness (SA) refers to the awareness of all relevant sources of information, an ability to synthesise this information using domain knowledge gained from past experiences and the ability to physically respond to a situation. Expert-novice differences have been widely reported in decision-making in complex situations although determining the small differences in expert behaviour are more elusive. This study considered how expert squash players use SA to decide on what shot to play. Matches at the 2010 (n = 14) and 2011 (n = 27) Rowe British Grand Prix were recorded and processed using Tracker software. Shot type, ball location, players' positions on court and movement parameters between the time an opponent played a shot prior to the player's shot to the time of the opponent's following shot were captured 25 times per second. Six SA clusters were named to relate to the outcome of a shot ranging from a defensive shot played under pressure to create time to an attempted winner played under no pressure with the opponent out of position. This new methodology found fine-grained SA differences in expert behaviour, even for the same shot type played from the same court area, beyond the usual expert-novice differences.

  19. Functional Immunomics of the Squash Bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer) (Heteroptera: Coreidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shelby, Kent S.

    2013-01-01

    The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major piercing/sucking pest of cucurbits, causing extensive damage to plants and fruits, and transmitting phytopathogens. No genomic resources to facilitate field and laboratory studies of this pest were available; therefore the first de novo exome for this destructive pest was assembled. RNA was extracted from insects challenged with bacterial and fungal immunoelicitors, insects fed on different cucurbit species, and insects from all life stages from egg to adult. All treatments and replicates were separately barcoded for subsequent analyses, then pooled for sequencing in a single lane using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Over 211 million 100-base tags generated in this manner were trimmed, filtered, and cleaned, then assembled into a de novo reference transcriptome using the Broad Institute Trinity assembly algorithm. The assembly was annotated using NCBIx NR, BLAST2GO, KEGG and other databases. Of the >130,000 total assemblies 37,327 were annotated identifying the sequences of candidate gene silencing targets from immune, endocrine, reproductive, cuticle, and other physiological systems. Expression profiling of the adult immune response was accomplished by aligning the 100-base tags from each biological replicate from each treatment and controls to the annotated reference assembly of the A. tristis transcriptome. PMID:26462532

  20. Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Infection Limits Establishment and Severity of Powdery Mildew in Wild Populations of Cucurbita pepo

    PubMed Central

    Harth, Jacquelyn E.; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Tooker, John F.; Stephenson, Andrew G.

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have examined the combined effect of multiple parasites on host fitness. Previous work in the Cucurbita pepo pathosystem indicates that infection with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) reduces exposure to a second insect-vectored parasite (Erwinia tracheiphila). In this study, we performed two large-scale field experiments employing wild gourds (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana), including plants with a highly introgressed transgene conferring resistance to ZYMV, to examine the interaction of ZYMV and powdery mildew, a common fungal disease. We found that ZYMV-infected plants are more resistant to powdery mildew (i.e., less likely to experience powdery mildew infection and when infected with powdery mildew, have reduced severity of powdery mildew symptoms). As a consequence, during widespread viral epidemics, proportionally more transgenic plants get powdery mildew than non-transgenic plants, potentially mitigating the benefits of the transgene. A greenhouse study using ZYMV-inoculated and non-inoculated controls (non-transgenic plants) revealed that ZYMV-infected plants were more resistant to powdery mildew than controls, suggesting that the transgene itself had no direct effect on the powdery mildew resistance in our field study. Additionally, we found evidence of elevated levels of salicylic acid, a phytohormone that mediates anti-pathogen defenses, in ZYMV-infected plants, suggesting that viral infection induces a plant immune response (systemic acquired resistance), thereby reducing plant susceptibility to powdery mildew infection.

  1. Generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus type W.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tsong-Ann; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Wu, Hui-Wen; Li, Chin-Mei; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chen, Jun-Han; Chen, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV W) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. For the effective control of these two viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated ZYMV coat protein (CP) and PRSV W CP genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Using our protocol, a total of 27 putative transgenic lines were obtained from three cultivars of 'Feeling' (23 lines), 'China baby' (3 lines), and 'Quality' (1 line). PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that the chimeric construct was incorporated into the genomic DNA of the transformants. Greenhouse evaluation of the selected ten transgenic lines of 'Feeling' cultivar revealed that two immune lines conferred complete resistance to ZYMV and PRSV W, from which virus accumulation were not detected by Western blotting 4 weeks after inoculation. The transgenic transcript was not detected, but small interfering RNA (siRNA) was readily detected from the two immune lines and T(1) progeny of line ZW 10 before inoculation, indicating that RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is the underlying mechanism for the double-virus resistance. The segregation ratio of T(1) progeny of the immune line ZW10 indicated that the single inserted transgene is nuclearly inherited and associated with the phenotype of double-virus resistance as a dominant trait. The transgenic lines derived from the commercial watermelon cultivars have great potential for control of the two important viruses and can be implemented directly without further breeding.

  2. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C.; Huang, Samuel J.; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity—the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task—a ‘bug squashing’ game—in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269607

  4. Biological and serological variability, evolution and molecular epidemiology of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus) with special reference to Caribbean islands.

    PubMed

    Desbiez, C; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Lecoq, H

    2002-04-23

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus) emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last 20 years. Its origins and mechanisms for evolution and worldwide spread represent important questions to understand plant virus emergence. Sequence analysis on a 250 nucleotide fragment including the N-terminal part of the coat protein coding region, revealed one major group of strains, and some highly divergent isolates from distinct origins. Within the major group, three subsets of strains were defined without correlation with geographic origin, year of collection or biological properties. ZYMV was first observed in Martinique and Guadeloupe in 1992 and 1994, respectively. We studied the evolution of ZYMV variability on both islands in the few years following the putative virus introduction. In Martinique, molecular divergence remained low even after 6 years, suggesting a lack of new introductions. Interactions between strains resulted in a stability of the high biological variability, while the serological diversity decreased and molecular divergence remained low. In Guadeloupe, as in Martinique in 1993, serological variability was high shortly after virus introduction. While the first introduction in Guadeloupe was independent from Martinique, the 'Martinique' type was detected in 1998, suggesting further introductions, maybe through viruliferous aphids or imported plant material.

  5. Effect of Infection by Hypomyces solani f. sp. Cucurbitac on Apparent Free Space, Cell Membrane Permeability, and Respiration of Squash Hypocotyls 1

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Joseph G.

    1968-01-01

    Initial symptoms and increases in respiration, apparent free space, and rate of leakage of amino acids occurred concomitantly in squash (Cucurbita maxima Dcne) hypocotyls infected by Hypomyces solani f. sp. cucurbitae Snyd. and Hans. Young, rapidly expanding lesions had greater respiratory rates and apparent free space than comparable tissues from healthy plants. Hypocotyl tissues above (1-45 mm) lesions possessed greater endogenous respiratory rates (2-3 times) and lower respiratory quotients than similar tissues from healthy plants. But no differences were found in membrane permeability to nonelectrolytes and water and in apparent free space between cells above lesions and healthy hypocotyls. Host cells contiguous to fungal hyphae at lesion margins were completely permeable to solutes and failed to accumulate neutral red or exhibit cyclosis. Images PMID:16656953

  6. Two and three dimensional characterization of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus induced structural alterations in Cucurbita pepo L. plants.

    PubMed

    Zellnig, Günther; Pöckl, Michael Herbert; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Infection of plants by Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) induces severe ultrastructural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate ultrastructural changes during ZYMV-infection in Cucurbita pepo L. plants on the two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) level and to correlate these changes with the spread of ZYMV throughout the plant by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. This study revealed that after inoculation of the cotyledons ZYMV moved into roots [3 days post inoculation (dpi)], then moved upwards into the stem and apical meristem (5 dpi), then into the first true leaf (7 dpi) and could finally be found in all plant parts (9 dpi). ZYMV-infected cells contained viral inclusion bodies in the form of cylindrical inclusions (CIs). These CIs occurred in four different forms throughout the cytosol of roots and leaves: scrolls and pinwheels when cut transversely and long tubular structures and bundles of filaments when cut longitudinally. 3D reconstruction of ZYMV-infected cells containing scrolls revealed that they form long tubes throughout the cytosol. The majority has a preferred orientation and an average length and width of 3 μm and 120 nm, respectively. Image analysis revealed an increased size of cells and vacuoles (107% and 447%, respectively) in younger ZYMV-infected leaves leading to a similar ratio of cytoplasm to vacuole (about 1:1) in older and younger ZYMV-infected leaves which indicates advanced cell growth in younger tissues. The collected data advances the current knowledge about ZYMV-induced ultrastructural changes in Cucurbita pepo. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Two and three dimensional characterization of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus induced structural alterations in Cucurbita pepo L. plants

    PubMed Central

    Zellnig, Günther; Pöckl, Michael Herbert; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Infection of plants by Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) induces severe ultrastructural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate ultrastructural changes during ZYMV-infection in Cucurbita pepo L. plants on the two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) level and to correlate these changes with the spread of ZYMV throughout the plant by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. This study revealed that after inoculation of the cotyledons ZYMV moved into roots [3 days post inoculation (dpi)], then moved upwards into the stem and apical meristem (5 dpi), then into the first true leaf (7 dpi) and could finally be found in all plant parts (9 dpi). ZYMV-infected cells contained viral inclusion bodies in the form of cylindrical inclusions (CIs). These CIs occurred in four different forms throughout the cytosol of roots and leaves: scrolls and pinwheels when cut transversely and long tubular structures and bundles of filaments when cut longitudinally. 3D reconstruction of ZYMV-infected cells containing scrolls revealed that they form long tubes throughout the cytosol. The majority has a preferred orientation and an average length and width of 3 μm and 120 nm, respectively. Image analysis revealed an increased size of cells and vacuoles (107% and 447%, respectively) in younger ZYMV-infected leaves leading to a similar ratio of cytoplasm to vacuole (about 1:1) in older and younger ZYMV-infected leaves which indicates advanced cell growth in younger tissues. The collected data advances the current knowledge about ZYMV-induced ultrastructural changes in Cucurbita pepo. PMID:24631670

  8. Evolutionary and domestication history of Cucurbita (pumpkin and squash) species inferred from 44 nuclear loci.

    PubMed

    Kates, Heather R; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2017-06-01

    Phylogenetics can facilitate the study of plant domestication by resolving sister relationships between crops and their wild relatives, thereby identifying the ancestors of cultivated plants. Previous phylogenetic studies of the six Cucurbita crop lineages (pumpkins and squashes) and their wild relatives suggest histories of deep coalescence that complicate uncovering the genetic origins of the six crop taxa. We investigated the evolution of wild and domesticated Cucurbita using the most comprehensive and robust molecular-based phylogeny for Cucurbita to date based on 44 loci derived from introns of single-copy nuclear genes. We discovered novel relationships among Cucurbita species and recovered the first Cucurbita tree with well-supported resolution within species. Cucurbita comprises a clade of mesophytic annual species that includes all six crop taxa and a grade of xerophytic perennial species that represent the ancestral xerophytic habit of the genus. Based on phylogenetic resolution within-species we hypothesize that the magnitude of domestication bottlenecks varies among Cucurbita crop lineages. Our phylogeny clarifies how wild Cucurbita species are related to the domesticated taxa. We find close relationships between two wild species and crop lineages not previously identified. Expanded geographic sampling of key wild species is needed for improved understanding of the evolution of domesticated Cucurbita. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ruth M.; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R.; Gilbertson, Robert L.; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:25288955

  10. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ruth M; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R; Gilbertson, Robert L; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  11. Inheritance of resistance to watermelon mosaic virus in the cucumber line TMG-1: tissue-specific expression and relationship to zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Wai, T; Grumet, R

    1995-09-01

    The inbred cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) line TMG-1 is resistant to three potyviruses:zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). The genetics of resistance to WMV and the relationship of WMV resistance to ZYMV resistance were examined. TMG-1 was crossed with WI-2757, a susceptible inbred line. F1, F2 and backcross progeny populations were screened for resistance to WMV and/or ZYMV. Two independently assorting factors conferred resistance to WMV. One resistance was conferred by a single recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-2). The second resistance was conferred by an epistatic interaction between a second recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-3) and either a dominant gene from WI-2757 (Wmv-4) or a third recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-4) located 20-30 cM from wmv-3. The two resistances exhibited tissue-specific expression. Resistance conferred by wmv-2 was expressed in the cotyledons and throughout the plant. Resistance conferred by wmv-3 + Wmv-4 (or wmv-4) was expressed only in true leaves. The gene conferring resistance to ZYMV appeared to be the same as, or tightly linked to one of the WMV resistance genes, wmv-3.

  12. Edge Principal Components and Squash Clustering: Using the Special Structure of Phylogenetic Placement Data for Sample Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Matsen IV, Frederick A.; Evans, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering are two of the most heavily used techniques for analyzing the differences between nucleic acid sequence samples taken from a given environment. They have led to many insights regarding the structure of microbial communities. We have developed two new complementary methods that leverage how this microbial community data sits on a phylogenetic tree. Edge principal components analysis enables the detection of important differences between samples that contain closely related taxa. Each principal component axis is a collection of signed weights on the edges of the phylogenetic tree, and these weights are easily visualized by a suitable thickening and coloring of the edges. Squash clustering outputs a (rooted) clustering tree in which each internal node corresponds to an appropriate “average” of the original samples at the leaves below the node. Moreover, the length of an edge is a suitably defined distance between the averaged samples associated with the two incident nodes, rather than the less interpretable average of distances produced by UPGMA, the most widely used hierarchical clustering method in this context. We present these methods and illustrate their use with data from the human microbiome. PMID:23505415

  13. The Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Membrane Fraction Containing Phytochrome 12

    PubMed Central

    Marmé, Dieter; Mackenzie, John M.; Boisard, Jean; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1974-01-01

    If 4-day-old dark-grown zucchini squash seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Black Beauty) are exposed briefly to red light, subsequent cell fractionation yields about 40% of the total extractable phytochrome in the far red-absorbing form bound to a particulate fraction. The amount of far red-absorbing phytochrome in the pellet is strongly dependent on the Mg concentration in the extraction medium. The apparent density of the Pfr-containing particles following sedimentation on sucrose gradients corresponds to 15% (w/w) sucrose with 0.1 mm Mg and 40% sucrose with 10 mm Mg. This particulate fraction could be readily separated from mitochondria and other particulate material by taking advantage of these apparent density changes with changes in Mg concentration. Electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations shows that with 1 mm Mg only minute particles are present. These were too small to reveal structural detail with this technique. With 3 mm Mg, separate membranous vesicles between 400 and 600 Ångstroms in diameter appear. At higher Mg concentrations, the vesicles aggregate, causing obvious turbity. The effect of Mg on vesicle formation and aggregation is completely reversible. Above 10 mm Mg, vesicle aggregation persists, but the percentage of bound Pfr decreases. Images PMID:16658871

  14. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials from biosolids: impacts on environmental fate and relevance to human exposure.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Niroj; Reinhold, Dawn M

    2011-11-01

    Triclocarban and triclosan, two antimicrobials widely used in consumer products, can adversely affect ecosystems and potentially impact human health. The application of biosolids to agricultural fields introduces triclocarban and triclosan to soil and water resources. This research examined the phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials, effects of plant growth on migration of antimicrobials to water resources, and relevance of phytoaccumulation in human exposure to antimicrobials. Pumpkin, zucchini, and switch grass were grown in soil columns to which biosolids were applied. Leachate from soil columns was assessed every other week for triclocarban and triclosan. At the end of the trial, concentrations of triclocarban and triclosan were determined for soil, roots, stems, and leaves. Results indicated that plants can reduce leaching of antimicrobials to water resources. Pumpkin and zucchini growth significantly reduced soil concentrations of triclosan to less than 0.001 mg/kg, while zucchini significantly reduced soil concentrations of triclocarban to 0.04 mg/kg. Pumpkin, zucchini, and switch grass accumulated triclocarban and triclosan in mg per kg (dry) concentrations. Potential human exposure to triclocarban from consumption of pumpkin or zucchini was substantially less than exposure from product use, but was greater than exposure from drinking water consumption. Consequently, research indicated that pumpkin and zucchini may beneficially impact the fate of antimicrobials in agricultural fields, while presenting minimal acute risk to human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-08

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval.

  16. Permeability and channel-mediated transport of boric acid across membrane vesicles isolated from squash roots.

    PubMed

    Dordas, C; Chrispeels, M J; Brown, P H

    2000-11-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and the boron content of plants differs greatly, but the mechanism(s) of its uptake into cells is not known. Boron is present in the soil solution as boric acid and it is in this form that it enters the roots. We determined the boron permeability coefficient of purified plasma membrane vesicles obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo) roots and found it to be 3 x 10(-7) +/-1.4 x 10(-8) cm s(-1), six times higher than the permeability of microsomal vesicles. Boric acid permeation of the plasma membrane vesicles was partially inhibited (30%-39%) by mercuric chloride and phloretin, a non-specific channel blocker. The inhibition by mercuric chloride was readily reversible by 2-mercaptoethanol. The energy of activation for boron transport into the plasma membrane vesicles was 10.2 kcal mol(-1). Together these data indicate that boron enters plant cells in part by passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and in part through proteinaceous channels. Expression of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) PIP1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a 30% increase in the boron permeability of the oocytes. Other MIPs tested (PIP3, MLM1, and GlpF) did not have this effect. We postulate that certain MIPs, like those that have recently been shown to transport small neutral solutes, may also be the channels through which boron enters plant cells.

  17. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A.; Ryan, Timothy M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Perry, George H.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops’ progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval. PMID:26630007

  18. Movement of Soil-Applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into Nectar and Pollen of Squash (Cucurbita pepo)

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars “Multipik,” “Sunray” and “Bush Delicata”) when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10±3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11±6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14±8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12±9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees. PMID:22761727

  19. Combining ability of summer-squash lines with different degrees of parthenocarpy and PRSV-W resistance.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Douglas Willian; Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Dos Reis Figueira, Antonia; Maciel, Gabriel Mascarenhas; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto; Benavente, Cesar Augusto Ticona

    2011-10-01

    The aim was to assess heterosis in a set of 16 summer-squash hybrids, and evaluate the combining capacity of the respective parental lines, which differed as to the degree of parthenocarpy and resistance to PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus-Watermelon strain). The hybrids were obtained using a partial diallel cross design (4 × 4). The lines of parental group I were 1 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-01-01-bulk, 2 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-03-10-bulk, 3 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-01-04-bulk and 4 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-05-01-bulk, and of group II, 1' = ABX-037G-77-03-05-04-08-bulk, 2' = ABX-037G-77-03-05-02-11-bulk, 3' = Clarice and 4' = Caserta. The 16 hybrids and eight parental lines were evaluated for PRSV-W resistance, parthenocarpic expression and yield in randomized complete-block designs, with three replications. Parthenocarpy and the resistance to PRSV-W were rated by means of a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 = non-parthenocarpic or high resistance to PRSV-W, and 5 = parthenocarpic or high susceptibility to PRSV-W. Both additive and non-additive gene effects were important in the expression of parthenocarpy and resistance to PRSV-W. Whereas estimates of heterosis in parthenocarpy usually tended towards a higher degree, resistance to PRSV-W was towards higher susceptibility. At least one F(1) hybrid was identified with a satisfactory degree of parthenocarpy, resistance to PRSV-W and high fruit-yield.

  20. Combining ability of summer-squash lines with different degrees of parthenocarpy and PRSV-W resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Douglas Willian; Maluf, Wilson Roberto; dos Reis Figueira, Antonia; Maciel, Gabriel Mascarenhas; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto; Benavente, Cesar Augusto Ticona

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to assess heterosis in a set of 16 summer-squash hybrids, and evaluate the combining capacity of the respective parental lines, which differed as to the degree of parthenocarpy and resistance to PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus-Watermelon strain). The hybrids were obtained using a partial diallel cross design (4 × 4). The lines of parental group I were 1 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-01-01-bulk, 2 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-03-10-bulk, 3 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-01-04-bulk and 4 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-05-01-bulk, and of group II, 1′ = ABX-037G-77-03-05-04-08-bulk, 2′ = ABX-037G-77-03-05-02-11-bulk, 3′ = Clarice and 4′ = Caserta. The 16 hybrids and eight parental lines were evaluated for PRSV-W resistance, parthenocarpic expression and yield in randomized complete-block designs, with three replications. Parthenocarpy and the resistance to PRSV-W were rated by means of a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 = non-parthenocarpic or high resistance to PRSV-W, and 5 = parthenocarpic or high susceptibility to PRSV-W. Both additive and non-additive gene effects were important in the expression of parthenocarpy and resistance to PRSV-W. Whereas estimates of heterosis in parthenocarpy usually tended towards a higher degree, resistance to PRSV-W was towards higher susceptibility. At least one F1 hybrid was identified with a satisfactory degree of parthenocarpy, resistance to PRSV-W and high fruit-yield. PMID:22215966

  1. Permeability and Channel-Mediated Transport of Boric Acid across Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Squash Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Dordas, Christos; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Brown, Patrick H.

    2000-01-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and the boron content of plants differs greatly, but the mechanism(s) of its uptake into cells is not known. Boron is present in the soil solution as boric acid and it is in this form that it enters the roots. We determined the boron permeability coefficient of purified plasma membrane vesicles obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo) roots and found it to be 3 × 10−7 ±1.4 × 10−8 cm s−1, six times higher than the permeability of microsomal vesicles. Boric acid permeation of the plasma membrane vesicles was partially inhibited (30%–39%) by mercuric chloride and phloretin, a non-specific channel blocker. The inhibition by mercuric chloride was readily reversible by 2-mercaptoethanol. The energy of activation for boron transport into the plasma membrane vesicles was 10.2 kcal mol−1. Together these data indicate that boron enters plant cells in part by passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and in part through proteinaceous channels. Expression of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) PIP1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a 30% increase in the boron permeability of the oocytes. Other MIPs tested (PIP3, MLM1, and GlpF) did not have this effect. We postulate that certain MIPs, like those that have recently been shown to transport small neutral solutes, may also be the channels through which boron enters plant cells. PMID:11080310

  2. Sunn Hemp Cover Cropping and Organic Fertilizer Effects on the Nematode Community Under Temperate Growing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Jermaine; Wang, Koon-Hui; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Hooks, Cerruti R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Maryland to investigate the influence of sunn hemp cover cropping in conjunction with organic and synthetic fertilizers on the nematode community in a zucchini cropping system. Two field treatments, zucchini planted into a sunn hemp living and surface mulch (SH) and zucchini planted into bare-ground (BG) were established during three field seasons from 2009 to 2011. In 2009, although SH slightly increased nematode richness compared with BG by the first harvest (P < 0.10), it reduced nematode diversity and enrichment indices (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively) and increased the channel index (P < 0.01) compared to BG at the final harvest. This suggests a negative impact of SH on nematode community structure. The experiment was modified in 2010 and 2011 where the SH and BG main plots were further split into two subplots to investigate the added influence of an organic vs. synthetic fertilizer. In 2010, when used as a living and surface mulch in a no-till system, SH increased bacterivorous, fungivorous, and total nematodes (P < 0.05) by the final zucchini harvest, but fertilizer type did not influence nematode community structure. In 2011, when incorporated into the soil before zucchini planting, SH increased the abundance of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes early in the cropping season. SH increased species richness also at the end of the season (P < 0.05). Fertilizer application did not appear to influence nematodes early in the season. However, in late season, organic fertilizers increased enrichment and structure indices and decreased channel index by the end of the zucchini cropping cycle. PMID:24379485

  3. A comparison of heart rate responses in racquet games.

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, D.

    1982-01-01

    The present study investigated the heart rate response to playing tennis with special reference to the skill levels and ages of the participants. Data obtained in a similar manner during earlier studies of badminton and squash players were compared with that obtained during tennis. The number of rallies, mean rally time and actual playing time in 30 minutes of play was also compared for the different skill levels and sports. Results showed that playing tennis raised the players' heart rates to 68-70% of their predicted maximum heart rate (PMHR). Playing squash and badminton could raise heart rates to 80-85% of the players' PMHR which was significantly higher than the values obtained for tennis. The actual skill level of the participants within their chosen sport did not have a significant effect in predicting the physical demands of squash or tennis but was important in predicting the heart rate response of badminton players. The more skillful the badminton player the greater the cardiac response as a result of game play. Analysis of time spent in actual play revealed that tennis players were involved in play for only five of the thirty minutes of game play, compared to 15 and 10 min respectively for squash and badminton. Skill level within each sport was only a significant factor in predicting length of play for squash players in which the medium and highly skilled groups played significantly longer than those of a lower level of skill. Images p96-a PMID:7104564

  4. Two Novel Motifs of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus NSs Protein Are Responsible for RNA Silencing Suppression and Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Hao; Hsiao, Weng-Rong; Huang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Chun; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Raja, Joseph A J; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) is the RNA silencing suppressor and pathogenicity determinant. In this study, serial deletion and point-mutation mutagenesis of conserved regions (CR) of NSs protein were performed, and the silencing suppression function was analyzed through agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found two amino acid (aa) residues, H113 and Y398, are novel functional residues for RNA silencing suppression. Our further analyses demonstrated that H113 at the common epitope (CE) ((109)KFTMHNQ(117)), which is highly conserved in Asia type tospoviruses, and the benzene ring of Y398 at the C-terminal β-sheet motif ((397)IYFL(400)) affect NSs mRNA stability and protein stability, respectively, and are thus critical for NSs RNA silencing suppression. Additionally, protein expression of other six deleted (ΔCR1-ΔCR6) and five point-mutated (Y15A, Y27A, G180A, R181A and R212A) mutants were hampered and their silencing suppression ability was abolished. The accumulation of the mutant mRNAs and proteins, except Y398A, could be rescued or enhanced by co-infiltration with potyviral suppressor HC-Pro. When assayed with the attenuated Zucchini yellow mosaic virus vector in squash plants, the recombinants carrying individual seven point-mutated NSs proteins displayed symptoms much milder than the recombinant carrying the wild type NSs protein, suggesting that these aa residues also affect viral pathogenicity by suppressing the host silencing mechanism.

  5. Indirect costs of a nontarget pathogen mitigate the direct benefits of a virus-resistant transgene in wild Cucurbita.

    PubMed

    Sasu, Miruna A; Ferrari, Matthew J; Du, Daolin; Winsor, James A; Stephenson, Andrew G

    2009-11-10

    Virus-resistant transgenic squash are grown throughout the United States and much of Mexico and it is likely that the virus-resistant transgene (VRT) has been introduced to wild populations repeatedly. The evolutionary fate of any resistance gene in wild populations and its environmental impacts depend upon trade-offs between the costs and benefits of the resistance gene. In a 3-year field study using a wild gourd and transgenic and nontransgenic introgressives, we measured the effects of the transgene on fitness, on herbivory by cucumber beetles, on the incidence of mosaic viruses, and on the incidence of bacterial wilt disease (a fatal disease vectored by cucumber beetles). In each year, the first incidence of zucchini yellow mosaic virus occurred in mid-July and spread rapidly through the susceptible plants. We found that the transgenic plants had greater reproduction through both male and female function than the susceptible plants, indicating that the VRT has a direct fitness benefit for wild gourds under the conditions of our study. Moreover, the VRT had no effect on resistance to cucumber beetles or the incidence of wilt disease before the spread of the virus. However, as the virus spread through the fields, the cucumber beetles became increasingly concentrated upon the healthy (mostly transgenic) plants, which increased exposure to and the incidence of wilt disease on the transgenic plants. This indirect cost of the VRT (mediated by a nontarget herbivore and pathogen) mitigated the overall beneficial effect of the VRT on fitness.

  6. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, William L; LaPlant, Kyle E; Bell, Duane C; Jahn, Molly M; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection.

  7. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, William L.; LaPlant, Kyle E.; Bell, Duane C.; Jahn, Molly M.; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection. PMID:27936008

  8. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the watermelon eIF4E gene are closely associated with resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Ling, Kai-Shu; Harris, Karen R; Meyer, Jenelle D F; Levi, Amnon; Guner, Nihat; Wehner, Todd C; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Havey, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is one of the most economically important potyviruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned and sequenced eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E gene segments in watermelon. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences between the ZYMV-resistant watermelon plant introduction PI 595203 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the ZYMV-susceptible watermelon cultivar 'New Hampshire Midget' ('NHM') showed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Initial analysis of the identified SNPs in association studies indicated that SNPs in the eIF4E, but not eIF(iso)4E, were closely associated to the phenotype of ZYMV-resistance in 70 F(2) and 114 BC(1R) progenies. Subsequently, we focused our efforts in obtaining the entire genomic sequence of watermelon eIF4E. Three SNPs were identified between PI 595203 and NHM. One of the SNPs (A241C) was in exon 1 and the other two SNPs (C309A and T554G) were in the first intron of the gene. SNP241 which resulted in an amino acid substitution (proline to threonine) was shown to be located in the critical cap recognition and binding area, similar to that of several plant species resistance to potyviruses. Analysis of a cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS) marker derived from this SNP in F(2) and BC(1R) populations demonstrated a cosegregation between the CAPS-2 marker and their ZYMV resistance or susceptibility phenotype. When we investigated whether such SNP mutation in the eIF4E was also conserved in several other PIs of C. lanatus var. citroides, we identified a different SNP (A171G) resulting in another amino acid substitution (D71G) from four ZYMV-resistant C. lanatus var. citroides (PI 244018, PI 482261, PI 482299, and PI 482322). Additional CAPS markers were also identified. Availability of all these CAPS markers will enable marker-aided breeding of watermelon for ZYMV resistance.

  9. A Recovery-Oriented Approach to Dependable Services: Repairing Past Errors with System-Wide Undo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    54 4.5.3 Handling propagating paradoxes: the squash interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4.6 Discussion...84 6.3.3 Compensating for paradoxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 6.3.4 Squashing propagating...the service and comparing the behavior of the replicas to detect and squash misbehaving replicas. While on paper Byzantine fault tolerance may seem to

  10. Shopping for food with children: A strategy for directing their choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

    PubMed

    Allirot, Xavier; Maiz, Edurne; Urdaneta, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Involving children in the different steps of meal preparation has been suggested as a strategy for enhancing dietary habits in childhood. It has previously been shown that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct their food choices towards foods containing vegetables. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in food purchasing on food choices, intake, liking and appetite. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 86 children (from 8 to 10 years old). Forty-three children (PURCHASE group) participated in a workshop dedicated to purchasing the necessary ingredients online for the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple and beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. Forty-three children (CONTROL group) participated instead in a creativity workshop. Afterwards, all the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple and beetroot juice, potatoes vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the PURCHASE (0.70 ± 0.14) vs. CONTROL (0.19 ± 0.07) group (P = 0.003). The liking for 1 of the 3 unfamiliar foods was higher in the PURCHASE group (P < 0.05). We did not find any difference between the two groups in food intake estimation and in the levels of subjective appetite. This study demonstrates that involving children in purchasing food can help in directing their food choices towards unfamiliar foods containing vegetables. It highlights the importance of involving children in the different steps of meal preparation for decreasing food neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Two Novel Motifs of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus NSs Protein Are Responsible for RNA Silencing Suppression and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Hao; Hsiao, Weng-Rong; Huang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Chun; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Raja, Joseph A. J.; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) is the RNA silencing suppressor and pathogenicity determinant. In this study, serial deletion and point-mutation mutagenesis of conserved regions (CR) of NSs protein were performed, and the silencing suppression function was analyzed through agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found two amino acid (aa) residues, H113 and Y398, are novel functional residues for RNA silencing suppression. Our further analyses demonstrated that H113 at the common epitope (CE) (109KFTMHNQ117), which is highly conserved in Asia type tospoviruses, and the benzene ring of Y398 at the C-terminal β-sheet motif (397IYFL400) affect NSs mRNA stability and protein stability, respectively, and are thus critical for NSs RNA silencing suppression. Additionally, protein expression of other six deleted (ΔCR1-ΔCR6) and five point-mutated (Y15A, Y27A, G180A, R181A and R212A) mutants were hampered and their silencing suppression ability was abolished. The accumulation of the mutant mRNAs and proteins, except Y398A, could be rescued or enhanced by co-infiltration with potyviral suppressor HC-Pro. When assayed with the attenuated Zucchini yellow mosaic virus vector in squash plants, the recombinants carrying individual seven point-mutated NSs proteins displayed symptoms much milder than the recombinant carrying the wild type NSs protein, suggesting that these aa residues also affect viral pathogenicity by suppressing the host silencing mechanism. PMID:25993336

  12. Indirect costs of a nontarget pathogen mitigate the direct benefits of a virus-resistant transgene in wild Cucurbita

    PubMed Central

    Sasu, Miruna A.; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Du, Daolin; Winsor, James A.; Stephenson, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    Virus-resistant transgenic squash are grown throughout the United States and much of Mexico and it is likely that the virus-resistant transgene (VRT) has been introduced to wild populations repeatedly. The evolutionary fate of any resistance gene in wild populations and its environmental impacts depend upon trade-offs between the costs and benefits of the resistance gene. In a 3-year field study using a wild gourd and transgenic and nontransgenic introgressives, we measured the effects of the transgene on fitness, on herbivory by cucumber beetles, on the incidence of mosaic viruses, and on the incidence of bacterial wilt disease (a fatal disease vectored by cucumber beetles). In each year, the first incidence of zucchini yellow mosaic virus occurred in mid-July and spread rapidly through the susceptible plants. We found that the transgenic plants had greater reproduction through both male and female function than the susceptible plants, indicating that the VRT has a direct fitness benefit for wild gourds under the conditions of our study. Moreover, the VRT had no effect on resistance to cucumber beetles or the incidence of wilt disease before the spread of the virus. However, as the virus spread through the fields, the cucumber beetles became increasingly concentrated upon the healthy (mostly transgenic) plants, which increased exposure to and the incidence of wilt disease on the transgenic plants. This indirect cost of the VRT (mediated by a nontarget herbivore and pathogen) mitigated the overall beneficial effect of the VRT on fitness. PMID:19858473

  13. Predator-prey trophic relationships in response to organic management practices.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jason M; Barney, Sarah K; Williams, Mark A; Bessin, Ricardo T; Coolong, Timothy W; Harwood, James D

    2014-08-01

    A broad range of environmental conditions likely regulate predator-prey population dynamics and impact the structure of these communities. Central to understanding the interplay between predator and prey populations and their importance is characterizing the corresponding trophic interactions. Here, we use a well-documented molecular approach to examine the structure of the community of natural enemies preying upon the squash bug, Anasa tristis, a herbivorous cucurbit pest that severely hinders organic squash and pumpkin production in the United States. Primer pairs were designed to examine the effects of organic management practices on the strength of these trophic connections and link this metric to measures of the arthropod predator complex density and diversity within an experimental open-field context. Replicated plots of butternut squash were randomly assigned to three treatments and were sampled throughout a growing season. Row-cover treatments had significant negative effects on squash bug and predator communities. In total, 640 predators were tested for squash bug molecular gut-content, of which 11% were found to have preyed on squash bugs, but predation varied over the season between predator groups (coccinellids, geocorids, nabids, web-building spiders and hunting spiders). Through the linking of molecular gut-content analysis to changes in diversity and abundance, these data delineate the complexity of interaction pathways on a pest that limits the profitability of organic squash production. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Tibial shock measured during the fencing lunge: the influence of footwear.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Bottoms, Lindsay; Taylor, Katrina; Greenhalgh, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Fencing is a high-intensity sport involving dynamic movements such as the lunge exposing the musculoskeletal system to high impact forces, which emphasises the importance of the shock attenuating properties of footwear as a factor in the prevention of injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitudes of the transient axial impact shock experienced at the tibia between traditional fencing shoes and standard athletic footwear during the impact phase of the fencing lunge. Peak tibial shock was measured in 19 male fencers in 4 different footwear conditions using an accelerometer placed on the distal aspect of the tibia. The standard footwear (11.08 g and 8.75 g for squash and running shoe, respectively) resulted in significant (p < 0.01) reductions in peak impact shock in comparison to the traditional fencing shoes (15.93 g and 13.97 g for the Adidas and Hi-Tec shoe, respectively). No significant differences were found between the running and squash shoes (p = 0.09) or between the fencing shoes (p = 0.48). The documented reduction in impact shock found suggests that running or squash specific footwear may reduce overuse injury occurrence, indicating that there is justification for a re-design of fencing shoes.

  15. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  16. Measuring the Rebound Resilience of a Bouncing Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadhwa, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Some balls which are made of high-quality rubber (an elastomeric) material, such as tennis or squash balls, could be used for the determination of an important property of such materials called resilience. Since a bouncing ball involves a single impact we call this property "rebound resilience" and express it as the ratio of the rebound height to…

  17. Identification of Common Epitopes on a Conserved Region of NSs Proteins Among Tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus Serogroup.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kuo, Yan-Wen; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yuan, Chao-Hsiu Hsuan; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) was expressed by a Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in squash. The expressed NSs protein with a histidine tag and an additional NIa protease cleavage sequence was isolated by Ni(2+)-NTA resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the NSs crude antigen of WSMoV and weakly reacted with that of a high-temperature-recovered gloxinia isolate (HT-1) of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), but not with that of Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). In contrast, the MAbs reacted strongly with all crude NSs antigens of WSMoV, CaCV, and CCSV. Various deletions of the NSs open reading frame were constructed and expressed by ZYMV vector. Results indicate that all three MAbs target the 89- to 125-amino-acid (aa) region of WSMoV NSs protein. Two indispensable residues of cysteine and lysine were essential for MAbs recognition. Sequence comparison of the deduced MAbs-recognized region with the reported tospoviral NSs proteins revealed the presence of a consensus sequence VRKPGVKNTGCKFTMHNQIFNPN (denoted WNSscon), at the 98- to 120-aa position of NSs proteins, sharing 86 to 100% identities among those of WSMoV, CaCV, CCSV, and Peanut bud necrosis virus. A synthetic WNSscon peptide reacted with the MAbs and verified that the epitopes are present in the 98- to 120-aa region of WSMoV NSs protein. The WSMoV sero-group-specific NSs MAbs provide a means for reliable identification of tospoviruses in this large serogroup.

  18. Snack food as a modulator of human resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Torrijos, Andrea; Kreitz, Silke; Ivan, Claudiu; Konerth, Laura; Rösch, Julie; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Moll, Gunther; Kratz, Oliver; Dörfler, Arnd; Horndasch, Stefanie; Hess, Andreas

    2018-04-04

    To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation. Seventeen healthy human subjects with body mass index (BMI) 19 to 27 underwent 2 different fMRI sessions where an initial resting state scan was acquired, followed by visual presentation of different images of potato chips and zucchini. There was then a 5-minute pause to ingest food (day 1=potato chips, day 3=zucchini), followed by a second resting state scan. fMRI data were further analyzed using graph theory analysis and support vector machine techniques. Potato chips vs. zucchini stimulation led to significant connectivity changes. The support vector machine was able to accurately categorize the 2 types of food stimuli with 100% accuracy. Visual, auditory, and somatosensory structures, as well as thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia were found to be important for food classification. After potato chips consumption, the BMI was associated with the path length and degree in nucleus accumbens, middle temporal gyrus, and thalamus. The results suggest that high vs. low caloric food stimulation in healthy individuals can induce significant changes in resting state networks. These changes can be detected using graph theory measures in conjunction with support vector machine. Additionally, we found that the BMI affects the response of the nucleus accumbens when high caloric food is consumed.

  19. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Intraoperative Squash and Touch Preparation Cytology of Brain Lesions Stained with H+E and Diff-Quik™: A 20-Year Retrospective Analysis and Comparative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Makoto; Chang, Karen H F; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Tauchi-Nishi, Pamela S

    2018-01-01

    Squash preparation (SP) is a rapid technique for the intraoperative assessment of brain lesions. Only a few studies have employed touch preparation (TP) cytology and Diff-QuikTM (DQ) staining in conjunction with SP. Our study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of SP of brain lesions at our institution, ascertain the additional effect of TP and DQ staining, examine factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of our methods, and compare our findings with those of previous investigations. Our database was searched for all SP/TP of brain lesions examined from January 1996 to December 2016. During this 20-year study period, our search revealed 400 brain lesions diagnosed by SP/TP cytology. There were 338 (84.5%) neoplasms and 62 (15.5%) nonneoplastic lesions. The most common neoplasms were glioblastoma multiforme (24.6%), metastatic cancer (18.3%), meningioma (16.9%), astrocytoma (11.5%), lymphoma (8.3%), oligoastrocytoma (3.3%), and pituitary adenoma (3.3%). There was discordance between the SP/TP and histological diagnoses in 19/338 (5.6%) cases, i.e., 12 misclassifications of tumor subtype and 7 sampling errors. No false-positive cases were detected. Brain SP/TP stained with H+E/DQ demonstrated high sensitivity (97.9%), specificity (100%), and overall diagnostic accuracy (95.3%). The combined methods, in particular, aided in the diagnosis of brain tumors prone to smearing artifacts and certain metastatic malignancies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Grains and Starchy Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pumpkin Acorn squash Butternut squash Green Peas Corn Beans, Legumes, Peas and Lentils Try to include beans into several meals per week. They are a ... and are loaded with fiber, vitamins and minerals. Beans such as black, kidney, and pinto Bean products ...

  2. DDTs-induced antioxidant responses in plants and their influence on phytoremediation process.

    PubMed

    Mitton, Francesca M; Gonzalez, Mariana; Monserrat, José M; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2018-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a low cost technology based on the use of plants to remove a wide range of pollutants from the environment, including the insecticide DDT. However, some pollutants are known to enhance generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can generate toxic effects on plants affecting the phytoremediation efficiency. This study aims to analyze the potential use of antioxidant responses as a measure of tolerance to select plants for phytoremediation purposes. Tomato and zucchini plants were grown for 15 days in soils contaminated with DDTs (DDT + DDE + DDD). Protein content, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in plant tissues. Exposure to DDTs did not affect protein content or CAT activity in any of the species. GST, GR and GPx activity showed different responses in exposed and control tomato plants. After DDTs exposure, tomato showed increased GR and GPX activity in stems and leaves, respectively, and a decrease in the GST activity in roots. As no effects were observed in zucchini, results suggest different susceptibility and/or defense mechanisms involved after pesticide exposure. Finally, both species differed also in terms of DDTs uptake and translocation. The knowledge about antioxidant responses induced by pesticides exposure could be helpful for planning phytoremediation strategies and for the selection of tolerant species according to particular scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic and mechanistic diversity of piRNA 3' end formation

    PubMed Central

    Handler, Dominik; Mohn, Fabio; Ameres, Stefan L.; Brennecke, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs guide Argonaute (Ago) proteins in a sequence-specific manner to their targets and thereby play important roles in eukaryotic gene silencing1. Of the three small RNA classes, microRNAs and siRNAs are processed from double-stranded precursors into defined 21- to 23-mers by Dicer, an endoribonuclease with intrinsic ruler function. piRNAs—the 22-30 nt long guides for PIWI-clade Ago proteins that silence transposons in animal gonads—are generated Dicer-independently from single-stranded precursors2,3. piRNA 5' ends are defined either by Zucchini, a mitochondria-anchored endonuclease4,5, or by piRNA-guided target cleavage6,7. Formation of piRNA 3' ends is poorly understood. Here, we find that two genetically and mechanistically distinct pathways generate piRNA 3' ends in Drosophila. The initiating nucleases are either Zucchini or the PIWI-clade proteins Aubergine (Aub)/Ago3. While Zucchini-mediated cleavages directly define mature piRNA 3' ends8,9, Aub/Ago3-mediated cleavages liberate pre-piRNAs that require extensive resection by the 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease Nibbler/Mut-710–13. The relative activity of these two pathways dictates the extent to which piRNAs are fueled into cytoplasmic or nuclear PIWI-clade proteins and thereby sets the balance between post-transcriptional and transcriptional silencing. Strikingly, loss of both Zucchini and Nibbler reveals a minimal, Argonaute-driven small RNA biogenesis pathway where piRNA 5' and 3' ends are directly produced by closely spaced Aub/Ago3-mediated cleavage events. Our data establish a coherent blueprint for piRNA biogenesis, and set the stage for the mechanistic dissection of the processes that govern piRNA 3' end formation. PMID:27851737

  4. 78 FR 45907 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... standards covered by these revisions are: frozen asparagus, frozen lima beans, frozen speckled butter beans..., lima beans, speckled butter beans, cooked squash, summer squash, etc., and not other vegetables. AMS... document. United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Lima Beans Update address for AMS. Change ``U.S...

  5. 76 FR 37055 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension... importation of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. DATES: We will consider all comments that we...

  6. Composite Cucurbita pepo plants with transgenic roots as a tool to study root development

    PubMed Central

    Ilina, Elena L.; Logachov, Anton A.; Laplaze, Laurent; Demchenko, Nikolay P.; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims In most plant species, initiation of lateral root primordia occurs above the elongation zone. However, in cucurbits and some other species, lateral root primordia initiation and development takes place in the apical meristem of the parental root. Composite transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation are known as a suitable model to study root development. The aim of the present study was to establish this transformation technique for squash. Methods The auxin-responsive promoter DR5 was cloned into the binary vectors pKGW-RR-MGW and pMDC162-GFP. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to evaluate the presence of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypocotyl of squash seedlings to find out whether they were suitable for infection. Two A. rhizogenes strains, R1000 and MSU440, were used. Roots containing the respective constructs were selected based on DsRED1 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence, and DR5::Egfp-gusA or DR5::gusA insertion, respectively, was verified by PCR. Distribution of the response to auxin was visualized by GFP fluorescence or β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining and confirmed by immunolocalization of GFP and GUS proteins, respectively. Key Results Based on the distribution of EdU-labelled cells, it was determined that 6-day-old squash seedlings were suited for inoculation by A. rhizogenes since their root pericycle and the adjacent layers contain enough proliferating cells. Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000 proved to be the most virulent strain on squash seedlings. Squash roots containing the respective constructs did not exhibit the hairy root phenotype and were morphologically and structurally similar to wild-type roots. Conclusions The auxin response pattern in the root apex of squash resembled that in arabidopsis roots. Composite squash plants obtained by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation are a good tool for the investigation of root apical meristem

  7. Construction of Experimental Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Roofing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    in. War II vintage; squash and handball courts were (13-mm) fiberboard, to comply with Sarnafil re- added in 1966. The entire structure is of wood con...squash and handball courts had a gravel surface. pendently, avoiding difficulties of trying to handle Figure 23 shows the building arrangements. two

  8. Native Bees Effectively Pollinate New World Cucurbita (C. pepo and C. maxima): An Internet Collaboration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild squash bees have all five traits ascribed to the most effective crop pollinators. They are abundant, competitive, efficient, faithful to a specific crop and fast. Shared pollinator surveys covering 2,700 ha of US squash and pumpkin (n = 50 farms) show strong parallels among Cucurbita’s bee gui...

  9. Realistic Planning Scenarios.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    visibility for U.S. forces. These restrictions were consistent with the new administration’s desire to avoid foreign military entanglements in order to...sought above all to avoid foreign entanglements involving a prospect of military conflict. The dominant view in the administration was that the use...to squash public protests and restore order. 5 All else being equal, the U.S.S.R. clearly would prefer to avoid an intervention in Poland--even the

  10. Inclusion of 1-naphthylacetic acid and 2-(1-naphthyl)acetamide into three typical multiresidue methods for LC/MS/MS analysis of tomatoes and zucchini.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Ana; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-01-01

    In spite of high plant growth regulator application rates, little has been reported in the literature on determination of their residues in fruits and vegetables. This would be useful in monitoring good manufacturing practices and overall safety through the enforcement of maximum residue levels (MRLs). The present work describes method validation for the determination of 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and 2(1-naphthyl)acetamide (NAAm) in tomato and zucchini using the mini-Luke, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and acetate-buffered quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) methods. Samples were spiked at two different levels: 50 and 100 pg/kg for NAA and 20 and 100 pg/kg for NAAm. These compounds were analyzed within the same chromatographic run with LC coupled to triple quadrupole MS (LC/(QqQ)MS/MS) in positive and negative electrospray ionization [ESI(+) and ESI(-)] modes for NAAm and NAA, respectively. For analyte confirmation, LC/ESI(-)QTOF-MS was also investigated given that NAA has only one multiple reaction monitoring transition (185.1-*140.9 m/z). These three common methods were used to determine linearity, recoveries, precision (RSD), matrix effects, repeatability, and reproducibility (n = 5) for the selected matrixes. In terms of the Directorate-General for Health and Consumers (DG-SANCO) guidelines, only insignificant differences were found for the multiresidue methods tested, regardless of the commodity. Matrix-matched calibration was used, and LODs were below 10.1 pg/kg for NAA and 6.0 pg/kg for NAAm, which were lower than the MRLs established in current European Union legislation for these compounds. Obtained recoveries for NAA ranged from 87 to 107% with RSD values below 10% for mini-Luke, 83 to 107% with RSD <11% for EtOAc, and 76 to 85% with RSD <7% for QuEChERS. NAAm recoveries ranged from 74 to 102% with RSD 5 15% for mini-Luke, 76 to 97% with RSD <4% for EtOAc, and 76 to 93% with RSD < 5% for QuEChERS. The linearity of the response over two

  11. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2004-08-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.

  12. Three Sisters: Lessons of Traditional Story Honored in Assessment and Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenault, Venida S.

    2008-01-01

    The three sisters story is shared across many tribes. It explains the practice of planting corn, beans, and squash together. The corn stalks provide support for the bean vines; the beans provide nitrogen for the corn; and the squash prevents weed growth between the mounds. Such stories explain not only the science of agricultural methods in tribal…

  13. Your Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... taste buds , so you can taste everything from apples to zucchini! People are born with about 10, ... onion slice under your nose while eating an apple. What do you taste? Your tongue also gets ...

  14. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  15. Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... cook vegetables and fruits. Try grilling mushrooms, onions, peppers, or zucchini on a kabob skewer. Brush with ... vegetables to your pasta dish. Slip some herbs, peppers, spinach, red beans, onions, or cherry tomatoes into ...

  16. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    We analyse two possible definitions of the squashed entanglement in an infinite-dimensional bipartite system: direct translation of the finite-dimensional definition and its universal extension. It is shown that the both definitions produce the same lower semicontinuous entanglement measure possessing all basis properties of the squashed entanglement on the set of states having at least one finite marginal entropy. It is also shown that the second definition gives an adequate lower semicontinuous extension of this measure to all states of the infinite-dimensional bipartite system. A general condition relating continuity of the squashed entanglement to continuity of the quantum mutual information ismore » proved and its corollaries are considered. Continuity bound for the squashed entanglement under the energy constraint on one subsystem is obtained by using the tight continuity bound for quantum conditional mutual information (proved in the Appendix by using Winter’s technique). It is shown that the same continuity bound is valid for the entanglement of formation. As a result the asymptotic continuity of the both entanglement measures under the energy constraint on one subsystem is proved.« less

  17. Cross-sectional survey of indicator and pathogenic bacteria on vegetables sold from Asian vendors at farmers' markets in northern California.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengguang; Li, Xunde; Carabez, Jennifer; Ragosta, Guy; Fernandez, Kristine L; Wang, Elaine; Thiptara, Anyarat; Antaki, Elizabeth; Atwill, Edward R

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted during summer 2013 to determine the occurrence of Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms (FCs), E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella on raw vegetable commodities common to Asian cuisine from 21 vendors or farmers at six farmers' markets in northern California. Based on 242 samples from six commodities (basil, yardlong beans, bitter squash, okra, squash stems and leaves, cilantro), 100% of samples had detectable FCs and 20% had detectable E. coli. The mean concentrations were 0.67 log CFU/g and 1.26 log CFU per bundle for E. coli and 4.00 log CFU/g and 6.26 log CFU per bundle for FCs. Vegetables irrigated with ground versus surface water contained lower concentrations of FCs, but this difference was not observed for E. coli. Yardlong beans, bitter squash, and okra had lower levels of FCs compared with basil, cilantro, and squash stems and leaves. Sixteen (6.6%) samples had detectable levels of Salmonella serovars (Newport, Enteritidis, Agona, and Worthington), with the majority of positives found in cilantro and squash stems and leaves. There was a twofold higher probability of Salmonella contamination in samples from growers or vendors who stated that they used organic farming practices compared with samples from those using conventional farming practices. Lastly, the concentrations of FC and E. coli bacteria were significantly associated with Salmonella contamination: for each additional 100 CFU/g or bundle, the probability of Salmonella contamination increased by ∼15 and ∼30%, respectively. None of the samples had detectable E. coli O157:H7.

  18. Translocation of heavy metals from soils into floral organs and rewards of Cucurbita pepo: Implications for plant reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Xun, Erna; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jimin; Guo, Jixun

    2017-11-01

    Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction. The results showed that metals taken up by squash did translocate into its floral organs and rewards, although metal accumulation varied depending on different metal types and concentrations as well as floral organ/reward types. Mean foraging time of honey bees to each male and female flower of squash grown in metal-supplemented soils was shorter relative to that of plants grown in control soils, although the visitation rate of honeybees to both male and female flowers was not affected by metal treatments. Pollen viability, pollen removal and deposition as well as mean mass per seed produced by metal-treated squash that received pollen from plants grown in control soils decreased with elevated soil-supplemented metal concentrations. The fact that squash could translocate soil-supplemented heavy metals into floral organs and rewards indicated possible reproductive consequences caused either directly (i.e., decreasing pollen viability or seed mass) or indirectly (i.e., affecting pollinators' visitation behavior to flowers) to plant fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recommendations for Improving the Food Service Operations at MCB Camp Pendleton, CA MCAS El Toro and MCAS(H) Santa Ana, CA, MCB Camp Lejeune, NC, and MCDEC, Quantico, VA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Green Beans Nicoise Egg Plant Parmesan or Zucchini Parmesan Club Spinach Dinner: Cheese Ravioli (frozen) rotate or Beef Ravioli (frozen) Cheese...Manicotti (frozen) rotate or Beef Manicotti (frozen) Meat Sauce (for ravioli and manicotti) Spaghetti w/ Meatballs Assorted Pizzas Baked Lasagna Veal Parmesan

  20. Exposure of agricultural crops to nanoparticle CeO2 in biochar-amended soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar is seeing increased usage as an amendment in agricultural soils but the significance of nanoscale interactions between this additive and engineered nanoparticles (ENP) remains largely unknown. In the present study, corn (Zea mays), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and zucchini...

  1. Supersymmetric Rényi entropy and defect operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Tatsuma; Yaakov, Itamar

    2017-11-01

    We describe the defect operator interpretation of the supersymmetric Rényi entropies of superconformal field theories in three, four and five dimensions. The operators involved are supersymmetric codimension-two defects in an auxiliary Z_n gauge theory coupled to n copies of the SCFT. We compute the exact expectation values of such operators using localization, and compare the results to the supersymmetric Rényi entropy. The agreement between the two implies a relationship between the partition function on a squashed sphere and the one on a round sphere in the presence of defects.

  2. Development of ZYMV-resistant watermelon lines using molecular markers for the eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E together with phenotypic evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aphid-transmitted potyviruses of watermelon, including papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) cause serious damage to the watermelon crop throughout the world. The United States Plant Introduction (PI) 595203 is resistant to ZYMV-FL a...

  3. Measuring and Modeling Solute Transport in the Rootzone: Protecting the Receiving Water Environments of the Coral Atolls of Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothier, B. E.; van der Velde, M.; Green, S. R.; Gee, G. W.; Manu, V.; Menoniti, V.; Vanclooster, M.

    2005-05-01

    Intensification of agriculture on the raised coral atolls of the Tongan archipelago, notably through squash-pumpkin production, has lead to increased use of agrichemicals. Agrichemicals, both fertilisers and pesticides, pose a risk to these fragile environments. Sustainable land-management practices are needed for small-island developing states. On Tongatapu, solutes leaving the rootzone of the squash can rapidly find their way to the underlying freshwater lenses. These lenses are hydraulically linked to the internal lagoon, and the fringing reefs. We have used buried, non-suction fluxmeters to monitor both the quantity and quality of drainage leaving the rootzone of squash. Fertiliser is traditionally applied at planting. During establishment of the squash in 2003, some 350 mm of rain fell, with 70 % of this leaving the rootzone of this permeable soil as drainage. The concentration of nitrate-N in the drainage water was measured at around 50 mg-N/L. All of the initial fertiliser dressing had been lost, along with N mineralised from the plowed-in grass. Pesticides are needed in humid tropical environments to control weeds, pests and diseases. These chemicals can leach though the rootzone to contaminate receiving waters. We modeled the transport and fate of the presticides used in squash production, and we developed a Decision Support Tool (DST). Our DST can be used to select the best pesticides for local conditions, to tailor practices for minimising leaching losses below the rootzone, and to avoid the build-up of residues in the soil. This project, funded by the European Union and NZAID, took a multi-disciplinary approach through measurement and modeling protocols. Our DST enabled us to engage the wider community and stakeholders. There has been increased awareness of the impacts and risks associated with productive land management in the fragile hydrological environments of this small-island developing state.

  4. Root uptake and translocation of perfluorinated alkyl acids by three hydroponically grown crops.

    PubMed

    Felizeter, Sebastian; McLachlan, Michael S; De Voogt, Pim

    2014-04-16

    Tomato, cabbage, and zucchini plants were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. They were exposed to 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) at four different concentrations via the nutrient solution. At maturity the plants were harvested, and the roots, stems, leaves, twigs (where applicable), and edible parts (tomatoes, cabbage head, zucchinis) were analyzed separately. Uptake and transfer factors were calculated for all plant parts to assess PFAA translocation and distribution within the plants. Root concentration factors were highest for long-chain PFAAs (>C11) in all three plant species, but these chemicals were not found in the edible parts. All other PFAAs were present in all above-ground plant parts, with transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCFs) of 0.05-0.25. These PFAAs are taken up with the transpiration stream and accumulate primarily in the leaves. Although some systematic differences were observed, overall their uptake from nutrient solution to roots and their further distribution within the plants were similar between plant species and among PFAAs.

  5. Racquet sports--patterns of injury presenting to a sports injury clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Chard, M D; Lachmann, S M

    1987-01-01

    In an 8-year retrospective study, 631 injuries due to the racquet sports of squash (59%), tennis (21%) and badminton (20%) were seen in a sports injury clinic, males predominating (58 to 66%). The proportion of squash injuries was higher than expected and probably relates to higher physical stress and risk of contact in this sport. Also they occurred mainly in persons over 25 years (59%) i.e. the reverse for sport in general. Acute traumatic injuries were seen especially in squash players, a majority affecting the knee, lumbar region, muscles and ankle. Tennis injuries differed most with lateral epicondylitis, patello-femoral pain and lumbar disc prolapse being relatively common. The badminton injury pattern overlapped the others. Lower limb injuries predominated in all three. Detailed assessment of 106 cases showed many to be new, infrequent, social players. Poor warm-up was a common factor in new and established players. The importance of these findings is discussed. PMID:3435816

  6. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the phytoextraction of weathered p,p-DDE by Cucurbita pepo.

    PubMed

    White, Jason C; Ross, Daniel W; Gent, Martin P N; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, Maryjane Incorvia

    2006-10-11

    Field experiments were conducted to assess the impact of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi on the accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil by three cultivars of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo cv Costata Romanesco, Goldrush, Raven). Three commercially available mycorrhizal products (BioVam, Myco-Vam, INVAM) were inoculated into the root system of the zucchini seedlings at planting. In agreement with our previous findings, plants not inoculated with fungi accumulated large but variable amounts of contaminant, with root bioconcentration factors (BCFs, ratio of p,p'-DDE, on a dry weight basis, in the root to that in the soil) ranging from 10 to 48 and stem BCFs ranging from 5.5 to 11. The total amount of contaminant phytoextracted during the 62 day growing season ranged from 0.72-2.9%. The effect of fungal inoculation on the release of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil and on the subsequent uptake of the parent compound by zucchini appeared to vary at the cultivar level. For Goldrush, fungal inoculation generally decreased tissue BCFs but because of slightly larger biomass, did not significantly impact the percent contaminant phytoextracted. Alternatively, for Costata, BioVam and Myco-Vam generally enhanced p,p'-DDE accumulation from soil, and increased the amount of contaminant phytoextracted by up to 34%. For Raven, BioVam reduced contaminant uptake whereas Myco-Vam and INVAM increased contaminant phytoextraction by 53 and 60%, respectively. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo. The apparent cultivar specific response to mycorrhizal inoculation is unexpected and the subject of ongoing investigation.

  7. Realms of the Viruses Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

  8. Drosophila Big bang regulates the apical cytocortex and wing growth through junctional tension.

    PubMed

    Tsoumpekos, Giorgos; Nemetschke, Linda; Knust, Elisabeth

    2018-03-05

    Growth of epithelial tissues is regulated by a plethora of components, including signaling and scaffolding proteins, but also by junctional tension, mediated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. However, how these players are spatially organized and functionally coordinated is not well understood. Here, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster scaffolding protein Big bang as a novel regulator of growth in epithelial cells of the wing disc by ensuring proper junctional tension. Loss of big bang results in the reduction of the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin, Spaghetti squash. This is associated with an increased apical cell surface, decreased junctional tension, and smaller wings. Strikingly, these phenotypic traits of big bang mutant discs can be rescued by expressing constitutively active Spaghetti squash. Big bang colocalizes with Spaghetti squash in the apical cytocortex and is found in the same protein complex. These results suggest that in epithelial cells of developing wings, the scaffolding protein Big bang controls apical cytocortex organization, which is important for regulating cell shape and tissue growth. © 2018 Tsoumpekos et al.

  9. PRE-PLANTING TREATMENTS WITH PHOSPHITE-BASED PRODUCTS AGAINST DIFFERENT FOLIAR AND SOIL-BORNE PATHOGENS OF VEGETABLE CROPS.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, G; Demarchi, S; Ramon, I; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen experimental trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of preventative treatments based on phosphite salts on the following pathosystems: tomato/Phytophthora nicotianae, zucchini/P. capsici, lettuce/Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Iactucae, rocket/Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani, wild rocket/Plectosphaerella cucumerina and basii/Peronospora belbahrii. The possible use of phosphite salts in nursery cultivation systems is considered in comparison with chemical fungicides. Phosphites-based products reduced 66-88% and 56-72% the severity of Phytophthora crown root rot of tomato and zucchini, respectively. Four application with the phosphites-based products provided a disease reduction of Fusarium wilt of lettuce from of 33 to 83% and of 45 to 68% on cultivated rocket. These products provide the most constant results when applied in three treatments against Plectosphaerella cucumerina with a disease reduction ranging between 34%-82%. Phosphite-based products showed results statistically similar to mefenoxam when tested against downy mildew of basil. Their contribution to disease management can be very interesting, because they can complement other control measures.

  10. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants.

  11. Energy-constrained two-way assisted private and quantum capacities of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Noah; Shirokov, Maksim E.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2018-06-01

    With the rapid growth of quantum technologies, knowing the fundamental characteristics of quantum systems and protocols is essential for their effective implementation. A particular communication setting that has received increased focus is related to quantum key distribution and distributed quantum computation. In this setting, a quantum channel connects a sender to a receiver, and their goal is to distill either a secret key or entanglement, along with the help of arbitrary local operations and classical communication (LOCC). In this work, we establish a general theory of energy-constrained, LOCC-assisted private and quantum capacities of quantum channels, which are the maximum rates at which an LOCC-assisted quantum channel can reliably establish a secret key or entanglement, respectively, subject to an energy constraint on the channel input states. We prove that the energy-constrained squashed entanglement of a channel is an upper bound on these capacities. We also explicitly prove that a thermal state maximizes a relaxation of the squashed entanglement of all phase-insensitive, single-mode input bosonic Gaussian channels, generalizing results from prior work. After doing so, we prove that a variation of the method introduced by Goodenough et al. [New J. Phys. 18, 063005 (2016), 10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063005] leads to improved upper bounds on the energy-constrained secret-key-agreement capacity of a bosonic thermal channel. We then consider a multipartite setting and prove that two known multipartite generalizations of the squashed entanglement are in fact equal. We finally show that the energy-constrained, multipartite squashed entanglement plays a role in bounding the energy-constrained LOCC-assisted private and quantum capacity regions of quantum broadcast channels.

  12. Purification and Kinetics of Higher Plant NADH:Nitrate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W H; Smarrelli, J

    1978-04-01

    Squash cotyledon (Cucurbita pepo L.) NADH:nitrate reductase (NR) was purified 150-fold with 50% recovery by a single step procedure based on the affinity of the NR for blue-Sepharose. Blue-Sepharose, which is prepared by direct coupling of Cibacron blue to Sepharose, appears to bind squash NR at the NADH site. The NR can be purified in 2 to 3 hours to a specific activity of 2 mumol of NADH oxidized/minute * milligram of protein. Corn (Zea mays L.) leaf NR was also purified to a specific activity of 6.9 mumol of NADH oxidized/minute * milligram of protein using a blue-Sepharose affinity step. The blue-Sepharose method offers the advantages of a rapid purification of plant NR to a high specific activity with reasonable recovery of total activity.The kinetic mechanism of higher plant NR was investigated using these highly purified squash and corn NR preparations. Based on initial velocity and product inhibition studies utilizing both enzymes, a two-site ping-pong mechanism is proposed for NR. This kinetic mechanism incorporates the concept of the reduced NR transferring electrons from the NADH site to a physically separated nitrate site.

  13. New black holes in D =5 minimal gauged supergravity: Deformed boundaries and frozen horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen

    2018-04-01

    A new class of black hole solutions of the five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity is presented. They are characterized by the mass, the electric charge, two equal magnitude angular momenta and the magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. These black holes possess a horizon of spherical topology; however, both the horizon and the sphere at infinity can be arbitrarily squashed, with nonextremal solutions interpolating between black strings and black branes. A particular set of extremal configurations corresponds to a new one-parameter family of supersymmetric black holes. While their conserved charges are determined by the squashing of the sphere at infinity, these supersymmetric solutions possess the same horizon geometry.

  14. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  15. Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus: characterization and differential reassortment with closest relatives reveal adaptive virulence in the squash leaf curl virus clade and host shifting by the host-restricted bean calico mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Idris, A M; Mills-Lujan, K; Martin, K; Brown, J K

    2008-02-01

    The genome components of the Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus (MCLCuV) were cloned from symptomatic cantaloupe leaves collected in Guatemala during 2002. The MCLCuV DNA-A and DNA-B components shared their closest nucleotide identities among begomoviruses, at approximately 90 and 81%, respectively, with a papaya isolate of MCLCuV from Costa Rica. The closest relatives at the species level were other members of the Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) clade, which is endemic in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Biolistic inoculation of cantaloupe seedlings with the MCLCuV DNA-A and -B components resulted in the development of characteristic disease symptoms, providing definitive evidence of causality. MCLCuV experimentally infected species within the Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae. The potential for interspecific reassortment was examined for MCLCuV and its closest relatives, including the bean-restricted Bean calico mosaic virus (BCaMV), and three other cucurbit-infecting species, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), SLCV, and SMLCV. The cucurbit viruses have distinct but overlapping host ranges. All possible reassortants were established using heterologous combinations of the DNA-A or DNA-B components. Surprisingly, only certain reassortants arising from MCLCuV and BCaMV, or MCLCuV and CuLCrV, were viable in bean, even though it is a host of all of the "wild-type" (parent) viruses. The bean-restricted BCaMV was differentially assisted in systemically infecting the cucurbit test species by the components of the four cucurbit-adapted begomoviruses. In certain heterologous combinations, the BCaMV DNA-A or -B component was able to infect one or more cucurbit species. Generally, the reassortants were less virulent in the test hosts than the respective wild-type (parent) viruses, strongly implicating adaptive modulation of virulence. This is the first illustration of reassortment resulting in the host range expansion of a host-restricted begomovirus.

  16. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants. PMID:27749935

  17. Mother Involvement as an Influence on Father Involvement with Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pleck, Joseph H.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    This study hypothesized that father involvement is influenced by mothers' level of involvement as well as by marital conflict, mothers' work hours, and fathers' status as biological or step father. The analysis also tested hypotheses about mother involvement as a potential mediator of the effects of marital conflict and maternal work hours on father involvement, and hypotheses about factors influencing mother involvement. Children aged 10-14 from the NLSY79 who resided with their biological or step father and with their mother reported on each parent's involvement with them. As hypothesized, father involvement was predicted by mother involvement, and the reciprocal influence was not significant. Father involvement was associated with low marital conflict and being a biological father. Mothers' involvement partially mediated the effects of marital conflict on father involvement. If the mediating role of maternal involvement is not taken into account, the effect of marital conflict on father involvement is overestimated. PMID:21776195

  18. Autoerotic deaths: four cases.

    PubMed

    Cooke, C T; Cadden, G A; Margolius, K A

    1994-07-01

    We describe the circumstances and post mortem medical findings of 4 unusual fatalities where death occurred during autoerotic practice. Three cases occurred in young to middle-aged men--hanging, electrocution and inhalation of a zucchini. The manner of death in each was accidental. The fourth case was an elderly man who died of ischemic heart disease, apparently whilst masturbating with a vacuum cleaner and a hair dryer.

  19. An Evaluation of the New ’Multi-Restaurant’ Food Service System for the Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    variety: "Italian Style" Green Beans Green Beans Nicoise Egg Plant Parmesan or Zucchini Parmesan Club Spinach Dinner: Cheese Ravioli (frozen) or...Beef Ravioli (frozen) Cheese Manicotti (frozen) or Beef Manicotti (frozen) Meat Sauce (for ravioli and manicotti) Spaghetti w/ Meatballs ...or reconstituted, and seasons food as required. Includes preparing eggs , hot cakes, french toast, meats, and other items on the serving line grill

  20. Identification and Characterization of Roseltide, a Knottin-type Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor Derived from Hibiscus sabdariffa

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Shining; Kam, Antony; Xiao, Tianshu; Nguyen, Giang K. T.; Liu, Chuan Fa; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant knottins are of therapeutic interest due to their high metabolic stability and inhibitory activity against proteinases involved in human diseases. The only knottin-type proteinase inhibitor against porcine pancreatic elastase was first identified from the squash family in 1989. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a knottin-type human neutrophil elastase inhibitor from Hibiscus sabdariffa of the Malvaceae family. Combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we identified a panel of novel cysteine-rich peptides, roseltides (rT1-rT8), which range from 27 to 39 residues with six conserved cysteine residues. The 27-residue roseltide rT1 contains a cysteine spacing and amino acid sequence that is different from the squash knottin-type elastase inhibitor. NMR analysis demonstrated that roseltide rT1 adopts a cystine-knot fold. Transcriptome analyses suggested that roseltides are bioprocessed by asparagine endopeptidases from a three-domain precursor. The cystine-knot structure of roseltide rT1 confers its high resistance against degradation by endopeptidases, 0.2 N HCl, and human serum. Roseltide rT1 was shown to inhibit human neutrophil elastase using enzymatic and pull-down assays. Additionally, roseltide rT1 ameliorates neutrophil elastase-stimulated cAMP accumulation in vitro. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that roseltide rT1 is a novel knottin-type neutrophil elastase inhibitor with therapeutic potential for neutrophil elastase associated diseases. PMID:27991569

  1. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2–6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non

  2. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2-6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non

  3. Root-knot nematode management in double-cropped plasticulture vegetables.

    PubMed

    Desaeger, J A; Csinos, A S

    2006-03-01

    Combination treatments of chisel-injected fumigants (methyl bromide, 1,3-D, metam sodium, and chloropicrin) on a first crop, followed by drip-applied fumigants (metam sodium and 1,3-D +/- chloropicrin) on a second crop, with and without oxamyl drip applications were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita in three different tests (2002 to 2004) in Tifton, GA. First crops were eggplant or tomato, and second crops were cantaloupe, squash, or jalapeno pepper. Double-cropped vegetables suffered much greater root-knot nematode (RKN) pressure than first crops, and almost-total yield loss occurred when second crops received no nematicide treatment. On a first crop of eggplant, all fumigants provided good nematode control and average yield increases of 10% to 15 %. On second crops, higher application rates and fumigant combinations (metam sodium and 1,3-D +/- chloropicrin) improved RKN control and increased yields on average by 20% to 35 % compared to the nonfumigated control. Oxamyl increased yields of the first crop in 2003 on average by 10% to 15% but had no effect in 2004 when RKN failed to establish itself. On double-cropped squash in 2003, oxamyl following fumigation provided significant additional reduction in nematode infection and increased squash yields on average by 30% to 75%.

  4. Root-Knot Nematode Management in Double-Cropped Plasticulture Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Desaeger, J. A.; Csinos, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Combination treatments of chisel-injected fumigants (methyl bromide, 1,3-D, metam sodium, and chloropicrin) on a first crop, followed by drip-applied fumigants (metam sodium and 1,3-D ± chloropicrin) on a second crop, with and without oxamyl drip applications were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita in three different tests (2002 to 2004) in Tifton, GA. First crops were eggplant or tomato, and second crops were cantaloupe, squash, or jalapeno pepper. Double-cropped vegetables suffered much greater root-knot nematode (RKN) pressure than first crops, and almost-total yield loss occurred when second crops received no nematicide treatment. On a first crop of eggplant, all fumigants provided good nematode control and average yield increases of 10% to 15 %. On second crops, higher application rates and fumigant combinations (metam sodium and 1,3-D ± chloropicrin) improved RKN control and increased yields on average by 20% to 35 % compared to the nonfumigated control. Oxamyl increased yields of the first crop in 2003 on average by 10% to 15% but had no effect in 2004 when RKN failed to establish itself. On double-cropped squash in 2003, oxamyl following fumigation provided significant additional reduction in nematode infection and increased squash yields on average by 30% to 75%. PMID:19259431

  5. On Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michael B.

    Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…

  6. 40 CFR 407.70 - Applicability; description of the canned and preserved vegetables subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; broccoli; carrots; canned and frozen corn; dehydrated onions and garlic; dehydrated vegetables; dry beans; lima beans; mushrooms; canned onions; peas; sauerkraut canning and cutting; snap beans; spinach; squash...

  7. 40 CFR 407.70 - Applicability; description of the canned and preserved vegetables subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; broccoli; carrots; canned and frozen corn; dehydrated onions and garlic; dehydrated vegetables; dry beans; lima beans; mushrooms; canned onions; peas; sauerkraut canning and cutting; snap beans; spinach; squash...

  8. 40 CFR 407.70 - Applicability; description of the canned and preserved vegetables subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; broccoli; carrots; canned and frozen corn; dehydrated onions and garlic; dehydrated vegetables; dry beans; lima beans; mushrooms; canned onions; peas; sauerkraut canning and cutting; snap beans; spinach; squash...

  9. 40 CFR 407.70 - Applicability; description of the canned and preserved vegetables subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; broccoli; carrots; canned and frozen corn; dehydrated onions and garlic; dehydrated vegetables; dry beans; lima beans; mushrooms; canned onions; peas; sauerkraut canning and cutting; snap beans; spinach; squash...

  10. 40 CFR 407.70 - Applicability; description of the canned and preserved vegetables subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; broccoli; carrots; canned and frozen corn; dehydrated onions and garlic; dehydrated vegetables; dry beans; lima beans; mushrooms; canned onions; peas; sauerkraut canning and cutting; snap beans; spinach; squash...

  11. High-fiber foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... potatoes with skin Broccoli, artichokes, squashes, and string beans You can also get more fiber by eating: Legumes, such as lentils, black beans, split peas, kidney beans, lima beans, and chickpeas ...

  12. 75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... soil fumigant use on soil that will be used to grow fruiting vegetable (tomato, pepper, and eggplant... vegetable (tomato, pepper, and eggplant), cucurbit vegetable (cucumber, squash (all types), and melon (all...

  13. Chlorophyllase is a rate-limiting enzyme in chlorophyll catabolism and is posttranslationally regulated.

    PubMed

    Harpaz-Saad, Smadar; Azoulay, Tamar; Arazi, Tzahi; Ben-Yaakov, Eran; Mett, Anahit; Shiboleth, Yoel M; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Gidoni, David; Gal-On, Amit; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Eyal, Yoram

    2007-03-01

    Chlorophyll is a central player in harvesting light energy for photosynthesis, yet the rate-limiting steps of chlorophyll catabolism and the regulation of the catabolic enzymes remain unresolved. To study the role and regulation of chlorophyllase (Chlase), the first enzyme of the chlorophyll catabolic pathway, we expressed precursor and mature versions of citrus (Citrus sinensis) Chlase in two heterologous plant systems: (1) squash (Cucurbita pepo) plants using a viral vector expression system; and (2) transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts. Expression of full-length citrus Chlase resulted in limited chlorophyll breakdown in protoplasts and no visible leaf phenotype in whole plants, whereas expression of a Chlase version lacking the N-terminal 21 amino acids (ChlaseDeltaN), which corresponds to the mature protein, led to extensive chlorophyll breakdown in both tobacco protoplasts and squash leaves. ChlaseDeltaN-expressing squash leaves displayed a dramatic chlorotic phenotype in plants grown under low-intensity light, whereas under natural light a lesion-mimic phenotype occurred, which was demonstrated to follow the accumulation of chlorophyllide, a photodynamic chlorophyll breakdown product. Full-length and mature citrus Chlase versions were localized to the chloroplast membrane fraction in expressing tobacco protoplasts, where processing of the N-terminal 21 amino acids appears to occur. Results obtained in both plant systems suggest that Chlase functions as a rate-limiting enzyme in chlorophyll catabolism controlled via posttranslational regulation.

  14. Drosophila Hox and Sex-Determination Genes Control Segment Elimination through EGFR and extramacrochetae Activity

    PubMed Central

    Foronda, David; Martín, Paloma; Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The formation or suppression of particular structures is a major change occurring in development and evolution. One example of such change is the absence of the seventh abdominal segment (A7) in Drosophila males. We show here that there is a down-regulation of EGFR activity and fewer histoblasts in the male A7 in early pupae. If this activity is elevated, cell number increases and a small segment develops in the adult. At later pupal stages, the remaining precursors of the A7 are extruded under the epithelium. This extrusion requires the up-regulation of the HLH protein Extramacrochetae and correlates with high levels of spaghetti-squash, the gene encoding the regulatory light chain of the non-muscle myosin II. The Hox gene Abdominal-B controls both the down-regulation of spitz, a ligand of the EGFR pathway, and the up-regulation of extramacrochetae, and also regulates the transcription of the sex-determining gene doublesex. The male Doublesex protein, in turn, controls extramacrochetae and spaghetti-squash expression. In females, the EGFR pathway is also down-regulated in the A7 but extramacrochetae and spaghetti-squash are not up-regulated and extrusion of precursor cells is almost absent. Our results show the complex orchestration of cellular and genetic events that lead to this important sexually dimorphic character change. PMID:22912593

  15. An In-Port Feeding System for Shipboard Personnel. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Tips w/Gravy E-5 Steamed Rice Q-46-3 Lyonnaise Potatoes Q-G-3 Buttered Zucchini Special Pumpkin Pie G-5 Banana Cake G-39-1 Banana Cream Frosting...lasagna) or partially prepared (e.g., dehydrated potatoes , cake mixes, etc.). One of the types of the prepared convenience foods evaluated were...well accepted. Nevertheless, Tray Pack Items receiving mean hedonic ratings below 6.0 were found in all four categories: entrees, vegetables, potatoes

  16. Biological Studies of Bagous Hydrillae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    ZZ/,-,,- a n teurifolla w es s t u . smallyoo beed ¥. Yw~tlls C. dimAal f eehtdults P. aMisno d w eggs IL dubiol L. c-ollnianw IL divalmdli i 0. sativa ...ornamental Oryza sativa L. cultivated rice Pistia stratiotes L. introduced S.A. or Asian weed Tradescanua sp. introduced, ornamental Zebrina pendula Schnizl...Cacurbita pepo L. cultivated zucchini Graptopetalum sp. introduced, ornamental Lactuca satva L. cultivated lettuce Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.)Verdc

  17. Potassium and Your CKD Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... ¼ whole) Artichoke Chocolate (1.5-2 ounces) Banana (½ whole) Bamboo Shoots Granola Cantaloupe Baked Beans ... Sweet Potatoes, Carrots, Beets, Winter Squash, and Rutabagas: Peel and place the vegetable in cold water so ...

  18. 40 CFR 180.588 - Quinoxyfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... Pepper, bell 0.35 Pepper, nonbell 1.7 Pumpkin 0.20 Squash, winter 0.20 Strawberry 0.90 (b) Section 18...

  19. Antioxidants: Protecting Healthy Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinach, Brussels sprouts, sweet potatoes, winter squash and broccoli. Vitamin E Research has demonstrated the broad role ... oranges, grapefruits and tangerines), strawberries, sweet peppers, tomatoes, broccoli and potatoes. Challenges to Healthful Eating The best ...

  20. Avoiding Food Hassles with Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... that have color to make it look interesting. Broccoli, beets, sweet potatoes, yellow squash, red apples, and ... Ask if they would rather have cauliflower or broccoli. Don’t forget to ask them how they’ ...

  1. 5 Top Foods for Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as collard greens, turnip greens and spinach, broccoli, peas, kiwi, red grapes, yellow squash, oranges, corn, ... other vitamin C-rich foods including bell peppers, broccoli, citrus (such as orange and grapefruit) and cantaloupe. ...

  2. Figuring Out Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... vegetables, such as carrots and squash, and in dark green, leafy vegetables. Vitamin C helps the body ... in iron-fortified cereals, tofu, dried beans, and dark green, leafy vegetables. Label Listings for Avoiding Allergies ...

  3. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  4. The Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Jessie A.

    The Involvement Instrument, an observational technique for examining children's interaction patterns and degree of involvement within the school setting, is presented in this paper. Training protocols for obtaining skill in using the Involvement Instrument, methods of analyzing data obtained by using the instrument, and criteria for determining…

  5. Involving Latino Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezada, Reyes L.; Diaz, Delia M.; Sanchez, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Describes barriers to Latino parent involvement in educational activities, factors to consider when involving Latino parents, and two examples of Latino involvement programs in California: Family Literacy Workshop at James Monroe Elementary School, Madera Unified School District, and Parents Take P.A.R.T. (Parent Assisted Reading Training) at…

  6. Black Holes to Blackboards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey F.

    1996-03-01

    Falling stars have always had a magical aura, whether people think of them as omens or simply as natural fireworks. So why squash that natural fascination by making students memorize the difference between -ites and -oids?

  7. Vitamin C

    MedlinePlus

    ... tomato juice Winter squash Some cereals and other foods and beverages are fortified with vitamin C. Fortified means a vitamin or mineral has been added to the food. Check the product labels to see how much ...

  8. 21 CFR 172.130 - Dehydroacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.130 Dehydroacetic acid. The food additive dehydroacetic acid and/or its sodium... used or intended for use as a preservative for cut or peeled squash, and is so used that no more than...

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Comparative Analysis of Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs in Grafted Watermelon by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional gene regulation and play a critical role in plant growth, development and stresses response. However less is known about miRNAs involvement in grafting behaviors, especially with the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) crop, which is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. Grafting method is commonly used in watermelon production in attempts to improve its adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses, in particular to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In this study, Solexa sequencing has been used to discover small RNA populations and compare miRNAs on genome-wide scale in watermelon grafting system. A total of 11,458,476, 11,614,094 and 9,339,089 raw reads representing 2,957,751, 2,880,328 and 2,964,990 unique sequences were obtained from the scions of self-grafted watermelon and watermelon grafted on-to bottle gourd and squash at two true-leaf stage, respectively. 39 known miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families and 80 novel miRNAs were identified in our small RNA dataset. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, 20 (5 known miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs) and 47 (17 known miRNA families and 30 novel miRNAs) miRNAs were expressed significantly different in watermelon grafted on to bottle gourd and squash, respectively. MiRNAs expressed differentially when watermelon was grafted onto different rootstocks, suggesting that miRNAs might play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes in watermelon and grafting may possibly by changing miRNAs expressions to regulate plant growth and development as well as adaptation to stresses. The small RNA transcriptomes obtained in this study provided insights into molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in grafted watermelon. Obviously, this result would provide a basis for further unravelling the mechanism on how miRNAs information is exchanged between scion and rootstock in grafted

  10. [Influence of nutritional substrates on the development of Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)].

    PubMed

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Polanczyk, Ricardo A; Holtz, Anderson M; Tamanhoni, Tiago; Celestino, Flávio N; Borges Filho, Raul da C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the biological behaviour of melonworm at different natural and artificial diets. Squash cultivar jacaré, cucumber, summer squash and an artificial diets developed by Hensley & Hammond for the sugarcane borer were tried. The research was carried out in the Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, in climatized room at 25 +/- 1 masculineC, relative humidity of 70 +/- 10% and 14h photofase. The caterpillars fed on each substrate during the whole life cycle. Differences in duration of the larval period, larvae and pupae survival, adult longevity and number of eggs were registered between the substrates. The results show that the best diet for rearing is the artificial one. Between the natural diets the cucumber showed the best results.

  11. The influence of labeling the vegetable content of snack food on children's taste preferences: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Lizzy; Wolf, Randi L

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether informing children of the presence of vegetables in select snack food items alters taste preference. A random sample of 68 elementary and middle school children tasted identical pairs of 3 snack food items containing vegetables. In each pair, 1 sample's label included the food's vegetable (eg, broccoli gingerbread spice cake), and 1 sample's label did not (eg, gingerbread spice cake). Participants reported whether the samples tasted the same, or whether they preferred one sample. Frequency of vegetable consumption was also assessed. Taste preferences did not differ for the labeled versus the unlabeled sample of zucchini chocolate chip bread, χ(2) (2, n = 68) = 3.21, P = .20 or broccoli gingerbread spice cake χ(2) (2, n = 68) = 2.15, P = .34. However, students preferred the unlabeled cookies (ie, chocolate chip cookies) over the vegetable-labeled version (ie, chickpea chocolate chip cookies), χ(2) = (2, n = 68) 9.21, P = .01. Chickpeas were consumed less frequently (81% had not tried in past year) as compared to zucchini and broccoli. Informing children of the presence of vegetables hidden within snack food may or may not alter taste preference and may depend on the frequency of prior exposure to the vegetable. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Influence of the Osmotic Dehydration Process on Physicochemical Properties of Osmotic Solution.

    PubMed

    Lech, Krzysztof; Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Figiel, Adam

    2017-12-16

    The osmotic dehydration (OD) process consists of the removal of water from a material during which the solids from the osmotic solution are transported to the material by osmosis. This process is commonly performed in sucrose and salt solutions. Taking into account that a relatively high consumption of those substances might have a negative effect on human health, attempts have been made to search for alternatives that can be used for osmotic dehydration. One of these is an application of chokeberry juice with proven beneficial properties to human health. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the OD solution (chokeberry juice concentrate) before and after the osmotic dehydration of carrot and zucchini. The total polyphenolics content, antioxidant capacity (ABTS, FRAP), dynamic viscosity, density, and water activity were examined in relation to the juice concentration used for the osmotic solution before and after the OD process. During the osmotic dehydration process, the concentration of the chokeberry juice decreased. Compounds with lower molecular weight and lower antioxidant capacity present in concentrated chokeberry juice had a stronger influence on the exchange of compounds during the OD process in carrot and zucchini. The water activity of the osmotic solution increased after the osmotic dehydration process. It was concluded that the osmotic solution after the OD process might be successfully re-used as a product with high quality for i.e. juice production.

  13. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  14. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  15. Some Techniques for Teaching about the Structure and Function of Chromosomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Roger; Taylor, Neil; Nathan, Subhashni

    2000-01-01

    Presents a teaching activity that uses photographs and diagrams to simulate two microscopic laboratory techniques used to observe the structure of chromosomes. Techniques include observation of squashed onion root tips and the salivary glands of some fruitfly larvae. (WRM)

  16. To be involved or not to be involved: a survey of public preferences for self-involvement in decision-making involving mental capacity (competency) within Europe.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara A; Bausewein, Claudia; Murtagh, Fliss E M; Calanzani, Natalia; Higginson, Irene J; Harding, Richard; Cohen, Joachim; Simon, Steffen T; Deliens, Luc; Bechinger-English, Dorothee; Hall, Sue; Koffman, Jonathan; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Toscani, Franco; Gysels, Marjolein; Ceulemans, Lucas; Haugen, Dagny F; Gomes, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    The Council of Europe has recommended that member states of European Union encourage their citizens to make decisions about their healthcare before they lose capacity to do so. However, it is unclear whether the public wants to make such decisions beforehand. To examine public preferences for self-involvement in end-of-life care decision-making and identify associated factors. A population-based survey with 9344 adults in England, Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Across countries, 74% preferred self-involvement when capable; 44% preferred self-involvement when incapable through, for example, a living will. Four factors were associated with a preference for self-involvement across capacity and incapacity scenarios, respectively: higher educational attainment ((odds ratio = 1.93-2.77), (odds ratio = 1.33-1.80)); female gender ((odds ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.14-1.41), (odds ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.42)); younger-middle age ((30-59 years: odds ratio = 1.24-1.40), (50-59 years: odds ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.46)) and valuing quality over quantity of life or valuing both equally ((odds ratio = 1.49-1.58), (odds ratio = 1.35-1.53)). Those with increased financial hardship (odds ratio = 0.64-0.83) and a preference to die in hospital (not a palliative care unit) (odds ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.60-0.88), a nursing home or residential care (odds ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.54-0.99) were less likely to prefer self-involvement when capable. For the incapacity scenario, single people were more likely to prefer self-involvement (odds ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-1.53). Self-involvement in decision-making is important to the European public. However, a large proportion of the public prefer to not make decisions about their care in advance of incapacity. Financial hardship, educational attainment, age, and preferences regarding quality and quantity

  17. Early Childhood: Fall Harvest and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Provides instructional strategies for using fall fruits/vegetables in science lessons, including activities related to melons, pumpkins, grapes, pears, squash, and yams. Suggests extending the activities over a month or more to allow children time to explore and investigate. (JN)

  18. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  19. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  20. Crown blight of melons and crown decline of watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cucurbits (family Cucurbitaceae) form a diverse group of species grown around the world under many different conditions and for many different purposes. The major cultivated types include cucumber, melon (cantaloupe or muskmelon, honeydew, etc.), watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. Minor cultivated...

  1. Botany and culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cucurbits (family Cucurbitaceae) form a diverse group of species grown around the world under many different conditions and for many different purposes. The major cultivated types include cucumber, melon (cantaloupe or muskmelon, honeydew, etc.), watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. Minor cultivated...

  2. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration. PMID:24336062

  3. Sieve element occlusion (SEO) genes encode structural phloem proteins involved in wound sealing of the phloem.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Antonia M; Jekat, Stephan B; Zielonka, Sascia; Müller, Boje; Neumann, Ulla; Rüping, Boris; Twyman, Richard M; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2012-07-10

    The sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family originally was delimited to genes encoding structural components of forisomes, which are specialized crystalloid phloem proteins found solely in the Fabaceae. More recently, SEO genes discovered in various non-Fabaceae plants were proposed to encode the common phloem proteins (P-proteins) that plug sieve plates after wounding. We carried out a comprehensive characterization of two tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SEO genes (NtSEO). Reporter genes controlled by the NtSEO promoters were expressed specifically in immature sieve elements, and GFP-SEO fusion proteins formed parietal agglomerates in intact sieve elements as well as sieve plate plugs after wounding. NtSEO proteins with and without fluorescent protein tags formed agglomerates similar in structure to native P-protein bodies when transiently coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and the analysis of these protein complexes by electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural features resembling those of native P-proteins. NtSEO-RNA interference lines were essentially devoid of P-protein structures and lost photoassimilates more rapidly after injury than control plants, thus confirming the role of P-proteins in sieve tube sealing. We therefore provide direct evidence that SEO genes in tobacco encode P-protein subunits that affect translocation. We also found that peptides recently identified in fascicular phloem P-protein plugs from squash (Cucurbita maxima) represent cucurbit members of the SEO family. Our results therefore suggest a common evolutionary origin for P-proteins found in the sieve elements of all dicotyledonous plants and demonstrate the exceptional status of extrafascicular P-proteins in cucurbits.

  4. 40 CFR 180.1087 - Sesame stalks; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the biorational nematicide... fractions; potato; beet, sugar, roots; beet, sugar, tops; tomato; pepper, bell; squash; strawberry; eggplant...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1087 - Sesame stalks; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the biorational nematicide... fractions; potato; beet, sugar, roots; beet, sugar, tops; tomato; pepper, bell; squash; strawberry; eggplant...

  6. Shedding Some Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the basics of designing natural and artificial light in an indoor athletic facility. Also examines individual lighting requirements of typical rooms such as weight and fitness rooms, aerobics and multipurpose rooms, gymnasiums, field houses, pools, and racquetball and squash courts. (GR)

  7. Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

  8. Spatial And Temporal Analysis Of Multiple Whitefly Transmitted Virus Infections In Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) are three whitefly-transmitted viruses recently introduced to Florida that induce visually distinguishable symptoms on watermelon. The epidemiology of these three viruses wa...

  9. The Place for Thermoplastic Composites in Structural Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    The molten tube is then squashed flat and consolidated into ribbon form by continuous opposed-belt laminating. Existing graphite-epoxy pultrusion...the solid form it must have a molecular weight that exceeds the critical entanglement value. Thus thermoplastic materials of commercial worth almost

  10. Draft genome sequence of Erwinia tracheiphila, an economically important bacterial pathogen of cucurbits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Erwinia tracheiphila is one of the most economically important pathogen of cucumbers, melons, squashes, pumpkins, and gourds, in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, yet the molecular pathology remains uninvestigated. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of an E. tracheiphila str...

  11. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905

  12. Highly entangled states with almost no secrecy.

    PubMed

    Christandl, Matthias; Schuch, Norbert; Winter, Andreas

    2010-06-18

    In this Letter we illuminate the relation between entanglement and secrecy by providing the first example of a quantum state that is highly entangled, but from which, nevertheless, almost no secrecy can be extracted. More precisely, we provide two bounds on the bipartite entanglement of the totally antisymmetric state in dimension d×d. First, we show that the amount of secrecy that can be extracted from the state is low; to be precise it is bounded by O(1/d). Second, we show that the state is highly entangled in the sense that we need a large amount of singlets to create the state: entanglement cost is larger than a constant, independent of d. In order to obtain our results we use representation theory, linear programming, and the entanglement measure known as squashed entanglement. Our findings also clarify the relation between the squashed entanglement and the relative entropy of entanglement.

  13. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kawaguchi, Io; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    We proceed to study infinite-dimensional symmetries in two-dimensional squashed Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models at the classical level. The target space is given by squashed S³ and the isometry is SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub R}. It is known that SU(2){sub L} is enhanced to a couple of Yangians. We reveal here that an infinite-dimensional extension of U(1){sub R} is a deformation of quantum affine algebra, where a new deformation parameter is provided with the coefficient of the Wess-Zumino term. Then we consider the relation between the deformed quantum affine algebra and the pair of Yangians from the viewpoint of the left-right duality of monodromy matrices.more » The integrable structure is also discussed by computing the r/s-matrices that satisfy the extended classical Yang-Baxter equation. Finally, two degenerate limits are discussed.« less

  14. Motivational Influences on Cognition: Task Involvement, Ego Involvement, and Depth of Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Golan, Shari

    1991-01-01

    Task involvement and ego involvement were studied in relation to depth of information processing for 126 fifth and sixth graders in 2 experiments. Ego involvement resulted in poorer word recall at deep rather than shallow information processing levels. Implications for the study of motivation are discussed. (SLD)

  15. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  16. AXXE® (Pelargonic acid) and Racer® (Ammonium Nonanoate): Weed control comparisons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although corn gluten meal has shown promise as an early-season pre-emergent organic herbicide in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production, any uncontrolled weeds can inflict serious yield reductions by the end of the growing season. Organic vegetable producers need additional organic herbicides that c...

  17. Military Librarians Workshop (19th). Intellectual Updating: Changes in the State of the Art of Librarianship, 30 September - 2 October 1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Force instructor pilots two swimming pools, basketball will administer the 18 hours of this courts, squash and handball courts, program. Additional...Group Annex Fort Lee, VA 23801 Naval Weapons Station. Seal Beach Corona, CA 91720 ELDEEN J. GREENLAND Library Technician MARGARET L. GALLAGHER USA

  18. China Report, Red Flag, Number 20, 16 October 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-09

    regions will allow cadres to shake off the entanglements of "relationship networks" and to step over the obstacles of personal rela- tionships. On...individuals and required the members of the party committee to accept inappropriate personnel selection or squashed the appointment of outstanding

  19. The Foreign Policy of Angola under Agostinho Neto

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Angolan conflict soon entangled the sideline actors South Africa and SVAPO. An evaluation of the prevailing political and ethnic dynamics in southern...forces, with Soviet arms and Cuban troops, quickly sought to squash the Ovimbundu-based liberation movement. A series of Cuban-led offensives routed

  20. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-15

    administration of low- and moderately esterified pectins-each kind for one month as an ingred- ient of fruit nectars and fruit squashes . A reduced... entanglements became virtually insolvable. It is being ad- mitted that before the incidents of 20 October the police repeatedly displayed

  1. Military fathers' perspectives on involvement.

    PubMed

    Willerton, Elaine; Schwarz, Rona L; Wadsworth, Shelley M Macdermid; Oglesby, Mary Schultheis

    2011-08-01

    Military fathers endure repeated separations from their children. In this qualitative study we describe military fathers' range of involvement with their children, paying special attention to the implications of deployment separation and reintegration. We discuss father involvement using three overlapping major domains of functioning: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Additionally, we consider how types of father involvement differ vis-à-vis child age. Data were gathered via focus groups conducted with 71 fathers at 14 U.S. military installations. Descriptions of involvement were rich and varied. Involvement with children was a major concern for fathers, despite or perhaps because of the challenges of military careers. We discuss factors that help explain variations in involvement and offer insights about the conceptualization of father involvement for occupations requiring prolonged absences from home.

  2. Measuring the rebound resilience of a bouncing ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, Ajay

    2012-09-01

    Some balls which are made of high-quality rubber (an elastomeric) material, such as tennis or squash balls, could be used for the determination of an important property of such materials called resilience. Since a bouncing ball involves a single impact we call this property 'rebound resilience' and express it as the ratio of the rebound height to the initial drop height of the ball. We determine the rebound resilience for three different types of ball by calculating the coefficient of restitution of the ball-surface combination from the experimentally measurable physical quantities, such as initial drop height and time interval between successive bounces. Using these we also determine the contact time of balls with the surface of impact. For measurements we have used audio, motion and surface-temperature sensors that were interfaced through a USB port with a computer.

  3. Good maintenance of exercise-induced bone gain with decreased training of female tennis and squash players: a prospective 5-year follow-up study of young and old starters and controls.

    PubMed

    Kontulainen, S; Kannus, P; Haapasalo, H; Sievänen, H; Pasanen, M; Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Vuori, I

    2001-02-01

    This prospective 5-year follow-up study of 64 adult female racquet sports players and 27 controls assessed the changes in the playing-to-nonplaying arm bone mineral content (BMC) differences to answer three questions: (1) Are training-induced bone gains lost with decreased training? (2) Is the bone response to decreased training different if the playing career has been started before or at puberty rather than after it? (3) Are the possible bone changes related to the changes in training? The players were divided into two groups according to the starting age of their tennis or squash playing. The mean starting age was 10.5 years (SD, 2.2) among the players who had started training before or at menarche (young starters; n = 36) while 26.4 years (SD, 8.0) among those players who had begun training a minimum of 1 year after menarche (old starters; n = 28). At baseline of the 5-year follow-up, the mean age of the young starters was 21.6 years (SD, 7.6) and that of old starters was 39.4 years (SD, 10.5). During the follow-up, the young starters had reduced the average training frequency from 4.7 times a week (2.7) to 1.4 times a week (1.3) and the old starters from 4.0 times a week (1.4) to 2.0 times a week (1.4), respectively. The 5-year follow-up revealed that despite reduced training the exercise-induced bone gain was well maintained in both groups of players regardless of their clearly different starting age of activity and different amount of exercise-induced bone gain. The gain was still 1.3-2.2 times greater in favor of the young starters (at the follow-up, the dominant-to-nondominant arm BMC difference was 22% [8.4] in the humeral shaft of the young starters versus 10% [3.8] in the old starters, and 3.5% [2.4] in controls). In the players, changes in training were only weakly related to changes in the side-to-side BMC difference (r(s) = 0.05-0.34, all NS), and this was true even among the players who had stopped training completely a minimum 1 year before the

  4. Prokaryotic expression of CP gene of Fritillary virus Y infecting Thunberg fritillary and antiserum preparation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chuan-Bao; Wei, Yang-Yang; Yang, Yu; Liu, Shi-Liang; Hu, Hao-Yu; He, Yue

    2011-10-01

    To prepare antiserum against Fritillary virus Y (FVY) CP for detecting FVY and study serological relationships with other viruses. Specific primer was designed according to Genbank (accession: AM039800) to amplify CP gene of FVY infecting Thunberg fritillary. Sequence relationship with other potyviruses was made by Blast. The CP gene was inserted into pSBET and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) plys E strain. The object protein was purified by 12% SDS-PAGE firstly and subsequently 5% - 20% gradient SDS-PAGE. The antiserum against the CP was raised in mouse and its specificity was confirmed by Western blot analysis. The reactivity of the antiserum produced to FVY CP was tested by Western blot against the over-expressed coat proteins of 17 potyviruses. The ability to combine with nature FVY particles was confirmed by ELISA analysis. It shared 81.2% nucleotide acids identities with TrVY (Tricyrtis virus Y, AY 864850) CP gene, 68.1% with SMV-P (Soybean mosaic virus Pinellia strain, AJ507388. 2) CP gene and 67.2% with ZYMV (Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Luan isolate) CP gene. The prepared antiserum was special to FVY CP, also reacted moderately to the expressed CP of SMV-P (Soybean mosaic virus Pinellia strain) and weakly to that of ZYMV (Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Luan isolate). The antibody could combine to nature FVY particles and the antiserum is suitable for FVY detection by ELISA in large scale.

  5. Leaching composted lignocellulosic wastes to prepare container media: feasibility and environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; Carrión, Carolina; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Puchades, Rosa; Abad, Manuel

    2010-08-01

    The leaching of salt and mineral elements from three composts prepared with residual vegetable crop biomass (melon, pepper or zucchini) was studied using methacrylate columns and distilled water. The benefits of the leached composts to be used for ornamental potted plant production were also analysed. After leaching 5 container capacities of effluent, both the electrical conductivity and the concentration of soluble mineral elements in compost leachates decreased substantially and remained close to the target levels. Composts reacted differently to leaching due to differences in the raw waste sources and the composting process and hence, in their physical and chemical characteristics. At the end of the experiment, after pouring 8 container capacities of water, the leaching efficiency of the salts was 96%, 93% and 87% for melon, pepper and zucchini-based composts, respectively. Mineral elements differed in their ability to be removed from the composts; N (NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-)), K(+), Na(+), Cl(-), and SO(4)(2-) were leached readily, whereas H(2)PO(4)(-), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) were removed hardly. Leached composts showed a range of physico-chemical and chemical characteristics suitable for use as growing media constituents. Potted Calendula and Calceolaria plants grew in the substrates prepared with the leached composts better than in those made with the non-leached ones. Finally, special emphasis must be paid to the management of the effluents produced under commercial conditions to avoid environmental pollution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proceedings of a National Symposium on the Racquet Sports. An Exploration of Research Implications and Teaching Strategies (Urbana, Illinois, June 13-16, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Jack L., Ed.

    Conference proceedings from this national symposium on hard scientific research and developments in teaching tennis, squash, racquetball, and badminton are divided into several sections. The first deals with sports medicine and the biomechanics of the racquet sports. The second part discusses the pyschological and sociological aspects of…

  7. 40 CFR 180.1016 - Ethylene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethylene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1016 Section 180.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., soybean, squash, tomato, turnip, and watermelon fields as part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture...

  8. Podosphaera xanthii but not Golovinomyces cichoracearum infects Cucurbits in a Greenhouse at Salinas, California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two fungal species are the primary causes of cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM): Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum. CPM on melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in a greenhouse at Salinas, California in winter 2011 was confirmed to be in...

  9. Distribution of Four Viruses in Single and Mixed Infections Within Infected Watermelon Plants in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  10. Foods The Indians Gave Us. Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hail, Raven

    This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…

  11. "Emerging" Sports for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Debra E.

    1994-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association has recently introduced nine new sports to intercollegiate athletics: team handball, archery, badminton, bowling, crew, ice hockey, squash, synchronized swimming, and water polo. The initiative is intended to encourage colleges to create more athletic opportunities for women. It sets scholarship limits…

  12. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  13. Epidemiology and Association of Four Insect-Vectored Viruses in Florida Watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in the pa...

  14. Patterns of Virus Distribution in Single and Mixed Infections of Florida Watermelons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  15. Investigations of Crown Gall in the Commercial Propagation of Weeping Fig

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  16. Epidemiological Analysis of Multi-Virus Infections of Watermelon in Experimental Fields in Southwest Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  17. 7 CFR 201.56-4 - Cucurbit family, (Cucurbitaceae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., squash, and watermelon. (a) General description. (1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves... does not show any development within the test period. (4) Root system: A long primary root with numerous secondary roots. (b) Abnormal seedling description. (1) Cotyledons: (i) Less than half of the...

  18. 7 CFR 201.56-4 - Cucurbit family, (Cucurbitaceae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., squash, and watermelon. (a) General description. (1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves... does not show any development within the test period. (4) Root system: A long primary root with numerous secondary roots. (b) Abnormal seedling description. (1) Cotyledons: (i) Less than half of the...

  19. Under the Shadow of the Big Stick: U.S. Intervention in Cuba, 1906-1909

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    and treaties that would entangle the U.S. with European powers and instead emphasized economic trade. 71 As the U.S. sought greater resources and...against Spain. Spain acted harshly to squash the insurgency, and 170,000 Cubans are believed to have died in Spanish concentration camps

  20. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1337

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-29

    as an inexhaustible source, produces and which capitalism squashed , suppressed and squelched by the thousands and millions.ŕ 48 Socialist...where they are most dangerously- entangled and tense, in opening up prospects for an arms ban as soon as possible’, in encouragement for the efforts of

  1. Why Involvement Matters: A Review of Research on Student Involvement in the Collegiate Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jody; Lovell, Cheryl D.; McGann, Tammy; Wyrick, Jason

    1998-01-01

    Highlights different types of student involvement, summarizes key findings, and identifies significant gaps in research regarding how student involvement on college campuses impacts student development and learning. Suggests that student affairs administrators need to continue the exploration on the importance of college student involvement.…

  2. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus Originating from Oman

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Akhtar J.; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W.; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6–99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93–98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:22852046

  3. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  4. Growth of plants fumigated with saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon gases and their derivatives

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Heck, W.W.; Pires, E.G.

    1962-01-01

    Fourteen gases were investigated for their toxicity to plant growth and development. Five of these gases (acetylene, ethylene, ethylene oxide, propylene and vinyl chloride) produced pronounced effects on the five plant species studied. The plants were fumigated at 10, 100 and 1000 ppm by each of the test gases, using a set of 10 small fumigation chambers. The effects of the five gases on squash, cotton, corn, soybean and cowpea were carefully catalogued. Both quantitative and qualitative growth data were obtained. Plant height, leaf size, flower bud number, cotyledon injury and an injury index are useful criteria for analysis ofmore » gas effects. Cowpea is the most sensitive of the plants studied, followed by cotton, squash, soybean and corn. The injurious effects of ethylene were the greatest, followed by acetylene, propylene, ethylene oxide and vinyl chloride. It is suggested that ethylene oxide acts as a true toxicant while the other four gases may be considered as physiologically active gases.« less

  5. Community Involvement Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    and social problems, does not lend itself to a single or simple solution. This is why we must all be involved. For this reason we. believe that...of admission to decisionmaking. At times the implications of this relatively simple premise are not minor. Many people beginning community...involvement programs have found it extremely difficult to locate technical people able to translate technical reports into simple , every- day English. There

  6. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  7. Evaluation of virus resistant rootstocks to manage watermelon vine decline and diseases caused by other potyviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watermelon vine decline caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is an emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) is one of several watermelon-infecting potyviruses long present in the southeastern U.S. L...

  8. Parasitism and predation on sentinel egg masses of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in three vegetable crops: Importance of dissections for evaluating the impact of native parasitoids on an exotic pest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a survey to examine parasitism, predation and the species composition of native parasitoids attacking sentinel egg masses of the invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in bell pepper, squash, and tomato. A two-year survey was conducted for each c...

  9. A new and potentially damaging whitefly-transmitted virus of cucurbits was found this fall 2014 in Imperial County, CA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new virus that appears to be related to but distinct from Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a Bemisia tabaci-transmitted ipomovirus (family Potyviridae) that occurs in Florida was found in fall 2014 in Imperial County, CA infecting pumpkin and melon plants and exhibiting symptoms of stunting an...

  10. Patterns of Virus Distribution in Single and Mixed Infections of Florida Watermelons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. To determine the distribution of vir...

  11. Update on the watermelon vine decline virus and other whitefly-transmitted cucurbit viruses in Florida, and their effects on watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was shown in the mid-2000’s to cause a watermelon vine decline in southwest and west-central Florida. More recently, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), also whitefly-transmitted, have bee...

  12. The Current German Debate on the Role of Force: A ’New Nation and a New Statesman’.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-14

    While Germany might have preferred to have avoided entanglement in the Bosnian peacekeeping mission, the government could not allow its hesitation to...civilians were killed and hopes for democratic reform in China were squashed . Most nations of the world condemned China’s actions. Only a few hard-line

  13. Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M

    2014-06-01

    The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component.

  14. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis*, **

    PubMed Central

    Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-α, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403

  15. The relationship between loading history and proximal femoral diaphysis cross-sectional geometry.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, Sirpa; Narra, Nathaniel; Härkönen, Laura; Abe, Shinya; Nikander, Riku; Hyttinen, Jari; Knüsel, Christopher; Sievänen, Harri

    2017-07-08

    We investigated the relationship between loading history and bone biomechanical properties used in physical activity reconstructions. These bone properties included bone bending and torsional strength (J), cortical area (CA), the direction of the major axis (theta angle), and element shape ratios determined from cross sections of standardized bone length. In addition, we explored the applicability of anatomically determined cross sections. Our material consisted of hip and proximal thigh magnetic resonance images of Finnish female athletes (N = 91) engaged in high-jump, triple-jump, endurance running, swimming, power-lifting, soccer and squash; along with a group of active non-athlete individuals (N = 20). We used regression analysis for size-adjustment, and the extracted residuals were then used to compare differences in the bone properties between groups. We found that triple-jumpers, soccer players, and squash players had the greatest values in CA and J, swimmers and non-athletes had the smallest, whereas high-jumpers, power-lifters, and endurance runners exhibited interim values. No between-the-group differences in element shape ratios or theta angles were found. We found that influences of activity were similar regardless of whether standardized length or anatomically determined cross sections were used. Extreme (triple-jump) and directionally inconsistent loading (soccer and squash) necessitate a more robust skeleton compared to directionally consistent loading (high-jump, power-lifting, and endurance running) or non-impact loading (swimming and non-athletes). However, not all of these relationships were statistically significant. Thus, information gained about physical activity using bone properties is informative but limited. Accounting for the limitations, the method is applicable on fragmented skeletal material as anatomically determined cross sections can be used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 77 FR 48536 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... individuals were identified. Bowers identified two funerary objects associated with Burial 5 as a bone squash... individuals were identified. The eleven associated funerary objects are four bone awls associated with the sub...-shaped bracelet, 1 dog bone pendant, 1 wooden bowl, 1 lot of leather pieces, 1 horse effigy catlinite...

  17. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initia...

  18. Investigating the Boron Requirement of Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnsack, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes a simple and rapid method for using summer squash to investigate born deficiency in plants. Author asserts that students are likely to feel challenged by laboratory exercises and projects that focus on the role boron plays in plant growth because it is an unresolved problem in biology. (PR)

  19. Effectiveness of the Geneva Convention Relative to American POW’s (Prisoner of War)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-05-01

    Vietnamese soldiers, Dengler was spread -eagled by his captors and at night left to the mercy of jungle insects, tied to a tree for harassment...was somewhat better. The daily routine was more formalized. Prisoners were fed two meals a day. Food consisted mainly of pumpkin or squash, pork fat

  20. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  1. JPRS Report Near East South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-14

    Table 10 shows. This group includes potatoes, sweet potatoes, poi, squash and yams. However, potatoes are the most important and widespread of...you will see that many of the countries of the world in various areas are in some way or another either related to, or entangled with, such regional

  2. North Korea The Reality of a Rogue State in the International Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    military force, to say the least, was not a formidable one. After squashing a pro-communist rebellion in 1948, the military was purged, leaving it...North Korea tried to avoid becoming entangled in the Sino- Soviet split, obtaining aid from both the Soviet Union and China and trying to avoid

  3. Fathers’ Involvement in Child Health Care: Associations with Prenatal Involvement, Parents’ Beliefs, and Maternal Gatekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Zvara, B.J.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 182 dual-earner couples experiencing the transition to parenthood, this study examined associations between prenatal involvement, gender role beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping and new fathers’ involvement in child health care. Results indicated that prenatal father involvement was associated with both fathers’ direct engagement in child health care and fathers’ perceived influence in child health-related decision-making. Fathers also demonstrated greater direct engagement in child health care when mothers held more nontraditional beliefs about gender roles. Moreover, when mothers were more encouraging of fathers’ involvement in childrearing, fathers felt more influential in child health-related decision-making, whereas when mothers engaged in greater gate closing behavior, fathers with more traditional gender role beliefs felt less influential in child health-related decision-making. This study suggests that fathers’ prenatal involvement, mothers’ beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping may play a role in the development of new fathers’ involvement in child health care at the transition to parenthood. PMID:26405366

  4. Measuring Involvement with Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Glen J.; Salmon, Charles T.

    A study applied research concepts from consumer product involvement to test a model for research on involvement with social issues. Issue involvement was defined as the state or level of perceived importance and/or interest evoked by a stimulus (issue) within a specific situation. Attitudes on four social issues--abortion, pornography, the…

  5. Brainstem involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Dileep; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Kohli, Neera

    2011-01-01

    The parieto-occipital region of the brain is most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. Brainstem involvement is rarely described in SSPE, and usually there is involvement of other regions of the brain. We describe a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive brainstem involvement without significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, one should be aware of such brainstem and cerebellum involvement, and SSPE should be kept in mind when brainstem signal changes are seen in brain MRI with or without involvement of other regions of brain to avoid erroneous reporting.

  6. Families Get Involved! Learning Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Media and Information Services.

    Noting that families who are involved in their children's education make a difference in their child's performance, this two-page information sheet encourages families to get involved by listing the benefits of family involvement on one side and the ways adult family members can help in the school on the other. As a result of family participation:…

  7. Accelerator radiocarbon dating of evidence for prehistoric horticulture in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conard, N.; Asch, D.L.; Asch, N.B.; Elmore, D.; Gove, H.; Rubin, M.; Brown, J.A.; Wiant, M.D.; Farnsworth, K.B.; Cook, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of direct detection radiocarbon dating, which uses an accelerator as part of a highly selective mass spectrometer, it is now possible to determine the age of milligram samples of organic materials1-5. One application of accelerator dating is in evaluating scanty, sometimes controversial evidence for early horticulture throughout the world. We have now used the technique to date small samples of carbonized, cultivated plant remains from archaeological sites in Illinois. The results, reported here, establish (1) that squash was introduced by 7,000 yr ago, 2,500 yr before eastern North American records previously reported; (2) that horticulture involving indigenous plants had begun by 4,000 BP in eastern North America with domestication of Iva annua, a small-seeded annual; (3) that anomalous discoveries of Archaic period maize represent contaminants; and (4) that introduction of maize by initial Middle Woodland times (~2,000 BP) is questionable.

  8. Commericial Involvement in Intramurals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Gerry

    Sport in general has long had ties with commercial interests, the most popular and widespread involving publicity. Intramural sports programs, however, have not cultivated many commercial involvements in publicity. The approach in intramural sports advertising is simple. A commercial interest pays for space or time in a given communication media…

  9. Two Dimensions of Parental Involvement: What Affects Parental Involvement in Dual Language Immersion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Jongyeon

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates parental involvement in Korean two-way immersion (TWI) programs from the social capital theory perspective. This study explores the degree to which parental involvement is affected by parents' demographic features and parent-related variables by analyzing data from 454 parents of students enrolled in seven elementary…

  10. International Symposium on the Effective Teaching of Racquet Sports. Proceedings (1st, Urbana, Illinois, June 11-14, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Jack L., Ed.; Sears, Ronald G., Ed.

    Researchers, coaches, and players of racquet sports were brought together for this symposium on four racquet sports. Although most of the papers presented at the symposium were written by Americans, one of the speakers was from Canada, and another was from Australia. The sports represented were badminton, racquetball, tennis, and squash. In Part…

  11. Epidemiological Analysis of Multi-Virus Infections of Watermelon in Experimental Fields in Southwest Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The whitefly-transmitted viruses Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) have had serious impact on watermelon production in west-central and southwest Florida in recent years. We monitored the progress of SqVYV and CuLCrV and whitefly density in 2.5 acre experim...

  12. Archeological Investigations at Big Hill Lake, Southeastern Kansas, 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    miles above the Neosho river, Irving noted the presence of "Fine trees..." and ... wood entangled with rich underwood..." (McDermott 1944:98-100). A few...Horticultural activities centered on the familiar corn/beans/ squash triad, although the gathering of wild foods continued to be of importance. Bison hunting was

  13. 78 FR 67042 - Boscalid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ..., group 11 at 3.0 ppm; grape at 3.5 ppm; strawberry at 4.5 ppm; sunflower, seed at 0.6 ppm; vegetable...%; squash 5%; strawberries 55%; tomatoes 5%; walnuts 1%; and watermelons 25%. In most cases, EPA uses... 10; fruit, pome, group 11; grape; strawberry; sunflower, seed; vegetable, bulb, group 3; and...

  14. [Families Involved in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Community Update" focuses on families involved in learning. The first article briefly discusses the "Ready to Read, Ready to Learn" White House summit that highlighted new research on early childhood learning. The center spread of this issue offers "Priming the Primary Educator: A Look at L. A. County's Parent Involvement Programs"…

  15. Ego involvement increases doping likelihood.

    PubMed

    Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria

    2018-08-01

    Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention. Accordingly, the current study used an experimental design to examine the effects of goal involvement, manipulated using direct instructions and reflective writing, on doping likelihood in hypothetical situations in college athletes. The ego-involving goal increased doping likelihood compared to no goal and a task-involving goal. The present findings provide the first evidence that ego involvement can sway the decision to use doping to improve athletic performance.

  16. 32 CFR 651.47 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public involvement. 651.47 Section 651.47... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Public Involvement and the Scoping Process § 651.47 Public involvement. (a) As a matter of Army policy, public involvement is required for all EISs, and is strongly...

  17. Occurrence of enteric viruses in reclaimed and surface irrigation water: relationship with microbiological and physicochemical indicators.

    PubMed

    López-Gálvez, F; Truchado, P; Sánchez, G; Aznar, R; Gil, M I; Allende, A

    2016-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of enteric viruses in different irrigation water sources and in the irrigated produce, and the possible links with microbiological and physicochemical water characteristics. The prevalence and levels of Escherichia coli, Norovirus (NoV) genogroup I (GI) and II (GII), as well as Hepatitis A virus were assessed in three types of water: surface water (surface-W), reclaimed water subjected to secondary treatment (secondary-W) and reclaimed water subjected to tertiary treatment (tertiary-W), as well as in zucchini irrigated with these irrigation water sources. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total suspended solids, alkalinity and maximum filterable volume (MFV) were also measured in the water. Higher prevalence of NoV in secondary-W (GI 100%, GII 55·6%) and tertiary-W (GI 91·7%, GII 66·7%) compared with surface-W (GI 58·4%, GII 22·2%) was observed. Nov GI showed positive correlation with E. coli (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0·68, P < 0·01), and with some physicochemical parameters such as COD (0·52, P < 0·01), turbidity (0·52, P < 0·01) and MFV (0·54, P < 0·01). Escherichia coli and enteric viruses were not detected in zucchini. There is a potential risk of contamination of crops with NoV when reclaimed water is used for irrigation. Increase the knowledge on the prevalence of enteric viruses in different irrigation water sources, and its consequences for fresh produce safety. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  19. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein.

    PubMed

    Muday, G K; Hu, S; Brady, S R

    2000-06-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  20. Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This periodical issue focuses on the theme of involvement of families in the education of their children with disabilities. It includes papers with the following titles and authors: "A Message from the Assistant Secretary: Developing Successful Partnerships between Parents and Service Providers" (Robert R. Davila); "Parent Advocacy…

  1. Designing a Citizen Involvement Program: A Guidebook for Involving Citizens in the Resolution of Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Robert E.; And Others

    A model and supportive materials are presented for design and implementation of a program for involving citizens in decision-making concerning significant environmental issues. Chapter topics include: why citizen involvement? (potential benefits of the process); theoretical basis for citizen involvement (three fundamental perspectives underlying…

  2. Plasticity in host utilization by two host-associated populations of Aphis gossypii Glover.

    PubMed

    Barman, A K; Gadhave, K R; Dutta, B; Srinivasan, R

    2018-06-01

    Biological and morphological plasticity in polyphagous insect herbivores allow them to exploit diverse host plant species. Geographical differences in resource availability can lead to preferential host exploitation and result in inconsistent host specialization. Biological and molecular data provide insights into specialization and plasticity of such herbivore populations. In agricultural landscapes, Aphis gossypii encounters several crop and non-crop hosts, which exist in temporal and spatial proximity. We investigated the host-specialization of two A. gossypii host-associated populations (HAPs), which were field collected from cotton and squash (cotton-associated population and melon-associated population), and later maintained separately in the greenhouse. The two aphid populations were exposed to seven plant species (cotton, okra, watermelon, squash, cucumber, pigweed, and morning glory), and evaluated for their host utilization plasticity by estimating aphid's fitness parameters (nymphal period, adult period, fecundity, and intrinsic rate of increase). Four phenotypical characters (body length, head capsule width, hind tibia length and cornicle length) were also measured from the resulting 14 different HAP × host plant combinations. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial COI sequences showed no genetic variation between the two HAPs. Fitness parameters indicated a significant variation between the two aphid populations, and the variation was influenced by host plants. The performance of melon-aphids was poor (up to 89% reduction in fecundity) on malvaceous hosts, cotton and okra. However, cotton-aphids performed better on cucurbitaceous hosts, squash and watermelon (up to 66% increased fecundity) compared with the natal host, cotton. Both HAPs were able to reproduce on two weed hosts. Cotton-aphids were smaller than melon-aphids irrespective of their host plants. Results from this study suggest that the two HAPs in the study area do not have strict host

  3. The U.S. Government and the Apache Indians, 1871-1876: A Case Study in Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-05

    sustenance, but this was a very meager source of food for them. When they did plant crops it was usually corn, beans or squash . They relied heavily on...he wish to become entangled with the bureaucracy of the Indian Bureau by attempting to obtain permission to conduct a search in the first place. The

  4. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-23

    It broke out there and gave rise to the dispute in Israel Eventually they will tie together a few squashed cartons whether the intifadah was the... entangle the Sindhis in bad, the MQM has not been able to bring about any "typical journalistic quagmires." major change that marks out its rule as being

  5. Computing quantum discord is NP-complete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yichen

    2014-03-01

    We study the computational complexity of quantum discord (a measure of quantum correlation beyond entanglement), and prove that computing quantum discord is NP-complete. Therefore, quantum discord is computationally intractable: the running time of any algorithm for computing quantum discord is believed to grow exponentially with the dimension of the Hilbert space so that computing quantum discord in a quantum system of moderate size is not possible in practice. As by-products, some entanglement measures (namely entanglement cost, entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, squashed entanglement, classical squashed entanglement, conditional entanglement of mutual information, and broadcast regularization of mutual information) and constrained Holevo capacity are NP-hard/NP-complete to compute. These complexity-theoretic results are directly applicable in common randomness distillation, quantum state merging, entanglement distillation, superdense coding, and quantum teleportation; they may offer significant insights into quantum information processing. Moreover, we prove the NP-completeness of two typical problems: linear optimization over classical states and detecting classical states in a convex set, providing evidence that working with classical states is generically computationally intractable.

  6. Heavy metals in produce from urban farms in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Hannah; Chamberlain, C Page

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were analysed in 96 samples of produce from seven urban farms, three suburban farms and three grocery stores in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2011-2012. Cd concentrations were highest in urban chard (0.043 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in urban, suburban and grocery squash (0.003 mg kg(-1)). Pb concentrations were highest in urban kale (0.080 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in grocery squash (0.008 mg kg(-1)). The mean heavy metal concentrations for Cd and Pb in all produce types were well below the maximum limits as set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Individual concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limits of detection in 26 of 192 analyses. Cd and Pb concentrations in produce from urban farms were not significantly different from produce grown in suburban farms or grocery stores. It was concluded that produce from urban community farms in San Francisco, at least for the farms studied, is safe for human consumption.

  7. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  8. Alzheimer Europe's position on involving people with dementia in research through PPI (patient and public involvement).

    PubMed

    Gove, Dianne; Diaz-Ponce, Ana; Georges, Jean; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Mountain, Gail; Chattat, Rabih; Øksnebjerg, Laila

    2018-06-01

    This paper reflects Alzheimer Europe's position on PPI (patient and public involvement) in the context of dementia research and highlights some of the challenges and potential risks and benefits associated with such meaningful involvement. The paper was drafted by Alzheimer Europe in collaboration with members of INTERDEM and the European Working Group of People with Dementia. It has been formally adopted by the Board of Alzheimer Europe and endorsed by the Board of INTERDEM and by the JPND working group 'Dementia Outcome Measures - Charting New Territory'. Alzheimer Europe is keen to promote the involvement of people with dementia in research, not only as participants but also in the context of PPI, by generating ideas for research, advising researchers, being involved in consultations and being directly involved in research activities. This position paper is in keeping with this objective. Topics covered include, amongst others, planning involvement, establishing roles and responsibilities, training and support, managing information and input from PPI, recognising the contribution of people with dementia involved in research in this way, promoting and protecting the rights and well-being of people with dementia, training and support, and promoting an inclusive approach and the necessary infrastructure for PPI in dementia research.

  9. Phenotypes of organ involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Jonas Christian; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Bargagli, Elena; Mihailović-Vučinić, Violeta; Rottoli, Paola; Grubanovic, Aleksandar; Müller, Annegret; Jochens, Arne; Tittmann, Lukas; Schnerch, Jasmin; Olivieri, Carmela; Fischer, Annegret; Jovanovic, Dragana; Filipovic, Snežana; Videnovic-Ivanovic, Jelica; Bresser, Paul; Jonkers, René; O'Reilly, Kate; Ho, Ling-Pei; Gaede, Karoline I; Zabel, Peter; Dubaniewicz, Anna; Marshall, Ben; Kieszko, Robert; Milanowski, Janusz; Günther, Andreas; Weihrich, Anette; Petrek, Martin; Kolek, Vitezslav; Keane, Michael P; O'Beirne, Sarah; Donnelly, Seamas; Haraldsdottir, Sigridur Olina; Jorundsdottir, Kristin B; Costabel, Ulrich; Bonella, Francesco; Wallaert, Benoît; Grah, Christian; Peroš-Golubičić, Tatjana; Luisetti, Mauritio; Kadija, Zamir; Pabst, Stefan; Grohé, Christian; Strausz, János; Vašáková, Martina; Sterclova, Martina; Millar, Ann; Homolka, Jiří; Slováková, Alena; Kendrick, Yvonne; Crawshaw, Anjali; Wuyts, Wim; Spencer, Lisa; Pfeifer, Michael; Valeyre, Dominique; Poletti, Venerino; Wirtz, Hubertus; Prasse, Antje; Schreiber, Stefan; Krawczak, Michael; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a highly variable, systemic granulomatous disease of hitherto unknown aetiology. The GenPhenReSa (Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Sarcoidosis) project represents a European multicentre study to investigate the influence of genotype on disease phenotypes in sarcoidosis.The baseline phenotype module of GenPhenReSa comprised 2163 Caucasian patients with sarcoidosis who were phenotyped at 31 study centres according to a standardised protocol.From this module, we found that patients with acute onset were mainly female, young and of Scadding type I or II. Female patients showed a significantly higher frequency of eye and skin involvement, and complained more of fatigue. Based on multidimensional correspondence analysis and subsequent cluster analysis, patients could be clearly stratified into five distinct, yet undescribed, subgroups according to predominant organ involvement: 1) abdominal organ involvement, 2) ocular-cardiac-cutaneous-central nervous system disease involvement, 3) musculoskeletal-cutaneous involvement, 4) pulmonary and intrathoracic lymph node involvement, and 5) extrapulmonary involvement.These five new clinical phenotypes will be useful to recruit homogenous cohorts in future biomedical studies. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  10. Religious involvement and adolescent psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Markstrom, C A

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if religious involvement was associated with psychosocial maturity of adolescents as understood in Erikson's psychosocial theory. Three forms of religious involvement (attendance at religious services, participation in a Bible study group, and youth group involvement) were examined in relation to ego strengths, ideological and ethnic forms of identity, general self-esteem, and school self-esteem. Questionnaires were completed by 62 African-American and 63 European-American students in the 11th grade. All participants were from rural areas in West Virginia and of lower income status. Ego strengths of hope, will, purpose, fidelity, love, and care were associated with various forms of religious involvement. These associations were most apparent for European-Americans. Although ideological identity was not related to religious involvement, higher ethnic identity was associated with being African-American, especially for those more religiously involved. General self-esteem was not significant in the analyses, but school self-esteem was higher for each form of religious involvement. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  11. Melorheostosis involving the craniofacial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ethunandan, Madanagopalan; Khosla, Nalin; Tilley, Elizabeth; Webb, Andrew

    2004-11-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare bone disorder, usually affecting the long bones and adjacent soft tissue. It was originally described by Leri and Joanny in 1922, after its classic x-ray features of flowing hyperostosis resembling dripping candle wax. There have been fewer than 10 reported cases of craniofacial involvement, and in most instances these have also involved the appendicular skeleton. The authors report a case of melorheostosis with isolated craniofacial involvement, describe the clinical course and radiologic and histologic features, and review the pertinent literature.

  12. [Surgical management of deep infiltrating endometriosis with bowel involvement and urinary tract involvement].

    PubMed

    Bendifallah, Sofiane; Ballester, Marcos; Darai, Emile

    2017-12-01

    Endometriosis is a benign pathology that affects 3% of the general population and about 10% of women of reproductive age. Three anatomoclinical entities are described: peritoneal, ovarian (endometrioma) and deep endometriosis characterized by the infiltration of anatomical structures or organs beyond the peritoneum. Laparoscopic surgery should be performed, as this is associated with a reduction in postoperative complications, length of hospitalization and convalescence. Several surgical techniques allow the removal of deep endometriosis with colorectal involvement: rectal shaving, anterior discoid resection, segmental resection. Deep endometriosis surgery with colorectal involvement is a source of postoperative complications: anastomotic fistula, rectovaginal fistula, intestinal occlusion, digestive haemorrhage, urinary fistula, deep pelvic abscess. Involvement of the urinary tract by endometriosis affects approximately 1% of patients with endometriosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining Variability in Superintendent Community Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; Young, I. Phillip; Petersen, George J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which four independent variables (age, gender, education level, and district type) accounted for variability in superintendent community involvement. Two covariates associated with levels of community involvement (disposition toward community involvement and district enrollment) were infused to assess the impact…

  14. User involvement in clinical governance

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Susan; Marshall, Martin; Rogers, Anne; Sheaff, Rod; Sibbald, Bonnie; Campbell, Stephen; Halliwell, Shirley; Roland, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the involvement of users in clinical governance activities within Primary Care Groups (PCGs) and Trusts (PCTs). Drawing on policy and guidance published since 1997, the paper sets out a framework for how users are involved in this agenda, evaluates practice against this standard and suggests why current practice for user involvement in clinical governance is flawed and why this reflects a flaw in the policy design as much as its implementation. Design Qualitative data comprising semi‐structured interviews, reviews of documentary evidence and relevant literature. Setting Twelve PCGs/PCTs in England purposively selected to provide variation in size, rurality and group or trust status. Participants Key stakeholders including Lay Board members (n=12), Chief Executives (CEs) (n= 12), Clinical Governance Leads (CG leads) (n= 14), Mental Health Leads (MH leads) (n= 9), Board Chairs (n=2) and one Executive Committee Lead. Results Despite an acknowledgement of an organizational commitment to lay involvement, in practice very little has occurred. The role of lay Board members in setting priorities and implementing and monitoring clinical governance remains low. Beyond Board level, involvement of users, patients of GP practices and the general public is patchy and superficial. The PCGs/PCTs continue to rely heavily on Community Health Councils (CHCs) as a conduit or substitute for user involvement; although their abolition is planned, their role to be fulfilled by new organizations called Voices, which will have an expanded remit in addition to replacing CHCs. Conclusions Clarity is required about the role of lay members in the committees and subcommittees of PCGs and PCTs. Involvement of the wider public should spring naturally from the questions under consideration, rather than be regarded as an end in itself. PMID:12199658

  15. Lively Jack-O'-Lantern Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanzaro, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Pumpkin carving is a favorite classroom activity. Around late October, the halls are filled with the sour smell of raw pumpkin innards, as parents, teachers and students are up to their elbows in yellowish strings and slime. These round, orange squash are transformed into jack-o'-lanterns that are placed around the school. The day after Halloween,…

  16. Creativity Is More than Silly, More than Art, More than Good: The Diverse Career of Arthur Cropley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I highlight some of Arthur Cropley's work that has been the most influential to me as a scholar. Cropley's work has continually pushed the boundaries by exploring what creativity is and isn't, squashing myths, and not making assumptions. I specifically discuss Cropley's research and theory on the importance of convergent thinking,…

  17. A Public Involvement Road Map

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-09-16

    In order to have effective public involvement, governments need a road map for : the decision-making process. Yet, citizens from small and medium sized cities : frequently do not have the resources to use sophisticated technology for public : involve...

  18. Artist Concept: Active Black Hole Squashes Star Formation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-09

    Herschel Space Observatory has shown that galaxies with the most powerful, active, supermassive black holes at their cores produce fewer stars than galaxies with less active black holes in this artist concept.

  19. Love and Involvement in Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddex, Barbara E.

    This study investigates the effects of predictability, perceived similarity, trust and love on each other and involvement in romantic relationships by developing and testing (by path analysis) two models. One model incorporated involvement in romantic relationships as a dependent variable; the second model incorporated involvement as an…

  20. Disagreement in Parental Reports of Father Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Pajarita; Spielfogel, Jill; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael; Henry, David; Tolan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Despite agreement on the value of father involvement in children’s lives, research has been limited due to the exclusion of fathers in studies, questionable validity of mothers’ reports on father involvement, and simple measures of fathering behavior. Our study extends previous research by comparing reports of father involvement using robust, multidimensional father involvement measures. Data from 113 fathers and 126 mothers reporting on 221 children were used to assess father involvement. Results indicate that fathers reported significantly higher levels of involvement than mothers reported. Findings from hierarchical linear models suggest that race/ethnicity and mothers’ reports of positive relationship quality were associated with smaller discrepancies in reports of father involvement, whereas nonmarried partnerships, older children, father residence, and biological status predicted larger discrepancies. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining father involvement reports directly from fathers and why father involvement should be assessed as a multidimensional construct to examine fathering behavior. PMID:29515272

  1. Parental Involvement in Special Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood-Robinette, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long considered parental involvement an integral part in the success of students and researchers have concluded that there is a connection between parental involvement and the retention rates of students who are involved in regular education curriculum. However, much less information is available regarding the…

  2. 7 CFR 1940.331 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Public involvement. 1940.331 Section 1940.331...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.331 Public involvement. (a) Objective. The basic objective of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's public involvement...

  3. 7 CFR 1940.331 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Public involvement. 1940.331 Section 1940.331...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.331 Public involvement. (a) Objective. The basic objective of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's public involvement...

  4. Does employee involvement work? Yes, sometimes.

    PubMed

    Cotton, J L

    1997-12-01

    Employee involvement per se is not always effective for improving performance and/or employee attitudes. Rather, there are several different forms of employee involvement, some of which are effective, while others are not. This article describes seven forms of employee involvement, giving examples, and summarizes research findings for each form, concluding with a summary of which are the best and which are worst. This article also describes what is necessary for effective employee involvement, focusing on management commitment and training for both management and employees.

  5. Coparenting and Parental School Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryhill, M. Blake

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parental school involvement is associated with social, psychological, and academic child outcomes. Beyond school, demographic, and individual influences, research on the relationship between family level processes and parental school involvement is limited. Coparenting is a unique family level relationship that influences parental…

  6. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  7. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  8. Radiologic science students' perceptions of parental involvement.

    PubMed

    DuBose, Cheryl; Barymon, Deanna; Vanderford, Virginia; Hensley, Chad; Shaver, Gary

    2014-01-01

    A new generation of students is in the classroom, and they are not always alone. Helicopter parents, those who hover around the student and attempt to ease life's challenges, are accompanying the students to radiologic science programs across the nation. To determine radiologic science students' perception regarding their parents' level of involvement in their lives. A survey focused on student perceptions of parental involvement inside and outside of the academic setting was completed by 121 radiologic science students at 4 institutional settings. The analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationships between student sex, age, marital status, and perceived level of parental involvement. In addition, as financial support increases, students' perception of the level of parental involvement also increases. Radiologic science students want their parents to be involved in their higher education decisions. Research indicates that students with involved parents are more successful, and faculty should be prepared for increased parental involvement in the future. Radiologic science students perceive their parents to be involved in their academic careers. Ninety-five percent of respondents believe that the financial support of their parent or parents contributes to their academic success. Sixty-five percent of participants are content with their parents' current level of involvement, while 11% wish their parents were more involved in their academic careers.

  9. Parental Involvement Initiatives: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Daniel; Flessa, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Educational policies have increasingly promoted parental involvement as a mechanism for improving student outcomes. Few jurisdictions have provided funding for this priority. In Ontario, Canada, the province's Parents Reaching Out Grants program allows parents to apply for funding for a parental involvement initiative that addresses a local…

  10. Involving Families in School Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, John M.; Warner, Laverne

    2006-01-01

    The relationship of schools to diverse communities demands attention by administrators, teachers, staff members, and volunteers. How well the three constructs mesh depends on the abilities and sensitivities of all constituencies involved. Three components are essential to successful programs that involve families in an educational setting:…

  11. Teacher Involvement in Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Four recent journal articles and one meeting paper on teacher involvement in curriculum development are summarized in this research bulletin. Contents include "Motivating Teacher Involvement in Professional Growth Activities," by Ruth Wright; "Teacher Participation in Curriculum Development: What Status Does It Have?" by Jean Young; "The Locus of…

  12. User interface and patient involvement.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Hege Kristin; Lundvoll Nilsen, Line

    2013-01-01

    Increased patient involvement is a goal in contemporary health care, and of importance to the development of patient oriented ICT. In this paper we discuss how the design of patient-user interfaces can affect patient involvement. Our discussion is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with patient users of a web-based solution for patient--doctor communication piloted in Norway. We argue ICT solutions offering a choice of user interfaces on the patient side are preferable to ensure individual accommodation and a high degree of patient involvement. When introducing web-based tools for patient--health professional communication a free-text option should be provided to the patient users.

  13. Parent Involvement in Homework: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patall, Erika A.; Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne Civey

    2008-01-01

    New emphasis is being placed on the importance of parent involvement in children's education. In a synthesis of research on the effects of parent involvement in homework, a meta-analysis of 14 studies that manipulated parent training for homework involvement reveals that training parents to be involved in their child's homework results in (a)…

  14. Loaded: Gun involvement among opioid users.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michael D; Kenney, Shannon R; Anderson, Bradley J; Bailey, Genie L

    2018-06-01

    Despite ample research examining how alcohol use relates to gun involvement, little is known about the relationship between opioids and gun involvement. In the current study, we examined correlates of gun possession, accessibility, and related behaviors in an opioid dependent sample. Between October 2016 and April 2017, we surveyed persons entering a brief, inpatient opioid detoxification (n = 386) and 51 contemporaneous persons seeking alcohol detoxification at the same facility in Massachusetts and recorded their lifetime experiences with gun involvement. Participants averaged 33 years of age, 74% were male, 83% were White, and 64% had a history of incarceration. Opioid users had significantly higher rates of gun involvement than persons in alcohol detoxification; for example, 31.3% (vs. 3.9%) had carried a gun for protection, 45.1% (vs. 25.5%) had been threatened with a gun, and 13.8% (vs. 2.0%) had shot at another person. Among persons misusing opioids, male and non-White respondents, and those with a history of incarceration or poorer self-control reported greater gun involvement. Opioid users, both men and women, lead gun-involved lives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Parental Involvement: Implications for Parental Involvement in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cripps, Kayla; Zyromski, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of development. Previous research suggests parent involvement in school directly impacts student success. However, different types of parental involvement and the efforts of middle school personnel to educate parents about these effective practices have received scant attention in the literature. The level and type…

  16. [Xanthoma disseminatum with asymptomatic multisystem involvement].

    PubMed

    Zinoun, M; Hali, F; Marnissi, F; Lazaar, S; Benchikhi, H

    2015-04-01

    Xanthogranulomas belong to non-Langerhans histiocytosis of the second group in the Histiocyte Society classification. They comprise a heterogeneous group of rare entities frequently involving cutaneous tropism. Xanthoma disseminatum belongs to this group of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. We report a case of xanthoma disseminatum (XD) in which localized skin and mucous impairment revealed multisystem involvement. A 28-year-old man presented with a two-year history of progressive yellow-orange and infiltrated xanthomatous papulonodular lesions of the face. Lesions of the oral mucosa and genital region were seen, with no functional repercussions. No ophthalmic or other complications were found. Histopathology showed a dense histiocytic infiltrate within the dermis with Touton giant cells, foamy multinucleated giant cells and inflammatory cells, without necrobiosis. Histiocytes were positive for CD68 but negative for CD1a. Gastric and lung involvement was seen and was confirmed at histology. Bone scintigraphy showed suspicious left ulnar hyperfixation suggesting bone involvement. No monoclonal gammopathy or diabetes insipidus was seen. Our patient was treated with corticosteroids 1mg/kg/day and thalidomide 100 mg/day. The outcome was marked by regression and exfiltration of the cutaneous lesions from the second week of treatment, with subsidence continuing at 3 months. This case involves a very rare form of xanthoma disseminatum. The localized facial skin lesions revealed multifocal non-Langerhans histiocytosis that was in fact asymptomatic. The diagnosis of XD was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical criteria. Xanthoma disseminatum is a non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferation first described by Montgomery in 1938. This rare entity is characterized by skin and mucous membrane xanthomatosis in which the facial involvement is common, together with diabetes insipidus and normal lipid metabolism. The prognosis is determined by the presence of mucosal

  17. Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of religious affiliation and attendance on the involvement of residential fathers in one-on-one activities, dinner with their families, and youth activities and found religious effects for each of these three measures. The study indicates that religion is related to paternal involvement in all three areas that were examined.…

  18. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fleming, W.E.; Baker, F.E.; Koblitsky, L.

    Experiments were performed to determine what effects lead arsenate added to soils had on the germination, growth, and yield of garden vegetables. The vegetables used were asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, corn, popcorn, pepper, cucumber, eggplant, endive, kohlrabi, lettuce, okra, onion, parsley, parsnip, pea, pumpkin, radish, squash, tomato, turnip, watermelon, beets, muskmelon, spinach, lima beans, and string beans.

  19. 40 CFR 180.593 - Etoxazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Papaya 0.20 Pepper/eggplant subgroup 8-10B 0.20 Peppermint, oil 20 Peppermint, tops 10 Pistachio 0.01..., forage 0.80 Corn, field, grain 0.01 Corn, field, refined oil 0.03 Corn, field, stover 4.0 Corn, pop... Sheep, liver 0.01 Spearmint, oil 20 Spearmint, tops 10 Squash/cucumber subgroup 9B 0.02 Star apple 0.20...

  20. 40 CFR 180.593 - Etoxazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Papaya 0.20 Pepper/eggplant subgroup 8-10B 0.20 Peppermint, oil 20 Peppermint, tops 10 Pistachio 0.01..., forage 0.80 Corn, field, grain 0.01 Corn, field, refined oil 0.03 Corn, field, stover 4.0 Corn, pop... Sheep, liver 0.01 Spearmint, oil 20 Spearmint, tops 10 Squash/cucumber subgroup 9B 0.02 Star apple 0.20...

  1. Synthesis, Analysis, and Processing of Fractal Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    coordinator in hockey, squash, volleyball, and softball, but also for reminding me periodically that 1/f noise can exist outside a computer. More...similar signals as Fourier-based representations are for stationary and periodic signals. Furthermore, because wave- let transformations can be...and periodic signals. Furthermore, just as the discovery of fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms dramatically increased the viability the Fourier

  2. Determination of Contact Time of Rubber Balls Using a Digital Oscilloscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadhwa, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the contact time of a rubber ball with the rebounding surface by using a sound-detecting electronic circuit and a digital storage oscilloscope. The rubber ball (a tennis ball or squash ball) is dropped from a known height onto a rigid surface and its contact time on first bounce is determined on the…

  3. Peer involvement in adolescent dating violence.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pam S; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in adolescent dating violence in unique ways. Male peers were involved in dating violence by participating in the aggression, agitating the aggression, being the competition, trivializing the aggression, and keeping tabs on the recipient. Female peers were involved in dating violence by deserting the recipient, cheating with the boyfriend, being the audience, needling the male dating partner, and helping the recipient. Male and female peers were involved similarly in adolescent dating violence by confronting the partner. School nurses working with adolescents are uniquely positioned to approach adolescents about dating violence. Interventions aimed at promoting discussions with adolescents are discussed.

  4. Religious involvement and the forgiving personality.

    PubMed

    Mullet, Etienne; Barros, José; Frongia, Loredana; Usaï, Veronica; Neto, Félix; Shafighi, Sheila Rivière

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between religious involvement and forgiveness was assessed in three samples of Western Europeans living in a social environment dominated by the Catholic tradition. The samples comprised nonbelievers/nonattendees, believers/nonattendees, believers/regular attendees, and religious people. Age and religious involvement were shown to affect the willingness to forgive in an interactive way: The effect of religious involvement was stronger for the elderly group. We also found that what made the difference in the willingness to forgive was mainly the social commitment to religion (attendance in church and the taking of vows), not mere personal beliefs. In addition, age and religious involvement were found to affect blockage towards forgiveness in an additive way.

  5. Label reading, numeracy and Food&Nutrition involvement.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Maria Dgh; Corneille, O; Klein, O

    2018-06-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate objective performance on a nutrition label comprehension task, and the influence of numeracy and food-related involvement on this performance level. A pilot study (n = 45) was run to prepare the scales in French. For the main study (n = 101), participants provided demographic information and answered the nutrition label survey, the short numeracy scale and two different food-related involvement scales (i.e. the food involvement scale and the nutrition involvement scale). Both studies were conducted online, and consent was obtained from all participants. Participants answered correctly only two-thirds of the nutrition label task items. Numeracy and food involvement scores were positively correlated with performance on this task. Finally, food involvement interacted with numeracy. Specifically, people scoring low in numeracy performed generally more poorly on the task, but if they had high food involvement scores, their performance increased. This suggests that high food-related motivation may compensate for poor numeracy skills when dealing with nutrition labels. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Gingival involvement in oral paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cléverson O; Almeida, Aroldo Dos Santos; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2007-07-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep mycosis endemic in parts of Latin America, often presents with oral lesions involving the gingiva. Nevertheless, the periodontal literature is devoid of references to oral paracoccidioidomycosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the gingival involvement in oral paracoccidioidomycosis and to contrast clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of the disease. Differential diagnosis and management of oral paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed. From January 1995 to October 2006, the files of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Alfenas Federal University, were reviewed to identify cases referred because of a clinical diagnosis of oral paracoccidioidomycosis. Data collected included patient demographics (age, gender, race, and occupation), clinical information (oral lesion location), and histopathologic diagnosis. Forty-six cases were identified, and 34 were histopathologically confirmed as paracoccidioidomycosis. Of the remaining 12 cases, one-half were diagnosed as either carcinoma or dysplastic leukoplakia. Of the 34 confirmed paracoccidioidomycosis cases, 45% presented with multiple site involvement, whereas the gingiva/alveolar process was the most prevalent site overall (52%). The gingiva/alveolar process was the most prevalent site in both multiple and single site cases. The majority of patients were men (88%), white (75%), and in their fourth decade of life (47%). Statistical analysis revealed that patients with gingival/alveolar process involvement were demographically indistinguishable from those without. Oral paracoccidioidomycosis has a strong predilection for the gingiva, whereas patients with gingival lesions do not differ from patients lacking such involvement. Early diagnosis of gingival/oral lesions may prevent life-threatening complications of this mycosis.

  7. Management of Root-knot Nematodes by Phenamiphos Applied through an Irrigation Simulator with Various Amounts of Water

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Young, J. R.; Wright, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Phenamiphos (6.7 kg a.i./ha) was applied via an irrigation simulator to squash at planting (AP) and 2 weeks after planting (PP), and to corn AP and 1 week PP to manage root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita). The nematicide was applied with 0.25, 0.64, 1.27, and 1.91 cm surface water/ ha to a Lakeland sand in which the soil moisture was at or near field capacity. Based on efficacy and crop response, no additional benefits resulted when phenamiphos was applied in volumes of water greater than 0.25 crn/ha. The cost of applying each 0.25 cm of water over a hectare is approximately $1.08, or a 92% reduction in nematicide application cost over conventional methods ($13.50/ha). Low root-gall indices and high yields from squash and corn indicate more effective nematode management when phenamiphos was applied AP rather than PP. Results from this method of applying phenamiphos suggest that certain nematicides could be used as salvage alternatives when nematodes are detected in crops soon after planting. For multiple-pest management, nematicides, other compatible biocides, and fertilizers could be applied simultaneously with sprinkler irrigation. PMID:19294192

  8. Study of the dynamic properties and effects of temperature using a spring model for the bouncing ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, Ajay

    2013-05-01

    We studied the motion of a bouncing ball by representing it through an equivalent mass-spring system executing damped harmonic oscillations. We represented the elasticity of the system through the spring constant ‘k’ and the viscous damping effect, causing loss of energy, through damping constant ‘c’. By including these two factors we formed a differential equation for the equivalent mass-spring system of the bouncing ball. This equation was then solved to study the elastic and dynamic properties of its motion by expressing them in terms of experimentally measurable physical quantities such as contact time, coefficient of restitution, etc. We used our analysis for different types of ball material: rubber (lawn-tennis ball, super ball, soccer ball and squash ball) and plastic (table-tennis ball) at room temperature. Since the effect of temperature on the bounce of a squash ball is significant, we studied the temperature dependence of its elastic properties. The experiments were performed using audio and surface-temperature sensors interfaced with a computer through a USB port. The work presented here is suitable for undergraduate laboratories. It particularly emphasizes the use of computer interfacing for conducting conventional physics experiments.

  9. IMMUNOREACTIONS INVOLVING PLATELETS

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, N. Raphael

    1958-01-01

    A steric and kinetic model for the sequence and mechanism of reactions leading to formation of a complex from an antibody, a haptene (quinidine), and a cell membrane (platelets), and to fixation of complement by the complex was deduced from the effects of varying the initial concentration of each component of the complex on the amount of complement fixed, from kinetic aspects of the sequential reactions, and from other chemical and physical properties of the various components involved. Theoretical results calculated using equations based on the model, which were derived by Dr. Terrell L. Hill, were similar in all respects to experimental results. Results of this study were consistent with the possibilities that the protein moiety of a haptenic antigen involved in development of an antibody which attaches to a cell is not necessarily a component of the cell, and that the cell reacts with the antibody by virtue of having a surface favorable for non-specific adsorption of certain haptene-antibody complexes. PMID:13525578

  10. Getting Parents Involved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Vickie; Finch, Patty A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a parental involvement program in reading, writing, and human education. The project consists of caring for Clifford, a stuffed toy dog, on a rotated basis by first grade students. Books and pet care items accompany Clifford and provide an opportunity for parent and child to work together. (ML)

  11. Toward a comprehensive understanding of angler involvement

    Treesearch

    Tommy L. Brown; William F. Siemer

    1992-01-01

    This paper synthesizes recent Cornell University studies on recreation involvement with special emphasis on fishing. It examines angler involvement from a broader perspective that includes goals/motives for involvement, and changes in these goals that may occur over time or even from one experience to the next.

  12. Parental Alcohol Involvement and Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Alcohol Involvement in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2010-01-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children’s drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children’s alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9–11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children’s middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children’s middle childhood and adolescents’ alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed. PMID:20853923

  13. The impact of consumer involvement in research: an evaluation of consumer involvement in the London Primary Care Studies Programme.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Katrina; Carter, Mary; Mahtani, Vinita; Barnard, Angela; Hawton, Annie; Britten, Nicky

    2008-06-01

    The value of consumer involvement in health services research is widely recognized. While there is a growing body of evidence about the principles of good consumer involvement, there is little research about the effect that involvement can have on the research. This evaluation assessed the level and impact of consumer involvement in the London Primary Care Studies Programme (LPCSP), all of whose individual projects had to demonstrate substantial involvement as a condition of funding. To evaluate consumer involvement in the LPSCP and understand what impact consumers had on the research process and outcomes. A multi-method case study approach was undertaken, using survey techniques, interviews, focus groups, observation and scrutiny of written documents. The overall data set comprised 61 questionnaires, 44 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups and 15 hours of observation of meetings. Eleven primary care-based research projects which together made up the LPCSP. An in-depth description of consumer involvement in the Programme was produced. Nine projects had consumers as co-applicants, four projects had been completed before the evaluation began and one was still ongoing at the time of the evaluation. Of the eight projects which have produced final reports, all met their aims and objectives. Consumers had had an additional impact in the research, in the initial design of the study, in recruitment of the research subjects, in developing data collection tools, in collecting the data, in analysis and disseminating the findings. Consumer involvement in National Health Service research is a relatively recent policy development and while there is an increasing amount of literature about how and why consumers should be involved in research, there is less evidence about the impact of such involvement. This evaluation provides evidence about the impact that consumers have not only on the research process but also on the outcomes of the research.

  14. [Pulmonary involvement in connective tissue disease].

    PubMed

    Bartosiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The connective tissue diseases are a variable group of autoimmune mediated disorders characterized by multiorgan damage. Pulmonary complications are common, usually occur after the onset of joint symptoms, but can also be initially presenting complaint. The respiratory system may be involved in all its component: airways, vessels, parenchyma, pleura and respiratory muscles. Lung involvement is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the connective tissue diseases. Clinical course is highly variable - can range from mild to rapidly progressive, some processes are reversible, while others are irreversible. Thus, the identification of reversible disease , and separately progressive disease, are important clinical issues. The frequency, clinical presentation, prognosis and responce to therapy are different, depending on the pattern of involvement as well as on specyfic diagnostic method used to identify it. High- resolution computed tompography plays an important role in identifying patients with respiratory involvement. Pulmonary function tests are a sensitive tool detecting interstitial lung disease. In this article, pulmonary lung involvement accompanying most frequently apperaing connective tissue diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, Sjögrens syndrome and mixed connective tissue disaese are reviewed.

  15. 45 CFR 46.205 - Research involving neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving neonates. 46.205 Section 46.205... SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.205 Research involving neonates. (a) Neonates of uncertain viability and nonviable neonates may be...

  16. POLITICS OF UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT IN SOCIAL CHANGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPBELL, ALAN K.

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE IN SOCIAL CHANGE FROM THE POLITICAL VIEWPOINT. BY EXAMINING OUR POLITICAL SYSTEM AS IT RELATED TO UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT, HE INDICATES THE POLITICAL RAMIFICATIONS OF SUCH INVOLVEMENT AND SHOWS THE KIND OF INVOLVEMENT THAT IS POLITICALLY POSSIBLE. HE PINPOINTS THE DIFFICULTIES CIVIC ADMINISTRATORS AND…

  17. Involving Fathers in Psychological Services for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a commentary of the special series on involving fathers in psychological services for children. The following themes are addressed: the effects of fathers on child development; benefits of father involvement in child psychology services; obstacles to father involvement; engaging fathers; specific interventions for fathers; and…

  18. Improving Parental Involvement: 10 Tips for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Barrera, John

    2003-01-01

    Presents tips for organizing an effective parent involvement program: (1) develop a philosophy statement; (2) value family values, traditions, and beliefs; (3) reach out to parents; (4) train for effective communication; (5) encourage parent involvement in program activities; (6) provide involvement opportunities; (7) seek parental input; (8)…

  19. Involving Divorced Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie

    1993-01-01

    In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…

  20. Parental Involvement, Is It Real? A Study of Viewpoints Promoting Parental Involvement That Enhances Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Lorretta Faye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the motives, practices, attitudes, and barriers of parental involvement as recognized by administrators and teachers in southwest Tennessee in order to improve the school-home and community relationship in southwest Tennessee. This study investigated the benefits of parental involvement and…

  1. School Involvement Leave: Providing Leave for Parental Involvement in School Activities. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlew, Mary; Weber, Julie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors in school performance is parental involvement. However, many parents do not have the flexibility in their work schedules or the leave policies necessary to attend school functions. As a result, legislators are creating policies to address this issue. School involvement leave policies provide parents with…

  2. [Hodgkin's disease with esophageal involvement].

    PubMed

    Njeh, M; Yengui, N; Tahri, N; Kchaou, M; Sellami, A; Jlidi, R; Krichen, M S

    2000-10-01

    Esophageal involvement in Hodgkin's disease, commonly known as a belated localization of the advanced forms, has been seldom reported (3 to 5% in post-mortem series and 0.7% in clinical series). We report the case of a 61-year-old man who had an esophagus localization revealing Hodgkin's disease stage IV EBb of Ann Arbor classification. The originality of this case was represented by: the revelation mode of the esophageal involvement such as dysphagia and upper gastrointestinal bleeding; the localization at the distal third of the esophagus with contiguous involvement of the gastric fundus; the absence of mediastinal nodes showing the primitive character of the esophageal injury. This observation incites us to consider Hodgkin's disease in the list of differential diagnoses of tumoral dysphagia, even if there was no ganglionic and/or visceral localization of the disease.

  3. Reassessing the causal structure of enduring involvement

    Treesearch

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2009-01-01

    Guided by tenets of identity theory, we hypothesized a causal structure of enduring involvement suggesting that self-relevant components precede the other dimensions. We used Kyle et al.'s (2004a) Modified Involvement Scale, in which leisure involvement is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of identity affirmation, identity expression,...

  4. The Effects of Category Generalizations and Instance Similarity on Schema Abstraction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-07

    reading; musical ’a-ite: classical, jazz, rock, disco, folk, country; sport: volleyball, basketball. bowling, squash, racquetball, handball . The space...Psychology 1845 Elena Ave., Fourth Floor 33 Kirkland Street Redondo Beach , CA 90277 Cambridge, MA 02138 1 Dr. Donald A Norman Mr. Marlin Kroger Dept. of...So. California Department of Computer Science Behavioral Technology Labs Rutgers University 1845 S. Elena Ave. ew Brunswick, NJ 08903 Redondo Beach

  5. Low-Noise Implantable Electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    New implantable electrocardiogram electrode much less sensitive than previous designs to spurious biological potentials. Designed in novel "pocket" configuration, new electrode is intended as sensor for radiotelemetry of biological parameters in experiments on unrestrained subjects. Electrode is esentially squashed cylinder that admits body fluid into interior. Cylinder and electrical lead are made of stainless steel. Spot welding and crimping are used for assembly, rather than soldering.

  6. U.S.-European Relations Pre- and Post September 11, 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    established new institutions, the two organizations should remain at arms length. They feared that the new and fragile ESDP could easily be squashed , or...Long Entanglement . Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1999 Kiesinger, Kurt Georg. Archiv der Gegenwart. Berlin, Germany: Sieger Verlag, 1967, p.13020...Germany: ORBIS, 1973, p.94 Kaplan, Lawrence S. The Long Entanglement . Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1999 Kay, Sean. NATO and the Future of

  7. Vestibular involvement in adults with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Barbara M; Vinck, Bart M; Hofmeyr, Louis M; Swanepoel, De Wet

    2014-04-01

    HIV/AIDS is responsible for widespread clinical manifestations involving the head, and neck. The prevalence and nature of vestibular involvement is still largely unknown. This study, aimed to describe and compare the occurrence and nature of vestibular involvement among a group of, adults infected with HIV compared to a control group. It also aimed to compare the vestibular function, of symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV positive adults who receive antiretroviral (ARV) therapies to, subjects not receiving ARV. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 53 adults (29 male, 24 female, aged 23-49 years, mean=38.5, SD=4.4) infected with HIV, compared to a control group of 38 HIV negative adults (18, male, 20 female, aged 20-49 years, mean=36.9, SD=8.2). A structured interview probed the subjective, perception of vestibular symptoms. Medical records were reviewed for CD4+ cell counts and the use of, ARV medication. An otologic assessment and a comprehensive vestibular assessment (bedside, assessments, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, ocular motor and positional tests and bithermal, caloric irrigation) were conducted. Vestibular involvement occurred in 79.2% of subjects with HIV in all categories of disease, progression, compared to 18.4% in those without HIV. Vestibular involvement increased from 18.9% in CDC category 1 to 30.2% in category 2. Vestibular involvement was 30.1% in category 3. There were, vestibular involvement in 35.9% of symptomatic HIV positive subjects, and 41.5% in asymptomatic, HIV positive subjects. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of vestibular involvement, in subjects receiving ARV therapies compared to those not receiving ARV therapies (p=.914; chi-square, test). The odds ratio indicates that individuals with HIV have a 16.61 times higher risk of developing, vestibular involvement during their lifetime of living with the disease and that it may occur despite, being asymptomatic. Vestibular involvement was significantly more

  8. Neurologic involvement in scleroderma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Tiago Nardi; Peres, Fernando Augusto; Lapa, Aline Tamires; Marques-Neto, João Francisco; Appenzeller, Simone

    2013-12-01

    To perform a systematic review of neurologic involvement in Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Localized Scleroderma (LS), describing clinical features, neuroimaging, and treatment. We performed a literature search in PubMed using the following MeSH terms, scleroderma, systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, localized scleroderma "en coup de sabre", Parry-Romberg syndrome, cognitive impairment, memory, seizures, epilepsy, headache, depression, anxiety, mood disorders, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), neuropsychiatric, psychosis, neurologic involvement, neuropathy, peripheral nerves, cranial nerves, carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar entrapment, tarsal tunnel syndrome, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy, myelopathy, autonomic nervous system, nervous system, electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients with other connective tissue disease knowingly responsible for nervous system involvement were excluded from the analyses. A total of 182 case reports/studies addressing SSc and 50 referring to LS were identified. SSc patients totalized 9506, while data on 224 LS patients were available. In LS, seizures (41.58%) and headache (18.81%) predominated. Nonetheless, descriptions of varied cranial nerve involvement and hemiparesis were made. Central nervous system involvement in SSc was characterized by headache (23.73%), seizures (13.56%) and cognitive impairment (8.47%). Depression and anxiety were frequently observed (73.15% and 23.95%, respectively). Myopathy (51.8%), trigeminal neuropathy (16.52%), peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy (14.25%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (6.56%) were the most frequent peripheral nervous system involvement in SSc. Autonomic neuropathy involving cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems was regularly described

  9. "It's Only Right that We Get Involved": Service-User Perspectives on Involvement in Learning Disability Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoole, Lucy; Morgan, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Promotion of service-user and carer involvement is part of the mainstream policy agenda in health and social care ["Crit Soc Policy 25" (2005) 164]. Much effort has been invested into involving people with learning disabilities in decisions regarding aspects of their lives through advocacy projects and the utilisation of person-centred planning…

  10. Middle Level Principals' Parent Involvement Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomichek-Michalowski, Tracie V.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the exploratory research study was to identify middle level principals' parent involvement practices. Parent involvement impacts students in positive ways, and a principal must have the ability to involve parents. The job description of a principal can be difficult to place on paper. Principals multitask throughout the day and often…

  11. 43 CFR 10010.6 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.6 Public involvement. The... public concerning their activities affecting the quality of the environment. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public involvement. 10010.6 Section 10010...

  12. 43 CFR 10010.6 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.6 Public involvement. The... public concerning their activities affecting the quality of the environment. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public involvement. 10010.6 Section 10010...

  13. 43 CFR 10010.6 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.6 Public involvement. The... public concerning their activities affecting the quality of the environment. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public involvement. 10010.6 Section 10010...

  14. Public Involvement Processes and Methodologies: An Analysis

    Treesearch

    Ernst Valfer; Stephen Laner; Daina Dravnieks

    1977-01-01

    This report explor'es some sensitive or critical areas in public involvement.. A 1972 RF&D workshop on public involvement identified a series of issues requiring research and analysis. A subsequent PNW study "Public Involvement and the Forest Service", (Hendee 1973) addressed many of these issues. This study assignment by the Chief's Office was...

  15. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes toward Parental Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.

    This exploratory study investigated preservice teachers' attitudes toward parental involvement in an attempt to identify a source of or solution to the relatively low rates of parental involvement in formal preschool learning environments. Subjects were 271 undergraduate, early childhood teacher education majors. Demographic data supplemented…

  16. 32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to open decision-making and builds the necessary community trust that sustains the Army in the long... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY... information on public involvement requirements). (b) Environmental agencies and the public will be involved to...

  17. Infancy to Age Five: Predicting Fathers' Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William T.

    Four years after a study of paternal involvement among intact, middle-class families with an infant, a follow-up was conducted of 26 of the still intact families to determine the stability of paternal involvement and the psychological predictors of fathers' behavior at the time. Paternal involvement was assessed at both times in terms of care,…

  18. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction. PMID:29503623

  19. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement.

    PubMed

    Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction.

  20. Violence, victimization, criminal justice involvement, and substance use among drug-involved men.

    PubMed

    Golder, Seana; Logan, T K

    2014-01-01

    This research identified three subgroups of drug-involved men based on severity of self-reported violence perpetration against intimate or nonintimate partners among a sample of 148 men selected from a subsample of participants in the Kentucky National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) AIDS Cooperative Agreement. Men in the No Violence group accounted for approximately 19% of the total respondents, men in the Moderate Violence Severity and Extreme Violence Severity groups comprises 56% and 25% of the sample, respectively. Men in the Extreme Violence Severity group experienced significantly more psychological victimization as children and more frequent physical childhood abuse than did their peers. Men in the Extreme Violence Severity group reported having earlier involvement in the criminal justice system and lawbreaking behavior; they also reported higher frequency of marijuana and crack use. Implications for treatment and future research are presented.

  1. Science Learning at Home: Involving Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Elizabeth Outlaw; Heaton, Emily T.; Heslop, Karen; Kixmiller, Kassandra

    2009-01-01

    Families' involvement in their children's science learning at home has numerous benefits, especially when they support children's self-initiated investigations. In a position statement on parental involvement in science education, the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2009) stresses the role of parents in the daily reinforcement of…

  2. 36 CFR 907.13 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.13 Public involvement. Interested persons may obtain information concerning any... Public Information Officer of the Corporation, 1331 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 1220 North, Washington... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public involvement. 907.13...

  3. 36 CFR 907.13 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.13 Public involvement. Interested persons may obtain information concerning any... Public Information Officer of the Corporation, 1331 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 1220 North, Washington... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public involvement. 907.13...

  4. 36 CFR 907.13 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.13 Public involvement. Interested persons may obtain information concerning any... Public Information Officer of the Corporation, 1331 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 1220 North, Washington... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public involvement. 907.13...

  5. 36 CFR 907.13 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.13 Public involvement. Interested persons may obtain information concerning any... Public Information Officer of the Corporation, 1331 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 1220 North, Washington... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public involvement. 907.13...

  6. Involving older people in intermediate care.

    PubMed

    Andrews, JoyAnn; Manthorpe, Jill; Watson, Roger

    2004-05-01

    Intermediate care has become a crucial part of the United Kingdom government's programme for improving services for older people. Older people comprise a substantial part of the user base for these services, and it is increasingly recognized that there is a need for greater user involvement in service development for intermediate care. National initiatives undertaken in intermediate care have sought to widen and deepen the remit of such services, and in this way promote greater independence and improved quality of care for older people. In particular, the government has set out clear plans for reshaping services for older people in the National Health Service Plan and the rationale for greater involvement of older people in service development. This article considers ways in which these national and local objectives may be achieved and considers some of the implications for nursing. This paper aims to explore the concept of intermediate care and to identify trends and existing evidence of user involvement in care. In this way it charts a possible way forward for the development of a more 'user sensitive' approach. The following databases were searched: Medline, Cochrane Library, the Social Science Citation Index and CINAHL. Key words were 'intermediate care', 'older people', 'formal care', 'primary care', 'social services' and 'geriatrics', used in combination. The findings from this study indicate that there is considerable scope for increased user involvement in service development for intermediate care. Such challenges may be more effectively met through greater clarity of the concept of intermediate care, and a bridging of user involvement at the practice and policy levels. Nurses are key providers of intermediate care in the community. The involvement of older people in intermediate care service development must be premised on a shared comprehension of the purpose and function of intermediate care. Nurses must be involved in shifting intermediate care from

  7. [Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    PubMed

    Brucato, Antonio; Maestroni, Silvia; Masciocco, Gabriella; Ammirati, Enrico; Bonacina, Edgardo; Pedrotti, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome, recently renamed eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), is a rare form of systemic vasculitis, characterized by disseminated necrotizing vasculitis with extravascular granulomas occurring among patients with asthma and tissue eosinophilia. EGPA is classified as a small and medium-sized vessel vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Typical clinical features include asthma, sinusitis, transient pulmonary infiltrates and neuropathy. Blood eosinophils are often >1500/µl or more than 10% on the differential leukocyte count. Blood eosinophils should always be tested in unexplained cardiac disorders, and may normalize even after low doses of corticosteroids. ANCA are positive in 40-60% of cases, mainly anti-myeloperoxidase. Heart involvement occurs in approximately 15-60% of EGPA patients, especially those who are ANCA negative. Any cardiac structure can be involved, and patients present with myocarditis, heart failure, pericarditis, arrhythmia, coronary arteritis, valvulopathy, intracavitary cardiac thrombosis. Although cardiovascular involvement is usually an early manifestation, it can also occur later in the course of the disease. A significant proportion of patients with cardiac involvement is asymptomatic. In the absence of symptoms and major ECG abnormalities, cardiac involvement may be detected in nearly 40% of the patients. All patients with EGPA should be studied not only with a detailed history of cardiac symptoms and ECG, but also with echocardiography; if abnormalities are detected, a cardiac magnetic resonance study should be performed. Coronary angiography and endomyocardial biopsy should be reserved to selected cases. Heart involvement carries a poor prognosis and causes 50% of the deaths of these patients. It is often insidious and underestimated. Optimal therapy is therefore important and based on high-dose corticosteroids plus immunosuppressive

  8. Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S., Ed.; Cabrera, Natasha, Ed.

    Despite an unprecedented surge of research on fathers, progress in the study of father involvement generally occurs within rather than across disciplines. This handbook highlights the challenges facing researchers of father involvement across disciplines. Following an introduction, the chapters of the book are as follows: 1) "Methodological,…

  9. Parent Education: A Perspective on Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Jean

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews ways in which parents of handicapped children can become involved with the schools, and two models (an oral program for deaf students in which parents are trained to provide language stimulation, and a program for autistic children involving parents in behavioral treatment) are described. (CL)

  10. Understanding the Value of Volunteer Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Bryan; Harder, Amy; Pracht, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers can be an important resource of many nonprofit organizations. The ability to meet the mission, goals and objectives of nonprofit organizations often depends upon the effectiveness of volunteer involvement in direct service delivery or indirect program support. Volunteer involvement utilizes financial and non-financial resources of an…

  11. Warning: Parental Involvement May Be Hazardous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Mark J.; Mosley, Mary H.

    1999-01-01

    Principals should not presume that all parental involvement is good while ignoring adverse home conditions (such as divorce, abuse and neglect, coercive family interactions, mental-health problems, poverty, and unemployment) that may interfere with quality involvement. School-parent alliances are vital but will grow more complex as society…

  12. Future Directions in Youth Involvement Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Youth activity involvement has received increasing research and theoretical attention and should be of particular interest to social development investigators. Involvement has been correlated with a wide range of positive developmental indices, although not for all activities nor for all children. However, our ability to interpret such findings…

  13. Prescribing Errors Involving Medication Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Lesar, Timothy S

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Prescribing errors involving medication dose formulations have been reported to occur frequently in hospitals. No systematic evaluations of the characteristics of errors related to medication dosage formulation have been performed. OBJECTIVE To quantify the characteristics, frequency, and potential adverse patient effects of prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms . DESIGN Evaluation of all detected medication prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms in a 631-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Type, frequency, and potential for adverse effects of prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms. RESULTS A total of 1,115 clinically significant prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms were detected during the 60-month study period. The annual number of detected errors increased throughout the study period. Detailed analysis of the 402 errors detected during the last 16 months of the study demonstrated the most common errors to be: failure to specify controlled release formulation (total of 280 cases; 69.7%) both when prescribing using the brand name (148 cases; 36.8%) and when prescribing using the generic name (132 cases; 32.8%); and prescribing controlled delivery formulations to be administered per tube (48 cases; 11.9%). The potential for adverse patient outcome was rated as potentially “fatal or severe” in 3 cases (0.7%), and “serious” in 49 cases (12.2%). Errors most commonly involved cardiovascular agents (208 cases; 51.7%). CONCLUSIONS Hospitalized patients are at risk for adverse outcomes due to prescribing errors related to inappropriate use of medication dosage forms. This information should be considered in the development of strategies to prevent adverse patient outcomes resulting from such errors. PMID:12213138

  14. Effects of stakeholder involvement in river management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades, in many parts of Europe involving local stakeholders or the local public in river management has become a standard procedure. For many decision makers, the purpose of involving other interest groups is limited to achieving a sufficient local acceptance of the project, and accordingly they adopt minimal forms of involvement. Theoretical literature and first empirical studies, however, suggest that stakeholder involvement can have, if done in appropriate quality, have much more far-reaching benefits for a sustainable river management such as a better consensus, social learning and social capital building. But there is so far only little reliable evidence that and under which conditions such benefits or effects in fact result from stakeholder involvement processes. The reason for this is that such involvement processes represent very complex social interventions, and all"affordable"effect measurement methods have their weaknesses. In our project we wanted to find out which were the really robust social effects of stakeholder involvement in river management. We therefore evaluated a number of real Swiss case studies of participatory river management using three different approaches of effect measurements: a quasi-experimental approach using repeated standardized measurement of stakeholders' attitudes, a qualitative long-term ex-post measurement approach based on interviews with stakeholders of five participatory river projects, and a comparative analysis approach based on data of residents effect assessments of participatory river planning gathered in a Swiss national survey. The analysis of all three evaluation studies confirmed that stakeholder involvement in river management projects have substantive social effects. The comparison of the results of the three measurement approaches revealed that social learning and acceptance building were the most robust effects of stakeholder involvement, as they were confirmed by all the three measurement

  15. Road accidents involving bicycles: configurations and injuries.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzed the most common types of accident involving bicycles and compared the frequency of injuries. The data source was the database of German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Cases consist of bicycles and their riders involved in accidents between 2000 and 2010. In most collisions, the bicycle impacted with a car. The percentage of injured bicyclists was higher in collisions with a heavy vehicle and decreased when the bicycle impacted with lighter vehicles. A high percentage of injured bicyclists in single accidents was observed; the most severe injury was more frequently to head and extremities. Accidents involving a car and a bicycle with the right of way in a bicycle path represented about 20% of involved and injured bicyclists. The ten most frequent configurations represented about 60% of involved and injured bicyclists. These results contribute to understand the dangerous scenarios for bicyclists and to suggest preventive actions.

  16. Parent Involvement Affects Children's Cognitive Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, David J.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of the New York State Experimental Prekindergarten Program, the effect of degree of parental involvement in the program on children's cognitive development was examined. Parent involvement included employment in the program, school visits, home visits by school personnel, group meetings, and incidental contacts such…

  17. Getting Involved in the IEP Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ellen; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Daggett, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although, in many districts, physical educators are integral members of the Individualized Education Program (designed for students with disabilities such as Down syndrome and autism), in other districts, physical educators are only partially involved in the process or are not given the opportunity to be involved at all. However, the physical…

  18. 12 CFR 1815.113 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.113 Public involvement. All information collected by the Fund pursuant to this part shall be available to the public consistent with the CEQ regulations. Interested persons may obtain... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public involvement. 1815.113 Section 1815.113...

  19. 12 CFR 1815.113 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.113 Public involvement. All information collected by the Fund pursuant to this part shall be available to the public consistent with the CEQ regulations. Interested persons may obtain... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public involvement. 1815.113 Section 1815.113...

  20. 12 CFR 1815.113 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.113 Public involvement. All information collected by the Fund pursuant to this part shall be available to the public consistent with the CEQ regulations. Interested persons may obtain... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public involvement. 1815.113 Section 1815.113...

  1. 12 CFR 1815.113 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.113 Public involvement. All information collected by the Fund pursuant to this part shall be available to the public consistent with the CEQ regulations. Interested persons may obtain... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public involvement. 1815.113 Section 1815.113...

  2. 12 CFR 1815.113 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.113 Public involvement. All information collected by the Fund pursuant to this part shall be available to the public consistent with the CEQ regulations. Interested persons may obtain... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public involvement. 1815.113 Section 1815.113...

  3. Who wants to be involved in health care decisions? Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Mio; Eriksson, Max; Tritter, Jonathan

    2017-07-14

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems-Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population's preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the desire to be involved and actually being involved, but both appear

  4. Community Involvement Training Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic training conference that brings together more than 450 people from EPA and the Agency’s partners and stakeholders who plan and implement environmental community involvement, partnership, stewardship, outreach, and education programs.

  5. Third Party Involvement in Barroom Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Michael J.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Felson, Richard B.; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features that convey greater danger of serious harm. The situational variables indicative of danger were severity of aggression, whether the aggression was one-sided or mutual, gender, and level of intoxication of the initial participants in the conflict. Analyses consist of cross-tabulations and three-level Hierarchical Logistic Models (with bar, evening, and incidents as levels) for 860 incidents of verbal and physical aggression from 503 nights of observation in 87 large bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada. Third party involvement was more likely during incidents in which: (1) the aggression was more severe; (2) the aggression was mutual (vs. one-sided) aggression; (3) only males (vs. mixed gender) were involved; and (4) participants were more intoxicated. These incident characteristics were stronger predictors of nonaggressive third party involvement than aggressive third party involvement. The findings suggest that third parties are indeed responding to the perceived danger of serious harm. Improving our knowledge about this aspect of aggressive incidents is valuable for developing prevention and intervention approaches designed to reduce aggression in bars and other locations. PMID:23494773

  6. Parental involvement in neonatal comfort care.

    PubMed

    Skene, Caryl; Franck, Linda; Curtis, Penny; Gerrish, Kate

    2012-01-01

    To explore how parents interact with their infants and with nurses regarding the provision of comfort care in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Focused ethnography. A regional NICU in the United Kingdom. Eleven families (10 mothers, 8 fathers) with infants residing in the NICU participated in the study. Parents were observed during a caregiving interaction with their infants and then interviewed on up to four occasions. Twenty-five periods of observation and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted between January and November 2008. Five stages of learning to parent in the NICU were identified. Although the length and duration of each stage differed for individual parents, movement along the learning trajectory was facilitated when parents were involved in comforting their infants. Transfer of responsibility from nurse to parents for specific aspects of care was also aided by parental involvement in pain care. Nurses' encouragement of parental involvement in comfort care facilitated parental proximity, parent/infant reciprocity, and parental sense of responsibility. Findings suggest that parental involvement in comfort care can aid the process of learning to parent, which is difficult in the NICU. Parental involvement in infant comfort care may also facilitate the transfer of responsibility from nurse to parent and may facilitate antecedents to parent/infant attachment. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  7. Costs of alcohol and drug-involved crime.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Cohen, Mark A; Cox, Kenya L C

    2006-12-01

    A large proportion of violent and property crimes involve alcohol or other drugs (AOD). AOD use only causes some of these crimes. This paper estimates the costs of AOD-involved and AOD-attributable crimes. Crime counts are from government statistics adjusted for underreporting. The AOD-involved portion of crime costs is estimated from inmate surveys on alcohol and illicit drug use at the time of the crime. The costs and AOD-attributable portion of AOD-involved crimes come from published studies. They include tangible medical, mental health, property loss, future earnings, public services, adjudication, and sanctioning costs, as well as the value of pain and suffering. An estimated 5.4 million violent crimes and 8 million property crimes involved AOD use in 1999. Those AOD-involved crimes cost society over 6.5 billion dollars in medical and mental health care and almost 65 billion dollars in other tangible expenses (in 1999 dollars). If the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life is added, AOD-involved crime costs totaled 205 billion dollars. Violent crimes accounted for more than 85% of the costs. Roughly estimated, crimes attributable to alcohol cost 84 billion dollars, more than 2 times the 38 billion dollars attributable to drugs. Although American media--news and entertainment--dwell on the links between drugs and crime, alcohol-attributable crime costs are double drug-attributable ones. Effective efforts to reduce the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs should reduce costs associated with crime.

  8. High Involvement Work Teams [in HRD].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium on high involvement work teams that was facilitated by Catherine M. Sleezer at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) conference. "An Empirical Study of Employee Involvement in Designing and Managing Reward Systems" (William M. Kahnweiler) reports on a study of 300 organizations that…

  9. Predictors of justice system involvement: Maltreatment and education.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela A; Walker, Courtney S

    2018-02-01

    Decades of research have established that experience of abuse and/or neglect in childhood is related to negative outcomes, such as juvenile delinquency. Existing research has shown that involvement in child welfare services is also related to juvenile delinquency, particularly for children who are victims of neglect. Research has also identified educational factors such as chronic absenteeism as significant predictors of involvement in the juvenile justice system. However, little research has investigated the combined influence of educational factors, child abuse, and involvement in child protective services on justice system involvement. The current study examined the influence of educational factors and involvement in child protective services on justice system involvement. The study utilized records from an educational database of children who attended a school within a county of Mississippi in any year from 2003 through 2013. Cases were then matched with records from the county Youth Court, Law Enforcement agencies, and Child Protection Services. A multivariate logistic regression controlling for gender, race, current age, and time at risk was conducted to involvement in the justice system. In general, educational factors were stronger predictors of justice system involvement than allegations of maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure of agricultural crops to nanoparticle CeO2 in biochar-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alia D; De la Torre-Roche, Roberto; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Pagano, Luca; Hawthorne, Joseph; Musante, Craig; Pignatello, Joseph; Uchimiya, Minori; White, Jason C

    2017-01-01

    Biochar is seeing increased usage as an amendment in agricultural soils but the significance of nanoscale interactions between this additive and engineered nanoparticles (ENP) remains unknown. Corn, lettuce, soybean and zucchini were grown for 28 d in two different soils (agricultural, residential) amended with 0-2000 mg engineered nanoparticle (ENP) CeO 2  kg -1 and biochar (350 °C or 600 °C) at application rates of 0-5% (w/w). At harvest, plants were analyzed for biomass, Ce content, chlorophyll and lipid peroxidation. Biomass from the four species grown in residential soil varied with species and biochar type. However, biomass in the agricultural soil amended with biochar 600 °C was largely unaffected. Biochar co-exposure had minimal impact on Ce accumulation, with reduced or increased Ce content occurring at the highest (5%) biochar level. Soil-specific and biochar-specific effects on Ce accumulation were observed in the four species. For example, zucchini grown in agricultural soil with 2000 mg CeO 2  kg -1 and 350 °C biochar (0.5-5%) accumulated greater Ce than the control. However, for the 600 °C biochar, the opposite effect was evident, with decreased Ce content as biochar increased. A principal component analysis showed that biochar type accounted for 56-99% of the variance in chlorophyll and lipid peroxidation across the plants. SEM and μ-XRF showed Ce association with specific biochar and soil components, while μ-XANES analysis confirmed that after 28 d in soil, the Ce remained largely as CeO 2 . The current study demonstrates that biochar synthesis conditions significantly impact interactions with ENP, with subsequent effects on particle fate and effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Mamun-TKC parathyroid retractor: Parathyroid glands squashed or scooped!

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Syed Mamun

    2015-03-01

    Parathyroid gland by its physiologic and anatomic diversity has interestingly been dealt by multiple specialties, including Urology. Besides primary hyperparathyroidism, urologists in close working relationship with nephrologists, tend to get referrals for tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Data from 1999 to 2012 was retrieved for all parathyroidectomies. Medical record of only cases undergoing parathyroidectomy utilising the instrument Mamun-TKC Parathyroid Retractor were reviewed. It is a metal body surgical instrument resembling Gil Vernet retractor having functional flat metal head attached to solid long handle, designed in two forms; one 'Straight' and other 'Angled' at 30°. During the period, 28 cases of parathyroidectomies were performed. The instrument was used in two cases. It was found to facilitate dissection, retraction and pedicle ligation of parathyroid gland by a-traumatic handling.

  12. Tennis-Badminton-Squash, June 1976-June 1978. NAGWS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oteghen, Sharon L., Ed.; And Others

    The National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) publishes ten biennial and two annual guides for 22 sports. Guides contain information on NAGWS or NAGWS-approved playing rules, officials' ratings in most sports, articles on coaching techniques and organization, regulations governing AIAW National Championships in applicable sports,…

  13. Sexual involvement with patients.

    PubMed

    Kirstein, L

    1978-04-01

    Three cases of sexual activity between patients and staff members were presented and determinants and consequences of this type of acting out behavior were discussed. Patients sexual behavior was in part motivated by a need to avoid feelings of loneliness and anxiety and a consequence of the sexual behavior was the recurrence of symptoms and behaviors noted upon admission. The staff members were noted to become more self preoccupied and less involved with both staff and patients following the sexual behavior. The role of the ward psychiatrist in preventing such patient staff interactions includes his taking responsibility for educational and supervisory needs of the staff, his being involved in the creation and maintenance of the ward's moral code and his awareness of group and organizational factors that may impede open staff communications.

  14. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.

    PubMed

    Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

    2014-06-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Manager`s views of public involvement

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Branch, K.M.; Heerwagen, J.; Bradbury, J.

    1995-12-01

    Four issues commonly form the framework for debates about the acceptability of proposed projects or technologies--the substantive decision or technological choice; the treatment of the community by the proponent organization; the way the decision-making process has been structured and managed; and the status of institutional safeguards and protection. One of the clear messages of cultural theory is that differences in perspectives are a normal and inevitable part of society, and that attempts to resolve differences by persuasion are not likely to work. These findings are useful when considering the goals and possibilities of public involvement as a decision-making tool, andmore » when designing or evaluating public involvement training programs for managers. The research reported here examines the viewpoints and concerns of managers and decision-makers about the four issues identified above, with particular emphasis on their perspectives and concerns about opening decision-making processes to the public and about managers` roles and responsibilities for structuring and managing open decision-making processes. Implications of these findings for public involvement training for managers is also discussed. The data presented in this paper were obtained from face-to-face interviews with managers and decision-makers with experience managing a variety of hazardous waste management decision-making processes. We conducted these interviews in the course of four separate research projects: needs assessments to support the design and development of a public involvement training program for managers; a study of community residents` and managers` perspectives on the chemical stockpile disposal program; an evaluation of the effectiveness of public involvement training for managers in the Department of Energy; and a study to develop indicators of the benefits and costs of public involvement.« less

  16. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  17. Who's Liable? Accidents Involving Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past few years both administrators and teachers have found themselves involved in an increasing number of law suits. When students are injured on school grounds, parents often place the blame of negligence on the teacher, so many teachers find themselves involved in lengthy court battles over the issue of liability. Teachers and…

  18. Parent Involvement: Turning Up the Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Research shows that parent involvement makes a significant difference in children's achievement, especially during elementary and middle school. Even though the school year is well underway, there is still plenty of time to make this your school's best year ever for parent involvement. Here are some of the most effective strategies I've come…

  19. Extrapulmonary involvement in pediatric tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Andres, Mariaem M; Tatco, Vincent R; Lim, Cielo Consuelo Q; Concepcion, Nathan David P

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common sites for extrapulmonary tuberculous involvement in children.

  20. Involvement with Local Television News: Cognitive and Emotional Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perse, Elizabeth M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the validity of audience involvement in the context of local television news by testing the relationships among (1) strength of news viewing motivation and involvement intensity; (2) type of news viewing motivation and involvement orientation; and (3) cognitive and emotional involvement. Finds that audience involvement during message…