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Sample records for zum stand der

  1. Werner Heisenberg zum 100. Geburtstag: Pionier der Quantenmechanik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2001-11-01

    Werner Heisenberg war eine der prägendsten Gestalten der Physik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Zu seinen wichtigsten Verdiensten gehören die Grundlegung der Quantenmechanik, die Formulierung der Unschärferelationen sowie die Beteiligung an der Ausarbeitung der Kopenhagener Deutung der Quantenmechanik. Darüber hinaus lieferte er Arbeiten von fundamentalem Charakter zur Theorie des Atomkerns, zur kosmischen Strahlung und zur Quantenfeldtheorie. Während des Krieges war er an den Arbeiten des Uranvereins beteiligt, der die Möglichkeit einer Entwicklung von Kernwaffen untersuchte, jedoch über Vorarbeiten zur Reaktorphysik nicht hinauskam. Wegen dieser Tätigkeit wurde er bei Kriegsende für einige Monate in England interniert. Nach seiner Rückkehr widmete er sich vor allem dem Aufbau der Physik in Deutschland, die während der NS-Zeit nahezu ihrer gesamten Substanz beraubt worden war.

  2. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  3. Zum Wissenschaftsverständnis der modernen Evolutionsbiologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Ralf J.

    Die moderne Evolutionsbiologie hat ihren Ursprung in den Arbeiten von Charles Darwin und Alfred Wallace (Darwin 1963). Der gemeinsame Ausgangspunkt des Evolutionsgedanken ist dabei die Beobachtung, dass die biologische Welt nicht konstant ist. Biologische Systeme und alle darin lebenden Organismen unterliegen über längere Zeiträume hinweg einer stetigen Veränderung. Diese grundlegende Eigenschaft biologischer Systeme macht die Biologie zu einer historischen Wissenschaft und stellt einen wichtigen Gegensatz zu großen Teilen der Physik dar. Obwohl die Aussage von der Veränderlichkeit der Arten heute trivial klingt, war sie im 19. Jahrhundert eine Revolution, da die Konstanz der Arten und der Welt eine vorherrschende Stellung im damaligen Weltbild hatte (Amundson 2005).

  4. Literature Research on the Mechanical Properties of Fibre Composise Materials Analysis of the State of the Art. Volume I. (Schrifttumsrecherche zum Festigkeitsverhalten von Faserverbundwerkstoffen-Analyse des Standes der Technik-),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-11

    cross - Bruttoquerschni tt section Zahl der Flugstunden = number of flight hours Fig 2.8 Fatigue strength of ...Relationship between residual strength, strain increase and development of damage as a function of the number of cycles (Ref 732) 118 / 0 /+45 / 90 /- CFK ... cross -section) only the nett cross -section. Number of 900 where intralaminar cracks ha! increased further. cracks had occurred 4. Delaminations

  5. Vom Big Business zum Smart Business in der Energiewirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Jürgen; Anthonijsz, Jos

    Kaum eine Branche hat in den letzten zehn Jahren einen tiefgreifenderen Wandel erfahren als die Energiewirtschaft. Einstmals geprägt durch Großkonzerne, die flächendeckend alle Formen von Energiedienstleistungen erbracht haben, stellt sich heute eine gänzlich veränderte Landschaft dar. Nicht nur das es heute eine Vielzahl von Erzeugern gibt, die zunehmend dezentral aufgestellt sind, auch die klassischen Marktrollen wechseln: Erzeuger werden zu Händlern, Verbraucher werden zu Erzeugern. Darüber hinaus drängen heute neue, vormals branchenfremde, Marktteilnehmer in die Energiewirtschaft. Leicht nachzuvollziehen, dass es eine neue Art der Kommunikation braucht. Ziel ist alle Akteure zu vernetzen, um so neuartige Geschäftsmodelle zu ermöglichen. Das Internet of Things (IoT) und die Serviceplattformen bieten hierzu die geeignete Grundlage und Lösungen für neue und zukünftige Prozesse in der Energiebranche. Hierbei stehen auch Themen, wie Big Data, Datenformate, Datennutzung und -sicherheit im Fokus.

  6. Ein statistisches Modell zum Einfluß der thermischen Bewegung auf NMR-Festkörperspektren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploss, W.; Freude, D.; Pfeifer, H.; Schmiedel, H.

    Es wird ein statistisches Modell zum Einfluß der thermischen Bewegung auf die NMR-Linienform vorgestellt, das die Verschmälerung von Festkörper-Spektren bei wachsender Temperatur beschreibt. Das Modell geht von der Annahme aus, daß nach einer Ortsveränderung eines Kerns infolge thermischer Bewegung jede beliebige Kernresonanzfrequenz mit der durch das Festkörperspektrum vorgegebenen Wahrscheinlichkeit angenommen werden kann. Am Beispiel der Festkörper-Gaußlinie wird der Unterschied zu dem bekannten Modell von ANDERSON und WEISS verdeutlicht.Translated AbstractA Statistical Model for the Influence of Thermal Motion on N. M. R. Spectra in SolidsA theory is proposed which allows to describe the narrowing of n. m. r.-line width in the presence of thermal motions of the spins. The model is based on the assumption, that the local resonance frequency of a given spin immediately after the jump is distributed according to the n. m. r.-line shape of the rigid lattice. The difference to the well-known ANDERSON-WEISS-model of spectral narrowing is demonstrated for a gaussian line shape.

  7. S2k-Leitlinie zum Gebrauch von Präparationen zur lokalen Anwendung auf der Haut (Topika).

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, Johannes; Staubach, Petra; Augustin, Matthias; Eisert, Lisa; Hünerbein, Andreas; Nast, Alexander; Reimann, Holger; Strömer, Klaus; Mahler, Vera

    2018-03-01

    Diese Leitlinie richtet sich an Assistenz- und Fachärzte der Dermatologie sowie an Kostenträger und politische Entscheidungsgremien. Die Leitlinie wurde im formellen Konsensusverfahren (S2k) von Dermatologen unter Einbindung von Apothekern erstellt. Die Leitlinie stellt allgemeine Aspekte der Pharmakokinetik sowie der regulatorischen Begrifflichkeiten dar. Es werden Empfehlungen zur Indikation von Magistralrezepturen sowie deren Qualitätssicherung gegeben. Die Bedeutung der galenischen Grundlagen und die Problematik bei einer Substitution gegeneinander verschiedener Grundlagen werden dargestellt. Die Leitlinie umfasst Kriterien zur Auswahl einer adäquaten Grundlage sowie spezifische Aspekte zur Therapieplanung. Die Leitlinie gibt Empfehlungen zum Management bei Unverträglichkeiten gegenüber Bestandteilen der Grundlagen oder Hilfsstoffe. © 2018 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  8. Meilensteine in der Erforschung der kompakten Objekte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenzind, Max

    Kompakte Objekte besitzen zum einen eine sehr hohe Dichte, und zum anderen sind sie durch die Tatsache charakterisiert, dass keine nuklearen Reaktionen mehr in ihrem Inneren stattfinden können. Aus diesem Grund können sie im Unterschied zu gewöhnlichen Sternen der Gravitation nicht mehr mit dem Druck des thermischen Gases widerstehen. In den Weißen Zwergen bzw. Neutronensternen wird der Gravitation der Quantendruck eines Elektronengases bzw. einer Neutronenflüssigkeit entgegengesetzt. Ein solches Gas besteht aus Elektronen bzw. Neutronen, die auf ihr niedrigstes Energieniveau zusammengepresst wurden. Durch die daraus resultierende hohe Bewegungsenergie der Fermionen wird der sogenannte Quantendruck erzeugt.

  9. Die Grundlagen der Fernsehtechnik: Systemtheorie und Technik der Bildübertragung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Gerhard

    Umfassende Einführung in die Grundlagen der Bewegtbild-Übertragung von den Anfängen bis zum heutigen Stand des digitalen Fernsehens mit einer aus der Praxis entstandenen systemtheoretischen Analyse. Die kompakte und anschaulich bebilderte Darstellung mit elementaren mathematischen Beschreibungen macht es dem Leser leicht, sich in die Bildübertragungstechnik einzuarbeiten. Thematische Einheiten erweitern den Wissensstoff - u.a. zu den Themen visuelle Wahrnehmung, mehrdimensionale Signaldarstellung, Farbmetrik, Digitalisierung, Elektronenoptik - und zeigen deren Anwendung auf die elektronische Bildübertragung.

  10. Probleme aus der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Helmut

    Das beliebte Arbeitsbuch "Probleme aus der Physik" bietet nun auch zur 17. Auflage von Gerthsen Vogel "Physik" (ISBN 3-540-56638-4) mit über 1150 gelösten Aufgaben aus der Physik und ihren Anwendungen in Technik, Astrophysik, Geound Biowissenschaften eine Fülle an Material zum Üben und Weiterlernen, zur Prüfungsvorbereitung und zum Selbststudium. Neu hinzugekommen ist ein Kapitel zur nichtlinearen Dynamik. Aufgaben aller Schwierigkeitsgrade machen "Probleme aus der Physik" unentbehrlich für Studenten der Physik im Haupt- und Nebenfach; Schüler der Leistungskurse Physik finden hier eine hervorragende Ergänzung.

  11. Umsetzung der Unternehmensstrategie mit der Balanced Scorecard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Portmann, Stefan; Lacker, Thomas; Lacker, Michael; Fleischmann, Jürgen; Kozó, Hans

    Die Balanced Scorecard (BSC) ist ein Ansatz zum strategischen Management, der neben der Ausrichtung des Unternehmens auf finanzielle Zielwerte ebenso großes Gewicht auf so genannte weiche Faktoren legt, die den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg eines Unternehmens erst ermöglichen. Das entscheidende Merkmal der Balanced Scorecard ist dabei, dass sie ein ausgewogenes System strategischer Ziele herstellt, welches das Unternehmen hinsichtlich der vier Perspektiven Finanzen, Kunden, interne Prozesse und Mitarbeiter und Potenziale strategisch ausrichtet (Kaplan u. Norton 1997).

  12. [Vegetarische und vegane Ernährung bei Kindern - Stand der Forschung und Forschungsbedarf].

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Müller, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Die Praxis vegetarischer Ernährungsformen ist in Deutschland im letzten Jahrzehnt deutlich angestiegen. Allerdings ist der Anteil vegetarischer und veganer Kinder dabei unbekannt. Studien mit Erwachsenen zeigen das präventive Potenzial, aber auch potenzielle Schwachstellen pflanzenbasierter Kostformen. Die Vorteile und Risiken einer vegetarischen bzw. veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter wurden bisher jedoch relativ selten untersucht. Außerdem lassen das unterschiedliche Alter der Kinder, das heterogene Studiendesign sowie die teilweise geringe Probandenzahl der Studien keine verbindlichen Aussagen zu. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit werden die Ergebnisse der wenigen Studien zu vegetarisch und vegan ernährten Kindern (< 12 Jahren) in Nordamerika und Europa zusammengefasst. Demnach lag die Zufuhr von Nahrungsenergie und Makronährstoffen vegetarischer und veganer Kinder meist näher an den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften als die Ernährung gleichaltriger Mischkostkinder. Ebenso wiesen vegetarisch und vegan ernährte Kinder eine höhere Zufuhr von und bessere Versorgung mit verschiedenen Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen auf. Häufiger zeigten sich jedoch Defizite bei Vitamin B12, Zink, Kalzium, Eisen und Vitamin D. Das Wachstum und die Entwicklung vegetarisch und vegan ernährter Kinder entsprachen weitgehend den Referenzstandards, wobei sie dazu tendierten, leichter, schlanker und (< 5 Jahren) auch kleiner zu sein. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Studienlage besteht erheblicher Forschungsbedarf zu den Auswirkungen einer vegetarischen und veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Theoretische Konzepte der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.; Simon, B.; Simon, H.

    "Dies ist kein Lehrbuch der theoretischen Physik, auch kein Kompendium der Physikgeschichte ... , vielmehr eine recht anspruchsvolle Sammlung historischer Miniaturen zur Vergangenheit der theoretischen Physik - ihrer "Sternstunden", wenn man so will. Frei vom Zwang, etwas Erschöpfendes vorlegen zu müssen, gelingt dem Autor etwas Seltenes: einen "lebendigen" Zugang zum Ideengebäude der modernen Physik freizulegen, ... zu zeigen, wie Physik in praxi entsteht... Als Vehikel seiner Absichten dienen dem Autor geschichtliche Fallstudien, insgesamt sieben an der Zahl. Aus ihnen extrahiert er das seiner Meinung nach Lehrhafte, dabei bestrebt, mathematische Anachronismen womöglich zu vermeiden... Als Student hätte ich mir diese gescheiten Essays zum Werden unserer heutigen physikalischen Weltsicht gewünscht. Sie sind originell, didaktisch klug und genieren sich auch nicht, von der Faszination zu sprechen, die ... von der Physik ausgeht. Unnötig darauf hinzuweisen, das sie ein gründliches "konventionelles" Studium weder ersetzen wollen noch können, sie vermögen aber, dazu zu ermuntern." #Astronomische Nachrichten (zur englischen Ausgabe)#1

  14. Vom Urknall zum Durchknall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzicker, Alexander

    Lautstarker Applaus erhob sich im Salon III/IV des Marriott-Hotels von Crystal City im amerikanischen Bundesstaat Virginia. In dem überfüllten Konferenzraum starrten alle wie gebannt auf die Leinwand, wo nicht mehr zu sehen war als ein nüchternes Diagramm aus zahlreichen Punkten und einer geschwungenen Kurve. Nureine eigenartige Personengruppe konnte sich davon zu Emotionen hinreißen lassen - Physiker auf der Jahrestagung der Astronomischen Gesellschaft, die ihren Begeisterungssturm noch minutenlang fortsetzten. Was war geschehen? Die im Diagramm aufgetragenen Daten bestätigten mit einer nie da gewesenen Genauigkeit ein fundamentales Naturgesetz zur Wärmeabstrahlung von heißen Körpern. 1900 von Max Planck entdeckt, leuchtete es nun in geradezu mathematischer Reinheit auf. Noch sensationeller war der Ursprung der Daten - Mikrowellensignale verschiedener Frequenzen, die nicht aus einem irdischen Labor stammten, sondern von einem heißen Urzustand des Universums! Ein Feuerball aus Wasserstoff und Helium, noch ohne jegliche Strukturen, die irgendwann Leben ermöglichen sollten, ließ damals seinem Licht freien Lauf. Mehr als zehn Milliarden Jahre war es bis zu den Detektoren des vom Menschen gebauten Satelliten COBE unterwegs, der wenige Tage zuvor die Daten übertragen hatte. Wenn ich das alles wie einen Film in meiner Vorstellung ablaufen lasse, bekomme ich immer eine Gänsehaut, als würde ich die inzwischen extrem abgekühlte Strahlung tatsächlich spüren. Ihre Gleichverteilung im Raum macht uns auch deutlich, dass wir uns nicht einbilden dürfen, an einem besonderen Ort im Universum zu leben - intelligente Aliens könnten sich seitdem überall entwickelt haben! Sollten sie - was nicht wahrscheinlich ist - uns wirklich von Zeit zu Zeit über die Schulter schauen, dann hätten sie an jenem Nachmittag des 13. Januar 1990, als der Vortrag stattfand, bestimmt anerkennend mit ihrem großen Kopf genickt.

  15. Medizintechnik in der Tumororthopädie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgkart, Rainer; Gollwitzer, Hans; Holzapfel, Boris; Rudert, Maximilian; Rechl, Hans; Gradinger, Reiner

    Die Behandlung der Knochentumoren unterlag in den letzten 20 Jahren einem raschen und stetigen Wandel, was zum einen auf die verbesserten Therapieerfolge durch den Einsatz von neoadjuvanten Therapieformen zurückzuführen ist, und andererseits von medizintechnischen Entwicklungen bezüglich moderner Schnittbilddiagnostik, neuer 3D Operationsplanungsverfahren wie das Rapid Prototyping und adaptiv modularer Tumorendoprothesensystemen u. a. begleitet wurde. Gerade die technischen Entwicklungen haben dazu geführt, daß im Bereich der Extremitäten und der Wirbelsäule radikalere Eingriffe durchgeführt werden können, was die lokale Tumorkontrolle wesentlich verbessert hat. In zunehmenden Maße werden deshalb nicht nur Kurzzeiterfolge sondern auch mittel- und langfristige Fortschritte bei der Behandlung der malignen Knochentumoren einschließlich der Metastasenbehandlung erreicht. Grundlage der Therapie ist dabei immer primär die Sicherung der Diagnose mittels Biopsie und die bildgebende sowie histologische Stadieneinteilung des malignen Tumors. Nach der Tumorresektion kann die Rekonstruktion biologisch oder mit Endoprothesensystemen erfolgen. Gerade die weiterentwickelten modularen Systeme führen zu guten funktionellen Ergebnissen mit langen Standzeiten und einer reduzierten Komplikationsrate. Individuell angefertigte Implantate sind vor allem im Bereich der Rekonstruktion komplexer Beckentumoren von großer klinischer Bedeutung.

  16. Zum Problem der Hochschulreform in Spanien: Einige ausgewahlte Daten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Val, Jose Cajide; Philipp, Rita Radl; Castro, Ana Porto

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the teaching, research, and management entailed in four new degree programs--physics, agricultural engineering, agricultural food-processing technology, and pharmacy courses--at Spain's University of Santiago de Compostela. Reports students' opinions of reforms in these courses, revealing dissatisfaction with facilities for practical…

  17. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner

    2005-07-01

    Die Erwähnungen und Zitierungen von Einsteins Arbeiten dokumentieren lediglich den quantifizierbaren Anteil von Einsteins Beitrag zur Physik. Gleichwohl belegen sie die außergewöhnliche Resonanz und Langzeitwirkung seiner Arbeiten. Die Häufigkeit der Zitierungen entspricht nicht der allgemeinen Einschätzung ihrer Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Interessanterweise ist seine nach 1945 meist zitierte Arbeit nicht eine der Pionierarbeiten zur Quantenphysik oder Relativitätstheorie, sondern jene aus dem Jahr 1935 zum berühmten Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon.

  18. Segmentierung von Aortenaneurysmen in CTA-Bildern mit dem statistischen Verfahren der Active Appearance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Katharina; Egger, Jan; Großkopf, Stefan; Kaftan, Jens N.; Dörner, Ralf; Freisleben, Bernd

    In diesem Beitrag werden Active Appearance Models (AAMs) zur Segmentierung der äußeren Kontur von Aortenaneurysmen eingesetzt. Diese Aufgabe ist wegen des geringen Kontrastes zum umliegenden Gewebe und des Aufbaus der teils thrombotisierten oder kalzifizierten Gefäßwände im Bereich eines Aneurysmas so komplex, dass sie aufgrund der Vielgestalt der Kontur in CT-Angiographie-Bildern die Verwendung eines statistischen Modells für Form und eingeschlossene Textur rechtfertigt. Für die Evaluation des Verfahrens wurden verschiedene statistische Modelle aus Schichten von neun CTA-Datensätzen trainiert und die Segmentierung anhand von Leave-One-Out-Tests überprüft.

  19. Beitrag zum mechanismus der oxydation von freiblei in bleiakkumulatorpaste bei der reifung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc Hung, Nguyen; Garche, J.; Wiesener, K.

    The kinetics of lead oxidation during curing was studied by chemical analysis of the free lead content as well as by the gas volumetry of oxygen. The difference in the results in this research lies in the evolution of hydrogen as a curing reaction. This agrees with the results of curing the paste The optimal water content of the paste for lead oxidation was determined. A model for the electrolyte film during curing has been developed, which allows the results to be interpreted satisfactorily.

  20. „Überholen ohne einzuholen“ Die Entwicklung von Technologien für übermorgen in Kernenergie und Mikroelektronik der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkleit, Gerhard

    Dem nuklearen Patt zwischen Ostblock und westlichem Staatenbündnis ist es nach weitgehend übereinstimmender Auffassung von Politik und Wissenschaft zu danken, dass der "Kalte Krieg" in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts nicht zum weltumfassenden Flächenbrand eskalierte. An der raschen Herstellung dieses Patts waren zwei Dresdner Physiker maßgeblich beteiligt, deren einer im Manhattan-Projekt in den USA gearbeitet hatte und später in England der Spionage für die Sowjetunion und des Verrats des Know-how der Atombombe überführt wurde.

  1. Verbesserte Visualisierung der Koronararterien in MSCT-Daten mit direkter Vergleichbarkeit zur Angiographie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacalli, Christina; Jähne, Marion; Wesarg, Stefan

    In diesem Beitrag stellen wir neue, automatisierte Verfahren zur Visualisierung der Koronararterien einerseits und für eine direkte Vergleichbarkeit mit konventionellen Angiogrammen andererseits vor. Unser Ansatz umfasst Methoden für die automatische Extraktion des Herzens aus kontrastverstärkten CT-Daten, sowie für die Maskierung grosser kontrastmittelgefüllter Kavitäten des Herzens, um die Sichtbarkeit der Koronararterien bei der Darstellung mittels Volumenrendering zu verbessern. Zum direkten Vergleich mit konventionellen Angiographien wurde ein Verfahren zur automatischen Generierung von Projektionsansichten aus den CT-Daten entwickelt.

  2. Der Begriff mathematischer Schönheit in einer empirisch informierten Ästhetik der Mathematik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hill, Eva; Spies, Susanne

    Dieses Zitat des britischen Mathematikers G. H. Hardy bringt pointiert die unter praktizierenden Mathematikern, aber auch unter Philosophen der Mathematik weithin akzeptierte Ansicht zum Ausdruck, dass mathematische Schönheit eine nicht zu vernachlässigende Rolle in der mathematischen Forschungspraxis spielt und sowohl interessante ästhetiktheoretische, epistemische als auch ontologische Aspekte aufweist. Danach beeinflusst also das Verständnis dessen, was mathematische Schönheit ist, auch das Verständnis dessen, was Mathematik ist: "Was sind die Träger mathematischer Schönheit?" ist die Frage nach der Art der Gegenstände, für deren Schönheit Mathematiker sich begeistern und nach der sie streben. "Was sind die Kriterien für mathematische Schönheit?" ist die Frage nach den Kategorien, unter denen Mathematiker ihre Arbeit bewerten. Egal, ob sich das Phänomen mathematischer Schönheit als Ausnahmemerkmal oder als ständiger Begleiter mathematischen Tuns erweist - ein adäquates allgemeines Mathematikverständnis sollte dieses Phänomen berücksichtigen und bestenfalls auch erklären können.

  3. Smartes System für die Energiewende - der Übertragungsnetzbetreiber in der digitalen Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflaum, Rainer; Egeler, Tobias

    Die Übertragungsnetze stellen eine zuverlässige Versorgung von Haushalt, Gewerbe und Industrie mit elektrischer Energie sicher und sind damit Grundlage einer modernen Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Die mittlerweile unumkehrbaren Entwicklungen der nationalen und europäischen Energiewende stellen den Übertragungsnetzbetreiber in seinen Kernaufgaben, dem Bau und Betrieb von Netzen, dem Markt- und Netzzugang und der Integration der erneuerbaren Energien vor neue und große Herausforderungen. Verbrauchsnahe dezentrale Erzeugung wie verbrauchsferne zentrale Erzeugung muss im Sinne der Gewährleistung der Systemstabilität gemanagt und in Einklang mit dem Verbrauch gebracht werden. Erneuerbare Energien müssen zudem in einem solchen System ihren Beitrag zur System- und Marktintegration leisten. All das erfordert mehr Daten, um in einem Gesamtsystem dynamische Reaktionsmöglichkeiten gewährleisten zu können. Erst die "Digitalisierung" schafft dabei die notwendigen Voraussetzungen die Komplexität zu stemmen. Die Digitalisierung stellt daher ein Kernelement dieses Wandels des Übertragungsnetzbetreibers dar, die einerseits mit zum Entstehen der neuen Herausforderungen beiträgt, andererseits aber auch hilft Werkzeuge bereitzustellen, diesen Herausforderungen zu begegnen. Im folgenden Beitrag wird aufgezeigt, wie die Digitalisierung die Aufgaben und Instrumente des Übertragungsnetzbetreibers verändern. Ausgehend von den heutigen Aufgaben eines Übertragungsnetzbetreibers und dem gültigen Rechtsrahmen werden unter dem Begriff "Notwendiges Set für morgen" smarte Elemente und Werkzeuge beschrieben, die bereits heute im Einsatz sind oder in den nächsten Jahren notwendig werden. Im Anschluss erfolgt anhand einiger Beispiele aus unterschiedlichen Bereichen eine Konkretisierung der Einsatzzwecke der Digitalisierung beim Übertragungsnetzbetreiber. Ein kurzer Ausblick mit Fokus auf den weiteren Veränderungsprozess rundet den Beitrag ab.

  4. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  5. Werner-Syndrom. Eine prototypische Form der segmentalen Progerie

    PubMed Central

    Lessel, D.; Oshima, J.; Kubisch, C.

    2013-01-01

    Das Werner-Syndrom ist eine segmental progeroide Erkrankung mit Beginn in der Adoleszenz oder im frühen Erwachsenenalter. Typische Symptome, die zum vorgealterten Phänotyp beitragen, sind ein post-pubertär auftretender Kleinwuchs, Katarakte, eine vorzeitige Ergrauung/Ausdünnung des Haupthaars, sklerodermieähnliche Hautveränderungen und eine regionale Atrophie des subkutanen Fettgewebes. Darüber hinaus kommt es früh und gehäuft zu „Alterserkrankungen“ wie z. B. einem Diabetes mellitus Typ 2, einer Osteoporose, einer Atherosklerose sowie verschiedenen malignen Tumoren. Das Werner-Syndrom wird autosomal- rezessiv vererbt und ist durch Mutationen im Werner-Gen (WRN) bedingt. Es wurden bis heute mehr als 70 über das gesamte Gen verteilte Mutationen identifiziert, die typischerweise zu einem Verlust der Genfunktion führen. WRN kodiert für eine RecQ-Typ- Helikase, die u. a. an der DNA-Reparatur und der Aufrechterhaltung der DNA-Integrität beteiligt ist, was sich in einer erhöhten genetischen Instabilität in Patientenzellen wider-spiegelt. Trotz der relativen Seltenheit ist die Analyse des Werner-Syndroms von allgemeiner Bedeutung, um die Rolle der DNA-Stabilität und Integrität für das Altern sowie die Entwicklung altersassoziierter Erkrankungen besser zu verstehen. PMID:25309043

  6. Kommunale Energieversorger als wesentliche Akteure der Digitalisierung - Strategien und Handlungsoptionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, Katherina

    Die Digitalisierung erfasst sämtliche Bereiche des Lebens und Wirtschaftens. Auch die Kommunalwirtschaft - insbesondere die kommunale Energiewirtschaft - sieht sich perspektivisch disruptiven Entwicklungen gegenüber. Stadtwerke haben bereits viele Herausforderungen erfolgreich gemeistert und stehen auch der Digitalisierung positiv gegenüber. Vielerorts gestalten kommunale Unternehmen den digitalen Wandel bereits aktiv mit. Dieser Artikel arbeitet die Assets kommunaler Unternehmen heraus und zeigt Strategien und Handlungsoptionen zum Umgang mit der digitalen Transformation für kommunale Energieversorgungsunternehmen auf. Dabei zeigt sich, dass das politische und regulatorische Umfeld für das positive Gelingen der Digitalisierung entscheidend sind. Kommunale Unternehmen benötigen die gleichen Marktzugangsbedingungen wie andere Akteure. Ferner profitieren kommunale Unternehmen von einigen Wettbewerbsvorteilen, etwa hohen Vertrauenswerten ihrer Kunden und umfangreiches Know-how im Datenmanagement.

  7. Umgang mit Antithrombotika bei Operationen an der Haut vor und nach Publikation der entsprechenden S3-Leitlinie.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Matthew; Dittmann, Martin; Eisert, Lisa; Werner, Ricardo Niklas; Dressler, Corinna; Löser, Christoph; Nast, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Laut einer Befragung im Jahre 2012 war der Umgang mit Antithrombotika bei dermatochirurgischen Eingriffen in Deutschland sehr heterogen. 2014 wurde erstmals eine evidenzbasierte Leitlinie zu diesem Thema veröffentlicht. Es wurde eine anonyme Befragung derselben Stichprobe zum Umgang mit Antithrombotika sowie zu Kenntnissen der Leitlinie durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse wurden als relative Häufigkeiten berichtet und denen aus 2012 gegenübergestellt. 208 Antwortbögen wurden ausgewertet (Rücklaufquote: 36,6 %). Die große Mehrheit der Dermatologen erklärte, kleinere Eingriffe unter Fortführung der Therapie mit Phenprocoumon, niedrig dosierter Acetylsalicylsäure (≤ 100 mg) und Clopidogrel sowie mit direkten oralen Antikoagulanzien durchzuführen. Bei größeren Eingriffen war der Umgang hingegen weiterhin heterogen, insbesondere unter niedergelassenen Dermatologen. Der Anteil der Dermatologen, die Phenprocoumon, Acetylsalicylsäure und Clopidogrel leitlinienkonform verwendeten, hat sich insgesamt vergrößert. Führten 2012 beispielsweise 53,8 % der Klinikärzte bzw. 36,3 % der niedergelassenen Dermatologen eine große Exzision unter Fortführung der Therapie mit niedrig dosierter Acetylsalicylsäure durch, taten dies 2017 90,2 % bzw. 57,8 % (Phenprocoumon: 33,8 % bzw. 11,9 % auf 63,9 % bzw. 29,9 %; Clopidogrel: 36,9 % bzw. 23,2 % auf 63,9 % bzw. 30,6 %). Unter den Klinikärzten war ein hoher Anteil mit der Leitlinie vertraut und fand diese hilfreich. Eine Zunahme des leitlinienkonformen Verhaltens war bei allen Eingriffen zu verzeichnen. Bei größeren Eingriffen zeigte sich trotz deutlicher Verbesserung die Notwendigkeit verstärkter Anstrengungen zur Leitlinienumsetzung bzw. zur Identifizierung von Implementierungsbarrieren. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  9. Implantate und Verfahren in der Augenheilkunde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhann, Tobias H.

    Das in der Medizin mit am häufigsten verwendete Implantat weltweit ist die Intraokulare Linse (IOL). Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig: einmal haben die Operationstechniken in den letzten 30 Jahren eine wesentliche Steigerung an Gleichmäßigkeit, Erfolg und Effizienz erfahren, zum anderen verursachen die gestiegenen Anforderungen des Alltags in den Industrienationen und im Berufsleben den höheren Anspruch an das Sehvermögen. Ist die menschliche Linse Ursache für schlechtes Sehvermögen, besteht meist eine Trübung des Linsenproteins. Diese Trübung nennt wird Volksmund Grauer Star genannt, wissenschaftlich die Katarakt (cataracta). Es gibt unterschiedliche Formen wie angeborene (congenita) oder erworbene, traumatische, krankheitsoder altersbedingte Formen [45]. Wird die eingetrübte Linse nun mittels moderner Operationsverfahren entfernt, muss für Ersatz dieses lichtbrechenden Mediums gesorgt werden [2].

  10. Take a Stand for Standing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labandz, Stephenie

    2010-01-01

    As a school-based physical therapist, the author sees children with a wide variety of diagnoses affecting their mobility and motor function. Supported standing is an important part of the routines of those who are unable to stand independently due to issues affecting the neuromuscular system. Being eye-to-eye with their peers and interacting with…

  11. Methoden der digitalen Planung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westkämper, Engelbert; Niemann, Jörg; Warschat, Joachim; Scheer, August-Wilhelm; Thomas, Oliver

    Die industrielle Produktion ist das Herz der verarbeitenden Industrie in Deutschland. Mit einem Beitrag von rund 500 Mrd. EUR pro Jahr erwirtschaftet das verarbeitende Gewerbe etwa ein Viertel der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Wertschöpfung in Deutschland. Gemessen am Produktionswert der Gesamtwirtschaft betrug der industrielle Anteil sogar über ein Drittel. Der Erhalt und der Ausbau der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit unter den gegebenen Rahmenbedingungen der globalen Märkte ist eine der größten Herausforderungen der deutschen Wirtschaft [5, 8]. In diesem Beitrag soll - ausgehend von einer Strategie der Ausrüster von Fabriken in einer globalen Produktion - diskutiert werden, wie mit der digitalen Fabrik Potentiale in den Planungs- und Wandlungsprozessen erschlossen werden können.

  12. Zeitspiel ist keine Alternative - Warum der Wandel zur Pflicht wird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieper, Stephan

    "Wege entstehen dadurch, dass man sie geht." (Franz Kafka) Die Welt der Digitalisierung ist voll von Wegen, die jemand gegangen ist, bevor dort ein Weg war. Manche dieser Wege stellten sich als Sackgasse heraus, manche als Abkürzung und aus anderen wurden ganze Wegenetze und Städte. Die Energiewelt wird durch den digitalen Wandel nicht verschont bleiben. Durch die intelligenten Messsysteme und die zugehörigen, neuen Strukturen werden energiefremden Wettbewerbern Chancen zum Markteintritt eröffnet. EVUs müssen sich darauf einstellen, dass der permanente Wandel nicht mehr enden wird. Doch auch den EVUs eröffnen sich Optionen. Um erfolgreich zu sein, müssen sie lernen loszugehen, ohne das genaue Ziel zu kennen.

  13. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Anita

    Der Zweck dieser Studie (zwecks Überblick siehe dazu Abb. 9.1) war zu untersuchen, wie die Schüler der Sekundarstufe II ein Verständnis von der Theorie der biologischen Evolution entwickeln. Vom Ausgangspunkt "Vorurteile der Schüler“ ausgehend wurden Unterrichtssequenzen entwickelt und drei verschiedene Lernexperimente in einem zyklischen Prozess durchgeführt. Das Wissen der Schüler wurde vor, während und nach den Unterrichtssequenzen mit Hilfe von schriftlichen Tests, Interviews und Diskussionsrunden in kleinen Gruppen abgefragt. Etwa 80 % der Schüler hatten vor dem Unterricht alternative Vorstellungen von Evolution, und in dem Nachfolgetest erreichten circa 75 % ein wissenschaftliches Niveau. Die Argumentation der Schüler in den verschiedenen Tests wurde sorgfältig unter Rücksichtnahme auf Vorurteile, der konzeptionellen Struktur der Theorie der Evolution und den Zielen des Unterrichts analysiert. Daraus konnten Einsichten in solche Anforderungen an Lehren und Lernen gewonnen werden, die Herausforderungen an Schüler und Lehrer darstellen, wenn sie anfangen, evolutionäre Biologie zu lernen oder zu lehren. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis war, dass das Verständnis existierender Variation in einer Population der Schlüssel zum Verständnis von natürlicher Selektion ist. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: 1) den inhaltsspezifischen Aspekten, die einzigartig für jedes wissenschaftliche Feld sind; 2) den Aspekten, die die Natur der Wissenschaft betreffen; und 3) den allgemeinen Aspekten. Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

  14. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften> " Jahrgang 1987/88 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 87/88 " Aktive Galaxien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, Hans

    Die Aktivität von Galaxien ist eine relativ seltene und offenbar kurzlebige Erscheinung, die sich vor allem durch eine verstärkte Abstrahlung, oft über das ganze Spektrum hinweg, vom Röntgen- bis zum Radiobereich, bemerkbar macht. Dabei wird auf neue Befunde an Infrarotgalaxien eingegangen, die dafür sprechen, daß die gravitative Wechselwirkung zwischen Galaxien eine wesentliche Rolle spielt. Das Buch ist eine zusammenfassende Darstellung des heutigen Kenntnisstandes über "Aktive Galaxien", ein Thema, das gegenwärtig im Zentrum des astronomischen Interesses und der aktuellen Forschung steht. Nach einem Überblick über die seit längerem bekannten Phänomene und die Probleme ihrer Deutung wird auf neue, am Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie mit den Teleskopen der Calar Alto Sternwarte (Südspanien) gewonnene, Ergebnisse eingegangen.

  15. Die Schönbuchbahn. Von der Nebenbahn zum S-Bahn-Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Since the successful reactivation of the schönbuch railway between Böblingen and Dettenhausen the number of passengers has increased continuously. Due to this high demand of over 8000 people per day and the increase of popularity the current expansion projects include the electrification of the 17 km long track and the installation of double-track sections for providing a 15-minute-service between Böblingen and Holzgerlingen. To realize the new operational concept, Zweckverband Schönbuchbahn (ZVS), the public transport authority, has ordered nine light rail-styled vehicles (with costs around 51,3 mio. euro for developing and construction). In this way the schönbuch railway is an important factor to guarantee a sustainable and forward-looking mobility in the metropolitan area of Stuttgart and for restricting car traffic.

  16. Zeitlicher Verlauf der avaskulären Nekrose des Hüftkopfes bei Patienten mit Pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Aghazadeh, Nessa; Saeidi, Vahide; Shahpouri, Farzam; Hejazi, Pardis; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda

    2016-10-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) wird in der Regel mit systemischen Corticosteroiden und Immunsuppressiva behandelt. Avaskuläre Nekrose (AVN) des Hüftkopfes ist eine gut bekannte schwerere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Therapie. Die Charakteristika dieser schweren Komplikation bei PV sind nach wie vor unbekannt. Nicht kontrollierte, retrospektive Untersuchung aller PV-bedingten AVN-Fälle, die in einer iranischen Klinik für bullöse Autoimmunerkrankungen zwischen 1985 und 2013 diagnostiziert wurden. Anhand der Krankenakten von 2321 untersuchten PV-Patienten wurden 45 Fälle (1,93 %) von femoraler AVN identifiziert. Dreißig davon waren Männer. Das mittlere Alter bei der Diagnose der AVN betrug 47,4 ± 14,2 Jahre. Der mittlere Zeitraum zwischen der Diagnose des PV und dem Einsetzen der AVN lag bei 25,3 ± 18,3 Monaten. Mit Ausnahme von acht Fällen (17,8 %) setzte die AVN bei der Mehrheit der Patienten innerhalb von drei Jahren nach Diagnose des PV ein. Die mittlere kumulative Dosis von Prednisolon bei Patienten mit AVN betrug 13.115,8 ± 7041,1 mg. Zwischen der Prednisolon-Gesamtdosis und dem Zeitraum bis zum Einsetzen der AVN bestand eine starke Korrelation (p = 0,001). Bei Patienten mit Alendronateinnahme in der Vorgeschichte war dieser Zeitraum signifikant kürzer (p = 0,01). Die AVN ist eine schwere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Behandlung bei Patienten mit PV. Sie wird bei 2 % der Patienten beobachtet und tritt vor allem in den ersten drei Behandlungsjahren auf. Bei Patienten, die höhere Dosen von Prednisolon erhalten, setzt die AVN tendenziell früher ein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Update zum klinischen Einsatz von Inhibitoren mutierter Phosphokinasen beim Melanom.

    PubMed

    Cosgarea, Ioana; Ritter, Cathrin; Becker, Jürgen C; Schadendorf, Dirk; Ugurel, Selma

    2017-09-01

    Die Behandlungsstrategie beim metastasierten Melanom hat sich mit der Identifizierung therapeutisch angreifbarer molekularer Zielstrukturen innerhalb zellulärer Signalwege radikal geändert. Durch die Zulassung von Substanzen, die gezielt an den zentralen Schaltmolekülen, den Phosphokinasen, angreifen, können diese Signalwege selektiv abgeschaltet werden. Dies ist insbesondere bei denjenigen Tumoren von Interesse, deren Signalwege durch aktivierende Mutationen der für die Schaltmoleküle kodierenden Gene konstitutiv aktiviert sind. Aktuell ist diese therapeutische Strategie insbesondere für Patienten bedeutsam, deren Melanome eine Mutation im BRAF-Gen aufweisen. Diese Patienten können durch eine Kombinationstherapie aus Inhibitoren der Phosphokinasen BRAF und MEK langfristig mit sehr guter Krankheitskontrolle behandelt werden. Unter dieser Kombinationstherapie wird aktuell ein progressionsfreies Überleben von über zehn Monaten und ein Gesamtüberleben von mehr als zwei Jahren bei guter Lebensqualität erzielt. Da unter längerfristiger Therapie mit Kinaseinhibitoren jedoch bei einem Großteil der Patienten eine Resistenzbildung auftritt, sind aktuelle klinische Therapiestudien auf die Suche nach geeigneten Kombinationspartnern unter Blockierung anderer Signalwege oder unter Aktivierung der T-Zell-vermittelten Immunantwort ausgerichtet. Der vorliegende Übersichtsartikel stellt sowohl die aktuell verfügbaren als auch die in der klinischen Testung befindlichen zukünftigen Optionen der zielgerichteten Therapie des Melanoms dar. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Modellierung des Einflusses der Landnutzung auf die Hochwasserentstehung in der Mesoskala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Daniel

    2001-10-01

    heterogene Erscheinungsbild bebauter Flächen mit einer Mischung aus versiegelten Bereichen und Freiflächen wird berücksichtigt, indem jede Teilfläche je nach Versiegelungsgrad in einen unversiegelten Bereich und einen versiegelten Bereich mit Anschluss an die Kanalisation aufgeteilt wird. (4) Dezentraler Rückhalt von Niederschlagswasser kann sowohl für natürliche Mulden als auch für gezielt angelegte Versickerungsmulden mit definierten Infiltrationsbedingungen simuliert werden. Das erweiterte Modell wird exemplarisch auf drei mesoskalige Teileinzugsgebiete des Rheins angewandt. Diese drei Gebiete mit einer Fläche von zwischen 100 und 500 km² wurden im Hinblick darauf ausgewählt, dass jeweils eine der drei Hauptlandnutzungskategorien Bebauung, landwirtschaftliche Nutzung oder Wald dominiert. Für die drei Untersuchungsgebiete sind räumlich explizite Landnutzungs- und Landbedeckungsszenarien entworfen worden, deren Einfluss auf die Hochwasserentstehung mit Hilfe des erweiterten hydrologischen Modells simuliert wird. Im Einzelnen werden die Auswirkungen von Verstädterung, Maßnahmen zur Niederschlagsversickerung in Siedlungsgebieten, Stilllegung agrarisch genutzter Flächen, veränderter landwirtschaftlicher Bodenbearbeitung, Aufforstung sowie von Sturmschäden in Wäldern untersucht. Diese Eingriffe beeinflussen die Interzeption von Niederschlag, dessen Infiltration, die oberflächennahen unterirdischen Fließprozesse sowie, zum Beispiel im Fall der Kanalisation, auch die Abflusskonzentration. Die hydrologischen Simulationen demonstrieren, dass die Versiegelung einer Fläche den massivsten Eingriff in die natürlichen Verhältnisse darstellt und deshalb die stärksten (negativen) Veränderungen der Hochwassersituation hervorbringt. Außerdem wird deutlich, dass eine bloße Änderung des Interzeptionsvermögens zu keinen wesentlichen Veränderungen führt, da die Speicherkapazität der Pflanzenoberflächen im Verhältnis zum Volumen hochwasserausl

  19. Der II. Hauptsatz der Wärmelehre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Wir haben in (4.44) den II. Hauptsatz als empirische Tatsache folgendermaßen formuliert: (i) Wärmeenergie geht von selbst nur von einem wärmeren Körper auf einen kälteren über, niemals in der umgekehrten Richtung. Nun werden wir beweisen, dass sich aus diesem Prinzip folgende äquivalente Formulierungen für den II. Hauptsatz ableiten lassen: (ii) Es ist unmöglich, ein Perpetuum mobile zweiter Art zu bauen, d. h. eine Maschine, die fortlaufend Wärmeenergie vollständig in mechanische Arbeit umsetzen kann. Eine Wärmekraftmaschine, die einen Kreisprozess mit der höchsten Temperatur Tw und der niedrigsten Temperatur Tk durchläuft, hat höchstens den Carnotschen Wirkungsgrad c = (Tw - Tk)/Tw. Wenn in der Maschine nur reversible Prozesse ablaufen, die gesamte Wärmezufuhr bei der Temperatur Tw erfolgt und ausschließlich bei der Temperatur Tw gekühlt wird, ist ihr Wirkungsgrad = C. Es gibt keine Wärmekraftmaschine, die eine bessere Ausnutzung der Wärmeenergie ermöglicht. (iv) In jedem thermodynamischen System existiert die Zustandsgröße Entropie, definiert durch ihr Differential dS = (dQrev)/T . Entropie kann erzeugt, aber nicht vernichtet werden. Bei Zustandsänderungen, die in einem abgeschlossenen System ablaufen, nimmt die Entropie entweder zu (irreversible Prozesse), oder sie bleibt konstant (reversible Prozesse). Im Anschluss an (iii) werden wir zur Definition der thermodynamischen Temperatur und bei der Diskussion von (iv) zu einem tieferen Verständnis der Entropie gelangen. Es zeigt sich, dass die Entropie das eigentliche Bindeglied zwischen Mechanik und Wärmelehre darstellt. Am Ende des Kapitels werden wir einige Anwendungen des II. Hauptsatzes betrachten.

  20. Der neue Kosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsöld, Albrecht; Baschek, Bodo

    Astronomie, Astrophysik und Weltraumforschung haben innerhalb weniger Jahrzehnte eine geradezu explosive Entwicklung genommen. Die neuen Beobachtungsmöglichkeiten durch die Raumfahrt, die Entwicklung hochempfindlicher Lichtdetektoren und der Einsatz leistungsstarker Computer haben uns neuartige Aspekte in der faszinierenden Welt der Galaxien und Quasare, der Sterne und Planeten erschlossen. Nachdem die dritte Auflage vergriffen ist, trägt die vorliegende vierte, völlig neubearbeitete Auflage des NEUEN KOSMOS dieser stürmischen Entwicklung Rechnung. In überschaubarem Umfang wird - bei bescheidenen Ansprüchen an die mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Vorbildung des Lesers - eine zusammenhängende Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Astronomie und Astrophysik gegeben, welche die Beobachtungen und die Grundgedanken ihrer theoretischen Deutung in gleicher Weise berücksichtigt. Auch in seiner neuen Gestalt wird der NEUE KOSMOS den Studenten und Forschern in Bereichen der Astronomie, Physik und Geowissenschaften sowie einem weiten Kreis ernsthaft interessierter Amateure viel Neues und viel Freude bringen.

  1. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften¬Jahrgang 1987/88 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 87/88¬Aktive Galaxien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, Hans

    Die Aktivität von Galaxien ist eine relativ seltene und offenbar kurzlebige Erscheinung, die sich vor allem durch eine verstärkte Abstrahlung, oft über das ganze Spektrum hinweg, vom Röntgen- bis zum Radiobereich, bemerkbar macht. Dabei wird auf neue Befunde an Infrarotgalaxien eingegangen, die dafür sprechen, daß die gravitative Wechselwirkung zwischen Galaxien eine wesentliche Rolle spielt. Das Buch ist eine zusammenfassende Darstellung des heutigen Kenntnisstandes über "Aktive Galaxien", ein Thema, das gegenwärtig im Zentrum des astronomischen Interesses und der aktuellen Forschung steht. Nach einem Überblick über die seit längerem bekannten Phänomene und die Probleme ihrer Deutung wird auf neue, am Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie mit den Teleskopen der Calar Alto Sternwarte (Südspanien) gewonnene, Ergebnisse eingegangen.

  2. Kants Theorie der Sonne: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen seiner Kosmogonie entwickelte der junge Immanuel Kant eine Theorie der Sonne. Sie ist ein einzigartiges Zeugnis seiner intuitiven Vorstellungskraft und beweist auch die Leistungsfähigkeit der damaligen, vorwiegend von Newton geprägten Weltsicht. Entstehung, Aufbau und Dynamik der Sonne werden in Kants Theorie ebenso erklärt wie etwa das Phänomen der Sonnenflecken.

  3. Kombinierte Hoch-/Niedrig-Dosis-Therapie mit systemischen Glukokor-tikoiden bei schweren Verlaufsformen der Alopecia areata im Kindesalter.

    PubMed

    Jahn-Bassler, Karin; Bauer, Wolfgang Michael; Karlhofer, Franz; Vossen, Matthias G; Stingl, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Schwere Verlaufsformen der Alopecia areata (AA) im Kindesalter sind aufgrund limitierter Optionen therapeutisch herausfordernd. Systemische, hochdosierte Glukokortikoide weisen die schnellste Ansprechrate auf, nach dem Absetzen kommt es allerdings zu Rezidiven. Eine längerfristige Hochdosis-Anwendung ist aufgrund der zu erwartenden Nebenwirkungen nicht empfehlenswert. Eine dauerhafte Steroiderhaltungstherapie unterhalb der Cushing-Schwellen-Dosis nach Bolustherapie könnte die Krankheitsaktivität ohne Nebenwirkungen längerfristig unterdrücken. Im Rahmen einer offenen Anwendungsbeobachtung wurden 13 Kinder mit schweren Formen der AA in diese Studie eingeschlossen. Bei sieben Kindern lag eine AA totalis/universalis vor, bei sechs eine multifokale AA mit Befall von mehr als 50 % der Kopfhaut. Das Therapieregime sah eine initiale Prednisolon-Dosierung von 2 mg/kg Körpergeweicht (KG) vor und wurde innerhalb von neun Wochen auf eine Erhaltungsdosierung unter der individuellen Cushing-Schwelle reduziert. Der Nachbeobachtungszeitraum betrug ein bis drei Jahre. Wir beobachteten in 62 % aller Fälle ein komplettes Nachwachsen der Haare. Die mittlere Dauer bis zum Ansprechen lag bei 6,6 Wochen und konnte mit der Erhaltungstherapie über den gesamten Beobachtungszeitraum aufrechterhalten werden. An Nebenwirkungen wurden ausschließlich eine Gewichtszunahme (1-3 kg) bei allen Behandelten sowie eine milde Steroidakne in 23 % der Fälle beobachtet. Die kombinierte Hoch-/Niedrig-Dosis-Therapie mit systemischen Glukokortikoiden mittels Prednisolon zeigte eine hohe, dauerhafte Ansprechrate ohne signifikante Nebenwirkungen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Implantate in der Augenheilkunde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresp, Joachim H.

    Im Bereich der Augenheilkunde findet sich die weltweit am häufigsten ausgeführte chirurgische Massnahme, die operative Behandlung des Grauen Stars: die Katarakt. Bei der Katarakt handelt es sich um eine Eintrübung der natürlichen Augenlinse, die sich je nach Stadium der Erkrankung leicht opak, über milchig bis zu bräunlich präsentiert. Mit dieser Zunahme der Undurchlässigkeit für das sichtbare Licht geht eine Abnahme des Sehvermögens einher, die bis zur totalen Erblindung führen kann. Bedingt durch die sehr eingeschränkten chirurgischen Möglichkeiten in den Ländern der Dritten Welt ist die Katarakt die Erblindungsursache Nummer 1 in der Welt. Ganz im Gegensatz hierzu ist in den industrialisierten Ländern Europas, Amerikas und Asiens die Katarakt-OP die sicherste chirurgische Intervention. In der Augenheilkunde werden Implantate aller drei Aggregatszustände verwendet.

  5. Strahlungsfeldbedingungen bei der Ionisationsdosimetrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    Bei der Dosimetrie von Photonenstrahlungen mit luftgefüllten Ionisationskammern werden in diesem Kapitel zwei Grenzfälle unterschieden. Der eine Fall ist die Bedingung des so genannten Sekundärelektronengleichwichts im Kammervolumen. In diesem Fall bestimmen ausschließlich die Photonen im Messvolumen die dosimetrische Anzeige. Der zweite Grenzfall ist gegeben, wenn das Luftvolumen und die Kammer das Strahlungsfeld im Phantom so wenig stören, dass der Sekundärelektronenfluss unverändert bleibt. Diese Bedingungen nennt man BRAGG-GRAY-Bedingungen. Beide Grenzfälle sind in der Praxis nur näherungsweise zu verwirklichen. Abweichungen müssen durch entsprechende Korrekturen oder Kalibrierungen berücksichtigt werden.

  6. Organisationsaspekte in der Umsetzung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balck, Henning; Bungard, Walter; Hofmann, Karsten; Ganz, Walter; Schwenker, Burkhard; Hanßen, Dirk; Meindl, Rudolf; Schloske, Alexander; Thieme, Paul; Teufel, Peter

    Strukturbrüche sind eine der Hauptursachen für die Schwierigkeiten vieler Unternehmen, ihre Organisationsform zu modernisieren und vor allem turbulenten Marktbedingungen anzupassen. Klassische Beispiele für Strukturbrüche finden sich in der Spaltung von Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation, der Spaltung von Produktion und Dienstleistung oder der Spaltung von Planung und Ausführung. Ein wirkungsvoller Ansatz zur Überwindung solcher Spaltungen ist eine Art Versöhnungsmuster: die Polare Organisation. Wesentliche Elemente dieser Organisationsform sind ihr Netzwerkcharakter, kooperatives Zusammenwirken, eine hohe Kommunikationsintensität und eine polare Koppelung der kommunizierenden Partner oder - in abstrahierter Form - die organisierte Balance erfolgskritischer Gegensätze, wie Kosten und Qualität.

  7. Standing Tall: The Benefits of Standing Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    In the author's opinion as a pediatric physical therapist, with the exception of a wheelchair, there is no other piece of assistive technology that is more beneficial to children and adults with special needs than a standing device. Postural symmetry during standing and walking activities is extremely important for everyone. Very few children…

  8. Bioindikation im Grundwasser funktioniert - Erwiderung zum Kommentar von T. Scheytt zum Beitrag "Grundwasserfauna als Indikator für komplexe hydrogeologische Verhältnisse am westlichen Kaiserstuhl" von Gutjahr, S., Bork, J. & Hahn, H.J. in Grundwasser 18 (3), 173-184 (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Hans Jürgen; Gutjahr, Simon

    2014-09-01

    In seinem Kommentar schließt Traugott Scheytt die faunistische Bioindikation über die Nutzung von Grundwassermessstellen aus methodischen Gründen aus. Er postuliert auch, dass die faunistische Indikation hydrogeologischer Zusammenhänge wegen der eingeschränkten Ausbreitungsfähigkeit der Tiere in Porengrundwasserleitern nicht möglich sei und stellt grundsätzlich die Befunde unserer Untersuchungen am Kaiserstuhl in Frage. Dabei überträgt Herr Scheytt seine Erfahrungen aus der unbelebten Hydrogeologie direkt auf den Lebensraum Grundwasser. Seine Argumentation berücksichtigt dabei weder die Prinzipien der Ökologie noch den aktuellen Stand der grundwasserökologischen Forschung. Wir gehen davon aus, dass für die Untersuchungen am Kaiserstuhl sowohl unsere Arbeitshypothese wie auch die angewandten Methoden und die Interpretation der Ergebnisse der Fragestellung angemessen sind und internationalem, wissenschaftlichem Standard entsprechen. Aus den oben benannten Gründen bleiben wir dabei: Biondikation im Grundwasser funktioniert und sie bietet hervorragende Möglichkeiten, gerade auch für die Hydrogeologie.

  9. Stand density relationships

    Treesearch

    John C. Tappeiner

    2013-01-01

    Th inning stands (managing their densities) aff ects the development of trees and understory plants as individuals, as well as stand-level characteristics like structure, microclimate, and stand growth, habitat for various species, and fuel and potential fi re severity. Th ese characteristics and the rate of changes are aff ected by thinning severity—the reduction in...

  10. A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-08

    A tethered Stennis Space Center employee climbs an A-3 Test Stand ladder June 8, 2012, against the backdrop of the A-2 and B-1/B-2 stands. The new A-3 Test Stand will enable simulated high-altitude testing of next-generation rocket engines.

  11. A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-08

    A tethered Stennis Space Center employee climbs an A-3 Test Stand ladded June 8, 2012, against the backdrop of the A-2 and B-1/B-2 stands. The new A-3 Test Stand will enable simulated high-altitude testing of next-generation rocket engines.

  12. Gesellschaft, Lebensgemeinschaft, Ökosystem - Über die Kongruenz von politischen und ökologischen Theorien der Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Annette

    Im Jahr 1859 veröffentlichte Charles Darwin "On the Origin of Species“. Seine Evolutionstheorie ist das wohl spektakulärste Beispiel einer naturwissenschaftlichen Theorie großer gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Ihre verschiedenen Facetten wurden in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert, unter anderem auch ihre Anwendung zur Erklärung von Zuständen und Prozessen menschlicher Gesellschaften. Zum Teil wurde die Seiensweise der Natur - scheinbar unabhängig von gesellschaftlichen Interessen - für die Erklärung und Legitimation gesellschaftlicher Zustände oder die Legitimation von politischen Ideologien herangezogen (Sozialdarwinismus). Denn Gesellschaft funktioniere ja so, wie Darwin die Natur erklärt habe: es herrsche z. B. Konkurrenzkampf, Auslese und Arbeitsteilung, Erfolg hätten diejenigen, die sich an die Bedingungen am Besten anpassten.

  13. CAD in der Praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labisch, Susanna

    Konstruktion und Fertigung erfolgen in der Praxis fast ausschließlich rechnerunterstützt. Mit diesem Rechnereinsatz beim Konstruieren (CAD, Computer Aided Design) und Fertigen CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) scheint die technische Zeichnung an Bedeutung zu verlieren, da die Verständigung zwischen Konstruktions- und Fertigungsabteilung primär durch den Austausch digitaler Daten erfolgen kann.

  14. Zytoprotektion mit Amifostin (Ethyol®) in der Chemotherapie: Meta-Analyse zum pharmakokinetischen Interaktionspotential mit Zytostatika.

    PubMed

    Czejka, Martin; Schüller, Johannes; Kletzl, Heidemarie

    2017-08-25

    The cytoprotective agent amifostine (AMI) is capable to protect healthy cells (contrary to tumor cells) due to higher activity of alkaline phosphatase at the membrane site of normal cells. In seven clinical trials the influence of AMI on the pharmacokinetics of different cytostatics was investigated. Preadministration of AMI increased Cmax of doxorubicin (+ 44 %, p < 0.06), epirubicin (+ 31 %, P < 0.08), mitomycin C (+ 41 %, p < 0.01) and docetaxel (+ 31 % and + 17 %, not significant). In contrary, the peak concentration of pirarubicin , the tetrahydropyranyl-prodrug of doxorubicin was decreased (- 50 %, P < 0.03), leading to an equal higher concentrationof doxorubicin in the blood . In accordance to the peak concentrations, the AUC'ast was increased by chemoprotection: doxorubicin + 53 % (p < 0.01) and epirubicin + 23 % (not significant), docetaxel + 25 % and + 31 % (not significant). AUC'ast of mitomycin C and paclitaxel seemed to be unaffected by preadministered AMI. A particular inhibition of the protein binding by AMI has been identified as one reason for higher serum concentrations of anthracycline drugs. After cytoprotection, a possible increase of the cytostatic's Serum concentrations should be taken into account for optimal dosage schedules.

  15. Saw gin stands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The saw gin stand is the heart of the saw ginning system. Almost from the initial filing of patents for the spiked tooth gin and the saw gin in 1794 and 1796 by Whitney and then Holmes respectively (Hughs and Holt, 2015), the saw gin stand has predominated over early roller-type gins in the U.S. co...

  16. Evaluation der zentralen TUM-Lernplattform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Elvira; Baume, Matthias; Graf, Stephan; Gergintchev, Ivan

    Die Notwendigkeit der Qualitätssicherung und -kontrolle für innovative universitäre Lehr-/Lernszenarien ist in der Praxis unbestritten. Die Wirksamkeit der Einführung der zentralen Lernplattform CLIX Campus der imc AG an der TUM wurde mittels quantitativer und qualitativer Evaluation überprüft. Als statistische Bewertungsgrundlage wurde der Erreichungsgrad bestimmter Projektziele herangezogen. Aufbauend auf den theoretischen Grundlagen der Evaluation von Bildungsangeboten gibt diese Studie Aufschluss über die Ergebnisse der Datenerhebungen sowie die Einschätzung der Plattform aus Nutzersicht und belegt die wesentliche Bedeutung der durchgängigen IT-Infrastruktur und speziell der einheitlichen Verfügbarkeit der eLearning Angebote.

  17. Stand density index in uneven-aged ponderosa pine stands

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; C.E. Fiedler; K.S. Milner

    2003-01-01

    Stand density index (SDI) was developed to quantify relative stand density in even-aged stands. Application of SDI in uneven-aged stands has been described mathematically but not justified biologically. Diameter-class trends in SDI and sapwood area across 14 uneven-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) stands in eastern...

  18. Das Smart Meter Gateway - Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor für die Digitalisierung der Energiewende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abs, Paul-Vincent

    Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor der Digitalisierung in der Energiewirtschaft liegt im bevorstehenden hohen Investitionsvolumen und der Beherrschung der neuen Technik. Ein Weg zur Kostenminimierung liegt im Zusammenschluss der einzelnen Akteure, um gemeinsame Skalenvorteile zu heben. Auch bieten neue Geschäftsmodelle die Möglichkeit, zusätzliche Erlöse zu generieren.

  19. ZumBeat: Evaluation of a Zumba Dance Intervention in Postmenopausal Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeissl, Anja; Lenk, Soraya; Hanssen, Henner; Donath, Lars; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Schäfer, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major public health concern since it increases individuals’ risk of morbidity and mortality. A subgroup at particular risk is postmenopausal overweight women. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and effect of a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial health. Postmenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 or a waist circumference >94 cm who were not regularly physically active were asked to complete a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention with instructed and home-based self-training sessions. Before and after the intervention, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was assessed on a treadmill; and body composition and several psychometric parameters (including quality of life, sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms) were investigated. Of 17 women (median age: 54 years; median BMI: 30 kg/m2) enrolled in the study, 14 completed the study. There was no apparent change in VO2peak after the 12-week intervention period (average change score: −0.5 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval: −1.0, 0.1); but, quality of life had increased, and sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms had decreased. A 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention may not suffice to increase cardiorespiratory fitness in postmenopausal overweight women, but it increases women’s quality of life. PMID:29910253

  20. Grundlagen der zeichnerischen Darstellung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Peter

    Eine Technische Zeichnung muss nach DIN 6774 Teil 1 in der Weise angefertigt werden, dass sie übersichtlich, unmissverständlich, auch in verkleinertem Maßstab lesbar bleibt, kostengünstig reproduzierbar und dauerhaft archivierbar ist. Zu dem Zweck benötigt man entsprechendes Papier und angepasstes Zeichengerät. Heute ist die Anfertigung mit entsprechenden Rechnerprogrammen möglich.

  1. Primordial standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João

    2018-03-01

    We consider the possibility that the primordial fluctuations (scalar and tensor) might have been standing waves at their moment of creation, whether or not they had a quantum origin. We lay down the general conditions for spatial translational invariance, and isolate the pieces of the most general such theory that comply with, or break translational symmetry. We find that, in order to characterize statistically translationally invariant standing waves, it is essential to consider the correlator ⟨c0(k )c0(k')⟩ in addition to the better known ⟨c0(k )c0†(k')⟩ [where c0(k ) are the complex amplitudes of traveling waves]. We then examine how the standard process of "squeezing" (responsible for converting traveling waves into standing waves while the fluctuations are outside the horizon) reacts to being fed primordial standing waves. For translationally invariant systems only one type of standing wave, with the correct temporal phase (the "sine wave"), survives squeezing. Primordial standing waves might therefore be invisible at late times—or not—depending on their phase. Theories with modified dispersion relations behave differently in this respect, since only standing waves with the opposite temporal phase survive at late times.

  2. A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-19

    The A-3 Test Stand under construction at Stennis Space Center is set for completion and activation in 2013. It will allow operators to conduct simulated high-altitude testing on the next-generation J-2X rocket engine.

  3. Where We Now Stand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Keith G.

    1969-01-01

    Noting the acceleration of scientific evaluation, the author focuses his attention on where we now stand in the evaluation of two methods of instruction: programed learning materials and television. (Editor)

  4. TEST STAND 4697 CONSTRUCTION

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-06

    A CRANE MOVES THE FIRST STEEL TIER TO BE BOLTED INTO PLACE ON JAN. 6, FOR WELDING OF A SECOND NEW STRUCTURAL TEST STAND AT NASA'S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER IN HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA -- CRITICAL TO DEVELOPMENT OF NASA'S SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM. WHEN COMPLETED THIS SUMMER, THE 85-FOOT-TALL TEST STAND 4697 WILL USE HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS TO SUBJECT THE LIQUID OXYGEN TANK AND HARDWARE OF THE MASSIVE SLS CORE STAGE TO THE SAME LOADS AND STRESSES IT WILL ENDURE DURING A LAUNCH. THE STAND IS RISING IN MARSHALL'S WEST TEST AREA, WHERE WORK IS ALSO UNDERWAY ON THE 215-FOOT-TALL TOWERS OF TEST STAND 4693, WHICH WILL CONDUCT SIMILAR STRUCTURAL TESTS ON THE SLS CORE STAGE'S LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK. SLS, THE MOST POWERFUL ROCKET EVER BUILT, WILL CARRY ASTRONAUTS IN NASA'S ORION SPACECRAFT ON DEEP SPACE MISSIONS, INCLUDING THE JOURNEY TO MARS.

  5. NEO Test Stand Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Cody J.

    2015-01-01

    A project within SwampWorks is building a test stand to hold regolith to study how dust is ejected when exposed to the hot exhaust plume of a rocket engine. The test stand needs to be analyzed, finalized, and fabrication drawings generated to move forward. Modifications of the test stand assembly were made with Creo 2 modeling software. Structural analysis calculations were developed by hand to confirm if the structure will hold the expected loads while optimizing support positions. These calculations when iterated through MatLab demonstrated the optimized position of the vertical support to be 98'' from the far end of the stand. All remaining deflections were shown to be under the 0.6'' requirement and internal stresses to meet NASA Ground Support Equipment (GSE) Safety Standards. Though at the time of writing, fabrication drawings have yet to be generated, but are expected shortly after.

  6. van der Waals torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Schatz, George

    2014-03-01

    The theory of generalized van der Waals forces by Lifshtz when applied to optically anisotropic media predicts the existence of a torque. In this work we present a theoretical calculation of the van der Waals torque for two systems. First we consider two isotropic parallel plates where the anisotropy is induced using an external magnetic field. The anisotropy will in turn induce a torque. As a case study we consider III-IV semiconductors such as InSb that can support magneto plasmons. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, that occurs when the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the slabs. The change in the dielectric function as the magnetic field increases has the effect of decreasing the van der Waals force and increasing the torque. Thus, the external magnetic field is used to tune both the force and torque. The second example we present is the use of the torque in the non retarded regime to align arrays of nano particle slabs. The torque is calculated within Barash and Ginzburg formalism in the nonretarded limit, and is quantified by the introduction of a Hamaker torque constant. Calculations are conducted between anisotropic slabs of materials including BaTiO3 and arrays of Ag nano particles. Depending on the shape and arrangement of the Ag nano particles the effective dielectric function of the array can be tuned as to make it more or less anisotropic. We show how this torque can be used in self assembly of arrays of nano particles. ref. R. Esquivel-Sirvent, G. C. Schatz, Phys. Chem C, 117, 5492 (2013). partial support from DGAPA-UNAM.

  7. Zeit im Wandel der Zeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichelburg, P. C.

    Contents: Einleitung(P. C. Aichelburg). 1. Über Zeit, Bewegung und Veränderung (Aristoteles). 2. Ewigkeit und Zeit (Plotin). 3. Was ist die Zeit? (Augustinus). 4. Von der Zeit (Immanuel Kant). 5. Newtons Ansichten über Zeit, Raum und Bewegung (Ernst Mach). 6. Über die mechanische Erklärung irreversibler Vorgänge (Ludwig Boltzmann). 7. Das Maß der Zeit (Henri Poincaré). 8. Dauer und Intuition (Henri Bergson). 9. Die Geschichte des Unendlichkeitsproblems (Bertrand Russell). 10. Raum und Zeit (Hermann Minkowski). 11. Der Unterschied von Zeit und Raum (Hans Reichenbach). 12. Newtonscher und Bergsonscher Zeitbegriff (Norbert Wiener). 13. Die Bildung des Zeitbegriffs beim Kinde (JeanPiaget).14. Eine Bemerkung über die Beziehungen zwischen Relativitätstheorie und der idealistischen Philosophie (Kurt Gödel). 15. Der zweite Hauptsatz und der Unterschied von Vergangenheit und Zukunft (Carl Friedrich v. Weizsäcker). 16. Zeit als physikalischer Begriff (Friedrich Hund). 17. Zeitmessung und Zeitbegriff in der Astronomie (Otto Heckmann). 18. Kann die Zeit rückwärts gehen? (Martin Gardner). 19. Zeit und Zeiten (Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers). 20. Zeit als dynamische Größe in der Relativitätstheorie (P. C. Aichelburg).

  8. Looking northeast from Test Stand 'A' superstructure towards Test Stand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast from Test Stand 'A' superstructure towards Test Stand 'D' tower (4223/E-24, left background), Test Stand 'C' tower (4217/E-18, center), and Test Stand 'B' (4215/E-16, right foreground). - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. PPT Thrust Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A torsional-type thrust stand has been designed and built to test Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) in both single shot and repetitive operating modes. Using this stand, momentum per pulse was determined strictly as a function of thrust stand deflection, spring constant, and natural frequency. No empirical corrections were required. The accuracy of the method was verified using a swinging impact pendulum. Momentum transfer data between the thrust stand and the pendulum were consistent to within 1%. Following initial calibrations, the stand was used to test a Lincoln Experimental Satellite (LES-8/9) thruster. The LES-8/9 system had a mass of approximately 7.5 kg, with a nominal thrust to weight ratio of 1.3 x 10(exp -5). A total of 34 single shot thruster pulses were individually measured. The average impulse bit per pulse was 266 microN-s, which was slightly less than the value of 300 microN-s published in previous reports on this device. Repetitive pulse measurements were performed similar to ordinary steady-state thrust measurements. The thruster was operated for 30 minutes at a repetition rate of 132 pulses per minute and yielded an average thrust of 573 microN. Using average thrust, the average impulse bit per pulse was estimated to be 260 microN-s, which was in agreement with the single shot data. Zero drift during the repetitive pulse test was found to be approximately 1% of the measured thrust.

  10. Entwicklung von umwelt- und naturschutzgerechten Verfahren der landwirtschaftlichen Landnutzung für das Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    1999-11-01

    Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden exemplarisch Chancen und Grenzen der Integration von Umwelt- und Naturschutz in Verfahren der ackerbaulichen Landnutzung aufgezeigt. Die Umsetzung von Zielen des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes in Verfahren der Landnutzung ist mit verschiedenen Schwierigkeiten verbunden. Diese liegen zum einen in der Konkretisierung der Ziele, um diese umsetzen zu können, zum anderen in vielfach unzulänglichem Wissen über den Zusammenhang zwischen unterschiedlichen Formen der Landnutzung und insbesondere den biotischen Naturschutzzielen. Zunächst wird die Problematik der Zielfestlegung und Konkretisierung erörtert. Das Umweltqualitätszielkonzept von Fürst et al. (1992) stellt einen Versuch dar, Ziele des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes zu konkretisieren. Dieses Konzept haben Heidt et al. (1997) auf einen Landschaftsausschnitt von ca. 6000 ha im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin im Nordosten Brandenburgs angewendet. Eine Auswahl der von Heidt et al. (1997) formulierten Umweltqualitätsziele bildet die Basis dieser Arbeit. Für die ausgewählten Umweltqualitätsziele wurden wesentliche Einflussfaktoren der Landnutzung identifiziert und ein Bewertungssystem entwickelt, mit dem die Auswirkungen von landwirtschaftlichen Anbauverfahren auf diese Umweltqualitätsziele abgebildet werden können. Die praktizierte Landnutzung von 20 Betrieben im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde von 1994 bis 1997 hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Umweltqualitätsziele analysiert. Die Analyse ergab ein sehr differenziertes Bild, das zum Teil Unterschiede in der Auswirkung auf die Umweltqualitätsziele für den Anbau einzelner Kulturen oder für bestimmte Betriebstypen zeigte. Es zeigte sich aber auch, dass es bei der Gestaltung des Anbaus einzelner Kulturarten große Unterschiede gab, die für Umweltqualitätsziele Bedeutung haben. Neben der Analyse der Landnutzung im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde ein System entwickelt, mit dem die modellhafte

  11. Standing wave compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1991-01-01

    A compressor for compression-evaporation cooling systems, which requires no moving parts. A gaseous refrigerant inside a chamber is acoustically compressed and conveyed by means of a standing acoustic wave which is set up in the gaseous refrigerant. This standing acoustic wave can be driven either by a transducer, or by direct exposure of the gas to microwave and infrared sources, including solar energy. Input and output ports arranged along the chamber provide for the intake and discharge of the gaseous refrigerant. These ports can be provided with optional valve arrangements, so as to increase the compressor's pressure differential. The performance of the compressor in either of its transducer or electromagnetically driven configurations, can be optimized by a controlling circuit. This controlling circuit holds the wavelength of the standing acoustical wave constant, by changing the driving frequency in response to varying operating conditions.

  12. Verantwortlicher Umgang mit Antibiotika: Notwendigkeit der Antibiotikareduktion in der Aknetherapie.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Harald P M; Buer, Jan; Beissert, Stefan; Sunderkätter, Cord

    2016-12-01

    Der übermäßige oder unkritische weltweite Einsatz von Antibiotika in der Medizin hat die Ausbreitung von Antibiotikaresistenzen beschleunigt. In einigen Bereichen sind viele Antibiotika bei bakteriellen Infektionen, die zuvor noch gut auf antibakterielle Wirkstoffe reagierten, mittlerweile wirkungslos geworden. Dermatologen/Venerologen setzten orale und topische Antibiotika bei der Behandlung von Acne vulgaris routinemäßig ein, obwohl Akne weder eine infektiöse Erkrankung ist noch alleine durch das Propionibacterium getriggert wird. Vielmehr ist sie eine komplexe, chronische entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die durch verschiedene pathogenetische Faktoren wie follikuläre Hyperkeratose, erhöhter Sebumproduktion, bakterielle Proliferation und Entzündung zustande kommt. Folglich sollte eine erfolgreiche Therapie auf die Bekämpfung verschiedener pathogenetischer Faktoren und nicht nur auf die von Propionibacterium acnes abzielen. Daher wurden topische Retinoide und Benzoylperoxid als Mittel der ersten Wahl definiert. Monotherapien mit lokalen Antibiotika sollten insgesamt vermieden werden. Systemische Antibiotika der Tetrazyklin-Gruppe haben bei bestimmen Krankheitsstadien ihren Sinn, ihre Wirkung könnte aber eher auf der antientzündlichen als auf der antibiotischen Reaktion beruhen. Gesundheitsbehörden ermahnen alle Gesundheitsdienstleister, den Einsatz von Antibiotika einzuschränken. Das Nutzen-Risiko-Verhältnis muss bei der Entscheidung für oder gegen eine antibiotische Therapie bei einem einzelnen Patienten immer auch in Bezug auf das öffentliche Interesse am Erhalt der Wirksamkeit von Antibiotika abgewogen werden. Im Folgenden werden das aktuelle Krankheitskonzept zu Acne vulgaris und die sich daraus ableitenden Konsequenzen für den Einsatz von Antibiotika vorgestellt. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Treating mature stands for wildlife

    Treesearch

    William H. Healy; Gary F. Houf

    1989-01-01

    Stands older than 60 years or that are medium to large sawtimber size generally provide good wildlife habitat. Mature trees usually produce abundant mast and provide den sites (see fig. 1 in Note 9.04 Treating Immature Stands). The undergrowth in these stands produces moderate amounts of browse and herbage. Mature stands also provide opportunities for management...

  14. Aerial shows Stennis test stands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-16

    An aerial photo shows the B-1/B-2 Test Stand (foreground), A-2 Test Stand (middle) and A-1 Test Stand (back). The historic stands have been used to test engines used on every manned Apollo and space shuttle mission.

  15. Die Baukastensystematik in der Fördertechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebulke, Johannes

    In der Fördertechnik wird kaum ein größerer Einsatzfall so dem anderen gleichen, dass man zwei Anlagen nach denselben Zeichnungen fertigen kann. Konstruktionszeiten, Rüst- und Umstellungszeiten der Fertigung sind hoch; der Kunde muss bei Einzelanfertigung lange Lieferzeiten in Kauf nehmen. In der Fördertechnik haben sich daher Baukastenprinzip, Standardisierung und die Konstruktion von Erzeugnisreihen weitgehend durchgesetzt.

  16. Ganzheitliche Digitalisierungsansätze im Stadtwerk: Von der Strategie bis zur Umsetzung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudenhausen, Roman; Hahn, Heike

    Digitalisierung muss im Stadtwerk dazu führen, Kundenerwartungen, die heutzutage schon vielfach durch digitales Know-how und Erfahrungen geprägt sind, in einzigartiger Weise zu entsprechen - in Form digitaler Kundenkontaktpunkte, automatisierter Prozesse oder plattformbasierter Geschäftsmodelle. Eine große Rolle spielen dabei unternehmensweit nutzbare Informationen, die eine 360-Grad-Sicht auf den Kunden ermöglichen. Nur in dieser Kombination werden sich nachhaltig Wettbewerbsvorteile generieren lassen. Manch ein Kunde wird die Lust, einen Prozess zu Ende zu gehen, schon vor dem Abschluss verlieren, wenn er nicht unmittelbar und ohne die digitale Welt zu verlassen zum Ziel kommt. Eine nur "halb digitale Kundenerfahrung" wird weder zu Neugeschäft noch zur positiven emotionalen Bindung zwischen Kunden und Stadtwerk führen. Nicht zu unterschätzen sind zudem Erwartungen hinsichtlich zukünftiger Geschäftsmodelle, aus denen sich disruptive Bedrohungen für die herkömmlichen Strom- und Gasangebote ergeben werden. Erste innovative Ansätze finden sich bereits im Markt, die erahnen lassen, dass zurzeit viel diskutierte Technologien wie die Blockchain nicht mehr nur hypothetischer Natur sind. Die Auseinandersetzung mit der Digitalisierung erfolgt dabei sinnvollerweise in einem unternehmensweit abgestimmten Rahmen, der eine zielgerichtete und ganzheitliche Vorgehensweise ermöglicht.

  17. Principles of managing stands

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis; Rodney Jacobs

    1989-01-01

    Forest stands are managed to achieve some combination of desired products or values. These products or values may include income and tangible benefits from timber production or fees for hunting rights and other recreational activities. The values may be intangible, such as the enjoyment of seeing wildlife or flowering plants, or the simple satisfaction of knowing that...

  18. Free-Standing Canes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)

  19. Fertilizing natural stands

    Treesearch

    L. R. Auchmoody

    1989-01-01

    Given our present knowledge, and under current costs and returns, there appears to be little reason to fertilize natural stands of central hardwoods. Yet, some of the numerous fertilizer tests conducted with hardwoods over the past 50 years have shown very positive--but short-lived-growth responses. One "operational" (nonexperimental) use of nitrogen and...

  20. Economics of stand management

    Treesearch

    David K. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    This paper sets out to demonstrate the importance of considering the wealth represented by the growing stock in economic analyses of stand management alternatives, and to demonstrate the role of thinning in the manipulation of the efficiency of growing stock in the management of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). These goals are achieved through a demonstration of...

  1. Verbesserung der Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Konstantin; Wenzel, Fabian; Fischer, Bernd

    Die lokale Symmetrie von Hirnscans entlang der Sagittalebene zu ermitteln und zu modizifieren, ist für eine Reihe neurologischer Anwendungen interessant. Beispielsweise kann der voxelweise Vergleich von rechter und linker Hirnhälfte nur dann Aufschluss über die Lokalisierung von Läsionen geben, wenn durch Transformation ein Hirnscan eine möglichst hohe Symmetrie aufweist. Ein weiteres Anwendungsgebiet ist die Visualisierung von medialen Hirnschnitten, für die die Trennfläche beider Hirnhälfte möglichst eben sein sollte. Diese Arbeit stellt die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens vor, mit dessen Hilfe die Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene verbessert werden kann. Dies geschieht unter Verwendung von aktiven Konturen, die mit Hilfe einer neuartigen Kostenfunktion gesteuert werden. Experimente am Ende der Arbeit mit strukturellen Kernspinaufnahmen demonstrieren die Leistungsfähigkeit des Verfahrens.

  2. Smart Meter Rollout: Intelligente Messsysteme als Schnittstelle zum Kunden im Smart Grid und Smart Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vortanz, Karsten; Zayer, Peter

    Das Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende ist verabschiedet. Ab 2017 sind moderne Messeinrichtungen (mME) und intelligente Messsysteme (iMSys) zu verbauen und zu betreiben. Der "deutsche Weg" für die Einführung von Smart Metern sieht einen stufenweisen Rollout sowie ein Höchstmaß an Informations- und Datensicherheit vor. Dabei spielen iMSys und mME eine wichtige Rolle bei der Neugestaltung der intelligenten Netze (Smart Grids) und des neuen Marktmodells (Smart Market). Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den neuen Gesetzen, den Marktrollen und ihren Aufgaben, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit, dem iMSys als sichere Lösung, dem sicheren Betrieb von Smart Meter Gateways, Smart Grid - Smart Market, dem Zusammenspiel zwischen reguliertem Bereich und Markt, den Einsatzbereichen der iMSys sowie den Auswirkungen auf Prozesse und Systeme und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen.

  3. Der evolutionäre Naturalismus in der Ethik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Marie I.

    Charles Darwin hat eindrucksvoll gezeigt, dass der Mensch ebenso wie alle anderen Lebewesen ein Produkt der biologischen Evolution ist. Die sich an Darwin anschließende Forschung hat außerdem plausibel gemacht, dass sich nicht nur viele der körperlichen Merkmale des Menschen, sondern auch (zumindest einige) seiner Verhaltensdispositionen in adaptiven Selektionsprozessen herausgebildet haben. Die Vorstellung, dass auch die menschliche Moralität evolutionär bedingt ist, scheint daher auf den ersten Blick ganz überzeugend. Schließlich hat die Evolutionstheorie in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten in vielen Bereichen (auch außerhalb der Biologie) ihre weitreichende Bedeutung unter Beweis gestellt. Warum sollte, so könnte man beispielsweise fragen, gerade die Fähigkeit des Menschen, moralische Normen aufzustellen und gemäß ihnen zu handeln, nicht evolutionär erklärt werden können? Und warum sollte eine solche evolutionäre Erklärung der menschlichen Moralität irrelevant für die Rechtfertigung moralischer Normen sein? Warum sollte die Ethik eine Bastion der Philosophen bleiben, für die evolutionsbiologische Forschungsergebnisse über den Menschen und seine nächsten Verwandten keinerlei Relevanz besitzen?

  4. 20. Building 202, detail of stand A, rocket test stand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Building 202, detail of stand A, rocket test stand in test cell. View looking southeast. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. Get up, Stand up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Ignorance about dyslexia meant a miserable school experience for Barrie Hughes. He was in his 50s when he found the courage to stand up in front of a classroom of learners and admit he couldn't read. Barrie, who is now 59 and works for the parks department of Brighton and Hove Council, only began to learn how to read words in the last three years…

  6. A-3 Test Stand work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-29

    Stennis Space Center employees have installed liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen tanks atop the A-3 Test Stand, raising the structure to its full 300-foot height. The stand is being built to test next-generation rocket engines that could carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit into deep space. The A-3 Test Stand is scheduled for completion and activation in 2013.

  7. A-3 Test Stand work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-29

    Work continues on the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. The new stand will allow operators to test next-generation rocket engines at simulated altitudes up to 100,000 feet. The test stand is scheduled for completion and activation in 2013.

  8. Managing uneven-aged stands

    Treesearch

    Jay R. Law; Craig G. Lorimer

    1989-01-01

    Maintaining uneven-aged stands involves cutting trees from a range of diameter classes in such a way that the residual stand has a balanced, steeply descending diameter distribution curve (fig. 1). The objective is to distribute trees by diameter classes so that over time the stand contains trees of different ages and sizes.

  9. Stand Density and Canopy Gaps

    Treesearch

    Boris Zeide

    2004-01-01

    Estimation of stand density is based on a relationship between number of trees and their average diameter in fully stocked stands. Popular measures of density (Reineke’s stand density index and basal area) assume that number of trees decreases as a power function of diameter. Actually, number of trees drops faster than predicted by the power function because the number...

  10. Taking Stock and Standing down

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeler, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Standing down is an action the military takes to review, regroup, and reorganize. Unfortunately, it often comes after an accident or other tragic event. To stop losses, the military will "stand down" until they are confident they can resume safe operations. Standing down is good for everyone, not just the military. In today's fast-paced world,…

  11. Silvicultural treatments in sapling stands

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson

    1989-01-01

    Sapling stands are those in which codominant trees average less than 5 inches d.b.h. Silvicultural treatments in sapling stands can be summed up in two words: CROP TREES. Any silvicultural treatment must help crop trees if the investment in sapling stands is going to pay off. Just cutting "bad" or "undesirable" trees does not insure that crop trees...

  12. Der Organismus der Mathematik - mikro-, makro- und mesoskopisch betrachtet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Reinhard

    Meist enden ähnliche Gespräche über Mathematik etwa an diesem Punkt, ohne dass der Nichtmathematiker von der Sinnhaftigkeit mathematischer Forschung, ja mathematischer Tätigkeit generell überzeugt werden konnte. Ich glaube nicht, dass dem Laien Blindheit für die Großartigkeit unserer Wissenschaft vorzuwerfen ist, wenn hier keine befriedigendere Kommunikation zustande kommt. Ich sehe als Ursache eher ein stark verkürztes Bild von der Mathematik, welches auch Fachleute oft zeichnen, weil ihnen eine angemessenere Darstellung ihres Faches zu viel Mühe macht - und das obwohl Mathematik nur betreiben kann, wer geistige Mühen sonst keineswegs scheut. Ich will versuchen, den Ursachen dieses eigentümlichen Phänomens auf den Grund zu gehen.

  13. A-3 Test Stand construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    An 80,000-gallon liquid hydrogen tank is placed at the A-3 Test Stand construction site on Sept. 24, 2010. The tank will provide propellant for tests of next-generation rocket engines at the stand. It will be placed upright on top of the stand, helping to increase the overall height to 300 feet. Once completed, the A-3 Test Stand will enable operators to test rocket engines at simulated altitudes of up to 100,000 feet. The A-3 stand is the first large rocket engine test structure to be built at Stennis Space Center since the 1960s.

  14. A-3 Test Stand construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    A 35,000-gallon liquid oxygen tank is placed at the A-3 Test Stand construction site on Sept. 24, 2010. The tank will provide propellant for tests of next-generation rocket engines at the stand. It will be placed upright on top of the stand, helping to increase the overall height to 300 feet. Once completed, the A-3 Test Stand will enable operators to test rocket engines at simulated altitudes of up to 100,000 feet. The A-3 stand is the first large rocket engine test structure to be built at Stennis Space Center since the 1960s.

  15. Ebenen des Verstehens: Überlegungen zu einem Verfahren zum Wurzelziehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Martin

    Wir bemühen uns, insbesondere bei Kindern, den Lernprozess auch im Mathematikunterricht durch den Einsatz von Materialien zu unterstützen. Die Arbeitsschritte dienen dabei oft der Vorbereitung oder Herleitung von Verfahren - in der Hoffnung, dass durch die Veranschaulichung Zusammenhänge besser verstanden werden. Worin dann das Verstehen besteht, wenn im Ergebnis ein Verfahren von den Kindern erfolgreich abgearbeitet wird, ist nicht unmittelbar zu sehen.

  16. Environmental Systems Test Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Young, J.; Ewert, M.; Lee, S.; Wells, P.; Fortson, R.; Castillo, J.

    A test stand has been developed for the evaluation of prototype lighting, environmental control and crop cultivation technologies for plant production within an advanced life support system. Design of the test stand was based on preliminary designs of the center growth bay of the Biomass Production Chamber, one of several modules of the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO- Plex). It consists of two controlled-environment shelves, each with 4.7 m2 of area for crop growth (150 cm width, 315 cm length). There are two chilled water loops, one for operation at conventional temperatures (5-10C) for air temperature and humidity control and one for operation at higher temperatures (15-50C) for waste heat acquisition and heating. Modular light boxes, utilizing either air-cooled or water- jacketed HPS lamps, have been developed. This modular design will allow for easy replacement of new lighting technologies within the light banks. An advanced data acquisition and control system has been developed utilizing localized, networked- based data acquisition modules and programmed with object-based control software.

  17. Grundlagen und Grundbegriffe der Messtechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Es ist eine wesentliche Aufgabe der Messtechnik, technische Vorgänge quantitativ zu erfassen und anhand der gemessenen Größen Funktionsabläufe zu steuern. Als Beispiel sei ein Kraftwerk zur Energieerzeugung genannt, bei dem nur über die Messung von Temperaturen, Leistungen, Drücken und anderen Größen Aussagen über den momentanen Zustand möglich sind und bei Abweichungen vom Sollwert geeignete Eingriffe in das System erfolgen können. Damit eine eindeutige Kommunikation möglich wird, sind die in der Messtechnik verwendeten Begriffe, Messverfahren und Maßeinheiten in entsprechenden Normen oder Vorschriften festgelegt.

  18. Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik (1948).

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Paul K

    2016-06-01

    This is a critical transcription of Paul Feyerabend's earliest extant essay "Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik" (1948) recovered from the European Forum Alpbach archives. In it, Feyerabend defends positivism as a progressive framework for scientific research in certain stages of scientific development. He argues that in physics visualizability (Anschaulichkeit) and intelligibility (Verständlichkeit) are time-conditioned concepts: what is deemed visualizable in the development of physical theories is relative to a specific historical context and changes over time. He concludes that from time to time the abandonment of visualizability is crucial for progress in physics, as it is conducive to major theory change, illustrating the point on the basis of advances in atomic theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A-1 Test Stand modifications

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-14

    Team members check the progress of a liquid nitrogen cold shock test on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Sept. 15. The cold shock test is used to confirm the test stand's support system can withstand test conditions, when super-cold rocket engine propellant is piped. The A-1 Test Stand is preparing to conduct tests on the powerpack component of the J-2X rocket engine, beginning in early 2012.

  20. Stand size, stand distribution, and rotation lengths for forest wildlife

    Treesearch

    Steven E. Backs; Russel R. Titus

    1989-01-01

    The key to managing forest wildlife is providing diverse habitats. Stand size, stand distribution, and rotation length determine how diverse habitats will be. Since the tenure of private forest owners is generally shorter than prescribed rotations, rotation recommendations serve more as guides to the amount and intensity of cutting needed to maintain desired habitat....

  1. [Chile: Standing up again].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2010-03-01

    One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more.

  2. Dynamics of Connecticut hemlock stands

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey S. Ward; David M. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The stand dynamics and production of two one-acre plots of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L) in Connecticut have been followed for more than six decades. Data were recorded for all individual trees. One plot (Saltonstall) was established in 1924 after the removal of a hardwood overstory. This stand had a nearly pure, almost fully closed understory...

  3. Economic considerations of managing stands

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller

    1989-01-01

    Managing central hardwood stands involves making choices. Each year landowners face at least three alternatives for managing a stand: (1) allow it to grow undisturbed, (2) undertake a partial or complete commercial harvest, or (3) culture the timber crop through a precommercial investment. Each activity affects long-term monetary returns. The "best" choice in...

  4. A-3 Test Stand work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-29

    Rocket engine propellant tanks and cell dome top the A-3 Test Stand under construction at Stennis Space Center. The stand will test next-generation rocket engines that could carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit into deep space once more.

  5. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center work to maneuver a structural steam beam into place on the A-1 Test Stand on Jan. 13. The beam was one of several needed to form the thrust takeout structure that will support a new thrust measurement system being installed on the stand for future rocket engine testing. Once lifted onto the stand, the beams had to be hoisted into place through the center of the test stand, with only two inches of clearance on each side. The new thrust measurement system represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment installed more than 40 years ago when the test stand was first constructed.

  6. Stand density, stand structure, and species composition in transition oak stands of northwestern Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    S.L. Stout

    1991-01-01

    Transition stands, those containing species associated with both the northern hardwood and oak-hickory forest types, are important to forest diversity in northwestern Pennsylvania. These stands have high value for a variety of forest uses, including timber production, wildlife habitat, and aesthetics. Diameter distributions are characteristically stratified by species...

  7. FORS am Very Large Telescope der Europäischen Südsternwarte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    unterschiedlicher spektraler Auflösung von einzelnen oder mehreren Objekten aufgenommen werden. Dabei erlaubt der schnelle Wechsel zwischen den unterschiedlichen Beobachtungsarten z.B. zunächst die Aufnahme und direkt anschließend die Spektroskopie weit entfernter Galaxien. Damit kann dann u.a. die stellare Zusammensetzung und die Entfernung bestimmt werden. Als eines der leistungsfähigsten astronomischen Instrumente seiner Art wird FORS1 ein wahres Arbeitspferd für die Untersuchung des fernen Universums darstellen. Der Bau von FORS Das FORS-Projekt wird unter ESO-Kontrakt von einem Konsortium dreier deutscher astronomischer Institute durchgeführt, der Landessternwarte Heidelberg und den Universitäts-Sternwarten von Göttingen and München. Bis zur Beendigung des Projekts werden die beteiligten Institute Arbeit im Umfang von ca. 180 Mann-Jahren eingebracht haben. Bei der Landessternwarte Heidelberg lag die Leitung des Projekts. Hier wurde außerdem das gesamte optische System konstruiert, die Beschaffung der Komponenten der abbildenden Optik und der Zusatzoptiken für Spektroskopie und Polarimetrie durchgeführt und die spezielle Computersoftware geschrieben, mit der die von FORS gelieferten Daten verarbeitet und ausgewertet werden. Darüber hinaus wurde in der Werkstatt der Sternwarte ein Teleskopsimulator gebaut, mit dem alle wesentlichen Funktionen von FORS in Europa getestet werden konnten, bevor das Instrument zum Paranal (Chile) transportiert wurde. An der Universitäts-Sternwarte Göttingen wurden Konstruktion, Herstellung und Zusammenbau der gesamten Mechanik von FORS durchgeführt. Der größte Teil der Präzisionsteile, insbesondere der Multispalteinheit, wurde in der feinmechanischen Werkstatt der Sternwarte hergestellt. Die Beschaffung der großen Instrumentengehäuse und Flansche, die Computeranalysen für mechanische und thermische Stabilität des empfindlichen Spektrographen und die Herstellung der speziellen Werkzeuge für Handhabung, Wartung und Justierung

  8. Projecting a Stand Table Through Time

    Treesearch

    Quang V. Cao; V. Clark Baldwin

    1999-01-01

    Stand tables provide number of trees per acre for each diameter class. This paper presents a general technique to predict a future stand table, based on the current stand table and future stand summary statistics such as trees and basal area per acre, and average diameter. The stand projection technique involves (a) predicting surviving trees for each class, and (b)...

  9. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  10. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A structural steel beam to support the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center is lifted to waiting employees for installation. The beam is part of the thrust takeout structure needed to support the new measurement system. Four such beams have been installed at the stand in preparation for installation of the system in upcoming weeks. Operators are preparing the stand for testing the next generation of rocket engines for the U.S. space program.

  11. Sterblichkeit: der paradoxe Kunstgriff des Lebens - Eine Betrachtung vor dem Hintergrund der modernen Biologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeek, Bernhard

    Leben gibt es auf der Erde seit fast 4 Mio. Jahren, trotz allen Katastrophen. Die Idee des Lebens scheint unsterblich. Der Tod aber offenbar auch. Jedes Lebewesen ist davon bedroht, ja für Menschen und andere "höhere“ Lebewesen ist er im Lebensprogramm eingebaut - todsicher. Diese Tatsache ist alles andere als selbstverständlich. Ist sie überhaupt kompatibel mit dem Prinzip der Evolution, nach dem der am besten Angepasste überlebt?

  12. Wirkungen biogener Amine auf die Erregungs-Sekretions-Kopplung in der Speicheldrüse von Periplaneta americana (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Katja

    2003-07-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit habe ich wichtige Teilmechanismen der Erregungs-Sekretionskopplung in der Speicheldrüse der Schabe Periplaneta americana (L.) untersucht. Die Speicheldrüse ist von dopaminergen und serotonergen Fasern innerviert (Baumann et al., 2002). Beide Transmitter stimulieren eine unterschiedliche Reaktion der Drüse: Dopamin (DA) stimuliert die P-Zellen der Acini und die Ausführgangzellen, während Serotonin (5-HT) die P- und C-Zellen der Acini stimuliert, nicht jedoch die Ausführgangzellen. Der Endspeichel ist nach einer DA-Stimulierung proteinfrei. Dagegen enthält er nach einer 5-HT-Stimulierung Proteine, die von den C-Zellen sezerniert werden (Just & Walz, 1996). Im ersten Teil meiner Arbeit habe ich mittels Kapillarelektrophoretischer Analyse (CE-Analyse) die Elektrolytkonzentrationen im Endspeichel untersucht sowie die Raten der Flüssigkeitssekretion gemessen. Damit wollte ich klären, welche Transporter an der Sekretion des Primärspeichels und an dessen Modifikation beteiligt sind. Ausserdem wollte ich die Rolle der transportaktiven Epithelzellen der Ausführgänge für die Modifikation des Primärspeichels untersuchen. Dafür habe ich einen Vergleich der Elektrolytkonzentrationen im DA- und 5-HT-stimulierten Endspeichel durchgeführt. Der Elektrolytgehalt des DA- und 5-HT-stimulierten Endspeichels unterscheidet sich nicht signifikant voneinander. Er ist nach beiden Stimulierungen hypoosmotisch zum verwendeten Ringer. Die Ausführgangzellen werden durch DA stimuliert und modifizieren den Primärspeichel durch eine netto-Ionenreabsorption. Meine Versuche zeigen jedoch, dass auch die während einer 5-HT-Stimulierung der Drüse unstimulierten Ausführgangzellen den Primärspeichel modifizieren. In einer nachfolgenden Versuchsreihe habe ich den Einfluss von Ouabain, einem Hemmstoff der Na+-K+-ATPase, und Bumetanid, einem Hemmstoff des NKCC, auf die Raten der Flüssigkeitssekretion sowie den Elektrolytgehalt des Endspeichels untersucht. Ich

  13. Process Hood Stand Support Steel

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-04-03

    This package is written to comply with EN-6-035-00 for upgrade dedication of commercial grade items (CGI). The SNF-5953 CGI package provides the Technical evaluation to identify the critical characteristics and the acceptance criteria associated with the safety function of the Hood Stand Support Steel. Completion of the technical and quality requirements identified in the dedication package will provide enough data to be reasonably assured that CGI Hood Stand Support Steel will perform its SC function.

  14. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  15. Interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ashish; Drüppel, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert; Deilmann, Thorsten; Schneider, Robert; Molas, Maciej R; Marauhn, Philipp; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Potemski, Marek; Rohlfing, Michael; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2017-09-21

    Bound electron-hole pairs called excitons govern the electronic and optical response of many organic and inorganic semiconductors. Excitons with spatially displaced wave functions of electrons and holes (interlayer excitons) are important for Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, dissipationless current flow, and the light-induced exciton spin Hall effect. Here we report on the discovery of interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor. They form due to strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers. By combining high-field magneto-reflectance experiments and ab initio calculations for 2H-MoTe 2 , we explain their salient features: the positive sign of the g-factor and the large diamagnetic shift. Our investigations solve the long-standing puzzle of positive g-factors in transition metal dichalcogenides, and pave the way for studying collective phenomena in these materials at elevated temperatures.Excitons, quasi-particles of bound electron-hole pairs, are at the core of the optoelectronic properties of layered transition metal dichalcogenides. Here, the authors unveil the presence of interlayer excitons in bulk van der Waals semiconductors, arising from strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers.

  16. Untersuchungen zum Vorkommen von Myxobakterien in von Meerwasser beeinflußten Substraten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Insel Helgoland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückert, G.

    1984-03-01

    Representatives of the family Myxococcaceae, Myxococcus fulvus and M. virescens as well as Archangium gephyra could be isolated from marine sediments (depth range 5 58 m), collected near the island of Helgoland (North Sea); dunes and rudiments of salt marshes additionally yielded M. coralloides and the rare species Melittangium licenicola and M. boletus (Cystobacteriaceae). In soil samples from the island, M. fulvus, M. virescens, M. coralloides, A. gephyra, Cystobacter fuscus and Stigmatella erecta were found. These results were confirmed by data, obtained from the coastal zone of the island of Amrum and marine sediments from various regions. On the other hand samples from shallow fresh water (depth range 0.3 1 m) proved to be richer in species. It is assumed that the myxobacteria found in marine sediments occur as resting cells.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: van der Woude syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency Van der Woude syndrome is believed to occur in 1 in 35,000 to 1 in 100,000 people, based on data from Europe and Asia. Van der Woude syndrome ...

  18. Heterologous Expression of Der Homologs in an Escherichia coli der Mutant and Their Functional Complementation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunsil; Kang, Nalae; Jeon, Young; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unique Escherichia coli GTPase Der (double Era-like GTPase), which contains tandemly repeated GTP-binding domains, has been shown to play an essential role in 50S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. The depletion of Der results in the accumulation of precursors of 50S ribosomal subunits that are structurally unstable at low Mg2+ concentrations. Der homologs are ubiquitously found in eubacteria. Conversely, very few are conserved in eukaryotes, and none is conserved in archaea. In the present study, to verify their conserved role in bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit biogenesis, we cloned Der homologs from two gammaproteobacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; two pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; and the extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans and then evaluated whether they could functionally complement the E. coli der-null phenotype. Only K. pneumoniae and S. Typhimurium Der proteins enabled the E. coli der-null strain to grow under nonpermissive conditions. Sucrose density gradient experiments revealed that the expression of K. pneumoniae and S. Typhimurium Der proteins rescued the structural instability of 50S ribosomal subunits, which was caused by E. coli Der depletion. To determine what allows their complementation, we constructed Der chimeras. We found that only Der chimeras harboring both the linker and long C-terminal regions could reverse the growth defects of the der-null strain. Our findings suggest that ubiquitously conserved essential GTPase Der is involved in 50S ribosomal subunit biosynthesis in various bacteria and that the linker and C-terminal regions may participate in species-specific recognition or interaction with the 50S ribosomal subunit. IMPORTANCE In Escherichia coli, Der (double Era-like GTPase) is an essential GTPase that is important for the production of mature 50S ribosomal subunits. However, to date, its precise role in ribosome biogenesis has not been

  19. Stocking, growth, and yield of oak stands

    Treesearch

    Samuel F. Gingrich

    1971-01-01

    An appraisal of stocking in even-aged upland oak stands is a prerequisite for determining the cultural needs of a given stand. Most oak stands have sufficient stocking to utilize the site, but are deficient in high-quality trees. Thinning such stands offers a good opportunity to upgrade the relative quality of the growing stock and enhance the growth and yield...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6990 - Infusion stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infusion stand. 880.6990 Section 880.6990 Food and....6990 Infusion stand. (a) Identification. The infusion stand is a stationary or movable stand intended to hold infusion liquids, infusion accessories, and other medical devices. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 880.6990 - Infusion stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion stand. 880.6990 Section 880.6990 Food and....6990 Infusion stand. (a) Identification. The infusion stand is a stationary or movable stand intended to hold infusion liquids, infusion accessories, and other medical devices. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. User's Guide to the Stand Prognosis Model

    Treesearch

    William R. Wykoff; Nicholas L. Crookston; Albert R. Stage

    1982-01-01

    The Stand Prognosis Model is a computer program that projects the development of forest stands in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Thinning options allow for simulation of a variety of management strategies. Input consists of a stand inventory, including sample tree records, and a set of option selection instructions. Output includes data normally found in stand, stock,...

  3. Students dance longitudinal standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    A demonstration is presented that involves students dancing longitudinal standing waves. The resulting kinaesthetic experience and visualization both contribute towards an understanding of the natural modes of vibrations in open and closed pipes. A video of this fun classroom activity is provided (http://mjtruiz.com/ped/dance/).

  4. Ergonomics and the standing desk.

    PubMed

    Mula, Allison

    2018-05-28

    There has been a recent trend in the integration of sit-stand option desks in the work place. Fear-based advertising insinuating that sitting is the health equivalent of smoking has pervaded many work environments. As workers want to remain healthy and pain free, and employers want and need a healthy workforce, it appears that there is a pervasive trend of avoiding sitting as often as possible. Because work tasks that call for an extensive amount of sitting are often times computer-based, this 'standing is healthy' fad is most notably presenting itself at computer-based work stations. The understandably perceived simple fix to the dilemma of sitting, has been the introduction of the sit-stand desk. However, before we all throw out our chairs, it is important to discuss the past and recent research that indicates that prolonged standing can also have detrimental effects on the human system. It is crucial that we expand our idea of a healthy work environment to one that facilitates movement and change in position and empowers the worker to understand their role in their own musculoskeletal and physiological health and wellness, beyond the use of equipment. If we can replace the phrase, 'sitting is the new smoking' with the phrase, 'sedentary is the new smoking', then we can elucidate the idea of what a healthy computer-based work environment and routine would be.

  5. A3 TEST STAND CONSTRUCTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    THIS IMAGE SHOWS THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE A3 TEST STAND IN SUPPORT OF THE ARES/CLV UPPER STAGE ENGINE AT STENNIS SPACE CENTER, MISSISSIPPI. THIS IMAGE IS EXTRACTED FROM A HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO FILE AND IS THE HIGHEST RESOLUTION AVAILABLE.

  6. Prognosis model for stand development

    Treesearch

    Albert R. Stage

    1973-01-01

    Describes a set of computer programs for developing prognoses of the development of existing stand under alternative regimes of management. Calibration techniques, modeling procedures, and a procedure for including stochastic variation are described. Implementation of the system for lodgepole pine, including assessment of losses attributed to an infestation of mountain...

  7. Crown management and stand density

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Dean; V. Clark Baldwin

    1996-01-01

    Determination of optimal stand-density continues to be a difficult problem. A trial cannot be established on every combination of soils, topography, and climate possible across the range of a widely distributed species such as loblolly pine, and continual advancements in nutrition and vegetation management, breeding, and utilization make established trials obsolete....

  8. Symmetriebrechung und Emergenz in der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, K.

    Seit der Antike wird der Aufbau des Universums mit einfachen und regulären (symmetrischen) Grundstrukturen verbunden. Diese Annahme liegt selbst noch den Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie zugrunde. Demgegenüber läßt sich die Emergenz neuer Strukturen von den Elementarteilchen über Moleküle bis zu den komplexen Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Symmetriebrechung und strukturelle Komplexität bestimmen die kosmische Evolution. Damit zeichnet sich ein fachübergreifendes Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie und Biologie ab, in dem die Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.

  9. Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in standing bulls

    PubMed Central

    KANEKO, Yasuyuki; TORISU, Shidow; KITAHARA, Go; HIDAKA, Yuichi; SATOH, Hiroyuki; ASANUMA, Taketoshi; MIZUTANI, Shinya; OSAWA, Takeshi; NAGANOBU, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy without insufflation was applied in 10 standing bulls aged 3 to 15 months. Nine bulls were preoperatively pointed out intra-abdominal testes by computed tomography. Preoperative fasting for a minimum of 24 hr provided laparoscopic visualization of intra-abdominal area from the kidney to the inguinal region. Surgical procedure was interrupted by intra-abdominal fat and testis size. It took 0.6 to 1.5 hr in 4 animals weighing 98 to 139 kg, 0.8 to 2.8 hr in 4 animals weighing 170 to 187 kg, and 3 and 4 hr in 2 animals weighing 244 and 300 kg to complete the cryptorchidectomy. In conclusion, standing gasless laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy seems to be most suitable for bulls weighing from 100 to 180 kg. PMID:25715955

  10. "Land der Berge, Land der Seen": Zum Oesterreichbild in amerikanischen Deutsch-Lehrbuechern ("Land of Mountains, Land of Lakes": On the Picture of Austria Presented by German Textbooks in the USA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppensteiner, Juergen

    1978-01-01

    Nearly all German textbooks currently used in the USA either entirely fail to mention Austria, or else portray it by means of myths, cliches (Apfelstrudel, Sachertorte, Gemuetlichkeit), and often with outright untruths. The American student gets a picture of Austria as an "underdeveloped Disneyland of Europe". (WGA)

  11. 21 CFR 203.35 - Standing requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Samples § 203.35 Standing requests. Manufacturers or authorized distributors of... subsequent oral communication or electronic transmission, is not considered to be a standing request. ...

  12. A-3 Test Stand work continues

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-22

    Stennis Space Center employees continue work on the A-3 Test Stand test cell. The stand is being built to test next-generation rocket engines that could carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit into deep space.

  13. Estimating growth and yield of mixed stands

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Burnell C. Fischer

    1989-01-01

    A mixed stand is defined as one in which no single species comprises more than 80 percent of the stocking. The growth estimation methods described below can be used not only in mixed stands but in almost any stand, regardless of species composition, age structure, or size structure. The methods described are necessary to accommodate the complex species mixtures and...

  14. Response of sapling stands to cultural treatments

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith

    1989-01-01

    The main reasons for precommercial cultural practices in sapling stands (trees less than 5 inches d.b.h.) are to increase growth of residual trees, increase stand value, and improve or maintain species composition. On good sites (northern red oak site index 70 and above), treating sapling stands may be justified by increased diameter growth of high value species. On...

  15. Enhancing wildlife habitat when regenerating stands

    Treesearch

    Frank R., III Thompson

    1989-01-01

    Forest regeneration cuttings affect wildlife habitat more drastically than most forest management practices because a mature forest stand is replaced by a young sapling stand. Regeneration cuttings quickly provide habitat for many wildlife species but they also influence wildlife use of the new stand and adjacent areas throughout the rotation. Retaining snags, cavity...

  16. Red alder stand development and dynamics.

    Treesearch

    R.L. Deal

    2006-01-01

    This paper synthesizes information on the development of natural pure red alder stands and dynamics of mixed alder-conifer stands. Early research on red alder growth and yield focused on developing stand volume and normal yield. tables for alder in the Pacific Northwest. Recent site-index estimation and height-growth curves were developed on a 20-year site base age....

  17. Stand hazard rating for central Idaho forests

    Treesearch

    Robert Steele; Ralph E. Williams; Julie C. Weatherby; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; James T. Hoffman; R. W. Thier

    1996-01-01

    Growing concern over sustainability of central ldaho forests has created a need to assess the health of forest stands on a relative basis. A stand hazard rating was developed as a composite of 11 individual ratings to compare the health hazards of different stands. The composite rating includes Douglas-fir beetle, mountain pine beetle, western pine beetle, spruce...

  18. Silvicultural systems for harvesting mixed hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Ivan L. Sander

    1989-01-01

    Mixed stands that include oaks, yellow-poplar, black cherry, maples, white ash, basswood, birches, American beech, and other species are commonly found in the central hardwood forest. Depending on site quality and past stand treatment, overstory composition may range from nearly pure stands of oak or yellow-poplar to mixtures of 20 or more species.

  19. 24 CFR 206.37 - Credit standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.37 Credit standing. Each mortgagor must have a general credit standing satisfactory to the Secretary. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit standing. 206.37 Section 206...

  20. Response to van der Meer.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Gail V; Barnes, David K A; Morley, Simon A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2017-12-18

    In our recent Current Biology paper [1], we describe an ocean warming experiment in which we manipulated the temperature of panels set on the seafloor to provide a realistic and relevant indication of how benthic communities may change under future ocean warming. We describe increases in growth associated with warming by 1°C, with growth rates up to doubled in some species. The definition of Q 10 is a measure of the temperature sensitivity of an enzymatic reaction rate or a physiological process due to an increase by 10°C; doubling of growth rates with a 1°C change gives Q 10 s around 1,000. In his correspondence, Jaap van der Meer [2] questions our methods and provides alternative analyses which lead him to conclude that our observed increases in growth rate were in fact much lower and in accordance with previous studies from temperate zones. We provide justification for our use of absolute growth rate, justification for not using instantaneous growth rate (or a measure of growth in proportion to previous growth) and encourage the on-going discussion of how to measure and compare growth rates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Wie wissenschaftlich ist der Evolutionsgedanke?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    Darwin war ein besonnener Mann; alles Aufsehen war ihm zuwider. Trotzdem hat er eine Revolution ausgelöst, deren Wirkung nicht auf die Biologie beschränkt blieb. Seine Theorie lässt sich in fünf Teiltheorien zerlegen, die sich durch die Begriffe Artenwandel, Verwandtschaft alles Lebendigen und gemeinsamer Ursprung, Artenaufspaltung und Artenvielfalt, Gradualismus, natürliche Auslese charakterisieren lassen. Dadurch wurden mehrere religiöse und weitere weltanschauliche Überzeugungen in Frage gestellt. Deshalb wird die Evolutionstheorie auch heute noch vielfach kritisiert, ja bekämpft. Die Vorwürfe lassen sich ordnen nach den Kriterien, mit denen wir erfahrungswissenschaftliche Theorien beurteilen. Haltbar ist daran nur, dass es für die Evolutionstheorie zwar beliebig viele Bestätigungen gibt, aber nur wenige Widerlegungsmöglichkeiten. Durch die neuerdings entwickelten und durchgeführten Evolutionsexperimente ist die empirische Situation allerdings deutlich besser geworden. Am (erfahrungs)wissenschaftlichen Charakter der Evolutionstheorie besteht deshalb kein Zweifel.

  2. Van der Waals Epitaxy of Functional Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying-Hao

    In the diligent pursuit of low-power consumption, multifunctional, and environmentally friendly electronics, more sophisticated requirements on functional materials are on demand. Recently, the discovery of 2D layered materials has created a revolution to this field. Pioneered by graphene, these new 2D materials exhibit abundant unusual physical phenomena that is undiscovered in bulk forms. These materials are characterized with their layer form and almost pure 2D electronic behavior. The confinement of charge and heat transport at such ultrathin planes offers possibilities to overcome the bottleneck of present device development in thickness limitation, and thus push the technologies into next generation. Van der Waals epitaxy, an epitaxial growth method to combine 2D and 3D materials, is one of current reliable manufacturing processes to fabricate 2D materials by growing these 2D materials epitaxially on 3D materials. Then, transferring the 2D materials to the substrates for practical applications. In the mean time, van der Waals epitaxy has also been used to create free-standing 3D materials by growing 3D materials on 2D materials and then removing them from 2D materials since the interfacial boding between 2D and 3D materials should be weak van der Waals bonds. In this study, we intend to take the same concept, but to integrate a family of functional materials in order to open new avenue to flexible electronics. Due to the interplay of lattice, charge, orbital, and spin degrees of freedom, correlated electrons in oxides generate a rich spectrum of competing phases and physical properties. Recently, lots of studies have suggested that oxide heterostructures provide a powerful route to create and manipulate the degrees of freedom and offer new possibilities for next generation devices, thus create a new playground for researchers to investigate novel physics and the emergence of fascinating states of condensed matter. In this talk, we use a 2D layered material as

  3. SETs: stand evaluation tools: I. an individual-tree approach to making stand evaluations

    Treesearch

    Paul S. DeBald; Joseph J. Mendel

    1976-01-01

    The authors outline a stand-evaluation method that stresses individuality by (1) making on-the-ground projections of individual tree development; (2) summarizing stand values in terms of the individual trees in the stand and their potential development; and (3) tailoring several management possibilities to an individual stand so the owner can choose among them.

  4. The interactive impact of forest site and stand attributes and logging technology on stand management

    Treesearch

    C.B. LeDoux; J.E. Baumgras

    1991-01-01

    The impact of selected site and stand attributes on stand management is demonstrated using actual forest model plot data and a complete systems simulation model called MANAGE. The influence of terrain on the type of logging technology required to log a stand and the resulting impact on stand management is also illustrated. The results can be used by managers and...

  5. Free-standing epitaxial graphene.

    PubMed

    Shivaraman, Shriram; Barton, Robert A; Yu, Xun; Alden, Jonathan; Herman, Lihong; Chandrashekhar, Mvs; Park, Jiwoong; McEuen, Paul L; Parpia, Jeevak M; Craighead, Harold G; Spencer, Michael G

    2009-09-01

    We report on a method to produce free-standing graphene sheets from epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. Doubly clamped nanomechanical resonators with lengths up to 20 microm were patterned using this technique and their resonant motion was actuated and detected optically. Resonance frequencies of the order of tens of megahertz were measured for most devices, indicating that the resonators are much stiffer than expected for beams under no tension. Raman spectroscopy suggests that the graphene is not chemically modified during the release of the devices, demonstrating that the technique is a robust means of fabricating large-area suspended graphene structures.

  6. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    PubMed

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consistent definition and application of Reineke's Stand Density Index in silviculture and stand projection

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw; James N. Long

    2010-01-01

    Reineke’s Stand Density Index (SDI) has been available to silviculturists for over 75 years, but application of this stand metric has been inconsistent. Originally described as a measurement of relative density in single-species, even-aged stands, it has since been generalized for use in uneven-aged stands and mixed-species stands. However, methods used to establish...

  8. The effects of van der Waals attractions on cloud droplet growth by coalescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan R.; Davis, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    The inclusion of van der Waals attractions in the interaction between cloud droplets has been recently shown to significantly increase the collision efficiencies of the smaller droplets. In the current work, these larger values for the collision efficiencies are used in a population dynamics model of the droplet size distribution evolution with time, in hopes of at least partially resolving the long-standing paradox in cloud microphysics that predicted rates of the onset of precipitation are generally much lower than those which are observed. Evolutions of several initial cloud droplet spectra have been tracked in time. Size evolutions are compared as predicted from the use of collision efficiencies computed using two different models to allow for droplet-droplet contact: one which considers slip flow effects only, and one which considers the combined effects of van der Waals forces and slip flow. The rate at which the droplet mass density function shifts to larger droplet sizes is increased by typically 20-25 percent, when collision efficiencies which include van der Waals forces are used.

  9. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  10. GENERAL VIEW OF SITE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. JUPITER 'HOP' STAND, FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SITE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. JUPITER 'HOP' STAND, FOREGROUND CENTER, REDSTONE TEST STAND FOREGROUND RIGHT, SATURN I C TEST STAND BACKGROUND LEFT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. Grundlagen der Nachrichtenübertragung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Die Nachrichtentechnik hat die Aufgabe, Nachrichten auszutauschen. Nachrichten sind z. B. Fragen, Beobachtungen und Befehle. Unter dem Begriff Nachrichtenübertragung wird hier die elektrische Nachrichtenübertragung verstanden, denn zur Übermittlung von Nachrichten werden Spannungen und Ströme sowie elektrische und magnetische Felder eingesetzt. Die Übertragung beginnt mit der Nachrichtenquelle, die die Nachrichten aussendet, und endet mit der Nachrichtensenke, die sie empfängt. Zwischen beiden liegt das elektrische Nachrichtenübertragungssystem, dessen Funktionseinheiten dargestellt sind und erläutert werden.

  12. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  13. Predicting the past: a simple reverse stand table projection method

    Treesearch

    Quang V. Cao; Shanna M. McCarty

    2006-01-01

    A stand table gives number of trees in each diameter class. Future stand tables can be predicted from current stand tables using a stand table projection method. In the simplest form of this method, a future stand table can be expressed as the product of a matrix of transitional proportions (based on diameter growth rates) and a vector of the current stand table. There...

  14. A-2 Test Stand modification work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-27

    John C. Stennis Space Center employees install a new master interface tool on the A-2 Test Stand on Oct. 27, 2010. Until July 2009, the stand had been used for testing space shuttle main engines. With that test series complete, employees are preparing the stand for testing the next-generation J-2X rocket engine being developed. Testing of the new engine is scheduled to begin in 2011.

  15. The Forced van der Pol Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of the forced van der Pol equation x + [epsilon](x[superscript 2] - 1)x + x = F cos[omega]t, by solving numerically the differential equation for a variety of values of the parameters [epsilon], F and [omega]. In doing so, many striking and interesting trajectories can be discovered and phenomena such as frequency entrainment,…

  16. Chancen und Visionen Der Modernen Mechanik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Wolfgang; Wriggers, Peter

    Die Gesellschaft des 21. Jahrhunderts wird ihre Anforderungen an Lebensqualität und Umweltstandards stetig erhöhen. Dies betrifft auch die Anforderungen an Qualität und Vorhersagegenauigkeit bei der Berechnung komplexer Probleme und umfasst insbesondere das Gesamtdesign von Produkten unserer unmittelbaren Umgebung wie Architektur- und Ingenieurbauwerken, aber auch von Industrieprodukten, die wir in unseremtäglichen Leben einsetzen.

  17. Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Zhao, Changhong

    2017-03-03

    Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droopmore » slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.« less

  18. Reineke’s stand density index: a quantitative and non-unitless measure of stand density

    Treesearch

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2013-01-01

    When used as a measure of relative density, Reineke’s stand density index (SDI) can be made unitless by relating the current SDI to a standard density but when used as a quantitative measure of stand density SDI is not unitless. Reineke’s SDI relates the current stand density to an equivalent number of trees per unit area in a stand with a quadratic mean diameter (Dq)...

  19. 20 CFR 368.4 - Concession stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concession stands. 368.4 Section 368.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.4 Concession stands. Tobacco products may be sold on property occupied and...

  20. 20 CFR 368.4 - Concession stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Concession stands. 368.4 Section 368.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.4 Concession stands. Tobacco products may be sold on property occupied and...

  1. 20 CFR 368.4 - Concession stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concession stands. 368.4 Section 368.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.4 Concession stands. Tobacco products may be sold on property occupied and...

  2. 20 CFR 368.4 - Concession stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Concession stands. 368.4 Section 368.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.4 Concession stands. Tobacco products may be sold on property occupied and...

  3. 20 CFR 368.4 - Concession stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concession stands. 368.4 Section 368.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.4 Concession stands. Tobacco products may be sold on property occupied and...

  4. 21 CFR 203.35 - Standing requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standing requests. 203.35 Section 203.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... subsequent oral communication or electronic transmission, is not considered to be a standing request. ...

  5. Design Difficulties in Stand Density Studies

    Treesearch

    Frank A. Bennett

    1969-01-01

    Designing unbiased stand density studies is difficult. An acceptable sample requires stratification of the plots of age, site, and density. When basal area, percent stocking, or Reineke's stand density index is used as the density measure, this stratification forces a high negative correlation between site and number of trees per acre. Mortality in trees per acre...

  6. Silvicultural rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands

    Treesearch

    Laura S. Kenefic; Mohammad Bataineh; Jeremy S. Wilson; John C. Brissette; Ralph D. Nyland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated rehabilitation of mixedwood stands degraded by exploitative cutting on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine. Three precommercial rehabilitation treatments were applied: control (no rehabilitation), moderate rehabilitation (crop tree release [CTR]), and intensive rehabilitation (CTR, timber stand improvement [TSI], and red spruce fill planting)....

  7. Proceedings: guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Arlyn W. Perkey; William E. Kidd

    1988-01-01

    This proceedings will provide field foresters and landowners with an update of current available information for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We wanted a "state-of-the-art" proceedings for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We asked the authors to make recommendations based on the current literature, their knowledge, and experience. Though...

  8. Stand Table Construction from Relascope Plots.

    Treesearch

    Charles B. Briscoe

    1957-01-01

    When timber is cruised using relascope, basal area and volume figures are obtained without constructing a stand table, through the use of appropriate conversion factors. Although this saving in time is very desirable for most inventories, certain management purposes require stand tables.

  9. Thinning sweetgum stands in southern New Jersey

    Treesearch

    H. B. Tepper; G. T. Bamford

    1960-01-01

    In the past 40 years, many poorly drained fields and pastures in southern New Jersey have been abandoned; and on some of them even-aged stands of sweetgum have developed. These stands seem to lend themselves well to management because (1) they are accessible, (2) sweetgum is an economically desirable species, and (3) the individual stems are well formed, with good...

  10. Optimum stand prescriptions for ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    David W. Hann; J. Douglas Brodie; Kurt H. Riitters

    1983-01-01

    Two examples for a northern Arizona ponderosa pine stand illustrate the usefulness of dynamic programming in making silvicultural decisions. The first example analyzes the optimal planting density for bare land, while the second examines the optimal precommercial thinning intensity for a 43-year-old stand. Bot hexamples assume that the manager's primary objective...

  11. Predicting the Probability of Stand Disturbance

    Treesearch

    Gregory A. Reams; Joseph M. McCollum

    1999-01-01

    Forest managers are often interested in identifying and scheduling future stand treatment opportunities. One of the greatest management opportunities is presented following major stand level disturbances that result from natural or anthropogenic forces. Remeasurement data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) permanent plot system are used to fit a set of...

  12. Stocking, growth, and yield of birch stands

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; William B. Leak

    1969-01-01

    Intensive forest management depends heavily upon our ability to measure, control, and predict the growth, yield, or general development of timber stands, regardless of whether the management goal is for timber, aesthetics, recreation, water, or wildlife. A large amount of mensurational data about birch stands has been developed in recent years or synthesized from...

  13. Applying stand replacement prescribed fires in Alaska

    Treesearch

    Larry A. Vanderlinden

    1996-01-01

    Stand replacement prescribed burning has been applied in Alaska on several occasions. Based on that experience, perspectives can be provided, issues can be discussed, and keys to success can be identified that are applicable to stand replacement prescribed burning activities in areas outside Alaska.

  14. Rating forest stands for gypsy moth defoliation

    Treesearch

    Owen W. Herrick; David A. Gansner; David A. Gansner

    1986-01-01

    The severity of future defoliation can be estimated from the percentages of basal area in oaks (Quercus), black oak (Q. velutina) and chestnut oak (a prinus), and in trees with good crowns, along with the average diameter of the stand. With information on these variables, the defoliation potential of any hardwood forest stand in an approaching gypsy moth (Lymantria...

  15. Structure of Pine Stands in the Southeast

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Gregory A. Ruark

    1988-01-01

    Distributional and statistical information associated with stand age, site index, basal area per acre, number of stems per acre, and stand density index is reported for major pine cover types of the Southeastern United States. Means, standard deviations, and ranges of these variables are listed by State and physiographic region for loblolly, slash, longleaf, pond,...

  16. Stand development and silviculture in bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. Steven Meadows

    1993-01-01

    Silviculture for the production of high-quality timber in southern bottomland hardwood forests involves the application of environmentally sound practices in order to enhance the growth and quality of both individual trees and stands. To accomplish this purpose, silvicultural practices are typically used to regulate stand density, species composition, and stem quality...

  17. Evaluating growth performance of young stands

    Treesearch

    A. L. Roe; R. E. Benson

    1966-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the diameter growth of young stands in relation to potential growth is described. A comparison technique is developed which contrasts relative diameter of crop trees to the relative diameter growth of the last decade to show the condition and trend of growth in the stand. The method is objective, easy to use, and has several...

  18. How long do ponderosa pine snags stand?

    Treesearch

    Walter G. Dahms

    1949-01-01

    How long will the average ponderosa pine snag remain standing and thus contribute to greater rate of spread and resistance to control of forest fires? Are there any readily discernible characteristics that will enable us to predict which will fall soon and which will stand for a long time?

  19. School Furniture Dimensions: Standing and Reaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    Performance of school children in regard to their standing and reach postures are described with dimensions given on the limits of their performance only. The facts of task performances are presented for the following tasks--(1) seeing into a shelf, (2) reaching into a shelf, (3) drawing on a vertical surface, (4) sitting or standing while…

  20. Seed Production in Southern Appalachian Oak Stands

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck; David F. Olson

    1968-01-01

    Acorn production in mixed oak stands of different densities varied considerably among stands, years, and species. Density had no effect on total acorn production. Although numerous acorns were initiated each year, the majority either failed to develop fully or were damaged by insects and animals.

  1. Stand-density study of spruce-hemlock stands in southeastern Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Donald J. DeMars

    2000-01-01

    The lack of growth and yield information for young even-aged western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla(Raf.) Sarg.)-Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) stands in southeastern Alaska served as the impetus for a long-term stand-density study begun in 1974. The study has followed permanent growth plots in managed stands under...

  2. Changing stand structure and regional growth reductions in Georgia's natural pine stands

    Treesearch

    W.A. Bechtold; G.A. Ruark; F.T. Lloyd

    1991-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data indicate reductions in the growth of naturally regenerated pines in Georgia between the two latest measurement periods (1961-1972 vs. 1972-1982). Analysis of Covariance was used to adjust stand-level basal area growth rates for differences between periods in stand age, stand density, site index, mortality, and hardwood...

  3. Determining maximum stand density index in mixed species stands for strategic-scale stocking assessments

    Treesearch

    Chris W. Woodall; Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage

    2005-01-01

    Stand density index (SDI), although developed for use in even-aged monocultures, has been used for assessing stand density in large-scale forest inventories containing diverse tree species and size distributions. To improve application of SDI in unevenaged, mixed species stands present in large-scale forest inventories, trends in maximum SDI across diameter classes...

  4. Development of a stand density index equation for slash pine stands

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Doruska

    2002-01-01

    Stand density index (SDI) is commonly used as the basis for density management guides for even-aged forest stands. Many tree species follow the same self-thinning trajectory, allowing for the use of stand density index in such guides. Slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englem.) has been shown to depart from the self-thinning trajectory exhibited by other...

  5. 9. WEST SIDE, TEST STAND AND SUPERSTRUCTURE. TEST STAND 1B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST SIDE, TEST STAND AND SUPERSTRUCTURE. TEST STAND 1-B IN DISTANCE. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Reducing stand densities in immature and mature stands, Applegate Watershed, Southwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Marty L. Main; Michael P. Amaranthus

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Throughout the Applegate watershed, dense, overstocked, immature stands of mixed conifers and hardwoods and declining stands of mature conifers present significant and complex silvicultural problems. Stand stagnation is common, as is loss of large-diameter conifers from insects and wildfire. Treatments designed to maintain or encourage development of large-...

  7. Transplantate und Implantate im Mittelohrbereich - Teil 1 (Stand 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Hans-Georg; Lenarz, Thomas; Eckert, Karl-Ludwig

    In Deutschland leben ungefähr 12 Millionen Menschen, die an einer ein- oder beidseitigen Schwerhörigkeit leiden. Diese kann angeboren oder im Laufe des Lebens erworben sein. Klinisch und therapeutisch wichtig ist die Unterscheidung, ob die Ursache der Schwerhörigkeit im Bereich des Mittelohres, d. h. der Schallübertragung, oder im Bereich des Innenohres, der Hörnerven und der zentralen Hörbahnabschnitte, d. h. der Schallempfindung, liegt. 2,5 Millionen Schwerhörige haben dabei das Problem der Schallübertragung, d.h. die Störung liegt im Mittelohrbereich, und hier kann man in der Regel mit operativen, mikrochirurgisch durchgeführten Massnahmen helfen [1, 2]. Im Vordergrund steht als Ursache hier die chronische Mittelohrentzündung, die sich als Perforation des Trommelfells, als Defekt oder Unterbrechung der Gehörknöchelchen oder auch als Cholesteatom, einer sogenannte Knocheneiterung äussern kann [3]. Therapeutisch und damit als Prinzip der operativen Hörverbesserung steht primär der Verschluss des Trommelfells oder eine Rekonstruktion der Gehörknöchelchen an.

  8. [Berufliche rehabilitation in der jugendpsychiatrie.].

    PubMed

    Spiel, Georg; Petscharnig, Joachim

    2004-12-01

    Vocational integration is an important developmental task that must be mastered if an adolescent is to function successfully in adult society. Moreover adolescence is a period of transition and rapid change, influenced by biological, psychological and social interactions. Not only adolescents with manifest psychiatric disorders, but also those with a combination of different symptoms which don't meet the requirements of a stable diagnosis, need context-sensitive support. In 1996 the youth-specific activities of pro mente Kärnten (an association offering different support to people with mental disorders) became a stand-alone association, dedicated to the special-needs of children's and adolescent's mental and social health. In the field of vocational rehabilitation, pro mente Jugend started with a 6-month (since 2001 12-month) prevocational training (Works) for 18 participants, financed by the Bundessozialamt and targeting a vocational integration after the course. This program proved helpful for adolescents with moderate handicaps and learning disabilities, whereas clients with severe mental disorders (e.g. psychosis and affective disorders) couldn't be supported adequately within 6 nor within 12 months. These people have shown the poorest vocational outcome. Therefore, rapid vocational integration is not a realistic aim for all clients. According to our experience, pro mente jugend makes efforts to develop and provide different out-patient services, bridging the broad transition from hospital based programs to the first labour market - corresponding to the special needs of the clients. At each level, different outcomes are targeted: there are day-care, work therapy and social participation, as well as prevocational training, apprenticeship, integration or transition employment. One of this modules already exists and offers apprenticeship to disadvantaged adolescents. A day-care center for clients with psychotic and affective disorders is being planned currently

  9. Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris - Eine Fallserie mit neun Patienten.

    PubMed

    Buder, Valeska; Herberger, Katharina; Jacobi, Arnd; Augustin, Matthias; Radtke, Marc Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Die Pustulosis palmoplantaris ist eine chronisch entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die mit bedeutenden Einschränkungen der Lebensqualität und der Belastbarkeit einhergeht. Aufgrund von Zulassungsbeschränkungen und einem häufig therapierefraktären Verlauf sind die Behandlungsmöglichkeiten limitiert. Nach zuvor frustranen Therapien erhielten 9 Patienten mit Pustulosis palmoplantaris nach Ausschluss einer latenten Tuberkulose Ustekinumab (45 mg Ustekinumab bei < 100 kg Körpergewicht [KG], 90 mg Ustekinumab > 100 kg KG) in Woche 0, 4, 12 und 24. Reguläre Visiten erfolgten nach 4 und 12 Wochen, im weiteren Verlauf alle 12 Wochen. Das Durchschnittsalter bei Therapiebeginn betrug 48 Jahre. Drei Patienten waren männlich. Bei n  =  4 Patienten (44,4 %) wurde eine Verbesserung um 75 % des Palmoplantar-Psoriasis-Area-Severity-Index (PPPASI) erreicht. Insgesamt verbesserte sich der PPPASI nach 24 Wochen durchschnittlich um 71,6 %. Eine komplette Abheilung zeigte sich bei n  =  2 Patienten nach 24 Wochen. Bis auf lokale Injektionsreaktionen und leichte Infekte wurden keine unerwünschten Wirkungen beobachtet. Die Fallserie ist ein weiterer Beleg für die Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit von Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris. Zur Beurteilung der Langzeitwirkung und -sicherheit sowie der Wirksamkeit einer intermittierenden Therapie sind kontrollierte Studiendaten sowie Beobachtungen im Rahmen von Patientenregistern notwendig. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. On spectra of Lüders operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Gabriel

    2008-02-01

    We show that all the eigenvalues of certain generalized Lüders operations are non-negative real numbers in two cases of interest. In particular, given a commuting n-tuple A =(A1,…,An) consisting of positive operators on a Hilbert space H, satisfying ∑j =1nAj=I, we show that the spectrum of the Lüders operation: ΛA:B(H)∋X↦∑j =1nAj1/2XAj1/2∈B(H) is contained in [0,∞), so the only solution of the equation ΛA(X)=I-X is the "expected" one: X =1/2I.

  11. Geometrothermodynamics of Van der Waals black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yumin; Chen, Juhua; Wang, Yongjiu

    2017-12-01

    We study the geometrothermodynamics of a special asymptotically AdS black hole, i.e. Van der Waals ( VdW) black hole, in the extended phase space where the negative cosmological constant Λ can be regarded as thermodynamic pressure. Analysing some special conditions of this black hole with geometrothermodynamical method, we find a good correlation with ordinary cases according to the state equation.

  12. Dynamics of dense direct-seeded stands of southern pines

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz

    2006-01-01

    Direct seeding of southern pines is an effective method of artificial regeneration, producing extremely dense stands when survival exceeds expectations. Long-term studies of dense direct-seeded stands provide ideal data for exploring development of stands as they approach the limit of maximum stand density. I present data from seven studies with ages of stands ranging...

  13. Forest Stands Selected by Foraging Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; Richard F. Harlow

    1986-01-01

    Selection of forest stands by 18 clans of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers was studied in their year-round home ranges. The foraging use of 276 stands relative to their availability within the home ranges was compared to several stand characteristics. Selection among stands with similar characteristics was highly vairable and red-cockadeds foraged in stands with a...

  14. A-3 Test Stand construction moves forward

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    Work on the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center took a step forward in July with delivery of the first-stage steam ejector July 13. Stennis employees are shown preparing the ejector to be lifted into place on the test stand. When activated in 2012, the A-3 Test Stand will allow operators to test rocket engines at simulated altitudes of 100,000 feet, a critical feature for next-generation engines that will take humans beyond low-Earth orbit once more.

  15. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    PubMed

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mehr Mathematik Wagen in der Medizin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuflhard, Peter; Dössel, Olaf; Louis, Alfred K.; Zachow, Stefan

    In diesem Artikel wird an drei Erfolgsmodellen dargestellt, wie das Zusammenwirken von Mathematik und Medizin eine Entwicklung hin zu patientenspezifischen Modellen auf Basis moderner medizinischer Bildgebung angestoßen hat, die in naher Zukunft dynamisch weiter Raum greifen wird. Dabei existiert ein Gleichklang der Interessen von Medizin und Mathematik: Beide Disziplinen wollen die Resultate schnell und zuverlässig. Für die Klinik heißt dies, dass notwendige Rechnungen in möglichst kurzer Zeit, und zwar auf dem PC, ablaufen müssen und dass die Resultate so genau und belastbar sein müssen, dass medizinische Entscheidungen darauf aufbauen können. Für die Mathematik folgt daraus, dass höchste Anforderungen an die Effizienz der verwendeten Algorithmen und die darauf aufbauende Software in Numerik und Visualisierung zu stellen sind. Allerdings ist es noch ein weiter Weg, bis anatomische und medizinisch brauchbare funktionelle Modelle auch nur für die wichtigsten Körperteile und die häufigsten Krankheitsfälle verfügbar sein werden. Führende Universitätskliniken könnten, als Zentren einer interdisziplinären Kooperation von Medizinern, Ingenieuren und Mathematikern, eine Vorreiterrolle dabei übernehmen, mehr Mathematik in der Medizin zu wagen. Dies wäre zweifellos ein wichtiger Schritt in Richtung auf eine individuelle quantitative Medizin, bei dem Deutschland die besten Voraussetzungen hätte, die Rolle des "Schrittmachers“ zu übernehmen.

  17. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter.

    PubMed

    Kulić, Igor M; Kulić, Miodrag L

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R(-6)), in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R(-9)). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  18. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulić, Igor M.; Kulić, Miodrag L.

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R-6) , in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R-9 ). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  19. Atmosphärisches Plasma in der Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Thomas; Knospe, Alexander; Buske, Christian

    Bei der Fertigung komplexer Bauteile werden immer häufiger unterschiedlichste Materialien zur Erfüllung der Funktion kombiniert. Kunststoff, Metall, Glas oder Keramik müssen miteinander verbunden werden. Dies gilt für die unterschiedlichsten Industriebereiche; von der Halbleiter-/Elektronikindustrie [1, 2] über die Automobilindustrie [3, 4] bis hin zur Medizintechnik werden für Verklebungs- [5], Bedruckungs-, Lackier- [6] und Anspritzprozesse optimal vorbehandelte Oberflächen benötigt.

  20. A drive system to add standing mobility to a manual standing wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Eric; Hansen, Andrew; Pearlman, Jonathan; Goldish, Gary

    2016-05-16

    Current manual standing wheelchairs are not mobile in the standing position. The addition of standing mobility may lead to improved health and function for the user and may increase utilization of standing wheelchairs. In this project, a chain drive system was fitted to a manual standing wheelchair, adding mobility in the standing position. The hand rims are accessible from both seated and standing positions. The prototype uses 16-inch drive wheels in front with casters in the rear. Additional anterior casters are elevated when seated for navigating obstacles and then descend when standing to create a six-wheeled base with extended anterior support. Stability testing shows the center of pressure remains within the base of support when leaning to the sides or front in both seated and standing positions. Four veterans with spinal cord injury provided feedback on the design and reported that mobility during standing was very important or extremely important to them. The veterans liked the perceived stability and mobility of the prototype and provided feedback for future refinements. For example, reducing the overall width (width from hand rim to hand rim) and weight could make this system more functional for users.

  1. Bereits nach Ablauf der Halbwertszeit droht der vollständige Zerfall Die britische Atomic Scientists’ Association, die Ideologie der „objektiven” Wissenschaft und die H-Bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Christoph

    Präsident Harry Trumans Verlautbarung vom 31.1.1950, seine Regierung wolle die Entwicklung der Wasserstoffbombe vorantreiben, fand große Beachtung in den britischen Medien. Die illustrierte Zeitschrift Picture Post widmete der HBombe einen Artikel, der unter anderem kurze Stellungnahmen der britischen Atomwissenschaftler Eric Burhop, Kathleen Lonsdale, Harrie Massey, Rudolf Peierls und Maurice Pryce enthielt, die alle Mitglieder der Atomic Scientists' Association (ASA) waren.

  2. Estimating stand age for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Floyd A. Johnson

    1954-01-01

    Stand age for Douglas-fir has been defined as the average age of dominant and codominant trees. It is commonly estimated by measuring the age of several dominants and codominants and computing their arithmetic average.

  3. Lisa's Lemonade Stand: Exploring Algebraic Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Esther M. H.; Lakatos, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity, "Lisa's Lemonade Stand," that actively engages students in algebraic thinking as they analyze change by investigating relationships between variables and gain experience describing and representing these relationships graphically. (YDS)

  4. TMS delivered for A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-17

    A state-of-the-art thrust measurement system for the A-3 Test Stand under construction at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was delivered March 17. Once completed, the A-3 stand (seen in background) will allow simulated high-altitude testing on the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program. Work on the stand began in 2007, with activation scheduled for 2012. The stand is the first major test structure to be built at Stennis since the 1960s. The recently delivered TMS was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with an accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds.

  5. TEST STAND 4697 CONSTRUCTION TOP OUT

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-04

    ON MARCH 4, CREW MEMBERS READIED A 900-POUND STEEL BEAM TO "TOP OUT" TEST STAND 4697, WHICH IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION TO TEST THE SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM LIQUID OXYGEN TANK AT NASA'S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER.

  6. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  7. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-29

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  8. Phänomenologische Grundlagen der Wärmelehre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Die Physik der Wärme lässt sich auf zweierlei Weise formulieren: Einmal als Mechanik eines Systems, das eine enorm große Zahl von Teilchen enthält (statistische Mechanik), und einmal mit Hilfe von ad hoc eingeführten Größen, den sogenannten Zustandsgrößen, die geeignet sind, das Verhalten eines solchen Systems zu beschreiben, ohne dass man die Teilchen selbst und ihre Bewegungen betrachten muss (Thermodynamik). Wir werden beide Ansätze in ihrer einfachsten und anschaulichsten Ausprägung in Kap. 5 (kinetische Gastheorie) bzw. in Kap. 8 (Grundbegriffe der Thermodynamik) behandeln. Obgleich sich die volle Durchführung des Programms als begrifflich und mathematisch recht schwierig erweist - die Vorlesung "Thermodynamik und Statistik" steht gewöhnlich am Ende der Kursvorlesungen über theoretische Physik - werden wir doch auf der Grundlage der Kap. 5 und 8 eine Menge über die Physik der Wärme lernen können. Den Ausgangspunkt der Wärmelehre bilden jedoch allemal die Naturerscheinungen, die wir hier in Kap. 4 behandeln wollen: Wärme, Kälte, Temperaturausgleich. Wir werden untersuchen, wie man diese Begriffe quantifizieren kann, und was bei der Erwärmung oder Abkühlung eines Körpers vor sich geht. Dabei werden wir auf den I. und II. Hauptsatz der Wärmelehre stoßen.

  9. Elastolysen und Hauterkrankungen mit Verlust der elastischen Fasern.

    PubMed

    Tronnier, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Die elastischen Fasern sind neben den kollagenen Fasern der wichtigste Bestandteil des Bindegewebsgerüstes der Haut. Eine Verminderung oder ein Verlust der elastischen Fasern ist bei einer Vielzahl von klinisch sich unterschiedlich präsentierenden Erkrankungen, hereditär oder erworben, beschrieben. Bei den Erkrankungen, die mit einer Entzündung einhergehen ist die Elastophagozytose ein wichtiges histologisches Merkmal. Die Therapie der Erkrankungen dieser Gruppe ist grundsätzlich schwierig. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Information Interaction Study for DER and DMS Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Lu, Yiming; Lv, Guangxian; Liu, Peng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Xinhui

    The Common Information Model (CIM) is an abstract data model that can be used to represent the major objects in Distribution Management System (DMS) applications. Because the Common Information Model (CIM) doesn't modeling the Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), it can't meet the requirements of DER operation and management for Distribution Management System (DMS) advanced applications. Modeling of DER were studied based on a system point of view, the article initially proposed a CIM extended information model. By analysis the basic structure of the message interaction between DMS and DER, a bidirectional messaging mapping method based on data exchange was proposed.

  11. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  12. Regenerating oak stands the "natural" way

    Treesearch

    Callie Schweitzer; G. Janzen; Daniel C. Dey

    2016-01-01

    In forest stands, there is always a background of growth, senescence, and death of individual trees. There also is always some type of disturbance, from simple and constant events, such as wind, to more intensive and dynamic events, like a timber harvest. Hardwood stands are composed of multiple species, and these species respond differently to disturbance, depending...

  13. KEITH HIGGINBOTHAM AT TEST STAND 4699

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-17

    KEITH HIGGINBOTHAM, STRUCTURAL TEST LEAD FOR THE SLS SPACECRAFT PAYLOAD INTEGRATION AND EVOLUTION OFFICE, IS SHOWN BESIDE TEST STAND 4699 AT THE MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER’S WEST TEST AREA. HIGGINBOTHAM WILL BE LEADING STRUCTURAL LOADS TESTING AT TEST STAND 4699 FOR THE CORE STAGE SIMULATER AND THE LAUNCH VEHICLE STAGE ADAPTER. THE TEST SERIES WILL ENSURE EACH STRUCTURE CAN WITHSTAND THE INCREDIBLE STRESSES OF LAUNCH.

  14. Managing mature, even-aged stands

    Treesearch

    Ivan L. Sander; H. Clay Smith

    1989-01-01

    Foresters generally consider central hardwood stands mature when they are 80 to 100 years old or have reached a specified rotation age. However, by the time stands are 50 to 60 years old and in the large pole/small sawtimber size, they have generally slowed in height growth, their annual basal area growth has leveled off, and except for size, they have many of the...

  15. X-Ray Standing Waves on Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    dependent distributional changes of iodine on Pt 6.3 X-ray standing wave study of a Langmuir - Blodgett multilayer film 7. Conclusions 8. Acknowledgments...4B. 6.3 X-ray standing wave study of a Langmuir - Blodgett multilayer film As mentioned previously the total external reflection condition occurs...for a Zn atom layer embedded in the top arachidate bilayer of a Langmuir - Blodgett (LB) multilayer film which was deposited on the surface of a gold

  16. Species composition of developing Central Appalachian hardwood stands following clearcutting

    Treesearch

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas Fox

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the species composition of 47 paired stands on submesic sites on the Appalachian Plateau of West Virginia. Paired stands consisted of a mature stand adjacent to a young clearcut that was

  17. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST STAND REMNANTS OF BUILDING-BLANK WHITE WALL ONLY ORIGINAL REMAINS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. 31. HISTORIC VIEW OF TEST STAND NO. 1 AT PEENEMUENDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. HISTORIC VIEW OF TEST STAND NO. 1 AT PEENEMUENDE A-4 ENGINE AND ROCKET PROPULSION TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Guitar Strings as Standing Waves: A Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael

    2007-08-01

    An undergraduate student's first exposure to modern atomic theory tends to start with Bohr's model of the atom. This familiar introduction to atomic structure also marks a general chemistry student's first foray into waves. Many popular chemistry textbooks illustrate the concept of a standing wave in the development of the modern quantum model by using the phrase “as seen on a guitar string”. In these illustrations, the wave itself is often small and difficult to discern. The same phenomenon, however, can be easily and audibly observed. This demonstration uses an acoustic guitar to produce three unique harmonic vibrations, each of which is representative of a standing wave and illustrates the concept of quantization. Manipulation of the guitar string to produce a standing wave is pervasive in popular music and is audibly recognizable. Lightly placing a finger on the 12th, 7th, or 5th fret and strumming any one or all six strings can produce an audible example of a standing wave on a guitar. This corresponds to a standing wave with 1, 2, or 3 nodes, respectively. Attempting to induce a node at other points on a guitar string does not generate a standing wave, due to destructive interference, thus no audible tone is produced.

  20. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  1. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    PubMed

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  2. Revisiting the adsorption of copper-phthalocyanine on Au(111) including van der Waals corrections.

    PubMed

    Lüder, Johann; Eriksson, Olle; Sanyal, Biplab; Brena, Barbara

    2014-03-28

    We have studied the adsorption of copper-phthalocyanine on Au(111) by means of van der Waals corrected density functional theory using the Tkatchenko-Scheffler method. We have compared the element and site resolved adsorption distances to recent experimental normal-incident X-ray standing wave measurements. The measured adsorption distances could be reproduced within a deviation of 1% for the Cu atom, 1% for the C atoms, and 2% for the N atoms. The molecule was found to have a magnetic moment of 1 μB distributed over the Cu and the N atoms of the pyrrole ring. Simulated scanning tunnel microscopy images based on the total and on the spin-resolved differential charge densities are provided for bias voltages of -1.45 and 1.45 eV.

  3. Revisiting the adsorption of copper-phthalocyanine on Au(111) including van der Waals corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Lüder, Johann; Eriksson, Olle; Sanyal, Biplab

    2014-03-28

    We have studied the adsorption of copper-phthalocyanine on Au(111) by means of van der Waals corrected density functional theory using the Tkatchenko-Scheffler method. We have compared the element and site resolved adsorption distances to recent experimental normal-incident X-ray standing wave measurements. The measured adsorption distances could be reproduced within a deviation of 1% for the Cu atom, 1% for the C atoms, and 2% for the N atoms. The molecule was found to have a magnetic moment of 1 μ{sub B} distributed over the Cu and the N atoms of the pyrrole ring. Simulated scanning tunnel microscopy images based onmore » the total and on the spin-resolved differential charge densities are provided for bias voltages of −1.45 and 1.45 eV.« less

  4. Implantate für den Bandscheibenersatz (Stand 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathey, Michael; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Bandscheiben sind besonders betroffen von Fehlhaltungen und -stellungen der Wirbelsäule. Sie unterliegen als grösstes zusammenhängendes, nicht vaskularisiertes Gewebe im Menschen, statisch und dynamisch extrem belastet, besonders der Alterung. Um die teilweise sehr starken Schmerzen bei Bandscheibenschädigungen zu lindern, ist eine Operation vielfach die einzige Hilfe. Bei dieser Operation (Nukleotomie) entfernt man das aus der Bandscheibe ausgetretene Gewebe des Gallertkerns (nucleus pulposus), welches durch Druck auf die Nervenstränge im Bereich der Wirbelsäule die Beschwerden (Ischias-Schmerz) verursacht hat. Nach der Entfernung des Gallertkerns werden die auftretenden Kräfte bei veränderter Biomechanik übertragen. Dabei erhalten die Zwischenwirbelgelenke (Facettengelenke) eine erheblich grössere Flächenpressung als dies bei intakter Bandscheibe der Fall war. Die höhere Flächenpressung kommt durch die Verringerung des Abstandes zwischen den oberen und unteren Deckplatten der benachbarten Wirbelkörper zustande, zwischen denen sich der Gallertkern befand. Durch geeignetes Training der Rückenmuskulatur kann eine Stabilisierung des operierten Bandscheibensegmentes erreicht werden, jedoch ist es eine klinische Erfahrung, dass die meisten Patienten, die momentan durch die Operation schmerzfrei geworden sind, keine adäquate zusätzliche sportliche Betätigung auf sich nehmen.

  5. Crystal Structures of Mite Allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 Reveal Differences in Surface-Exposed Residues that May Influence Antibody Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Vailes, Lisa D.

    2009-12-01

    The Group 1 mite allergens, Der f 1 and Der p 1, are potent allergens excreted by Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively. The human IgE antibody responses to the Group 1 allergens show more cross-reactivity than the murine IgG antibody responses which are largely species-specific. Here, we report the crystal structure of the mature form of Der f 1, which was isolated from its natural source, and a new, high-resolution structure of mature recombinant Der p 1. Unlike Der p 1, Der f 1 is monomeric both in the crystalline state and in solution. Moreover, no metal binding ismore » observed in the structure of Der f 1, despite the fact that all amino acids involved in Ca{sup 2+} binding in Der p 1 are completely conserved in Der f 1. Although Der p 1 and Der f 1 share extensive sequence identity, comparison of the crystal structures of both allergens revealed structural features which could explain the differences in murine and human IgE antibody responses to these allergens. There are structural differences between Der f 1 and Der p 1 which are unevenly distributed on the allergens' surfaces. This uneven spatial arrangement of conserved versus altered residues could explain both the specificity and cross-reactivity of antibodies against Der f 1 and Der p 1.« less

  6. Kanban - der Weg ist das Ziel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aull, Florian; Berlak, Joachim; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Fischäder, Holm; Gerlach, Joachim; Henneberg, Jens; Kapalla, Klaus; Kress, Oliver; Kuttler, Robert; Schneider, Herfried M.; Schürle, Philipp; Stellpflug, Franz-Josef; Wannenwetsch, Ralph; Wulz, Johannes; Zäh, Michael F.

    Wenn man aktuell Produktionsbereiche in Deutschland und Europa besucht, fallen im Zusammenhang mit modernen Produktionsmethoden immer öfter die Begriffe Kanban (jap. Karte, Signal) und Pull-Produktion, und dies nicht ohne Stolz, da diese mit dem schillernden Vorbild des Toyota Produktionssystems in Zusammenhang stehen. Tatsächlich ist Kanban ein integraler Bestandteil moderner Produktionssysteme. Blickt man aber im Rahmen von Prozessanalysen hinter die Fassaden", d. h. in die tägliche Praxis der Arbeitsprozesse, wird man schnell desillusioniert - die viel gepriesenen klassischen Kanban-Regeln werden im Tagesgeschäft nicht eingehalten.

  7. Probleme bei der Digitalisierung analoger Messwerte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Messwerte liegen häufig in analoger Form als Spannungswerte vor. Sie werden in eine digital kodierte Form umgesetzt, wenn eine (nahezu) fehlerfreie Übertragung erforderlich ist, wenn Signalverläufe gespeichert werden sollen, wenn eine Weiterverarbeitung erfolgen soll oder wenn Messungen mit sehr geringem Messfehler notwendig sind. Hier soll auf einige Probleme, die durch die Umsetzung entstehen, aus messtechnischer Sicht eingegangen werden. Stichworte: Fehler bei der Digitalisierung; Signal-Quantisierungsgeräusch-Abstand; Verbesserung des Signal-Rausch-Verhältnisses; Abtast-Halte-Glied; Aliasing; Erfassung von Momentanwerten.

  8. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  9. Disruptive Ideas for Power Grid Security and Resilience With DER

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Erfan

    This presentation by Erfan Ibrahim was prepared for NREL's 2017 Cybersecurity and Reslience Workshop on distributed energy resource (DER) best practices. The presentation provides an overview of NREL's Cyber-Physical Systems Security and Resilience R&D Center, the Center's approach to cybersecurity, and disruptive ideas for power grid security and resilience with DER.

  10. Pulsed Electric Propulsion Thrust Stand Calibration Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Andrea R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the performance of any propulsion device requires the accurate measurement of thrust. While chemical rocket thrust is typically measured using a load cell, the low thrust levels associated with electric propulsion (EP) systems necessitate the use of much more sensitive measurement techniques. The design and development of electric propulsion thrust stands that employ a conventional hanging pendulum arm connected to a balance mechanism consisting of a secondary arm and variable linkage have been reported in recent publications by Polzin et al. These works focused on performing steady-state thrust measurements and employed a static analysis of the thrust stand response. In the present work, we present a calibration method and data that will permit pulsed thrust measurements using the Variable Amplitude Hanging Pendulum with Extended Range (VAHPER) thrust stand. Pulsed thrust measurements are challenging in general because the pulsed thrust (impulse bit) occurs over a short timescale (typically 1 micros to 1 millisecond) and cannot be resolved directly. Consequently, the imparted impulse bit must be inferred through observation of the change in thrust stand motion effected by the pulse. Pulsed thrust measurements have typically only consisted of single-shot operation. In the present work, we discuss repetition-rate pulsed thruster operation and describe a method to perform these measurements. The thrust stand response can be modeled as a spring-mass-damper system with a repetitive delta forcing function to represent the impulsive action of the thruster.

  11. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Gobre, Vivekanand V; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

  12. Thinning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands reduces mortality while maintaining stand productivity

    Treesearch

    Jianwei Zhang; Martin W. Ritchie; Douglas A. Maguire; William W. Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 45-yr data collected from three ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) levels-of-growing-stock installations in Oregon (OR) and northern California (CA), USA, to determine the effect of stand density regimes on stand productivity and mortality. We found that periodic annual increment (PAI) of diameter, basal area (BA...

  13. The Influence of Residual Stand Densities on Regeneration in Sugar Maple Stands

    Treesearch

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1968-01-01

    Studies of regeneration 2, 5, and 10 years after cutting mature and overmature sugar maple stands to several residual densities show that (1) sugar maple is still the predominant species under all stand densities (2) nearly all regeneration reaching larger size classes became established before cutting (3) heavier cuttings (30, 50, and 70 square feet) are more rapidly...

  14. Ground skidding and harvested stand attributes in Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Andrew F. Egan; John E. Baumgras

    2003-01-01

    A statewide logging-in-progress study was conducted in West Virginia to examine the associations among several ground skidding and harvested stand attributes. There was a strong positive association between skidding distance and cycle time, and a significant negative relationship between the percent of trees removed in the stand and total cycle time. The number of...

  15. The Relation of Growth to Stand Density in Natural Loblolly Pine Stands

    Treesearch

    K.F. Wenger; T.C. Evans; T. Lotti; R.W. Cooper; E.V. Brender

    1958-01-01

    This is a progress report of a regional study on growing-space requirements for natural stands of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).A primary objective is to measure the effects of residual stand density, obtained naturally or by cutting, during intermediate ages, upon volume yield and total production. By imposing real values and costs upon...

  16. Longleaf pine cone production in relation to site index, stand age, and stand density

    Treesearch

    Thomas Croker

    1973-01-01

    Few cones were produced in stands less than 30 years old. In stands 30 to 70 years in age, production seemed best at timber densities of about 30 square feet of basal area per acre, and tended to increase with increasing site index.

  17. Model for multi-stand management based on structural attributes of individual stands

    Treesearch

    G.W. Miller; J. Sullivan

    1997-01-01

    A growing interest in managing forest ecosystems calls for decision models that take into account attribute goals for large forest areas while continuing to recognize the individual stand as a basic unit of forest management. A dynamic, nonlinear forest management model is described that schedules silvicultural treatments for individual stands that are linked by multi-...

  18. The effects of stand structure after thinning on the growth of an Allegheny hardwood stand

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis; Richard L. Ernst

    1991-01-01

    A 50-year-old Allegheny hardwood stand in which the crown canopy had stratified into distinct species groups was thinned to 60% relative density leaving dramatically different stand structures and species composition. Treatments included combined thinning, thin from middle, thin from above, thin from below, and unthinned control. Individual tree growth was stimulated...

  19. Advance reproduction and other stand characteristics in Pennsylvania and French stands of northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Kim C. Steiner; Marc D. Abrams; Todd W. Bowersox

    1993-01-01

    The frequent scarcity of northern red oak (NRO) advance reproduction raises questions about its regeneration potential under prevailing stand conditions in eastern North America. In contrast, NRO plantations in France typically contain abundant advance reproduction. The purpose of this study was to document stand conditions in Pennsylvania (PA) and southwestern France...

  20. Standing on a declining surface reduces transient prolonged standing induced low back pain development.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-09-01

    While alternating standing position on a sloped surface has proven successful at reducing low back pain during standing, the purpose of this study was to evaluate standing solely on a declining surface to isolate the influence of the postural change. Seventeen participants performed two 75-min prolonged standing occupational simulations- level ground and declining surface. Fifty-three percent of participants (9/17) were categorized as pain developers during the level ground standing condition. For these same pain developers, their average maximum pain scores were 58% lower during sloped standing. All participants showed greater hip flexion, trunk-to-thigh angle flexion, and posterior translation of the trunk center of gravity when standing on the sloped surface. These postural changes could cause the muscles crossing the hip posteriorly to increase passive stiffness and assist with stabilizing the pelvis. This study stresses the importance of hip kinematics, not just lumbar spine posture, in reducing prolonged standing induced low back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vegetation Recovery and Stand Structure Following a Prescribed Stand-Replacement Burn in Sand Pine Scrub

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation and stand structure of sand pine scrub in central Florida, USA, were measured before a prescribed stand-replacement burn and for > 8 y afterward. Herbaceous species richness peaked within 16 months postburn, then gradually declined, although significant differences were detected only between 16 months and > 8 y postburn. Twenty-two plant species...

  2. Early dynamics of table mountain pine stands following stand-replacement prescribed fires of varying intensity

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr; Patrick H. Brose

    2006-01-01

    Interest in using stand-replacement prescribed fires to regenerate stands of Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) has increased in the past decade, but the type and intensity of fire needed to achieve success have been undefined. In an earlier paper, we concluded from first-year results that flames must reach into the crowns to kill most...

  3. 17. HISTORIC VIEW OF ROCKET & LAUNCH STAND DESIGNED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. HISTORIC VIEW OF ROCKET & LAUNCH STAND DESIGNED BY HERMANN OBERTH AND RUDOLF NEBEL FOR THE MOVIE DIE FRAU IM MOND (THE WOMAN ON THE MOON). THE LAUNCH STAND WAS MODIFIED BY THE VFR FOR THE FIRST TEST STAND AT RAKETENFLUGPLATZ NEAR BERLIN. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. Deer Browse Production of Oak Stands in Central Lower Michigan

    Treesearch

    Leslie W. Gysel; Forest Stearns

    1968-01-01

    The extensive oak forests of Lower Michigan provide essential habitat for whitetailed deer and other wildlife. Clearcutting these stands results in high browse production (500-1000 lbs./acre) compared to uncut stands (200-500 lbs./acre). Most browse in uncut stands is under 18 inches tall, whereas much of that in open stands is above snowline and thus available in...

  5. Stand development of trembling aspen in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Treesearch

    James S. Rentch; James T. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands of Canaan Valley, West Virginia, trembling aspen occurs as a disjunct population well south of its primary natural range. Based on sample data from 15 stands, we found that aspen occurs as nearly monospecific stands or clones. Eight stands had median ages between 30 and 40 yrs, and we suggest that stand initiation was related to changes in land use after...

  6. Management of Westside Washington Conifer Stands Infected with Heterobasidion annosum

    Treesearch

    Elvira Young

    1989-01-01

    Timber stands in western Washington are managed for many purposes. Such stands yield commodity and noncommodity outputs, such as recreation, wildlife, visual resources, or watershed benefits, and often from the same stands. Annosus root disease is widespread in many mixed conifer stands within the western hemlock, mountain hemlock, and Pacific silver fir zones west of...

  7. Free-Standing, Flexible, Superomniphobic Films.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Hamed; Wang, Wei; Movafaghi, Sanli; Kota, Arun K

    2016-08-31

    Fabrication of most superomniphobic surfaces requires complex process conditions or specialized and expensive equipment or skilled personnel. In order to circumvent these issues and make them end-user-friendly, we developed the free-standing, flexible, superomniphobic films. These films can be stored and delivered to the end-users, who can readily attach them to virtually any surface (even irregular shapes) and impart superomniphobicity. The hierarchical structure, the re-entrant texture, and the low solid surface energy render our films superomniphobic for a wide variety of liquids. We demonstrate that our free-standing, flexible, superomniphobic films have applications in enhanced chemical resistance and enhanced weight bearing.

  8. A-3 Test Stand construction update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-18

    The concrete foundation placed Dec. 18 (foreground) for Stennis Space Center's future A-3 Test Stand has almost completely cured by early January, according to Bo Clarke, NASA's contracting officer technical representative for the foundation contract. By late December, construction on foundations for many of the test stand's support structures - diffuser, liquid oxygen, isopropyl alcohol and water tanks and gaseous nitrogen bottle battery - had begun with the installation of (background) `mud slabs.' The slabs provide a working surface for the reinforcing steel and foundation forms.

  9. Urogenital surgery performed with the mare standing.

    PubMed

    Seabaugh, Kathryn A; Schumacher, Jim

    2014-04-01

    Many urogenital procedures of the mare are commonly performed with the mare standing. Ovariectomy via colpotomy was described as early as 1903, and the Caslick vulvoplasty was first described in 1937. As knowledge expands and instruments become more specialized, techniques will improve. With the introduction of laparoscopy, clinicians have not only been able to improve the previously described urogenital procedures but also to devise new procedures. This article describes multiple surgeries of the female urogenital tract, all of which can be performed with the mare standing, and describes a variety of approaches to some portions of the female urogenital tract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A-3 Test Stand construction update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The concrete foundation placed Dec. 18 (foreground) for Stennis Space Center's future A-3 Test Stand has almost completely cured by early January, according to Bo Clarke, NASA's contracting officer technical representative for the foundation contract. By late December, construction on foundations for many of the test stand's support structures - diffuser, liquid oxygen, isopropyl alcohol and water tanks and gaseous nitrogen bottle battery - had begun with the installation of (background) `mud slabs.' The slabs provide a working surface for the reinforcing steel and foundation forms.

  11. elecTUM: Umsetzung der eLearning-Strategie der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmayer, Sabine; Gergintchev, Ivan

    An der TUM wurde ein umfassendes und integriertes eLearning-Konzept umgesetzt, welches Präsenzstudium und eLearning in allen Leistungsbereichen der Universität miteinander verzahnt. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt lag dabei in der Schaffung einer effizienten und wettbewerbsfähigen integrierten eLearning Infrastruktur in Hinblick auf die noch weiter steigenden Studienanfängerzahlen ab dem Jahr 2011 sowie die Umsetzung von eBologna. Die Etablierung einer hochschulweiten Lernplattform stellte eine wesentliche Basis für die Umsetzung der eLearning-Strategie dar. Die wissenschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Anschlussfähigkeit im Hinblick auf eine Verwertung der Projektergebnisse wurde durch die aktive Beteiligung an einer Vielzahl hochschulübergreifender Arbeitskreise, Fachtagungen und Kooperationen, vor allem über Organisations- und Dienstleistungsmodelle sowie innovative technische Entwicklungen, sichergestellt.

  12. [Evaluation of sensitization to Der p 1 and Der p 2 in a pediatric population of the North of Portugal].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Sara; Soares, Joana; Monteiro, Tânia; Carvalho, Marisa; Santos, Marinela; Simões, Carla; Quaresma, Márcia

    2017-12-28

    In Portugal, data on the role of Der p 1 and Der p 2 in patients with house dust mite (HDM) allergy are scarce. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (sIT) is the only treatment that improves symptoms, reduces the need for pharmacological therapy and modifies the natural history of the disease. With this study, the authors aim to understand the local epidemiology and to clarify if the molecular assay of major allergens is advantageous in deciding and/or modifying the decision to initiate sIT in children with clinical indication which are sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Retrospective study with analysis of patients with asthma and/or rhinitis. January/2013-December/2016. 1) positive prick-test to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; and 2) clinically relevant disease under treatment. Assay Der p 1 and Der p 2 values ≥0.35 kUA/L were considered positive. Statistical significance was set at P<.05. The clinical files of 279 patients. Mean ages 9.55 years (min.4-max.17). Asthma was present in 199 children (71.3%) and rhinitis in 245 (87.8%). Der p 1 and Der p 2 was <0.35kUA/L in 29 (10,4%) patients. The value of Der p 1/Der p 2 correlated with the size of the prick-test papule, the value of the eosinophils and the total IgE. Der p 1 and Der p 2 are dominant allergens in our population and there may be benefits in determining these molecular allergen levels in patients with a positive prick-test and a clinical indication for sIT prior to a decision of initiating sIT or not. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Learning to Stand: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing Standing Desks into College Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Benzo, Roberto M.; Gremaud, Allene L.; Jerome, Matthew; Carr, Lucas J.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor for multiple negative health outcomes. Evidence supports introducing standing desks into K-12 classrooms and work settings to reduce sitting time, but no studies have been conducted in the college classroom environment. The present study explored the acceptability and feasibility of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. A total of 993 students and 149 instructors completed a single online needs assessment survey. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the fall semester of 2015 at a large Midwestern University. The large majority of students (95%) reported they would prefer the option to stand in class. Most students (82.7%) reported they currently sit during their entire class time. Most students (76.6%) and instructors (86.6%) reported being in favor of introducing standing desks into college classrooms. More than half of students and instructors predicted having access to standing desks in class would improve student’s “physical health”, “attention”, and “restlessness”. Collectively, these findings support the acceptability of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Future research is needed to test the feasibility, cost-effectiveness and efficacy of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Such studies would be useful for informing institutional policies regarding classroom designs. PMID:27537901

  14. Taking a Stand: The Effects of Standing Desks on Task Performance and Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Ward, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Time spent sitting is associated with negative health outcomes, motivating some individuals to adopt standing desk workstations. This study represents the first investigation of the effects of standing desk use on reading comprehension and creativity. In a counterbalanced, within-subjects design, 96 participants completed reading comprehension and creativity tasks while both sitting and standing. Participants self-reported their mood during the tasks and also responded to measures of expended effort and task difficulty. In addition, participants indicated whether they expected that they would perform better on work-relevant tasks while sitting or standing. Despite participants’ beliefs that they would perform worse on most tasks while standing, body position did not affect reading comprehension or creativity performance, nor did it affect perceptions of effort or difficulty. Mood was also unaffected by position, with a few exceptions: Participants exhibited greater task engagement (i.e., interest, enthusiasm, and alertness) and less comfort while standing rather than sitting. In sum, performance and psychological experience as related to task completion were nearly entirely uninfluenced by acute (~30-min) standing desk use. PMID:28825655

  15. Standing Waves in a Nonuniform Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A recent note in this journal presented a demonstration of standing waves along a cord consisting of two parts having different material densities, showing different sized wavelengths in each part. A generalization of that experiment to a continuously varying linear mass density is to vibrate a strip of material with gradually varying width (mass…

  16. Construction alternatives for free-standing facilities.

    PubMed

    Brown, G

    1990-01-01

    Many hospitals are exploring free-standing facilities as an option for providing more efficient imaging services. Mr. Brown discusses the pros and cons of an emerging building technology, manufactured construction, in which building and site preparation are done simultaneously. He presents the criteria managers should use to make a knowledgeable decision.

  17. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Marion Jay [Brentwood, CA; Ayers, Shannon Lee [Brentwood, CA

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  18. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  19. Guitar Strings as Standing Waves: A Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The study demonstrates the induction of one-dimensional standing waves, called "natural-harmonics" on a guitar to provide a unique tone. The analysis shows that a normally complex vibration is composed of a number of simple and discrete vibrations.

  20. Benefits of treating old-growth stands

    Treesearch

    Mick Harrington

    2007-01-01

    Old-growth ponderosa pine and western larch forests that developed as a result of frequent, low-intensity fires were once extensive in the Inland West, but now are rare due to historical logging and, more recently, severe wildfires. In response to missing several natural fire cycles, remaining stands of old trees are at increasingly greater risk from...

  1. Stand density management of southern bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; J.S. Meadows

    1997-01-01

    We present tools to guide stand density management of southern bottomiand hardwoods and we provide guidance in their implementation. We present stocking guides for southern bottomland hardwoods and variants for associated forest types, water tupelo (Nyssa aquarica L.) and sweetgum (Liquidumbar styraciflua L.). The A-line...

  2. Treating seedling and sapling stands for wildlife

    Treesearch

    Edwin D. Michael

    1989-01-01

    What you want to focus on during the seedling-sapling stage is understory development and species selection. By thinning newly regenerated stands you increase sunlight and therefore the abundance and nutritional value of herbaceous vegetation. Thinning allows you to favor understory species that provide browse, forage, and seeds for wildlife. Precommercial thinning in...

  3. Direct sampling for stand density index

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine

    2008-01-01

    A direct method of estimating stand density index in the field, without complex calculations, would be useful in a variety of silvicultural situations. We present just such a method. The approach uses an ordinary prism or other angle gauge, but it involves deliberately "pushing the point" or, in some cases, "pulling the point." This adjusts the...

  4. Standing on the shoulders of giants.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial, the author explains that the journal Temperature stands on the shoulders of giants-prominent scientists of the past and current members of the Temperature community. Temperature also uses the best tools, such as Google Scholar profiles. The editorial includes a new puzzle: why does warm water freeze faster than cold water?

  5. Simulated yields for managed northern hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; William B. Leak; William B. Leak

    1986-01-01

    Board-foot and cubic-foot yields developed with the forest growth model SlMTlM are presented for northern hardwood stands grown with and without management. SIMTIM has been modified to include more accurate growth rates by species, a new stocking chart, and yields that reflect species values and quality classes. Treatments range from no thinning to intensive quality...

  6. Restoring native plants to crested wheatgrass stands

    Treesearch

    Valerie A. Fansler; Jane M. Mangold

    2010-01-01

    Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.) is a nonindigenous grass introduced to North America for improving degraded rangelands. It is often criticized for forming nearly monotypic stands. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of restoring native plant species to crested wheatgrass-dominated rangeland. We investigated methods for suppressing...

  7. The Social Standing of a Married Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilson, Linda Burzotta

    1976-01-01

    The traditional manner of designating a married womans' social status by her husbands' occupational attainment is questioned, and a framework is proposed for re-conceptualizing a married womans' social standing in terms of both her own and her husbands' occupational attainments. Presents the results of a Milwaukee area survey of a random sample of…

  8. Officials Stand Before Mercury-Redstone Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This photograph shows a group of officials standing before a Mercury-Redstone booster at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Among those in the photograph are astronauts James Lovell, Walter Schirra, and Gus Grissom. Also pictured is Joachim Kuettner who managed responsibilities of MSFC's Mercury-Redstone program.

  9. Thinning and pruning in young birch stands

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman; David A. Marquis

    1969-01-01

    Yellow birch and paper birch are similar in that both are light-demanding throughout most of their life and require freedom from competition to produce high-value products. However, the two species differ markedly in other silvical characteristics. Yellow birch seldom constitutes a large proportion of the stand: it grows slowly and is long-lived. In contrast, paper...

  10. A3 TEST STAND DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    THIS IMAGE DOCUMENTS THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE A3 TEST STAND IN SUPPORT OF THE ARES/CLV UPPER STAGE ENGINE DEVELOPMENT AT STENNIS SPACE CENTER, MISSIPPI IN SUPPORT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTELLATION/ARES PROJECT. THIS IMAGE IS EXTRACTED FROM A HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO FILE AND IS THE HIGHEST RESOLUTION AVAILABLE

  11. GOES-R Lift to Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-23

    The GOES-R spacecraft is secured on its work stand inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  12. GOES-R Lift to Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-23

    An overhead crane moves the GOES-R spacecraft toward its work stand inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  13. Estimating white trunk rot in aspen stands

    Treesearch

    Alan C. Jones; Michael E. Ostry

    1998-01-01

    Advanced decay caused by Phellinus tremulae was estimated in 295 trembling aspen on 30 plots in 2 Minnesota counties using existing inventory guides, and then measured by felling and sectioning the trees. In standing trees, decay volume was underestimated by 38% compared to measured decay volume in felled trees. The most reliable external indicator...

  14. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  15. Crown development: an index of stand density

    Treesearch

    John E. Krajicek; Kenneth A. Brinkman

    1957-01-01

    A study of crown characteristics of several hundred open-grown oak, hickory, and Norway spruce trees in Iowa revealed a high correlation between stem diameter and crown area. Consideration of this relationship led to the idea that perhaps here was a realistic way to measure and evaluate stand density or stocking. If, given unlimited growing space, trees of a certain...

  16. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-24

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  17. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  18. Education Activism: A Moment to Stand Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Keron

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author asks the question: what are the real implications of living in a Trump America? He thinks as it relates to public education, people see this as a call to really stand up, and say, "Our schools will be safe places. Our schools will be sanctuaries. We will have good public schools in our communities, and we will…

  19. The ambiguity of standing in standing devices: a qualitative interview study concerning children and parents experiences of the use of standing devices.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Birgitta; Näslund, Annika; Ekenberg, Lilly; Zingmark, Karin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe children's and parents' experiences of the significance of standing in a standing device. Individual interviews were performed with six children/teenagers (aged 7-19 years) and 14 parents. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the major theme, the duality of uprightness and the related themes: (1) the instrumental dimension of standing; (2) the social dimension of standing; and (3) the ambivalent dimension of standing. Each of the themes comprised several subthemes. There is an inherent duality related to the use of a standing device. Standing in a standing device was seen as a treatment of body structures and functions, as well as a possible source of pain. Standing was considered to influence freedom in activities and participation both positively and negatively. The parents experienced that standing influenced other peoples' views of their child, while the children experienced standing as a way to extend the body and as something that gave them benefits in some activities. Physiotherapists working with children should take into account both the social and physical dimensions of using a standing device and consider both the child's and the parents' views.

  20. Digitale Transformation, aber wie? - Von der Spielwiese zur Umsetzungsplanung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Thomas

    Es besteht wohl kaum Anlass zur Annahme, dass die seit Jahrzehnten etablierten Markt- und Technologiestrukturen der Energiewirtschaft sich nicht in einem radikalen Ablöseprozess mit Gewinnern und Verlierern befinden. Aber Vorsicht - vordergründig bereits verloren erscheinende Geschäftsmodelle erfahren im Zuge der Digitalisierung einerseits noch intensiveren Wettbewerbsdruck, können aber andererseits von diesem "technologischen Jungbrunnen" profitieren, um verlorenes Terrain zurückzugewinnen. Im folgenden Kapitel wird ein Managementzyklus aufgezeigt, der in Anlehnung an die bereits erfolgreiche Implementierung digitaler R/Evolutionen anderer Branchen aufzeigt, wie die Geschäftsleitung systematisch kostenbewusst und zielorientiert die Digitalisierung umsetzen kann.

  1. Effects of Stand and Step Training with Epidural Stimulation on Motor Function for Standing in Chronic Complete Paraplegics

    PubMed Central

    Rejc, Enrico; Angeli, Claudia A.; Bryant, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Individuals affected by motor complete spinal cord injury are unable to stand, walk, or move their lower limbs voluntarily; this diagnosis normally implies severe limitations for functional recovery. We have recently shown that the appropriate selection of epidural stimulation parameters was critical to promoting full-body, weight-bearing standing with independent knee extension in four individuals with chronic clinically complete paralysis. In the current study, we examined the effects of stand training and subsequent step training with epidural stimulation on motor function for standing in the same four individuals. After stand training, the ability to stand improved to different extents in the four participants. Step training performed afterwards substantially impaired standing ability in three of the four individuals. Improved standing ability generally coincided with continuous electromyography (EMG) patterns with constant levels of ground reaction forces. Conversely, poorer standing ability was associated with more variable EMG patterns that alternated EMG bursts and longer periods of negligible activity in most of the muscles. Stand and step training also differentially affected the evoked potentials amplitude modulation induced by sitting-to-standing transition. Finally, stand and step training with epidural stimulation were not sufficient to improve motor function for standing without stimulation. These findings show that the spinal circuitry of motor complete paraplegics can generate motor patterns effective for standing in response to task-specific training with optimized stimulation parameters. Conversely, step training can lead to neural adaptations resulting in impaired motor function for standing. PMID:27566051

  2. Trends in der IT-Sicherheit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Claudia

    Ich möchte Ihnen einen Überblick geben über Trends, Challenges, offene Fragestellungen sowie Lösungsansätze aus dem Bereich der IT-Sicherheit. Meine Vorredner haben mir schon eine wunderbare Basis dafür geschaffen, indem sie wichtige Trends im Bereich IT bereits angesprochen haben. Deshalb werde ich auf diese Trends, nämlich das Internet of Things and Services nur noch einmal kurz eingehen, um daran dann die IT-Sicherheitsthemen, die sich aus diesen IT-Trends ergeben, zu skizzieren und anschließend Lösungen vorstellen, die insbesondere im Forschungsumfeld entwickelt werden, aber schon reif sind, auch in die unternehmerische Praxis übernommen zu werden.

  3. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - IV. Natural and Planted Seedling/Sapling Stands

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    A 3- to 6 yr-old naturally regenerated, even-aged loblollypine (Pinus taeda L.) stand and a 5- yr-old loblolly pine plantation on good sites (SIbb = 85 to 90 ft at 50 yr ) were cut to density levels of 50, 90, 180,270, and 360 seedlings and/or saplings/ac. Two pine release treatments (none and individual tree release with a herbicide) were applied to the natural stand...

  4. Optimizing DER Participation in Inertial and Primary-Frequency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano; Zhao, Changhong; Guggilam, Swaroop

    This paper develops an approach to enable the optimal participation of distributed energy resources (DERs) in inertial and primary-frequency response alongside conventional synchronous generators. Leveraging a reduced-order model description of frequency dynamics, DERs' synthetic inertias and droop coefficients are designed to meet time-domain performance objectives of frequency overshoot and steady-state regulation. Furthermore, an optimization-based method centered around classical economic dispatch is developed to ensure that DERs share the power injections for inertial- and primary-frequency response in proportion to their power ratings. Simulations for a modified New England test-case system composed of ten synchronous generators and six instances of the IEEEmore » 37-node test feeder with frequency-responsive DERs validate the design strategy.« less

  5. Isotope separation by photodissociation of Van der Waal's molecules

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1977-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on the dissociation of a Van der Waal's complex. A beam of molecules of a Van der Waal's complex containing, as one partner of the complex, a molecular species in which an element is present in a plurality of isotopes is subjected to radiation from a source tuned to a frequency which will selectively excite vibrational motion by a vibrational transition or through electronic transition of those complexed molecules of the molecular species which contain a desired isotope. Since the Van der Waal's binding energy is much smaller than the excitational energy of vibrational motion, the thus excited Van der Waal's complex dissociate into molecular components enriched in the desired isotope. The recoil velocity associated with vibrational to translational and rotational relaxation will send the separated molecules away from the beam whereupon the product enriched in the desired isotope can be separated from the constituents of the beam.

  6. Solid Propellant Test Article (SPTA) Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Solid Propellant Test Article (SPTA) test stand with the Modified Nasa Motor (M-NASA) test article at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The SPTA test stand, 12-feet wide by 12-feet long by 24-feet high, was built in 1989 to provide comparative performance data on nozzle and case insulation material and to verify thermostructural analysis models. A modified NASA 48-inch solid motor (M-NASA motor) with a 12-foot blast tube and 10-inch throat makes up the SPTA. The M-NASA motor is being used to evaluate solid rocket motor internal non-asbestos insulation materials, nozzle designs, materials, and new inspection techniques. New internal motor case instrumentation techniques are also being evaluated.

  7. 2015 Dust Risk Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Dust Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), NASA Headquarters, and the NASA Research Education and Support Services on November 12, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated Evidence Report for The Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure, as well as the Research Plan for this Risk.

  8. GOES-R Lift to Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-23

    Team members monitor progress as an overhead crane lowers the GOES-R spacecraft into its work stand inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  9. GOES-R Lift to Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-23

    Team members monitor progress as an overhead crane lowers the GOES-R spacecraft toward its work stand inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  10. GOES-R Lift to Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-23

    An overhead crane lifts the GOES-R spacecraft to move it into its work stand inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  11. GOES-R Lift to Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-23

    An overhead crane is positioned to move the GOES-R spacecraft into its work stand inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  12. Airvolt Aircraft Electric Propulsion Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, Aamod; Lin, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    Development of an electric propulsion test stand that collects high-fidelity data of motor, inverter, and battery system efficiencies; thermal dynamics; and acoustics independent of manufacturer reported values will improve understanding of electric propulsion systems to be used in future aircraft. A buildup approach to this development reveals new areas of research and best practices in testing, and attempts to establish a standard for testing these systems.

  13. Manual harvesting of high population Leucaena stands

    SciTech Connect

    Pecson, R.D.; Van Den Beldt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Five-year-old giant Leucaena leucocephala, planted at spacing 1x0.5 m, were harvested using bolos (Filipino machetes) and chainsaws. For felling alone, chainsaws took 35% less time than bolos. For the total harvest including delimbing and hauling an average 20 m to the edge of the stand, chainsaws took 20% less time than bolos. Assuming chainsaws are economically viable, it may be advisable to fell with chainsaws in advance of bolo teams that buck and haul. 2 references.

  14. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-03

    A new thrust measurement system is lifted onto the A-1 Test Stand deck at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in preparation for its installation. The new system is a state-of-the-art upgrade for the testing structure, which is being prepared for testing of next-generation rocket engines. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois at a cost of about $3.5 million.

  15. Thrust Stand for Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Jones, J. E.; Cox, M. D.

    2004-01-01

    An electric propulsion thrust stand capable of supporting thrusters with total mass of up to 125 kg and 1 mN to 1 N thrust levels has been developed and tested. The mechanical design features a conventional hanging pendulum arm attached to a balance mechanism that transforms horizontal motion into amplified vertical motion, with accommodation for variable displacement sensitivity. Unlike conventional hanging pendulum thrust stands, the deflection is independent of the length of the pendulum arm, and no reference structure is required at the end of the pendulum. Displacement is measured using a non-contact, optical linear gap displacement transducer. Mechanical oscillations are attenuated using a passive, eddy current damper. An on-board microprocessor-based level control system, which includes a two axis accelerometer and two linear-displacement stepper motors, continuously maintains the level of the balance mechanism - counteracting mechanical %era drift during thruster testing. A thermal control system, which includes heat exchange panels, thermocouples, and a programmable recirculating water chiller, continuously adjusts to varying thermal loads to maintain the balance mechanism temperature, to counteract thermal drifts. An in-situ calibration rig allows for steady state calibration both prior to and during thruster testing. Thrust measurements were carried out on a well-characterized 1 kW Hall thruster; the thrust stand was shown to produce repeatable results consistent with previously published performance data.

  16. Modified Van der Waals equation and law of corresponding states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Changming; Zhu, Yongkai

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the Van der Waals equation is a modification of the ideal gas law, yet it can be used to describe both gas and liquid, and some important messages can be obtained from this state equation. However, the Van der Waals equation is not a precise state equation, and it does not give a good description of the law of corresponding states. In this paper, we expand the Van der Waals equation into its Taylor's series form, and then modify the fourth order expansion by changing the constant Virial coefficients into their analogous ones. Via this way, a more precise result about the law of corresponding states has been obtained, and the law of corresponding states can then be expressed as: in terms of the reduced variables, all fluids should obey the same equation with the analogous Virial coefficients. In addition, the system of 3 He with quantum effects has also been taken into consideration with our modified Van der Waals equation, and it is found that, for a normal system without quantum effect, the modification on ideal gas law from the Van der Waals equation is more significant than the real case, however, for a system with quantum effect, this modification is less significant than the real case, thus a factor is introduced in this paper to weaken or strengthen the modification of the Van der Waals equation, respectively.

  17. Prä- und perioperative Aspekte der Versorgung dermatochirurgischer Patienten.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cornelia S L; Hubner, Wakiko; Thieme-Ruffing, Sigrid; Pföhler, Claudia; Vogt, Thomas; Volk, Thomas; Gärtner, Barbara C; Bialas, Patric

    2017-02-01

    Die Dermatochirurgie nimmt hinsichtlich vieler Punkte eine Sonderstellung unter den operativen Fächern ein. Hierzu gehört in erster Linie die Tatsache, dass bis auf wenige Ausnahmen fast alle Eingriffe traditionell in Lokal- bzw. Regionalanästhesie und oft auch in räumlich-infrastruktureller Trennung von den großen Zentral-Operationssälen stattfinden können. Die peri- und postoperative Überwachung obliegt dabei dem dermatochirurgischen Operationsteam. Das sui generis kleinere OP-Team hat somit eine ganze Reihe perioperativer Notwendigkeiten zu beachten, um die sich in den "großen" chirurgischen Fächern eine Vielzahl verschiedener beteiligter Fachgruppen gemeinsam kümmern. Hierzu gehören neben Hygieneaspekten, Kenntnissen in der Überwachung der Patienten sowie dem Aspekt der surgical site infections auch Fragen zur postoperativen Schmerztherapie sowie detailliertes pharmakologisches Wissen über die zur Anwendung kommenden Lokalanästhetika und das Handling der damit assoziierten toxischen und allergischen Reaktionen. Eine interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit und Verantwortung für den Patienten ist notwendig und erfordert die Erarbeitung und Umsetzung qualitätsorientierter und evidenzbasierter Handlungsanweisungen, die im dermatochirurgischen OP-Setting meist weit über das eigentliche Fach hinausgehen. Ziel dieses Weiterbildungsartikels soll die komprimierte Darstellung der genannten fachübergreifenden Standpunkte bezüglich der wichtigsten perioperativen Aspekte sein. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Die Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft: Potenziale und Herausforderungen der IKT-Branche für Utility 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichele, Christian; Schönberger, Marius

    Energieunternehmen haben auf dem Weg zur digitalen Transformation noch viele Herausforderungen zu bewältigen. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt derzeit auf der Modernisierung der IT-Systeme. Ausgangspunkt hierzu ist, dass sich bei den Endkonsumenten Mobile Applikationen, Smartphones, Tablet-PCs oder Smart TVs einer immensen Beliebtheit erfreuen. Durch diese Technologien wird die physische und virtuelle Welt in immer weiter zunehmendem Maße miteinander verknüpft. Mobile Applikation können einen wahren Hype hervorrufen und Verhaltensweisen auch nachhaltig verändern (ein Beispiel hierfür ist Pokémon Go, eine App die ein virtuelles Spiel mit der realen Umgebung kombiniert und die erstmalig auch eingefleischte Zocker aus der Anonymität ihrer häuslichen Umgebung hervorlocken konnte und für analoge Bewegung im Freien sorgte).

  19. 1. VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT TO RIGHT COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT TO RIGHT COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND COLD CALIBRATION BLOCKHOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Cold Calibration Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. 43. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND WITH A REDSTONE ROCKET BEING FUELED AND PREPARED FOR TESTING. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. 7. MOTION PICTURE CAMERA STAND AT BUILDING 8768. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. MOTION PICTURE CAMERA STAND AT BUILDING 8768. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Effects of low thinning in Atlantic white-cedar stands

    Treesearch

    G. T. Bamford; S. Little

    1960-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar typically grows in dense stands. In southern New Jersey, young stands commonly contain several thousand trees per acre, and at ages around 60 years there still may be 1,000 or more trees per acre.

  3. 7 CFR 1416.702 - Eligible producers and stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS 2005 Hurricane Tree Assistance Program § 1416.702 Eligible producers and stands. (a) An..., which owns a tree, bushes, or vine. (b) An eligible stand must: (1) Be physically located in an eligible...

  4. 5. EAST SIDE, TEST STAND AND ITS SUPERSTRUCTURE. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST SIDE, TEST STAND AND ITS SUPERSTRUCTURE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Tropical forest biomass estimation from truncated stand tables.

    Treesearch

    A. J. R. Gillespie; S. Brown; A. E. Lugo

    1992-01-01

    Total aboveground forest biomass may be estimated through a variety of techniques based on commercial inventory stand and stock tables. Stand and stock tables from tropical countries commonly omit trees bellow a certain commercial limit.

  7. College Athlete Stands Again…On His Own!

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics College Athlete Stands Again…On His Own! Past ... cells to make new connections. Read More "NIBIB Robotics" Articles Progress for the Paralyzed / College Athlete Stands ...

  8. View of Stand Pipe (Surge Tank) from FS 502. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Stand Pipe (Surge Tank) from FS 502. Looking northeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Stand Pipe (Surge Tank), Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  9. 45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND AND THE SURROUNDING ELECTRONICS AND EQUIPMENT TRAILERS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. 51. HISTORIC GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. HISTORIC GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE TEST STAND WITH THE MERCURY REDSTONE ROCKET FULLY ASSEMBLED AND BEING PREPARED FOR TESTING. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE TEST STAND, NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE TEST STAND, NOTE THE SERVICE AND SUPPORT BUILDINGS TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT OF THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. 13. Photographic copy of site plan displaying Test Stand 'C' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of site plan displaying Test Stand 'C' (4217/E-18), Test Stand 'D' (4223/E-24), and Control and Recording Center (4221/E-22) with ancillary structures, and connecting roads and services. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Facilities Engineering and Construction Office 'Repairs to Test Stand 'C,' Edwards Test Station, Legend & Site Plan M-1,' drawing no. ESP/115, August 14, 1987. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Photographic copy of site plan for proposed Test Stand "D" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of site plan for proposed Test Stand "D" in 1958. The contemporary site plans of test stands "A," "B," and "C" are also visible, along with the interconnecting tunnel system. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering "Site Plan for Proposed Test Stand "D" - Edwards Test Station," drawing no. ESP/22-0, 14 November 1958 - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 21 CFR 880.2700 - Stand-on patient scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 880.2700 Stand-on patient scale. (a) Identification. A stand-on patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to weigh a patient who is able to stand on the scale platform... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stand-on patient scale. 880.2700 Section 880.2700...

  15. The archivalia of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut on the calendar in Prussia. Edition of the documents. (German Title: Die Archivalien des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts zum Kalender in Preußen. Edition der Dokumente.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland; Wielen, Ute

    In the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut at Heidelberg, there is an old set of 31 documents which are related to the calendar used in Prussia and which originated in the period from 1700 to 1854. The oldest document is an original print of the 'Calendar Edict' issued on 10 May 1700. In this edict, Friedrich III., Elector of Brandenburg, gave a monopoly for issuing calendars in his country to an academy which was founded slightly later. He founded at the same time an observatory in Berlin. The main task of the employed astronomers was to edit the 'Improved Calendar' which was newly introduced in his Protestant country. The Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, which was founded in Berlin and was moved to Heidelberg in 1945, considers this Calendar Edict as his foundation document too. All the other documents are handwritten, mainly letters, but also a detailed expose 'On the Calendar Issues in the Prussian State' from 1843. Two of the scripts stem from the 18th century. The remaining documents are related to the work of the Royal Prussian Calendar Deputation and were written between 1816 and 1854. In this paper we describe, commentate, and transliterate all the documents of this 'Kalender-Konvolut'.

  16. Ergebnisse einer Lehrerbefragung zum Hintergrund des Englischunterrichts in der Hauptschuloberstufe (Results of a Teacher Questionnaire on the Background of Instruction in English in the Upper Grades of the Hauptschule [9-grade "terminal" school]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellwig, Karlheinz

    1980-01-01

    The questionnaire dealt with: earmarks of weaker students, parents' attitude, the teachers' training and working conditions, problems of individual instruction, time-frame, existence of professional associations, evaluation of professional conferences, and the use of media. Some evaluations are appended. (IFS/WGA)

  17. Immersion und Bilingualer Unterricht: Eine Bibliographie. Informationshefte zum Lernen in der Fremdsprache. Heft 3. (Immersion and Bilingual Education: A Bibliography. Publications on Learning in a Foreign Language. Volume 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endt, Ernst

    This bibliography lists publications concerned with bilingual education and immersion programs and how they are used in and outside of Canada. In the beginning, an overview is provided of publications from related disciplines that have brought crucial recognition to the fields of bilingual and immersion education. These include: second and foreign…

  18. An Interactive Simulation System for Modeling Stands, Harvests, and Machines

    Treesearch

    Jingxin Wang; W. Dale Greene

    1999-01-01

    A interactive computer simulation program models stands, harvest, and machine factors and evaluates their interatcitons while performing felling, skidding, or fowarding activities. A stand generator allows the user to generate either natural or planted stands. Fellings with chainsaw, drive-to-tree feller-bunchers, or harvesters and extraction with grapple skidders or...

  19. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  20. View east northeast at Test Stand 'A' complex from road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east northeast at Test Stand 'A' complex from road, showing Test Stand 'C' test tower in left background (Building 4217/E-18). Curved I-beam labeled '3-ton' is for small traveling hoist. Fuel tanks, propellant lines, and control panels have been removed from tower. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Standing dead tree resources in forests of the United States

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Karen L. Waddell; Christopher M. Oswalt; James E. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees to numerous forest ecosystem attributes/ processes such as fuel loadings and wildlife habitat, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, initiated a consistent nationwide inventory of standing dead trees in 1999. As the first cycle of annual standing dead tree...

  2. The Frontline of Refusal: Indigenous Women Warriors of Standing Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Temryss MacLean

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous women stand in solidarity on the frontline of refusal, protecting their ancestral homelands and their ways of life across North America and beyond. The Indigenous stand-off at Standing Rock in opposition to the Dakota Access Pipeline inspires this photo series of vignettes where Indigenous voices accompany images of Indigenous women in…

  3. 1. Photographic copy of original engineering drawing for Test Stand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of original engineering drawing for Test Stand 'C.' California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'New Test Stand Plan -- Edwards Test Station' drawing no. E18/2-3, 18 January 1957. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Relationship of stand age to streamwater nitrate in New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; C. Wayne Martin

    1975-01-01

    Streamwater nitrate content of six watersheds during spring and summer was apparently related to stand age or age since disturbance. Nitrate concentration averaged 10.3 ppm right after cutting, dropped to a trace in medium-aged stands, and then rose again to a maximum of 4.8 ppm as stands became overmature.

  5. 78 FR 39820 - Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Disaster #SD-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13639 and 13640] Standing Rock Sioux Tribe... the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Standing Rock...: Standing Rock Indian Reservation. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage: Non-Profit...

  6. Standing Sound Waves in Air with DataStudio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments related to standing sound waves in air are adapted for using the ScienceWorkshop data-acquisition system with the DataStudio software from PASCO scientific. First, the standing waves are created by reflection from a plane reflector. The distribution of the sound pressure along the standing wave is measured. Second, the resonance…

  7. A new algorithm for stand table projection models.

    Treesearch

    Quang V. Cao; V. Clark Baldwin

    1999-01-01

    The constrained least squares method is proposed as an algorithm for projecting stand tables through time. This method consists of three steps: (1) predict survival in each diameter class, (2) predict diameter growth, and (3) use the least squares approach to adjust the stand table to satisfy the constraints of future survival, average diameter, and stand basal area....

  8. Rate of value change in New England timber stands

    Treesearch

    Stanford L. Arner; David A. Gansner; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of remeasured plot data show that between the last two forest inventories of New England, compound rates of value change in timber stands averaged 4.2 percent and ranged from -26 to + 43 percent. Three key characteristics of stand condition (species composition, tree size, and stocking) can be used to estimate economic growth. For example, stands with (1) more...

  9. Characteristics of Declining Forest Stands on the Allegheny National Forest

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; Robert White; Stanford L. Arner; Christopher, A. Nowak; Susan L. Stout; Susan L. Stout

    1996-01-01

    Forest stands with advanced symptoms of forest decline located on the Allegheny National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania were studied to describe contemporary stand structure and composition, and the status of regeneration. Across all 340 stands, 12 percent of the total basal area per acre was in dead trees and 16 percent was in trees at high risk of mortality. For...

  10. A Fresh Look at Longitudinal Standing Waves on a Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Transverse standing waves produced on a string, as shown in Fig. 1, are a common demonstration of standing wave patterns that have nodes at both ends. Longitudinal standing waves can be produced on a helical spring that is mounted vertically and attached to a speaker, as shown in Fig. 2, and used to produce both node-node (NN) and node-antinode…

  11. Diameter Distributions in Natural Yellow-Poplar Stands

    Treesearch

    Charles E. McGee; Lino Della-Bianca

    1967-01-01

    Diameter distributions obtained from 141 pure, natural unthinned yellow-poplar stands in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia are presented in tables. The distributions are described in relation to stand age, site index, and total number of trees per acre, and are useful for stand management planning.

  12. A primer on stand and forest inventory designs

    Treesearch

    H. Gyde Lund; Charles E. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Covers designs for the inventory of stands and forests in detail and with worked-out examples. For stands, random sampling, line transects, ricochet plot, systematic sampling, single plot, cluster, subjective sampling and complete enumeration are discussed. For forests inventory, the main categories are subjective sampling, inventories without prior stand mapping,...

  13. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller

    2002-01-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  14. Stocking equations for regeneration in mixed oak stands

    Treesearch

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration stocking equations for mixed-oak stands were developed based on data collected from nearly 14,000 plots in the central Appalachians. Maximum stand density was identified by plotting aggregate height against number of seedlings per plot, and was used as the reference level of the average maximum stand density (100 percent stocking or A-level stocking)....

  15. Production economics of harvesting young hardwood stands in central Appalachia

    Treesearch

    Yaoxiang Li; Jingxin Wang; Gary W. Miller; Joe McNeel

    2004-01-01

    Three harvesting systems of chainsaw/cable skidder, fell-buncher/grapple skidder, and harvester/forwarder were simulated in harvesting three hardwood stands of 30 to 50 years old in central Appalachia. Stands were generated by using a stand generator and harvesting prescriptions included clearcut, shelterwood cut, selective cut, diameter limit cut, and crop tree...

  16. Red maple development in mixed hardwood stands in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Brian Tift

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that red maple (Acer rubrum) may become a more prominent species in eastern mixed hardwood stands. This study will examine the strategies used by red maple to reach dominant and codominant canopy positions on two different stands (one mesic and one drier). Stand level data such as dbh, height, crown class, height class, and...

  17. A comparison of northern and southern table mountain pine stands

    Treesearch

    Patrick H. Brose; Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr

    2010-01-01

    Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) stands occur throughout the Appalachian Mountains, but ecological research has concentrated on the southern part of this region. In 2006, research was initiated in northern Table Mountain pine stands growing in PA to compare some basic attributes of those stands with previously described ones in TN. Overall, the...

  18. A-3 Test Stand continues with test cell installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-20

    Employees at Stennis Space Center continue work on the A-3 Test Stand. As shown, a section of the test cell is lifted for installation on the stand's structural steel frame. Work on the A-3 Test Stand began in 2007. It is scheduled for activation in 2012.

  19. Natural cotton wood stands - past management and implications for plantations

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson; E. C. Burkhardt

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews literature and presents the results of a survey of natural stands,along the Mississippi River from Cairo, Illinois, to Vicksburg, Mississippi. Natural stand development, growth, and silviculture are described, and stocking suggestions for plantations are made based on measurements of natural stands.

  20. Yield tables for managed stands of coast Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Gary W. Clendenen; Donald L. Reukema; Donald J. DeMars

    1982-01-01

    Yield tables generated by the stand simulation program DFSIM (Douglas-Fir SIMulator) are presented for a number of possible management regimes. These include a “normal” yield table; tables for stands planted or precommercially thinned to 300 and 400 trees per acre; tables for commercially thinned stands with and without prior commercial thinning; and tables...

  1. 38. HISTORIC CLOSER VIEW LOOKING WEST OF THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. HISTORIC CLOSER VIEW LOOKING WEST OF THE TEST STAND AND ROCKET DURING TEST FIRING NUMBER 10. NOTE THE NUMBER ALONG THE TOP RAIL OF THE STAND JUST TO THE RIGHT OF THE ROCKET, THIS NUMBER INDICATES WHAT NUMBER TEST IS BEING CONDUCTED. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. A simple index of stand density for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    R.O. Curtis

    1982-01-01

    The expression RD = G/(Dg½), where G is basal area and Dg is quadratic mean stand diameter, provides a simple and convenient scale of relative stand density for Douglas-fir, equivalent to other generally accepted diameter-based stand density measures.

  3. Van der Waals Interactions Involving Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Charles M.; Neal, Brian L.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    1996-01-01

    Van der Waals (dispersion) forces contribute to interactions of proteins with other molecules or with surfaces, but because of the structural complexity of protein molecules, the magnitude of these effects is usually estimated based on idealized models of the molecular geometry, e.g., spheres or spheroids. The calculations reported here seek to account for both the geometric irregularity of protein molecules and the material properties of the interacting media. Whereas the latter are found to fall in the generally accepted range, the molecular shape is shown to cause the magnitudes of the interactions to differ significantly from those calculated using idealized models. with important consequences. First, the roughness of the molecular surface leads to much lower average interaction energies for both protein-protein and protein-surface cases relative to calculations in which the protein molecule is approximated as a sphere. These results indicate that a form of steric stabilization may be an important effect in protein solutions. Underlying this behavior is appreciable orientational dependence, one reflection of which is that molecules of complementary shape are found to exhibit very strong attractive dispersion interactions. Although this has been widely discussed previously in the context of molecular recognition processes, the broader implications of these phenomena may also be important at larger molecular separations, e.g., in the dynamics of aggregation, precipitation, and crystal growth.

  4. Strain engineering of van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Paul A; Mulder, Jefta; Momand, Jamo; Kooi, Bart J

    2018-01-18

    Modifying the strain state of solids allows control over a plethora of functional properties. The weak interlayer bonding in van der Waals (vdWaals) materials such as graphene, hBN, MoS 2 , and Bi 2 Te 3 might seem to exclude strain engineering, since strain would immediately relax at the vdWaals interfaces. Here we present direct observations of the contrary by showing growth of vdWaals heterostructures with persistent in-plane strains up to 5% and we show that strain relaxation follows a not yet reported process distinctly different from strain relaxation in three-dimensionally bonded (3D) materials. For this, 2D bonded Bi 2 Te 3 -Sb 2 Te 3 and 2D/3D bonded Bi 2 Te 3 -GeTe multilayered films are grown using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and their structure is monitored in situ using Reflective High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) and post situ analysis is performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Strain relaxation is modeled and found to solely depend on the layer being grown and its initial strain. This insight demonstrates that strain engineering of 2D bonded heterostructures obeys different rules than hold for epitaxial 3D materials and opens the door to precise tuning of the strain state of the individual layers to optimize functional performance of vdWaals heterostructures.

  5. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  6. Stufenweise Integration von eLearning an der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, Sebastian; Graf, Stephan; Gergintchev, Ivan; Pongratz, Hans; Rathmayer, Sabine

    Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt als Best Practice Beispiel die stufenweise Integration eines Learning Management Systems (LMS) in die Infrastruktur von Information und Kommunikation (IuK) der Technischen Universität München (TUM). Dabei wird sowohl die Konsolidierung mehrfach angebotener Funktionalitäten und Dienste in den verschiedenen Portalen der Universität als auch die sukzessive Optimierung der Abläufe aufgezeigt. Gleichzeitig wird auf zukünftige weitere Entwicklungen hin zu einer vollständigen Integration der IuK, aber auch auf die Probleme in den unterschiedlichen Stadien der Entwicklung eingegangen.

  7. Hypoxia-induced changes in standing balance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Linsey S; Oakley, Sarah R; Vang, Pao; Noble, Brie N; Cevette, Michael J; Stepanek, Jan P

    2011-05-01

    A few studies in the literature have reported postural changes with hypoxia, but none have quantified the magnitude of change. Further understanding of this condition could have implications for patients at risk for falls, individuals undergoing acute altitude exposure, and pilots and commercial passengers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of hypoxia (oxygen nitrogen mixtures) on postural standing balance using the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) system. This improves upon previous protocols by manipulating vision and standing balance with a sway-referenced visual field and/or platform. Additionally, normative data were available for comparison with the cumulative test scores and scores for each condition. Altitude hypoxia was simulated by use of admixing nitrogen to the breathing gas to achieve equivalent altitudes of 1524 m, 2438 m, and 3048 m. Subjects were evaluated using the CDP system. Subjects showed an overall trend toward decreased performance at higher simulated altitudes consistent with the initial hypothesis. Composite standing balance sway scores for the sensory organization subtest of CDP were decreased compared to baseline for simulated altitudes as low as 2438 m (mean sway scores: 81.92 at baseline; 81.85 at 1524 m; 79.15 at 2438 m; 79.15 at 3048 m). Reaction times to unexpected movements in the support surface for the motor control subtest (MCT) increased compared to baseline (mean composite scores: 133.3 at baseline; 135.9 ms at 1524 m; 138.0 ms at 2438 m; 140.9 ms at 3048 m). The CDP testing provided a reliable objective measurement of degradation of balance under hypoxic conditions.

  8. Water transport dynamics in trees and stands

    SciTech Connect

    Pallardy, S.G.; Cermak, J.; Ewers, F.W.

    1995-07-01

    Water transport dynamics in trees and stands of conifers have certain features that are characteristic of this group and are at least rare among angiosperms. Among these features is the xylem transport system that is dependent on tracheids for long-distance water transport. Tracheid-containing xylem is relatively inefficient, a property that can reduce submaximum allowable rates of gas exchange, but tracheids also offer substantial capacity for water storage and high resistance to freezing-induced dysfunction. Thus, they are quite compatible with the typical evergreen habit and long transpiration season of conifers. At the stand level, canopy transpiration in conifers is primarily controlledmore » by stomatal conductance. In contrast, in dense canopies of angio-sperms, particularly those of tropical forests with limited air mixing, stand transpiration is limited by radiation input rather than by stomatal control. Because of their evergreen habit a greater proportion of evapotranspiration in conifer forests is associated with evaporation of water intercepted by the tree crowns. Other features of transport dynamics are characteristic of most conifers, but are not unique to this group. Among these features are typically shallow root systems that often must supply water in winter to replace transpiration needs of evergreen species, common occurrence of mycorrhizae that enhance mineral and water uptake, and drought tolerance adaptations that include elements of both dehydration avoidance (e.g., stomatal closure under water stress, shifts in allocation of dry matter to below-ground sinks) and dehydration tolerance (e.g., capacity for acclimation of photosynthetic apparatus to drought, osmotic adjustment). Transpiration rates from conifer foliage often are lower than those of deciduous angiosperms, probably because of the lower maximum capacity of tracheid-bearing xylem to transport water.« less

  9. Thrust Stand for Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.; Dehoyos, Amado; Spaun, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    An electric propulsion thrust stand capable of supporting testing of thrusters having a total mass of up to 125 kg and producing thrust levels between 100 microN to 1 N has been developed and tested. The design features a conventional hanging pendulum arm attached to a balance mechanism that converts horizontal deflections produced by the operating thruster into amplified vertical motion of a secondary arm. The level of amplification is changed through adjustment of the location of one of the pivot points linking the system. Response of the system depends on the relative magnitudes of the restoring moments applied by the displaced thruster mass and the twisting torsional pivots connecting the members of the balance mechanism. Displacement is measured using a non-contact, optical linear gap displacement transducer and balance oscillatory motion is attenuated using a passive, eddy-current damper. The thrust stand employs an automated leveling and thermal control system. Pools of liquid gallium are used to deliver power to the thruster without using solid wire connections, which can exert undesirable time-varying forces on the balance. These systems serve to eliminate sources of zero-drift that can occur as the stand thermally or mechanically shifts during the course of an experiment. An in-situ calibration rig allows for steady-state calibration before, during and after thruster operation. Thrust measurements were carried out on a cylindrical Hall thruster that produces mN-level thrust. The measurements were very repeatable, producing results that compare favorably with previously published performance data, but with considerably smaller uncertainty.

  10. The selection system of silviculture in spruce-fir stands - procedures, early results, and comparisons with unmanaged stands

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Frank; Barton M. Blum

    1978-01-01

    Early results after 20 years of record keeping indicate that spruce-fir stands will respond to the selection system of silviculture. Stand quality is improved, species composition can be altered, diameter-class distribution approaches a stated goal, stand density is controlled, and yields are increased. Selection silviculture in spruce-fir can now be compared to early...

  11. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years

    Treesearch

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  12. Stand quality management in a late-rotation, red oak-sweetgum stand in east Mississippi: preliminary results following thinning

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Skojac

    2012-01-01

    Stand quality management is a new management strategy in which thinning prescriptions are based solely on tree quality rather than a quantitative level of residual stand density. As long as residual density falls within fairly broad limits, prescriptions are based on tree quality alone. We applied four thinning prescriptions based on stand quality management, along...

  13. Reconstructed old-growth forest stand structure and composition of two stands on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington state

    Treesearch

    David H. Peter; Constance A. Harrington

    2010-01-01

    We reconstructed the stand structure and composition for two western Washington old-growth forest stands harvested around 1930 (named Fresca and Rail) from field and historical data. Both old-growth stands had a codominant or dominant 250-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) overstory with a few scattered older Douglas-fir....

  14. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  15. The scientific dating of standing buildings.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Nathaniel W

    2017-11-17

    The techniques of dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) and radiocarbon (14C) dating are described, as they are applied to historic buildings. Both rely on determining the felling dates of the trees used in their construction. For dendrochronology, the construction of master chronologies and the matching of individual ring-width sequences to them is described and, for radiocarbon dating, the use of tree-ring results in calibration. Results of dating are discussed, ranging from the cathedrals of Peterborough and Beauvais and the development of crown-post roof structures, to the dating and identification of standing medieval peasant houses, particularly those built using cruck construction.

  16. Construction of an automated table standing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, R. E.; Barbero, M. D.; Di Giulio, E. A.; Folco, J. F.; Jiménez, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the construction of an upright stretcher designed for patients in rehabilitation. The standing back to patients' expectations of therapeutic improvement, allowing correct all the troubles of a passive long. It has been shown that this table favors not only physically but also has a psychological reach beyond the scope of physical therapy and strongly affects the recovery. At the same time, the use of an upright stretcher greatly decreases the biomechanical disorders of hospital staff in the process of recovery. Thus the problem of rehabilitation of trafficking in a comprehensive way which not only focuses on the patient's undivided attention but also includes medical and auxiliary personnel.

  17. Free-standing oxide superconducting articles

    DOEpatents

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1993-12-14

    A substrate-free, free-standing epitaxially oriented superconductive film including a layer of a template material and a layer of a ceramic superconducting material is provided together with a method of making such a substrate-free ceramic superconductive film by coating an etchable material with a template layer, coating the template layer with a layer of a ceramic superconductive material, coating the layer of ceramic superconductive material with a protective material, removing the etchable material by an appropriate means so that the etchable material is separated from a composite structure including the template layer.

  18. A Fresh Look at Longitudinal Standing Waves on a Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Transverse standing waves produced on a string, as shown in Fig. 1, are a common demonstration of standing wave patterns that have nodes at both ends. Longitudinal standing waves can be produced on a helical spring that is mounted vertically and attached to a speaker, as shown in Fig. 2, and used to produce both node-node (NN) and node-antinode (NA) standing waves. The resonant frequencies of the two standing wave patterns are related with theory that is accessible to students in algebra-based introductory physics courses, and actual measurements show good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  19. View looking west at Test Stand 'A' complex in morning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking west at Test Stand 'A' complex in morning sun. View shows Monitor Building 4203/E-4 at left, barrier (Building 4216/E-17) to right of 4203/E-4, and Test Stand 'A' tower. Attached structure to lower left of tower is Test Stand 'A' machine room which contained refrigeration equipment. Building in right background with Test Stand 'A' tower shadow on it is Assembly Building 4288/E-89, built in 1984. Row of ground-mounted brackets in foreground was used to carry electrical cable and/or fuel lines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    SciTech Connect

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security wasmore » accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model

  1. Elbow kinematics during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements.

    PubMed

    Packer, T L; Wyss, U P; Costigan, P A

    1993-11-01

    The sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements of 10 healthy women (mean age 52.4 years) were subjected to a descriptive analysis that yielded a definition of phases, determination of the peak angles reached, maximum angular velocity during each movement, and the sequencing of key events. While subjects showed little intrasubject variability, intersubject variability was evident. Subjects differed in the joint angles and angular velocity recorded, but the sequence of flexion/extension and rotation events were unchanged. Changes in direction of flexion/extension and rotation tended to occur very close in time, if not at the same time. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Van der Waals epitaxy of functional MoO{sub 2} film on mica for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Chun-Hao; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan; Lin, Jheng-Cyuan

    Flexible electronics have a great potential to impact consumer electronics and with that our daily life. Currently, no direct growth of epitaxial functional oxides on commercially available flexible substrates is possible. In this study, in order to address this challenge, muscovite, a common layered oxide, is used as a flexible substrate that is chemically similar to typical functional oxides. We fabricated epitaxial MoO{sub 2} films on muscovite via pulsed laser deposition technique. A combination of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirms van der Waals epitaxy of the heterostructures. The electrical transport properties of MoO{sub 2} films are similar tomore » those of the bulk. Flexible or free-standing MoO{sub 2} thin film can be obtained and serve as a template to integrate additional functional oxide layers. Our study demonstrates a remarkable concept to create flexible electronics based on functional oxides.« less

  3. Structure-based design and screening of inhibitors for an essential bacterial GTPase, Der.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jihwan; Tseitin, Vladimir; Ramnarayan, Kal; Shenderovich, Mark D; Inouye, Masayori

    2012-05-01

    Der is an essential and widely conserved GTPase that assists assembly of a large ribosomal subunit in bacteria. Der associates specifically with the 50S subunit in a GTP-dependent manner and the cells depleted of Der accumulate the structurally unstable 50S subunit, which dissociates into an aberrant subunit at a lower Mg(2+) concentration. As Der is an essential and ubiquitous protein in bacteria, it may prove to be an ideal cellular target against which new antibiotics can be developed. In the present study, we describe our attempts to identify novel antibiotics specifically targeting Der GTPase. We performed the structure-based design of Der inhibitors using the X-ray crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima Der (TmDer). Virtual screening of commercially available chemical library retrieved 257 small molecules that potentially inhibit Der GTPase activity. These 257 chemicals were tested for their in vitro effects on TmDer GTPase and in vivo antibacterial activities. We identified three structurally diverse compounds, SBI-34462, -34566 and -34612, that are both biologically active against bacterial cells and putative enzymatic inhibitors of Der GTPase homologs. We also presented the possible interactions of each compound with the Der GTP-binding site to understand the mechanism of inhibition. Therefore, our lead compounds inhibiting Der GTPase provide scaffolds for the development of novel antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Three-dimensional Instability of Standing Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2002-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing waves under the influence of gravity using the transition matrix method. For accurate calculation of the transition matrices, we apply an efficient high-order spectral element method for nonlinear wave dynamics in complex domain. We consider two types of standing waves: (a) plane standing waves; and (b) standing waves in a circular tank. For the former, in addition to the confirmation of the side-band-like instability, we find a new three-dimensional instability for arbitrary base standing waves. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique standing wave, with an arbitrary angle relative to the base flow, whose frequency is approximately equal to that of the base standing wave. Based on direct simulations, we confirm such a three-dimensional instability and show the occurrence of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon during nonlinear evolution. For the latter, we find that beyond a threshold wave steepness, the standing wave with frequency Ω becomes unstable to a small three-dimensional disturbance, which contains two dominant standing-wave components with frequencies ω1 and ω_2, provided that 2Ω ω1 + ω_2. The threshold wave steepness is found to decrease/increase as the radial/azimuthal wavenumber of the base standing wave increases. We show that the instability of standing waves in rectangular and circular tanks is caused by third-order quartet resonances between base flow and disturbance.

  5. Biomass estimation for Virginia pine trees and stands

    SciTech Connect

    Madgwick, H.A.I.

    1980-03-01

    Stands of Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) occur on much abandoned farm land in the Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont of Virginia. Natural stands are an important source of pulpwood, and these are being augmented by plantations. Increased intensity of utilization necessitates the estimation of component weights of the trees. Data from 501 trees from 10 stands were used to develop equations for estimating dry weight of stem wood, stem bark, total stem 1-year-old needles, total needles, live branches, and total branches of individual trees. Stand weight of stems was closely related to stand basal area and mean height. Stand live-branchmore » weight varies inversely with stocking. Weight of 1-year-old foliage on the stands increased with stocking and site index. 13 references.« less

  6. Analyse der pharmazeutischen Versorgungssituation von Patienten mit Psoriasis-Arthritis auf Basis von Routinedaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, Wiebke; Ventzke, Julia; Matusiewicz, David; Körber, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Die Psoriasis-Arthritis (PsA) gehört zu den chronisch entzündlichen Gelenkerkrankungen. Trotz zahlreicher versorgungswissenschaftlicher Studien in Deutschland liegen zur pharmazeutischen Versorgungssituation von PsA-Patienten bisher kaum aktuelle Ergebnisse vor. Mit Hilfe einer systematischen Literaturrecherche sowie anhand von Routinedaten der Allgemeinen Ortskrankenkasse (AOK) Rheinland/Hamburg wird ein aktueller Überblick über die pharmazeutische Versorgung von PsA-Patienten in Deutschland gegeben. Selektiert wurden Versicherte aus dem ambulanten und stationären Bereich, die im 1. und 2. Quartal des Jahres 2014 die gesicherte Abrechnungsdiagnose Psoriasis-Arthritis L40.5+ aufwiesen. Anschließend wurden auf Basis dieser "vorab definierten" Kohorte die Arzneimitteldaten für 5 Jahre (01.01.2010-31.12.2014) abgerufen. Es konnten insgesamt n  =  3205 Versicherte (45 % männlich, 55 % weiblich) der AOK Rheinland/Hamburg mit einer gesicherten PsA-Diagnose selektiert werden. Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 58,9 Jahre. 53,7 % der PsA-Patienten wurden mit systemischen PsA-relevanten Arzneimitteln versorgt. Nichtsteroidale Antirheumatika (NSAR) wurden am häufigsten verordnet, gefolgt von systemischen Glucocorticoiden. Von den selektierten PsA-Patienten, die eine Systemtherapie erhielten, wurden 72,1 % mittels einer Disease-modifying-antirheumatic-Drug (DMARD)-Monotherapie behandelt, gefolgt von der Kombinationstherapie aus DMARDs und Biologika (20,9 %). Die pharmakologische Therapie der PsA muss eine Gewährleistung zwischen adäquater Versorgung der PsA mit Verhinderung der Krankheitsprogression und ökonomischer Verantwortung darstellen. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Conjugation of nitrated acetaminophen to Der p1 amplifies peripheral blood monocyte response to Der p1.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ryan G; Rivera Reyes, Brenda M; Gaston, Benjamin M; Rivera Acosta, Nelki B; Bederman, Ilya R; Smith, Laura A; Sutton, Morgan T; Wang, Benlian; Hunt, John F; Bonfield, Tracey L

    2017-01-01

    An association of acetaminophen use and asthma was observed in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study. However there are no clear mechanisms to explain an association between acetaminophen use and immunologic pathology. In acidic conditions like those in the stomach and inflamed airway, tyrosine residues are nitrated by nitrous and peroxynitrous acids. The resulting nitrotyrosine is structurally similar to 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, known haptens that enhance immune responses by covalently binding proteins. Nitrated acetaminophen shares similar molecular structure. We hypothesized the acetaminophen phenol ring undergoes nitration under acidic conditions, producing 3-nitro-acetaminophen which augments allergic responses by acting as a hapten for environmental allergens. 3-nitro-acetaminophen was formed from acetaminophen in the presence of acidified nitrite, purified by high performance liquid chromatography, and assayed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Purified 3-nitro-acetaminophen was reacted with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify the modification site. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation response was measured in response to 3-nitro-acetaminophen and to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1. Acetaminophen was modified by nitrous acid forming 3-nitro-acetaminophen over a range of different acidic conditions consistent with airway inflammation and stomach acidity. The Der p1 protein-hapten adduct creation was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry proteomics modifying cysteine 132. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1 had increased proliferation and cytokine production compared to acetaminophen and Der p1 alone (n = 7; p < 0.05). These data suggests 3-nitro-acetaminophen formation and reaction with Der p1 provides a mechanism by which stomach acid or infection-induced low airway

  8. Van der Waals interaction in uniaxial anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2013-01-23

    Van der Waals interactions between flat surfaces in uniaxial anisotropic media are investigated in the nonretarded limit. The main focus is the effect of nonzero tilt between the optical axis and the surface normal on the strength of the van der Waals attraction. General expressions for the van der Waals free energy are derived using the surface mode method and the transfer-matrix formalism. To facilitate numerical calculations a temperature-dependent three-band parameterization of the dielectric tensor of the liquid crystal 5CB is developed. A solid slab immersed in a liquid crystal experiences a van der Waals torque that aligns the surface normal relative to the optical axis of the medium. The preferred orientation is different for different materials. Two solid slabs in close proximity experience a van der Waals attraction that is strongest for homeotropic alignment of the intervening liquid crystal for all the materials studied. The results have implications for the stability of plate-like colloids in liquid crystal hosts.

  9. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; Rodriguez-Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-10-01

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. Such interactions are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insights into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. This review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. The outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.

  10. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  11. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  12. Competency to stand trial among female inpatients.

    PubMed

    Kois, Lauren; Pearson, Jessica; Chauhan, Preeti; Goni, Margaret; Saraydarian, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    Competency to stand trial evaluations are conducted by forensic mental health professionals to opine whether defendants possess the mental abilities to understand, appreciate, and reason in regard to their court proceedings. The majority of research on competency to stand trial evaluations has focused on males, with research on female defendants being relatively underexplored. Even less is known of diverse female samples referred for competency evaluation. In the current study, we sought to examine whether characteristics associated with competency among predominantly male samples translate to a racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse group of female defendants (N = 288, 85% non-White). Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between findings of incompetence and defendants' diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, active psychotic symptoms, medication noncompliance, nonparticipation in the evaluation, and nonfelony charges. Logistic regression analysis indicated that defendants who experienced active psychotic symptoms, did not participate in their evaluations, and were not compliant with their medication were most likely to be found incompetent. Notably, neither minority status nor age was a significant characteristic in predicting incompetence. These findings in particular differ from much of the literature and highlight the need to examine competency within a cross-cultural framework, as characteristics associated with competency opinions do not necessarily translate across demographic groups.

  13. Some effects of stand density and deer browsing on reproduction in an Adirondack hardwood stand

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; F.M. Rushmore

    1958-01-01

    The northern hardwood stands of the Adirondack region of New York constitute a major natural resource, the basis of one of the few year-round industries of the area. However, knowledge of their silviculture and potential productivity is limited. The results of an exploratory study begun in 1938 provide some information about the problems involved in the management of...

  14. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - I. Recently Cutover Natural Stands

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    A 1988 USDA Forest Service report indicated that 22% (40 million ac) of the commercial timberland in the South was understocked (less than 60% stocking) with desirable tree species for timber production (USDA Forest Service 1988). The understocked stands are usually the result of past har-vesting practices, natural catastrophes, or regeneration fail-ures. Understocked...

  15. Stand characteristics of 65-year-old planted and naturally regenerated stands near Sequim, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson

    1995-01-01

    Tree numbers, height, and volume were determined in six 63- to 66-year-old plantations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in northwest Washington. These stands resulted from the first extensive plantings of this species in the Pacific Northwest. Data from 0.25-acre plots in these...

  16. Transmission components of solar radiation in pine stands in relation to climatic and stand variables

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Muller

    1971-01-01

    In a new approach, transmission was studied by relating to stand biomass the ratio of incoming solar radiation beneath tree crowns to that within the atmosphere. Several assumptions were used to estimate analytically the various ways in which solar radiation penetrates through crowns of three pine species in northern California. Sunflecks accounted for much of the...

  17. Stand development patterns for young planted oak stands on bottomland hardwood restoration sites

    Treesearch

    Jonathan Stoll; Brent R. Frey

    2016-01-01

    Over the last several decades, bottomland restoration efforts have established hundreds of thousands of acres of planted hardwood stands throughout the Southeastern U.S. Much of the initial research focused on planting approaches and early growth and survival, contributing to more effective establishment methods. However, less research attention has been focused on...

  18. Cooperative standing-horizontal-standing reentrant transition for numerous solid particles under external vibration.

    PubMed

    Takatori, Satoshi; Baba, Hikari; Ichino, Takatoshi; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2018-01-11

    We report the collective behavior of numerous plastic bolt-like particles exhibiting one of two distinct states, either standing stationary or horizontal accompanied by tumbling motion, when placed on a horizontal plate undergoing sinusoidal vertical vibration. Experimentally, we prepared an initial state in which all of the particles were standing except for a single particle that was placed at the center of the plate. Under continuous vertical vibration, the initially horizontal particle triggers neighboring particles to fall over into a horizontal state through tumbling-induced collision, and this effect gradually spreads to all of the particles, i.e., the number of horizontal particles is increased. Interestingly, within a certain range of vibration intensity, almost all of the horizontal particles revert back to standing in association with the formation of apparent 2D hexagonal dense-packing. Thus, phase segregation between high and low densities, or crystalline and disperse domains, of standing particles is generated as a result of the reentrant transition. The essential features of such cooperative dynamics through the reentrant transition are elucidated with a simple kinetic model. We also demonstrate that an excitable wave with the reentrant transition is observed when particles are situated in a quasi-one-dimensional confinement on a vibrating plate.

  19. Light intensity related to stand density in mature stands of the western white pine type

    Treesearch

    C. A. Wellner

    1948-01-01

    Where tolerance of forest trees or subordinate vegetation is a factor in management, the forester needs a simple field method of Estimating or forecasting light intensities in forest stands. The following article describes a method developed for estimating light intensity beneath the canopy in western white pine forests which may have application in other types.

  20. Biokompatible Implantate und Neuentwicklungen in der Gynäkologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Kiechle, Marion

    Für den Einsatz in der Gynäkologie stehen heute eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher, biokompatibler Materialien und Implantate zur Verfügung. Auf eine Auswahl soll hier näher eingegangen werden, die die verschiedenen Materialien und Bauweisen repräsentieren. So sind Brustimplantate seit fast vier Jahrzehnten im Gebrauch für die Brustvergrösserung und den Brustwiederaufbau. Material, Bauweisen und medizinische Aspekte einschliesslich der kontroversen Diskussion um Silikon werden im folgenden erläutert. Neuere Entwicklungen von Verhütungstechniken für permanente Sterilisation wie den Filshie ClipTM für transabdominalen und den STOPTM für intraluminalen Verschluss der Eileiter oder die intrauterin plazierte Hormonspirale MirenaTM für zeitlich begrenzte Verhütung werden beschrieben. Eine neue Perspektive zur Verhinderung postoperativer intraabdominaler Adhäsionen stellt Spray-GelTM, ein Zweikomponenten Hydrogel aus Polyethylenglykol, dar.

  1. Standing Vs Supine; Does it Matter in Cough Stress Testing?

    PubMed

    Patnam, Radhika; Edenfield, Autumn L; Swift, Steven E

    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of cough stress test in the standing versus supine position in the evaluation of incontinent females. We performed a prospective observational study of women with the chief complaint of urinary incontinence (UI) undergoing a provocative cough stress test (CST). Subjects underwent both a standing and a supine CST. Testing order was randomized via block randomization. Cough stress test was performed in a standard method via backfill of 200 mL or until the subject described strong urge. The subjects were asked to cough, and the physician documented urine leakage by direct observation. The gold standard for stress UI diagnosis was a positive CST in either position. Sixty subjects were enrolled, 38 (63%) tested positive on any CST, with 38 (63%) positive on standing compared with 29 (28%) positive on supine testing. Nine women (15%) had positive standing and negative supine testing. No subjects had negative standing with positive supine testing. There were no significant differences in positive tests between the 2 randomized groups (standing first and supine second vs. supine first and standing second). When compared with the gold standard of any positive provocative stress test, the supine CST has a sensitivity of 76%, whereas the standing CST has a sensitivity of 100%. The standing CST is more sensitive than the supine CST and should be performed in any patient with a complaint of UI and negative supine CST. The order of testing either supine or standing first does not affect the results.

  2. Blood Pressure Associates with Standing Balance in Elderly Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Pasma, Jantsje H.; Bijlsma, Astrid Y.; Klip, Janneke M.; Stijntjes, Marjon; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Muller, Majon; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197) and continuously (subsample, n = 58) before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1) the ability to maintain standing balance; 2) self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3) history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. Results Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. Conclusion Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care. PMID:25222275

  3. The Economics of van der Waals Force Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    As micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication continues on an ever-decreasing scale, new technological challenges must be successfully negotiated if Moore's Law is to be an even approximately valid model of the future of device miniaturization. Among the most significant obstacles is the existence of strong surface forces related to quantum mechanical van der Waals interatomic interactions, which rapidly diverge as the distance between any two neutral boundaries decreases. The van der Waals force is a contributing factor in several device failures and limitations, including, for instance, stiction and oscillator non-linearities. In the last decade, however, it has been conclusively shown that van der Waals forces are not just a MEMS limitation but can be engineered in both magnitude and sign so as to enable classes of proprietary inventions which either deliver novel capabilities or improve upon existing ones. The evolution of van der Waals force research from an almost exclusively theoretical field in quantum-electro-dynamics to an enabling nanotechnology discipline represents a useful example of the ongoing paradigm shift from government-centered to private-capital funded R&D in cutting-edge physics leading to potentially profitable products. In this paper, we discuss the reasons van der Waals force engineering may lead to the creation of thriving markets both in the short and medium terms by highlighting technical challenges that can be competitively addressed by this novel approach. We also discuss some notable obstacles to the cultural transformation of the academic research community required for the emergence of a functional van der Waals force engineering industry worldwide.

  4. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Did You Know – Transactive Energy Provides the Next Big Step in DER Integration

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Thomas E.

    This is an invited blog article for the Utility Variable Generation Integration Group (UVIG) on the topic of distributed energy resource (DER) integration. Summarizes DER progress since 2004, which signifies a maturing industry. Proposes transactive energy as a means of integrating more DER without special incentives or mitigation techniques.

  6. Effective field theories for van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Nora; Shtabovenko, Vladyslav; Tarrús Castellà, Jaume; Vairo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Van der Waals interactions between two neutral but polarizable systems at a separation R much larger than the typical size of the systems are at the core of a broad sweep of contemporary problems in settings ranging from atomic, molecular and condensed matter physics to strong interactions and gravity. In this paper, we reexamine the dispersive van der Waals interactions between two hydrogen atoms. The novelty of the analysis resides in the usage of nonrelativistic effective field theories of quantum electrodynamics. In this framework, the van der Waals potential acquires the meaning of a matching coefficient in an effective field theory, dubbed van der Waals effective field theory, suited to describe the low-energy dynamics of an atom pair. It may be computed systematically as a series in R times some typical atomic scale and in the fine-structure constant α . The van der Waals potential gets short-range contributions and radiative corrections, which we compute in dimensional regularization and renormalize here for the first time. Results are given in d space-time dimensions. One can distinguish among different regimes depending on the relative size between 1 /R and the typical atomic bound-state energy, which is of order m α2. Each regime is characterized by a specific hierarchy of scales and a corresponding tower of effective field theories. The short-distance regime is characterized by 1 /R ≫m α2 and the leading-order van der Waals potential is the London potential. We also compute next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order corrections. In the long-distance regime we have 1 /R ≪m α2. In this regime, the van der Waals potential contains contact terms, which are parametrically larger than the Casimir-Polder potential that describes the potential at large distances. In the effective field theory, the Casimir-Polder potential counts as a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order effect. In the intermediate-distance regime, 1 /R ˜m α2, a significantly more complex

  7. 2014 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met on December 17 - 18, 2014 in Houston, TX to review the current status of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alteration Associated with Space Flight (Sensorimotor Risk) in the Integrated Research Plan (IRP). During the meeting, the SRP received an in-depth briefing of the current status of the Sensorimotor Risk from Dr. Jacob Bloomberg, the Human Research Program (HRP) Sensorimotor Discipline Lead Scientist and Dr. Millard Reschke, the Chief Scientist of the Neuroscience Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The SRP was impressed with the information that Dr. Bloomberg and Dr. Reschke presented and think that the in-person meeting (instead of WebEx/teleconference) allowed for more interactive and thoughtful conversations.

  8. FERMILAB CRYOMODULE TEST STAND RF INTERLOCK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Troy; Diamond, J. S.; McDowell, D.

    2016-10-12

    An interlock system has been designed for the Fermilab Cryo-module Test Stand (CMTS), a test bed for the cryo- modules to be used in the upcoming Linac Coherent Light Source 2 (LCLS-II) project at SLAC. The interlock system features 8 independent subsystems, one per superconducting RF cavity and solid state amplifier (SSA) pair. Each system monitors several devices to detect fault conditions such as arcing in the waveguides or quenching of the SRF system. Additionally each system can detect fault conditions by monitoring the RF power seen at the cavity coupler through a directional coupler. In the event of amore » fault condition, each system is capable of removing RF signal to the amplifier (via a fast RF switch) as well as turning off the SSA. Additionally, each input signal is available for re- mote viewing and recording via a Fermilab designed digitizer board and MVME 5500 processor.« less

  9. Confining standing waves in optical corrals.

    SciTech Connect

    Babayan, Y.; McMahon, J. M.; Li, S.

    2009-03-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy images of solid wall, circular, and elliptical microscale corrals show standing wave patterns confined inside the structures with a wavelength close to that of the incident light. The patterns inside the corrals can be tuned by changing the size and material of the walls, the wavelength of incident light, and polarization direction for elliptical corrals. Finite-difference time-domain calculations of the corral structures agree with the experimental observations and reveal that the electric and magnetic field intensities are out of phase inside the corral. A theoretical modal analysis indicates that the fields inside the corrals can bemore » attributed to p- and s-polarized waveguide modes, and that the superposition of the propagating and evanescent modes can explain the phase differences between the fields. These experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that electromagnetic fields on a dielectric surface can be controlled in a predictable manner.« less

  10. Standing variation in spatially growing populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Diana; Gralka, Matti; Kayser, Jona; Hallatschek, Oskar

    Patterns of genetic diversity not only reflect the evolutionary history of a species but they can also determine the evolutionary response to environmental change. For instance, the standing genetic diversity of a microbial population can be key to rescue in the face of an antibiotic attack. While genetic diversity is in general shaped by both demography and evolution, very little is understood when both factors matter, as e.g. for biofilms with pronounced spatial organization. Here, we quantitatively explore patterns of genetic diversity by using microbial colonies and well-mixed test tube populations as antipodal model systems with extreme and very little spatial structure, respectively. We find that Eden model simulations and KPZ theory can remarkably reproduce the genetic diversity in microbial colonies obtained via population sequencing. The excellent agreement allows to draw conclusions on the resilience of spatially-organized populations and to uncover new strategies to contain antibiotic resistance.

  11. Free-standing oxide superconducting articles

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Muenchausen, Ross E.

    1993-01-01

    A substrate-free, free-standing epitaxially oriented superconductive film including a layer of a template material and a layer of a ceramic superconducting material is provided together with a method of making such a substrate-free ceramic superconductive film by coating an etchable material with a template layer, coating the template layer with a layer of a ceramic superconductive material, coating the layer of ceramic superconductive material with a protective material, removing the etchable material by an appropriate means so that the etchable material is separated from a composite structure including the template lay This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  12. Helium Speech: An Application of Standing Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, Christopher D.

    2011-04-01

    Taking a breath of helium gas and then speaking or singing to the class is a favorite demonstration for an introductory physics course, as it usually elicits appreciative laughter, which serves to energize the class session. Students will usually report that the helium speech "raises the frequency" of the voice. A more accurate description of the phenomenon requires that we distinguish between the frequencies of sound produced by the larynx and the filtering of those frequencies by the vocal tract. We will describe here an experiment done by introductory physics students that uses helium speech as a context for learning about the human vocal system and as an application of the standing sound-wave concept. Modern acoustic analysis software easily obtained by instructors for student use allows data to be obtained and analyzed quickly.

  13. h-BN/graphene van der Waals vertical heterostructure: a fully spin-polarized photocurrent generator.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xixi; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaohong; Hao, Hua; Wang, Xianlong; Song, Lingling; Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Hong

    2017-12-21

    By constructing transport junctions using graphene-based van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures in which a zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) is sandwiched between two hexagonal boron-nitride sheets, we computationally demonstrate a new scheme for generating perfect spin-polarized quantum transport in ZGNRs by light irradiation. The mechanism lies in the lift of spin degeneracy of ZGNR induced by the stagger potential it receives from the BN sheets and the subsequent possibility of single spin excitation of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band by properly tuning the photon energy. This scheme is rather robust in that we always achieve desirable results irrespective of whether we decrease or increase the interlayer distance by applying compressive or tensile strain vertically to the sheets or shift the BN sheets in-plane relative to the graphene nanoribbons. More importantly, this scheme overcomes the long-standing difficulties in traditional ways of using solely electrical field or chemical modification for obtaining half-metallic transport in ZGNRs and thus paves a more feasible way for their application in spintronics.

  14. Stand dynamics in 60-year-old Allegheny hardwoods after thinning

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller

    1997-01-01

    Stand dynamics and tree growth in even-aged hardwood stands can be influenced by manipulating relative stand density, species composition, and stand structure. Land managers need quantitative information on the effect of vegetation manipulation to prescribe stand treatments that are appropriate for specific management objectives. Sixty-year-old stands composed of black...

  15. Credit BG. View looking southwest at Test Stand "D" complex. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looking southwest at Test Stand "D" complex. In the background at left is the Steam Generator Plant 4280/E-81 built in 1972 to house four gas-fired Clayton flash boilers. The boilers were later supplemented by the electrically heated steam accumulator (sphere) to supply steam to the various ejectors at Test Stand "D" vacuum test cells - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Optimized design for sling of stand up lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongfang; Wang, Yue; Cui, Tengfei; Bao, Xuelian; Duan, Xingguang

    2017-04-01

    Stand up lift is a kind of equipment that assists those with dyskinesia of legs to stand up or move. As an important part of stand up lift, sling concerns the realization of the equipment's function and the safety of users. On the basis of ergonomics theory, this thesis will design and optimize the sling to make it safer and more comfortable and meet demands of different people.

  17. Stand-Damage Model with Java (Version 3.0)

    Treesearch

    George Racin; J.J. Colbert

    2004-01-01

    NOTE: Instructions for ordering the cd-rom with the software are included on the front cover of the linked publication. The Stand-Damage Model with Java is a distance-independent tree-growth simulator. The model follows the life of a forest stand represented by species and diameter-class widths. The user supplies the initial state of the stand along with management...

  18. Rate of value change in Pennsylvania timber stands

    Treesearch

    Owen W. Herrick

    1984-01-01

    Data from remeasured Pennsylvania forest inventory plots revealed that during a 13-year period the compound rate of value change in uncut hardwood forest stands averaged 4.7 percent, and ranged from -5.5 to 18.8 percent. No well-defined means for predicting a stand's rate of value change could be identified, However, some measures of initial stand condition can be...

  19. Stand-age profile of North Carolina's timberland

    Treesearch

    Herbert A. Knight

    1977-01-01

    Most timber stands in North Carolina are even aged and appeared after some act of nature or man. The most common acts which lead to the establishment of a new stand are timber harvesting, retirement of farmland, wildfire, wind and ice storms, or insect and disease outbreaks. Most frequently, the new stand is a product of nature’s healing process. Less often, some land...

  20. Credit BG. View west of Test Stand "D" complex, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View west of Test Stand "D" complex, with ends of Dd (left) and Dy (right) station ejectors in view. Steam piping from accumulator (sphere) to ejectors is apparent; long horizontal loops in the pipes permit expansion and contraction without special joints. The small platform straddling the Dd ejector (near the accumulator) was originally constructed for a "Hyprox" steam generator which supplied steam to the Dd ejector before the accumulator and Dy stand were built. Note ejectors on top of interstage condenser in Test Stand "D" tower. Metal shed in far right background is for storage - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Wildlife response to stand structure of deciduous woodlands

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Hodorff; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Raymond L. Linder

    1988-01-01

    Deciduous woodlands provide important habitat for wildlife but comprise Fraxinus pennsylvanica) woodlands in northwestern South Dakota. Closed-canopy stands were multilayered communities with dense...

  2. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, view of Test Stand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, view of Test Stand "D" from Test Stand "A" while a rocket engine test is in progress. Cloud of steam is from partly from water created by propellant reaction and from water sprayed by flame bucket into engine exhaust for cooling purposes. A portion of Test Stand "C" is visible at the far right. (JPL negative no. 384-2082-B, 23 October 1959) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Flexible integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bigeng; Wu, Hao; Xin, Chenguang; Dai, Daoxin; Tong, Limin

    2017-06-14

    Silicon photonics has been developed successfully with a top-down fabrication technique to enable large-scale photonic integrated circuits with high reproducibility, but is limited intrinsically by the material capability for active or nonlinear applications. On the other hand, free-standing nanowires synthesized via a bottom-up growth present great material diversity and structural uniformity, but precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a great challenge. Here we report hybrid integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics with high flexibility by coupling free-standing nanowires onto target silicon waveguides that are simultaneously used for precise positioning. Coupling efficiency between a free-standing nanowire and a silicon waveguide is up to ~97% in the telecommunication band. A hybrid nonlinear-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a racetrack resonator for significantly enhanced optical modulation are experimentally demonstrated, as well as hybrid active-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides circuits for light generation. These results suggest an alternative approach to flexible multifunctional on-chip nanophotonic devices.Precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a challenge. Here, Chen et al. integrate free-standing nanowires into silicon waveguides and show all-optical modulation and light generation on silicon photonic chips.

  4. Validation of the VitaBit Sit–Stand Tracker: Detecting Sitting, Standing, and Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Plasqui, Guy

    2018-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) has detrimental consequences and cannot be compensated for through moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA). In order to understand and mitigate SB, tools for measuring and monitoring SB are essential. While current direct-to-customer wearables focus on PA, the VitaBit validated in this study was developed to focus on SB. It was tested in a laboratory and in a free-living condition, comparing it to direct observation and to a current best-practice device, the ActiGraph, on a minute-by-minute basis. In the laboratory, the VitaBit yielded specificity and negative predictive rates (NPR) of above 91.2% for sitting and standing, while sensitivity and precision ranged from 74.6% to 85.7%. For walking, all performance values exceeded 97.3%. In the free-living condition, the device revealed performance of over 72.6% for sitting with the ActiGraph as criterion. While sensitivity and precision for standing and walking ranged from 48.2% to 68.7%, specificity and NPR exceeded 83.9%. According to the laboratory findings, high performance for sitting, standing, and walking makes the VitaBit eligible for SB monitoring. As the results are not transferrable to daily life activities, a direct observation study in a free-living setting is recommended. PMID:29543766

  5. Concession stand makeovers: a pilot study of offering healthy foods at high school concession stands.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Helena H; Ford, Christopher; Hansen, Kate; Cai, Xueya; Just, David R; Hanks, Andrew S; Wansink, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Concession stands at high school events are exempt from the US Department of Agriculture regulations for school foods. Concessions are generally stocked with unhealthy foods since healthy foods are believed to have lower sales and profit margins. Concession stand sales for two seasons of high school fall sports in Muscatine, Iowa were compared. In between seasons, two types of changes were made: (i) addition of new healthier concession options and (ii) substitution of healthier ingredients (less saturated fat, no trans fat). Satisfaction surveys of students and parents were conducted before and after the changes. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 and analyzed in 2012-13. Revenue per game was similar between years, even with the introduction of healthier items and ingredient changes. In 2009, the new healthy foods comprised 9.2% of total revenue and sales of some new items increased with each game. The 'healthy makeover' had no influence on student satisfaction but it improved parent satisfaction (P < 0.001). This compelling test of concept shows that offering healthier items can be good for both sales and satisfaction. While this study was conducted with concession stands, the principles can be carried over into other food retail settings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Concession stand makeovers: a pilot study of offering healthy foods at high school concession stands

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Helena H.; Ford, Christopher; Hansen, Kate; Cai, Xueya; Just, David R.; Hanks, Andrew S.; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Concession stands at high school events are exempt from the US Department of Agriculture regulations for school foods. Concessions are generally stocked with unhealthy foods since healthy foods are believed to have lower sales and profit margins. Methods Concession stand sales for two seasons of high school fall sports in Muscatine, Iowa were compared. In between seasons, two types of changes were made: (i) addition of new healthier concession options and (ii) substitution of healthier ingredients (less saturated fat, no trans fat). Satisfaction surveys of students and parents were conducted before and after the changes. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 and analyzed in 2012–13. Results Revenue per game was similar between years, even with the introduction of healthier items and ingredient changes. In 2009, the new healthy foods comprised 9.2% of total revenue and sales of some new items increased with each game. The ‘healthy makeover’ had no influence on student satisfaction but it improved parent satisfaction (P < 0.001). Conclusions This compelling test of concept shows that offering healthier items can be good for both sales and satisfaction. While this study was conducted with concession stands, the principles can be carried over into other food retail settings. PMID:24623802

  7. Van der Waals forces in pNRQED

    SciTech Connect

    Shtabovenko, Vladyslav

    2016-01-22

    We report on the calculation of electromagnetic van der Waals forces [1] between two hydrogen atoms using non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) of QED for large and small momentum transfers with respect to the intrinsic energy scale of the hydrogen atom. Our results reproduce the well known London and Casimir-Polder forces.

  8. van der Pauw's Theorem on Sheet Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The sheet resistance of a conducting material of uniform thickness is analogous to the resistivity of a solid material and provides a measure of electrical resistance. In 1958, L. J. van der Pauw found an effective method for computing sheet resistance that requires taking two electrical measurements from four points on the edge of a simply…

  9. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Li, Zuyi; Wang, Jianhui

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy asmore » well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is

  10. Spectroscopy of Single Free Standing Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M D; Hollars, C W; Huser, T

    2006-03-14

    We investigated the interaction of quantum confined exciton states GaAs quantum wells with native surface states. Single molecule photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, developed by T. Huser at LLNL was used to probe the unique bare quantum wells in the free standing quantum well structure. The latter was developed by the M. D. Williams at Clark Atlanta University. The goals of the project during this budget cycle were to procure samples containing GaAs free standing QWs, identify suitable regions for PL analysis at Lawrence Livermore, analyze the structures at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The specific regions of interest onmore » the sample structures were identified by scanning electron microscopy at Clark Atlanta prior to transport to LLNL. Previous attempts at other facilities using NSOM, cathodoluminescence, and conventional PL showed little luminescence activity at room temperature from the 200 {angstrom} thick wells. This suggested either excess recombination due to surface states in the quantum well region or insufficient absorption length for photoluminescence. The literature suggested that the effect of the defects could be eliminated by reducing the sample temperature below their associated activation energies. In our previous subcontract work with LLNL, a significant amount of effort was expended to modify the apparatus to allow low temperature measurements. The modifications were not successful and we concluded that in order to do the measurements at low temperature we would need to purchase a commercial optical cryostat to get reliable results. Ms. Rochelle Bryant worked during the summer as an intern at LLNL on the project under the supervision of C. Hollars and in collaboration with T. Huser and found that PL emission could be obtained at room temperature. This was a surprising result as the literature and our experience shows that there is no PL emission from GaAs at room temperature. We speculate that this is due to the

  11. Standing and mortality in a prospective cohort of Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have documented significant associations between sedentary behaviors such as sitting or television viewing and premature mortality. However, the associations between mortality and other low-energy-expenditure activities such as standing have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between daily standing time and mortality among 16,586 Canadian adults 18-90 yr of age. Information on self-reported time spent standing as well as several covariates including smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity readiness, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was collected at baseline in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. Participants were followed for an average of 12.0 yr for the ascertainment of mortality status. There were 1785 deaths (743 from cardiovascular disease [CVD], 530 from cancer, and 512 from other causes) in the cohort. After adjusting for age, sex, and additional covariates, time spent standing was negatively related to mortality rates from all causes, CVD, and other causes. Across successively higher categories of daily standing, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.00, 0.79, 0.79, 0.73, and 0.67 for all-cause mortality (P for trend <0.0001); 1.00, 0.82, 0.84, 0.68, and 0.75 for CVD mortality (P for trend 0.02); and 1.00, 0.76, 0.63, 0.67, and 0.65 for other mortality (P for trend <0.001). There was no association between standing and cancer mortality. There was a significant interaction between physical activity and standing (P < 0.05), and the association between standing and mortality was significant only among the physically inactive (<7.5 MET·h·wk). The results suggest that standing may not be a hazardous form of behavior. Given that mortality rates declined at higher levels of standing, standing may be a healthier alternative to excessive periods of sitting.

  12. Intelligente Messsysteme - Mehrwert für unterschiedliche Stufen der Wertschöpfung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Benjamin

    Die Veränderung der Energiewirtschaft schreitet kontinuierlich voran - und wird mit Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende nicht abgeschlossen sein. Vielmehr steigen die Innovationsgeschwindigkeit und die Erwartungshaltung der Kunden. Dieses Kapitel beschreibt, wie intelligente Messsysteme die Basis für neue Möglichkeiten schaffen und wie sich diese Veränderungen auf die Wertschöpfung auswirken. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf dem Wandel der einzelnen Wertschöpfungsstufen im Verlauf der Liberalisierung des Messwesens und dem seit dem 02.09.2016 verbindlichen Messstellenbetriebsgesetzes. Der Beitrag zeigt auf, wie sich bisher getrennte Wertschöpfungsstufen nunmehr direkt berühren und miteinander interagieren. Deutlich wird dadurch, wie Informationen zu Mehrwert führen können - aber auch, welche Fragen noch zu beantworten sind und welche Hürden es zu überwinden gilt.

  13. Feedback equilibrium control during human standing

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Alexei V.; AA, Frolov; FB, Horak; P, Carlson-Kuhta; S, Park

    2006-01-01

    Equilibrium maintenance during standing in humans was investigated with a 3-joint (ankle, knee and hip) sagittal model of body movement. The experimental paradigm consisted of sudden perturbations of humans in quiet stance by backward displacements of the support platform. Data analysis was performed using eigenvectors of motion equation. The results supported three conclusions. First, independent feedback control of movements along eigenvectors (eigenmovements) can adequately describe human postural responses to stance perturbations. This conclusion is consistent with previous observations (Alexandrov et al., 2001b) that these same eigenmovements are also independently controlled in a feed-forward manner during voluntary upper-trunk bending. Second, independent feedback control of each eigenmovement is sufficient to provide its stability. Third, the feedback loop in each eigenmovement can be modeled as a linear visco-elastic spring with delay. Visco-elastic parameters and time-delay values result from the combined contribution of passive visco-elastic mechanisms and sensory systems of different modalities. PMID:16228222

  14. USMP-3 satellite moves into CITE stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3) is readied by KSC workers for its move from the Cargo Interface Test Equipment (CITE) stand in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building and installation into a payload canister along with the Tethered Satellite System-1R (TSS-1R). Once in the canister, both payloads were transported to Launch Pad 39B to be integrated into the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during final preparations for the STS-75 mission. During the 12-day, 16-hour space flight, the 5-foot (1.6 meter)-in-diameter TSS-1R satellite will be deployed from its pallet in Columbia's payload bay to a distance of 12.4 miles (20.7) kilometers) above the orbiter as an attached, electrically-conductive tether the diameter of a wooden matchstick unwinds from a motorized reel. The objectives of the TSS program are to demonstrate the ability to deploy and control satellites on long tethers in space and to conduct space plasma experiments that include the generation of electrical power. The USMP-3 is a continuation of NASA's microgravity research program to provide advances in the fields of materials science and condensed matter physics. Four major USMP-3 experiment packages are in Columbia's payload bay, while three combustion experimetns will be conducted by the crew in a Glovebox facility located in the orbiter's middeck area.

  15. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. 2015 Occupant Protection Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Occupant Protection (OP) Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), NASA Headquarters, and NASA Research and Education Support Services on November 3, 2015 (list of participants is in Section VII of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads (OP Risk). The SRP agrees that the Gaps are relevant and appropriate to mitigate the injury risk. All the appropriate and relevant Tasks have been identified to fill the Gaps. Depending upon the findings, additional tasks may need to be identified or modified. Excellent progress has been made since the 2014 SRP meeting. Publications in peer-reviewed journals validate the scientific merit of the research findings. As detailed in this report, the SRP has specific comments, guidance, and information in the following areas: human finite element modeling, human vs. surrogate dynamic responses, chest injury risk curves, matched pair testing of Test device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) and Hybrid III, and disc herniation risk analysis.

  17. TESS Spacecraft Lift to Work Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-12

    Technicians dressed in clean room suits monitor the progress as a crane lowers NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) onto a test stand inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Inside the PHSF, the satellite will be processed and prepared for its flight. TESS is scheduled to launch atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. TESS is the next step in NASA's search for planets outside our solar system, known as exoplanets. TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission led and operated by MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Dr. George Ricker of MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research serves as principal investigator for the mission. Additional partners include Orbital ATK, NASA’s Ames Research Center, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Space Telescope Science Institute. More than a dozen universities, research institutes and observatories worldwide are participants in the mission. NASA’s Launch Services Program is responsible for launch management.

  18. TESS Spacecraft Lift to Work Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-12

    NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is lifted up from the base of its shipping container and will be lowered onto a test stand for processing inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Inside the PHSF, the satellite will be processed and prepared for its flight. TESS is scheduled to launch atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. TESS is the next step in NASA's search for planets outside our solar system, known as exoplanets. TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission led and operated by MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Dr. George Ricker of MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research serves as principal investigator for the mission. Additional partners include Orbital ATK, NASA’s Ames Research Center, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Space Telescope Science Institute. More than a dozen universities, research institutes and observatories worldwide are participants in the mission. NASA’s Launch Services Program is responsible for launch management.

  19. TESS Spacecraft Lift to Work Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-12

    A technician dressed in a clean room suit closely monitors the progress as a crane lowers NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) onto a test stand inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Inside the PHSF, the satellite will be processed and prepared for its flight. TESS is scheduled to launch atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. TESS is the next step in NASA's search for planets outside our solar system, known as exoplanets. TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission led and operated by MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Dr. George Ricker of MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research serves as principal investigator for the mission. Additional partners include Orbital ATK, NASA’s Ames Research Center, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Space Telescope Science Institute. More than a dozen universities, research institutes and observatories worldwide are participants in the mission. NASA’s Launch Services Program is responsible for launch management.

  20. Productivity of a mature Douglas-fir stand.

    Treesearch

    Carl M. Berntsen

    1960-01-01

    Records from a mature Douglas-fir stand on the Mount Hood National Forest in northwestern Oregon indicate that very high rates of gross growth are maintained up to ages as high as 250 years. Where such stands are held in reserve for future clear cutting, forest managers have an opportunity to recapture a large share of this gross production by salvaging mortality at...

  1. Using stand-level optimization to reduce crown fire hazard

    Treesearch

    David H. Graetz; John Sessions; Steven L. Garman

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability to generate prescriptions for a wide variety of stands when the goal is to reduce crown fire potential. Forest managers charged with reducing crown fire potential while providing for commodity and ecological production have been hampered by the complexity of possible management options. A program called Stand-Level Optimization with...

  2. 3. EAST SIDE, ALSO SHOWING COVERED TANKS AND TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST SIDE, ALSO SHOWING COVERED TANKS AND TEST STAND 1-5 AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-4, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. ROBERT BOBO AND MIKE NICHOLS AT TEST STAND 4693

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-14

    ROBERT BOBO, LEFT, AND MIKE NICHOLS TALK BENEATH THE 221-FOOT-TALL TEST STAND 4693, THE LARGEST OF TWO NEW SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM TEST STANDS AT MSFC. BOBO MANAGES SLS STRUCTURAL STRENGTH TESTING, AND NICHOLS IS LEAD TEST ENGINEER FOR THE SLS LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK.

  4. 45 CFR 155.1065 - Stand-alone dental plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stand-alone dental plans. 155.1065 Section 155... Functions: Certification of Qualified Health Plans § 155.1065 Stand-alone dental plans. (a) General requirements. The Exchange must allow the offering of a limited scope dental benefits plan through the Exchange...

  5. 45 CFR 155.1065 - Stand-alone dental plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stand-alone dental plans. 155.1065 Section 155... Functions: Certification of Qualified Health Plans § 155.1065 Stand-alone dental plans. (a) General requirements. The Exchange must allow the offering of a limited scope dental benefits plan through the Exchange...

  6. 45 CFR 155.1065 - Stand-alone dental plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stand-alone dental plans. 155.1065 Section 155... Functions: Certification of Qualified Health Plans § 155.1065 Stand-alone dental plans. (a) General requirements. The Exchange must allow the offering of a limited scope dental benefits plan through the Exchange...

  7. "Growing trees backwards": Description of a stand reconstruction model

    Treesearch

    Jonathan D. Bakker; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Peter Z. Fule; David W. Huffman; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    We describe an individual-tree model that uses contemporary measurements to "grow trees backward" and reconstruct past tree diameters and stand structure in ponderosa pine dominated stands of the Southwest. Model inputs are contemporary structural measurements of all snags, logs, stumps, and living trees, and radial growth measurements, if available. Key...

  8. 4. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, test Stand 'B' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, test Stand 'B' set up for shock tube and research on ship-to-ship fueling problems for the U.S. Coast Guard. (JPL negative no. 344-3743-A, October or November 1980) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand B, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing tanks for distilled water (left), fuel (center), and gaseous nitrogen (right). Other tanks present for tests were removed before this image was taken. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 21. Building 202, underside of test stand A, detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Building 202, underside of test stand A, detail of junction of scrubber structure and test stand with water pipes and valves visible. View looking southeast. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  12. Forest stand losses to gypsy moth in the Poconos

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick

    1978-01-01

    A Study of forest stand losses associated with the gypsy moth outbreak of the early 1970's in the Pocono Mountain Region of northeastern Pennsylvania, showed that while most of the stands incurred little or no loss, a few suffered heavy damage

  13. 3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. The densest loblolly pine stand and its silvicultural implications

    Treesearch

    Boris Zeide; John Stephens

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of stand density index has been based on the assumption that the only cause of mortality in fully stocked stands is diameter growth. For example, when average diameter increases by 1 percent, a fixed proportion (1.6 percent) of trees must die, regardless of age, average tree size, and other factors. This balance between growth and mortality entails the...

  17. Simple Excitation of Standing Waves in Rubber Bands and Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortel, Adolf

    2004-04-01

    Many methods to excite standing waves in strings, plates, membranes, rods, tubes, and soap bubbles have been described. Usually a loudspeaker or a vibrating reed is driven by the amplified output of an audio oscillator. A novel and simple method consists of using a tuning fork or a singing rod to excite transversal standing waves in stretched rubber membranes sprinkled with fine sand.

  18. Uses and abuses of multipliers in the stand prognosis model

    Treesearch

    David A. Hamilton

    1994-01-01

    Users of the Stand Prognosis Model may have difficulties in selecting the proper set of multipliers to simulate a desired effect or in determining the appropriate value to assign to selected multipliers. A series of examples describe impact of multipliers on simulated stand development. Guidelines for the proper use of multipliers are presented....

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Stand-by agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stand-by agreements. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS OPERATING CONTRACT Sec. 2 Stand-by agreements. The Director NSA, Maritime Administration, in advance of an emergency, may negotiate...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Stand-by agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stand-by agreements. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS OPERATING CONTRACT Sec. 2 Stand-by agreements. The Director NSA, Maritime Administration, in advance of an emergency, may negotiate...

  1. Advanced Standing and Bridge Courses: Structures and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GlenMaye, Linnea F.; Lause, Timothy W.; Bolin, Brien L.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the issue of advanced standing in MSW programs in light of the new Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS). Advanced standing structures of MSW programs were studied using a purposive sample consisting of 203 MSW program directors with a response rate of 28% (N=58). The results indicate that slightly more than 15%…

  2. Flooding effects on stand development in cypress-tupelo

    Treesearch

    Richard F. Keim; Thomas J. Dean; Jim L. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inundation on growth of cypress (Taxodium spp.) and tupelo (Nyssa spp.) trees have been extensively researched, but conclusions are often complicated by attendant effects on stand development. Flooding affects development of cypress-tupelo stands by limiting seedling germination and survival, truncating species...

  3. Growth and yield for managed and unmanaged stands

    Treesearch

    H. Michael Rauscher

    1992-01-01

    Yield tables were generated using STEMS (Stand and Tree Evaluation and Modeling System) developed by North Central Forest Experiment Station scientists. The data fed into STEMS came from real 1/4-acre plots. The plots were selected to characterize 40-year-old stands that averaged 58 percent of basal area in red maple, 23 percent in sugar maple, and the remaining 19...

  4. From defective hardwood stand to multiple use opportunity

    Treesearch

    Charles E. McGee

    1972-01-01

    A 40-year old clearcutting, originally made as an example of destructive logging, now supports one of the best mixed hardwood stands on the Bent Creek Experimental Forest. Such desirable intolerants as yellow-poplar provide potential for timber; some high- and low-quality oaks provide timber and wildlife values; and the entire young stand has a pleasing appearance....

  5. Natural disturbance and stand development principles for ecological forestry

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik

    2007-01-01

    Foresters use natural disturbances and stand development processes as models for silvicultural practices in broad conceptual ways. Incorporating an understanding of natural disturbance and stand development processes more fully into silvicultural practice is the basis for an ecological forestry approach. Such an approach must include 1) understanding the importance of...

  6. Guide to the Stand-Damage Model interface management system

    Treesearch

    George Racin; J. J. Colbert

    1995-01-01

    This programmer's support document describes the Gypsy Moth Stand-Damage Model interface management system. Management of stand-damage data made it necessary to define structures to store data and provide the mechanisms to manipulate these data. The software provides a user-friendly means to manipulate files, graph and manage outputs, and edit input data. The...

  7. 49. HISTORIC GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. HISTORIC GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND IN ITS CONFIGURATION FOR THE MERCURY-REDSTONE TESTING PROGRAM. NOTE THE MERCURY CAPSULE BEING ASSEMBLED IN THE FOREGROUND, ALSO NOTE THE LOAD CELL APPARATUS ON THE GROUND IN THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    Ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it....

  9. Composition a Virgin Stand of Longleaf in South Alabama

    Treesearch

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl

    2000-01-01

    The Flomaton Natural Area is a virgin stand of longleaf pine located in Escambia County, Alabama. Fire has been absent for at least the past 45 years from the stand. Efforts are underway to restore this fire-dependent ecosystem through the re-introduction of fire. This paper presents data collected in advance of the re-introduction of fire. A substantial hardwood...

  10. Financial analysis of early stand treatments in southwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Helge Eng; K. Norman Johnson; Roger D. Fight

    1990-01-01

    Management guidelines for economically efficient early stand treatments were developed by identifying treatments that would maximize financial returns over the rotation for coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwest Oregon. Short rotations and low stand densities (trees per acre) gave...

  11. Understory composition of hardwood stands in north central West Virginia

    Treesearch

    M.J. Twery

    1991-01-01

    Understory composition was measured on 960 10.5 m2 plots in 16 stands on the West Virginia University Forest in north-central West Virginia. The overstory composition was dominated by oaks (Quercus spp.) on 50% of the stands and by a mixture of oaks and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) on 50%. All...

  12. Protocol for monitoring standing crop in grasslands using visual obstruction

    Treesearch

    Lakhdar Benkobi; Daniel W. Uresk; Greg Schenbeck; Rudy M. King

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of standing crop on grasslands using a visual obstruction technique provides valuable information to help plan livestock grazing management and indicate the status of wildlife habitat. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a simple regression model using easily measured visual obstruction to estimate standing crop on sandy lowland range sites in...

  13. Credit BG. View looking west down into Test Stand "D" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looking west down into Test Stand "D" vertical vacuum cell with top removed. Access to cell is normally through large round port seen in view. Piping and cradling toward bottom of cell was last used in tests of Viking space probe engines - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Growth response of managed uneven-aged northern conifer stands

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; Robert M. Frank

    1983-01-01

    The growth response of trees in spruce-fir-hemlock stands was recorded from plots that were managed to control stand density, species composition, length of harvest interval, and salvage of mortality. Basal area, volume, and diameter increment are presented by species and size classification for harvesting intervals of 5, 10, and 20 years.

  15. Effects of repeated precommercial thinnings in central hardwood sapling stands

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Hilt; Martin E. Dale

    1982-01-01

    Precommercial thinnings were repeated four times in a central hardwood sapling stand beginning at age 8 and ending at age 22. Treated plots were thinned on an area-wide basis to specified density levels of 30-, 50-, and 70-percent stocking. The species composition of all stems in the stand was altered somewhat by thinning, but similar trends occurred on control plots....

  16. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Treesearch

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  17. Shearing Restores Full Productivity to Sparse Aspen Stands

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala

    1983-01-01

    Four mature but grossly under-stocked (15 to 23 percent of normal) aspen stands were regenerated by suckering following shearing. Eight years later, aspen standing crop varied with site quality from 3.4 to 8.0 tons per acre -- nearly the potential for these sites at this age. Shearing is as effective as complete clearcutting for regenerating aspen.

  18. Stand structure and stocking control in Appalachian mixed hardwoods

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith

    1976-01-01

    Uneven-aged management using a "q" technique for structure control is discussed for Appalachian mixed hardwoods. The success in attaining stand structure goals with periodic selection cuts was evaluated. Where these goals had not been reached, the authors speculated, on the basis of current stand conditions, whether they would be reached, and if so, when. For...

  19. Comparison of optical dendrometers for prediction of standing tree volume

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Parker; Thomas G. Matney

    2000-01-01

    Enhanced sets of compatible stem profile equations were used with data collected from felled and standing pine trees to calculate tree volumes to various top merchantability limits. Standing trees were measured with the Criterion 400 Laser, Tele-Relaskop, and Wheeler Pentaprism. These measurements were used to compare accuracies of the optical dendrometers for the...

  20. Standing enucleation in the horse: A report of 5 cases

    PubMed Central

    Hewes, Christina A.; Keoughan, G. Curry; Gutierrez–Nibeyro, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Enucleation was performed in 5 horses under local anesthesia and sedation with the horse standing. Minimal hemorrhage occurred during the surgical procedure, and there were no other reported complications. Standing enucleation is a surgery that is safe to perform in horses. PMID:17542371

  1. Impact of Stand Management Practices on Beetle Diversity

    Treesearch

    Stephen P. Cook

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Insects are useful indicators of change within ecosystems because of their abundance, richness and functional importance. Stand management practices impact the insect community within a forest. Therefore, the objective of the project is to determine the impact of various stand management practices on the diversity of beetles within...

  2. Harvesting systems for western stand health improvement cuttings

    Treesearch

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Bryce J. Stokes; Joseph F. McNeel; William F. Watson

    1995-01-01

    A significant percentage of the forested area in the western United States is comprised of stands that have been altered over time by human activities, especially fire suppression, and are now being damaged by droughts, insect attacks, and wildfires. These stands should be returned to a condition where "biotic and abiotic influences do not threaten resource...

  3. 1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ OF THE X-15 ENGINE TEST COMPLEX. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 8. TEST STAND 15, INVERTED ENGINE FIRING TEST, CIRCA 1963. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TEST STAND 1-5, INVERTED ENGINE FIRING TEST, CIRCA 1963. Original is a color print. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 24. SATURN V Fl ENGINE TEST FIRING ON TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SATURN V F-l ENGINE TEST FIRING ON TEST STAND 1A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. 10. "TEST STAND 15, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. "TEST STAND 1-5, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. 1958. Test Area 1-115. Original is a color print, showing Test Stand 1-5 from below, also showing the superstructure of TS1-4 at left. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Estimating Value Contribution of Tree and Stand Condition

    Treesearch

    R. Joss Hanna; Richard P. Thompson; Douglas D. Piirto; Jay E. Noel

    1997-01-01

    Key issues in encouraging forest management at the interface level in the oak woodlands are fire abatement, stand improvement, infection reduction, and hazard tree removal. The development of effective management prescriptions for stand improvement and economic returns provide guidance for homeowners, appraisers, and realtors. The purpose of this research project was...

  8. Stand, Harvest, and Equipment Interactions in Simulated Harvesting Prescriptions

    Treesearch

    Jingxin Wang; W. Dale Greene; Bryce J. Stokes

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated potential interactions of stand type, harvesting method, and equipment in an experiment using interactive simulation. We examined three felling methods (chain saw, feller-buncher, harvester) and two extraction methods (grapple skidder and forwarder) performing clearcuts, sheltenvood cuts, and single-tree selection cuts in both an uneven-aged natural stand...

  9. Development of a Southern Appalachian Hardwood Stand After Clearcutting

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck; Ralph M. Hooper

    1986-01-01

    A mixed hardwood stand composed of 53% oak (Quercus spp.), 33% yellow-poplar(Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and 14% other species, was clearcut in 1963. Twenty years later a developing, even-aged stand of predominantly sprout origin is dominated by yellow-poplar, black locust(Robinia pseudoacacia L.), redmaple (...

  10. 5 CFR 351.401 - Determining retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining retention standing. 351.401 Section 351.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.401 Determining retention standing. Each agency shall...

  11. 5 CFR 351.401 - Determining retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining retention standing. 351.401 Section 351.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.401 Determining retention standing. Each agency shall...

  12. 5 CFR 351.401 - Determining retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining retention standing. 351.401 Section 351.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.401 Determining retention standing. Each agency shall...

  13. 5 CFR 351.401 - Determining retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining retention standing. 351.401 Section 351.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.401 Determining retention standing. Each agency shall...

  14. 5 CFR 351.401 - Determining retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining retention standing. 351.401 Section 351.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.401 Determining retention standing. Each agency shall...

  15. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  16. Characteristics of Five Climax Stands in New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    W.B. Leak; W.B. Leak

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of species composition, stand density, and diameter distribution in five climax or old-growth stands in New Hampshire indicates that the northern hardwood climax is characterized by at least 65 to 70 percent tolerant hardwoods, 130 square feet basal area per acre, and "q" ratios (2-inch diameter classes) of 1.3 to 1.4. Climax sprucehemlock have at...

  17. Heavy thinning of ponderosa pine stands: An Arizona case study

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jr. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Growth and structural changes in a mosaic of even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands were studied for 25 years to determine the long-term impacts of a heavy thinning treatment to a basal-area level of 25 ft2/acre. Basal area and volume growth of these stands has increased since thinning and likely will continue to...

  18. 39. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE TEST STAND WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE TEST STAND WITH THE COLD CALIBRATION TOWER CONSTRUCTED TO THE LEFT OF THE ROCKET AND AN ACCESS PLATFORM BUILT TO REACH THE TOP OF THE ROCKET MORE EASILY. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. 37. HISTORIC GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST OF TEST STAND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. HISTORIC GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST OF TEST STAND AND ROCKET DURING TEST FIRING NUMBER 2. NOTE THE FLAME BEING EMITTED FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE ROCKET. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. 7. ROCKET SLED ON DECK OF TEST STAND 15. Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ROCKET SLED ON DECK OF TEST STAND 1-5. Photo no. "6085, G-EAFB-16 SEP 52." Looking south to machine shop. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 44. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE TEST STAND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE TEST STAND AND ROCKET BEING PREPARED FOR TESTING. NOTE THE LOAD CELL APPARATUS ABOVE THE ROCKET AND THE EQUIPMENT PLATFORM TO THE LEFT OF THE LOAD CELL HAVE BEEN ENCLOSED FOR PROTECTION FROM THE CLIMATE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. 2. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, SHOWING TANK (BUILDING 1929) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, SHOWING TANK (BUILDING 1929) AND GARAGE (BUILDING 1930) AT LEFT REAR. Looking to west. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. 8. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND DURING AN ENGINE FIRING. DATE UNKNOWN, FRED ORDWAY COLLECTION, U.S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, AL. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. CLOSEUP VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE SATURN I TEST STAND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE SATURN I TEST STAND, NOTE THE INTERPRETIVE SIGN EXPLAINING THE HISTORIC NATURE OF THE SATURN I TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. 29 CFR 452.88 - Resumption of good standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Right To Vote § 452.88 Resumption of good standing. While it is permissible for a labor organization to deny the right to vote to those delinquent in paying their dues (with the... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resumption of good standing. 452.88 Section 452.88 Labor...

  6. Sizes Of Timber Stands In The Piedmont Of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Herbert A. Knight

    1978-01-01

    Diseconomies of scale in the management of small tracts of woodland create interest in the average sizes of timber stands. The 1977 inventory of the Piedmont of South Carolina revealed that about 30 percent of the timberland there is broken up into stands smaller than 10 acres.

  7. Desk-based workers' perspectives on using sit-stand workstations: a qualitative analysis of the Stand@Work study.

    PubMed

    Chau, Josephine Y; Daley, Michelle; Srinivasan, Anu; Dunn, Scott; Bauman, Adrian E; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2014-07-25

    Prolonged sitting time has been identified as a health risk factor. Sit-stand workstations allow desk workers to alternate between sitting and standing throughout the working day, but not much is known about their acceptability and feasibility. Hence, the aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the acceptability, feasibility and perceptions of using sit-stand workstations in a group of desk-based office workers. This article describes the qualitative evaluation of the randomized controlled cross-over Stand@Work pilot trial. Participants were adult employees recruited from a non-government health agency in Sydney, Australia. The intervention involved using an Ergotron Workfit S sit-stand workstation for four weeks. After the four week intervention, participants shared their perceptions and experiences of using the sit-stand workstation in focus group interviews with 4-5 participants. Topics covered in the focus groups included patterns of workstation use, barriers and facilitators to standing while working, effects on work performance, physical impacts, and feasibility in the office. Focus group field notes and transcripts were analysed in an iterative process during and after the data collection period to identify the main concepts and themes. During nine 45-min focus groups, a total of 42 participants were interviewed. Participants were largely intrinsically motivated to try the sit-stand workstation, mostly because of curiosity to try something new, interest in potential health benefits, and the relevance to the participant's own and organisation's work. Most participants used the sit-stand workstation and three common usage patterns were identified: task-based routine, time-based routine, and no particular routine. Common barriers to sit-stand workstation use were working in an open plan office, and issues with sit-stand workstation design. Common facilitators of sit-stand workstation use were a supportive work environment conducive to standing

  8. Credit BG. Test Stand "D" tower as seen looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Test Stand "D" tower as seen looking northeast (See caption for CA-163-F-18). To the right of the view is the stainless steel dome top for Dv Cell (see CA-163-F-22 for view into cell), behind which rests a spherical accumulator--an electrically heated steam generator for powering the vacuum system at "C" and Test Stand "D." Part of the ejector system can be seen on the right corner of the tower, other connections include electrical ducts (thin, flat metal members) and fire protection systems. Note the stand in the foreground with lights used to indicate safety status of the stand during tests - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Standing stability enhancement with an intelligent powered transfemoral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Brian Edward; Varol, Huseyin Atakan; Goldfarb, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The authors have developed a ground-adaptive standing controller for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis which is intended to enhance the standing stability of transfemoral amputees. The finite-state-based controller includes a ground-searching phase, a slope estimation phase, and a joint impedance modulation phase, which together enable the prosthesis to quickly conform to the ground and provide stabilizing assistance to the user. In order to assess the efficacy of the ground-adaptive standing controller, the control approach was implemented on a powered knee and ankle prosthesis, and experimental data were collected on an amputee subject for a variety of standing conditions. Results indicate that the controller can estimate the ground slope within ±1° over a range of ±15°, and that it can provide appropriate joint impedances for standing on slopes within this range.

  10. [Comparison of three stand-level biomass estimation methods].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li Hu; Li, Feng Ri

    2016-12-01

    At present, the forest biomass methods of regional scale attract most of attention of the researchers, and developing the stand-level biomass model is popular. Based on the forestry inventory data of larch plantation (Larix olgensis) in Jilin Province, we used non-linear seemly unrelated regression (NSUR) to estimate the parameters in two additive system of stand-level biomass equations, i.e., stand-level biomass equations including the stand variables and stand biomass equations including the biomass expansion factor (i.e., Model system 1 and Model system 2), listed the constant biomass expansion factor for larch plantation and compared the prediction accuracy of three stand-level biomass estimation methods. The results indicated that for two additive system of biomass equations, the adjusted coefficient of determination (R a 2 ) of the total and stem equations was more than 0.95, the root mean squared error (RMSE), the mean prediction error (MPE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were smaller. The branch and foliage biomass equations were worse than total and stem biomass equations, and the adjusted coefficient of determination (R a 2 ) was less than 0.95. The prediction accuracy of a constant biomass expansion factor was relatively lower than the prediction accuracy of Model system 1 and Model system 2. Overall, although stand-level biomass equation including the biomass expansion factor belonged to the volume-derived biomass estimation method, and was different from the stand biomass equations including stand variables in essence, but the obtained prediction accuracy of the two methods was similar. The constant biomass expansion factor had the lower prediction accuracy, and was inappropriate. In addition, in order to make the model parameter estimation more effective, the established stand-level biomass equations should consider the additivity in a system of all tree component biomass and total biomass equations.

  11. Stand Structure and Composition 32 Years after Precommercial Thinning Treatments in a Mixed Northern Conifer Stand in Central Maine

    Treesearch

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Laura S. Kenefic; Rongxia Li; John Brissette

    2011-01-01

    The effects of four precommercial thinning (PCT) treatments on an even-aged northern conifer stand in Maine were investigated by examining stand structure and composition 32 years after treatment. Replicated treatments applied in 1976 included: (1) control (no PCT), (2) row thinning (rowthin; 5-ft-wide row removal with 3-ft-wide residual strips), (3) row thinning with...

  12. Effects of stand and inter-specific stocking on maximizing standing tree carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley

    2011-01-01

    There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...

  13. Estimating merchantable volumes of second growth Douglas-fir stands from total cubic volume and associated stand characteristics.

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Williamson; Robert O. Curtis

    1980-01-01

    Equations are given for estimating merchantable volumes of second-growth Douglas-fir stands to specified breast-high and top-diameter limits, in cubic feet or board feet, from total volume in cubic feet and certain associated stand characteristics.

  14. Regulating Stand Density by Precommercial Thinning in Naturally Regenerated Loblolly Pine Stands: Evaluation of Management and Economic Opportunities

    Treesearch

    David J. Moorhead; Coleman W. Dangerfield; M. Boyd Edwards

    1997-01-01

    The economic performance of converting 13-year-old, overstocked (>3,000 trees per acre), naturally regenerated pine stands using precommercial thinning at a cost of $140 per acre was modeled for 25-, 35-, and 50-year rotations. The stand density was reduced to 283 trees per acre. Subsequent management scenarios recovered establishment and management costs through...

  15. Converting partially-stocked aspen stands to fully-stocked stands in the Lake States: an economic analysis.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey T. Olson; Allen L. Lundgren

    1978-01-01

    The 1968 Wisconsin Forest Survey showed large areas of aspen type that are not considered fully stocked. The economic feasibility of converting partially-stocked stands to full stocking is examined, and a rule presented for determining when a partially-stocked stand should be harvested to maximize its present value.

  16. Stocking, Forest Type, and Stand Size Class - The Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit's Calculation of Three Important Stand Descriptors

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1990-01-01

    The procedures by which the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis unit calculates stocking from tree data collected on inventory sample plots are described in this report. Stocking is then used to ascertain two other important stand descriptors: forest type and stand size class. Inventory data for three plots from the recently completed 1989 Tennessee survey are used...

  17. How to formulate and solve "optimal stand density over time" problems for even-aged stands using dynamic programming.

    Treesearch

    Chung M. Chen; Dietmar W. Rose; Rolfe A. Leary

    1980-01-01

    Describes how dynamic programming can be used to solve optimal stand density problems when yields are given by prior simulation or by a new stand growth equation that is a function of the decision variable. Formulations of the latter type allow use of a calculus-based search procedure; they determine exact optimal residual density at each stage.

  18. Fire and stand history in two limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) stands in Colorado

    Treesearch

    Peter M. Brown; Anna W. Schoettle

    2008-01-01

    We developed fire-scar and tree-recruitment chronologies from two stands dominated by limber pine and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine in central and northern Colorado. Population structures in both sites exhibit reverse-J patterns common in uneven-aged forests. Bristlecone pine trees were older than any other at the site or in the limber pine stand, with the oldest...

  19. Growth of site trees and stand structure in mixed stands of Pacific silver fir and western hemlock.

    Treesearch

    Marshall D. Murray; Peggy C. Leonard

    1990-01-01

    Height and diameter growth of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) site trees, as well as overall stand structure on 0.15-acre plots, were analyzed in mixed stands 43 to 57 years old in breast height age at six locations in western Washington. These mixed...

  20. Multi-muscle electrical stimulation and stand training: Effects on standing.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kamyar; Ramanujam, Arvind; Garbarini, Erica L; Forrest, Gail F

    2018-02-15

    To examine the biomechanical and neuromuscular effects of a longitudinal multi-muscle electrical stimulation (submaximal intensities) training of the lower limbs combined with/without activity-based stand training, on the recovery of stability and function for one individual with spinal cord injury (SCI). Single-subject, longitudinal study. Neuroplasticity laboratory. A 34-year-old male, with sensory- and motor-complete SCI (C5/C6). Two consecutive interventions: 61 hours of supine, lower-limb ES (ES-alone) and 51 hours of ES combined with stand training using an overhead body-weight support system (ST + ES). Clinical measures, trunk stability, and muscle activity were assessed and compared across time points. Trunk Stability Limit (TSL) determined improvements in trunk independence. Functional clinical values increased after both interventions, with further increases post ST + ES. Post ES-alone, trunk stability was maintained at 81% body-weight (BW) loading before failure; post ST + ES, BW loading increased to 95%. TSL values decreased post ST + ES (TSL A/P =54.0 kg.cm, TSL M/L =14.5 kg.cm), compared to ES-alone (TSL A/P =8.5 kg.cm, TSL M/L =3.9 kg.cm). Trunk muscle activity decreased post ST + ES training, compared to ES-alone. Neuromuscular and postural trunk control dramatically improved following the multi-muscle ES of the lower limbs with stand training. Multi-muscle ES training paradigm of the lower limb, using traditional parameters, may contribute to the functional recovery of the trunk.